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Pruco Life Insurance Of New Jersey

Filed: 19 Mar 21, 4:36pm
0001038509cik1038509:DeferredCostsPolicyAcquisitionAndSalesInducementsAndValuationOfBusinessAcquiredPreTaxMembercik1038509:OtherNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainsAndLossesMember2018-01-012018-12-31
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_____________________________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition Period from              to             
Commission file number 333-18053
_____________________________________________________
Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
New Jersey22-2426091
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
213 Washington Street, Newark, NJ 07102
(973) 802-6000
(Address and Telephone Number of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:    NONE
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:    NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  ☐    No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  ☐    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes      No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of the Regulation S-T ((§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes      No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company ☐ Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  ☐    No  
As of March 19, 2021, 400,000 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock (par value $5) were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required to be furnished pursuant to Part III of this Form 10-K is set forth in, and is hereby incorporated by reference herein from, Prudential Financial, Inc.’s Definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 11, 2021, to be filed by Prudential Financial, Inc. with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the year ended December 31, 2020.
Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey meets the conditions set
forth in General Instruction (I) (1) (a) and (b) of Form 10-K
and is therefore filing this Form with the reduced disclosure.


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain of the statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Words such as “expects,” “believes,” “anticipates,” “includes,” “plans,” “assumes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “intends,” “should,” “will,” “shall” or variations of such words are generally part of forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are made based on management’s current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects upon Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey will be those anticipated by management. These forward-looking statements are not a guarantee of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and there are certain important factors that could cause actual results to differ, possibly materially, from expectations or estimates reflected in such forward-looking statements, including, among others: (1) the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy, financial market and our business; (2) losses on investments or financial contracts due to deterioration in credit quality or value, or counterparty default; (3) losses on insurance products due to mortality experience or policyholder behavior experience that differs significantly from our expectations when we price our products; (4) changes in interest rates and equity prices that may (a) adversely impact the profitability of our products, the value of separate accounts supporting these products or the value of assets we manage, (b) result in losses on derivatives we use to hedge risk or increase collateral posting requirements and (c) limit opportunities to invest at appropriate returns; (5) guarantees within certain of our products which are market sensitive and may decrease our earnings or increase the volatility of our results of operations or financial position; (6) liquidity needs resulting from (a) derivative collateral market exposure, (b) asset/liability mismatches, (c) the lack of available funding in the financial markets or (d) unexpected cash demands due to severe mortality calamity or lapse events; (7) financial or customer losses, or regulatory and legal actions, due to inadequate or failed processes or systems, external events, and human error or misconduct such as (a) disruption of our systems and data, (b) an information security breach, (c) a failure to protect the privacy of sensitive data, (d) reliance on third-parties or (e) labor and employment matters; (8) changes in the regulatory landscape, including related to (a) financial sector regulatory reform, (b) changes in tax laws, (c) fiduciary rules and other standards of care, (d) state insurance laws and developments regarding group-wide supervision, capital and reserves, and (e) privacy and cybersecurity regulation; (9) technological changes which may adversely impact companies in our investment portfolio or cause insurance experience to deviate from our assumptions; (10) ratings downgrades; (11) market conditions that may adversely affect the sales or persistency of our products; (12) competition; and (13) reputational damage. Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey does not intend, and is under no obligation, to update any particular forward-looking statement included in this document. See “Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for discussion of certain risks relating to our business and investment in our securities.



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PART 1
Item 1. Business
Overview
Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey (the “Company”, “PLNJ”, “we”, or “our”) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Pruco Life Insurance Company, (“Pruco Life”), which in turn is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Prudential Insurance Company of America, (“Prudential Insurance”). Prudential Insurance is a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of Prudential Financial, Inc. (“Prudential Financial”). See Note 1 to the Financial Statements for additional information.
Pruco Life may make capital contributions to the Company, as needed, to enable it to comply with its reserve and capital requirements and fund expenses in connection with its business. Pruco Life is under no obligation to make such contributions and its assets do not back the benefits payable under the Company’s policyholders’ contracts.
The Company is licensed to sell variable annuities, variable life, universal life and term life insurance in New Jersey and New York only. The Company only sells such products in New York primarily through affiliated and unaffiliated distributors.
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Products
Annuities
We offer a variety of products to serve different retirement needs and goals:
Variable Annuities
Prudential Premier® Investment Variable Annuity (“PPI”) offers tax-deferred asset accumulation, annuitization options and an optional death benefit that guarantees the contractholder’s beneficiary a return of total purchase payments made to the contract, adjusted for any partial withdrawals, upon death. In addition, the product offers either a basic death benefit, or for an additional fee a Return of Purchase Payment (“ROP”) death benefit.
MyRockSM Advisors, a fee-based variable annuity launched in November 2020. The product offers an optional Dynamic Income Benefit (“IB”) rider that provides longevity protection through a preset withdrawal percentage applied to a variable income base. In addition, the product offers either a basic death benefit, or a ROP death benefit. Both the IB and the ROP are available for an additional fee.

Discontinued Variable Annuities
The Prudential Premier® Retirement Variable Annuity with Highest Daily Lifetime Income (“HDI”) offers lifetime income based on the highest daily account value plus a compounded deferral credit. Sales of this product have been discontinued as of December 31, 2020.
The Prudential Premier® Retirement Variable Annuity with Legacy Protection Plus (“LPP”) provides an optional enhanced death benefit based on the purchase payments rolling up at a preset rate on an annual basis until certain events occur, such as the death of the first owner (or annuitant if entity-owned) or the roll-up cap is reached. Sales of this product have been discontinued as of December 31, 2020.
The Prudential Defined Income® (“PDI”) Variable Annuity provides for guaranteed lifetime withdrawal payments but restricts contractholder investment to a single bond sub-account within the separate accounts. PDI includes a living benefit rider which provides for a specified lifetime income withdrawal rate applied to total purchase payments made to the contracts, subject to annual roll-up increases until lifetime withdrawals commence, but does not have a highest daily benefit feature as discussed above. Sales of this product have been discontinued as of December 31, 2020.
    
Life Insurance
We offer a variety of products that serve different protection
needs and goals:
Term Life - coverage for a specified number of years with a guaranteed tax-advantaged death benefit
Most of our term life policies offer an income tax-free death benefit, guaranteed premiums that will stay the same during the level-premium period and access to the death benefit while the policyholder is still alive to help them if they become terminally ill.
Most of our term life policies also offer a conversion option that allows the policyholder to convert the policy into a permanent policy that can potentially cover the insured for life.

Variable Life - permanent coverage for life with potential to accumulate policy cash value based on underlying investment options
Our variable life policies offer flexibility in payment options and the potential to accumulate cash value through a suite of underlying investment options or a fixed rate option.
We offer different types of variable life policies that, in addition to the death benefit, are tailored to prioritize different goals, such as protection with moderate risk, growth with higher risk or legacy giving.

Universal Life - permanent coverage for life with the potential to accumulate policy cash value
Our universal life policies offer flexibility in payment options and the potential to accumulate cash value in an account that earns interest based on a crediting rate determined by the Company subject to contractual minimums.
Guaranteed universal life policies provide a guarantee that the policy will remain in force when it would otherwise lapse due to insufficient cash value.
Indexed universal life policies provide interest credited to the cash value that is linked to, but not an investment in, the performance of an external index over a 1-year period, subject to certain cap and participation rates and contractual minimums/maximums.

Discontinued Universal Life
PruLife® Universal Protector provides a single life, guaranteed universal life insurance policy. Sales of this product have been discontinued as of July 13, 2020.

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Marketing and Distribution
Our distribution efforts for our annuity products, which are supported by a network of internal and external wholesalers, are executed through a diverse group of distributors including:
Third-party broker-dealers
Banks and wirehouses
Independent financial planners
Financial professionals, including those associated with Prudential Advisors, Prudential's proprietary nationwide sales organization
LINK by Prudential, a personalized digital platform that connects customers to insurance professionals, through various channels (online, phone, video chat, or in person)
We primarily distribute our individual life products through the following three channels:

Third-party distribution
Independent brokers
Banks and wirehouses
General agencies and producer groups
Prudential Advisors (Prudential's proprietary nationwide sale organization)
Distributes Prudential life insurance, annuities and investment products with proprietary and non-proprietary investment options as well as select insurance, annuities and investment products from other carriers.
Offers certain retail brokerage and retail investment advisory services (through Prudential Insurance's dually registered broker-dealer and investment advisor, Pruco Securities, LLC) including brokerage accounts, discretionary and non-discretionary investment advisory programs and financial planning services.
Continues to execute a solutions-oriented business model centered around client relationships, while strengthening and driving Prudential’s brand promise.
Prudential Insurance pays Prudential Advisors a market rate to distribute our products. The Company is charged a distribution expense by Prudential Insurance related to this arrangement.
Direct-to-Consumer
LINK by Prudential, a personalized digital platform that connects customers to insurance professionals, through various channels (online, phone, video chat, or in person).
Revenues and Profitability
Our revenues primarily come in the form of:
Fee income from asset management fees and service fees, which represent administrative service and distribution fees from many of our proprietary and non-proprietary mutual funds. The asset management fees are determined as a percentage of the average assets of our proprietary mutual funds in our variable annuity and variable universal life products (net of sub-advisory expenses related to non-proprietary sub-advisors).
Policy charges and fee income representing mortality, expense and other fees for various insurance-related options and features based on asset-based fees of the separate accounts, account value, premium, or guaranteed value, as applicable.
Investment income (which contributes to the net spread over interest credited on certain products and related expenses).
Premiums that are fixed in accordance with the terms of the policies.
Our profitability is substantially impacted by our ability to appropriately price our products. We price our products based on:
An evaluation of the risks assumed and consideration of applicable risk management strategies, including hedging and reinsurance costs.
Assumptions regarding investment returns and contractholder behavior, including persistency, benefit utilization and the timing and efficiency of withdrawals for contracts with living benefit features, as well as other assumptions.
Our life-related product assumptions on mortality, persistency, interest rates, expenses, premium payment patterns, separate account fund performance and product generated tax deductions.


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Competition

In our annuity business, we compete with other providers of retirement savings and accumulation products, including large, well-established insurance and financial services companies. We believe our competitive advantage lies primarily in our innovative product features and our risk management strategies as well as brand recognition, financial strength, the breadth of our distribution platform and our customer service capabilities.

In our life insurance business, we compete with other large, well-established life insurance companies in a mature market. We compete primarily based on price, service (including the speed and ease of underwriting), distribution channel relationships, brand recognition and financial strength. Due to the large number of competitors, pricing is competitive. We periodically adjust product offerings, prices and features based on the market and our strategy, with a goal of achieving customer and
enterprise value across a balanced product portfolio and consistent sales growth.

Seasonality of Key Financial Items

The following chart summarizes our key areas of seasonality in our results of operations:
First QuarterSecond QuarterThird QuarterFourth Quarter
AnnuitiesImpact of annual assumption update(1)Higher expenses(2)
Life InsuranceLowest underwriting gainsImpact of annual assumption update(1)Highest underwriting gainsHigher expenses(2)
(1) Impact of annual reviews and update of actuarial assumptions and other refinements.
(2) Expenses are typically higher than the quarterly average in the fourth quarter.

Reinsurance

We regularly enter into reinsurance agreements as the ceding entity. As a ceding entity, exposure to the risks reinsured is reduced by transferring certain rights and obligations of the underlying insurance product to a counterparty. We enter into reinsurance agreements as the ceding entity for a variety of reasons but primarily do so to reduce exposure to loss, reduce risk volatility, provide additional capacity for future growth and for capital management purposes for certain of its variable annuity, term and universal life products. Under ceded reinsurance, we remain liable to the underlying policyholder if a third-party reinsurer is unable to meet its obligations. We evaluate the financial condition of reinsurers, monitor the concentration of counterparty risk and maintain collateral, as appropriate, to mitigate this exposure.

We reinsure the majority of our mortality risk in our individual life products. The maximum amount of mortality risk we may retain on any policy is generally $100,000. See Note 9 to the Financial Statements for more information related to these affiliated reinsurance arrangements.
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Regulation
Overview
Our businesses are subject to comprehensive regulation and supervision. The purpose of these regulations is primarily to protect our customers and the overall financial system. Many of the laws and regulations to which we are subject are regularly re-examined. Existing or future laws and regulations may become more restrictive or otherwise adversely affect our operations or profitability, increase compliance costs, or increase potential regulatory exposure. In recent years we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, extensive changes in the laws and regulations, and regulatory frameworks, applicable to our businesses. Such changes may be accelerated or otherwise impacted by the new presidential administration in the United States. We can not predict how current or future initiatives will further impact existing laws, regulations and regulatory frameworks.

State insurance laws regulate all aspects of our business, and state insurance departments in New Jersey and New York monitor our insurance operations. The Company is domiciled in New Jersey and its principal insurance regulatory authority is the New Jersey Department of Banking and Insurance ("NJDOBI"). Generally, our insurance products must be approved by the insurance regulators in the state in which they are sold. Our insurance products are substantially affected by federal and state tax laws.

The primary regulatory frameworks applicable to Prudential Financial and the Company are described further below under the following section headings:
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
Rescission of Designation
Initiatives Regarding Dodd-Frank and Financial Regulation
ERISA
Fiduciary Rules and other Standards of Care
U.S. State Insurance Holding Company Regulation
U.S. Insurance Operations
State Insurance Regulation
U.S. Federal and State Securities Regulation Affecting Insurance Operations
SECURE Act and other retirement product regulation
Derivatives Regulation
Privacy and Cybersecurity Regulation
Anti-Money Laundering and Anti-Bribery Laws
Unclaimed Property Laws
Taxation
International and Global Regulatory Initiatives

Several of Prudential Financial’s domestic and foreign regulators participate in an annual supervisory college facilitated by the NJDOBI. The purpose of the supervisory college is to promote ongoing supervisory coordination, facilitate the sharing of information among regulators and enhance each regulator’s understanding of Prudential Financial’s risk profile. The most recent supervisory college was held in October 2020.

Existing and future accounting rules may also impact our results of operations or financial condition. For a discussion of accounting pronouncements and their potential impact on our business, including Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-12, Financial Services - Insurance (Topic 944): Targeted Improvements to the Accounting for Long-Duration Contracts, see Note 2 to the Financial Statements.




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Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

Rescission of Designation

In October 2018, the Financial Stability Oversight Council ("FSOC" or the “Council”) rescinded Prudential Financial’s designation as a non-bank financial company (a “Designated Financial Company”) subject to supervision by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“FRB”) under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank”). As a result of the Council’s rescission of Prudential Financial’s Designated Financial Company status, Prudential Financial is no longer subject to supervision and examination by the FRB or to the prudential standards applicable to Designated Financial Companies under Dodd-Frank.

The Council maintains the authority to designate entities, including Prudential Financial, for FRB supervision if it determines that either (i) material financial distress at the entity, or (ii) the nature, scope, size, scale, concentration, interconnectedness, or mix of the entity’s activities, could pose a threat to domestic financial stability. Prudential Financial continues to believe it does not meet the standards for designation.

Initiatives Regarding Dodd-Frank and Financial Regulation

In November 2017, the U.S. Department of the Treasury released a report titled “Financial Stability Oversight Council Designations,” with recommendations on the Council’s standards and processes for the designation and continued designation of Designated Financial Companies. In addition, in October 2017, the U.S. Department of the Treasury released a report titled “A Financial System That Creates Economic Opportunities - Asset Management and Insurance” which recommended, among other things, that primary federal and state regulators should focus on potential systemic risks arising from products and activities, and on implementing regulations that strengthen the asset management and insurance industries as a whole, rather than focus on an entity-based regulatory regime. The report also affirmed the role of the U.S. state-based system of insurance regulation. In December 2019, FSOC revised its interpretive guidance regarding Designated Financial Company determinations. The guidance describes the approach FSOC intends to take in prioritizing its work to identify and address potential risks to U.S. financial stability using an activities-based approach, and enhancing the analytical rigor and transparency in the processes FSOC intends to follow if it were to consider making a Designated Financial Company determination. From time to time Congress has also introduced legislation which if enacted, would amend certain provisions of Dodd-Frank, including by requiring the Council to prioritize the use of an activities-based approach to mitigate identified systemic risks.

We cannot predict whether the Treasury reports, interpretive guidance, new legislation or other initiatives aimed at revising Dodd-Frank and regulation of the financial system will ultimately form the basis for changes to laws or regulations impacting the Company.

ERISA

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (“ERISA”) is a comprehensive federal statute that applies to U.S. employee benefit plans sponsored by private employers and labor unions. Plans subject to ERISA include pension and profit sharing plans and welfare plans, including health, life and disability plans. ERISA provisions include reporting and disclosure rules, standards of conduct that apply to plan fiduciaries and prohibitions on transactions known as “prohibited transactions,” such as conflict-of-interest transactions and certain transactions between a benefit plan and a party in interest. ERISA also provides for civil and criminal penalties and enforcement. Prudential Financial’s insurance, investment management and retirement businesses provide services to employee benefit plans subject to ERISA, including services where Prudential Financial may act as an ERISA fiduciary. In addition to ERISA regulation of businesses providing products and services to ERISA plans, Prudential Financial becomes subject to ERISA’s prohibited transaction rules for transactions with those plans, which may affect Prudential Financial’s ability to enter transactions, or the terms on which transactions may be entered, with those plans, even in businesses unrelated to those giving rise to party in interest status.

Fiduciary Rules and Other Standards of Care

The Company and our distributors are subject to rules regarding the standard of care applicable to sales of our products and the provision of advice to our customers. In recent years, many of these rules have been revised or reexamined, as described below. We cannot predict whether any proposed or new amendments to the existing regulatory framework will ultimately become applicable to our businesses. Any new standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”), the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) or state regulators may affect our businesses, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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DOL Fiduciary Rules

In June 2018, a Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals decision became effective that vacated rules issued by the DOL that redefined who would be considered a “fiduciary” for purposes of transactions with qualified plans, plan participants and Individual Retirement Accounts (“IRAs”), and generally provided that investment advice to a plan participant or IRA owner would be treated as a fiduciary activity. Prior to being vacated, the rules adversely impacted sales in our individual annuities business and resulted in increased compliance costs. In December 2020, the DOL finalized a new prohibited transaction exemption that became effective on February 16, 2021, which replaces the previously vacated “best interest contract exemption,” and extended its non-enforcement relief to December 2021. The new exemption will allow fiduciaries meeting the requirements of the exemption to receive compensation, including as a result of advice to rollover assets from a tax-qualified plan to an IRA, and to purchase from or sell certain investments to qualified plans and IRAs. The DOL also reinstated the pre-2016 investment advice regulation and provided its current interpretation of that regulation, which could result in rollover recommendations being fiduciary investment advice if certain conditions are met. We are continuing to assess the implications of the final prohibited transaction exemption and accompanying interpretive guidance for our businesses.

SEC Best Interest Regulation

In June 2019, the SEC adopted a package of rulemakings and interpretative guidance that, among other things, requires broker-dealers to act in the best interest of retail customers when recommending securities transactions or investment strategies to them. The guidance also clarifies the SEC’s views of the fiduciary duty that investment advisers owe to their clients. The new best interest standards became effective on June 30, 2020. The new standards apply to recommendations to purchase certain of our products and have resulted in increased compliance costs, in particular in our Prudential Advisors distribution system.

U.S. State Standard of Care Regulation

In February 2020, the NAIC adopted revisions to the model suitability rule applicable to the sale of annuities. The revised model regulation states the insurance salesperson must act “without placing the producer’s or the insurer’s financial interest ahead of the consumer’s interest.” The model rule will become applicable to us as it is adopted in each state. In addition, certain state regulators and legislatures have adopted or are considering adopting best interest standards. For example, in July 2018, the New York State Department of Financial Services (“NY DFS”) issued an amendment to its suitability regulations which imposes a best-interest standard on the sale of annuity and life insurance products in New York. The amendments became effective for annuity products on August 1, 2019 and for life insurance products on February 1, 2020. In addition, in October 2018 the New Jersey Bureau of Securities issued a proposal that would impose a fiduciary standard on all New Jersey investment professionals.

U.S. State Insurance Holding Company Regulation

We are subject to the New Jersey insurance holding company law which requires us to register with the insurance department and to furnish annually financial and other information about the operations of the Company. Generally, all transactions with affiliates that affect the Company must be fair and reasonable and, if material, require prior notice and approval or non-disapproval by the NJDOBI.

Change of Control

Most states have insurance laws that require regulatory approval of a direct or indirect change of control of an insurer or an insurer’s holding company. Laws such as these that apply to us prevent any person from acquiring control of Prudential Financial or of its insurance subsidiaries unless that person has filed a statement with specified information with the insurance regulators and has obtained their prior approval. Under most states’ statutes, acquiring 10% or more of the voting stock of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered a change of control, although such presumption may be rebutted. Accordingly, any person who acquires 10% or more of the voting securities of Prudential Financial without the prior approval of the insurance regulators of the states in which its U.S. insurance companies are domiciled will be in violation of these states’ laws and may be subject to injunctive action requiring the disposition or seizure of those securities by the relevant insurance regulator or prohibiting the voting of those securities and to other actions determined by the relevant insurance regulator. In addition, many state insurance laws require prior notification to state insurance departments of a change in control of a non-domiciliary insurance company doing business in that state.

Group-Wide Supervision

NJDOBI acts as the group-wide supervisor of Prudential Financial pursuant to New Jersey legislation that authorizes group-wide supervision of internationally active insurance groups (“IAIGs”). The law, among other provisions, authorizes NJDOBI to examine
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Prudential Financial and its subsidiaries, including by ascertaining the financial condition of the insurance companies for purposes of assessing enterprise risk. In accordance with this authority, NJDOBI receives information about Prudential Financial’s operations beyond those of its New Jersey domiciled insurance subsidiaries.

Additional areas of focus regarding group-wide supervision of insurance holding companies include the following:

Group Capital Calculation. The NAIC is developing a U.S. group capital calculation that uses a risk-based capital (“RBC”) aggregation methodology. The calculation is intended to serve as an additional tool to help state regulators assess potential risks within and across insurance group. A final version of the calculation is expected to be adopted in 2021, followed by implementation in 2022.

Macroprudential Framework. The NAIC is developing a macroprudential framework intended to: (1) improve state insurance regulators’ ability to monitor and respond to the impact of external financial and economic risks on insurers; (2) better monitor and respond to risk emanating from or amplified by insurers that might be transmitted externally; and (3) increase public awareness of NAIC/state monitoring capabilities regarding macroprudential trends. As part of this initiative, the areas identified by the NAIC for potential enhancement include liquidity reporting and stress testing, resolution and recovery, capital stress testing, and counterparty exposure and concentration. The NAIC is currently developing a liquidity stress testing framework and is updating its models and policies to enhance regulators’ resolution and recovery abilities.

Examination. State insurance departments conduct periodic examinations of the books and records, financial reporting, policy filings and market conduct of insurance companies domiciled in their states, generally once every three to five years under guidelines promulgated by the NAIC. As group-wide supervisor, NJDOBI, along with our other insurance regulators, has expanded the periodic examinations to cover Prudential and all of its subsidiaries. In June 2018, AZDOI and NJDOBI, along with the insurance regulators of Connecticut and Indiana, completed their first global consolidated group-wide examination of Prudential Financial and its subsidiaries for the five-year period ended December 31, 2016 and had no reportable findings.

We cannot predict what, if any, additional requirements and compliance costs any new group-wide standards will impose on Prudential Financial.

U.S. Insurance Operations

Generally, our insurance products must be approved by the insurance regulators in the state in which they are sold. Our insurance products are substantially affected by federal and state tax laws.

State Insurance Regulation

State insurance authorities have broad administrative powers with respect to all aspects of the insurance business including: (1) licensing to transact business; (2) licensing agents; (3) admittance of assets to statutory surplus; (4) regulating premium rates for certain insurance products; (5) approving policy forms; (6) regulating unfair trade and claims practices; (7) establishing reserve requirements and solvency standards; (8) fixing maximum interest rates on life insurance policy loans and minimum accumulation or surrender values; (9) regulating the type, amounts and valuations of investments permitted; (10) regulating reinsurance transactions, including the role of captive reinsurers; and (11) other matters.

State insurance laws and regulations require the Company to file financial statements with state insurance departments everywhere it does business in accordance with accounting practices and procedures prescribed or permitted by these departments. The Company’s operations and accounts are subject to examination by those departments at any time.

Financial Regulation

Dividend Payment Limitations. The New Jersey insurance law regulates the amount of dividends that may be paid by the Company. See Note 12 to the Financial Statements for a discussion of dividend restrictions.

Risk-Based Capital. We are subject to RBC requirements that are designed to enhance regulation of insurers’ solvency. The RBC calculation, which regulators use to assess the sufficiency of an insurer’s statutory capital, measures the risk characteristics of a company’s assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet items. In general, RBC is calculated by applying factors to various asset, premium, claim, expense and reserve items. Within a given risk category, these factors are higher for those items with greater underlying risk and lower for items with lower underlying risk. Insurers that have less statutory capital than required are considered to have inadequate capital and are subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending upon the level of capital inadequacy.
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Areas of the RBC framework that have recently been subject to reexamination or revision include the following:

Bond Factors. The NAIC’s Life Risk-Based Capital Working Group is developing updates to the RBC factors for invested assets. In April 2020, the NAIC adopted changes to expand current NAIC designations into the RBC calculation from six bond structures to twenty in order to conduct an impact analysis for 2020 year-end reporting.

Longevity/Mortality Risk. The NAIC’s Longevity Risk Subgroup of the Life Insurance and Annuities Committee and Financial Condition Committee is developing recommendations to recognize longevity risk in risk-based capital related to annuities. Statutory reporting requirements on longevity risk were added in 2020 to allow the NAIC to understand the potential impact of risk-based capital changes being considered. The Company assumes this longevity risk primarily in its individual annuities business. The NAIC is also developing updates to the existing mortality risk factors in RBC.

Operational Risk. In 2018, the NAIC adopted operational risk charges that became effective for the year-end 2018 RBC calculation. The operational risk charges did not materially impact our 2018 RBC ratios given that we hold statutory capital consistent with or in excess of the thresholds established through these new charges. The NAIC is continuing to explore further guidance to improve regulators’ analysis and assessment of operational risks.

Economic Scenario Generator (“ESG”). In 2017, the American Academy of Actuaries notified the NAIC that it did not have the resources to maintain its ESGs used in regulatory reserve and capital calculations. In 2020, the NAIC selected a third-party vendor to provide, maintain, and support the economic scenario generator prescribed for life and annuity statutory reserve and capital calculations. The NAIC is evaluating the vendor’s economic scenarios and other modifications. We cannot predict what impact a new ESG may ultimately have on our businesses.

Due to the ongoing nature of the NAIC’s activities regarding RBC, we cannot determine the ultimate timing of the proposed changes or their impact on RBC or on our financial position.

Insurance Reserves and Regulatory Capital. State insurance laws require us to analyze the adequacy of our reserves annually. Our appointed actuary must submit an opinion that our reserves, when considered in light of the assets we hold with respect to those reserves, make adequate provision for our contractual obligations and related expenses.

The reserving framework for certain of our products and the regulatory capital requirements applicable to our business have undergone reexamination and revision in recent years, including in the following areas:

Principle-Based Reserving for Life Insurance Products. In 2016, the NAIC adopted a principle-based reserving ("PBR") approach for life insurance products. Principle-based reserving replaces the reserving methods for life insurance products for which the former formulaic basis for reserves may not accurately reflect the risks or costs of the liability or obligations of the insurer. The principle-based reserving approach had a three-year phase-in period. Principle-based reserving will not affect reserves for policies in force prior to January 1, 2017.

The Company has introduced updated versions of its individual life products in conjunction with the requirement to adopt principle-based reserving by January 1, 2020. These updated products are currently priced to support the principle-based statutory reserve level without the need for reserve financing. Certain elements of the implementation of principle-based reserving are yet to be finalized by the NAIC and may have a material impact on statutory reserves. The Company continues to assess the impact of the implementation of principle-based reserving on projected statutory reserve levels, product pricing and the use of financing.

Variable Annuities Framework for Change. In 2019, the NAIC adopted final revisions to the Valuation Manual (VM-21), Actuarial Guideline 43 (“AG 43”), and risk-based capital instructions to implement a new variable annuity statutory framework for 2020. Changes include: (i) aligning economically-focused hedge assets with liability valuations; (ii) eliminating the Standard Scenario and replacing it with the Standard Projection for AG 43 and C3 Phase II; and (iii) standardizing capital market assumptions and aligning total asset requirements and reserves. There was no material impact to our target capital levels from the revised framework. The NAIC is considering further changes to the Valuation Manual for future years.

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New York Life Insurance Product Reserves. As a result of an agreement with the NY DFS regarding the Company's reserving methodologies for certain life insurance products, the Company holds additional statutory reserves on a New York basis, which reduces our New York statutory surplus. The Company is not domiciled in New York, and these changes do not impact statutory reserves reported in New Jersey, the Company's state of domicile, and therefore do not impact the Company's RBC ratio; however, the agreed reserve methodology may require the Company to hold additional New York statutory reserves in the future. New York’s version of PBR, which became effective in January 2020, allows for modifications to the NAIC valuation model and New York’s modifications might require us to increase our New York statutory reserves. If the Company were required to establish material additional reserves on a New York statutory accounting basis or post material amounts of additional collateral with respect to annuity or insurance products, the Company's ability to deploy capital for other purposes could be affected and it could be required to obtain additional funding from Prudential Financial or its affiliates.

Reinsurance. The NAIC’s Life Actuarial Task Force is also evaluating changes to its Valuation Manual in respect of yearly renewable term reinsurance. The NAIC adopted interim changes effective in 2020 that adversely impact statutory reserve credit for yearly renewable term reinsurance related to our individual life insurance products being reserved using a principle-based approach. Field testing has been conducted and discussions are currently underway to develop a long-term solution. We cannot predict what impact a long-term solution may ultimately have on our businesses.

Surplus Notes. The NAIC’s Statutory Accounting Principles Working Group is evaluating changes to the accounting rules regarding surplus notes with linked assets. These changes could result in the classification of the surplus notes as debt instead of surplus and require linked assets to be treated as non-admitted assets. These changes would materially adversely impact the statutory financial position of the Company’s captive reinsurance affiliates that use credit-linked note structures to finance Regulation XXX and Guideline AXXX reserves. Also, in May 2020, the NAIC adopted enhanced disclosures on surplus notes that became effective for year-end 2020 reporting.

Captive Reinsurance Companies

We use captive reinsurance affiliates to finance the portion of the statutory reserves for term and universal life policies that we consider to be non-economic for policies written prior to the implementation of principle-based reserving. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital—Financing Activities—Term and Universal Life Reserve Financing” for a discussion of our life product reserves and reserve financing.

Market Conduct Regulation

State insurance laws and regulations include numerous provisions governing the marketplace activities of insurers, including provisions governing the form and content of disclosure to consumers, illustrations, advertising, sales practices and complaint handling. State regulatory authorities generally enforce these provisions through periodic market conduct examinations. We have been subject to market conduct examinations relating to our marketplace activities, including with respect to the policies and procedures we use to locate guaranteed group annuity customers and establish related reserves. Market conduct examinations by state regulatory authorities have resulted and may in the future result in us increasing statutory reserves, changing operational processes and procedures, and could result in the imposition of fines or other discipline.

Data and Underwriting

During 2020, the NAIC Accelerated Underwriting Working Group evaluated insurers' use of external data and data analytics in accelerated life insurance underwriting and is considering, if appropriate, drafting guidance for states.

Insurance Guaranty Association Assessments

Each state has insurance guaranty association laws under which insurers doing business in the state are members and may be assessed by state insurance guaranty associations for certain obligations of insolvent insurance companies to policyholders and claimants. Typically, states assess each member insurer in an amount related to the member insurer’s proportionate share of the line of business written by all member insurers in the state. The majority of state guaranty association laws provide a tax offset for a percentage of the assessment against future years' premium taxes. While we cannot predict the amount and timing of future assessments on the Company under these laws, Prudential Financial has established estimated reserves for future assessments relating to insurance companies that are currently subject to insolvency proceedings.

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U.S. Federal and State Securities Regulation Affecting Insurance Operations

Our variable life insurance and variable annuity products generally are “securities” within the meaning of federal securities laws and may be required to be registered under the federal securities laws and subject to regulation by the SEC and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”). Federal securities regulation affects investment advice, sales and related activities with respect to these products.

In certain states, our variable life insurance and variable annuity products are considered “securities” within the meaning of state securities laws. As securities, these products may be subject to filing and certain other requirements. Also, sales activities with respect to these products generally are subject to state securities regulation. Such regulation may affect investment advice, sales and related activities for these products.

Federal Insurance Office

Dodd-Frank established a Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the Department of the Treasury headed by a director appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury. While the FIO does not have general supervisory or regulatory authority over the business of insurance, the FIO director performs various functions with respect to insurance, including serving as a non-voting member of the Council, monitoring the insurance sector and representing the U.S. on prudential aspects of international insurance matters, including at the International Association of Insurance Supervisors ("IAIS").

SECURE Act

In December 2019, Congress enacted the Setting Every Community up for Retirement Enhancement (“SECURE”) Act. The SECURE Act is expected to help promote retirement plan coverage and increase retirement plan savings, as well as facilitate access to guaranteed lifetime income solutions. The Act addresses coverage issues by making it easier for small businesses to participate in pooled employer plans and requires coverage of certain long-term, part-time workers. The Act addresses savings issues by raising the cap on amounts contributed through auto-enrollment, increasing the maximum age for required minimum withdrawals to 72 and removing the age cap (70 1/2) for making IRA contributions. The Act also made it easier for employers to include guaranteed lifetime income as part of their plan by providing an annuity provider selection safe harbor, as well as providing for the portability of participant investments in annuity products. In addition, the SECURE Act included provisions that enable participants to withdraw, penalty-free, up to $5,000 for expenses attendant to the birth or adoption of a child and limit the ability of certain IRA beneficiaries to defer tax recognition of their inheritance beyond ten years.

Implementation of the SECURE Act provisions and the issuance of related regulatory guidance is still ongoing and under consideration by plan sponsors and providers; therefore, it is difficult to assess its impact on our businesses at this time.

On December 27, 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Congress enacted the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021 (“CAA”). The CAA includes a provision that changes the floor interest rates used for Definition of Life Insurance (“DOLI”) testing under Section 7702 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and Modified Endowment Contract (“MEC”) testing under Section 7702A of the Code. The change is intended to better reflect the current low interest rate environment and, for contracts issued on or after January 1, 2021, may increase the DOLI and MEC limits and allow more premium payments relative to the death benefit. We are currently evaluating the impacts that this change will have on our products.

Derivatives Regulation

Prudential Financial and its subsidiaries use derivatives for various purposes, including hedging interest rate, foreign currency and equity market exposures. Dodd-Frank established a framework for regulation of the over-the-counter derivatives markets. This framework sets out requirements regarding the clearing and reporting of derivatives transactions, as well as collateral posting requirements for uncleared swaps. Affiliated swaps entered into between Prudential Financial subsidiaries are generally exempt from most of these requirements.

We continue to monitor the potential hedging cost impacts of new initial margin requirements that we will be required to comply with in 2021, and increased capital requirements for derivatives transactions that may be imposed on banks that are our counterparties. Additionally, the increased need to post cash collateral in connection with mandatorily cleared swaps may also require the liquidation of higher yielding assets for cash, resulting in a negative impact on investment income.

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Privacy and Cybersecurity Regulation

We are subject to laws, regulations and directives that require financial institutions and other businesses to protect the security and confidentiality of personal information, including health-related and customer information, and to notify their customers and other individuals of their policies and practices relating to the collection and disclosure of health-related and customer information. In addition, we must comply with international privacy laws, regulations, and directives concerning the cross border transfer or use of employee and customer personal information. These laws, regulations and directives also:

provide additional protections regarding the use and disclosure of certain information such as national identifier numbers (e.g., social security numbers);
require notice to affected individuals, regulators and others if there is a breach of the security of certain personal information;
require financial institutions and creditors to implement effective programs to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft;
regulate the process by which financial institutions make telemarketing calls and send e-mail, text, or fax messages to consumers and customers;
require oversight of third parties that have access to, and handle, personal information; and
prescribe the permissible uses of certain personal information, including customer information and consumer report information.  

Regulatory and legislative activity in the areas of privacy, data protection and information and cybersecurity continues to increase worldwide. Financial regulators in the U.S. and international jurisdictions in which Prudential Financial operates continue to focus on data privacy and cybersecurity, including in proposed rulemaking, and have communicated heightened expectations and have increased emphasis in this area in their examinations of regulated entities. For example, the European Union's ("E.U.") General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective in May 2018, confers additional privacy rights on individuals in the E.U. and establishes significant penalties for violations. In addition, in the U.S. the Federal government has proposed a number of sweeping privacy laws. In California, the California Consumer Privacy Act became effective in 2020 and confers numerous privacy rights on individuals and corresponding obligations on businesses. Additional rights and obligations will be imposed by the California Privacy Rights Act, which we expect to largely become effective in 2023. Internationally, a number of countries such as Brazil and Argentina have enacted or are considering enacting GDPR-like regulations.

In October 2017, the NAIC adopted the Insurance Data Security Model Law. The model law requires that insurance companies establish a cybersecurity program and includes specific technical safeguards as well as requirements regarding governance, incident planning, data management, system testing, vendor oversight and regulator notification. The NY DFS adopted a similar regulation effective March 2017 and other states have either implemented the Model Law or are anticipated to implement it in the near future.

The Company is monitoring regulatory guidance and rulemaking in these areas, and may be subject to increased compliance costs and regulatory requirements. In order to respond to the threat of security breaches and cyber-attacks, Prudential Financial has developed a program overseen by the Chief Information Security Officer and the Information Security Office that is designed to protect and preserve the confidentiality, integrity, and continued availability of all information owned by, or in the care of the Company. As part of this program, we also maintain an incident response plan. The program provides for the coordination of various corporate functions and governance groups, and serves as a framework for the execution of responsibilities across businesses and operational roles. The program establishes security standards for our technological resources, and includes training for employees, contractors and third parties. As part of the program, we conduct periodic exercises and a response readiness assessment with outside advisors to gain a third-party independent assessment of our technical program and our internal response preparedness. We regularly engage with the outside security community and monitor cyber threat information.

Anti-Money Laundering and Anti-Bribery Laws

Our business is subject to various anti-money laundering and financial transparency laws and regulations that seek to promote cooperation among financial institutions, regulators and law enforcement entities in identifying parties that may be involved in terrorism or money laundering. In addition, under current U.S. law and regulations we may be prohibited from dealing with certain individuals or entities in certain circumstances and we may be required to monitor customer activities, which may affect our ability to attract and retain customers. We are also subject to various laws and regulations relating to corrupt and illegal payments to government officials and others, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K.’s Anti-Bribery Law. The obligation of financial institutions, including the Company, to identify their clients, to monitor for and report suspicious transactions, to monitor dealings with government officials, to respond to requests for information by regulatory authorities and law enforcement agencies, and to share information with other financial institutions, has required the implementation and maintenance of internal practices, procedures and controls.

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Unclaimed Property Laws

We are subject to the laws and regulations of states and other jurisdictions concerning the identification, reporting and escheatment of unclaimed or abandoned funds, and we are subject to audit and examination for compliance with these requirements. For additional discussion of these matters, see Note 14 to the Financial Statements.

Taxation

U.S. Taxation

Prudential Financial and certain domestic subsidiaries, including the Company, file a consolidated federal income tax return that includes both life insurance companies and non-life insurance companies. Certain other domestic subsidiaries file separate tax returns. The principal differences between the Company’s actual income tax expense and the applicable statutory federal income tax rate are generally deductions for non-taxable investment income, including the Dividends Received Deduction (“DRD”), foreign taxes applied at a different tax rate than the U.S. rate and certain tax credits. For tax years prior to 2018, the applicable statutory federal income tax rate was 35%. For tax years starting in 2018, the applicable statutory federal income tax rate is 21%. A future increase in the applicable statutory federal income tax rate above 21% would adversely impact the Company's tax position. In addition, as discussed further below, the tax attributes of our products may impact both the Company’s and our customers’ tax positions. See “Income Taxes” in Note 2 to the Financial Statements and Note 10 to the Financial Statements for a description of the Company’s tax position. As discussed further below, new tax legislation and other potential changes to the tax law may impact the Company’s tax position and the attractiveness of our products.

The United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Act of 2017") was enacted into law on December 22, 2017 and was generally effective starting in 2018. The Tax Act of 2017 changed the taxation of businesses and individuals by lowering tax rates and broadening the tax base through the acceleration of taxable income and the deferral or elimination of certain deductions, as well as changing the system of taxation of earnings of foreign subsidiaries. The most significant changes for the Company were: (1) the reduction of the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%; (2) revised methodologies for determining deductions for tax reserves and the DRD; and (3) an increased capitalization and amortization period for acquisition costs related to certain products.

Since the enactment of the Tax Act of 2017, the Treasury Department and the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) promulgated Proposed and Final Regulations on a number of provisions within or impacted by the Tax Act of 2017. The Treasury and IRS have requested comments on the Proposed Regulations. Our analysis of these Proposed Regulations is on-going and further guidance may be needed from the Treasury Department and the IRS to fully understand and implement several provisions. Other life insurance and financial services companies may benefit more or less from these tax law changes, which could impact the Company’s overall competitive position. Notwithstanding the enactment of the Tax Act of 2017, the President, Congress, as well as state and local governments, may continue to consider from time to time legislation that could increase the amount of corporate taxes we pay, thereby reducing earnings.

U.S. federal tax law generally permits tax deferral on the inside build-up of investment value of certain retirement savings, annuities and life insurance products until there is a contract distribution and, in general, excludes from taxation the death benefit paid under a life insurance contract. The Tax Act of 2017 did not change these rules, though it is possible that some individuals with overall lower effective tax rates could be less attracted to the tax deferral aspect of the Company’s products. The general reduction in individual tax rates and elimination of certain individual deductions may also impact the Company, depending on whether current and potential customers have more or less after-tax income to save for retirement and manage their mortality and longevity risk through the purchase of the Company’s products. Congress from time to time may enact other changes to the tax law that could make our products less attractive to consumers, including legislation that would modify the tax favored treatment of retirement savings, life insurance and annuities products.

The products we sell have different tax characteristics and, in some cases, generate tax deductions and credits for the Company. Changes in either the U.S. or foreign tax laws may negatively impact the deductions and credits available to the Company, including the ability of the Company to claim foreign tax credits with respect to taxes withheld on our investments supporting separate account products. These changes would increase the Company’s actual tax expense and reduce its net income.

The profitability of certain products is significantly dependent on these characteristics and our ability to continue to generate taxable income, which is taken into consideration when pricing products and is a component of our capital management strategies. Accordingly, changes in tax law, our ability to generate taxable income, or other factors impacting the availability or value of the tax characteristics generated by our products, could impact product pricing, increase our tax expense or require us to reduce our sales of these products or implement other actions that could be disruptive to our businesses.

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In March 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Congress enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security ("CARES") Act. One provision of the CARES Act amends the Tax Act of 2017 and allows companies with net operating losses ("NOLs") originating in 2018, 2019 or 2020 to carry back those losses for up to five years. See "Income Taxes" in Note 10 to the Financial Statements for more information.

International and Global Regulatory Initiatives

In addition to the adoption of Dodd-Frank in the United States, lawmakers around the world are actively exploring steps to avoid future financial crises. In many respects, this work is being led by the Financial Stability Board (“FSB”), which consists of representatives of national financial authorities of the G20 nations. The G20, the FSB and related bodies have developed proposals to address such issues as financial group supervision, capital and solvency standards, systemic economic risk, corporate governance including executive compensation, and a host of related issues.

In July 2013, Prudential Financial, along with eight other global insurers, was designated by the FSB as a global systemically important insurer (“G-SII”) through a quantitative methodology developed and implemented by the IAIS. Prudential Financial remained designated as a G-SII until November 2018, at which point the FSB announced that it would not engage in an identification of G-SIIs based on the IAIS’ progress with development of the Holistic Framework for Systemic Risk in the Insurance Sector (“Holistic Framework”). The Holistic Framework, which was adopted by the IAIS in November 2019, focuses on employing an Activities Based approach (“ABA”) to assessing and managing potential sources of systemic risk through enhancements to IAIS policy measures pertaining to macroprudential surveillance, enterprise risk management, liquidity management, crisis management and recovery planning. In addition to the ABA elements, the Holistic Framework preserves the IAIS’ annual data collection and monitoring process. Upon the IAIS’ adoption of the Holistic Framework, the FSB announced that it has suspended the annual identification of G-SIIs until November 2022, when it will review the need to either discontinue or re-establish the annual process based on the initial years of implementation of the Holistic Framework.

In addition to its post financial crisis work on systemic risk, the IAIS developed the Common Framework for the Supervision of Internationally Active Insurance Groups (“ComFrame”). Through ComFrame, the IAIS seeks to promote effective and globally consistent supervision of the insurance industry through uniform standards for insurer corporate governance, enterprise risk management and other control functions, group-wide supervision and group capital adequacy. The non-capital related components of ComFrame were adopted by the IAIS in November 2019. The ICS, which is the capital adequacy component of ComFrame, entered a five-year monitoring phase beginning in 2020. During the monitoring phase, IAIGs are encouraged to report ICS results to their group supervisory authorities to support the IAIS’ efforts to obtain feedback on the appropriateness of the framework. The IAIS will use input from supervisory authorities and IAIGs as well as stakeholder feedback on a public consultation and the results of an economic impact assessment to further improve the ICS. The IAIS is scheduled to adopt a final version of the ICS, which it expects its member supervisory authorities to implement, in 2025.

As a standard setting body, the IAIS does not have direct authority to require insurance companies to comply with the policy measures it develops, including the ICS and proposed policy measures within the Holistic Framework. However, we could become subject to these policy measures if they were adopted by either our group supervisor or supervisors of Prudential Financial's international operations or companies, which could impact the manner in which Prudential Financial deploys its capital, structures and manages its businesses, and otherwise operates both within the U.S. and abroad.

Human Capital Resources
The Company has no employees. Services to the Company are primarily provided by employees of Prudential Insurance as described under “Expense Charges and Allocations” in Note 13 to the Financial Statements.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the following risks. These risks are not exclusive, and additional risks to which we are subject include, but are not limited to, the factors mentioned under “Forward-Looking Statements” above and the risks of our businesses described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Many of these risks are interrelated and could occur under similar business and economic conditions, and the occurrence of certain of them may in turn cause the emergence or exacerbate the effect of others. Such a combination could materially increase the severity of the impact of these risks on our businesses, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Overview
The Company's risk management framework documents the definition, potential manifestation, and management of its risks. The Company has categorized its risks into tactical and strategic risks. Tactical risks may cause damage to the Company, and the Company seeks to manage and mitigate them through models, metrics and the overall risk framework. The Company’s tactical risks include investment, insurance, market, liquidity, and operational risk. Strategic risks can cause the Company’s fundamental business model to change, either through a shift in the businesses in which it is engaged or a change in execution. The Company’s strategic risks include regulatory and technological changes and other external factors. These risks, as well as the sub-risks that may impact the Company, are discussed below.
Investment Risk
Our investment portfolios are subject to the risk of loss due to default or deterioration in credit quality or value.
We are exposed to investment risk through our investments, which primarily consist of public and private fixed maturity securities, commercial mortgage and other loans, equity securities and alternative assets including private equity, hedge funds and real estate. We are also exposed to investment risk through a potential counterparty default.
Investment risk may result from: (1) economic conditions; (2) adverse capital market conditions, including disruptions in individual market sectors or a lack of buyers in the marketplace; (3) volatility; (4) credit spread changes; (5) benchmark interest rate changes; and (6) declines in value of underlying collateral. These factors may impact the credit quality, liquidity and value of our investments and derivatives, potentially resulting in higher capital charges and unrealized or realized losses. Also, certain investments we hold, regardless of market conditions, are relatively illiquid and our ability to promptly sell these assets for their full value may be limited. Additionally, our valuation of investments may include methodologies, inputs and assumptions which are subject to change and different interpretation and could result in changes to investment valuations that may materially impact our results of operations or financial condition. For information about the valuation of our investments, see Note 5 to the Financial Statements.
Our investment portfolio is subject to credit risk, which is the risk that an obligor (or guarantor) is unable or unwilling to meet its contractual payment obligations on its fixed maturity security, loan or other obligations. Credit risk may manifest in an idiosyncratic manner (i.e., specific to an individual borrower or industry) or through market-wide credit cycles. Financial deterioration of the obligor increases the risk of default and may increase the capital charges required under such regimes as the NAIC RBC, or other constructs to hold the investment and in turn, potentially limit our overall capital flexibility. Credit defaults (as well as credit impairments, realized losses on credit-related sales, and increases in credit related reserves) may result in losses which adversely impact earnings, capital and our ability to appropriately match our liabilities and meet future obligations.
Our Company is subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the counterparty to a transaction could default or deteriorate in creditworthiness before or at the final settlement of a transaction. In the normal course of business, we enter into financial contracts to manage risks (such as derivatives to manage market risk and reinsurance treaties to manage insurance risk), improve the return on investments (such as securities lending and repurchase transactions) and provide sources of liquidity or financing (such as credit agreements, securities lending agreements and repurchase agreements). These transactions expose the Company to counterparty risk. Counterparties include commercial banks, investment banks, broker-dealers and insurance and reinsurance companies. In the event of a counterparty deterioration or default, the magnitude of the losses will depend on then current market conditions and the length of time required to enter into a replacement transaction with a new counterparty. Losses are likely to be higher under stressed conditions.
Our investment portfolio is subject to equity risk, which is the risk of loss due to deterioration in market value of public equity or alternative assets. We include public equity and alternative assets (including private equity, hedge funds and real estate) in our portfolio constructions, as these asset classes can provide returns over longer periods of time, aligning with the long-term nature of certain of our liabilities. Public equity and alternative assets have varying degrees of price transparency. Equities traded on stock exchanges (public equities) have significant price transparency, as transactions are often required to be disclosed publicly. Assets for which price transparency is more opaque include private equity (joint ventures/limited partnerships) and direct real estate. As these investments typically do not trade on public markets and indications of realizable
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market value may not be readily available, valuations can be infrequent and/or more volatile. A sustained decline in public equity and alternative markets may reduce the returns earned by our investment portfolio through lower than expected dividend income, property operating income, and capital gains, thereby adversely impacting earnings, capital, and product pricing assumptions. These assets may also produce volatility in earnings as a result of uneven distributions on the underlying investments.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased and may continue to increase investment risk. The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the global economy has increased and may continue to increase the risk of loss on our investments due to default or deterioration in credit quality or value.
Insurance Risk
We have significant liabilities for policyholders' benefits which are subject to insurance risk. Insurance risk is the risk that actual experience deviates adversely from our insurance assumptions, including mortality and policyholder behavior assumptions. We provide a variety of insurance products that are designed to help customers protect against a variety of financial uncertainties. Our insurance products protect customers against their potential risk of loss by transferring those risks to the Company, where those risks can be managed more efficiently through pooling and diversification over a larger number of independent exposures. During this transfer process, we assume the risk that actual losses experienced in our insurance products deviates significantly from what we expect. More specifically, insurance risk is concerned with the deviations that impact our future liabilities. Our profitability may decline if mortality experience or policyholder behavior experience differ significantly from our expectations when we price our products. In addition, if we experience higher than expected claims our liquidity position may be adversely impacted, and we may incur losses on investments if we are required to sell assets in order to pay claims. If it is necessary to sell assets at a loss, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted. For a discussion of the impact of changes in insurance assumptions on our financial condition, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Accounting Policies and Pronouncements—Application of Critical Accounting Estimates—Insurance Liabilities”.
Certain of our insurance products are subject to mortality risk, which is the risk that actual deaths experienced deviate adversely from our expectations. Mortality risk is a biometric risk that can manifest in the following ways:
Mortality calamity is the risk that mortality rates in a single year deviate adversely from what is expected as the result of pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, natural or man-made disasters, military actions or terrorism. A mortality calamity event will reduce our earnings and capital and we may be forced to liquidate assets before maturity in order to pay the excess claims. Mortality calamity risk is more pronounced in respect of specific geographic areas (including major metropolitan centers, where we have concentrations of customers), concentrations of employees or significant operations, and in respect of countries and regions in which we operate that are subject to a greater potential threat of military action or conflict. Ultimate losses would depend on several factors, including the rates of mortality and morbidity among various segments of the insured population, the collectability of reinsurance, the possible macroeconomic effects on our investment portfolio, the effect on lapses and surrenders of existing policies, as well as sales of new policies and other variables.

Mortality trend is the risk that mortality improvements in the future deviate adversely from what is expected. Mortality trend is a long-term risk in that can emerge gradually over time. Longevity products, such as annuities, experience adverse impacts due to higher-than-expected mortality improvement. Mortality products, such as life insurance, experience adverse impacts due to lower-than-expected improvement. If this risk were to emerge, the Company would update assumptions used to calculate reserves for in-force business, which may result in additional assets needed to meet the higher expected annuity claims or earlier expected life claims. An increase in reserves due to revised assumptions has an immediate impact on our results of operations and financial condition; however, economically the impact is generally long-term as the excess outflow is paid over time.

Mortality base is the risk that actual base mortality deviates adversely from what is expected in pricing and valuing our products. Base mortality risk can arise from a lack of credible data on which to base the assumptions.

Certain of our insurance products are subject to policyholder behavior risk, which is the risk that actual policyholder behavior deviates adversely from what is expected. Policyholder behavior risk includes the following components:
Lapse calamity is the risk that lapse rates over the short-term deviate adversely from what is expected, for example, surrenders of certain insurance products may increase following a downgrade of our financial strength ratings or adverse publicity. Only certain products are exposed to this risk. Products that offer a cash surrender value that resides in the general account could pose a potential short-term lapse calamity risk. Surrender of these products can impact
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liquidity, and it may be necessary in certain market conditions to sell assets to meet surrender demands. Lapse calamity can also impact our earnings through its impact on estimated future profits.

Policyholder behavior efficiency is the risk that the behavior of our customers or policyholders deviates adversely from what is expected. Policyholder behavior efficiency risk arises through product features which provide some degree of choice or flexibility for the policyholder, which can impact the amount and/or timing of claims. Such choices include surrender, lapse, partial withdrawal, policy loan, utilization, and premium payment rates for contracts with flexible premiums. While some behavior is driven by macro factors such as market movements, policyholder behavior at a fundamental level is driven primarily by policyholders’ individual needs, which may differ significantly from product to product depending on many factors including the features offered, the approach taken to market each product, and competitor pricing. For example, persistency (the probability that a policy or contract will remain in force) within our annuities business may be significantly impacted by the value of guaranteed minimum benefits contained in many of our variable annuity products being higher than current account values in light of poor market performance as well as other factors. Many of our products also provide our customers with wide flexibility with respect to the amount and timing of premium deposits and the amount and timing of withdrawals from the policy’s value. Results may vary based on differences between actual and expected premium deposits and withdrawals for these products, especially if these product features are relatively new to the marketplace. The pricing of certain of our variable annuity products that contain certain living benefit guarantees is also based on assumptions about utilization rates, or the percentage of contracts that will utilize the benefit during the contract duration, including the timing of the first withdrawal. Results may vary based on differences between actual and expected benefit utilization. We may also be impacted by customers seeking to sell their benefits. In particular, the development of a secondary market for life insurance, including life settlements or “viaticals” and investor owned life insurance, and third-party investor strategies in our annuities business, could adversely affect the profitability of existing business and our pricing assumptions for new business. Policyholder behavior efficiency is generally a long-term risk that emerges over time. An increase in reserves due to revised assumptions has an immediate impact on our results of operations and financial condition; however, from an economic or cash flow perspective, the impact is generally long-term as the excess outflow is paid over time.
Our ability to reprice products is limited, and may not compensate for deviations from our expected insurance assumptions. Although some of our products permit us to increase premiums or adjust other charges and credits during the life of the policy or contract, the adjustments permitted under the terms of the policies or contracts may not be sufficient to maintain profitability or may cause the policies or contracts to lapse. Many of our products do not permit us to increase premiums or adjust other charges and credits or limit those adjustments during the life of the policy or contract. Even if permitted under the policy or contract, we may not be able or willing to raise premiums or adjust other charges sufficiently, or at all. Accordingly, significant deviations in actual experience from our pricing assumptions could have an adverse effect on the profitability of our products.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased and may continue to increase insurance risk. We expect COVID-19 to drive elevated levels of mortality in the near-term. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused and may continue to cause a mortality calamity. Elevated losses will reduce our earnings and capital, and we may be forced to liquidate assets before maturity in order to pay the excess claims. The pandemic situation may worsen depending on the evolution of the virus’s transmissibility and virulence, including the potential for further mutation, effectiveness of public health measures and availability and effectiveness of vaccines and treatments. Ultimate losses would depend on several factors, including the rates of mortality and morbidity among various segments of the insured population, age and geographic distribution of associated deaths, collectability of reinsurance, performance of our investment portfolio, effect on lapses and surrenders of existing policies, as well as sales of new policies and other variables.

The pandemic may also result in a change in policyholder behavior, such as policyholders choosing to defer or stop paying insurance premiums. It may also result in a lapse calamity, as discussed above.

Finally, we cannot predict whether COVID-19 will ultimately lead to longer-term deviations from the mortality or policyholder behavior assumptions we used to price our products.
Market Risk
The profitability of many of our insurance and annuity products are subject to market risk. Market risk is the risk of loss from changes in interest rates and equity prices.
The profitability of many of our insurance and annuity products depends in part on the value of the separate accounts supporting these products, which can fluctuate substantially depending on market conditions.
Derivative instruments we use to hedge and manage interest rate and equity market risks associated with our products and businesses, and other risks might not perform as intended or expected resulting in higher than expected realized losses and stresses on liquidity. Market conditions can limit availability of hedging instruments, require us to post additional collateral, and
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further increase the cost of executing product related hedges and such costs may not be recovered in the pricing of the underlying products being hedged.
Market risk may limit opportunities for investment of available funds at appropriate returns, including due to the current low interest rate environment, or other factors, with possible negative impacts on our overall results. Limited opportunities for attractive investments may lead to holding cash for long periods of time and increased use of derivatives for duration management and other portfolio management purposes. The increased use of derivatives may increase the volatility of our U.S. GAAP results and our statutory capital.
Our investments, results of operations and financial condition may also be adversely affected by developments in the global economy, and in the U.S. economy (including as a result of actions by the Federal Reserve with respect to monetary policy, and adverse political developments). Global or U.S. economic activity and financial markets may in turn be negatively affected by adverse developments or conditions in specific geographical regions.
For a discussion of the impact of changes in market conditions on our financial condition see Item 7A “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk".
Our insurance and annuity products, and our investment returns, are subject to interest rate risk, which is the risk of loss arising from asset/liability duration mismatches within our general account investments. The risk of mismatch in asset/liability duration is mainly driven by the specific dynamics of product liabilities. Some product liabilities are expected to have only modest risk related to interest rates because cash flows can be matched by available assets in the investable space. The interest rate risk emerges primarily from their tail cash flows (30 years or more), which cannot be matched by assets for sale in the marketplace, exposing the Company to future reinvestment risk. In addition, certain of our products provide for recurring premiums which may be invested at interest rates lower than the rates included in our pricing assumptions. Market-sensitive cash flows exist with other product liabilities including products whose cash flows can be linked to market performance through secondary guarantees, minimum crediting rates, and/or changes in insurance assumptions.
Our exposure to interest rates can manifest over years as in the case of earnings compression or in the short term by creating volatility in both earnings and capital. For example, some of our products expose us to the risk that changes in interest rates will reduce the spread between the amounts that we are required to pay under contracts and the rate of return we are able to earn on our general account investments supporting these contracts. When interest rates decline or remain low, as they have in recent years, we must invest in lower-yielding instruments, potentially reducing net investment income and constraining our ability to offer certain products. This risk is increased as more policyholders may retain their policies in a low rate environment. Since many of our policies and contracts have guaranteed minimum crediting rates or limit the resetting of crediting rates, the spreads could decrease or go negative.
Alternatively, when interest rates rise, we may not be able to replace the assets in our general account with the higher-yielding assets as quickly as needed to fund the higher crediting rates necessary to keep these products and contracts competitive. It is possible that fewer policyholders may retain their policies and annuity contracts as they pursue higher crediting rates, which could expose the Company to losses and liquidity stress.
Our mitigation efforts with respect to interest rate risk are primarily focused on maintaining an investment portfolio with diversified maturities that has a key rate duration profile that is approximately equal to the key rate duration profile of our liability and surplus benchmarks; however, these benchmarks are based on estimates of the liability cash flow profiles which are complex and could turn out to be inaccurate, especially when markets are volatile. In addition, there are practical and capital market limitations on our ability to accomplish this matching. Due to these and other factors we may need to liquidate investments prior to maturity at a loss in order to satisfy liabilities or be forced to reinvest funds in a lower rate environment.
Guarantees within certain of our products, in particular our variable annuities and to a lesser extent certain individual life products, are market sensitive and may decrease our earnings or increase the volatility of our results of operations or financial position under U.S. GAAP . Certain of our products, particularly our variable annuity products, include guarantees of minimum surrender values or income streams for stated periods or for life, which may be in excess of account values. Downturns in equity markets, increased equity volatility, increased credit spreads, or (as discussed above) reduced interest rates could result in an increase in the valuation of liabilities associated with such guarantees, resulting in increases in reserves and reductions in net income. We use a variety of hedging and risk management strategies, including product features, to mitigate these risks in part and we may periodically change our strategies over time. These strategies may, however, not be fully effective. In addition, we may be unable or may choose not to fully hedge these risks. Hedging instruments may not effectively offset the costs of guarantees or may otherwise be insufficient in relation to our obligations. Hedging instruments also may not change in value correspondingly with associated liabilities due to equity market or interest rate conditions, non-performance risk or other reasons. We may choose to hedge these risks on a basis that does not correspond to their anticipated or actual impact upon our results of operations or financial position under U.S. GAAP. Changes from period to period in the valuation of these policy benefits, and in the amount of our obligations effectively hedged, will result in volatility in our results of operations and financial position under U.S. GAAP and our statutory capital levels. Estimates and assumptions we make in connection
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with hedging activities may fail to reflect or correspond to our actual long-term exposure from our guarantees. Further, the risk of increases in the costs of our guarantees not covered by our hedging and other capital and risk management strategies may become more significant due to changes in policyholder behavior driven by market conditions or other factors. The above factors, individually or collectively, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
Our valuation of the liabilities for the minimum benefits contained in many of our variable annuity products requires us to consider the market perception of our risk of non-performance, and a decrease in our own credit spreads resulting from ratings upgrades or other events or market conditions could cause the recorded value of these liabilities to increase, which in turn could adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased and may continue to increase market risk. During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic caused market disruptions and volatility. Continued market disruptions and volatility may negatively impact the profitability of many of our insurance and annuity products, which depends in part on the value of the separate accounts supporting these products which can fluctuate substantially depending on market conditions. Market volatility and reduced liquidity may reduce our ability to implement asset-liability management and hedging strategies.
Liquidity Risk
As a financial services company, we are exposed to liquidity risk, which is the risk that the Company is unable to meet near-term obligations as they come due.
Liquidity risk is a manifestation of events that are driven by other risk types (market, insurance, investment, operational). A liquidity shortfall may arise in the event of insufficient funding sources or an immediate and significant need for cash or collateral. In addition, it is possible that expected liquidity sources may be unavailable or inadequate to satisfy the liquidity demands described below.
The Company has four primary sources of liquidity exposure and associated drivers that trigger material liquidity demand. Those sources are:
Derivative collateral market exposure: Abrupt changes to interest rate, equity, and/or currency markets may increase collateral requirements to counterparties and create liquidity risk for the Company.
Asset liability mismatch: There are liquidity risks associated with liabilities coming due prior to the matching asset cash flows. Structural maturities mismatch can occur in activities such as securities lending, where the liabilities are effectively overnight open transactions used to fund longer term assets.
Wholesale funding: We depend upon the financial markets for funding. These sources might not be available during times of stress, or may only be available on unfavorable terms, which can result in a decrease in our profitability and a significant reduction in our financial flexibility.
Insurance cash flows: We face potential liquidity risks from unexpected cash demands due to severe mortality calamity, customer withdrawals or lapse events. If such events were to occur, the Company may face unexpectedly high levels of claim payments to policyholders.
For a discussion of the Company's liquidity and sources and uses of liquidity see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Liquidity".
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased and may continue to increase liquidity risk. During 2020, the Company took significant actions to support liquidity as described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.” Nevertheless, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis and related market dislocations could strain our existing liquidity and cause us to increase the use of our alternative sources of liquidity, which could result in increased financial leverage on our balance sheet and negatively impact our credit and financial strength ratings. Furthermore, certain sources of liquidity might not be available during times of stress, or may only be available on unfavorable terms, which can result in a decrease in our profitability and a significant reduction in our financial flexibility.
Operational Risk
Our operations are exposed to the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed processes or systems, human error or misconduct, and as a result of external events.
An operational risk failure may result in one or more actual or potential impacts to the Company. Operational risk may be elevated as a result of organizational changes, including recent and planned changes related to Prudential Financial's business transformation efforts.
Operational Risk Types
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Processes - Processing failure; failure to safeguard or retain documents/records; errors in valuation/pricing models and processes; project management or execution failures; improper sales practices; improper administration of our products.
Systems - Failures during the development and implementation of new systems; systems failures.
People - Internal fraud, breaches of employment law, unauthorized activities; loss or lack of key personnel, inadequate training; inadequate supervision.
External Events - External crime; cyber-attack; outsourcing risk; vendor risk; natural and other disasters; changes in laws/regulations.
Legal - Legal and regulatory compliance failures.
Potential Impacts
Financial losses - The Company experiences a financial loss. This loss may originate from various causes including, but not limited to, transaction processing errors and fraud.
Customer impacts - The Company may not be able to service customers. This may result if the Company is unable to continue operations during a business continuation event or if systems are compromised due to malware or virus.
Regulatory fines or sanctions - When the Company fails to comply with applicable laws or regulations, regulatory fines or sanctions may be imposed. In addition, possible restrictions on business activities may result.
Legal actions - Failure to comply with laws and regulations also exposes the Company to litigation risk. This may also result in financial losses.
Liabilities we may incur as a result of operational failures are described further under “Contingent Liabilities” in Note 14 to the Financial Statements. In addition, certain pending regulatory and litigation matters affecting us, and certain risks to our businesses presented by such matters, are discussed in Note 14 to the Financial Statements. We may become subject to additional regulatory and legal actions in the future.
Key Enterprise Operational Risks - Key enterprise operational risks include, among others, the following:
We are subject to business continuation risk, which is the risk that our operations, systems or data may be disrupted. We may experience a business continuation event as a result of:
Severe pandemic, as we saw in 2020 with the COVID-19 pandemic, either naturally occurring or intentionally manipulated pathogens.
Geo-political risks, including armed conflict and civil unrest.
Terrorist events.
Significant natural or accidental disasters.
Cyber-attacks.
We depend heavily on our telecommunication, information technology and other operational systems and on the integrity and timeliness of data we use to run our businesses and service our customers. These systems may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of events or circumstances wholly or partly beyond our control.
Further, we face the risk of operational and technology failures by others, including clearing agents, exchanges and other financial intermediaries and of vendors and parties to which we outsource the provision of services or business operations.
We are subject to the risk that we may not adequately maintain information security. There continues to be significant and organized cyber-attack activity against western organizations, including but not limited to the financial services sector and no organization is fully immune to cyber-attacks. Risks related to cyber-attack arise in the following areas:
Protecting both “structured” and “unstructured” sensitive information is a constant need. However, some risks cannot be fully mitigated using technology or otherwise.
Unsuspecting employees represent a primary avenue for external parties to gain access to our network and systems. Many attacks, even from sophisticated actors, include rudimentary techniques such as coaxing an internal user to click on a malicious attachment or link to introduce malware or steal their username and password.
The risk associated with wrongdoers encrypting data (i.e., ransomware) or disrupting communications (i.e., denial of service) for the purposes of extortion continues to increase.
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Insurance and retirement services companies are increasingly being targeted by hackers and fraudulent actors seeking to monetize personally identifiable information or extort money.
Nation-state sponsored organizations are engaged in cyber-attacks but not only for monetization purposes. Nation states appear to be motivated by the desire to gain information about foreign citizens and governments or to influence or cause disruptions in commerce or political affairs.
We have also seen an increase in non-technical attempts to commit fraud or solicit information via call centers and interactive voice response systems, and we anticipate the attempts will become more common.
We rely on third parties to provide services as described further below. While we have certain standards for all vendors that provide us services, our vendors, and in turn, their own service providers, may become subject to a security breach, including as a result of their failure to perform in accordance with contractual arrangements.
We may not adequately ensure the privacy of sensitive data. In the course of our ordinary business we collect, store and share with various third-parties (e.g., service providers, reinsurers, etc.) substantial amounts of private and confidential information, including in some instances sensitive health-related information. We are subject to the risk that the privacy of this information may be compromised, including as a result of an information security breach described above. We have experienced cyber-security breaches as a result of which confidential and sensitive health-related information of our customers has been compromised. Any compromise or perceived compromise of our security by us or by one of our vendors could damage our reputation, cause the termination of relationships with distributors, government-run health insurance exchanges, marketing partners and insurance carriers, reduce demand for our services and subject us to significant liability and expense as well as regulatory action and lawsuits, which would harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Third parties (outsourcing providers, vendors and suppliers) present added operational risk to our enterprise. The Company's business model relies heavily on the use of third parties to deliver contracted services in a broad range of areas. This presents the risk that the Company is unable to meet legal, regulatory, financial or customer obligations because third parties fail to deliver contracted services, or that the Company is exposed to reputational damage because third parties operate in a poorly controlled manner. We use affiliates and third-party vendors located outside the U.S. to provide certain services and functions, which also exposes us to business disruptions and political risks as a result of risks inherent in conducting business outside of the United States.
Affiliate and third-party distributors of our products present added regulatory, competitive and other risks to our enterprise. Our products are sold primarily through our captive/affiliated distributors and third-party distributing firms. Our captive/affiliated distributors are made up of large numbers of decentralized sales personnel who are compensated based on commissions.  The third-party distributing firms generally are not dedicated to us exclusively and may frequently recommend and/or market products of our competitors.  Accordingly, we must compete intensely for their services. Our sales could be adversely affected if we are unable to attract, retain or motivate third-party distributing firms or if we do not adequately provide support, training, compensation, and education to this sales network regarding our products, or if our products are not competitive and not appropriately aligned with consumer needs.  While third-party distributing firms have an independent regulatory accountability, some regulators have been clear with expectations that product manufacturers retain significant sales practices accountability.

The Company and our distributors are subject to rules regarding the standard of care applicable to sales of our products and the provision of advice to our customers, and in recent years many of these rules have been revised or re-examined. In addition, there have been a number of investigations regarding the marketing practices of brokers and agents selling annuity and insurance products and the payments they receive. Furthermore, sales practices and investor protection have increasingly become areas of focus in regulatory examinations. These investigations and examinations have resulted in enforcement actions against companies in our industry and brokers and agents marketing and selling those companies’ products. Enforcement actions could result in penalties and the imposition of corrective action plans and/or changes to industry practices, which could adversely affect our ability to market our products. If our products are distributed in an inappropriate manner, or to customers for whom they are unsuitable, or distributors of our products otherwise engage in misconduct, we may suffer reputational and other harm to our business and be subject to regulatory action, penalties or damages. Our business may also be harmed if captive/affiliate distributors engage in inappropriate conduct in connection with the sale of third-party products.

Many of our distribution personnel are independent contractors or franchisees. From time to time, their status has been challenged in courts and by government agencies, and various legislative or regulatory proposals have been introduced addressing the criteria for determining the status of independent contractors’ classification as employees for, among other things, employment tax purposes or other employment benefits. The costs associated with potential changes with respect to these independent contractor and franchisee classifications have impacted our results previously and could have a material adverse effect on our business in the future.

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Although we distribute our products through a wide variety of distribution channels, we do maintain relationships with certain key distributors. We periodically negotiate the terms of these relationships, and there can be no assurance that such terms will remain acceptable to us or such third parties. An interruption in certain key relationships could materially affect our ability to market our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Distributors may elect to reduce or terminate their distribution relationships with us, including for such reasons as adverse developments in our business, adverse rating agency actions or concerns about market-related risks. We are also at risk that key distribution partners may merge, change their business models in ways that affect how our products are sold, or terminate their distribution contracts with us, or that new distribution channels could emerge and adversely impact the effectiveness of our distribution efforts. An increase in bank and broker-dealer consolidation activity could increase competition for access to distributors, result in greater distribution expenses and impair our ability to market products through these channels. Consolidation of distributors and/or other industry changes may also increase the likelihood that distributors will try to renegotiate the terms of any existing selling agreements to terms less favorable to us. Finally, we also may be challenged by new technologies and marketplace entrants that could interfere with our existing relationships.
As a financial services company, we are exposed to model risk, which is the risk of financial loss or reputational damage or adverse regulatory impacts caused by model errors or limitations, incorrect implementation of models, or misuse of or overreliance upon models. Models are utilized by our businesses and corporate areas primarily to project future cash flows associated with pricing products, calculating reserves and valuing assets, as well as in evaluating risk and determining capital requirements, among other uses. These models may not operate properly and may rely on assumptions and projections that are inherently uncertain. As our businesses continue to grow and evolve, the number and complexity of models we utilize expands, increasing our exposure to error in the design, implementation or use of models, including the associated input data and assumptions. Furthermore, our models might change as the result of the new or changing laws or regulations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased and may continue to increase operational risk. One of the main impacts of the COVID-19 crisis has been executing Prudential Financial's and our business continuity protocols to ensure our employees are safe and able to serve our customers. This included transitioning the vast majority of the global workforce to remote work arrangements. We have also made a number of operational changes to accommodate our customers as further described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—COVID-19.”
In this environment, there is an elevated risk that weaknesses or failures in our business continuation plans could lead to disruption of our operations, liability to clients, exposure to disciplinary action or harm to our reputation. Furthermore, weaknesses or failures within a vendor’s business continuation plan can materially disrupt our business operations. Our information systems and those of our vendors and service providers may be more vulnerable to cyber-attacks, computer viruses or other computer related attacks, programming errors and similar disruptive problems during a business continuation event.
Strategic Risk
We are subject to the risk of events that can cause our fundamental business model to change, either through a shift in the businesses in which we are engaged or a change in our execution. In addition, tactical risks may become strategic risks. For example, we have considered and must continue to consider the impact of the prolonged low interest rate environment on new product development and continued sales of interest sensitive products.
Changes in the regulatory landscape may be unsettling to our business model. New laws and regulations are being considered in the U.S. and our other countries of operation at an increasing pace, as there has been greater scrutiny on financial regulation over the past several years. Proposed or unforeseen changes in law or regulation may adversely impact our business. See “Business—Regulation” for a discussion of certain recently enacted and pending proposals by international, federal and state regulatory authorities and their potential impact on our business, including in the following areas:
Financial sector regulatory reform.
U.S. federal, state and local tax laws.
Fiduciary rules and other standards of care.
Our regulation under U.S. state insurance laws and developments regarding group-wide supervision and capital standards, accounting rules, RBC factors for invested assets and reserves for life insurance, variable annuities and other products.
Privacy and cybersecurity regulation.
Changes in accounting rules applicable to our business may also have an adverse impact on our results of operations or financial condition. For a discussion of accounting pronouncements and their potential impact on our business, including Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-12, Financial Services - Insurance (Topic 944): Targeted Improvements to the Accounting for Long-Duration Contracts, see Note 2 to the Financial Statements.
Changes in technology and other external factors may be unsettling to our business model. We believe the following aspects of technological and other changes would significantly impact our business model. There may be other unforeseen changes in technology and the external environment which may have a significant impact on our business model.
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Interaction with Customers. Technology is moving rapidly and as it does, it puts pressure on existing business models. Some of the changes we can anticipate are increased choices about how customers want to interact with the Company or how they want the Company to interact with them. Evolving customer preferences may drive a need to redesign products. Our distribution channels may change to become more automated, at the place and time of the customer’s choosing. Such changes clearly have the potential to disrupt our business model.
Investment Portfolio. Technology may have a significant impact on the companies in which the Company invests. For example, environmental concerns spur scientific inquiry which may reposition the relative attractiveness of wind or sun power over oil and gas. The transportation industry may favor alternative modes of conveyance of goods which may shift trucking or air transport out of favor. Consumers may change their purchasing behavior to favor online activity which would change the role of malls and retail properties.
Medical Advances. The Company is exposed to the impact of medical advances in two major ways. Genetic testing and the availability of that information unequally to consumers and insurers can bring anti-selection risks. Specifically, data from genetic testing can give our prospective customers a clearer view into their future, allowing them to select products protecting them against likelihoods of mortality or longevity with more precision. Also, technologies that extend lives will challenge our actuarial assumptions especially in the annuity-based businesses.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased and may continue to increase strategic risk. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused and could continue to cause an economic downturn, higher unemployment, lower family income, lower corporate earnings, lower business investment and lower consumer spending. In such an environment, the demand for our products and our investment returns could be materially adversely affected. In addition, we expect near-term sales to be slowed by the impact of social distancing and financial hardship on our customers.
The following items are examples of other factors which could have a meaningful impact on our business.
A downgrade in our financial strength or credit ratings could potentially, among other things, adversely impact our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. For a discussion of our ratings and the potential impact of a ratings downgrade on our business, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital.” We cannot predict what additional actions rating agencies may take, or what actions we may take in response to the actions of rating agencies, which could adversely affect our business. Our ratings could be downgraded at any time and without notice by any rating agency. In addition, a sovereign downgrade could result in a downgrade of Prudential Financial's subsidiaries operating in that jurisdiction, and ultimately of Prudential Financial and its other subsidiaries. For example, in September 2015, S&P downgraded Japan's sovereign rating to A+ with a 'Stable' outlook citing uncertainties around the strength of economic growth and weak fiscal positions. As a result, S&P subsequently lowered the ratings of a number of institutions in Japan, including Prudential Financial's Japanese insurance subsidiaries. It is possible that Japan’s sovereign rating could be subject to further downgrades, which would result in further downgrades of Prudential Financial’s insurance subsidiaries in Japan. Given the importance of Prudential Financial’s operations in Japan to its overall results, such downgrades could lead to a downgrade of Prudential Financial and its domestic insurance companies.
The elimination of London Inter-Bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") may adversely affect certain derivatives and floating rate securities we hold, and any other assets or liabilities whose value is tied to LIBOR. Actions by regulators have resulted in the establishment of alternative reference rates to LIBOR in most major currencies. Recent supervisory guidance reinforces the importance of market participants preparing for LIBOR to be phased out beginning at the end of 2021 through June 30, 2023. However, it remains unclear if, how and in what form, LIBOR will continue to exist. The U.S. Federal Reserve, based on the recommendations of the New York Federal Reserve’s Alternative Reference Rate Committee (constituted of major derivative market participants and their regulators), has begun publishing a Secured Overnight Funding Rate ("SOFR") which is intended to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR, and SOFR-based investment products have been issued in the United States. Proposals for alternative reference rates for other currencies have also been announced or have already begun publication. Markets are slowly developing in response to these new rates and questions around liquidity in these rates and how to appropriately adjust these rates to eliminate any economic value transfer at the time of transition remain a significant concern for us and others in the marketplace. The effect of any changes or reforms to LIBOR or discontinuation of LIBOR on new or existing financial instruments to which we have exposure or the activities in our businesses will vary depending on (1) existing fallback provisions in individual contracts, (2) the adoption of fallback provisions through the Inter-Bank Offered Rate ("IBOR") Fallbacks Protocol produced by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association and (3) whether, how, and when industry participants develop and widely adopt new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new products or instruments. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict the full impact of the transition away from LIBOR on certain derivatives and floating rate securities we hold, and any other assets or liabilities, as well as contractual rights and
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obligations, whose value is tied to LIBOR. The value or profitability of these products and instruments may be adversely affected.
The changing competitive landscape may adversely affect the Company. In our business we face intense competition from insurance companies and diversified financial institutions, both for the ultimate customers for our products and, in many businesses, for distribution through non-affiliated distribution channels. Technological advances, changing customer expectations, including related to digital offerings, access to customer data or other changes in the marketplace may present opportunities for new or smaller companies without established products or distribution channels to meet consumers’ increased expectations more efficiently than us. Fintech and insurtech companies and companies in other industries with greater access to customers and data have the potential to disrupt industries globally, and many participants have been partially funded by industry players.
Climate change may increase the severity and frequency of calamities, or adversely affect our investment portfolio or investor sentiment. Climate change may increase the frequency and severity of weather-related disasters and pandemics. In addition, climate change regulation may affect the prospects of companies and other entities whose securities we hold, or our willingness to continue to hold their securities. It may also impact other counterparties, including reinsurers, and affect the value of investments. We cannot predict the long-term impacts on us from climate change or related regulation. Climate change may also influence investor sentiment with respect to the Company and investments in our portfolio.
Market conditions and other factors may adversely impact product sales or increase expenses. Examples include:
A change in market conditions, such as high inflation and high interest rates, could cause a change in consumer sentiment and behavior adversely affecting sales and persistency of our savings and protection products. Conversely, low inflation and low interest rates could cause persistency of these products to vary from that anticipated and adversely affect profitability. Similarly, changing economic conditions and unfavorable public perception of financial institutions can influence customer behavior, including increasing claims or surrenders in certain products.
Lapses and surrenders of certain insurance products may increase if a market downturn, increased market volatility or other market conditions result in customers becoming dissatisfied with their investments or products.
Our reputation may be adversely impacted if any of the risks described in this section are realized. Reputational risk could manifest from any of the risks as identified in the Company’s risk identification process. Failure to effectively manage risks across a broad range of risk issues exposes the Company to reputational harm. If the Company were to suffer a significant loss in reputation, both policyholders and counterparties could seek to exit existing relationships.  Additionally, large changes in credit worthiness, especially credit ratings, could impact access to funding markets while creating additional collateral requirements for existing relationships. The mismanagement of any such risks may potentially damage our reputational asset. Our business is anchored in the strength of our brand, our alignment to our values, and our proven commitment to keep our promises to our customers. Any negative public perception, founded or otherwise, can be widely and rapidly shared over social media or other means, and could cause damage to our reputation.

Each of the risks identified in this section relating to the COVID-19 pandemic could also manifest in the event of future pandemics, epidemics or other public health crises.
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.  Properties
Office space is provided by Prudential Insurance, as described under “Expense Charges and Allocations” in Note 13 to the Financial Statements.
Item 3.  Legal Proceedings
See Note 14 to the Financial Statements under “Litigation and Regulatory Matters” for a description of certain pending litigation and regulatory matters affecting us, and certain risks to our business presented by such matters.
Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures
Not Applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.  Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pruco Life Insurance Company. There is no public market for the Company’s common stock.
Item 6.  Selected Financial Data
Omitted pursuant to General Instruction I(2)(a) of Form 10-K.
Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the "Forward-Looking Statements" included below the Table of Contents, “Risk Factors”, and the Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
The Company is licensed to sell variable annuities, universal life insurance, variable life insurance and term life insurance in New Jersey and New York. The Company only sells such products in New York primarily through affiliated and unaffiliated distributors.
COVID-19
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) created extreme stress and disruption in the global economy and financial markets and elevated mortality and morbidity experience for the global population. These events impacted our results of operations throughout 2020 and are expected to impact our results of operations in 2021. The Company has taken several measures to manage the impacts of this crisis. The actual and expected impacts of these events and other items are included in the following update:
Outlook. We expect COVID-19 to continue to contribute to elevated levels of mortality, resulting in increased life insurance claims in the near-term. We have taken pricing and product actions to ensure we realize appropriate returns for the current economic environment, and to diversify our product mix to further limit our sensitivity to interest rates, while maintaining a solid value proposition for our customers. These actions included the suspension in July 2020 of our single life guaranteed universal life product, and a pivot to less rate-sensitive annuities products with the decision to discontinue sales of traditional variable annuities with guaranteed living benefits effective December 31, 2020. In addition, while our distribution platforms include a suite of digital, hybrid, and in-person options, mandated social distancing has limited in-person engagement between customers and financial professionals. Collectively, we expect the product actions we have taken and the constrained distribution environment to adversely impact our sales prospects in the near-term.
Results of Operations. For the year ended 2020, we reported a net gain of $48 million, inclusive of the unfavorable financial market conditions that impacted our reported results. See “Results of Operations” for a discussion of results for the full year of 2020.
Liquidity. The impact of COVID-19 and related market dislocations could strain our existing liquidity and cause us to increase the use of our alternative sources of liquidity, which could result in increased financial leverage on our balance sheet and negatively impact our credit and financial strength ratings or ratings outlooks. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources-Liquidity” for a discussion of our liquidity.
Capital Resources. As of December 31, 2020, we maintained capital levels consistent with our ratings targets; however, market conditions could negatively impact our statutory capital and constrain our overall capital flexibility. Adverse market conditions could require us to take additional management actions to maintain capital consistent with our ratings objectives, which may include redeploying financial resources from internal sources, or using available affiliate sources of capital or seeking additional sources. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources-Capital” for a discussion of our capital resources.
Risk Factors. The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted our results of operations, financial position, investment portfolio, new business opportunities and operations, and these impacts are expected to continue. For additional information on the risks to our business posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, see “Risk Factors.”
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Business Continuity. One of the main impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic has been executing Prudential Financial Inc.'s ("Prudential Financial") and our business continuity protocols to ensure our employees are safe and able to serve our customers. This included effectively transitioning the vast majority of our employees to remote work arrangements.
We believe we can sustain remote work and social distancing for an indefinite period while ensuring that critical business operations are sustained. In addition, we are managing COVID-19-related impacts on third-party provided services, and do not anticipate significant interruption in critical operations.
CARES Act and Other Regulatory Developments. In March 2020 Congress enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act ("the CARES Act"), which provides $2 trillion in economic stimulus to taxpayers, small businesses, and corporations through various grant and loan programs, tax provisions and regulatory relief. One provision of the CARES Act amends the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("TCJA") and allows companies with net operating losses (“NOLs”) originating in 2018, 2019 or 2020 to carry back those losses for five years. See Note 10 to the Financial Statements for more information.
Other governments and regulators, including the NAIC and state insurance regulators, have implemented, or are considering, a number of actions in response to the crisis, including delaying implementation of certain regulatory changes, temporarily waiving certain regulatory requirements and requiring or requesting insurers to waive premium payments and policy provisions and exclusions for certain periods of time.
The Company is not aware of any new or proposed government mandates that could materially impact the Company’s solvency or liquidity position.
Revenues and Expenses
The Company earns revenues principally from insurance premiums, mortality and expense fees, asset administration fees from insurance and investment products, and from net investment income on the investment of general account and other funds. The Company receives premiums primarily from the sale of individual life insurance and annuity products. The Company earns mortality and expense fees, and asset administration fees, primarily from the sale and servicing of universal life insurance and separate account products including variable life insurance and variable annuities. The Company’s operating expenses principally consist of insurance benefits provided and reserves established for anticipated future insurance benefits, general business expenses, reinsurance premiums, commissions and other costs of selling and servicing the various products sold and interest credited on general account liabilities.
Industry Trends
Our business is impacted by financial markets, economic conditions, regulatory oversight, and a variety of trends that affect the industries where we compete.
Financial and Economic Environment. Interest rates in the U.S. have experienced a sustained period of historically low levels, which continue to negatively impact our investment-related activity, including our investment income returns, net investment spread results, and portfolio income and reinvestment yields. See “Impact of a Low Interest Rate Environment” below. In addition, we are subject to financial impacts associated with movements in equity markets and the evolution of the credit cycle as discussed in “Risk Factors”.
Demographics. Customer demographics continue to evolve and new opportunities present themselves in different consumer segments such as the millennial and multicultural markets. Consumer expectations and preferences are changing. We believe existing customers and potential customers are increasingly looking for cost-effective solutions that they can easily understand and access through technology-enabled devices. At the same time, income protection, wealth accumulation and the needs of retiring baby boomers are continuing to shape the insurance industry. A persistent retirement security gap exists in terms of both savings and protection. Despite the ongoing phenomenon of the risk and responsibility of retirement savings shifting from employers to employees, employers are becoming increasingly focused on the financial wellness of the individuals they employ.
Regulatory Environment. See “Business—Regulation” for a discussion of regulatory developments that may impact the Company and the associated risks.
Competitive Environment. See “Business” for a discussion of the competitive environment and the basis on which we compete.
Impact of a Low Interest Rate Environment
As a financial services company, market interest rates are a key driver of the Company's results of operations and financial condition. Changes in interest rates can affect our results of operations and/or our financial condition in several ways, including favorable or adverse impacts to:
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investment-related activity, including: investment income returns, net interest margins, net investment spread results,
new money rates, mortgage loan prepayments and bond redemptions;
hedging costs and other risk mitigation activities;
insurance reserve levels, market experience true-ups and amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs (“DAC”);
customer account values, including their impact on fee income;
product offerings, design features, crediting rates and sales mix; and
policyholder behavior, including surrender or withdrawal activity.
For more information on interest rate risks, see "Risk Factors—Market Risk".
Accounting Policies & Pronouncements
Application of Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires the application of accounting policies that often involve a significant degree of judgment. Management, on an ongoing basis, reviews estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of financial statements. If management determines that modifications in assumptions and estimates are appropriate given current facts and circumstances, the Company’s results of operations and financial position as reported in the Financial Statements could change significantly.
The following sections discuss the accounting policies applied in preparing our financial statements that management believes are most dependent on the application of estimates and assumptions and require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments.
Insurance Assets
Deferred Policy Acquisition Costs and Deferred Sales Inducements
We capitalize costs that are directly related to the acquisition or renewal of insurance and annuity contracts. These costs primarily include commissions, as well as costs of policy issuance and underwriting and certain other expenses that are directly related to successfully negotiated contracts. We have also deferred costs associated with sales inducements offered in the past related to our variable and fixed annuity contracts. Sales inducements are amounts that are credited to the policyholders' account balances mainly as an inducement to purchase the contract. For additional information about sales inducements, see Note 8 to the Financial Statements. We generally amortize DAC and deferred sales inducements ("DSI") over the expected lives of the contracts, based on our estimates of the level and timing of gross premiums or gross profits, depending on the type of contract. As described in more detail below, in calculating DAC and DSI amortization, we are required to make assumptions about investment returns, mortality, persistency and other items that impact our estimates of the level and timing of gross profits or gross premiums. We also periodically evaluate the recoverability of our DAC and DSI. For certain contracts, this evaluation is performed as part of our premium deficiency testing, as discussed further below in “Insurance Liabilities—Future Policy Benefits". As of December 31, 2020, DAC for our life products was $224 million. There were no DAC and DSI balances as of December 31, 2020 for our annuity products due to a series of reinsurance transactions that the Company entered into on April 1, 2016 with The Prudential Insurance Company of America ("Prudential Insurance"). See Note 6, Note 8 and Note 9 to the Financial Statements for additional information.
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Amortization methodologies
Gross Premiums. DAC associated with term life policies is primarily amortized in proportion to gross premiums. Gross premiums are defined as the premiums charged to a policyholder for an insurance contract.
Gross Profits. DAC and DSI associated with the variable and universal life policies and the variable and fixed annuity contracts are generally amortized over the expected lives of these policies in proportion to total gross profits. Total gross profits include both actual gross profits and estimates of gross profits for future periods. Gross profits are defined as (i) amounts assessed for mortality, contract administration, surrender charges, and other assessments plus amounts earned from investment of policyholder balances less (ii) benefits in excess of policyholder balances, costs incurred for contract administration, the net cost of reinsurance for certain products, interest credited to policyholder balances and other credits. If significant negative gross profits are expected in any periods, the amount of insurance in force is generally substituted as the base for computing amortization. U.S. GAAP gross profits and amortization rates also include the impacts of the embedded derivatives associated with certain of the optional living benefit features of our variable annuity contracts, and index-linked crediting features of certain universal life contracts and related hedging activities. In calculating amortization expense, we estimate the amounts of gross profits that will be included in our U.S. GAAP results and utilize these estimates to calculate distinct amortization rates and expense amounts. In addition, in calculating gross profits, we include the profits and losses related to contracts issued by the Company that are reported in affiliated legal entities other than the Company as a result of, for example, reinsurance agreements with those affiliated entities. The Company is an indirect subsidiary of Prudential Financial (an SEC registrant) and has extensive transactions and relationships with other subsidiaries of Prudential Financial, including reinsurance agreements, as discussed in Note 9 and Note 13 to the Financial Statements. Incorporating all product-related profits and losses in gross profits, including those that are reported in affiliated legal entities, produces an amortization pattern representative of the total economics of the products. For a further discussion of the amortization of DAC and DSI, see “—Results of Operations”.
We also regularly evaluate and adjust the related DAC and DSI balances with a corresponding charge or credit to current period earnings for the impact of actual gross profits and changes in our projections of estimated future gross profits on our DAC and DSI amortization rates. Adjustments to the DAC and DSI balances include the impact to our estimate of total gross profits of the annual review of assumptions, our quarterly adjustments for current period experience and our quarterly adjustments for market performance. Each of these adjustments is further discussed below in “—Annual assumptions review and quarterly adjustments.”
Annual assumptions review and quarterly adjustments
Annually, we perform a comprehensive review of the assumptions used in estimating gross profits for future periods. Over the last several years, the Company’s most significant assumption updates that have resulted in a change to expected future gross profits and the amortization of DAC and DSI have been related to lapse and other contractholder behavior assumptions, mortality, and revisions to expected future rates of returns on investments. These assumptions may also cause potential significant variability in amortization expense in the future. The impact on our results of operations of changes in these assumptions can be offsetting and we are unable to predict their movement or offsetting impact over time.
The quarterly adjustments for current period experience referred to above reflect the impact of differences between actual gross profits for a given period and the previously estimated expected gross profits for that period. To the extent each period’s actual experience differs from the previous estimate for that period, the assumed level of total gross profits may change. In these cases, we recognize a cumulative adjustment to all previous periods’ amortization, also referred to as an experience true-up adjustment.
The quarterly adjustments for market performance referred to above reflect the impact of changes to our estimate of total gross profits to reflect actual fund performance and market conditions. A significant portion of gross profits for our variable annuity contracts and, to a lesser degree, our variable life contracts are dependent upon the total rate of return on assets held in separate account investment options. This rate of return influences the fees we earn on variable annuity and variable life contracts, costs we incur associated with the guaranteed minimum death and guaranteed minimum income benefit features related to our variable annuity contracts and expected claims to be paid on variable life contracts, as well as other sources of profit. Returns that are higher than our expectations for a given period produce higher than expected account balances, which increase the future fees we expect to earn on variable annuity and variable life contracts and decrease the future costs we expect to incur associated with the guaranteed minimum death and guaranteed minimum income benefit features related to our variable annuity contracts and expected claims to be paid on variable life contracts. The opposite occurs when returns are lower than our expectations. The changes in future expected gross profits are used to recognize a cumulative adjustment to all prior periods’ amortization.
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The weighted average rate of return assumptions used in developing estimated market returns consider many factors specific to each product type, including asset durations, asset allocations and other factors. With regard to equity market assumptions, the near-term future rate of return assumption used in evaluating DAC and DSI for our variable annuity and variable life insurance products is derived using a reversion to the mean approach, a common industry practice. Under this approach, we consider historical equity returns and adjust projected equity returns over an initial future period of five years (the “near-term”) so that equity returns converge to the long-term expected rate of return. If the near-term projected future rate of return is greater than our near-term maximum future rate of return of 15.0%, we use our maximum future rate of return. As of December 31, 2020, our variable annuities and variable life insurance businesses assume an 8.0% long-term equity expected rate of return and a 1.3% near-term mean reversion equity expected rate of return.
With regard to interest rate assumptions used in evaluating DAC and DSI, we update the long-term and near-term future rates used to project fixed income returns annually and quarterly, respectively. As a result of our 2020 annual reviews and update of assumptions and other refinements, we reduced our long-term expectation of the 10-year U.S. Treasury rate by 50 basis points and now grade to a rate of 3.25% over ten years. As part of our quarterly market experience updates, we update our near-term projections of interest rates to reflect changes in current rates.
Insurance Liabilities
Future Policy Benefits
Future Policy Benefit Reserves, including Unpaid Claims and Claim Adjustment Expenses
We establish reserves for future policy benefits to, or on behalf of, policyholders, using methodologies prescribed by U.S. GAAP. The reserving methodologies used include the following:
For most long-duration contracts, we utilize a net premium valuation methodology in measuring the liability for future policy benefits. Under this methodology, a liability for future policy benefits is accrued when premium revenue is recognized. The liability, which represents the present value of future benefits to be paid to or on behalf of policyholders and related expenses less the present value of future net premiums (portion of the gross premium required to provide for all benefits and expenses), is estimated using methods that include assumptions applicable at the time the insurance contracts are made with provisions for the risk of adverse deviation, as appropriate. Original assumptions continue to be used in subsequent accounting periods to determine changes in the liability for future policy benefits (often referred to as the “lock-in concept”), unless a premium deficiency exists. The result of the net premium valuation methodology is that the liability at any point in time represents an accumulation of the portion of premiums received to date expected to be needed to fund future benefits (i.e., net premiums received to date), less any benefits and expenses already paid. The liability does not necessarily reflect the full policyholder obligation the Company expects to pay at the conclusion of the contract since a portion of that obligation would be funded by net premiums received in the future and would be recognized in the liability at that time. We perform premium deficiency tests using best estimate assumptions as of the testing date without provisions for adverse deviation. If the liabilities determined based on these best estimate assumptions are greater than the net reserves (i.e., GAAP reserves net of any DAC or DSI asset), the existing net reserves are adjusted by first reducing these assets by the amount of the deficiency or to zero through a charge to current period earnings. If the deficiency is more than these asset balances for insurance contracts, we then increase the net reserves by the excess, again through a charge to current period earnings. If a premium deficiency is recognized, the assumptions as of the premium deficiency test date are locked-in and used in subsequent valuations and the net reserves continue to be subject to premium deficiency testing. In addition, for limited-payment contracts, future policy benefit reserves also include a deferred profit liability representing gross premiums received in excess of net premiums. The deferred profits are generally recognized in revenue in a constant relationship with insurance in force or with the amount of expected future benefit payments.
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For certain contract features, such as those related to guaranteed minimum death benefits (“GMDB”), guaranteed minimum income benefits (“GMIB”) and no-lapse guarantees, a liability is established when associated assessments (which include policy charges for administration, mortality, expense, surrender, and other, regardless of how characterized) are recognized. This liability is established using current best estimate assumptions and is based on the ratio of the present value of total expected excess payments (e.g., payments in excess of account value) over the life of the contract divided by the present value of total expected assessments (i.e., benefit ratio). The liability equals the current benefit ratio multiplied by cumulative assessments recognized to date, plus interest, less cumulative excess payments to date. The result of the benefit ratio method is that the liability at any point in time represents an accumulation of the portion of assessments received to date expected to be needed to fund future excess payments, less any excess payments already paid. The liability does not necessarily reflect the full policyholder obligation the Company expects to pay at the conclusion of the contract since a portion of that excess payment would be funded by assessments received in the future and would be recognized in the liability at that time. Similar to as described above for DAC, the reserves are subject to adjustments based on annual reviews of assumptions and quarterly adjustments for experience, including market performance. These adjustments reflect the impact on the benefit ratio of using actual historical experience from the issuance date to the balance sheet date plus updated estimates of future experience. The updated benefit ratio is then applied to all prior periods’ assessments to derive an adjustment to the reserve recognized through a benefit or charge to current period earnings.
For certain product guarantees, primarily certain optional living benefit features of the variable annuity products including guaranteed minimum accumulation benefits (“GMAB”), guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits (“GMWB”) and guaranteed minimum income and withdrawal benefits (“GMIWB”), the benefits are accounted for as embedded derivatives using a fair value accounting framework. The fair value of these contracts is calculated as the present value of expected future benefit payments to contractholders less the present value of assessed rider fees attributable to the embedded derivative feature. Under U.S. GAAP, the fair values of these benefit features are based on assumptions a market participant would use in valuing these embedded derivatives. Changes in the fair value of the embedded derivatives are recorded quarterly through a benefit or charge to current period earnings. For additional information regarding the valuation of these embedded derivatives, see Note 5 to the Financial Statements.
The assumptions used in establishing reserves are generally based on the Company’s experience, industry experience and/or other factors, as applicable. We update our actuarial assumptions, such as mortality and policyholder behavior assumptions annually, unless a material change is observed in an interim period that we feel is indicative of a long-term trend. Generally, we do not expect trends to change significantly in the short-term and, to the extent these trends may change, we expect such changes to be gradual over the long-term. In a sustained low interest rate environment, there is an increased likelihood that the reserves determined based on best estimate assumptions may be greater than the net liabilities.
The following paragraphs provide additional details about the reserves we have established:
The reserves for future policy benefits of our individual annuity business relate to reserves for the GMDB and GMIB features of our variable annuities, and for the optional living benefit features that are accounted for as embedded derivatives. As discussed above, in establishing reserves for GMDBs and GMIBs, we utilize current best estimate assumptions. The primary assumptions used in establishing these reserves generally include annuitization, lapse, withdrawal and mortality assumptions, as well as interest rate and equity market return assumptions. Lapse rates are adjusted at the contract level based on the in-the-moneyness of the living benefit and reflect other factors, such as the applicability of any surrender charges. Lapse rates are reduced when contracts are more in-the-money. Lapse rates are also generally assumed to be lower for the period where surrender charges apply. For life contingent payout annuity contracts, we establish reserves using best estimate assumptions with provisions for adverse deviations as of inception or best estimate assumptions as of the most recent loss recognition event.
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The reserves for certain optional living benefit features, including GMAB, GMWB and GMIWB are accounted for as embedded derivatives at fair value, as described above. This methodology could result in either a liability or contra-liability balance, given changing capital market conditions and various actuarial assumptions. Since there is no observable active market for the transfer of these obligations, the valuations are calculated using internally-developed models with option pricing techniques. The models are based on a risk neutral valuation framework and incorporate premiums for risks inherent in valuation techniques, inputs, and the general uncertainty around the timing and amount of future cash flows. The significant inputs to the valuation models for these embedded derivatives include capital market assumptions, such as interest rate levels and volatility assumptions, the Company’s market-perceived risk of its own non-performance risk (“NPR”), as well as actuarially determined assumptions, including mortality rates and contractholder behavior, such as lapse rates, benefit utilization rates and withdrawal rates. Capital market inputs and actual contractholders’ account values are updated each quarter based on capital market conditions as of the end of the quarter, including interest rates, equity markets and volatility. In the risk neutral valuation, the initial swap curve drives the total returns used to grow the contractholders’ account values. The Company’s discount rate assumption is based on the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) swap curve adjusted for an additional spread, which includes an estimate of NPR. Actuarial assumptions, including contractholder behavior and mortality, are reviewed at least annually and updated based upon emerging experience, future expectations and other data, including any observable market data, such as available industry studies or market transactions such as acquisitions and reinsurance transactions. For additional information regarding the valuation of these optional living benefit features, see Note 5 to the Financial Statements.
The reserves for future policy benefits of our individual life business relate to term life, universal life and variable life products. For term life contracts, the future policy benefit reserves are generally calculated using the net premium valuation methodology, as described above. The primary assumptions used in determining expected future benefits and expenses include mortality, lapse, investment yield and maintenance expense assumptions. For variable and universal life products, which include universal life contracts that contain no-lapse guarantees, reserves for future policy benefits are primarily established using the reserving methodology for GMDB and GMIB contracts. As discussed above, in establishing reserves for GMDBs and GMIBs, we utilize current best estimate assumptions. The primary assumptions used in establishing these reserves generally include mortality, lapse, and premium pattern, as well as interest rate and equity market return assumptions. Reserves also include claims reported but not yet paid, and claims incurred but not yet reported.
Policyholders’ Account Balances
Policyholders’ account balances liability represents the contract value that has accrued to the benefit of the policyholder as of the balance sheet date. This liability is primarily associated with the accumulated account deposits, plus interest credited, less policyholder withdrawals and other charges assessed against the account balance, as applicable. The liability also includes provisions for benefits under non-life contingent payout annuities. Our unearned revenue reserve ("URR"), also reported as a component of “Policyholders’ account balances”, gross of reinsurance with a partial offset in "Reinsurance recoverables". The URR balance was $94 million as of December 31, 2020. This reserve primarily relates to the variable and universal life products and represents policy charges for services to be provided in future periods. The charges are deferred as unearned revenue and are generally amortized over the expected life of the contract in proportion to the product's estimated gross profits, similar to DAC and DSI as discussed above. Policyholders’ account balances also include amounts representing the fair value of embedded derivative instruments associated with the index-linked features of certain universal life products. For additional information regarding the valuation of these embedded derivatives, see Note 5 to the Financial Statements.
Sensitivities for Insurance Assets and Liabilities
The following table summarizes the impact that could result on each of the listed financial statement balances from changes in certain key assumptions. The information below is for illustrative purposes and includes only the hypothetical direct impact on December 31, 2020 balances of changes in a single assumption and not changes in any combination of assumptions. Additionally, the illustration of the insurance assumption impacts below reflects a parallel shift in the insurance assumptions; however, these may be non-parallel in practice. Changes in current assumptions could result in impacts to financial statement balances that are in excess of the amounts illustrated. A description of the estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of each of these financial statement balances is provided above. For traditional long-duration and limited-payment contracts, U.S. GAAP requires the original assumptions used when the contracts are issued to be locked-in and that those assumptions be used in all future liability calculations as long as the resulting liabilities are adequate to provide for the future benefits and expenses (i.e., there is no premium deficiency). Therefore, these products are not reflected in the sensitivity table below unless the hypothetical change in assumption would result in an adverse impact that would cause a premium deficiency. Similarly, the impact of any favorable change in assumptions for traditional long duration and limited-payment contracts is not reflected in the table below given that the current assumption is required to remain locked-in and instead the positive impacts would be recognized into net income over the life of the policies in force.
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The impacts presented within this table exclude the related impacts of our asset liability management strategy which seeks to offset the changes in the balances presented within this table and is primarily composed of investments and derivatives. See further below for a discussion of the estimates and assumptions involved with the application of U.S. GAAP accounting policies for these instruments and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for hypothetical impacts on related balances as a result of changes in certain significant assumptions.
December 31, 2020
Increase (Decrease) in
Deferred Policy Acquisition CostsReinsurance RecoverablesFuture Policy Benefits and Policyholders’ Account BalancesNet Impact
(in millions)
Hypothetical change in current assumptions:
Long-term equity expected rate of return
          Increase by 50 basis points$$(5)$(5)$
          Decrease by 50 basis points$$$$
NPR credit spread
          Increase by 50 basis points$$(170)$(180)$10 
          Decrease by 50 basis points$$185 $205 $(20)
Mortality
          Increase by 1%$$(20)$(20)$
          Decrease by 1%$$20 $20 $
Lapse
          Increase by 10%$$(70)$(75)$
          Decrease by 10%$$70 $75 $(5)
Valuation of Investments, Including Derivatives, Measurement of Allowance for Credit Loss and the Recognition of Other-than-Temporary Impairments
Our investment portfolio consists of public and private fixed maturity securities, commercial mortgage and other loans, equity securities, other invested assets and derivative financial instruments. Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are derived from interest rates, foreign exchange rates, financial indices or the values of securities. Derivative financial instruments we generally use include swaps, futures, forwards and options and may be exchange-traded or contracted in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market. We are also party to financial instruments that contain derivative instruments that are “embedded” in the financial instruments. Management believes the following accounting policies related to investments, including derivatives, are most dependent on the application of estimates and assumptions. Each of these policies is discussed further within other relevant disclosures related to investments and derivatives, as referenced below:
Valuation of investments, including derivatives;
Measurement of the allowance for credit losses on fixed maturity securities classified as available-for-sale, commercial mortgage loans, and other loans; and
Recognition of other-than-temporary impairments ("OTTI") for equity method investments.
We present at fair value in the statements of financial position our debt security investments classified as available-for-sale, investments classified as trading, and certain fixed maturities, equity securities, and certain investments within “Other invested assets,” such as derivatives. For additional information regarding the key estimates and assumptions surrounding the determination of fair value of fixed maturity and equity securities, as well as derivative instruments, embedded derivatives and other investments, see Note 5 to the Financial Statements.
For our investments classified as available-for-sale, the impact of changes in fair value is recorded as an unrealized gain or loss in “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)” (“AOCI”), a separate component of equity. For our investments classified as trading, and equity securities, the impact of changes in fair value is recorded within “Other income”. Our commercial mortgage and other loans are carried primarily at unpaid principal balances, net of unamortized deferred loan origination fees and expenses and unamortized premiums or discounts and a valuation allowance for losses.
In addition, an allowance for credit losses is measured each quarter for available-for-sale fixed maturity securities, commercial mortgage and other loans. For additional information regarding our policies regarding the measurement of credit losses, see Note 2 to the Financial Statements.
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For equity method investments, the carrying value of these investments is written down or impaired to fair value when a decline in value is considered to be other-than-temporary. For additional information regarding our OTTI policies, see Note 2 to the Financial Statements.
Taxes on Income
Our effective tax rate is based on income, non-taxable and non-deductible items, tax credits, statutory tax rates and tax planning opportunities available in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Inherent in determining our annual tax rate are judgments regarding business plans, planning opportunities and expectations about future outcomes. The Dividend Received Deduction (“DRD”) is a major reason for the difference between the Company’s effective tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory rate. The DRD is an estimate that incorporates the prior and current year information, as well as the current year’s equity market performance. Both the current estimate of the DRD and the DRD in future periods can vary based on factors such as, but not limited to, changes in the amount of dividends received that are eligible for the DRD, changes in the amount of distributions received from underlying fund investments, changes in the account balances of variable life and annuity contracts, and the Company’s taxable income before the DRD.
In December 2017, Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") staff issued “Staff Accounting Bulletin 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” (“SAB 118”), which allowed the registrants to record provisional amounts during a ‘measurement period’ not to extend beyond one year. Under the relief provided by SAB 118, a company could recognize provisional amounts when it did not have the necessary information available, prepared or analyzed in reasonable detail to complete its accounting for the change in tax law. See Note 10 to the Financial Statements for a discussion of refinements to provisional amounts related to The United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Act of 2017") included in “Income tax expense (benefit)” in 2018.
An increase or decrease in our effective tax rate by one percentage point would have resulted in a decrease or increase in our 2020 "Income tax expense (benefit)" of $0.4 million.
The CARES Act. On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was enacted into law. One provision of the CARES Act amends the Tax Act of 2017 and allows companies with net operating losses (“NOLs”) originating in 2018, 2019, or 2020 to carry back those losses up to five years. For 2020, the Company has recorded an income tax benefit of $7 million from carrying the estimated 2020 NOL back to tax years that have a 35% tax rate.
Contingencies
A contingency is an existing condition that involves a degree of uncertainty that will ultimately be resolved upon the occurrence of future events. Under U.S. GAAP, accruals for contingencies are required to be established when the future event is probable and its impact can be reasonably estimated, such as in connection with an unresolved legal matter. The initial reserve reflects management’s best estimate of the probable cost of ultimate resolution of the matter and is revised accordingly as facts and circumstances change and, ultimately, when the matter is brought to closure.
Adoption of New Accounting Pronouncements
ASU 2018-12, Financial Services - Insurance (Topic 944): Targeted Improvements to the Accounting for Long-Duration Contracts, was issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) on August 15, 2018 and is expected to have a significant impact on the Financial Statements and Notes to the Financial Statements. In October 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-09, Financial Services - Insurance (Topic 944): Effective Date to affirm its decision to defer the effective date of ASU 2018-12 to January 1, 2022 (with early adoption permitted), representing a one year extension from the original effective date of January 1, 2021. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, in November 2020 the FASB issued ASU 2020-11, Financial Services - Insurance (Topic 944): Effective Date and Early Application to defer for an additional one year the effective date of ASU 2018-12 from January 1, 2022 to January 1, 2023, and to provide transition relief to facilitate the early adoption of the ASU. The transition relief would allow large calendar-year public companies that early adopt ASU 2018-12 to apply the guidance either as of January 1, 2020 or January 1, 2021 (and record transition adjustments as of January 1, 2020 or January 1, 2021, respectively) in the 2022 financial statements. Companies that do not early adopt ASU 2018-12 would apply the guidance as of January 1, 2021 (and record transition adjustments as of January 1, 2021) in the 2023 financial statements. The Company currently intends to adopt ASU 2018-12 effective January 1, 2023. ASU 2018-12 will impact, at least to some extent, the accounting and disclosure requirements for all long-duration insurance and investment contracts issued by the Company. In addition to the impacts to the balance sheet upon adoption, the Company also expects an impact to how earnings emerge thereafter. See Note 2 to the Financial Statements for a more detailed discussion of ASU 2018-12, as well as other accounting pronouncements issued but not yet adopted and newly adopted accounting pronouncements.



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Changes in Financial Position
2020 to 2019 Annual Comparison
Total assets increased $3 billion from $21 billion at December 31, 2019 to $24 billion at December 31, 2020. Significant components were:
Separate account assets increased $1 billion primarily driven by favorable market performance, partially offset by policy charges and net outflows; and
Reinsurance recoverables increased $1 billion primarily related to the variable annuity reinsured living benefit liabilities resulting from an increase in future expected benefit payments driven by declining interest rates, partially offset by favorable equity market performance, in addition to ceded reserve growth on universal life guarantees and term products.
Total liabilities increased $2 billion from $21 billion at December 31, 2019 to $23 billion at December 31, 2020. Significant components were:    
Separate account liabilities increased $1 billion, corresponding to the increase in Separate account assets, as discussed above;
Future policy benefits increased $674 million primarily driven by an increase in the variable annuity living benefit liabilities and ongoing impacts from assumption updates, as discussed above, in addition to reserve growth on universal life guarantees and term products; and
Policyholders' account balances increased $109 million primarily driven by variable annuity living benefit guarantees and ongoing impacts from assumption updates, as discussed above, on the universal life business.
Total equity increased $229 million primarily driven by unrealized gains on investments due to tightening credit spreads and a $81 million capital contribution from Pruco Life to fund additional reserve requirements.
Results of Operations
Income (loss) from Operations before Income Taxes
2020 to 2019 Annual Comparison
Income from operations before income taxes increased $9 million from income of $33 million in 2019 to income of $42 million in 2020. Excluding the impact of our annual reviews and update of assumptions and other refinements, income increased $6 million primarily driven by:
Higher Policy charges and fee income due to increased variable life sales and higher charges from principle-based reserving (“PBR”) universal life policies; and
Higher Premiums from continued growth in PBR term policies retained;
Partially offset by:
Higher Policyholders' benefits from an increase in reserves due to continued growth in retained PBR products and higher mortality; and
Higher General, administrative and other expenses driven by an unfavorable comparative impact from commission and expense allowance ceded due to lower sales partially offset by lower expenses due to company initiatives.
Revenues, Benefits and Expenses
2020 to 2019 Annual Comparison
Revenues increased $45 million from a gain of $149 million in 2019 to a gain of $194 million in 2020. Excluding the impact of our annual reviews and update of assumptions and other refinements, Revenues increased $45 million primarily driven by:
Higher Realized investment gains (losses), net driven by an increase in living benefit fees ceded as reserves on the living benefit guarantees increased relatively more than prior year;
Higher Policy charges and fee income due to increased variable life sales and higher charges from PBR universal life policies; and
Higher Premiums from continued growth in PBR term policies retained.
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Benefits and expenses increased $37 million from an expense of $115 million in 2019 to an expense of $152 million in 2020. Excluding the impact of our annual reviews and update of assumptions and other refinements, the increase was $40 million primarily driven by:
Higher Policyholders' benefits from an increase in reserves due to continued growth in retained PBR products and higher mortality; and
Higher General, administrative and other expenses driven by an unfavorable comparative impact from commission and expense allowance ceded due to lower sales partially offset by lower expenses due to company initiatives.
Risks and Risk Mitigants
Variable Annuity Risks and Risk Mitigants. The primary risk exposures of our variable annuity contracts relate to actual deviations from, or changes to, the assumptions used in the original pricing of these products, including capital markets assumptions such as equity market returns, interest rates and market volatility, along with actuarial assumptions such as contractholder mortality, the timing and amount of annuitization and withdrawals, and contract lapses. For these risk exposures, achievement of our expected returns is subject to the risk that actual experience will differ from the assumptions used in the original pricing of these products. Prudential Financial manages our exposure to certain risks driven by fluctuations in capital markets primarily through a combination of Product Design Features and an Asset Liability Management Strategy ("ALM"), as discussed below. Sales of traditional variable annuities with guaranteed living benefit riders have been discontinued as of December 31, 2020. See “BusinessProducts” section for more information about these products.
Product Design Features:
A portion of the variable annuity contracts that we offer include an asset transfer feature. This feature is implemented at the contract level, and transfers assets between certain variable investment sub-accounts selected by the annuity contractholder and, depending on the benefit feature, a fixed-rate account in the general account or a bond fund sub-account within the separate account. The objective of the asset transfer feature is to reduce our exposure to equity market risk and market volatility. The asset transfer feature associated with currently-sold highest daily living benefit products uses a designated bond fund sub-account within the separate account. The transfers are based on a static mathematical formula used with the particular benefit which considers a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the impact of investment performance on the contractholder’s total account value. Other product design features we utilize include, among others, asset allocation restrictions, minimum issuance age requirements and certain limitations on the amount of contractholder purchase payments, as well as a required minimum allocation to our general account for certain of our products. We continue to introduce products that diversify our risk profile and have incorporated provisions in product design allowing frequent revisions of key pricing elements for certain of our products. In addition, there is diversity in our fee arrangements, as certain fees are primarily based on the benefit guarantee amount, the contractholder account value and/or premiums, which helps preserve certain revenue streams when market fluctuations cause account values to decline.
Asset Liability Management Strategy (including fixed income instruments and derivatives):
Prudential Insurance employs an ALM strategy that utilizes a combination of both traditional fixed income instruments and derivatives to help defray potential claims associated with our variable annuity living benefit guarantees. The economic liability we manage with this ALM strategy consists of expected living benefit claims under less severe market conditions, which are managed using an ALM strategy through the accumulation of fixed income and derivative instruments, and potential living benefit claims resulting from more severe market conditions, which are hedged using derivative instruments. For our Prudential Defined Income variable annuity, we utilize fixed income instruments to help defray potential claims. For the portion of our ALM strategy executed with derivatives, Prudential Insurance enters into a range of exchange-traded and over-the-counter equity and interest rate derivatives, including, but not limited to: equity and treasury futures; total return and interest rate swaps; and options, including equity options, swaptions, and floors and caps. The intent of this strategy is to more efficiently manage the capital and liquidity associated with these products while continuing to mitigate fluctuations in net income due to movements in capital markets. Since the ALM strategy is conducted in Prudential Insurance, the results of the strategy do not directly impact the Company's results of operations or financial condition.






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Income Taxes
The differences between income taxes expected at the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate of 21% applicable for 2020, 2019 and 2018, and the reported income tax expense (benefit) are provided in the following table:
Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
(in millions)
Expected federal income tax expense (benefit) at federal statutory rate$$$
Non-taxable investment income(6)(7)(5)
Tax credits(2)(4)(4)
Changes in tax law(7)
Settlements with taxing authorities
Other
Reported income tax expense (benefit)$(6)$(3)$
Effective tax rate(15.1)%(10.2)%(0.2)%
Effective Tax Rate    
The effective tax rate is the ratio of “Income tax expense (benefit)” divided by “Income (loss) from operations before income taxes.” Our effective tax rate for fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018 was (15.1)%, (10.2)% and (0.2)%, respectively. For a detailed description of the nature of each significant reconciling item, see Note 10 to the Financial Statements. The increase in the effective tax rate from (10.2)% in 2019 to (15.1)% in 2020 was primarily driven by the increase in pre-tax income in 2020. The decrease in the effective tax rate from (0.2)% in 2018 to (10.2)% in 2019 was primarily driven by the increase in DRD benefit in 2019.
Unrecognized Tax Benefits
The Company’s liability for income taxes includes the liability for unrecognized tax benefits and interest that relate to tax years still subject to review by the Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authorities. The completion of review or the expiration of the Federal statute of limitations for a given audit period could result in an adjustment to the liability for income taxes. The Company had no unrecognized benefit as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. We do not anticipate any significant changes within the next 12 months to our total unrecognized tax benefits related to tax years for which the statute of limitations has not expired.
Income Tax Expense vs. Income Tax Paid in Cash
Income tax expense recorded under U.S. GAAP routinely differs from the income taxes paid in cash in any given year. Income tax expense recorded under U.S. GAAP is based on income reported in our Statements of Operations for the current period and it includes both current and deferred taxes. Income taxes paid during the year include tax installments made for the current year as well as tax payments and refunds related to prior periods.
For additional information on income tax related items, see “Business—Regulation” and Note 10 to the Financial Statements.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
Liquidity refers to the ability to generate sufficient cash resources to meet the payment obligations of the Company. Capital refers to the long-term financial resources available to support the operations of our business, fund business growth, and provide a cushion to withstand adverse circumstances. Our ability to generate and maintain sufficient liquidity and capital depends on the profitability of our business, general economic conditions, our ability to borrow from affiliates and our access to the capital markets through affiliates as described herein.
Our businesses are subject to comprehensive regulation and supervision by domestic and international regulators. These regulations currently include requirements (many of which are the subject of ongoing rule-making) relating to capital, leverage, liquidity, stress-testing, overall risk management, credit exposure reporting and credit concentration. For information on these regulatory initiatives and their potential impact on us, see “Business—Regulation" and “Risk Factors".
COVID-19 and Related Market Disruptions
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, broad market concerns over the impact of COVID-19 have led to significant volatility and disruptions in the global economy and financial markets. In 2020, we took the following significant management actions that impacted our liquidity and capital position, including in response to this macro environment and the global pandemic:
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We accelerated our product diversification strategy and repriced certain products, which are expected to support the capital position over time.
Liquidity. The Company continues to operate with significant liquid resources; nevertheless, adverse developments related to COVID-19 and associated market dislocations could strain our existing liquidity. Any need to increase the use of our alternative sources of liquidity, may result in increased financial leverage on our balance sheet and negatively impact our credit and financial strength ratings or ratings outlooks.
Capital. As of December 31, 2020, the Company maintained capital levels consistent with its ratings targets. However, market conditions could negatively impact the statutory capital and constrain our overall capital flexibility. For example, adverse market conditions may lead to increased defaults and/or further deterioration in the credit quality or fair values of our investment portfolio, which would negatively impact our statutory capital. Adverse market conditions could require us to take additional management actions to maintain capital consistent with ratings objectives, which may include redeploying financial resources from internal sources or, using available external sources of capital or seeking additional sources.
Liquidity and Capital Risk Management. Effective and prudent liquidity and capital management is a priority across the organization. Management monitors the liquidity of the Company on a daily basis and projects borrowing and capital needs over a multi-year time horizon. We use a Risk Appetite Framework (“RAF”) to ensure that all risks taken by the Company aligns with our capacity and willingness to take those risks. The RAF provides a dynamic assessment of capital and liquidity stress impacts, including scenarios similar to, and more severe than, those occurring due to COVID-19, and is intended to ensure that sufficient resources are available to absorb those impacts. We believe that our capital and liquidity resources are sufficient to satisfy the capital and liquidity requirements of the Company.
Capital
We manage the Company to regulatory capital levels consistent with our "AA" ratings targets. We utilize the risk-based capital (“RBC”) ratio as a primary measure of capital adequacy. RBC is calculated based on statutory financial statements and risk formulas consistent with the practices of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC"). RBC considers, among other things, risks related to the type and quality of the invested assets, insurance-related risks associated with an insurer’s products and liabilities, interest rate risks and general business risks. RBC ratio calculations are intended to assist insurance regulators in measuring an insurer’s solvency and ability to pay future claims. The reporting of RBC measures is not intended for the purpose of ranking any insurance company or for use in connection with any marketing, advertising or promotional activities, but is available to the public. The Company’s capital levels substantially exceed the minimum level required by applicable insurance regulations. Our regulatory capital levels may be affected in the future by changes to the applicable regulations, proposals for which are currently under consideration by both domestic and international insurance regulators.
The regulatory capital level of the Company can be materially impacted by interest rate and equity market fluctuations, changes in the values of derivatives, the level of impairments recorded, and credit quality migration of the investment portfolio, among other items. In addition, the reinsurance of business or the recapture of business subject to reinsurance arrangements due to defaults by, or credit quality migration affecting, the reinsurers or for other reasons could negatively impact regulatory capital levels. The Company’s regulatory capital level is also affected by statutory accounting rules, which are subject to change by each applicable insurance regulator.
Affiliated Captive Reinsurance Companies
Prudential Financial and the Company use captive reinsurance companies for our individual life business to more effectively manage our reserves and capital on an economic basis and to enable the aggregation and transfer of risks. The captive reinsurance companies assume business from affiliates only. To support the risks they assume, the captives are capitalized to a level we believe is consistent with the “AA” financial strength rating targets of Prudential Financial’s insurance subsidiaries. All of the captive reinsurance companies are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Prudential Financial and are located domestically, typically in the state of domicile of the direct writing insurance subsidiary that cedes the majority of business to the captive. In addition to state insurance regulation, the captives are subject to internal policies governing their activities. In the normal course of business, Prudential Financial contributes capital to the captives to support business growth and other needs. Prudential Financial has also entered into support agreements with several of the captives in connection with financing arrangements.
Our life insurance subsidiaries are subject to a regulation entitled “Valuation of Life Insurance Policies Model Regulation,” commonly known as “Regulation XXX,” and a supporting guideline entitled “The Application of the Valuation of Life Insurance Policies Model Regulation,” commonly known as “Guideline AXXX.” The regulation and supporting guideline require insurers to establish statutory reserves for term and universal life insurance policies with long-term premium guarantees at a level that exceeds what our actuarial assumptions for this business would otherwise require. Prudential Financial uses captive reinsurance companies to finance the portion of the reserves for this business that we consider to be non-economic as described below under “-Financing Activities-Term and Universal Life Reserve Financing.”
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Liquidity
Our liquidity is managed to ensure stable, reliable and cost-effective sources of cash flows to meet all of our obligations. Liquidity is provided by a variety of sources, as described more fully below, including portfolios of liquid assets. Our investment portfolios are integral to the overall liquidity of the Company. We use a projection process for cash flows from operations to ensure sufficient liquidity to meet projected cash outflows, including claims. The impact of Prudential Funding, LLC’s ("Prudential Funding"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Prudential Insurance, financing capacity on liquidity is considered in the internal liquidity measures of the Company.
Liquidity is measured against internally-developed benchmarks that take into account the characteristics of both the asset portfolio and the liabilities that they support. We consider attributes of the various categories of liquid assets (e.g., type of asset and credit quality) in calculating internal liquidity measures to evaluate our liquidity under various stress scenarios, including company-specific and market-wide events. We continue to believe that cash generated by ongoing operations and the liquidity profile of our assets provide sufficient liquidity under reasonably foreseeable stress scenarios.
The principal sources of the Company’s liquidity are premiums and certain annuity considerations, investment and fee income, investment maturities, sales of investments and internal borrowings. The principal uses of that liquidity include benefits, claims, and payments to policyholders and contractholders in connection with surrenders, withdrawals and net policy loan activity. Other uses of liquidity include commissions, general and administrative expenses, purchases of investments, the payment of dividends and returns of capital to the parent company, hedging and reinsurance activity and payments in connection with financing activities.
In managing liquidity, we consider the risk of policyholder and contractholder withdrawals of funds earlier than our assumptions when selecting assets to support these contractual obligations. We use surrender charges and other contract provisions to mitigate the extent, timing and profitability impact of withdrawals of funds by customers.
Liquid Assets
Liquid assets include cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, U.S. Treasury fixed maturities, fixed maturities that are not designated as held-to-maturity, and public equity securities. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had liquid assets of $1,969 million and $1,614 million, respectively. The portion of liquid assets comprised cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments was $69 million and $56 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, $1,815 million, or 96%, of the fixed maturity investments in the Company's general account portfolios were rated high or highest quality based on NAIC or equivalent rating.
Financing Activities
Term and Universal Life Reserve Financing
For business written prior to the implementation of principle-based reserving, Regulation XXX and Guideline AXXX require domestic life insurers to establish statutory reserves for term and universal life insurance policies with long-term premium guarantees that are consistent with the statutory reserves required for other individual life policies with similar guarantees. Many market participants believe that these levels of reserves are excessive relative to the levels reasonably required to maintain solvency for moderately adverse experience. The difference between the statutory reserve and the amount necessary to maintain solvency for moderately adverse experience is considered to be the non-economic portion of the statutory reserve.
The Company uses affiliated captive reinsurance subsidiaries to finance the portion of the statutory reserves required to be held under Regulation XXX and Guideline AXXX that is considered to be non-economic. The financing arrangements involve the reinsurance of term and universal life business to our affiliated captive reinsurers and the issuance of surplus notes by those affiliated captives that are treated as capital for statutory purposes. These surplus notes are subordinated to policyholder obligations, and the payment of principal and interest on the surplus notes can only be made with prior insurance regulatory approval.
As of December 31, 2020, the affiliated captive reinsurance companies have entered into agreements with external counterparties providing for the issuance of up to an aggregate of $14,825 million of surplus notes by our affiliated captive reinsurers in return for the receipt of credit-linked notes (“Credit-Linked Note Structures”), of which $12,919 million of surplus notes was outstanding, compared to an aggregate issuance capacity of $13,700 million, of which $12,009 million was outstanding as of December 31, 2019. The amounts reflect a $1,200 million Credit-Linked Note Structure entered into in June 2020 for Guideline AXXX reserves, of which $700 million was outstanding as of December 31, 2020. Under the agreements, the affiliated captive receives in exchange for the surplus notes one or more credit-linked notes issued by a special-purpose affiliate of the Company with an aggregate principal amount equal to the surplus notes outstanding. The affiliated captive holds the credit-linked notes as assets supporting Regulation XXX or Guideline AXXX non-economic reserves, as applicable. The captive can redeem the principal amount of the outstanding credit-linked notes for cash upon the occurrence of, and in an amount necessary to remedy, a specified liquidity stress event affecting the captive. Under the agreements, the external
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counterparties have agreed to fund any such payments under the credit-linked notes in return for the receipt of fees. Under certain of the transactions, Prudential Financial has agreed to make capital contributions to the captive to reimburse it for investment losses in excess of specified amounts and/or has agreed to reimburse the external counterparties for any payments made under the credit-linked notes. To date, no such payments under the credit-linked notes have been required. Under these transactions, because valid rights of set-off exist, interest and principal payments on the surplus notes and on the credit-linked notes are settled on a net basis, and the surplus notes are reflected in the Company’s total consolidated borrowings on a net basis.
As of December 31, 2020, our affiliated captive reinsurance companies had outstanding an aggregate of $2.8 billion of debt issued for the purpose of financing Regulation XXX and Guideline AXXX non-economic reserves, of which approximately $1.2 billion relates to Regulation XXX reserves and approximately $1.6 billion relates to Guideline AXXX reserves. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, for purposes of financing Guideline AXXX reserves, one of our affiliated captives had approximately $4.0 billion of surplus notes outstanding that were issued to affiliates.
The Company has introduced updated versions of its individual life products in conjunction with the requirement to adopt principle-based reserving by January 1, 2020. These updated products are currently priced to support the principle-based statutory reserve level without the need for reserve financing. Certain elements of the implementation of principle-based reserving are yet to be finalized by the NAIC and may have a material impact on statutory reserves. The Company continues to assess the impact of the implementation of principle-based reserving on projected statutory reserve levels, product pricing and the use of financing.
Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market Risk
Market risk is defined as the risk of loss from changes in interest rates, equity prices and foreign currency exchange rates resulting from asset/liability mismatches where the change in the value of our liabilities is not offset by the change in value of our assets.
Effective April 1, 2016, the Company reinsured variable annuity base contracts, along with the living benefit guarantees, to Prudential Insurance under a coinsurance and modified coinsurance agreement. This reinsurance agreement covers new and in-force business. As of December 31, 2020, the Company discontinued the sales of traditional variable annuities with guaranteed living benefit riders which has no impact on the reinsurance agreement. Additionally, the living benefit hedging program related to the living benefit guarantees as well as the product risks for retained and reinsured businesses are being managed within Prudential Insurance.
For additional information regarding the potential impacts of interest rate and other market fluctuations, as well as general economic and market conditions on our businesses and profitability, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” above. For additional information regarding our liquidity and capital resources, which may be impacted by changing market risks, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources” above.
Market Risk Management
Management of market risk, which we consider to be a combination of both investment risk and market risk exposures, includes the identification and measurement of various forms of risk, the establishment of risk thresholds and the creation of processes intended to maintain risks within these thresholds while optimizing returns on the underlying assets or liabilities. As an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Prudential Financial, the Company benefits from the risk management strategies implemented by Prudential Financial.
Our risk management process utilizes a variety of tools and techniques, including:
Measures of price sensitivity to market changes (e.g., interest rates, equity index prices, foreign exchange);
Asset/liability management;
Stress scenario testing;
Hedging programs and affiliated reinsurance; and
Risk management governance, including policies, limits and a committee that oversees investment and market risk.
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Market Risk Mitigation
Risk mitigation takes three primary forms:
Asset/Liability Management: Managing assets to liability-based measures. For example, investment policies identify target durations for assets based on liability characteristics and asset portfolios are managed to within ranges around them. This mitigates potential unanticipated economic losses from interest rate movements.
Management of portfolio concentration risk: For example, ongoing monitoring and management of key rate, currency and other concentration risks support diversification efforts to mitigate exposure to individual markets and sources of risk.
Market Risk Related to Interest Rates
We perform liability-driven investing and engage in careful asset/liability management. Asset/liability mismatches create the risk that changes in liability values will differ from the changes in the value of the related assets. Additionally, changes in interest rates may impact other items including, but not limited to, the following:
Net investment spread between the amounts that we are required to pay and the rate of return we are able to earn on investments for certain products supported by general account investments;
Asset-based fees earned on assets under management or contractholder account values;
Estimated total gross profits and the amortization of deferred policy acquisition and other costs;
Net exposure to the guarantees provided under certain products; and
Our capital levels.
In order to mitigate the impact that an unfavorable interest rate environment has on our net interest margins, we employ a proactive asset/liability management program, which includes strategic asset allocation and derivative strategies within a disciplined risk management framework. These strategies seek to match the characteristics of our products, and to approximate the interest rate sensitivity of the assets with the estimated interest rate sensitivity of the product liabilities. Our asset/liability management program also helps manage duration gaps, currency and other risks between assets and liabilities through the use of derivatives. We adjust this dynamic process as products change, as customer behavior changes and as changes in the market environment occur. As a result, our asset/liability management process has permitted us to manage interest rate risk successfully through several market cycles.
We use duration and convexity analyses to measure price sensitivity to interest rate changes. Duration measures the relative sensitivity of the fair value of a financial instrument to changes in interest rates. Convexity measures the rate of change in duration with respect to changes in interest rates. We use asset/liability management and derivative strategies to manage our interest rate exposure by matching the relative sensitivity of asset and liability values to interest rate changes, or controlling “duration mismatch” of assets and liability duration targets. In certain markets, capital market limitations that hinder our ability to acquire assets that approximate the duration of some of our liabilities are considered in setting duration targets. We consider risk-based capital and tax implications as well as current market conditions in our asset/liability management strategies.
The Company also mitigates interest rate risk through a market value adjusted (“MVA”) provision on certain of the Company’s annuity products' fixed investment options. This MVA provision limits interest rate risk by subjecting the contractholder to an MVA when funds are withdrawn or transferred to variable investment options before the end of the guarantee period. In the event of rising interest rates, which generally make the fixed maturity securities underlying the guarantee less valuable, the MVA could be negative. In the event of declining interest rates, which generally make the fixed maturity securities underlying the guarantee more valuable, the MVA could be positive. The resulting increase or decrease in the value of the fixed option, from calculation of the MVA, is designed to offset the decrease or increase in the market value of the securities underlying the guarantee.
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We assess the impact of interest rate movements on the value of our financial assets, financial liabilities and derivatives using hypothetical test scenarios that assume either upward or downward 100 basis point parallel shifts in the yield curve from prevailing interest rates, reflecting changes in either credit spreads or the risk-free rate. The following table sets forth the net estimated potential loss in fair value on these financial instruments from a hypothetical 100 basis point upward shift at December 31, 2020 and 2019. This table is presented on a gross basis and excludes offsetting impacts to insurance liabilities that are not considered financial liabilities under U.S. GAAP. This scenario results in the greatest net exposure to interest rate risk of the hypothetical scenarios tested at those dates. While the test scenario is for illustrative purposes only and does not reflect our expectations regarding future interest rates or the performance of fixed-income markets, it is a near-term, reasonably possible hypothetical change that illustrates the potential impact of such events. These test scenarios do not measure the changes in value that could result from non-parallel shifts in the yield curve which we would expect to produce different changes in discount rates for different maturities. As a result, the actual loss in fair value from a 100 basis point change in interest rates could be different from that indicated by these calculations. The estimated changes in fair values do not include separate account assets.
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
NotionalFair ValueHypothetical
Change in 
Fair Value
NotionalFair ValueHypothetical
Change in 
Fair Value
(in millions)
Financial assets with interest rate risk:
Fixed maturities(1)$1,913 $(205)$1,564 $(153)
Policy loans212 212 
Commercial mortgage and other loans141 (6)149 (7)
Derivatives:
Swaps$191 $197 (1)
Options442 14 379 13 
Forwards
Embedded derivatives(2)(3)(1,349)575 (895)470 
Financial liabilities with interest rate risk(4):
Policyholders' account balances-investment contracts(262)(233)
Net estimated potential gain (loss)(5)$365 $310 
(1)Includes assets classified as "Fixed maturities, available-for-sale, at fair value" and "Fixed maturities, trading, at fair value."
(2)Excludes any offsetting impact of derivative instruments purchased to hedge changes in the embedded derivatives. Amounts reported gross of reinsurance.
(3)Embedded derivatives relate to certain features associated with variable annuity and indexed universal life contracts. The fair value and hypothetical change in fair value of each is $(1,195) million and $556 million, and $(154) million and $19 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2020. The fair value and hypothetical change in fair value of each is $(761) million and $445 million, and $(134) million and $25 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2019. Embedded derivatives associated with variable annuity contracts are generally reinsured to an affiliate as part of our risk management strategy.
(4)Excludes $5 billion and $4 billion as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, of insurance reserve and deposit liabilities which are not considered financial liabilities. We believe that the interest rate sensitivities of these insurance liabilities would serve as an offset to the net interest rate risk of the financial assets and financial liabilities, including investment contracts.
(5)Excludes reinsurance recoverable which largely offsets the gains and losses of embedded derivatives related primarily to certain features associated with variable annuity contracts and "Policyholders' account balances-investment contracts."
Market Risk Related to Equity Prices
We have exposure to equity price risk through our investments in equity securities, equity-based derivatives and embedded derivatives associated with certain of the optional living benefit features of variable annuity and index-linked crediting features of indexed universal life contracts. As discussed above, our variable annuity optional living benefits accounted for as embedded derivatives are generally reinsured to an affiliate as part of our risk management strategy. Changes in equity prices may impact other items including, but not limited to, the following:
Asset-based fees earned on assets under management or contractholder account value;
Estimated total gross profits and the amortization of deferred policy acquisition and other costs; and
Net exposure to the guarantees provided under certain products.
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We manage equity price risk against benchmarks in respective markets. We benchmark our return on equity holdings against a blend of market indices, mainly the S&P 500 and Russell 2000 for U.S. equities. We benchmark foreign equities against the Tokyo Price Index, and the MSCI EAFE, a market index of European, Australian, and Far Eastern equities. We target price sensitivities that approximate those of the benchmark indices. For equity investments within the separate accounts, the investment risk is borne by the separate account contractholder rather than by the Company.
We estimate our equity risk from a hypothetical 10% decline in equity benchmark levels. As of December 31, 2020, excluding the embedded derivatives associated with variable annuity contracts (generally reinsured to an affiliate as part of our risk management strategy as discussed above), the impact from this hypothetical scenario was primarily from embedded derivatives associated with indexed universal life contracts of fair value and hypothetical change in fair value of $(154) million and $7 million, respectively. While this scenario is for illustrative purposes only and does not reflect our expectations regarding future performance of equity markets, it does represent near-term, reasonably possible hypothetical changes that illustrate the potential impact of such event.
Market Risk Related to Foreign Currency Exchange Rates
The Company does not have significant market risk exposure to foreign exchange rates.
Derivatives
We use derivative financial instruments primarily to reduce market risk from changes in interest rates, equity prices and foreign currency exchange rates, including their use to alter interest rate or foreign currency exposures arising from mismatches between assets and liabilities. Our derivatives primarily include swaps, futures, options and forward contracts that are exchange-traded or contracted in the OTC market. See Note 4 to the Financial Statements for more information.
Market Risk Related to Certain Variable Annuity Products
The primary risk exposures of our variable annuity contracts relate to actual deviations from, or changes to, the assumptions used in the original pricing of these products, including capital market assumptions, such as equity market returns, interest rates and market volatility, and actuarial assumptions. For our capital market assumptions, we hedge or limit our exposure to the risk created by capital market fluctuations through affiliated reinsurance. Certain variable annuity optional living benefit features are accounted for as embedded derivatives and recorded at fair value.
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ITEM 8.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS INDEX
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Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management of Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey (the “Company”) is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness, as of December 31, 2020, of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, based on the framework established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). Based on our assessment under that framework, management concluded that the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020.
Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by or under the supervision of our principal executive and principal financial officers to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Our internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect transactions and dispositions of assets; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and the directors of the Company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
This Annual Report does not include an attestation report of the Company’s registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, regarding the internal control over financial reporting. Management’s report was not subject to attestation by the Company’s registered public accounting firm pursuant to rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission that permit the Company to provide only management’s report in this Annual Report.
March 19, 2021
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   ��                            
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholder of Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying statements of financial position of Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey (the "Company") as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related statements of operations and comprehensive income, equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020 including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Changes in Accounting Principles
As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for credit losses on certain financial assets reported at amortized cost, certain off-balance sheet exposures, and impairments for fixed maturities, available-for-sale in 2020, and the manner in which it accounts for certain financial assets and liabilities and in which it accounts for certain tax effects originally recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income in 2018.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits of these financial statements in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Valuation of Guaranteed Benefit Features Associated with Certain Life Products Included in the Liability for Future Policy Benefits

As described in Notes 2, 5, 7 and 8 to the financial statements, the Company issues certain life insurance products that include certain contract features, including no-lapse guarantees. The liability for no-lapse guarantee features is grouped with guaranteed minimum death benefit ("GMDB") features in Note 8. For GMDB contract features, additional policyholder liabilities are established when associated assessments are recognized. As of December 31, 2020, the additional liability for these contract features included in the liability for future policy benefits was $514 million. As disclosed by management, this liability is established using current best estimate assumptions, including mortality rates, lapse rates, and premium pattern rates, as well as interest rate and equity market return assumptions, and is based on the ratio of the present value of total expected excess payments (i.e., payments in excess of account value) over the life of the contract divided by the present value of total expected assessments (i.e., benefit ratio). The liability equals the current benefit ratio multiplied by cumulative assessments recognized to date, plus interest, less cumulative excess payments to date.

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The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the valuation of guaranteed benefit features associated with certain life products included in the liability for future policy benefits is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management to determine the aforementioned assumptions for the additional policyholder liabilities, (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity and effort in performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence relating to the aforementioned assumptions used in the valuation of the additional policyholder liabilities, and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the valuation of guaranteed benefit features associated with certain life products included in the liability for future policy benefits, including controls over the development of the assumptions used in the valuation of the liabilities for the GMDB features. These procedures also included, among others, testing management’s process for determining the valuation of guaranteed benefit features associated with certain life products included in the liability for future policy benefits, which included the involvement of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in (i) evaluating the appropriateness of management’s models and (ii) evaluating the reasonableness of the aforementioned assumptions used in the valuation based on industry knowledge and data as well as historical Company data and experience. The procedures also included testing the completeness and accuracy of data used to develop the aforementioned assumptions and testing that the aforementioned assumptions are accurately reflected in the models.

Valuation of the Deferred Acquisition Costs Related to Universal Life and Variable Life Products

As described in Notes 2 and 6 to the financial statements, the Company defers acquisition costs that relate directly to the successful acquisition of new and renewal insurance business to the extent such costs are deemed recoverable from future profits. As of December 31, 2020, a significant portion of the $224 million of deferred policy acquisition costs ("DAC") are associated with universal life and variable life products. DAC related to universal life and variable life products is generally amortized over the expected life of the contracts in proportion to gross profits arising principally from investment margins, mortality and expense margins, and surrender charges. These margins are updated periodically based on historical and anticipated future experience. The DAC balance is regularly adjusted with a corresponding charge or credit to current period earnings for the impact of actual gross profits and changes in management’s projections of estimated future gross profits. DAC is subject to periodic recoverability testing.

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the valuation of DAC related to universal life and variable life products is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management to determine the assumptions used in the projection of gross profits used to amortize DAC related to mortality rates, lapse rates, and premium pattern rates, as well as interest rate and equity market return assumptions (collectively, the “significant assumptions”), (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity and effort in performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence relating to the significant assumptions, and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the valuation of DAC related to universal life and variable life products, including controls over the development of the significant assumptions. These procedures also included, among others, testing management’s process for determining the valuation of DAC related to universal life and variable life products, which included the involvement of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in (i) evaluating the appropriateness of management’s models, and (ii) evaluating the reasonableness of the significant assumptions used in the valuation based on industry knowledge and data as well as historical Company data and experience. The procedures also included testing the completeness and accuracy of data used to develop the assumptions and testing that the assumptions are accurately reflected in the models.


/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

New York, New York
March 19, 2021

We have served as the Company's auditor since 1996.

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Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey
Statements of Financial Position
December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands, except share amounts) 
December 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
ASSETS
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale, at fair value (allowance for credit losses: 2020-$0) (amortized cost: 2020 – $1,635,870; 2019 – $1,437,796)$1,894,195 $1,550,096 
Fixed maturities, trading, at fair value (amortized cost: 2020 – $17,718; 2019 – $14,221)19,269 13,700 
Equity securities, at fair value (cost: 2020 – $4,660; 2019 – $5,139)6,218 7,512 
Policy loans212,163 211,986 
Commercial mortgage and other loans (net of $440 and $165 allowance for credit losses at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively)(1)133,115 143,098 
Other invested assets (includes $17,581 and $24,726 measured at fair value at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively)97,509 89,536 
Total investments2,362,469 2,015,928 
Cash and cash equivalents68,527 55,924 
Deferred policy acquisition costs224,425 178,813 
Accrued investment income21,248 19,539 
Reinsurance recoverables3,860,612 3,200,642 
Receivables from parent and affiliates31,061 32,820 
Income taxes receivable6,268 
Other assets23,007 21,203 
Separate account assets17,117,510 15,904,208 
TOTAL ASSETS$23,708,859 $21,435,345 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
LIABILITIES
Future policy benefits2,976,575 2,302,959 
Policyholders' account balances2,532,766 2,424,120 
Cash collateral for loaned securities2,725 2,481 
Income taxes payable(1)10,821 
Short-term debt to affiliates89 
Payables to parent and affiliates16,250 24,958 
Other liabilities(1)187,620 140,628 
Separate account liabilities17,117,510 15,904,208 
Total liabilities$22,844,267 $20,799,443 
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENT LIABILITIES (See Note 14)00
EQUITY
Common stock ($5 par value; 400,000 shares authorized; issued and outstanding)2,000 2,000 
Additional paid-in capital348,735 268,021 
Retained earnings328,450 280,246 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)185,407 85,635 
Total equity864,592 635,902 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY$23,708,859 $21,435,345 
(1)December 31, 2020 amounts include the impacts of the January 1, 2020 adoption of ASU 2016-13. See Note 2 for details.
See Notes to Financial Statements
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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands)
202020192018
REVENUES
Premiums$21,660 $12,931 $13,007 
Policy charges and fee income74,202 65,735 62,567 
Net investment income82,995 76,788 67,811 
Asset administration fees6,744 5,844 5,356 
Other income6,365 4,622 1,004 
Realized investment gains (losses), net1,871 (17,388)(9,273)
TOTAL REVENUES193,837 148,532 140,472 
BENEFITS AND EXPENSES
Policyholders’ benefits41,887 25,613 19,829 
Interest credited to policyholders’ account balances44,096 37,746 35,936 
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition costs18,119 14,850 15,972 
General, administrative and other expenses47,703 36,980 37,507 
TOTAL BENEFITS AND EXPENSES151,805 115,189 109,244 
INCOME (LOSS) FROM OPERATIONS BEFORE INCOME TAXES42,032 33,343 31,228 
Income tax expense (benefit)(6,339)(3,412)(53)
NET INCOME (LOSS)$48,371 $36,755 $31,281 
Other comprehensive income (loss), before tax:
Foreign currency translation adjustments250 10 (1,187)
Net unrealized investment gains (losses)126,043 126,575 (67,692)
Total126,293 126,585 (68,879)
Less: Income tax expense (benefit) related to other comprehensive income (loss)26,521 26,583 (14,464)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes99,772 100,002 (54,415)
Comprehensive income (loss)$148,143 $136,757 $(23,134)

See Notes to Financial Statements
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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Statements of Equity
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands)
  Common  
Stock
  Additional  
Paid-in
Capital
Retained EarningsAccumulated
Other
  Comprehensive  Income
Total Equity
Balance, December 31, 2017$2,000 $211,961 $218,067 $34,330 $466,358 
Cumulative effect of adoption of ASU 2016-01372 (175)197 
Cumulative effect of adoption of ASU 2018-02(5,893)5,893 
Contributed capital1,300 1,300 
Contributed (distributed) capital- parent/child asset transfers
Comprehensive income:
Net income (loss)31,281 31,281 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(54,415)(54,415)
Total comprehensive income (loss)(23,134)
Balance, December 31, 20182,000 213,261 243,827 (14,367)444,721 
Cumulative effect of adoption of accounting changes(1)(336)(336)
Contributed capital59,536 59,536 
Contributed (distributed) capital- parent/child asset transfers(4,776)(4,776)
Comprehensive income:
Net income (loss)36,755 36,755 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax100,002 100,002 
Total comprehensive income (loss)136,757 
Balance, December 31, 20192,000 268,021 280,246 85,635 635,902 
Cumulative effect of adoption of accounting changes(2)(167)(167)
Contributed capital85,112 85,112 
Contributed (distributed) capital- parent/child asset transfers(4,398)(4,398)
Comprehensive income:
Net income (loss)48,371 48,371 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax99,772 99,772 
Total comprehensive income (loss)148,143 
Balance, December 31, 2020$2,000 $348,735 $328,450 $185,407 $864,592 
(1)Includes the impact from the adoption of ASU 2017-08 and 2017-12.
(2)Includes the impact from the adoption of ASU 2016-13. See Note 2.

See Notes to Financial Statements
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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Statements of Cash Flows
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands)
202020192018
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net income (loss)$48,371 $36,755 $31,281 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:
Policy charges and fee income(1)(24,935)(17,100)(15,393)
Interest credited to policyholders’ account balances44,096 37,746 35,936 
Realized investment (gains) losses, net(1,871)17,388 9,273 
Amortization and other non-cash items(16,951)(10,762)(7,850)
Change in:
Future policy benefits289,417 256,062 201,654 
Reinsurance recoverables(272,450)(246,914)(209,954)
Accrued investment income(1,709)(1,775)(1,184)
Net payables to/receivables from parent and affiliates(8,567)5,723 856 
Deferred policy acquisition costs(58,425)(24,349)(14,771)
Income taxes(8,215)(12,357)(4,963)
Derivatives, net5,305 1,194 (4,777)
Other, net7,484 (3,014)21,047 
Cash flows from (used in) operating activities1,550 38,597 41,155 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Proceeds from the sale/maturity/prepayment of:
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale60,422 72,095 73,692 
Equity securities3,591 3,353 1,939 
Policy loans26,439 27,022 23,009 
Ceded policy loans(1,434)(1,576)(1,990)
Commercial mortgage and other loans14,559 9,788 4,209 
Other invested assets1,908 1,679 2,502 
Payments for the purchase/origination of:
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale(181,796)(166,382)(167,311)
Fixed maturities, trading(3,497)(6,776)
Equity securities(2)(50)(2,002)
Policy loans(19,774)(24,529)(28,537)
Ceded policy loans3,602 2,337 2,734 
Commercial mortgage and other loans(3,978)(33,817)(1,595)
Other invested assets(11,046)(16,980)(7,186)
Notes receivable from parent and affiliates, net1,391 6,362 455 
Derivatives, net505 (561)161 
Other, net149 (410)(282)
Cash flows from (used in) investing activities(108,961)(128,445)(100,202)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Policyholders’ account deposits529,874 553,804 555,153 
Ceded policyholders’ account deposits(347,786)(342,648)(337,536)
Policyholders’ account withdrawals(327,130)(342,230)(311,159)
Ceded policyholders’ account withdrawals248,680 224,910 187,237 
Net change in securities sold under agreement to repurchase and cash collateral for loaned securities244 (221)(12,505)
Contributed (distributed) capital - parent/child asset transfers(165)
Net change in financing arrangements (maturities 90 days or less)(89)89 
Drafts outstanding9,111 (9,040)10,067 
Other, net(1)7,275 (9,333)(6,387)
Cash flows from (used in) financing activities120,014 75,331 84,870 
NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS12,603 (14,517)25,823 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, BEGINNING OF YEAR55,924 70,441 44,618 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, END OF YEAR$68,527 $55,924 $70,441 
SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION
Income taxes paid (refund)$1,880 $8,946 $4,910 
Interest paid$18 $100 $
(1) Prior period amounts have been revised to correct an error. See Note 16 for details.
Significant Non-Cash Transactions
For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company received $85 million and $60 million, respectively, of non-cash assets from its parent, Pruco Life Insurance Company. See Note 13 for additional information. There were 0 significant non-cash transactions for the year ended December 31, 2018.














See Notes to Financial Statements

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



1. BUSINESS AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION

Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey (“PLNJ”) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pruco Life Insurance Company (“Pruco Life”), which in turn is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Prudential Insurance Company of America (“Prudential Insurance”). Prudential Insurance is a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of Prudential Financial, Inc. (“Prudential Financial”). PLNJ is a stock life insurance company organized in 1982 under the laws of the State of New Jersey. It is licensed to sell life insurance and annuities in New Jersey and New York only, and sells such products primarily through affiliated and unaffiliated distributors.

Basis of Presentation

The Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

The most significant estimates include those used in determining deferred policy acquisition cost ("DAC") and related amortization; policyholders' account balances related to the fair value of embedded derivative instruments associated with the index-linked features of certain universal life products; valuation of investments including derivatives, measurement of allowance for credit losses, and the recognition of other-than-temporary impairments ("OTTI"); future policy benefits including guarantees; reinsurance recoverables; provision for income taxes and valuation of deferred tax assets; and accruals for contingent liabilities, including estimates for losses in connection with unresolved legal and regulatory matters.

COVID-19

Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) has resulted in extreme stress and disruption in the global economy and financial markets, and has adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Due to the highly uncertain nature of these conditions, it is not possible to estimate the ultimate impacts at this time. The risks may have manifested, and may continue to manifest, in the Company’s financial statements in the areas of, among others, i) investments: increased risk of loss on the Company's investments due to default or deterioration in credit quality or value; and ii) insurance liabilities and related balances: potential changes to assumptions regarding investment returns, mortality and policyholder behavior which are reflected in the Company's insurance liabilities and certain related balances (e.g., DAC, etc.). The Company cannot predict what impact the COVID-19 pandemic will ultimately have on the global economy, markets or its businesses.

Revision to Prior Period Financial Statements

The Company identified an error in the presentation of certain cash flow activity related to policyholders' account balances that impacted several line items within previously issued Statements of Cash Flows. Prior period amounts have been revised in the financial statements to correct this error. Management evaluated these adjustments and concluded they were not material to any previously reported quarterly or annual financial statements. See Note 16 for a more detailed description of the revision and for comparisons of amounts previously reported to the revised amounts.

Reclassifications

Certain amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND PRONOUNCEMENTS

ASSETS

Fixed maturities, available-for-sale, at fair value ("AFS debt securities") includes bonds, notes and redeemable preferred stock that are carried at fair value. See Note 5 for additional information regarding the determination of fair value. The purchased cost of fixed maturities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity or, if applicable, call date.

AFS debt securities, where fair value is below amortized cost, are reviewed quarterly to determine whether the amortized cost basis of the security is recoverable. For mortgage-backed and asset-backed AFS debt securities, a credit impairment will be recognized to the extent the amortized cost exceeds the net present value of projected future cash flows (the “net present value”) for the security. For all other AFS debt securities, qualitative factors are first considered including, but not limited to, the extent of the decline and the reasons for the decline in value (e.g., credit events, currency or interest-rate related, including general credit spread widening), and the financial condition of the issuer. If analysis of these qualitative factors results in the security needing to be impaired, the credit impairment will be measured as the extent to which the amortized cost exceeds the net present value. The net present value is calculated by discounting the Company’s best estimate of projected future cash flows at the effective interest rate implicit in the AFS debt security at the date of acquisition.

Credit impairment is recognized as an allowance for credit losses and reported in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.” Once the Company has deemed all or a portion of the amortized cost uncollectible, the allowance is removed from the balance sheet by writing down the amortized cost basis of the AFS debt security.

The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2016-13, and related ASUs, effective January 1, 2020. See “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in this Note for additional information about the adoption. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-13, credit impairments were recognized as a direct write down to the cost basis of the security.

Interest income, including amortization of premium and accretion of discount, are included in “Net investment income” under the effective yield method. Prepayment premiums are also included in “Net investment income.”

For high credit quality mortgage-backed and asset-backed AFS debt securities (those rated AA or above), the amortized cost and effective yield of the securities are adjusted as necessary to reflect historical prepayment experience and changes in estimated future prepayments. The adjustments to amortized cost are recorded as a charge or credit to “Net investment income” in accordance with the retrospective method.

For mortgage-backed and asset-backed AFS debt securities rated below AA, the effective yield is adjusted prospectively for any changes in the estimated timing and amount of cash flows unless the investment is purchased with credit deterioration or an allowance is currently recorded for the respective security. If an investment is impaired, any changes in the estimated timing and amount of cash flows will be recorded as the credit impairment, as opposed to a yield adjustment. If the asset is purchased with credit deterioration (or previously impaired) the effective yield will be adjusted if there are favorable changes in cash flows subsequent to the allowance being reduced to zero. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-13, the effective yield was adjusted prospectively unless an impairment was recorded in the current period.

For mortgage-backed and asset-backed AFS debt securities, cash flow estimates consider the payment terms of the underlying assets backing a particular security, including interest rate and prepayment assumptions based on data from widely accepted third-party data sources or internal estimates. In addition to interest rate and prepayment assumptions, cash flow estimates also include other assumptions regarding the underlying collateral including default rates and recoveries, which vary based on the asset type and geographic location, as well as the vintage year of the security. These assumptions can significantly impact income recognition and the amount of impairment recognized in earnings and other comprehensive income (loss) (“OCI”). The payment priority of the respective security is also considered. For all other AFS debt securities, cash flow estimates are driven by assumptions regarding probability of default and estimates regarding timing and amount of recoveries associated with a default. The Company has developed these estimates using information based on its historical experience as well as using market observable data, such as industry analyst reports and forecasts, sector credit ratings and other data relevant to the collectability of a security, such as the general payment terms of the security and the security’s position within the capital structure of the issuer.

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



The Company may use the estimated fair value of collateral, if any, as a proxy for the net present value if it believes that the security is dependent on the liquidation of collateral for recovery of its investment. If the net present value is less than the amortized cost of the investment, an allowance for losses is recognized in earnings for the difference between amortized cost and the net present value and is limited to the difference between amortized cost and fair value of the AFS debt security. Any difference between the fair value and the net present value of the debt security at the impairment measurement date remains in OCI. Changes in the allowance for losses are reported in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.”

When an AFS debt security’s fair value is below amortized cost and (1) the Company has the intent to sell the AFS debt security, or (2) it is more likely than not the Company will be required to sell the AFS debt security before its anticipated recovery, the amortized cost basis of the AFS debt security is written down to fair value and any previously recognized allowance is reversed. The impairment is reported in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.”

The associated unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, and the effect on DAC, deferred sales inducements ("DSI"), future policy benefits and policyholders’ account balances that would result from the realization of unrealized gains and losses, are included in “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)” (“AOCI”). Each of these balances is discussed in greater detail below.

Fixed maturities, trading, at fair value consists of fixed maturities that are carried at fair value. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on these investments are reported in “Other income,” and interest and dividend income from these investments is reported in “Net investment income”.

Equity securities, at fair value is comprised of common stock and mutual fund shares that are carried at fair value. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on these investments are reported in “Other income,” and dividend income is reported in “Net investment income” on the ex-dividend date.

Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Liabilities using a modified retrospective method. Adoption of this ASU impacted the Company’s accounting and presentation related to equity investments. The most significant impact is that the changes in fair value of equity securities previously classified as “available-for-sale” are reported in net income within “Other income” in the Statements of Operations. The impact of this standard resulted in an increase to retained earnings of $372 thousand, a reduction to AOCI of $175 thousand, and an increase to equity of $197 thousand upon adoption on January 1, 2018.

Policy loans represent funds loaned to policyholders up to the cash surrender value of the associated insurance policies and are carried at the unpaid principal balances due to the Company from the policyholders. Interest income on policy loans is recognized in “Net investment income” at the contract interest rate when earned. Policy loans are fully collateralized by the cash surrender value of the associated insurance policies.

Short-term investments primarily consist of highly liquid debt instruments with a maturity of twelve months or less and greater than three months when purchased. These investments are generally carried at fair value or amortized cost that approximates fair value and include certain money market investments, funds managed similar to regulated money market funds, short-term debt securities issued by government sponsored entities and other highly liquid debt instruments.

Commercial mortgage and other loans consist of commercial mortgage loans and agricultural property loans. Commercial mortgage and other loans held for investment are generally carried at unpaid principal balance, net of unamortized deferred loan origination fees and expenses and net of the current expected credit loss ("CECL") allowance. Certain off-balance sheet credit exposures (e.g., indemnification of serviced mortgage loans, and certain unfunded mortgage loan commitments where the Company cannot unconditionally cancel the commitment) are also subject to a CECL allowance. See Note 14 for additional information.

Commercial mortgage and other loans acquired, including those related to the acquisition of a business, are recorded at fair value when purchased, reflecting any premiums or discounts to unpaid principal balances. Interest income, and the amortization of the related premiums or discounts, are included in “Net investment income” under the effective yield method. Prepayment fees are also included in “Net investment income.”

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



The CECL allowance represents the Company’s best estimate of expected credit losses over the remaining life of the assets or off-balance sheet credit exposures. The determination of the allowance considers historical credit loss experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-13, the allowance was based upon credit losses that were probable of occurring for recognized loans, not an estimate of credit losses that may occur over the remaining life of the asset.

The allowance is calculated separately for commercial mortgage loans, agricultural mortgage loans, other collateralized, and uncollateralized loans. For commercial mortgage and agricultural mortgage loans, the allowance is calculated using an internally developed CECL model.

Key inputs to the CECL model include unpaid principal balances, internal credit ratings, annual expected loss factors, average lives of the loans adjusted for prepayment considerations, current and historical interest rate assumptions, and other factors influencing the Company’s view of the current stage of the economic cycle and future economic conditions. Subjective considerations include a review of whether historical loss experience is representative of current market conditions and the Company’s view of the credit cycle. Model assumptions and factors are reviewed and updated as appropriate. Information about certain key inputs is detailed below.

Key factors in determining the internal credit ratings for commercial mortgage and agricultural mortgage loans include loan-to-value and debt-service-coverage ratios. Other factors include amortization, loan term, and estimated market value growth rate and volatility for the property type and region. The loan-to-value ratio compares the carrying amount of the loan to the fair value of the underlying property or properties collateralizing the loan, and is commonly expressed as a percentage. Loan-to-value ratios greater than 100% indicate that the carrying amount of the loan exceeds the collateral value. A loan-to-value ratio less than 100% indicates an excess of collateral value over the carrying amount of the loan. The debt service coverage ratio is a property’s net operating income as a percentage of its debt service payments. Debt service coverage ratios less than 1.0 times indicate that property operations do not generate enough income to cover the loan’s current debt payments. A debt service coverage ratio greater than 1.0 times indicates an excess of net operating income over the debt service payments. The values utilized in calculating these ratios are developed as part of the Company’s periodic review of the commercial mortgage loan and agricultural property loan portfolios, which includes an internal appraisal of the underlying collateral value. The Company’s periodic review also includes a quality re-rating process, whereby the internal quality rating originally assigned at underwriting is updated based on current loan, property and market information using a proprietary quality rating system. See Note 3 for additional information related to the loan-to-value ratios and debt service coverage ratios related to the Company’s commercial mortgage and agricultural loan portfolios.

Annual expected loss rates are based on historical default and loss experience factors. Using average lives, the annual expected loss rates are converted into life-of-loan loss expectations.

When individual loans no longer have the credit risk characteristics of the commercial or agricultural mortgage loan pools, they are removed from the pools and are evaluated individually for an allowance. The allowance is determined based on the outstanding loan balance less the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent.

The CECL allowance on commercial mortgage and other loans can increase or decrease from period to period based on the factors noted above. The change in allowance is reported in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.” As it relates to unfunded commitments that are in scope of this guidance, the CECL allowance is reported in “Other liabilities,” and the change in the allowance is reported in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.”

The CECL allowance for other collateralized and uncollateralized loans (e.g., corporate loans) carried at amortized cost is determined based on probability of default and loss given default assumptions by sector, credit quality and average lives of the loans. Additions to or releases of the allowance are reported in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.”

Once the Company has deemed a portion of the amortized costs to be uncollectible, the uncollectible portion of allowance is removed from the balance sheet by writing down the amortized cost basis of the loan. The carrying amount of the loan is not adjusted for subsequent recoveries in value.

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



Interest received on loans that are past due is either applied against the principal or reported as net investment income based on the Company’s assessment as to the collectability of the principal. The Company defines “past due” as principal or interest not collected at least 30 days past the scheduled contractual due date. See Note 3 for additional information about the Company’s past due loans.

The Company discontinues accruing interest on loans after the loans become 90 days delinquent as to principal or interest payments, or earlier when the Company has doubts about collectability. When the Company discontinues accruing interest on a loan, any accrued but uncollectible interest on the loan and other loans backed by the same collateral, if any, is charged against interest income in the same period. Generally, a loan is restored to accrual status only after all delinquent interest and principal are brought current and, in the case of loans where the payment of interest has been interrupted for a substantial period, or the loan has been modified, a regular payment performance has been established.

Commercial mortgage and other loans are occasionally restructured in a troubled debt restructuring (“TDR”). These restructurings generally include one or more of the following: full or partial payoffs outside of the original contract terms; changes to interest rates; extensions of maturity; or additions or modifications to covenants. Additionally, the Company may accept assets in full or partial satisfaction of the debt as part of a TDR. When restructurings occur, they are evaluated individually to determine whether the restructuring or modification constitutes a TDR as defined by authoritative accounting guidance. If the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and the Company has granted a concession, the restructuring, including those that involve a partial payoff or the receipt of assets in full satisfaction of the debt is deemed to be a TDR. When there is a reasonable expectation that the Company will execute a TDR, all effects of the potential restructuring are considered for the estimation of the CECL allowance.

When a loan is modified in a TDR, the CECL allowance of the loan is remeasured using the modified terms and the loan’s original effective yield, and the allowance is adjusted accordingly. The loan will be evaluated to determine whether the loan no longer has similar credit risk characteristics of the commercial or agricultural mortgage loan pools and need to be evaluated for an allowance on an individual basis. Subsequent to the modification, income is recognized prospectively based on the modified terms of the loan.

In a TDR where the Company receives assets in full satisfaction of the debt, any CECL allowance is reversed and a direct write-down of the loan is recorded for the amount of the allowance, and any additional loss, net of recoveries, or any gain is recorded for the difference between the fair value of the assets received and the recorded investment in the loan. When assets are received in partial settlement, the same process is followed, and the remaining loan is evaluated prospectively for credit impairment based on the CECL allowance process noted above.

Other invested assets consist of the Company’s non-coupon investments in limited partnerships and limited liability companies ("LPs/LLCs"), other than operating joint ventures, as well as derivative assets. LPs/LLCs interests are accounted for using either the equity method of accounting, or at fair value with changes in fair value reported in “Other income”. The Company’s income from investments in LPs/LLCs accounted for using the equity method, other than the Company’s investments in operating joint ventures, is included in “Net investment income”. The carrying value of these investments is written down, or impaired, to fair value when a decline in value is considered to be other-than-temporary. In applying the equity method (including assessment for OTTI), the Company uses financial information provided by the investee, generally on a one to three-month lag. For the investments reported at fair value with changes in fair value reported in current earnings, the associated realized and unrealized gains and losses are reported in “Other income”.

Realized investment gains (losses) are computed using the specific identification method. Realized investment gains and losses are generated from numerous sources, including the sales of fixed maturity securities, investments in joint ventures and limited partnerships and other types of investments, as well as changes to the allowance for credit losses recognized in earnings. Realized investment gains and losses also reflect fair value changes on commercial mortgage loans carried at fair value, and fair value changes on embedded derivatives and free-standing derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment. See “Derivative Financial Instruments” below for additional information regarding the accounting for derivatives.

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, amounts due from banks, certain money market investments, funds managed similar to regulated money market funds, other debt instruments with maturities of three months or less when purchased, other than cash equivalents that are included in "Fixed maturities, available-for-sale, at fair value,” and receivables related to securities purchased under agreements to resell (see also "Securities sold under agreements to purchase" below.) The Company also engages in overnight borrowing and lending of funds with Prudential Financial and affiliates which are considered cash and cash equivalents. These assets are generally carried at fair value or amortized cost which approximates fair value.
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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)




Deferred policy acquisition costs are costs directly related to the successful acquisition of new and renewal insurance and annuity business that have been deferred to the extent such costs are deemed recoverable from future profits. Such DAC primarily includes commissions, costs of policy issuance and underwriting, and certain other expenses that are directly related to successfully acquired contracts. In each reporting period, capitalized DAC is amortized to “Amortization of DAC,” net of the accrual of imputed interest on DAC balances. DAC is subject to periodic recoverability testing. DAC, for applicable products, is adjusted for the impact of unrealized gains or losses on investments as if these gains or losses had been realized, with corresponding credits or charges included in AOCI.

DAC related to universal and variable life products and fixed and variable deferred annuity products are generally deferred and amortized over the expected life of the contracts in proportion to gross profits arising principally from investment margins, mortality and expense margins, and surrender charges, based on historical and anticipated future experience, which is updated periodically. The Company uses a reversion to the mean approach for equities to derive future equity return assumptions; however, if the projected equity return calculated using this approach is greater than the maximum equity return assumption, the maximum equity return is utilized. Gross profits also include impacts from the embedded derivatives associated with certain of the optional living benefit features of variable annuity contracts, and index-linked crediting features of certain universal life contracts and related hedging activities. In calculating gross profits, profits and losses related to contracts issued by the Company that are reported in affiliated legal entities other than the Company as a result of, for example, reinsurance agreements with those affiliated entities are also included. The Company is an indirect subsidiary of Prudential Financial, a United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") registrant, and has extensive transactions and relationships with other subsidiaries of Prudential Financial, including reinsurance agreements, as described in Note 9. Incorporating all product-related profits and losses in gross profits, including those that are reported in affiliated legal entities, produces a DAC amortization pattern representative of the total economics of the products. Total gross profits include both actual gross profits and estimates of gross profits for future periods. The Company regularly evaluates and adjusts DAC balances with a corresponding charge or credit to current period earnings, representing a cumulative adjustment to all prior periods’ amortization, for the impact of actual gross profits and changes in the Company’s projections of estimated future gross profits. Adjustments to DAC balances include: (i) annual review of assumptions that reflect the comprehensive review of the assumptions used in estimating gross profits for future periods (ii) quarterly adjustments for current period experience (also referred to as “experience true-up” adjustments) that reflect the impact of differences between actual gross profits for a given period and the previously estimated expected gross profits for that period and (iii) quarterly adjustments for market performance (also referred to as “experience unlocking”) that reflect the impact of changes to the Company’s estimate of total gross profits to reflect actual fund performance and market conditions.

For some products, policyholders can elect to modify product benefits, features, rights or coverages by exchanging a contract for a new contract or by amendment, endorsement, or rider to a contract, or by the election of a feature or coverage within a contract. These transactions are known as internal replacements. If policyholders surrender traditional life insurance policies in exchange for life insurance policies that do not have fixed and guaranteed terms, the Company immediately charges to expense the remaining unamortized DAC on the surrendered policies. For other internal replacement transactions, except those that involve the addition of a nonintegrated contract feature that does not change the existing base contract, the unamortized DAC is immediately charged to expense if the terms of the new policies are not substantially similar to those of the former policies. If the new terms are substantially similar to those of the earlier policies, the DAC is retained with respect to the new policies and amortized over the expected life of the new policies. See Note 6 for additional information regarding DAC.

Accrued investment income primarily includes accruals of interest and dividend income from investments that have been earned but not yet received.

Reinsurance recoverables include corresponding receivables associated with reinsurance arrangements with affiliates and third-party reinsurers, and are reported on the Statements of Financial Position net of the CECL allowance. The CECL allowance considers the credit quality of the reinsurance counterparty and is generally determined based on the probability of default and loss given default assumptions, after considering any applicable collateral arrangements. The CECL allowance does not apply to reinsurance recoverables with affiliated counterparties under common control. Additions to or releases of the allowance are reported in “Policyholders’ benefits.” Prior to the adoption of this standard, an allowance for credit losses for reinsurance recoverables was established only when it was deemed probable that a reinsurer may fail to make payments to us in a timely manner. For additional information about these arrangements see Note 9.

0Other assets consist primarily of premiums due and deferred loss on reinsurance with affiliates.

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



Separate account assets represent segregated funds that are invested for certain contractholders and other customers. The assets consist primarily of equity securities, fixed maturities, and real estate-related investments and are reported at fair value. The assets of each account are legally segregated and are not subject to claims that arise out of any other business of the Company. Investment risks associated with market value changes are borne by the contractholders, except to the extent of minimum guarantees made by the Company with respect to certain accounts. The investment income and realized investment gains or losses from separate account assets generally accrue to the contractholders and are not included in the Company’s results of operations. Mortality, policy administration and surrender charges assessed against the accounts are included in “Policy charges and fee income.” Asset administration fees charged to the accounts are included in “Asset administration fees.” See Note 8 for additional information regarding separate account arrangements with contractual guarantees. See also “Separate account liabilities below.

LIABILITIES

Future policy benefits include liabilities related to certain long-duration life and annuity contracts, which are discussed more fully in Note 8. These liabilities represent reserves for the guaranteed minimum death and optional living benefit features on our variable annuity products and no-lapse guarantees for our variable and universal life products. The optional living benefits are primarily accounted for as embedded derivatives, with fair values calculated as the present value of future expected benefit payments to customers less the present value of assessed rider fees attributable to the embedded derivative feature. For additional information regarding the valuation of these optional living benefit features, see Note 5.

The Company’s liability for future policy benefits also includes reserves based on the present value of estimated future payments to or on behalf of policyholders related to contracts that have fixed and guaranteed terms, where the timing and amount of payment depends on policyholder mortality and maintenance expenses less the present value of future net premiums. Expected mortality is generally based on Company experience, industry data, and/or other factors. Interest rate assumptions are based on factors such as market conditions and expected investment returns. Although mortality and interest rate assumptions are “locked-in” upon the issuance of new insurance or annuity business with fixed and guaranteed terms, significant changes in experience or assumptions may require the Company to provide for expected future losses on a product by recognizing a premium deficiency. A premium deficiency exists when the liability for future policy benefits plus the present value of expected future gross premiums are determined to be insufficient to provide for expected future policy benefits and expenses. If a premium deficiency is recognized, the assumptions without a provision for the risk of adverse deviation as of the premium deficiency test date are locked-in and used in subsequent valuations. The net reserves continue to be subject to premium deficiency testing. Any adjustments to future policy benefit reserves related to net unrealized gains on securities classified as available-for-sale are included in AOCI. See Note 7 for additional information regarding future policy benefits.

Policyholders’ account balances represents the contract value that has accrued to the benefit of the policyholder as of the balance sheet date. This liability is primarily associated with the accumulated account deposits, plus interest credited, less policyholder withdrawals and other charges assessed against the account balance, as applicable. These policyholders’ account balances also include provision for benefits under non-life contingent payout annuities. See Note 7 for additional information regarding policyholders’ account balances. Policyholders’ account balances also includes amounts representing the fair value of embedded derivative instruments associated with the index-linked features of certain universal life products. For additional information regarding the valuation of these embedded derivatives, see Note 5.

Cash collateral for loaned securities represent liabilities to return cash proceeds from security lending transactions. Securities lending transactions are used primarily to earn spread income or to facilitate trading activity. As part of securities lending transactions, the Company transfers U.S. and foreign debt and equity securities, as well as U.S. government and government agency securities, and receives cash as collateral. Cash proceeds from securities lending transactions are primarily used to earn spread income, and are typically invested in cash equivalents, short-term investments or fixed maturities. Securities lending transactions are treated as financing arrangements and are recorded at the amount of cash received. The Company obtains collateral in an amount equal to 102% and 105% of the fair value of the domestic and foreign securities, respectively. The Company monitors the market value of the securities loaned on a daily basis with additional collateral obtained as necessary. Substantially all of the Company’s securities lending transactions are with large brokerage firms and large banks. Income and expenses associated with securities lending transactions used to earn spread income are reported as “Net investment income.”

Income taxes receivable/payable primarily represent the net deferred tax asset or liability and the Company’s estimated taxes receivable/payable for the current year and open audit years.

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



The Company is a member of the federal income tax return of Prudential Financial and primarily files separate company state and local tax returns. Pursuant to the tax allocation arrangement with Prudential Financial, total federal income tax expense is determined on a separate company basis. Members record tax benefits to the extent tax losses or tax credits are recognized in the consolidated federal tax provision.

Items required by tax regulations to be included in the tax return may differ from the items reflected in the financial statements. As a result, the effective tax rate reflected in the financial statements may be different than the actual rate applied on the tax return. Some of these differences are permanent such as expenses that are not deductible in the Company’s tax return, and some differences are temporary, reversing over time, such as valuation of insurance reserves. Temporary differences create deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets generally represent items that can be used as a tax deduction or credit in future years for which the Company has already recorded the tax benefit in the Company’s Statements of Operations. Deferred tax liabilities generally represent tax expense recognized in the Company’s financial statements for which payment has been deferred, or expenditures for which the Company has already taken a deduction in the Company’s tax return but have not yet been recognized in the Company’s financial statements.

Deferred income taxes are recognized, based on enacted rates, when assets and liabilities have different values for financial statement and tax reporting purposes. The application of U.S. GAAP requires the Company to evaluate the recoverability of the Company’s deferred tax assets and establish a valuation allowance if necessary to reduce the Company’s deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not expected to be realized. Considerable judgment is required in determining whether a valuation allowance is necessary, and if so, the amount of such valuation allowance. See Note 10 for a discussion of factors considered when evaluating the need for a valuation allowance.

In December of 2017, SEC staff issued "SAB 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" ("SAB 118"), which allowed registrants to record provisional amounts during a 'measurement period' not to extend beyond one year. Under the relief provided by SAB 118, a company could recognize provisional amounts when it did not have the necessary information available, prepared or analyzed in reasonable detail to complete its accounting for the change in tax law. See Note 10 for a discussion of refinements to the provisional amount related to The United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Act of 2017") included in “Income tax expense (benefit)” in 2018.

U.S. GAAP prescribes a comprehensive model for how a company should recognize, measure, present, and disclose in its financial statements uncertain tax positions that a company has taken or expects to take on tax returns. The application of this guidance is a two-step process. First, the Company determines whether it is more likely than not, based on the technical merits, that the tax position will be sustained upon examination. If a tax position does not meet the more likely than not recognition threshold, the benefit of that position is not recognized in the financial statements. The second step is measurement. The Company measures the tax position as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate resolution with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. This measurement considers the amounts and probabilities of the outcomes that could be realized upon ultimate settlement using the facts, circumstances, and information available at the reporting date.

The Company’s liability for income taxes includes a liability for unrecognized tax benefits, interest and penalties which relate to tax years still subject to review by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) or other taxing jurisdictions. Audit periods remain open for review until the statute of limitations has passed. Generally, for tax years which produce net operating losses, capital losses or tax credit carryforwards (“tax attributes”), the statute of limitations does not close, to the extent of these tax attributes, until the expiration of the statute of limitations for the tax year in which they are fully utilized. The completion of review or the expiration of the statute of limitations for a given audit period could result in an adjustment to the liability for income taxes. The Company classifies all interest and penalties related to tax uncertainties as income tax expense. See Note 10 for additional information regarding income taxes.

Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), which allowed a reclassification from AOCI to retained earnings for stranded effects resulting from the Tax Act of 2017. The Company elected to apply the ASU subsequent to recording the adoption impacts of ASU 2016-01 as described above. As a result, the Company reclassified stranded effects resulting from the Tax Act of 2017 by increasing AOCI and decreasing retained earnings, each by $5.9 million upon adoption on January 1, 2018. Stranded effects unrelated to the Tax Act of 2017 are generally released from AOCI when an entire portfolio of the type of item related to the stranded effect is liquidated, sold or extinguished (i.e., portfolio approach).

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



Securities sold under agreements to repurchase represent liabilities associated with securities repurchase agreements that are used primarily to earn spread income. As part of securities repurchase agreements, the Company transfers U.S. government and government agency securities to a third-party, and receives cash as collateral. For securities repurchase agreements, the cash received is typically invested in cash equivalents, short-term investments or fixed maturities. Receivables associated with securities purchased under agreements to resell are generally reflected as cash equivalents. As part of securities resale agreements, the Company invests cash and receives as collateral U.S. government securities or other debt securities.

Securities repurchase and resale agreements that satisfy certain criteria are treated as secured borrowing or secured lending arrangements. These agreements are carried at the amounts at which the securities will be subsequently resold or reacquired, as
specified in the respective transactions. For securities purchased under agreements to resell, the Company’s policy is to take possession or control of the securities either directly or through a third-party custodian. These securities are valued daily and additional securities or cash collateral is received, or returned, when appropriate to protect against credit exposure. Securities to
be resold are the same, or substantially the same, as the securities received. The majority of these transactions are with large brokerage firms and large banks. For securities sold under agreements to repurchase, the market value of the securities to be repurchased is monitored, and additional collateral is obtained where appropriate, to protect against credit exposure. The Company obtains collateral in an amount at least equal to 95% of the fair value of the securities sold. Securities to be repurchased are the same, or substantially the same, as those sold. The majority of these transactions are with highly rated money market funds. Income and expenses related to these transactions executed within the insurance companies used to earn spread income are reported as “Net investment income.”

Short-term and long-term debt liabilities are primarily carried at an amount equal to unpaid principal balance, net of unamortized discount or premium and debt issue costs. Original-issue discount or premium and debt-issue costs are recognized as a component of interest expense over the period the debt is expected to be outstanding, using the interest method of amortization. Interest expense is generally presented within “General, administrative and other expenses” in the Company’s Statements of Operations. Short-term debt is debt coming due in the next twelve months, including that portion of debt otherwise classified as long-term. The short-term debt caption may exclude short-term debt items for which the Company has the intent and ability to refinance on a long-term basis in the near term. See Note 13 for additional information regarding short-term and long-term debt.

Other liabilities consist primarily of accrued expenses, reinsurance payables and technical overdrafts.

Separate account liabilities primarily represent the contractholders’ account balance in separate account assets and to a lesser extent borrowings of the separate account, and will be equal and offsetting to total separate account assets. See also “Separate account assets” above.

Commitments and contingent liabilities are accrued if it is probable that a liability has been incurred and an amount is reasonably estimable. Management evaluates whether there are incremental legal or other costs directly associated with the ultimate resolution of the matter that are reasonably estimable and, if so, they are included in the accrual. These accruals are generally reported in “Other liabilities”.

REVENUES AND BENEFITS AND EXPENSES

Insurance Revenue and Expense Recognition

Premiums from individual life products, other than universal and variable life contracts, are recognized when due. Benefits are recorded as an expense when they are incurred. A liability for future policy benefits is recorded when premiums are recognized using the net level premium valuation methodology.

Premiums from single premium immediate annuities with life contingencies are recognized when due. When premiums are due over a significantly shorter period than the period over which benefits are provided, any gross premium in excess of the net premium is generally deferred and recognized into revenue based on expected future benefit payments. Benefits are recorded as an expense when they are incurred. A liability for future policy benefits is recorded when premiums are recognized using the net level premium methodology.

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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



Certain individual annuity contracts provide the contractholder a guarantee that the benefit received upon death or annuitization will be no less than a minimum prescribed amount. These benefits are accounted for as insurance contracts. The Company also provides contracts with certain living benefits which are considered embedded derivatives. See Note 5 for information regarding the valuation of these embedded derivatives and Note 8 for additional information regarding these contracts.

Amounts received as payment for universal or variable individual life contracts, deferred fixed or variable annuities and other contracts without life contingencies are reported as deposits to “Policyholders’ account balances” and/or “Separate account liabilities.” Revenues from these contracts are reflected in “Policy charges and fee income” consisting primarily of fees assessed during the period against the policyholders’ account balances for mortality and other benefit charges, policy administration charges and surrender charges. In addition to fees, the Company earns investment income from the investment of deposits in the Company’s general account portfolio. Fees assessed that represent compensation to the Company for services to be provided in future periods and certain other fees are generally deferred and amortized into revenue over the life of the related contracts in proportion to estimated gross profits. Benefits and expenses for these products include claims in excess of related account balances, expenses of contract administration, interest credited to policyholders’ account balances and amortization of DAC and DSI.

Policyholders’ account balances also includes amounts representing the fair value of embedded derivative instruments associated with the index-linked features of certain universal life products. For additional information regarding the valuation of these embedded derivatives, see Note 5.

Asset administration fees primarily include asset administration fee income received on contractholders’ account balances invested in The Prudential Series Funds, which are a portfolio of mutual fund investments related to the Company’s separate account products. Also, the Company receives fee income calculated on contractholder separate account balances invested in the Advanced Series Trust ("AST") (see Note 13). In addition, the Company receives fees from contractholders’ account balances invested in funds managed by companies other than affiliates of Prudential Insurance. Asset administration fees are recognized as income when earned.

Other income includes realized and unrealized gains or losses from investments reported as “Fixed maturities, trading, at fair value”, “Equity securities, at fair value”, and “Other invested assets” that are measured at fair value.

OTHER ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Derivative Financial Instruments

Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are derived from interest rates, foreign exchange rates, financial indices, values of securities or commodities, credit spreads, market volatility, expected returns, and liquidity. Values can also be affected by changes in estimates and assumptions, including those related to counterparty behavior and non-performance risk ("NPR") used in valuation models. Derivative financial instruments generally used by the Company include swaps, futures, forwards and options and may be exchange-traded or contracted in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market. Certain of the Company’s OTC derivatives are cleared and settled through central clearing counterparties, while others are bilateral contracts between two counterparties. Derivative positions are carried at fair value, generally by obtaining quoted market prices or through the use of valuation models.

Derivatives are used to manage the interest rate and currency characteristics of assets or liabilities. Additionally, derivatives may be used to seek to reduce exposure to interest rate, credit, foreign currency and equity risks associated with assets held or expected to be purchased or sold, and liabilities incurred or expected to be incurred. As discussed in detail below and in Note 4, all realized and unrealized changes in fair value of derivatives are recorded in current earnings, with the exception of cash flow hedges. Cash flows from derivatives are reported in the operating, investing or financing activities sections in the Statements of Cash Flows based on the nature and purpose of the derivative.

Derivatives are recorded either as assets, within "Other invested assets", or as liabilities, within “Payables to parent and affiliates”, except for embedded derivatives which are recorded with the associated host contract. The Company nets the fair value of all derivative financial instruments with counterparties for which a master netting arrangement has been executed.

The Company designates derivatives as either (1) a hedge of a forecasted transaction or of the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability (“cash flow” hedge); or (2) a derivative that does not qualify for hedge accounting.
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PRUCO LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY
Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)




To qualify for hedge accounting treatment, a derivative must be highly effective in mitigating the designated risk of the hedged item. Effectiveness of the hedge is formally assessed at inception and throughout the life of the hedging relationship.

The Company formally documents at inception all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk-management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. This process includes linking all derivatives designated as cash flow hedges to specific assets and liabilities on the balance sheet or to specific firm commitments or forecasted transactions.

When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge and is determined to be highly effective, changes in its fair value are recorded in AOCI until earnings are affected by the variability of cash flows being hedged (e.g., when periodic settlements on a variable-rate asset or liability are recorded in earnings). At that time, the related portion of deferred gains or losses on the derivative instrument is reclassified and reported in the Statements of Operations line item associated with the hedged item.

If it is determined that a derivative no longer qualifies as an effective cash flow hedge or management removes the hedge designation, the derivative will continue to be carried on the balance sheet at its fair value, with changes in fair value recognized currently in “Realized investment gains (losses), net”. The component of AOCI related to discontinued cash flow hedges is reclassified to the Statements of Operations line associated with the hedged cash flows consistent with the earnings impact of the original hedged cash flows.

When hedge accounting is discontinued because the hedged item no longer meets the definition of a firm commitment, or because it is probable that the forecasted transaction will not occur by the end of the specified time period, the derivative will continue to be carried on the balance sheet at its fair value, with changes in fair value recognized currently in “Realized investment gains (losses), net”. Any asset or liability that was recorded pursuant to recognition of the firm commitment is removed from the balance sheet and recognized currently in “Realized investment gains (losses), net”. Gains and losses that were in AOCI pursuant to the hedge of a forecasted transaction are recognized immediately in “Realized investment gains (losses), net”.

If a derivative does not qualify for hedge accounting, all changes in its fair value, including net receipts and payments, are included in “Realized investment gains (losses), net” without considering changes in the fair value of the economically associated assets or liabilities.

The Company is a party to financial instruments that contain derivative instruments that are “embedded” in the financial instruments. At inception, the Company assesses whether the economic characteristics of the embedded instrument are clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the remaining component of the financial instrument (i.e., the host contract) and whether a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded instrument would meet the definition of a derivative instrument. When it is determined that (1) the embedded instrument possesses economic characteristics that are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the host contract, and (2) a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the embedded instrument qualifies as an embedded derivative that is separated from the host contract, carried at fair value, and changes in its fair value are included in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.” For certain financial instruments that contain an embedded derivative that otherwise would need to be bifurcated and reported at fair value, the Company may elect to carry the entire instrument at fair value and report it within “Fixed maturities, trading, at fair value" or "Equity securities, at fair value".

The Company sells variable annuity contracts that include optional living benefit features that may be treated from an accounting perspective as embedded derivatives. Effective April 1, 2016, the Company reinsured the variable annuity base contracts, along with the living benefit guarantees, to Prudential Insurance under a coinsurance and modified coinsurance agreement. See Note 9 for additional information. The embedded derivatives related to the living benefit features and the related reinsurance agreements are carried at fair value and included in “Future policy benefits” and “Reinsurance recoverables”. Changes in the fair value are determined using valuation models as described in Note 5 and are recorded in “Realized investment gains (losses), net”.

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RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Changes to U.S. GAAP are established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") in the form of ASUs to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC"). The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. ASUs listed below include those that have been adopted during the current fiscal year and/or those that have been issued but not yet adopted as of December 31, 2020, and as of the date of this filing. ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or not material.




Adoption of ASU 2016-13

The Company adopted ASU 2016-13, and related ASUs, effective January 1, 2020 using the modified retrospective method for certain financial assets carried at amortized cost and certain off-balance sheet exposures. The modified retrospective method results in a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings. The Company adopted the guidance related to fixed maturities, available-for-sale on a prospective basis.

This ASU requires the use of a new CECL model to account for expected credit losses on certain financial assets reported at amortized cost (e.g., loans held for investment, reinsurance receivables, etc.) and certain off-balance sheet credit exposures (e.g., indemnification of serviced mortgage loans and certain loan commitments). The guidance requires an entity to estimate lifetime credit losses related to such financial assets and credit exposures based on relevant information about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that may affect the collectability of the reported amounts. The standard also modifies the OTTI guidance for fixed maturities, available-for-sale requiring the use of an allowance rather than a direct write-down of the investment.

The impacts of this ASU on the Company’s Financial Statements primarily include (1) A Cumulative Effect Adjustment Upon Adoption; (2) Changes to the Presentation of the Statements of Financial Position and Statements of Operations; and (3) Changes to Accounting Policies. Each of these impacts is described below.

(1) Cumulative Effect Adjustment Upon Adoption

Adoption of the standard resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings in the amount of $0.2 million, primarily related to commercial mortgage and other loans. The impact of adoption is not material to the following financial statement line items: income taxes payable and other liabilities. The prospective adoption of the portions of the standard related to fixed maturities, available-for-sale resulted in no impact to opening retained earnings.

(2) Changes to the Presentation of the Statements of Financial Position and Statements of Operations

The allowance for credit losses is presented parenthetically on relevant line items in the Statements of Financial Position. In the Statements of Operations, realized investment gains (losses), net are presented on one line item and will no longer reflect the breakout of OTTI on fixed maturity securities; OTTI on fixed maturity securities transferred to OCI; and other realized investment gains (losses), net. The presentation of this detail in prior periods is immaterial.

(3) Changes to Accounting Policies

The narrative description of our significant accounting policies at the beginning of this Note reflects our policies as of December 31, 2020, including the policies associated with the adoption of ASU 2016-13.
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Other ASUs adopted during the year ended December 31, 2020
StandardDescriptionEffective date and method of adoptionEffect on the financial statements or other significant matters
ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting
This ASU provides optional relief for certain contracts impacted by reference rate reform. The standard permits an entity to consider contract modification due to reference rate reform to be an event that does not require contract remeasurement at the modification date or reassessment of a previous accounting determination. The ASU also temporarily (until December 31, 2022) allows hedge relationships to continue without de-designation upon changes due to reference rate reform.March 12, 2020 to December 31, 2022 using the prospective method.

This ASU did not have a significant impact on the Company’s Financial Statements and Notes to the Financial Statements.
The Company made the election under ASU 2020-04 for all applicable contracts as they converted from the current reference rate to the new reference rate.

ASU issued but not yet adopted as of December 31, 2020 — ASU 2018-12

ASU 2018-12, Financial Services—Insurance (Topic 944): Targeted Improvements to the Accounting for Long-Duration Contracts, was issued by the FASB on August 15, 2018 and is expected to have a significant impact on the Financial Statements and Notes to the Financial Statements. In October 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-09, Financial Services - Insurance (Topic 944): Effective Date to affirm its decision to defer the effective date of ASU 2018-12 to January 1, 2022 (with early adoption permitted), representing a one year extension from the original effective date of January 1, 2021. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, in November 2020 the FASB issued ASU 2020-11, Financial Services—Insurance (Topic 944): Effective Date and Early Application to defer for an additional one year the effective date of ASU 2018-12 from January 1, 2022 to January 1, 2023, and to provide transition relief to facilitate the early adoption of the ASU. The transition relief would allow large calendar-year public companies that early adopt ASU 2018-12 to apply the guidance either as of January 1, 2020 or January 1, 2021 (and record transition adjustments as of January 1, 2020 or January 1, 2021, respectively) in the 2022 financial statements. Companies that do not early adopt ASU 2018-12 would apply the guidance as of January 1, 2021 (and record transition adjustments as of January 1, 2021) in the 2023 financial statements. The Company currently intends to adopt ASU 2018-12 effective January 1, 2023. ASU 2018-12 will impact, at least to some extent, the accounting and disclosure requirements for all long-duration insurance and investment contracts issued by the Company. Outlined below are four key areas of change, although there are other less significant changes not noted below. In addition to the impacts to the balance sheet upon adoption, the Company also expects an impact to how earnings emerge thereafter.

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ASU 2018-12 Amended TopicDescriptionMethod of adoptionEffect on the financial statements or other significant matters
Cash flow assumptions used to measure the liability for future policy benefits for non-participating traditional and limited-pay insurance productsRequires an entity to review, and if necessary, update the cash flow assumptions used to measure the liability for future policy benefits, for both changes in future assumptions and actual experience, at least annually using a retrospective update method with a cumulative catch-up adjustment recorded in a separate line item in the Statements of Operations.An entity may choose one of two adoption methods for the liability for future policy benefits: (1) a modified retrospective transition method whereby the entity may choose to apply the amendments to contracts in force as of the beginning of the prior year (if early adoption is elected) or as of the beginning of the earliest period presented on the basis of their existing carrying amounts, adjusted for the removal of any related amounts in AOCI or (2) a full retrospective transition method.The options for method of adoption and the impacts of such methods are under assessment.
Discount rate assumption used to measure the liability for future policy benefits for non-participating traditional and limited-pay insurance productsRequires discount rate assumptions to be based on an upper-medium grade fixed income instrument yield, which will be updated each quarter with the impact recorded through OCI. An entity shall maximize the use of relevant observable information and minimize the use of unobservable information in determining the discount rate assumptions.As noted above, an entity may choose either a modified retrospective transition method or full retrospective transition method for the liability for future policy benefits. Under either method, for balance sheet remeasurement purposes, the liability for future policy benefits will be remeasured using current discount rates as of either the beginning of the prior year (if early adoption is elected) or the beginning of the earliest period presented with the impact recorded as a cumulative effect adjustment to AOCI.Upon adoption, under either transition method, there will be an adjustment to AOCI as a result of remeasuring in-force contract liabilities using current upper-medium grade fixed income instrument yields. The adjustment upon adoption will largely reflect the difference between discount rates locked-in at contract inception versus current discount rates at transition. The magnitude of such adjustment is currently being assessed.
Amortization of DAC and other balancesRequires DAC and other balances, such as unearned revenue reserves and DSI, to be amortized on a constant level basis over the expected term of the related contract, independent of expected profitability.An entity may apply one of two adoption methods: (1) a modified retrospective transition method whereby the entity may choose to apply the amendments to contracts in force as of the beginning of the prior year (if early adoption is elected) or as of the beginning of the earliest period presented on the basis of their existing carrying amounts, adjusted for the removal of any related amounts in AOCI or (2) if an entity chooses a full retrospective transition method for its liability for future policy benefits, as described above, it is required to also use a full retrospective transition method for DAC and other balances.The options for method of adoption and the impacts of such methods are under assessment. Under the modified retrospective transition method, the Company would not expect a significant impact to the balance sheet, other than the impact of the removal of any related amounts in AOCI.
Market Risk Benefits ("MRB")Requires an entity to measure all market risk benefits (e.g., living benefit and death benefit guarantees associated with variable annuities) at fair value, and record MRB assets and liabilities separately on the Statements of Financial Position. Changes in fair value of market risk benefits are recorded in net income, except for the portion of the change in MRB liabilities attributable to changes in an entity’s NPR, which is recognized in OCI.An entity shall adopt the guidance for market risk benefits using the retrospective transition method which includes a cumulative-effect adjustment on the balance sheet as of either the beginning of prior year (if early adoption is elected) or the beginning of the earliest period presented. An entity shall maximize the use of relevant observable information and minimize the use of unobservable information in determining the balance of the market risk benefits upon adoption.Upon adoption, the Company expects an impact to retained earnings for the difference between the fair value and carrying value of benefits not currently measured at fair value (e.g., guaranteed minimum death benefits ("GMDB") on variable annuities) and an impact from reclassifying the cumulative effect of changes in NPR from retained earnings to AOCI. The magnitude of such adjustments is currently being assessed.


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3. INVESTMENTS
Fixed Maturity Securities
The following tables set forth the composition of fixed maturity securities (excluding investments classified as trading), as of the dates indicated:
December 31, 2020
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Allowance for Credit LossesFair
Value
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government authorities and agencies$10,638 $1,017 $$$11,655 
Obligations of U.S. states and their political subdivisions162,227 20,399 182,626 
Foreign government bonds79,318 13,347 29 92,636 
U.S. public corporate securities791,616 158,087 118 949,585 
U.S. private corporate securities222,279 23,564 225 245,618 
Foreign public corporate securities60,376 10,022 51 70,347 
Foreign private corporate securities148,103 17,892 640 165,355 
Asset-backed securities(1)16,535 666 12 17,189 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities141,564 13,854 155,418 
Residential mortgage-backed securities(2)3,214 552 3,766 
Total fixed maturities, available-for-sale$1,635,870 $259,400 $1,075 $$1,894,195 
(1)Includes credit-tranched securities collateralized by loan obligations and education loans.
(2)Includes publicly-traded agency pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations.

December 31, 2019
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair ValueOTTI in AOCI(3)
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government authorities and agencies$14,983 $1,032 $$16,015 $
Obligations of U.S. states and their political subdivisions123,505 10,172 133,677 
Foreign government bonds70,287 6,993 77,280 
U.S. public corporate securities627,880 70,167 527 697,520 
U.S. private corporate securities222,952 10,416 153 233,215 
Foreign public corporate securities53,115 4,958 80 57,993 
Foreign private corporate securities161,597 4,505 2,210 163,892 
Asset-backed securities(1)17,816 753 27 18,542 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities141,593 5,796 147,389 
Residential mortgage-backed securities(2)4,068 509 4,573 (50)
Total fixed maturities, available-for-sale$1,437,796 $115,301 $3,001 $1,550,096 $(50)
(1)Includes credit-tranched securities collateralized by loan obligations, sub-prime mortgages, and education loans.
(2)Includes publicly-traded agency pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations.
(3)Represents the amount of unrealized losses remaining in AOCI, from the impairment measurement date. Amount excludes $0.1 million of net unrealized gains on impaired available-for-sale securities relating to changes in the value of such securities subsequent to the impairment measurement date.

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The following table sets forth the fair value and gross unrealized losses on available-for-sale fixed maturity securities without an allowance for credit losses aggregated by investment category and length of time that individual fixed maturity securities had been in a continuous unrealized loss position, as of the date indicated:
December 31, 2020
Less Than Twelve MonthsTwelve Months or MoreTotal
Fair Value  Gross
  Unrealized  
Losses
Fair Value  Gross
  Unrealized  
Losses
Fair Value  Gross
  Unrealized  
Losses
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
Foreign government bonds$2,122 $29 $$$2,122 $29 
U.S. public corporate securities10,416 118 10,416 118 
U.S. private corporate securities9,635 225 9,635 225 
Foreign public corporate securities1,611 51 1,611 51 
Foreign private corporate securities12,017 640 12,017 640 
Asset-backed securities988 3,941 10 4,929 12 
Residential mortgage-backed securities
Total fixed maturities, available-for-sale$24,772 $425 $15,958 $650 $40,730 $1,075 

The following table sets forth the fair value and gross unrealized losses on fixed maturity securities aggregated by investment category and length of time that individual fixed maturity securities had been in a continuous unrealized loss position, as of the date indicated:
December 31, 2019
Less Than Twelve MonthsTwelve Months or MoreTotal
Fair ValueGross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair ValueGross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair ValueGross
Unrealized
Losses
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
Foreign government bonds$$$400 $$400 $
U.S. public corporate securities16,892 190 1,073 337 17,965 527 
U.S. private corporate securities7,350 140 4,757 13 12,107 153 
Foreign public corporate securities2,054 23 2,427 57 4,481 80 
Foreign private corporate securities10,659 281 27,048 1,929 37,707 2,210 
Asset-backed securities1,488 12 2,985 15 4,473 27 
Residential mortgage-backed securities91 91 
Total fixed maturities, available-for-sale$38,534 $650 $38,690 $2,351 $77,224 $3,001 

As of December 31, 2020, the gross unrealized losses on fixed maturity available-for-sale securities without an allowance were composed of $0.4 million related to “1” highest quality or “2” high quality securities based on the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) or equivalent rating and $0.7 million related to other than high or highest quality securities based on NAIC or equivalent rating. As of December 31, 2020, the $0.7 million of gross unrealized losses of twelve months or more were concentrated in the Company’s corporate securities within the finance and consumer non-cyclical sectors.

As of December 31, 2019, the gross unrealized losses on fixed maturity securities were composed of $2.4 million related to “1” highest quality or “2” high quality securities based on the NAIC or equivalent rating and $0.6 million related to other than high or highest quality securities based on NAIC or equivalent rating. As of December 31, 2019, the $2.4 million of gross unrealized losses of twelve months or more were concentrated in the Company’s corporate securities within the finance, consumer non-cyclical and energy sectors.

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In accordance with its policy described in Note 2, the Company concluded that an adjustment to earnings for credit losses related to these fixed maturity securities was not warranted at December 31, 2020. These conclusions were based on a detailed analysis of the underlying credit and cash flows on each security. Gross unrealized losses are primarily attributable to general credit spread widening, increases in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rate movements and the financial condition or near-term prospects of the issuer. As of December 31, 2020, the Company did not intend to sell these securities, and it was not more likely than not that the Company would be required to sell these securities before the anticipated recovery of the remaining amortized cost basis.

The following table sets forth the amortized cost and fair value of fixed maturities by contractual maturities, as of the date indicated:
December 31, 2020
Amortized CostFair Value
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
Due in one year or less$18,747 $19,000 
Due after one year through five years200,909 214,388 
Due after five years through ten years205,745 228,272 
Due after ten years1,049,156 1,256,162 
Asset-backed securities16,535 17,189 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities141,564 155,418 
Residential mortgage-backed securities3,214 3,766 
Total fixed maturities, available-for-sale$1,635,870 $1,894,195 

Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because issuers may have the right to call or prepay obligations. Asset-backed, commercial mortgage-backed and residential mortgage-backed securities are shown separately in the table above, as they do not have a single maturity date.
The following table sets forth the sources of fixed maturity proceeds and related investment gains (losses), as well as losses on write-downs, impairments and the allowance for credit losses of fixed maturities, for the periods indicated:
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
Proceeds from sales(1)$4,085 $12,801 $3,530 
Proceeds from maturities/prepayments57,837 59,294 70,152 
Gross investment gains from sales and maturities(4)164 172 
Gross investment losses from sales and maturities(43)(709)(219)
OTTI recognized in earnings(2) N/A(5,474)(125)
Write-downs recognized in earnings(3)(625)N/AN/A
(Addition to) release of allowance for credit losses(4)N/AN/A

(1)Includes $1.5 million, $0.0 million and $0.0 million of non-cash related proceeds due to the timing of trade settlements for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
(2)For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, amounts exclude the portion of OTTI amounts remaining in OCI, representing any difference between the fair value of the impaired debt security and the net present value of its projected future cash flows at the time of impairment.
(3)For the year ended December 31, 2020, amounts represent write-downs on credit adverse securities, write-downs on securities approaching maturity related to foreign exchange movements and securities actively marketed for sale.
(4)Effective January 1, 2020, credit losses on available-for-sale fixed maturity securities are recorded within the "allowance for credit losses."

For the year ended December 31, 2020, there was 0 activity in the allowance for credit losses for fixed maturity securities.

See Note 2 for additional information about the Company's methodology for developing our allowance and expected losses.
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The Company did 0t have any fixed maturity securities purchased with credit deterioration, as of December 31, 2020.
Equity Securities
The net change in unrealized gains (losses) from equity securities still held at period end, recorded within “Other income,” was $(0.8) million, $0.6 million and $(1.0) million during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Commercial Mortgage and Other Loans
The following table sets forth the composition of “Commercial mortgage and other loans,” as of the dates indicated: 
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Amount
(in thousands)
% of
Total
Amount
(in thousands)
% of
Total
Commercial mortgage and agricultural property loans by property type:
Apartments/Multi-Family$46,755 35.0 %$47,568 33.2 %
Hospitality14,031 10.5 14,266 10.0 
Industrial13,936 10.4 18,907 13.2 
Office23,649 17.7 24,035 16.7 
Other16,929 12.7 18,853 13.2 
Retail15,857 11.9 16,174 11.3 
Total commercial mortgage loans131,157 98.2 139,803 97.6 
Agricultural property loans2,398 1.8 3,460 2.4 
Total commercial mortgage and agricultural property loans133,555 100.0 %143,263 100.0 %
Allowance for credit losses(440)(165)
Total net commercial mortgage and agricultural property loans$133,115 $143,098 

As of December 31, 2020, the commercial mortgage and agricultural property loans were secured by properties geographically dispersed throughout the United States (with the largest concentrations in New York (14%), Florida (10%), Illinois (9%) and Texas (9%)) and included loans secured by properties in Europe (11%).

The following table sets forth the activity in the allowance for credit losses for commercial mortgage and other loans, as of the dates indicated: 
Commercial Mortgage LoansAgricultural Property LoansTotal
(in thousands)
Balance at December 31, 2017$179 $$180 
Addition to (release of) allowance for credit losses(29)(29)
Balance at December 31, 2018$150 $$151 
Addition to (release of) allowance for credit losses14 14 
Balance at December 31, 2019$164 $$165 
Cumulative effect of adoption of ASU 2016-13204 204 
Addition to (release of) allowance for expected losses72 (1)71 
Balance at December 31, 2020$440 $$440 
See Note 2 for additional information about the Company's methodology for developing our allowance and expected losses.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, the increase in the allowance for credit losses on commercial mortgage and other loans was primarily related to the cumulative effect of adoption of ASU 2016-13.
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The following tables set forth key credit quality indicators based upon the recorded investment gross of allowance for credit losses, as of the dates indicated:

December 31, 2020
Amortized Cost by Origination Year
20202019201820172016PriorTotal
(in thousands)
Commercial Mortgage Loans
Loan-to-Value Ratio:
0%-59.99%$$6,285 $$6,349 $9,731 $45,261 $67,626 
60%-69.99%2,198 27,970 1,478 5,381 3,191 18,533 58,751 
70%-79.99%1,870 1,931 3,801 
80% or greater979 979 
Total$2,198 $36,125 $1,478 $12,709 $12,922 $65,725 $131,157 
Debt Service Coverage Ratio:
Greater or Equal to 1.2x$2,198 $31,751 $1,478 $11,730 $11,872 $60,499 $119,528 
1.0 - 1.2x3,364 979 1,050 5,226 10,619 
Less than 1.0x1,010 1,010 
Total$2,198 $36,125 $1,478 $12,709 $12,922 $65,725 $131,157 
Agricultural Property Loans
Loan-to-Value Ratio:
0%-59.99%$$$$$$2,398 $2,398 
60%-69.99%
70%-79.99%
80% or greater
Total$$$$$$2,398 $2,398 
Debt Service Coverage Ratio:
Greater or Equal to 1.2x$$$$$$2,398 $2,398 
1.0 - 1.2x
Less than 1.0x
Total$$$$$$2,398 $2,398 

Commercial mortgage loans
December 31, 2019
Debt Service Coverage Ratio
> 1.2X
1.0X to <1.2X< 1.0XTotal
(in thousands)
Loan-to-Value Ratio:
0%-59.99%$89,855 $1,131 $$90,986 
60%-69.99%42,726 1,877 44,603 
70%-79.99%2,695 1,519 4,214 
80% or greater
Total commercial mortgage loans$135,276 $4,527 $$139,803 
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Agricultural property loans
December 31, 2019
Debt Service Coverage Ratio
> 1.2X
1.0X to <1.2X< 1.0XTotal
(in thousands)
Loan-to-Value Ratio:
0%-59.99%$3,460 $$$3,460 
60%-69.99%
70%-79.99%
80% or greater
Total agricultural property loans$3,460 $$$3,460 

See Note 2 for additional information about the Company’s commercial mortgage and other loans credit quality monitoring process.

The following tables set forth an aging of past due commercial mortgage and other loans based upon the recorded investment gross of allowance for credit losses, as well as the amount of commercial mortgage and other loans on non-accrual status, as of the dates indicated:
December 31, 2020
Current30-59 Days Past Due60-89 Days Past Due90 Days or More Past Due(1)Total LoansNon-Accrual Status(2)
(in thousands)
Commercial mortgage loans$131,157 $$$$131,157 $
Agricultural property loans2,398 2,398 
Total$133,555 $$$$133,555 $

(1)As of December 31, 2020, there were 0 loans in this category accruing interest.
(2)For additional information regarding the Company’s policies for accruing interest on loans, see Note 2.
December 31, 2019
Current30-59 Days Past Due60-89 Days Past Due90 Days or More Past Due(1)Total LoansNon-Accrual Status(2)
(in thousands)
Commercial mortgage loans$139,803 $$$$139,803 $
Agricultural property loans3,460 3,460 
Total$143,263 $$$$143,263 $

(1)As of December 31, 2019, there were 0 loans in this category accruing interest.
(2)For additional information regarding the Company’s policies for accruing interest on loans, see Note 2.

There were 0 loans on non-accrual status as of December 31, 2020. Loans that were in non-accrual status did 0t recognize interest income for the year ended December 31, 2020.

The Company did 0t have any commercial mortgage and other loans purchased with credit deterioration, as of December 31, 2020.

For both the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were 0 commercial mortgage and other loans acquired, other than those through direct origination, and there were 0 commercial mortgage and other loans sold.
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Notes to Financial Statements—(Continued)



Other Invested Assets
The following table sets forth the composition of “Other invested assets,” as of the dates indicated: 
December 31,
20202019
(in thousands)
Company's investment in separate accounts$3,269 $3,418 
LPs/LLCs:
Equity method:
Private equity38,261 26,609 
Hedge funds33,773 30,629 
Real estate-related4,625 4,154 
Subtotal equity method76,659 61,392 
Fair value:
Private equity590 774 
Hedge funds69 78 
Real estate-related2,141 2,490 
Subtotal fair value2,800 3,342 
Total LPs/LLCs79,459 64,734 
Derivative instruments14,781 21,384 
Total other invested assets$97,509 $89,536 

Equity Method Investments

The following tables set forth summarized combined financial information for significant LP/LLC interests accounted for under the equity method. Changes between periods in the tables below reflect changes in the activities within the LPs/LLCs, as well as changes in the Company’s level of investment in such entities.
 December 31,
 20202019
 (in thousands)
STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
Total assets(1)$1,806,040 $1,629,207 
Total liabilities$$
Partners’ capital1,806,040 1,629,207 
Total liabilities and partners’ capital$1,806,040 $1,629,207 
Total liabilities and partners’ capital included above$33,773 $30,629 
Equity in LP/LLC interests not included above42,886 30,763 
Carrying value$76,659 $61,392 

(1)Amount represents gross assets of each fund where the Company has a significant investment. These assets consist primarily of investments in securities and other miscellaneous assets.


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 December 31,
 202020192018
 (in thousands)
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
Total revenue(1)$168,120 $125,685 $(511)
Total expenses
Net earnings (losses)$168,120 $125,685 $(511)
Equity in net earnings (losses) included above$3,144 $2,363 $(10)
Equity in net earnings (losses) of LP/LLC interests not included above3,858 801 751 
Total equity in net earnings (losses)$7,002 $3,164 $741 

(1)Amount represents gross revenue of each fund where the Company has a significant investment. This revenue consists of income from investments in securities and other income.

Accrued Investment Income

The following table sets forth the composition of “Accrued investment income,” as of the date indicated:
December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities$15,178 
Equity securities
Commercial mortgage and other loans372 
Policy loans5,688 
Short-term investments and cash equivalents
Total accrued investment income$21,248 

There were 0 write-downs on accrued investment income for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Net Investment Income
The following table sets forth “Net investment income” by investment type, for the periods indicated:
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale$61,250 $57,518 $52,235 
Fixed maturities, trading542 376 322 
Equity securities363 363 364 
Commercial mortgage and other loans5,485 5,130 5,006 
Policy loans11,597 11,458 11,071 
Other invested assets7,509 4,459 1,869 
Short-term investments and cash equivalents431 997 655 
Gross investment income87,177 80,301 71,522 
Less: investment expenses(4,182)(3,513)(3,711)
Net investment income$82,995 $76,788 $67,811 

The carrying value of non-income producing assets included $0.4 million in available-for-sale fixed maturities, as of December 31, 2020. Non-income producing assets represent investments that had not produced income for the twelve months preceding December 31, 2020.
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Realized Investment Gains (Losses), Net 
The following table sets forth “Realized investment gains (losses), net” by investment type, for the periods indicated: 
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities(1)$(672)$(6,019)$(172)
Commercial mortgage and other loans(71)(14)29 
Other invested assets(51)(519)49 
Derivatives2,721 (10,839)(9,178)
Short-term investments and cash equivalents(56)(1)
Realized investment gains (losses), net$1,871 $(17,388)$(9,273)
(1)Includes fixed maturity securities classified as available-for-sale and excludes fixed maturity securities classified as trading.

Net Unrealized Gains (Losses) on Investments within AOCI
The following table sets forth net unrealized gains (losses) on investments, as of the dates indicated:
December 31,
202020192018
(in thousands)
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale — with OTTI(1)$ N/A$51 $143 
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale — all other(1)N/A112,249 (20,211)
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale with an allowanceN/AN/A
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale without an allowance258,325 N/AN/A
Derivatives designated as cash flow hedges(2)(2,998)3,193 1,793 
Affiliated notes254 480 509 
Other investments143 66 145 
Net unrealized gains (losses) on investments$255,724 $116,039 $(17,621)
(1)Effective January 1, 2020, per ASU 2016-13, fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale are no longer required to be disclosed “with OTTI” and “all other.”
(2)For more information on cash flow hedges, see Note 4.

Repurchase Agreements and Securities Lending
In the normal course of business, the Company sells securities under agreements to repurchase and enters into securities lending transactions. As of both December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had 0 repurchase agreements.
The following table sets forth the composition of “Cash collateral for loaned securities,” which represents the liability to return cash collateral received for the following types of securities loaned, as of the dates indicated:
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Remaining Contractual Maturities of the AgreementsRemaining Contractual Maturities of the Agreements
Overnight & ContinuousUp to 30 DaysTotalOvernight & ContinuousUp to 30 DaysTotal
(in thousands)
Foreign public corporate securities$2,725 $$2,725 $2,481 $$2,481 
Total cash collateral for loaned securities(1)$2,725 $$2,725 $2,481 $$2,481 
(1)The Company did 0t have agreements with remaining contractual maturities greater than thirty days, as of the dates indicated.
Securities Pledged, Restricted Assets and Special Deposits
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The Company pledges as collateral investment securities it owns to unaffiliated parties through certain transactions, including securities lending, securities sold under agreements to repurchase, collateralized borrowings and postings of collateral with derivative counterparties. The following table sets forth the carrying value of investments pledged to third parties and the carrying amount of the associated liabilities supported by the pledged collateral, as of the dates indicated: 
December 31,
20202019
(in thousands)
Pledged collateral:
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$2,525 $2,427 
Total securities pledged$2,525 $2,427 
Liabilities supported by the pledged collateral:
Cash collateral for loaned securities$2,725 $2,481 
Total liabilities supported by the pledged collateral$2,725 $2,481 

In the normal course of its business activities, the Company accepts collateral that can be sold or repledged. The primary sources of this collateral are securities purchased under agreements to resell. As of both December 31, 2020 and 2019, there was 0 collateral that could be sold or repledged.
As of both December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were available-for-sale fixed maturities of $0.5 million, on deposit with governmental authorities or trustees as required by certain insurance laws.

4. DERIVATIVES AND HEDGING
Types of Derivative Instruments and Derivative Strategies
Interest Rate Contracts
Interest rate swaps are used by the Company to reduce risks from changes in interest rates, manage interest rate exposures arising from mismatches between assets and liabilities and to hedge against changes in their values it owns or anticipates acquiring or selling.
Swaps may be attributed to specific assets or liabilities or to a portfolio of assets or liabilities. Under interest rate swaps, the Company agrees with counterparties to exchange, at specified intervals, the difference between fixed-rate and floating-rate interest amounts calculated by reference to an agreed upon notional principal amount.
Equity Contracts
Equity options are used by the Company to manage its exposure to the equity markets which impacts the value of assets and liabilities it owns or anticipates acquiring or selling.
Equity index options are contracts which will settle in cash based on differentials in the underlying indices at the time of exercise and the strike price. The Company uses combinations of purchases and sales of equity index options to hedge the effects of adverse changes in equity indices within a predetermined range.
Foreign Exchange Contracts
Currency derivatives, including currency swaps and forwards, are used by the Company to reduce risks from changes in currency exchange rates with respect to investments denominated in foreign currencies that the Company either holds or intends to acquire or sell.
Under currency forwards, the Company agrees with counterparties to deliver a specified amount of an identified currency at a specified future date. Typically, the price is agreed upon at the time of the contract and payment for such a contract is made at the specified future date. The Company executes forward sales of the hedged currency in exchange for U.S. dollars at a specified exchange rate. The maturities of these forwards correspond with the future periods in which the non-U.S. dollar-denominated earnings are expected to be generated.
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Under currency swaps, the Company agrees with counterparties to exchange, at specified intervals, the difference between one currency and another at an exchange rate and calculated by reference to an agreed principal amount. Generally, the principal amount of each currency is exchanged at the beginning and termination of the currency swap by each party.
Credit Contracts
The Company writes credit protection to gain exposure similar to investment in public fixed maturity cash instruments. With these credit derivatives the Company sells credit protection on a single name reference, or certain index reference, and in return receives a quarterly premium. This premium or credit spread generally corresponds to the difference between the yield on the referenced name (or an index’s referenced names) public fixed maturity cash instruments and swap rates, at the time the agreement is executed. If there is an event of default by the referenced name or one of the referenced names in the index, as defined by the agreement, then the Company is obligated to pay the referenced amount of the contract to the counterparty and receive in return the referenced defaulted security or similar security or (in the case of a credit default index) pay the referenced amount less the auction recovery rate.
In addition to selling credit protection, the Company purchases credit protection using credit derivatives in order to hedge specific credit exposures in the Company’s investment portfolio.
Embedded Derivatives
The Company offers certain products (for example, variable annuities and index-linked universal life), which may include guaranteed benefit features that are accounted for as embedded derivatives. Related to certain of these derivatives, the Company has entered into reinsurance agreements with an affiliate, Prudential Insurance, effective April 1, 2016. See Note 9 for additional information on the reinsurance agreements.
These embedded derivatives and reinsurance agreements, also accounted for as derivatives, are carried at fair value and marked to market through “Realized investment gains (losses), net” based on the change in value of the underlying contractual guarantees, which are determined using valuation models, as described in Note 5.
Primary Risks Managed by Derivatives
The table below provides a summary of the gross notional amount and fair value of derivative contracts by the primary underlying risks, excluding embedded derivatives and associated reinsurance recoverables. Many derivative instruments contain multiple underlying risks. The fair value amounts below represent the value of derivative contracts prior to taking into account the netting effects of master netting agreements and cash collateral.
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December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Primary Underlying Risk/Instrument TypeGross
Notional
Fair ValueGross
Notional
Fair Value
AssetsLiabilitiesAssetsLiabilities
(in thousands)
Derivatives Designated as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Currency/Interest Rate
Foreign Currency Swaps$126,806 $2,404 $(7,017)$131,212 $4,653 $(1,504)
Total Derivatives Designated as Hedge Accounting Instruments:$126,806 $2,404 $(7,017)$131,212 $4,653 $(1,504)
Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Interest Rate
Interest Rate Swaps$30,200 $4,535 $$32,075 $3,005 $(5)
Credit
Credit Default Swaps713 (6)
Currency/Interest Rate
Foreign Currency Swaps33,224 2,374 (1,650)33,224 2,691 (579)
Foreign Currency
Foreign Currency Forwards3,087 (96)1,858 (36)
Equity
Equity Options441,725 41,582 (27,350)379,350 24,064 (10,919)
Total Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments$508,949 $48,491 $(29,102)$446,507 $29,760 $(11,539)
Total Derivatives(1)(2)$635,755 $50,895 $(36,119)$577,719 $34,413 $(13,043)
(1)Excludes embedded derivatives and associated reinsurance recoverables which contain multiple underlying risks. The fair value of these embedded derivatives was a net liability of $1,195 million and $761 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively included in “Future policy benefits” and $154 million and $134 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively included in “Policyholders’ account balances". The fair value of the related reinsurance, included in "Reinsurance recoverables" or "Other liabilities" was an asset of $1,195 million and $761 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
(2)Recorded in "Other invested assets" and "Payables to parent and affiliates" on the Statements of Financial Position.

Offsetting Assets and Liabilities
The following table presents recognized derivative instruments (excluding embedded derivatives and associated reinsurance recoverables), and repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, that are offset in the Statements of Financial Position, and/or are subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement, irrespective of whether they are offset in the Statements of Financial Position. 
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December 31, 2020
Gross
Amounts of
Recognized
Financial
Instruments
Gross
Amounts
Offset in the
Statement of
Financial
Position
Net
Amounts
Presented in
the Statement
of Financial
Position
Financial
Instruments/
Collateral(1)
Net
Amount
(in thousands)
Offsetting of Financial Assets:
Derivatives(1)$50,895 $(36,114)$14,781 $(14,572)$209 
Securities purchased under agreements to resell
Total Assets$50,895 $(36,114)$14,781 $(14,572)$209 
Offsetting of Financial Liabilities:
Derivatives(1)$36,119 $(36,119)$$$
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
Total Liabilities$36,119 $(36,119)$$$
December 31, 2019
Gross
Amounts of
Recognized
Financial
Instruments
Gross
Amounts
Offset in the Statement of
Financial
Position
Net
Amounts
Presented in
the Statement
of Financial
Position
Financial
Instruments/
Collateral(1)
Net
Amount
(in thousands)
Offsetting of Financial Assets:
Derivatives(1)$34,413 $(13,029)$21,384 $(21,384)$
Securities purchased under agreements to resell
Total Assets$34,413 $(13,029)$21,384 $(21,384)$
Offsetting of Financial Liabilities:
Derivatives(1)$13,043 $(13,043)$$$
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
Total Liabilities$13,043 $(13,043)$$$
(1)Amounts exclude the excess of collateral received/pledged from/to the counterparty.
For information regarding the rights of offset associated with the derivative assets and liabilities in the table above see “Credit Risk” below and Note 13. For securities purchased under agreements to resell and securities sold under agreements to repurchase, the Company monitors the value of the securities and maintains collateral, as appropriate, to protect against credit exposure. Where the Company has entered into repurchase and resale agreements with the same counterparty, in the event of default, the Company would generally be permitted to exercise rights of offset. For additional information on the Company’s accounting policy for securities repurchase and resale agreements, see Note 2 to the Financial Statements.

Cash Flow Hedges
The primary derivative instruments used by the Company in its cash flow hedge accounting relationships are currency swaps. These instruments are only designated for hedge accounting in instances where the appropriate criteria are met. The Company does not use futures, options, credit and equity derivatives in any of its cash flow hedge accounting relationships.
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The following tables provide the financial statement classification and impact of derivatives used in qualifying and non-qualifying hedge relationships, excluding the offset of the hedged item in an effective hedge relationship. 
Year Ended December 31, 2020
Realized
Investment
Gains (Losses)
Net
Investment
Income
Other IncomeAOCI(1)
(in thousands)
Derivatives Designated as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Cash flow hedges
Currency/Interest Rate$106 $1,868 $(1,016)$(6,191)
Total cash flow hedges106 1,868 (1,016)(6,191)
Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Interest Rate1,919 
Currency(174)
Currency/Interest Rate(894)(25)
Credit(88)
Equity4,603 
Embedded Derivatives(2,751)
Total Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments2,615 (25)
Total$2,721 $1,868 $(1,041)$(6,191)
Year Ended December 31, 2019
Realized
Investment
Gains (Losses)
Net
Investment
Income
Other
Income
AOCI(1)
(in thousands)
Derivatives Designated as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Cash flow hedges
Currency/Interest Rate$569 $1,693 $(418)$1,391 
Total cash flow hedges569 1,693 (418)1,391 
Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Interest Rate1,393 
Currency38 
Currency/Interest Rate216 (9)
Credit(1)
Equity10,544 
Embedded Derivatives(23,598)
Total Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments(11,408)(9)
Total$(10,839)$1,693 $(427)$1,391 
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Year Ended December 31, 2018
Realized
Investment
Gains (Losses)
Net
Investment
Income
Other
Income
AOCI(1)
(in thousands)
Derivatives Designated as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Cash flow hedges
Currency/Interest Rate$(305)$1,360 $638 $6,829 
Total cash flow hedges(305)1,360 638 6,829 
Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments:
Interest Rate(583)
Currency98 
Currency/Interest Rate1,682 13 
Credit(2)
Equity(3,793)
Embedded Derivatives(6,275)
Total Derivatives Not Qualifying as Hedge Accounting Instruments(8,873)13 
Total$(9,178)$1,360 $651 $6,829 

(1)Net change in AOCI.

Presented below is a rollforward of current period cash flow hedges in AOCI before taxes: 
(in thousands)
Balance, December 31, 2017$(5,036)
Amount recorded in AOCI
Currency/Interest Rate8,522 
Total amount recorded in AOCI8,522 
Amount reclassified from AOCI to income
Currency/Interest Rate(1,693)
Total amount reclassified from AOCI to income(1,693)
Balance, December 31, 2018$1,793 
Cumulative-effect adjustment from the adoption of ASU 2017-12(1)9
Amount recorded in AOCI
Currency/Interest Rate3,235 
Total amount recorded in AOCI3,235 
Amount reclassified from AOCI to income
Currency/Interest Rate(1,844)
Total amount reclassified from AOCI to income(1,844)
Balance, December 31, 2019$3,193 
Amount recorded in AOCI
Currency/Interest Rate(5,233)
Total amount recorded in AOCI(5,233)
Amount reclassified from AOCI to income
Currency/Interest Rate(958)
Total amount reclassified from AOCI to income(958)
Balance, December 31, 2020$(2,998)
(1)See Note 2 for details.
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The changes in fair value of cash flow hedges are deferred in AOCI and are included in “Net unrealized investment gains (losses)” in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss); these amounts are then reclassified to earnings when the hedged item affects earnings. Using December 31, 2020 values, it is estimated that a pre-tax gain of $1.5 million is expected to be reclassified from AOCI to earnings during the subsequent twelve months ending December 31, 2021.
The exposures the Company is hedging with these qualifying cash flow hedges include the variability of the payment or receipt of interest or foreign currency amounts on existing financial instruments.
There were no material amounts reclassified from AOCI into earnings relating to instances in which the Company discontinued cash flow hedge accounting because the forecasted transaction did not occur by the anticipated date or within the additional time period permitted by the authoritative guidance for the accounting for derivatives and hedging.
Credit Derivatives
The Company has no exposure from credit derivative positions where it has written credit protection as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
The Company has purchased credit protection using credit derivatives in order to hedge specific credit exposures in the Company’s investment portfolio. The Company has outstanding notional amounts of $0.7 million and $0 million reported as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively with a fair value of $0 million for both periods.
Credit Risk
The Company is exposed to credit-related losses in the event of non-performance by counterparty to financial derivative transactions with a positive fair value. The Company manages credit risk by entering into derivative transactions with its affiliate, Prudential Global Funding LLC (“PGF”), related to its OTC derivatives. PGF, in turn, manages its credit risk by: (i) entering into derivative transactions with highly rated major international financial institutions and other creditworthy counterparties governed by master netting agreement as applicable; (ii) trading through central clearing and OTC parties; (iii) obtaining collateral, such as cash and securities, when appropriate; and (iv) setting limits on single party credit exposures which are subject to periodic management review.
Substantially all of the Company’s derivative agreements have zero thresholds which require daily full collateralization by the party in a liability position.
5. FAIR VALUE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
Fair Value Measurement – Fair value represents the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The authoritative fair value guidance establishes a framework for measuring fair value that includes a hierarchy used to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value. The level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement falls is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1 - Fair value is based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible to the Company for identical assets or liabilities. The Company’s Level 1 assets and liabilities primarily include certain cash equivalents.
Level 2 - Fair value is based on significant inputs, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability through corroboration with observable market data. Level 2 inputs include quoted market prices in active markets for similar assets and liabilities, quoted market prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets or liabilities, and other market observable inputs. The Company’s Level 2 assets and liabilities include: fixed maturities (corporate public and private bonds, most government securities, certain asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities, etc.), certain equity securities (mutual funds, which do not trade in active markets because they are not publicly available), certain cash equivalents, and certain OTC derivatives.
Level 3 - Fair value is based on at least one significant unobservable input for the asset or liability. The assets and liabilities in this category may require significant judgment or estimation in determining the fair value. The Company’s Level 3 assets and liabilities primarily include: certain private fixed maturities and equity securities, certain manually priced public fixed maturities, certain highly structured OTC derivative contracts and embedded derivatives resulting from reinsurance or certain products with guaranteed benefits.

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Assets and Liabilities by Hierarchy Level – The tables below present the balances of assets and liabilities reported at fair value on a recurring basis, as of the dates indicated.
December 31, 2020
Level 1Level 2Level 3Netting(1)Total
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government authorities and agencies$$11,655 $$$11,655 
Obligations of U.S. states and their political subdivisions182,626 182,626 
Foreign government bonds92,636 92,636 
U.S. corporate public securities949,585 949,585 
U.S. corporate private securities245,194 424 245,618 
Foreign corporate public securities70,347 70,347 
Foreign corporate private securities141,734 23,621 165,355 
Asset-backed securities(2)17,189 17,189 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities155,418 155,418 
Residential mortgage-backed securities3,766 3,766 
Subtotal1,870,150 24,045 1,894,195 
Fixed maturities, trading19,269 19,269 
Equity securities123 6,095 6,218 
Cash equivalents60,879 60,879 
Other invested assets(3)50,895 (36,114)14,781 
Reinsurance recoverables1,195,469 1,195,469 
Receivables from parent and affiliates815 815 
Subtotal excluding separate account assets2,002,131 1,225,609 (36,114)3,191,626 
Separate account assets(4)(5)15,044,796 15,044,796 
Total assets$$17,046,927 $1,225,609 $(36,114)$18,236,422 
Future policy benefits(6)$$$1,195,469 $$1,195,469 
Policyholders' account balances153,937 153,937 
Payables to parent and affiliates36,119 (36,119)
Total liabilities$$36,119 $1,349,406 $(36,119)$1,349,406 
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December 31, 2019
Level 1Level 2Level 3Netting(1)Total
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of U.S. government authorities and agencies$$16,015 $$$16,015 
Obligations of U.S. states and their political subdivisions133,677 133,677 
Foreign government bonds77,280 77,280 
U.S. corporate public securities697,520 697,520 
U.S. corporate private securities232,903 312 233,215 
Foreign corporate public securities57,993 57,993 
Foreign corporate private securities163,026 866 163,892 
Asset-backed securities(2)18,542 18,542 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities147,389 147,389 
Residential mortgage-backed securities4,573 4,573 
Subtotal1,548,918 1,178 1,550,096 
Fixed maturities, trading13,700 13,700 
Equity securities207 7,305 7,512 
Cash equivalents55,896 55,896 
Other invested assets(3)34,413 (13,029)21,384 
Reinsurance recoverables760,558 760,558 
Receivables from parent and affiliates2,433 2,433 
Subtotal excluding separate account assets1,655,567 769,041 (13,029)2,411,579 
Separate account assets(4)(5)13,927,275 13,927,275 
Total assets$$15,582,842 $769,041 $(13,029)$16,338,854 
Future policy benefits(6)$$$760,558 $$760,558 
Policyholders' account balances133,793 133,793 
Payables to parent and affiliates13,043 (13,043)
Total liabilities$$13,043 $894,351 $(13,043)$894,351 

(1)“Netting” amounts represent cash collateral of $0.0 million as of both December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
(2)Includes credit tranched securities collateralized by syndicated bank loans, sub-prime mortgages, auto loans, credit cards, education loans and other asset types.
(3)Other invested assets excluded from the fair value hierarchy include certain hedge funds, private equity funds and other funds for which fair value is measured at net asset value ("NAV") per share (or its equivalent) as a practical expedient. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the fair values of such investments were $2.8 million and $3.3 million, respectively.
(4)Separate account assets included in the fair value hierarchy exclude investments in entities that calculate NAV per share (or its equivalent) as a practical expedient. Such investments excluded from the fair value hierarchy include investments in real estate, hedge funds and a corporate owned life insurance fund, for which fair value is measured at NAV per share (or its equivalent). At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the fair value of such investments was $2,073 million and $1,977 million respectively.
(5)Separate account assets represent segregated funds that are invested for certain customers. Investment risks associated with market value changes are borne by the customers, except to the extent of minimum guarantees made by the Company with respect to certain accounts. Separate account liabilities are not included in the above table as they are reported at contract value and not fair value in the Statements of Financial Position.
(6)As of December 31, 2020, the net embedded derivative liability position of $1,195 million includes $51 million of embedded derivatives in an asset position and $1,246 million of embedded derivatives in a liability position. As of December 31, 2019, the net embedded derivative liability position of $761 million includes $60 million of embedded derivatives in an asset position and $821 million of embedded derivatives in a liability position.
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The methods and assumptions the Company uses to estimate the fair value of assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis are summarized below.
Fixed Maturity Securities – The fair values of the Company’s public fixed maturity securities are generally based on prices obtained from independent pricing services. Prices for each security are generally sourced from multiple pricing vendors, and a vendor hierarchy is maintained by asset type based on historical pricing experience and vendor expertise. The Company ultimately uses the price from the pricing service highest in the vendor hierarchy based on the respective asset type. The pricing hierarchy is updated for new financial products and recent pricing experience with various vendors. Consistent with the fair value hierarchy described above, securities with validated quotes from pricing services are generally reflected within Level 2, as they are primarily based on observable pricing for similar assets and/or other market observable inputs. Typical inputs used by these pricing services include but are not limited to, reported trades, benchmark yields, issuer spreads, bids, offers, and/or estimated cash flow, prepayment speeds, and default rates. If the pricing information received from third-party pricing services is deemed not reflective of market activity or other inputs observable in the market, the Company may challenge the price through a formal process with the pricing service or classify the securities as Level 3. If the pricing service updates the price to be more consistent with the presented market observations, the security remains within Level 2.
Internally-developed valuations or indicative broker quotes are also used to determine fair value in circumstances where vendor pricing is not available, or where the Company ultimately concludes that pricing information received from the independent pricing services is not reflective of market activity. If the Company concludes the values from both pricing services and brokers are not reflective of market activity, it may override the information with an internally-developed valuation. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, overrides on a net basis were not material. Pricing service overrides, internally-developed valuations and indicative broker quotes are generally included in Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.
The Company conducts several specific price monitoring activities. Daily analyses identify price changes over predetermined thresholds defined at the financial instrument level. Various pricing integrity reports are reviewed on a daily and monthly basis to determine if pricing is reflective of market activity or if it would warrant any adjustments. Other procedures performed include, but are not limited to, reviews of third-party pricing services methodologies, reviews of pricing trends, and back testing.
The fair values of private fixed maturities, which are originated by internal private asset managers, are primarily determined using discounted cash flow models. These models primarily use observable inputs that include Treasury or similar base rates plus estimated credit spreads to value each security. The credit spreads are obtained through a survey of private market intermediaries who are active in both primary and secondary transactions, and consider, among other factors, the credit quality and the reduced liquidity associated with private placements. Internal adjustments are made to reflect variation in observed sector spreads. Since most private placements are valued using standard market observable inputs and inputs derived from, or corroborated by, market observable data including, but not limited to observed prices and spreads for similar publicly or privately traded issues, they have been reflected within Level 2. For certain private fixed maturities, the discounted cash flow model may incorporate significant unobservable inputs, which reflect the Company’s own assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset. To the extent management determines that such unobservable inputs are significant to the price of a security, a Level 3 classification is made.
Equity Securities – Equity securities consist principally of investments in common and preferred stock of publicly traded companies, privately traded securities, as well as mutual fund shares. The fair values of most publicly traded equity securities are based on quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets and are classified within Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy. Estimated fair values for most privately traded equity securities are determined using discounted cash flow, earnings multiple and other valuation models that require a substantial level of judgment around inputs and therefore are classified within Level 3. The fair values of mutual fund shares that transact regularly (but do not trade in active markets because they are not publicly available) are based on transaction prices of identical fund shares and are classified within Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Derivative Instruments – Derivatives are recorded at fair value either as assets within “Other invested assets”, or as liabilities within “Payables to parent and affiliates”, except for embedded derivatives which are recorded with the associated host contract. The fair values of derivative contracts can be affected by changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, credit spreads, market volatility, expected returns, NPR, liquidity and other factors.
The Company's exchange-traded futures and options include treasury and equity futures. Exchange-traded futures and options are valued using quoted prices in active markets and are classified within Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy.
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The majority of the Company’s derivative positions are traded in the OTC derivative market and are classified within Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy. OTC derivatives classified within Level 2 are valued using models that utilize actively quoted or observable market input values from external market data providers, third-party pricing vendors and/or recent trading activity. The Company’s policy is to use mid-market pricing in determining its best estimate of fair value. The fair values of most OTC derivatives, including interest rate and cross-currency swaps, currency forward contracts and single name credit default swaps are determined using discounted cash flow models. The fair values of European style option contracts are determined using Black-Scholes option pricing models. These models’ key inputs include the contractual terms of the respective contract, along with significant observable inputs, including interest rates, currency rates, credit spreads, equity prices, index dividend yields, NPR, volatility and other factors.
The Company’s cleared interest rate swaps and credit derivatives linked to an index are valued using models that utilize actively quoted or observable market inputs, including the secured overnight financing rate ("SOFR"), obtained from external market data providers, third-party pricing vendors and/or recent trading activity. These derivatives are classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments – Cash equivalents and short-term investments include money market instruments and other highly liquid debt instruments. Certain money market instruments are valued using unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible for identical assets and are primarily classified as Level 1. The remaining instruments in this category are generally fair valued based on market observable inputs, and these investments have primarily been classified within Level 2.
Separate Account Assets – Separate account assets include fixed maturity securities, treasuries, equity securities, real estate, mutual funds and commercial mortgage loans for which values are determined consistent with similar instruments described above under “Fixed Maturity Securities” and “Equity Securities”.
Receivables from Parent and Affiliates – Receivables from parent and affiliates carried at fair value include affiliated bonds within the Company’s legal entity where fair value is determined consistent with similar securities described above under “Fixed Maturity Securities” managed by affiliated asset managers.
Reinsurance Recoverables – Reinsurance recoverables carried at fair value include the reinsurance of the Company’s living benefit guarantees on certain variable annuity contracts. These guarantees are accounted for as embedded derivatives and are recorded in “Reinsurance recoverables” or “Other liabilities” when fair value is in an asset or liability position, respectively. The methods and assumptions used to estimate the fair value are consistent with those described below in “Future policy benefits”. The reinsurance agreements covering these guarantees are derivatives with fair value determined in the same manner as the living benefit guarantee.
Future Policy Benefits – The liability for future policy benefits is related to guarantees primarily associated with the living benefit features of certain variable annuity contracts, including guaranteed minimum accumulation benefits ("GMAB"), guaranteed withdrawal benefits ("GMWB") and guaranteed minimum income and withdrawal benefits ("GMIWB"), accounted for as embedded derivatives. The fair values of these liabilities are calculated as the present value of future expected benefit payments to customers less the present value of future expected rider fees attributable to the embedded derivative feature. This methodology could result in either a liability or asset balance, given changing capital market conditions and various actuarial assumptions. Since there is no observable active market for the transfer of these obligations, the valuations are calculated using internally developed models with option pricing techniques. The models are based on a risk neutral valuation framework and incorporate premiums for risks inherent in valuation techniques, inputs, and the general uncertainty around the timing and amount of future cash flows. The determination of these risk premiums requires the use of management's judgment.
The significant inputs to the valuation models for these embedded derivatives include capital market assumptions, such as interest rate levels and volatility assumptions, the Company’s market-perceived NPR, as well as actuarially determined assumptions, including contractholder behavior, such as lapse rates, benefit utilization rates, withdrawal rates and mortality rates. Since many of these assumptions are unobservable and are considered to be significant inputs to the liability valuation, the liability included in future policy benefits has been reflected within Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.
Capital market inputs and actual policyholders’ account values are updated each quarter based on capital market conditions as of the end of the quarter, including interest rates, equity markets and volatility. In the risk neutral valuation, the initial swap curve drives the total return used to grow the policyholders’ account values. The Company’s discount rate assumption is based on the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") swap curve adjusted for an additional spread relative to LIBOR to reflect NPR.
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Actuarial assumptions, including contractholder behavior and mortality, are reviewed at least annually, and updated based upon emerging experience, future expectations and other data, including any observable market data. These assumptions are generally updated annually unless a material change that the Company feels is indicative of a long-term trend is observed in an interim period.
Policyholders' Account Balances – The liability for policyholders’ account balances is related to certain embedded derivative instruments associated with certain universal life products that provide the policyholders with the index-linked interest credited over contract specified term periods. The fair values of these liabilities are determined using discounted cash flow models which include capital market assumptions such as interest rates and equity index volatility assumptions, the Company’s market-perceived NPR and actuarially determined assumptions for mortality, lapses and projected hedge costs.
As there is no observable active market for these liabilities, the fair value is determined as the present value of account balances paid to policyholders in excess of contractually guaranteed minimums using option pricing techniques for index term periods that contain deposits as of the valuation date, and the expected option budget for future index term periods, where the terms of index crediting rates have not yet been declared by the Company. Premiums for risks inherent in valuation techniques, inputs, and the general uncertainty around the timing and amount of future cash flows are also incorporated in the fair value of these liabilities. Since the valuation of these liabilities require the use of management’s judgment to determine these risk premiums and the use of unobservable inputs, these liabilities are reflected within Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.
Capital market inputs, including interest rates and equity markets volatility, and actual policyholders’ account values are updated each quarter. Actuarial assumptions are reviewed at least annually and updated based upon emerging experience, future expectations and other data, including any observable market data. Aside from these annual updates, assumptions are generally updated only if a material change is observed in an interim period that the Company believes is indicative of a long-term trend.
Quantitative Information Regarding Internally-Priced Level 3 Assets and Liabilities – The tables below present quantitative information on significant internally-priced Level 3 assets and liabilities.
December 31, 2020
Fair ValueValuation 
Techniques
Unobservable InputsMinimumMaximumWeighted
Average
Impact of Increase
in Input on Fair
Value(1)
(in thousands)
Assets:
Corporate securities(2)$24,045 Discounted cash flowDiscount rate1.84 %6.55 %2.32 %Decrease
Reinsurance recoverables$1,195,469 Fair values are determined using the same unobservable inputs as future policy benefits.
Liabilities:
Future policy benefits(3)$1,195,469 Discounted cash flowLapse rate(5)%20 %Decrease
Spread over LIBOR(6)0.06 %1.17 %Decrease
Utilization rate(7)39 %96 %Increase
Withdrawal rateSee table footnote (8) below.
Mortality rate(9)%15 %Decrease
Equity volatility curve18 %26 %Increase
Policyholders' account balances(4)$153,937 Discounted cash flowLapse rate(5)%%Decrease
Spread over LIBOR(6)0.06 %1.17 %Decrease
Mortality rate(9)%24 %Decrease
Equity volatility curve15 %30 %Increase
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December 31, 2019
Fair ValueValuation 
Techniques
Unobservable InputsMinimumMaximumWeighted
Average
Impact of Increase
in Input on Fair
Value(1)
(in thousands)
Assets:
Reinsurance recoverables$760,558 Fair values are determined using the same unobservable inputs as future policy benefits.
Liabilities:
Future policy benefits(3)$760,558 Discounted cash flowLapse rate(5)%18 %Decrease
Spread over LIBOR(6)0.10 %1.23 %Decrease
Utilization rate(7)43 %97 %Increase
Withdrawal rateSee table footnote (8) below.
Mortality rate(9)%15 %Decrease
Equity volatility curve13 %23 %Increase
Policyholders' account balances(4)$133,793 Discounted cash flowLapse rate(5)%%Decrease
Spread over LIBOR(6)0.10 %1.23 %Decrease
Mortality rate(9)%24 %Decrease
Equity volatility curve10 %23 %Increase

(1)Conversely, the impact of a decrease in input would have the opposite impact on fair value as that presented in the table.
(2)Includes assets classified as fixed maturities available-for-sale.
(3)Future policy benefits primarily represent general account liabilities for the living benefit features of the Company’s variable annuity contracts which are accounted for as embedded derivatives. Since the valuation methodology for these liabilities uses a range of inputs that vary at the contract level over the cash flow projection period, presenting a range, rather than a weighted average, is a more meaningful representation of the unobservable inputs used in the valuation.
(4)Policyholders’ account balances primarily represent general account liabilities for the index-linked interest credited on certain of the Company’s life products that are accounted for as embedded derivatives. Since the valuation methodology for these liabilities uses a range of inputs that vary at the contract level over the cash flow projection period, presenting a range, rather than a weighted average, is a more meaningful representation of the unobservable inputs used in the valuation.
(5)Lapse rates for contracts with living benefit guarantees are adjusted at the contract level based on the in-the-moneyness of the living benefit and reflect other factors, such as the applicability of any surrender charges. Lapse rates are reduced when contracts are more in-the-money. Lapse rates for contracts with index-linked crediting guarantees may be adjusted at the contract level based on the applicability of any surrender charges, product type, and market related factors such as interest rates. Lapse rates are also generally assumed to be lower for the period where surrender charges apply. For any given contract, lapse rates vary throughout the period over which cash flows are projected for the purposes of valuing these embedded derivatives.
(6)The spread over the LIBOR swap curve represents the premium added to the proxy for the risk-free rate (LIBOR) to reflect the Company's estimates of rates that a market participant would use to value the living benefits in both the accumulation and payout phases and index-linked interest crediting guarantees. This spread includes an estimate of NPR, which is the risk that the obligation will not be fulfilled by the Company. NPR is primarily estimated by utilizing the credit spreads associated with issuing funding agreements, adjusted for any illiquidity risk premium. In order to reflect the financial strength ratings of the Company, credit spreads associated with funding agreements, as opposed to credit spread associated with debt, are utilized in developing this estimate because funding agreements, living benefit guarantees, and index-linked interest crediting guarantees are insurance liabilities and are therefore senior to debt.
(7)The utilization rate assumption estimates the percentage of contracts that will utilize the benefit during the contract duration and begin lifetime withdrawals at various time intervals from contract inception. The remaining contractholders are assumed to either begin lifetime withdrawals immediately or never utilize the benefit. Utilization assumptions may vary by product type, tax status and age. The impact of changes in these assumptions is highly dependent on the product type, the age of the contractholder at the time of the sale, and the timing of the first lifetime income withdrawal. Range reflects the utilization rate for the vast majority of business with living benefits.
(8)The withdrawal rate assumption estimates the magnitude of annual contractholder withdrawals relative to the maximum allowable amount under the contract. These assumptions vary based on the age of the contractholder, the tax status of the contract and the duration since the contractholder began lifetime withdrawals. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the minimum withdrawal rate assumption is 76% and 78%, respectively. As of both December 31, 2020 and 2019, the maximum withdrawal rate assumption may be greater than 100%. The fair value of the liability will generally increase the closer the withdrawal rate is to 100% and decrease as the withdrawal rate moves further away from 100%.
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(9)The range reflects the mortality rates for the vast majority of business with living benefits and other contracts, with policyholders ranging from 45 to 90 years old. While the majority of living benefits have a minimum age requirement, certain other contracts do not have an age restriction. This results in contractholders with mortality rates approaching 0% for certain benefits. Mortality rates may vary by product, age and duration. A mortality improvement assumption is also incorporated into the overall mortality table.
Interrelationships Between Unobservable Inputs – In addition to the sensitivities of fair value measurements to changes in each unobservable input in isolation, as reflected in the table above, interrelationships between these inputs may also exist, such that a change in one unobservable input may give rise to a change in another, or multiple, inputs. Examples of such interrelationships for significant internally-priced Level 3 assets and liabilities are as follows:
Corporate Securities - The rate used to discount future cash flows reflects current risk-free rates plus credit and liquidity spread requirements that market participants would use to value an asset. The discount rate may be influenced by many factors, including market cycles, expectations of default, collateral, term, and asset complexity. Each of these factors can influence discount rates, either in isolation, or in response to other factors.
Future Policy Benefits – The Company expects efficient benefit utilization and withdrawal rates to generally be correlated with lapse rates. However, behavior is generally highly dependent on the facts and circumstances surrounding the individual contractholder, such as their liquidity needs or tax situation, which could drive lapse behavior independent of other contractholder behavior assumptions. To the extent more efficient contractholder behavior results in greater in-the-moneyness at the contract level, lapse rates may decline for those contracts. Similarly, to the extent that increases in equity volatility are correlated with overall declines in the capital markets, lapse rates may decline as contracts become more in-the-money.
Changes in Level 3 Assets and Liabilities – The following tables describe changes in fair values of Level 3 assets and liabilities as of the dates indicated, as well as the portion of gains or losses included in income attributable to unrealized gains or losses related to those assets and liabilities still held at the end of their respective periods. When a determination is made to classify assets and liabilities within Level 3, the determination is based on significance of the unobservable inputs in the overall fair value measurement. All transfers are based on changes in the observability of the valuation inputs, including the availability of pricing service information that the Company can validate. Transfers into Level 3 are generally the result of unobservable inputs utilized within valuation methodologies and the use of indicative broker quotes for assets that were previously valued using observable inputs. Transfers out of Level 3 are generally due to the use of observable inputs in valuation methodologies as well as the availability of pricing service information for certain assets that the Company can validate.
Year Ended December 31, 2020
Fair Value, beginning of periodTotal realized and unrealized gains (losses)(1)PurchasesSalesIssuancesSettlementsOtherTransfers into Level 3Transfers out of Level 3Fair Value, end of periodUnrealized gains (losses) for assets still held(2)
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
Corporate securities(3)$1,178 $3,315 $$(860)$$(22)$$20,434 $$24,045 $3,320 
Structured securities(4)(2)
Other assets:
Equity securities7,305 2,290 (3,500)6,095 1,100 
Reinsurance recoverables760,558 326,083 108,828 1,195,469 349,277 
Receivables from parent and affiliates
Liabilities:
Future policy benefits(760,558)(326,083)(108,828)(1,195,469)(349,277)
Policyholders' account balances(5)(133,793)(3,200)(16,944)(153,937)1,307 
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Year Ended December 31, 2020
Total realized and unrealized gains (losses)Unrealized gains (losses) for assets still held(2)
Realized investment gains (losses), net(1)Other income (loss)Included in other comprehensive income (loss)Net investment incomeRealized investment gains (losses), netOther income (loss)Included in other comprehensive income (loss)(6)
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale$34 $$3,275 $$$$3,320 
Other assets:
Equity securities2,290 1,100 
Reinsurance recoverables326,083 349,277 
Receivables from parent and affiliates
Liabilities:
Future policy benefits(326,083)(349,277)
Policyholders' account balances(3,200)1,307 
Year Ended December 31, 2019
Fair Value, beginning of periodTotal realized and unrealized gains (losses)(1)PurchasesSalesIssuancesSettlementsOtherTransfers into Level 3Transfers out of Level 3Fair Value, end of periodUnrealized gains (losses) for assets still held(2)
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:
Corporate securities(3)$2,882 $(2,133)$428 $$$(638)$$639 $$1,178 $(4,880)
Structured securities(4)442 (10)(68)24,960 (25,324)
Other assets:
Equity securities6,622 683 7,305 683 
Reinsurance recoverables488,825 174,913 96,820 760,558 191,215 
Receivables from parent and affiliates
Liabilities:
Future policy benefits(488,825)(174,913)(96,820)(760,558)(191,215)
Policyholders' account balances(5)(1,949)(108,588)(23,256)(133,793)(107,158)
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Year Ended December 31, 2019
Total realized and unrealized gains (losses)Unrealized gains (losses) for assets still held(2)
Realized investment gains (losses), net(1)Other income (loss)Included in other comprehensive income (loss)Net investment incomeRealized investment gains (losses), netOther income (loss)
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale$(4,895)$$3,018 $186 $(4,880)$
Other assets:
Equity securities683 683 
Reinsurance recoverables174,913 191,215 
Receivables from parent and affiliates
Liabilities:
Future policy benefits(174,913)(191,215)
Policyholders' account balances(108,588)(107,158)
The following tables summarize the portion of changes in fair values of Level 3 assets and liabilities included in earnings and OCI for the year ended December 31, 2018, as well as the portion of gains or losses included in income attributable to unrealized gains or losses related to those assets and liabilities still held as of December 31, 2018.
Year Ended December 31, 2018
Total realized and unrealized gains (losses)Unrealized gains (losses) for assets still held(2)
Realized investment gains (losses), net(1)Other income (loss)Included in other comprehensive income (loss)Net investment incomeRealized investment gains (losses), netOther income (loss)
(in thousands)
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale$160 $$(3,222)$153 $$
Other assets:
Equity securities(806)(806)
Reinsurance recoverables(70,180)(54,376)
Receivables from parent and affiliates(18)
Liabilities:
Future policy benefits70,180 54,376 
Policyholders' account balances3,567 3,567 
 
(1)Realized investment gains (losses) on future policy benefits and reinsurance recoverables primarily represent the change in the fair value of the Company's living benefit guarantees on certain of its variable annuity contracts.
(2)Unrealized gains or losses related to assets still held at the end of the period do not include amortization or accretion of premiums and discounts.
(3)Includes U.S. corporate public, U.S. corporate private and foreign corporate private securities.
(4)Includes asset-backed, commercial mortgage-backed and residential mortgage-backed securities.
(5)Issuances and settlements for Policyholders' account balances are presented net in the rollforward.
(6)Effective January 1, 2020, the changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements held at the end of the reporting period were added prospectively due to adoption of ASU 2018-13. Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The table below presents the carrying amount and fair value by fair value hierarchy level of certain financial instruments that are not reported at fair value. The financial instruments presented below are reported at carrying value on the Company's Statements of Financial Position. In some cases, as described below, the carrying amount equals or approximates fair value.
 
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December 31, 2020
Fair ValueCarrying
Amount(1)
Level 1Level 2Level 3TotalTotal
(in thousands)
Assets:
Commercial mortgage and other loans$$$140,921 $140,921 $133,115 
Policy loans212,163 212,163 212,163 
Cash and cash equivalents7,648 7,648 7,648 
Accrued investment income21,248 21,248 21,248 
Reinsurance recoverables28,654 28,654 26,915 
Receivables from parent and affiliates30,246 30,246 30,246 
Other assets6,205 6,205 6,205 
Total assets$7,648 $57,699 $381,738 $447,085 $437,540 
Liabilities:
Policyholders’ account balances - investment contracts$$220,527 $41,341 $261,868 $260,128 
Cash collateral for loaned securities2,725 2,725 2,725 
Short-term debt to affiliates
Payables to parent and affiliates16,250 16,250 16,250 
Other liabilities50,335 50,335 50,335 
Total liabilities$$289,837 $41,341 $331,178 $329,438 
December 31, 2019
Fair ValueCarrying Amount(1)
Level 1Level 2Level 3TotalTotal
(in thousands)
Assets:
Commercial mortgage and other loans$$$148,855 $148,855 $143,098 
Policy loans211,986 211,986 211,986 
Cash and cash equivalents28 28 28 
Accrued investment income19,539 19,539 19,539 
Reinsurance recoverables26,400 26,400 26,286 
Receivables from parent and affiliates30,387 30,387 30,387 
Other assets3,071 3,071 3,071 
Total assets$28 $52,997 $387,241 $440,266 $434,395 
Liabilities:
Policyholders’ account balances - investment contracts$$192,239 $40,475 $232,714 $232,600 
Cash collateral for loaned securities2,481 2,481 2,481 
Short-term debt to affiliates89 89 89 
Payables to parent and affiliates24,958 24,958 24,958 
Other liabilities41,310 41,310 41,310 
Total liabilities$$261,077 $40,475 $301,552 $301,438 

(1)Carrying values presented herein differ from those in the Company’s Statements of Financial Position because certain items within the respective financial statement captions are not considered financial instruments or out of scope under authoritative guidance relating to disclosures of the fair value of financial instruments.
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The fair values presented above have been determined by using available market information and by applying market valuation methodologies, as described in more detail below.
Commercial Mortgage and Other Loans
The fair value of most commercial mortgage loans is based upon the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted at the appropriate U.S. Treasury rate or foreign government bond rate (for non-U.S. dollar-denominated loans) plus an appropriate credit spread for loans of similar quality, average life, and currency. The quality ratings for these loans, a primary determinant of the credit spreads and a significant component of the pricing process, are based on an internally-developed methodology. Certain commercial mortgage loans are valued incorporating other factors, including the terms of the loans, the principal exit strategies for the loans, prevailing interest rates and credit risk.
Policy Loans
The Company's valuation technique for policy loans is to discount cash flows at the current policy loan coupon rate. Policy loans are fully collateralized by the cash surrender value of underlying insurance policies. As a result, the carrying value of the policy loans approximates the fair value.
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Accrued Investment Income, Receivables from Parent and Affiliates and Other Assets
The Company believes that due to the short-term nature of certain assets, the carrying value approximates fair value. These assets include: cash and cash equivalent instruments, accrued investment income, and other assets that meet the definition of financial instruments, including receivables, unsettled trades and accounts receivable.
Reinsurance Recoverables
Reinsurance recoverables include corresponding receivables associated with reinsurance arrangements between the Company and related parties. See Note 9 for additional information about the Company's reinsurance arrangements.
Policyholders’ Account Balances - Investment Contracts
Only the portion of policyholders’ account balances related to products that are investment contracts (those without significant mortality or morbidity risk) are reflected in the table above. For fixed deferred annuities, payout annuities and other similar contracts without life contingencies, fair values are generally derived using discounted projected cash flows based on interest rates that are representative of the Company’s financial strength ratings, and hence reflect the Company’s own NPR. For those balances that can be withdrawn by the customer at any time without prior notice or penalty, the fair value is the amount estimated to be payable to the customer as of the reporting date, which is generally the carrying value.
Cash Collateral for Loaned Securities
Cash collateral for loaned securities represents the collateral received or paid in connection with loaning or borrowing securities. Due to the short-term nature of these transactions, the carrying value approximates fair value.
Short-term Debt to Affiliates
The fair value of short-term debt is generally determined by either prices obtained from independent pricing services, which are validated by the Company, or discounted cash flow models. These fair values consider the Company’s own NPR. Discounted cash flow models predominately use market observable inputs such as the borrowing rates currently available to the Company for debt and financial instruments with similar terms and remaining maturities. For debt with a maturity of less than 90 days, the carrying value approximates fair value.
Other Liabilities and Payables to Parent and Affiliates
Other liabilities and payables to parent and affiliates are primarily payables, such as unsettled trades, drafts, escrow deposits and accrued expense payables. Due to the short term until settlement of most of these liabilities, the Company believes that carrying value approximates fair value.
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6. DEFERRED POLICY ACQUISITION COSTS
The balances of and changes in DAC as of and for the years ended December 31, are as follows:
202020192018
(in thousands)
Balance, beginning of year$178,813 $165,478 $145,451 
Capitalization of commissions, sales and issue expenses76,544 39,199 30,742 
Amortization-Impact of assumption and experience unlocking and true-ups(6,688)(5,341)(6,328)
Amortization-All other(11,431)(9,509)(9,644)
Change due to unrealized investment gains and losses(12,813)(11,014)5,257 
Balance, end of year$224,425 $178,813 $165,478 

7. POLICYHOLDERS’ LIABILITIES
Future Policy Benefits
Future policy benefits at December 31 for the years indicated are as follows: 
20202019
(in thousands)
Life insurance$1,735,376 $1,505,953 
Individual annuities and supplementary contracts41,072 32,057 
Other contract liabilities1,200,127 764,949 
Total future policy benefits$2,976,575 $2,302,959 
Life insurance liabilities include reserves for death benefits. Individual annuities and supplementary contract liabilities include reserves for life contingent immediate annuities. Other contract liabilities include unearned premiums and certain other reserves for annuities and individual life products.
Future policy benefits for individual non-participating traditional life insurance policies are generally equal to the present value of future benefit payments and related expenses, less the present value of future net premiums. Assumptions as to mortality and persistency are based on the Company’s experience, industry data, and/or other factors, when the basis of the reserve is established. Interest rates used in the determination of the present values range from 2.3% to 7.0%.
Future policy benefits for individual annuities and supplementary contracts with life contingencies are generally equal to the present value of expected future payments. Assumptions as to mortality are based on the Company’s experience, industry data, and/or other factors when the basis of the reserve is established. The interest rates used in the determination of the present values range from 0.0% to 7.3%.
The Company’s liability for future policy benefits are primarily liabilities for guaranteed benefits related to certain long-duration life and annuity contracts. Liabilities for guaranteed benefits with embedded derivative features are primarily in "Other contract liabilities" in the table above. The remaining liabilities for guaranteed benefits are primarily reflected with the underlying contract. The interest rates used in the determination of the present values range from 0.3% to 2.6%. See Note 8 for additional information regarding liabilities for guaranteed benefits related to certain long-duration life and annuity contracts.
Policyholders’ Account Balances
Policyholders’ account balances at December 31 for the years indicated are as follows:
20202019
(in thousands)
Interest-sensitive life contracts$1,930,925 $1,851,262 
Individual annuities363,333 360,497 
Guaranteed interest accounts17,970 20,111 
Other220,538 192,250 
Total policyholders’ account balances$2,532,766 $2,424,120 
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Policyholders’ account balances represent an accumulation of account deposits plus credited interest less withdrawals, expenses and mortality charges, if applicable. These policyholders’ account balances also include provisions for benefits under non-life contingent payout annuities and certain unearned revenues. Policyholders' account balances also include amounts representing the fair value of embedded derivative instruments associated with the index-linked features of certain universal life products. See Note 5 for additional information on the fair value of these embedded derivative instruments. Interest crediting rates for interest-sensitive life contracts range from 1.9% to 4.6%. Interest crediting rates for individual annuities range from 0.0% to 4.9%. Interest crediting rates for guaranteed interest accounts range from 1.0% to 3.8%. Interest crediting rates range from 0.5% to 3.5% for other.
8. CERTAIN LONG-DURATION CONTRACTS WITH GUARANTEES
The Company issues variable annuity contracts through its separate accounts for which investment income and investment gains and losses accrue directly to, and investment risk is borne by, the contractholder. The Company also issues variable annuity contracts with general and separate account options where the Company contractually guarantees to the contractholder a return of no less than total deposits made to the contract adjusted for any partial withdrawals (“return of net deposits”). In certain of these variable annuity contracts, the Company also contractually guarantees to the contractholder a return of no less than (1) total deposits made to the contract adjusted for any partial withdrawals plus a minimum return (“minimum return”), and/or (2) the highest contract value on a specified date adjusted for any withdrawals (“contract value”). These guarantees include benefits that are payable in the event of death, annuitization or at specified dates during the accumulation period and withdrawal and income benefits payable during specified periods. The Company also issued annuity contracts with market value adjusted investment options (“MVAs”), which provide for a return of principal plus a fixed rate of return if held to maturity, or, alternatively, a “market adjusted value” if surrendered prior to maturity or if funds are reallocated to other investment options. The market value adjustment may result in a gain or loss to the Company, depending on crediting rates or an indexed rate at surrender, as applicable. The Company also issued fixed deferred annuity contracts without MVA that have a guaranteed credited rate and annuity benefit.
In addition, the Company issues certain variable life, variable universal life and universal life contracts where the Company contractually guarantees to the contractholder a death benefit even when there is insufficient value to cover monthly mortality and expense charges, whereas otherwise the contract would typically lapse (“no-lapse guarantee”). Variable life and variable universal life contracts are offered with general and separate account options.
The assets supporting the variable portion of all variable annuities are carried at fair value and reported as “Separate account assets” with an equivalent amount reported as “Separate account liabilities.” Amounts assessed against the contractholders for mortality, administration, and other services are included within revenue in “Policy charges and fee income” and changes in liabilities for minimum guarantees are generally included in “Policyholders’ benefits” or “Realized investment gains (losses), net.”
For those guarantees of benefits that are payable in the event of death, the net amount at risk is generally defined as the current guaranteed minimum death benefit in excess of the current account balance at the balance sheet date. The Company’s primary risk exposures for these contracts relates to actual deviations from, or changes to, the assumptions used in the original pricing of these products, including fixed income and equity market returns, contract lapses and contractholder mortality.
For guarantees of benefits that are payable at annuitization, the net amount at risk is generally defined as the present value of the minimum guaranteed annuity payments available to the contractholder determined in accordance with the terms of the contract in excess of the current account balance. The Company’s primary risk exposures for these contracts relates to actual deviations from, or changes to, the assumptions used in the original pricing of these products, including fixed income and equity market returns, timing of annuitization, contract lapses and contractholder mortality.
For guarantees of benefits that are payable at withdrawal, the net amount at risk is generally defined as the present value of the minimum guaranteed withdrawal payments available to the contractholder determined in accordance with the terms of the contract in excess of the current account balance. For guarantees of accumulation balances, the net amount at risk is generally defined as the guaranteed minimum accumulation balance minus the current account balance. The Company’s primary risk exposures for these contracts relates to actual deviations from, or changes to, the assumptions used in the original pricing of these products, including equity market returns, interest rates, market volatility and contractholder behavior.
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The Company’s contracts with guarantees may offer more than one type of guarantee in each contract; therefore, the amounts listed may not be mutually exclusive. The liabilities related to the net amount at risk are reflected within “Future policy benefits”. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had the following guarantees associated with these contracts, by product and guarantee type: 
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
In the Event of
Death(1)
At Annuitization/
Accumulation(1)(2)
In the Event of
Death(1)
At Annuitization/
Accumulation(1)(2)
(in thousands)
Annuity Contracts
Return of net deposits
Account value$9,917,698 N/A$9,457,044 N/A
Net amount at risk$1,339 N/A$2,624 N/A
Average attained age of contractholders68 yearsN/A67 yearsN/A
Minimum return or contract value
Account value$1,974,247 $11,090,944 $1,974,634 $10,662,525 
Net amount at risk$1,720 $157,115 $1,784 $174,773 
Average attained age of contractholders69 years68 years69 years68 years
Average period remaining until earliest expected annuitizationN/A0 yearsN/A0 years
(1)Balances are gross of reinsurance.
(2)Includes income and withdrawal benefits.
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
In the Event of Death(1)
(in thousands)
Variable Life, Variable Universal Life and Universal Life Contracts
Separate account value$921,646 $866,213 
General account value$1,117,645 $1,040,548 
Net amount at risk$18,179,223 $18,594,133 
Average attained age of contractholders56 years54 years
(1)Balances are gross of reinsurance.
Account balances of variable annuity contracts with guarantees were invested in separate account investment options as follows:
December 31, 2020(1)December 31, 2019(1)
(in thousands)
Equity funds$6,015,019 $5,909,051 
Bond funds5,387,645 5,016,141 
Money market funds148,848 167,616 
Total$11,551,512 $11,092,808 
(1)Balances are gross of reinsurance.
In addition to the amounts invested in separate account investment options above, $340 million at December 31, 2020 and $339 million at December 31, 2019 of account balances of variable annuity contracts with guarantees, inclusive of contracts with MVA features were invested in general account investment options. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, there were no transfers of assets, other than cash, from the general account to any separate account, and accordingly no gains or losses recorded.
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Liabilities for Guarantee Benefits
The table below summarizes the changes in general account liabilities for guarantees. The liabilities for GMDB, and guaranteed minimum income benefits (“GMIB”) are included in “Future policy benefits” and the related changes in the liabilities are included in “Policyholders’ benefits.” GMAB, GMWB, and GMIWB are accounted for as embedded derivatives and are recorded at fair value within “Future policy benefits.” Changes in the fair value of these derivatives, including changes in the Company’s own risk of non-performance, along with any fees attributed or payments made relating to the derivative, are recorded in “Realized investment gains (losses), net.” See Note 5 for additional information regarding the methodology used in determining the fair value of these embedded derivatives.
GMDBGMIBGMWB/GMIWB/GMABTotal
Variable
Annuity
Variable Life, Variable Universal Life & Universal LifeVariable Annuity
(in thousands)
Balance at December 31, 2017$11,535 $196,241 $537 $