K12, Inc. engages in the provision of technology-based educational products and solutions to public school districts, public schools, virtual charter schools, private schools, and consumers. It offers online curriculum, software systems, and educational services designed to facilitate individualized learning for students primarily in kindergarten through 12th grade. The company was founded by Ronald J. Packard in 2000 and is headquartered in Herndon, VA.
The majority of our revenues come from Managed Public School Programs and depend on per pupil funding amounts and payment formulas remaining near the levels existing at the time we execute service agreements with the managed public schools we serve. If those funding levels or formulas are materially reduced or modified due to economic conditions or political opposition, or new restrictions are adopted or payments delayed, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Failure to comply with regulatory requirements, poor academic performance, or misconduct by us or operators of other virtual public schools could tarnish the reputation of all the school operators in our industry, which could have a negative impact on our business or lead to punitive legislation.
Opponents of public charter schools, including virtual and blended, have sought to challenge the establishment and expansion of such schools through the judicial process. If these interests prevail, it could damage our ability to sustain or grow our current business or expand in certain jurisdictions.
Should we fail to comply with the laws and regulations applicable to our Managed Public School Programs and Institutional business, such failures could result in a loss of public funding and an obligation to repay funds previously received, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As an emerging form of public education with unique attributes, enabling legislation for online public schools is often ambiguous and subject to discrepancies in interpretation by regulatory authorities, which may lead to disputes over our ability to invoice and receive payments for services rendered.
The operation of virtual and blended public charter schools depends on the maintenance of the authorizing charter and compliance with applicable laws. If these charters are not renewed, our contracts with these schools would be terminated.
Actual or alleged misconduct by current or former directors, officers, key employees or officials could make it more difficult for us to enter into new contracts or renew existing contracts.
New laws or regulations not currently applicable to for‑profit education companies in the K‑12 sector could be enacted and negatively impact our operations and financial results.
The schools we contract with and serve are governed by independent governing bodies that may shift their priorities or change objectives in ways that are adverse to us and to the students who attend the school programs we administer, or they may react negatively to acquisitions or other transactions.
Our contracts with the managed public schools we serve are subject to periodic renewal, and each year some of these agreements are set to expire. If we are unable to renew several such contracts or if a single significant contract expires during a given year, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow could be adversely affected.
If the schools we serve fail to enroll or reenroll a sufficient number of students, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
Because the independent governing authorities of our customers may shift priorities or incur new obligations which have financial consequences, we may be exposed to the risk of loss resulting from the nonpayment or nonperformance by our customers and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could suffer.
As we continue to refine our marketing efforts, and support the enrollment activities for our Managed Public School Programs, changes in our marketing efforts and enrollment activities could lead to a decline in overall enrollment at the schools we serve.
The student demographics of the schools we serve can lead to higher costs and affect our ability to sustain or grow our operating income.
If student performance falls, state accountability standards are not achieved, teachers or administrators tamper with state test scoring or modified graduation requirements, or parent and student satisfaction declines, a significant number of students may not remain enrolled in a virtual or blended public school that we serve, or charters may not be renewed or enrollment caps could be put in place, or enrollment practices could be limited and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
The transition from a federally mandated approach for curriculum standards and assessments to individual state determinations under the ESSA may create ongoing challenges to ensure that our curriculum products align with state requirements, which could possibly cause academic performance to decline and dissatisfaction by our school customers which could limit our growth and profitability.
Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures present many risks, and we may not realize the financial and strategic goals that formed the basis for the transaction.
If market demand for online options in public schooling does not increase or continue or if additional states do not authorize or adequately fund virtual or blended public schools, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Increasing competition in the education industry sectors that we serve could lead to pricing pressures, reduced operating margins, loss of market share, departure of key employees and increased capital expenditures.
Regulatory frameworks on the accessibility of technology and curriculum are continually evolving due to legislative and administrative developments and the rapid evolution of technology, which could result in increased product development costs and compliance risks.
Our Managed Public School Programs business revenues are based in part on our estimate of the total funds each school will receive in a particular school year and our estimate of the full year expenses to be incurred by each school. As a result, differences between our quarterly estimates and the actual funds received and expenses incurred could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and cash flows.
Our business is subject to seasonal fluctuations, which may cause our operating results to fluctuate from quarter‑to‑quarter and adversely impact our working capital and liquidity throughout the year.
We plan to continue to create new products, expand distribution channels and pilot innovative educational programs to enhance academic performance. If we are unable to effectively manage these initiatives or they fail to gain acceptance, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows would be adversely affected.
High quality teachers are critical to the success of our learning systems. If we are not able to continue to recruit, train and retain quality certified teachers, our curriculum might not be effectively delivered to students, compromising their academic performance and our reputation. As a result, our brand, business and operating results may be adversely affected.
School teachers are subject to union organizing campaigns, and if the teachers employed by us or at the managed public schools we serve join a union, collective bargaining agreements negotiated with union representatives could result in higher operating expenses and the loss of management flexibility and innovation for which charter schools were created.
We rely on third‑party service providers to host some of our solutions and any interruptions or delays in services from these third parties could impair the delivery of our products and harm our business.
We operate a complex company‑wide enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system and if it were to experience significant operating problems, it could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The continued development of our product and service brands is important to our business. If we are not able to maintain and enhance these brands, our business and operating results may suffer.
Our intellectual property rights are valuable, and any inability to protect them could reduce the value of our products, services and brand.
Lawsuits against us alleging infringement of the intellectual property rights of others and such actions would be costly to defend, could require us to pay damages or royalty payments and could limit our ability or increase our costs to use certain technologies in the future.
We may be subject to legal liability resulting from the actions of third parties, including independent contractors, business partners, or teachers, which could cause us to incur substantial costs and damage our reputation.
We rely on the Internet to enroll students and to deliver our products and services to children and to market ourselves and schools that contract with us, all of which exposes us to a growing number of legal risks and increasing regulation.
We utilize a single logistics vendor for the management, receiving, assembly and shipping of all of our learning kits and printed educational materials. In addition, we utilize the same vendor at a second location for the reclamation and redeployment of our student computers. This partnership depends upon execution on the part of us and the vendor.
Any material failure to execute properly for any reason, including damage or disruption to any of the vendor’s facilities would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any significant interruption in the operation of our data centers could cause a loss of data and disrupt our ability to manage our network hardware and software and technological infrastructure.
Any significant interruption in the operation of our enrollment centers could disrupt our ability to recommend educational options to parents, respond to service requests and process enrollments.
Capacity limits on some of our technology, transaction processing systems and network hardware and software may be difficult to project and we may not be able to expand and upgrade our systems in a timely manner to meet significant unexpected increased demand.
Our efforts to expand capacity may not produce the operational and financial results for which those investments were intended.
We may be unable to keep pace with changes in our industry and advancements in technology as our business and market strategy evolves.
We may be unable to attract and retain key executives and skilled employees, and because our employees are located throughout the United States, we may incur additional compliance and litigation costs that could adversely impact our business, financial condition and our results of operations.
We partially self‑insure our group health insurance program and actual claims may differ from our estimates, which could materially impact our results of operations.
We may need additional capital in the future, but there is no assurance that funds will be available on acceptable terms.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) contains certain forward‑looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Historical results may not indicate future performance. Our forward‑looking statements reflect our current views about future events, are based on assumptions, and are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by these statements. Factors that may cause differences between actual results and those contemplated by forward‑looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, of this Annual Report. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward‑looking statements, including any changes that might result from any facts, events, or circumstances after the date hereof that may bear upon forward‑looking statements. Furthermore, we cannot guarantee future results, events, levels of activity, performance, or achievements.
We are a technology‑based education company and offer proprietary and third party curriculum, software systems and educational services designed to facilitate individualized learning for students primarily in kindergarten through 12th grade, or K‑12. Our learning systems combine curriculum, instruction and related support services to create an individualized learning approach. Our learning systems are well-suited for virtual and blended public schools, school districts, charter schools, and private schools that utilize varying degrees of online and traditional classroom instruction, and other educational applications. These products and services are provided through three lines of business: (1) Managed Public School Programs; (2) Institutional; and (3) Private Pay Schools and Other.