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EGBN Eagle Bancorp Inc

Filed: 1 Mar 21, 5:26pm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from _________ to _________
Commission file number: 0-25923
Eagle Bancorp, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland52-2061461
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
7830 Old Georgetown Road, Third Floor, Bethesda, Maryland 20814
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (301) 986-1800
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueEGBNThe Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Section 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant; (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports; and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act. Yes No
The aggregate market value of the outstanding Common Stock held by nonaffiliates as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $1.0 billion.



As of February 5, 2021, the number of outstanding shares of the Common Stock, $0.01 par value, of Eagle Bancorp, Inc. was 31,783,355.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Company’s definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on
May 20, 2021 are incorporated by reference in Part III hereof.


EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Part I
Item 1.Business
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.Selected Financial Data
Item 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation
Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.Other Information
Part III
Item 10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.Executive Compensation
Item 12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
Item 14.Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15.Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
SIGNATURES
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PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
In this report, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “us,” the “Company,” “Eagle,” and “our” refer to Eagle Bancorp, Inc. and our subsidiaries on a combined basis, except in the description of any of our securities, in which case these terms refer solely to Eagle Bancorp, Inc. and not to any of our subsidiaries. References to “EagleBank” or “Bank” refer to EagleBank, which is our principal subsidiary. This report contains additional trade names and trademarks of other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other companies' trade names or trademarks to imply an endorsement or sponsorship of us by such companies, or any relationship with any of these companies.

Eagle Bancorp, Inc. (the “Company”), headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, was incorporated under the laws of the State of Maryland on October 28, 1997, to serve as the bank holding company for EagleBank (the “Bank”). The Company was formed by a group of local businessmen and professionals with significant prior experience in community banking in the Company’s market area, together with an experienced community bank senior management team.
The Bank, a Maryland chartered commercial bank, which is a member of the Federal Reserve System, is the Company’s principal operating subsidiary. It commenced banking operations on July 20, 1998. The Bank currently operates twenty banking offices: six in Suburban Maryland; five located in the District of Columbia; and nine in Northern Virginia. The Bank also has six lending centers and utilizes various electronic capabilities, including remote deposit services and mobile banking services. The Bank may seek additional banking offices consistent with its strategic plan, although there can be no assurance that the Bank will establish any additional offices, or that any branch office will prove to be profitable.
The Bank has three active direct subsidiaries: Bethesda Leasing, LLC, Eagle Insurance Services, LLC, and Landroval Municipal Finance, Inc. Bethesda Leasing, LLC holds title to and operates real estate owned and acquired through foreclosure. Eagle Insurance Services, LLC offers access to insurance products and services through a referral program with a third party insurance broker. Landroval Municipal Finance, Inc. focuses on lending to municipalities by buying debt on the public market as well as direct purchase issuance. The Bank operates as a community bank alternative to the super-regional financial institutions, which dominate its primary market area. The cornerstone of the Bank’s philosophy is to provide superior, personalized service to its clients. The Bank focuses on relationship banking, providing each client with a number of services, familiarizing itself with, and addressing itself to, client needs in a proactive, personalized fashion. Management believes that the Bank’s target market segments, small and medium-sized for profit and non-profit businesses and the consumer base working or living in and near the Bank’s market area, demand the convenience and personal service that an independent locally based financial institution such as the Bank can offer. These themes of convenience and proactive personal service form the basis for the Bank’s business development strategies.
The Company has grown primarily through organic growth over its twenty two year history. Two acquisitions have been completed (one in 2008 and one in 2014). On August 31, 2008, the Company completed the acquisition of Fidelity & Trust Financial Corporation (“Fidelity”) which increased loans and deposits by approximately $361 million and $385 million, respectively. The acquisition of Virginia Heritage Bank (“Virginia Heritage”) completed on October 31, 2014, added approximately $800 million in loans, and $645 million in deposits. Refer to Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional disclosure regarding intangible assets established incident to mergers and acquisitions.
Description of Services. The Bank offers a broad range of commercial banking services to its business and professional clients, as well as full service consumer banking services to individuals living and/or working primarily in the Bank’s market area. These services include (i) commercial loans for a variety of business purposes such as for working capital, equipment purchases, real estate lines of credit, and government contract financing; (ii) asset based lending and accounts receivable financing (on a limited basis); (iii) construction and commercial real estate loans; (iv) business equipment financing; (v) consumer home equity lines of credit, personal lines of credit and term loans; (vi) consumer installment loans such as auto and personal loans; (vii) personal credit cards offered through an outside vendor; and (viii) residential mortgage loans. The Bank emphasizes providing commercial banking services to sole proprietors, small and medium-sized businesses, partnerships, corporations, non-profit organizations and associations, and investors living and working in and near the Bank’s primary service area. A full range of retail banking services are offered to accommodate the individual needs of both corporate customers as well as the community the Bank serves. The Bank also offers online banking, mobile banking and a remote deposit service, which allows clients to facilitate and expedite deposit transactions through the use of electronic devices. A suite of Treasury Management services is also offered to business clients. The Bank’s deposits are insured by the Federal Deposit insurance Corporation, or FDIC, to the fullest extent provided by law.

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The Bank’s loan portfolio consists primarily of traditional business and real estate secured loans. Commercial and industrial loans are made, with a substantial portion having variable and adjustable rates, and where the cash flow of the borrower(s) operating business is the principal source of debt service with a secondary emphasis on collateral. Real estate loans are made generally for commercial purposes and are structured using both variable and fixed rates and renegotiable rates which adjust in three to five years, with maturities of generally five to ten years. Commercial real estate loans, which comprise the largest portion of the loan portfolio, are secured by both owner occupied and non-owner occupied real property and include a component of acquisition, development and construction, or ADC lending.
The Bank’s consumer loan portfolio is a smaller portion of the loan portfolio and is comprised generally of two loan types: (i) home equity loans and lines of credit that are structured with an interest only draw period followed either by a balloon maturity or a fully amortized repayment schedule; and (ii) first lien residential mortgage loans, although the Bank’s general practice is to sell conforming first trust loans on a servicing released basis to third party investors. In certain limited instances, residential mortgage first deed of trust loans are packaged along with a line of credit to the same borrower for sale in the secondary market by the Bank.
The Bank has also developed significant expertise and commitment as a Small Business Administration (“SBA”) lender and has been recognized as a top originator of such loans in our market area. The Bank is a preferred lender under the SBA’s Preferred Lender Program. As a preferred lender, the Bank can originate certain SBA loans in-house without prior SBA approval. SBA loans are made through programs designed by the federal government to assist the small business community in obtaining financing from financial institutions that are given government guarantees as an incentive to make the loans. Under certain circumstances, the Bank attempts to further mitigate commercial term loan losses by using loan guarantee programs offered by the SBA. SBA lending is subject to federal legislation that can affect the availability and funding of the program. From time to time, this dependence on legislative funding causes limitations and uncertainties with regard to the continued funding of such programs, which could potentially have an adverse financial impact on our business.
In 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal government (in the CARES Act passed in March 2020) provided a lending program which was distributed through the banking system called The Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP"). The program was administered through the SBA. The purpose of this new lending facility was to provide needed support to small and mid size businesses at low rates of interest (statutory rate of 1% plus fees) and to establish a loan forgiveness feature in cases where loan proceeds could be proven to be used by the small and mid sized business to support payroll costs, lease obligations and certain other specified uses. The program was intended to provide a bridge until business activity could return to normal. The Bank participated in all phases to date of the PPP, which is further described in the Notes to Financial Statements and Managements’ Discussion and Analysis which follows.

The Company originates multifamily FHA loans through the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s, or HUD’s, Multifamily Accelerated Program, or MAP. The Company securitizes these loans through the Government National Mortgage Association, or Ginnie Mae, MBS I program and sells the resulting securities in the open market to authorized dealers in the normal course of business and periodically bundles and sells the servicing rights.
The lending activities in which the Bank engages carry the risk that the borrowers will be unable to perform on their obligations. As such, interest rate policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, which we refer to as the Federal Reserve Board or the Federal Reserve, and general economic conditions, nationally and in the Bank’s primary market area, could have a significant impact on the Bank’s and the Company’s results of operations. To the extent that economic conditions deteriorate, business and individual borrowers may be less able to meet their obligations to the Bank in full, in a timely manner, resulting in decreased earnings or losses to the Bank. Economic conditions may also adversely affect the value of property pledged as security for loans.
The Bank’s goal is to mitigate risks in the event of unforeseen threats to the loan portfolio as a result of economic downturn or other negative influences. Plans for mitigating inherent risks in managing loan assets include: carefully designing and enforcing loan policies and procedures, evaluating each borrower’s business plan during the underwriting process and throughout the loan term, identifying and monitoring primary and alternative sources for loan repayment, and obtaining collateral to mitigate economic loss in the event of liquidation. Specific loan reserves are established based upon credit and/or collateral risks on an individual loan basis. A risk rating system is employed to proactively estimate loss exposure and provide a measuring system for setting general and specific reserve allocations.
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The composition of the Company’s loan portfolio is heavily weighted toward commercial real estate, both owner occupied and income producing real estate. At December 31, 2020, owner occupied commercial real estate and construction - Commercial and Industry ("C&I") (owner occupied) represent approximately 15% of the loan portfolio. At December 31, 2020, non-owner occupied commercial real estate and real estate construction represented approximately 58% of the loan portfolio. The combined owner occupied and commercial real estate loans represented approximately 34% of the loan portfolio. Real estate also serves as collateral for loans made for other purposes, resulting in 85% of all loans being secured or partially secured by real estate. These loans are underwritten to mitigate lending risks typical of this type of loan such as declines in real estate values, changes in borrower cash flow and general economic conditions. The Bank typically requires a maximum loan to value of 80% and minimum cash flow debt service coverage of 1.15 to 1.0. Personal guarantees may be required, but may be limited. In making real estate commercial mortgage loans, the Bank generally requires that interest rates adjust not less frequently than five years.
The Company is also an active traditional commercial lender providing loans for a variety of purposes, including working capital, equipment, and account receivable financing. This loan category represents approximately 19% of the loan portfolio at December 31, 2020 and was generally variable or adjustable rate. Commercial loans meet reasonable underwriting standards, including appropriate collateral, and cash flow necessary to support debt service. Personal guarantees are generally required, but may be limited. SBA loans represent approximately 1.2% of the commercial loan category at December 31, 2020. In originating SBA loans, the Company assumes the risk of non-payment on the unguaranteed portion of the credit. The Company generally sells the guaranteed portion of the loan generating noninterest income from the gains on sale, as well as servicing income on the portion participated. SBA loans other than PPP loans are subject to the same cash flow analyses as other commercial loans. SBA loans are subject to a maximum loan size established by the SBA as well as internal loan size guidelines.
Approximately 1% of the loan portfolio at December 31, 2020 consists of home equity loans and lines of credit and other consumer loans. These credits, while making up a small portion of the loan portfolio, demand the same emphasis on underwriting and credit evaluation as other types of loans advanced by the Bank.
Approximately 1% of the loan portfolio consists of residential mortgage loans at December 31, 2020. At December 31, 2020, the repricing duration of these loans was 18 months. These credits represent first liens on residential property loans originated by the Bank. While the Bank’s general practice is to originate and sell (servicing released) loans made by its Residential Lending department, from time to time certain loan characteristics do not meet the requirements of third party investors and these loans are instead maintained in the Bank’s portfolio until they are resold to another investor at a later date or mature.
Approximately 6% of the loan portfolio at December 31, 2020 consists of Payroll Protection Plan (PPP) loans, authorized under the Cares Act in 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These credits have a term of two or five years, and a stated interest rate of 1% plus an origination fee based on the loan amount. The loans may in whole or part be forgivable (i.e. repaid from U.S. Treasury funds) based on the documented use of the loan proceeds. The program is administered under rules established by the SBA.

Our lending activities are subject to a variety of borrower lending limits imposed by state and federal law. These limits will increase or decrease in response to increases or decreases in the Bank’s level of capital. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had a legal lending limit of $200 million. At December 31, 2020, the average loan size outstanding for Commercial Real Estate, or CRE, and Commercial and Industrial, or C&I, loans was $5.3 million and $612 thousand, respectively. In accordance with internal lending policies, the Bank may sell participations in its loans to other banks, which allows the Bank to manage risk involved in these loans and to meet the lending needs of its clients. The risk of nonpayment (or deferred payment) of loans is inherent in all lending. The Bank’s marketing focus on small to medium-sized businesses may result in the assumption by the Bank of certain lending risks that are different from those associated with loans to larger companies. Management and/or committees of the Bank carefully evaluate loan applications and attempt to minimize credit risk exposure by use of extensive loan application data, due diligence, and approval and monitoring procedures; however, there can be no assurance that such procedures can significantly reduce such lending risks.
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The Bank originates residential mortgage loans primarily as a correspondent lender. Activity in the residential mortgage loan market is highly sensitive to changes in interest rates and product availability. While the Bank does have delegated underwriting authority from most of its investors, it also employs the services of the investor to underwrite the loans. Because the loans are originated within investor guidelines and designated automated underwriting and product specific requirements as part of the loan application, the loans sold have a limited recourse provision. Most contracts with investors contain recourse periods. In general, the Bank may be required to repurchase a previously sold mortgage loan or indemnify the investor if there is non-compliance with defined loan origination or documentation standards, including fraud, negligence or material misstatement in the loan documents. In addition, the Bank may have an obligation to repurchase a loan if the mortgagor has defaulted early in the loan term or may be required to return profits made should the loan prepay within a short period. The potential repurchase period varies by investor but can be up to approximately twelve months after sale of the loan to the investor. Mortgages subject to recourse are collateralized by single-family residential properties, have loan-to-value ratios of 80% or less, or have private mortgage insurance. In certain instances, the Bank may provide equity loans (second position financing) in combination with residential first mortgage lending for purchase money and refinancing purposes. The Bank maintains a reserve for residential real estate loans recourse obligations in Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.

The Bank enters into commitments to originate residential mortgage loans whereby the interest rate on the loan is determined prior to funding (i.e., rate lock commitments). Such rate lock commitments on mortgage loans to be sold in the secondary market are considered to be derivatives. The Bank manages the interest rate risk on rate lock commitments by entering into forward sale contracts of mortgage backed securities, whereby the Bank obtains the right to deliver securities to investors in the future at a specified price. Such contracts are accounted for as derivatives and are recorded at fair value in derivative assets or liabilities, with changes in fair value recorded in other income. To protect against the price risk inherent in residential mortgage loan commitments, the Bank utilizes a combination of either or both “best efforts” and “mandatory delivery” forward loan sale commitments to mitigate the risk of potential decrease in the values of loans that would result from the exercise of the derivative loan commitments. Under a “best efforts” contract, the Bank commits to deliver an individual mortgage loan of a specified principal amount and quality to an investor and the investor commits to a price that it will purchase the loan from the Bank if the loan to the underlying borrower closes. The Bank protects itself from changes in interest rates through the use of best efforts forward delivery commitments, whereby the investor commits to purchase a loan at a price representing a premium on the day the borrower commits to an interest rate with the intent that the buyer/investor has assumed the interest rate risk on the loan. As a result, the Bank is not generally exposed to losses on loans sold utilizing best efforts, nor will it realize gains related to rate lock commitments due to changes in interest rates. The market values of rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts are not readily ascertainable with precision because rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts are not actively traded. The Bank determines the fair value of interest rate lock commitments and the associated gain by measuring the fair value of the underlying asset, which is impacted by current interest rates, taking into consideration the probability that the interest rate lock commitments will close or will be funded.. Under a “mandatory delivery” contract, the Bank commits to deliver a certain principal amount of mortgage loans to an investor at a specified price on or before a specified date. If the Bank fails to deliver the amount of mortgages necessary to fulfill the commitment by the specified date, it is obligated to pay the investor a “pair-off” fee, based on then-current market prices, to compensate the investor for the shortfall. The period of time between issuance of a loan commitment to the customer and closing and sale of the loan to an investor generally ranges from 30 to 90 days under current market conditions.

All loans are secured primarily by duly recorded first deeds of trust or mortgages. In some cases, the Bank may accept a recorded junior trust position. In general, borrowers will have a proven ability to build, lease, manage and/or sell a commercial or residential project and demonstrate satisfactory financial condition. Additionally, an equity contribution toward the project is generally required whether associated with acquisition or construction of a property.
The general terms and underwriting standards for each type of commercial real estate and construction loan are incorporated into the Bank’s lending policies. These policies are analyzed periodically by management, and the policies are reviewed and re-approved annually by either the Board of Directors or the Directors Loan Committee. The Bank’s loan policies and practices described in this report are subject to periodic change, and each guideline or standard is subject to waiver or exception in the case of any particular loan, by the appropriate officer or committee, in accordance with the Bank’s loan policies. Policy standards are often stated in mandatory terms, such as “shall” or “must”, but these provisions are subject to exceptions. Policy requires that loan value not exceed a percentage of “market value” or “fair value” based upon appraisals or evaluations obtained in the ordinary course of the Bank’s underwriting practices.
Construction loans require that the financial condition and experience of the general contractor and major subcontractors be satisfactory to the Bank. Guaranteed, fixed price contracts are required whenever appropriate, along with payment and performance bonds or completion bonds for larger scale projects.
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Loans intended for residential land acquisition, lot development and construction are made on the premise that the land: (1) is or will be developed for building sites for residential structures; and (2) will ultimately be utilized for construction or improvement of residential zoned real properties, including the creation of housing. Residential development and construction loans will finance projects such as single family subdivisions, planned unit developments, townhouses, and condominiums. Residential land acquisition, development and construction loans generally are underwritten with a maximum term of 36 months, including extensions approved at origination.
Commercial land acquisition and construction loans are secured by real property where loan funds will be used to acquire land and to construct or improve appropriately zoned real property for the creation of income producing or owner user commercial properties. Borrowers are generally required to put equity into each project at levels determined by the appropriate Loan Committee. Commercial land acquisition and construction loans generally are underwritten with a maximum term of 24 months.
Loan-to-value, or LTV, ratios, with few exceptions, are maintained consistent with or below supervisory guidelines.
Substantially all construction draw requests must be presented in writing on American Institute of Architects documents and certified either by the contractor, the borrower and/or the borrower’s architect. Each draw request shall also include the borrower’s soft cost breakdown certified by the borrower or their Chief Financial Officer. Prior to an advance, the Bank or its contractor inspects the project to determine that the work has been completed, to justify the draw requisition.
Commercial permanent loans are generally secured by improved real property, which is generating income in the normal course of operation. Debt service coverage, assuming stabilized occupancy, must be satisfactory to support a permanent loan. The debt service coverage ratio is ordinarily at least 1.15 to 1.0. As part of the underwriting process, debt service coverage ratios are stress tested assuming a 200 basis point increase in interest rates from their current levels.
Commercial permanent loans generally are underwritten with a term not greater than 10 years or the remaining useful life of the property, whichever is lower. The preferred term is between 5 to 7 years, with amortization to a maximum of 25 years.
Personal guarantees are generally received from the principals on commercial real estate loans, and only in instances where the loan-to-value is sufficiently low and the debt service coverage is sufficiently high is consideration given to either limiting or not requiring personal recourse.
Updated appraisals for real estate secured loans are obtained as necessary and appropriate to borrower financial condition, project status, loan terms, and market conditions.
The Company’s loan portfolio includes loans made for real estate acquisition, development, and construction ("ADC") purposes, including both income producing and owner occupied projects. ADC loans amounted to $1.4 billion at December 31, 2020. A portion of the ADC portfolio, both speculative and non-speculative, includes loan funded interest reserves at origination. ADC loans that provide for the use of interest reserves represent approximately 61.4% of the outstanding ADC loan portfolio at December 31, 2020. The decision to establish a loan funded interest reserve is made upon origination of the ADC loan and is based upon a number of factors considered during underwriting of the credit including: (i) the feasibility of the project; (ii) the experience of the sponsor; (iii) the creditworthiness of the borrower and guarantors; (iv) borrower equity contribution; and (v) the level of collateral protection. When appropriate, an interest reserve provides an effective means of addressing the cash flow characteristics of a properly underwritten ADC loan. The Company does not significantly utilize interest reserves in other loan products. The Company recognizes that one of the risks inherent in the use of interest reserves is the potential masking of underlying problems with the project and/or the borrower’s ability to repay the loan. In order to mitigate this inherent risk, the Company employs a series of reporting and monitoring mechanisms on all ADC loans, whether or not an interest reserve is provided, including: (i) construction and development timelines which are monitored on an ongoing basis and which track the progress of a given project to the timeline projected at origination; (ii) a construction loan administration department independent of the lending function; (iii) third party independent construction loan inspection reports; (iv) monthly interest reserve monitoring reports detailing the balance of the interest reserves approved at origination and the days of interest carry represented by the reserve balances as compared to the then current anticipated time to completion and/or sale of speculative projects; and (v) quarterly commercial real estate construction meetings among senior Company management which includes monitoring of current and projected real estate market conditions. If a project has not performed as expected, it is not the customary practice of the Company to increase loan funded interest reserves.
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As of December 31, 2020, the Company has not experienced any significant issues with increased vacancy rates or lower rents for income producing properties financed. The construction loan portfolio has remained solid, particularly in areas of well-located residential and multifamily projects, as the housing market has continued to improve and stabilize. The Washington, D.C. metropolitan area real estate market has been relatively stable; however, certain segments, including suburban offices, have exhibited higher than normal vacancy and experienced concessions in specific submarkets. As part of its overall risk assessments, management carefully reviews the Bank’s loan portfolio and general economic and market conditions on a regular basis and will continue to adjust both the specific and environmental reserve factors as necessary.
Deposit services include business and personal checking accounts, NOW accounts, tiered savings and money market account and time deposits with varying maturity structures and customer options. A complete individual retirement account program is available. The Bank also participates in the IntraFi Network, LLC (“IntraFi”) Certificate of Deposit Account Registry Service (“CDARS”) and its Insured Cash Sweep (“ICS”) program, both of which networks function to assure full FDIC insurance for participating Bank customers. In cooperation with Goldman Sachs Asset Management, the Bank offers a Goldman Sachs Investment Sweep Account, a check writing cash management account that sweeps funds to one of several non-FDIC insured off-balance sheet investment accounts managed by Goldman Sachs. The Bank also utilizes brokered deposit funds in its overall asset/liability management program.

The Bank offers a full range of online banking services for both personal and business accounts and has a Mobile Banking application. Other deposit services include cash management services, business sweep accounts, lock box, remote deposit capture, account reconciliation services, merchant card services, safety deposit boxes and Automated Clearing House origination. After-hours depositories and ATM service are also available.
The Company and Bank maintain portfolios of short term investments and investment securities consisting primarily of U.S. agency bonds and government sponsored enterprise mortgage backed securities, municipal bonds, and corporate bonds. The Bank also owns equity investments related to membership in the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta (FHLB). The Company’s securities portfolio includes equity investments in the form of common stock of two local banking companies. The investment securities portfolio provides the following objectives: capital preservation, liquidity management, additional income to the Company and Bank in the form of interest and gain on sale opportunities, collateral to facilitate borrowing arrangements and assistance with meeting interest rate risk management objectives. The current Investment Policy limits the Bank to investments of high quality, U.S. Treasury securities, U.S. agency securities and high grade municipal and corporate securities, including highly rated subordinated debentures of U.S. regulated banks. High risk investments and non-traditional investments are prohibited. Investment maturities are generally limited to ten to fifteen years, except as specifically approved by the Asset Liability Committee, or ALCO, and mortgage backed pass through securities, which may have final stated maturities of 30 years, with average lives generally not to exceed eight years.
The Company and Bank have formalized an asset and liability management process and have a standing ALCO consisting of senior management who report to the Board. The ALCO operates under established policies and practices and a Committee Charter, which practices are updated and re-approved annually. A typical ALCO meeting includes discussion of current economic conditions and balance sheet and other strategies, including interest rate trends and, the current balance sheet and earnings position, comparisons to budget, cash flow estimates, liquidity positions, liquidity stress tests (quarterly), and funding alternatives as necessary, interest rate risk position (monthly), including derivative positions, capital positions of the Company and Bank, reviews (including independent reviews) of the investment portfolio of the Bank and the Company, and the approval of investment transactions. Additionally, monthly ALCO meetings may include reports and analysis of outside firms to enhance the Committee’s knowledge and understanding of various financial matters. Various other bank employees attend monthly committee meetings to build their understanding of all financial matters. A weekly conference call is scheduled to bring added attention primarily to shorter term cash flow estimates and interest rate matters.
The development of the Company’s customer base has benefited from the extensive business and personal contacts of its directors and executive officers. Full relationships have been fostered including deposit balances, loan balances and noninterest revenue sources. The Bank has placed enhanced reliance on proactively designed officer calling programs and lender teams, active participation in business organizations, and enhanced referral programs.
Internet Access to Company Documents. The Company provides access to its Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings through its web site at www.eaglebankcorp.com. After accessing the web site, the filings are available upon selecting “Investor Relations/SEC Filings/Documents.” Reports available include the annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Further, the SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.
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MARKET AREA AND COMPETITION
The primary service area of the Bank is the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. With a population of nearly 6.3 million and projected growth rate of 4%, the region is the 6th largest metropolitan area in the U.S. (U.S. Census Bureau 2019). Total employment in the region is approximately 3.2 million per the 2020 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report. The region has lost 178,000 jobs in the year 2020, going from a 2.6% unemployment rate to a 5.8% unemployment rate from the end of 2019 to the end of 2020 due substantially to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Washington D.C. metropolitan area contains a substantial federal workforce, as well as a variety of support industries that employ professionals such as attorneys, lobbyists, government contractors, real estate developers and investors, non-profit organizations, and consultants. The Gross Regional Product (“GRP”) for the metropolitan area in 2019 was reported at $560 billion. This figure can be heavily attributed to the federal government, but other significant sectors include professional and business services, education, healthcare, leisure, and hospitality. The region also has a very active non-profit sector including trade associations, colleges, universities, and major hospitals. Transportation congestion and federal government spending levels remain threats to future economic development and quality of life in the area.

Montgomery County, Maryland, with a total population estimated at 1,043,530 as of 2019 and occupying an area of about 500 square miles, borders Washington, D.C. to the north and is roughly 30 miles southwest of Baltimore. Montgomery County represents a diverse and healthy segment of Maryland’s economy. Montgomery County is a thriving business center and is Maryland’s most populous jurisdiction. Population in the county is expected to grow 6.7% between 2018 and 2025. The State of Maryland boasts a demographic profile superior to the U.S. economy at large, and the economy in and around Montgomery County is among the best in Maryland. The number of jobs in Montgomery County has been relatively stable in the recent past. The unemployment rate in Montgomery County is among the lowest in the state at 6.5% in November of 2020, based on Bureau of Labor Statistics’, or BLS, data. A highly educated population has contributed to favorable median household income of $108,820 with the number of households totaling 370,950. According to the U.S. census update, approximately 59% of the County’s residents in 2019 hold college or advanced degrees, placing the population of Montgomery County among the most educated in the nation. The area boasts a diverse business climate of over 118,965 businesses. Major areas of employment include a substantial technology sector, biotechnology, software development, a housing construction and renovation sector, and legal, financial services, health care, and professional services sectors. Major private employers include Adventist Healthcare, Lockheed Martin, Giant Food, and Marriott International. The county is also an incubator for firms engaged in biotechnology and the area has traditionally attracted significant amounts of venture capital. Montgomery County is home to many major federal and private sector research and development and regulatory agencies, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Institutes of Health, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Naval Research and Development Center, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Food and Drug Administration and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda.

Prince George’s County, Maryland, covering just under 500 square miles, has a total estimated population of 908,670 as of 2019 and is located just east of Washington, D.C. The county supports 313,343 households as of 2019 with median incomes of $84,920. The unemployment rate in the county was 9.0% in November of 2020 according to the BLS. Prince George’s County continues to promote a business friendly environment and is home to major employers such as the University of Maryland, Joint Base Andrews Naval Air Facility Washington, U.S. Internal Revenue Service and United Parcel Service.

The District of Columbia, in addition to being the seat of the federal government, is a vibrant city with a well-educated, diverse population. According to survey data from the latest U.S. Census, the estimated 2019 population of the District of Columbia is approximately 705,749, up from 601,766 in 2010. Median household income, at $92,266 as of 2019, is above the national median level of $65,712. The growth of residents in the city is due partially to improvements in the city’s services and to the many housing options available, ranging from grand old apartment buildings to Federal era town homes to the most modern condominiums. As of 2019, the housing market had grown to 322,814 units. While the federal government and its employees are a major factor in the economy, over 100 million square feet of commercial office space support a dynamic business community of more than 63,000 companies. These include law and accounting firms, trade and professional associations, information technology companies, international financial institutions, health and education organizations and research and management companies. Unemployment was 7.3% at November 2020 according to BLS. The disparity between the higher level of unemployment among District of Columbia residents and the strong employment trends reflects the high level of jobs in the District held by residents of the surrounding suburban jurisdictions. The District of Columbia has a well-educated and highly paid work force. Large employers include the federal government, many local universities, and hospitals. Another significant factor in the economy is the leisure and hospitality industry, as Washington, D.C. remains a popular tourist destination for both national and international travelers, absent a pandemic.

Fairfax County, Virginia, which is just across the Potomac River and west from Washington, D.C., is a large, affluent jurisdiction with an estimated population of 1,145,862 as of 2019 including Fairfax City. This county covers about 395 square miles. Fairfax County is one of the leading technology centers in the US. It is a thriving residential as well as business center with 396,501 households. The county is among the most affluent in the country with average annual household income of $124,831 as of 2019. Unemployment was 4.4% in November of 2020 according to the BLS. Major companies headquartered in the county, which are also major employers, include Capital One Financial, DXC Technology, Gannett, General Dynamics, Hilton Hotels, Leidos, Sallie Mae, and Inova Health Systems. The county is also home to several federal entities including the CIA, Fort Belvoir and a major facility of the Smithsonian Institution.
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Arlington County, Virginia, has an estimated population of 233,464. The county is made up of 26 square miles and is situated just west of Washington, D.C., directly across the Potomac River. There are approximately 107,032 households with a median household income of $120,071 as of December 2019. Significant private sector employers include Deloitte, Lockheed Martin, Virginia Hospital Center and Marriott International, Inc. The unemployment rate was just 3.8% in November of 2020. This is one of the lowest unemployment rates in the state of Virginia and compares very favorably to the U.S. rate of 11.2%. The population is highly educated, with about 75% of residents over 25 years of age holding at least a bachelor’s degree as of 2019.

Alexandria, Virginia is a city with an estimated population of 157,613 as of 2019. The city is made up of just over 15 square miles and sits on the west bank of the Potomac River just south of Arlington, Virginia. There are approximately 70,598 households with a median household income of $100,939 as of 2019. Alexandria has 17,540 employer establishments. The unemployment rate was 4.9% at November of 2020 according to BLS. The population is highly educated, with over 63.1% of residents over 25 years of age holding at least a bachelor’s degree as of 2019.

Loudoun County, Virginia covers about 520 square miles of land 25 miles northwest of Washington, D.C. and boasts a population of 395,134. Median household income, according to 2019 Census Bureau data, is $142,299 which is more than twice the national median household income of $62,843. The unemployment rate was 3.8% at November of 2020 according to BLS. The Virginia Employment Commission expects to see employment growth of 1.2% annually through 2024. The major private employers in the county include United Airlines, Inc., Raytheon Company, Loudoun Hospital Center and Swissport U.S.A., Inc. The county is also home to public sector employees such as the Loudoun County Schools, County of Loudoun, U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Postal Service.

Throughout the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, competition is significant from large banking institutions headquartered in and outside of the area. Although some consolidation has occurred in the market in the past few years, the Bank continues to compete with other community banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, mortgage companies and finance companies, as well as other kinds of financial institutions and enterprises, such as securities firms, insurance companies, savings associations, private lenders and nontraditional competitors such as fintech companies and internet-based lenders, depositories and payment systems. Among the advantages that many of these large institutions have over the Bank are their abilities to finance extensive advertising campaigns, maintain extensive branch networks and make larger technology investments, and to directly offer certain services, such as international banking and trust services, which are not offered directly by the Bank. Further, the greater capitalization of the larger institutions headquartered out-of-state allows for higher lending limits than the Bank, although the Bank’s current lending limit is quite favorable and able to accommodate the credit needs of most businesses in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area, which distinguishes it from most community banks in the market area. Some of these competitors have other advantages, such as tax exemption in the case of credit unions, and to some extent lesser regulation in the case of mortgage companies, finance companies, and many nontraditional competitors. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), enacted in July 2010, regulation of all financial firms was heightened, although new legislation in 2018 did amend some of the prior law and eased bank regulatory pressures, prompting some de novo activity, but mostly driving further consolidation. Under current law, unlimited interstate de novo branching is available to all state and federally chartered banks. As a result, institutions, which previously were ineligible to establish de novo branches in the Bank’s market area, may elect to do so.

Effective July 1, 2015, the Bank entered into a multi-faceted support agreement with George Mason University (“George Mason”), the Commonwealth of Virginia’s largest public research university. The agreement provides for significant educational support, and a strategic alliance including the Bank obtaining the naming rights to a multi-purpose sports and entertainment venue formerly known as the Patriot Center, now known as “EagleBank Arena” in Fairfax, VA for up to a 20 year term. Under the agreement, the Bank pays George Mason an annual fee to be used for scholarships, internships, overall educational and athletic support and beautification efforts.
Effective March 12, 2018, the Bank entered into a five year sponsorship of the Major League Soccer club D.C. United. EagleBank has been designated the official bank of D.C. United and the “EagleBank Club” at Audi Field, the soccer club’s stadium in southwest Washington D.C., provides premium seating for fans and patrons of the Bank. The stadium opened in the summer of 2018 and hosts cultural and community events and concerts as well as Major League Soccer games.

HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT
Human Capital

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At EagleBank, our culture is defined by our Relationships F.I.R.S.T corporate values: flexible, involved, responsive, strong, and trusted. We value our employees by investing in a healthy work-life balance, competitive compensation and benefit packages and a vibrant, team-oriented environment centered on professional service and open communication amongst employees. We strive to build and maintain a high-performing culture and be an “employer of choice” by creating a work environment that attracts and retains outstanding, engaged employees who embody our company mantra of “Relationships FIRST”.

Talent Acquisition and Retention

As of December 31, 2020 we employed 515 full and part time employees across our 30 offices, which includes our branch offices, corporate offices and other operating facilities. During 2020 we hired 110 employees. Our voluntary turnover rate was 11% in 2020 and has declined for the past two years.

Diversity and Inclusion

We strive toward having a powerful and diverse team of employees, knowing we are better together with our combined wisdom and intellect. With a commitment to equality, inclusion and workplace diversity, we focus on understanding, accepting, and valuing the differences among people. To accomplish this, we have established a Diversity & Inclusion Advisory Council made up of 16 employee representatives.

Women represent 59% of EagleBank’s employees and racial and ethnic minorities represent 61% of EagleBank’s employees as of December 31, 2020. In 2020, 53% of our hires were from diverse groups, including women, racial and ethnic minorities, veterans and people with disabilities.

Compensation and Benefits

We provide a competitive compensation and benefits program to help meet the needs of our employees. In addition to salaries, these programs include annual bonuses, stock awards, a 401(k) Plan with an employer matching contribution, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings accounts, flexible spending accounts, vacation and sick leave, family leave and an employee assistance program.

We provide pay levels and pay opportunities that are internally fair, externally competitive and cost-effective. To determine competitive market compensation levels, we use market surveys that report salary data of companies with similar positions, asset size and geographical location. To further align base pay with experience and individual performance, we annually review our salary structure and ranges to keep pace with changes in the marketplace. With the support of independent third-party experts in this field, we review the compensation of employees to ensure consistent pay practices by conducting a pay equity analysis. Our employees are not represented by any collective bargaining group.

Employee Engagement

We regularly collect feedback to better understand and improve the employee experience and identify opportunities to continually strengthen our culture. In 2020, 66% of employees participated in our annual employee survey. We host periodic all-employee conference calls to disseminate information and to respond to employee questions.

Learning and Development

We invest in the growth and development of our employees by providing a multi-dimensional approach to learning that empowers, intellectually grows, and professionally develops our colleagues. Our employees receive continuing education courses that are relevant to the banking industry and their job function. We also offer leadership and customer service training. These resources provide employees with the skills they need to achieve their career goals, build management skills and become leaders within our Company. Employees have access to more than 5,000 on-demand learning solutions to help them learn new skills and advance in their career as well as certificate programs built around specific job roles. We also provide tuition reimbursement to help employees develop their skills and enhance their performance.

COVID-19

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken an integrated approach to helping our employees manage their work and personal responsibilities, with a strong focus on employee well-being, health and safety. Our top priority during the COVID-19 pandemic is to protect the health and safety of our employees and their families, customers and the communities we serve. We continue to maintain workplace flexibility such as working remotely and providing flexible work schedules to reduce the number of employees on-site each day. We have implemented enhanced safety and health protocols—including extra cleanings throughout the day, social distancing, installing plexi-glass barriers in high contact areas and providing our employees with personal protective equipment. We also provided our employees with 40 hours of emergency sick leave for COVID related absences.

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REGULATION
Our business and operations are subject to extensive federal and state governmental regulation and supervision. The following is a brief summary of certain statutes and rules and regulations that affect or may affect us. This summary is not intended to be an exhaustive description of the statutes or regulations applicable to our business. Supervision, regulation, and examination of the Company by the regulatory agencies are intended primarily for the protection of depositors and the Deposit Insurance Fund, rather than our shareholders.
The Company. The Company is a bank holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, or the Act, and is subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve Board. The Act and other federal laws subject bank holding companies to restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage, and to a range of supervisory requirements and actions, including regulatory enforcement actions for violations of laws and regulations and unsafe and unsound banking practices. As a bank holding company, the Company is required to file with the Federal Reserve Board an annual report and such other additional information as the Federal Reserve Board may require pursuant to the Act. The Federal Reserve Board may also examine the Company and each of its subsidiaries. The Company is subject to risk-based capital requirements adopted by the Federal Reserve Board, which are substantially identical to those applicable to the Bank, and which are described below.
The Act requires approval of the Federal Reserve Board for, among other things, a bank holding company’s direct or indirect acquisition of control of more than five percent (5%) of the voting shares, or substantially all the assets, of any bank or the merger or consolidation by a bank holding company with another bank holding company. The Act also generally permits the acquisition by a bank holding company of control, or substantially all of the assets of, any bank located in a state other than the home state of the bank holding company, except where the bank has not been in existence for the minimum period of time required by state law; but if the bank is at least 5 years old, the Federal Reserve Board may approve the acquisition.
With certain limited exceptions, a bank holding company is prohibited from acquiring control of any voting shares of any company which is not a bank or bank holding company and from engaging directly or indirectly in any activity other than banking or managing or controlling banks or furnishing services to or performing service for its authorized subsidiaries. A bank holding company may, however, engage in, or acquire an interest in a company that engages in, activities which the Federal Reserve Board has determined by order or regulation to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be properly incident thereto. In making such a determination, the Federal Reserve Board is required to consider whether the performance of such activities can reasonably be expected to produce benefits to the public, such as convenience, increased competition or gains in efficiency, which outweigh possible adverse effects, such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest or unsound banking practices. Some of the activities that the Federal Reserve Board has determined by regulation to be closely related to banking include making or servicing loans, performing certain data processing services, acting as a fiduciary or investment or financial advisor, and making investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare. The Federal Reserve may order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any of these activities or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when it has reasonable cause to believe that the bank holding company’s continued ownership, activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of it or any of its bank subsidiaries.
The Gramm Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, or GLB Act, allows a bank holding company or other company to certify its status as a financial holding company, which would allow such company to engage in activities that are financial in nature, that are incidental to such activities, or are complementary to such activities. The GLB Act enumerates certain activities that are deemed financial in nature, such as underwriting insurance or acting as an insurance principal, agent or broker, underwriting, dealing in or making markets in securities, and engaging in merchant banking under certain restrictions. It also authorizes the Federal Reserve Board to determine by regulation what other activities are financial in nature, or incidental or complementary thereto. The Company has not elected financial holding company status.
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The Act and the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, or FDIA, require a bank holding company to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to its bank subsidiaries. As a result of a bank holding company's source of strength obligation, a bank holding company may be required to provide funds to a bank subsidiary in the form of subordinated capital or other instruments which qualify as capital under bank regulatory rules. Any loans from the holding company to such subsidiary banks likely would be unsecured and subordinated to such bank’s depositors and perhaps to other creditors of the Bank. In addition, where a bank holding company has more than one FDIC-insured bank or thrift subsidiary, each of the bank holding company's subsidiary FDIC-insured depository institutions is responsible for losses to the FDIC as a result of an affiliated depository institution's failure.
Share Repurchases. A bank holding company is generally required to give the Federal Reserve prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its own then outstanding common stock if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of the company's consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may disapprove such a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would constitute an unsafe and unsound practice, or would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve order or directive, or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve has adopted an exception to this approval requirement for well-capitalized bank holding companies that meet certain conditions. Redemptions of equity in the form of preferred stock are generally subject to a prior approval requirement, and the capital conservation buffer requirement can also restrict the Company’s ability to engage in repurchases of its regulatory capital instruments as described below under “Capital Adequacy.”
As a Maryland corporation, the Company is subject to additional limitations and restrictions. For example, state law restrictions include limitations and restrictions relating to indemnification of directors, distributions to shareholders, transactions involving directors, officers or interested shareholders, maintenance of books, records, minutes, borrowing and the observance of corporate formalities.
The Bank. The Bank is a Maryland chartered commercial bank and a member of the Federal Reserve System, or a state member bank, whose accounts are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the FDIC up to the maximum legal limits of the FDIC. The Bank is subject to regulation, supervision and regular examination by the State of Maryland Office of Financial Regulation and the Federal Reserve Board. The regulations of these various agencies govern most aspects of the Bank’s business, including required reserves against deposits, loans, investments, mergers and acquisitions, borrowing, dividends and location and number of branch offices.
The laws and regulations governing the Bank generally have been promulgated to protect depositors and the Deposit Insurance Fund, and not for the purpose of protecting shareholders.
Commercial banks, savings and loan associations and credit unions are generally able to engage in interstate banking or acquisition activities. As a result, banks in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area can, subject to limited restrictions, acquire or merge with a bank in another jurisdiction, and can branch de novo in any jurisdiction.
Banking is a business, which depends on interest rate differentials. In general, the difference between the interest paid by a bank on its deposits and its other borrowings and the interest received by a bank on loans extended to its customers and on securities held in its investment portfolio constitutes the major portion of the Bank’s earnings. Thus, the earnings and growth of the Bank are subject to the influence of economic conditions generally, both domestic and foreign, and also to the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States and its agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve Board, which regulates the supply of money through various means including open market dealings in United States government securities. The nature and timing of changes in such policies and their impact on the Bank cannot be predicted.
Subsidiary banks of a bank holding company are subject to certain restrictions imposed by the Federal Reserve Act on any extensions of credit to the bank holding company or any of its subsidiaries, or investments in the stock or other securities thereof, and on the taking of such stock or securities as collateral for loans to any borrower. Further, a bank holding company and any subsidiary bank are prohibited from engaging in certain tie in arrangements in connection with the extension of credit. A subsidiary bank may not extend credit, lease or sell property, or furnish any services, or fix or vary the consideration for any of the foregoing on the condition that: (i) the customer obtain or provide some additional credit, property or services from or to such bank other than a loan, discount, deposit or trust service; (ii) the customer obtain or provide some additional credit, property or service from or to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company; or (iii) the customer not obtain some other credit, property or service from competitors, except for reasonable requirements to assure the soundness of credit extended.
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Branching and Interstate Banking. The federal banking agencies are authorized to approve interstate bank merger transactions without regard to whether such transaction is prohibited by the law of any state, unless the home state of one of the banks has opted out of the interstate bank merger provisions of the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994, or the Riegle-Neal Act, by adopting a law after the date of enactment of the Riegle-Neal Act and prior to June 1, 1997 which applies equally to all out-of-state banks and expressly prohibits merger transactions involving out-of-state banks. Interstate acquisitions of branches are permitted only if the law of the state in which the branch is located permits such acquisitions. Such interstate bank mergers and branch acquisitions are also subject to the nationwide and statewide insured deposit concentration limitations described in the Riegle-Neal Act. Washington, D.C., Maryland and Virginia have each enacted laws, which permit interstate acquisitions of banks and bank branches. The Dodd-Frank Act authorizes national and state banks to establish de novo branches in other states to the same extent as a bank chartered by that state would be permitted to branch.
The GLB Act made substantial changes in the historic restrictions on non-bank activities of bank holding companies, and allows affiliations between types of companies that were previously prohibited. The GLB Act also allows banks to engage in a wider array of nonbanking activities through “financial subsidiaries.”
Brokered Deposits. A "brokered deposit" is any deposit that is obtained from or through the mediation or assistance of a deposit broker. Deposit brokers may attract deposits from individuals and companies throughout the United States and internationally whose deposit decisions are based primarily on obtaining the highest interest rates. Certain reciprocal deposits of up to the lesser of $5 billion or 20% of an institution’s deposits are excluded from the definition of brokered deposits, where the institution is "well-capitalized" and has a composite rating of 1 or 2. We have used brokered deposits in the past, and we intend to continue to use brokered deposits as one of our funding sources to support future growth. As of December 31, 2020, brokered deposits represented approximately 26.2% of our total deposits. There are risks associated with using brokered deposits. In order to continue to maintain our level of brokered deposits, we may be forced to pay higher interest rates than those contemplated by our asset-liability pricing strategy. In addition, banks that become less than "well-capitalized" under applicable regulatory capital requirements may be restricted in their ability to accept or renew, or prohibited from accepting or renewing, brokered deposits. If this funding source becomes more difficult to access, we will have to seek alternative funding sources in order to continue to fund our growth. This may include increasing our reliance on FHLB borrowing, attempting to attract additional non-brokered deposits, and selling loans. There can be no assurance that brokered deposits will be available, or if available, sufficient to support our continued growth. The unavailability of a sufficient volume of brokered deposits could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In December 2020, the FDIC issued a final rule (effective April 1, 2021) that revises the FDIC’s brokered deposit regulations. The final rule, among other things, revises the definition of “deposit broker” and the accompanying exceptions. We are evaluating the final rule and its impact on our operations and results.

Bank Secrecy Act. Under the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, commonly referred to as the “USA Patriot Act,” financial institutions are subject to prohibitions against specified financial transactions and account relationships, as well as enhanced due diligence standards intended to detect, and prevent, the use of the United States financial system for money laundering and terrorist financing activities. The Bank Secrecy Act requires financial institutions, including banks, to establish anti-money laundering programs, including employee training and independent audit requirements, meet minimum standards specified by the act, follow minimum standards for customer identification and maintenance of customer identification records, and regularly compare customer lists against lists of suspected terrorists, terrorist organizations and money launderers. The costs or other effects of the compliance burdens imposed by the Bank Secrecy Act or future anti-terrorist, homeland security or anti-money laundering legislation or regulation cannot be predicted with certainty.
Office of Foreign Assets Control. The United States has imposed economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, foreign nationals and others, which are administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC. The OFAC-administered sanctions targeting countries take many different forms. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on a “U.S. person” engaging in financial transactions relating to making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of a sanctioned country have an interest by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (e.g. property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.
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Capital Adequacy. The Federal Reserve Board and the other federal banking agencies have adopted risk-based and leverage capital adequacy requirements, pursuant to which they assess the adequacy of capital in examining and supervising banks and bank holding companies and in analyzing bank regulatory applications. Risk-based capital requirements determine the adequacy of capital based on the risk inherent in various classes of assets and off-balance sheet items. The Dodd-Frank Act additionally requires capital requirements to be countercyclical so that the required amount of capital increases in times of economic expansion and decreases in times of economic contraction, consistent with safety and soundness.
The federal banking agencies have adopted rules, referred to as the Basel III Rules, to implement the framework for strengthening international capital and liquidity regulation adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, or Basel III. The Basel III framework, among other things, (i) introduced the concept of common equity tier one capital, or CET1, (ii) required that most adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 and not to the other components of capital, (iii) expanded the scope of the adjustments to capital that may be made as compared to existing regulations, and (iv) specified that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting specified requirements. Under the Basel III Rules, repurchase or redemption of Additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital instruments requires prior approval of the appropriate federal banking agency, which in our case is the Federal Reserve for both the Company and the Bank. Prior approval to repurchase or redeem CET1 instruments is only required under the Basel III Rules to the extent that a separate legal or regulatory requirement for prior approval applies, such as the restrictions described under “Share Repurchases” above.
The Basel III Rules require institutions to maintain: (i) a minimum ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets of 4.5%, plus a “capital conservation buffer” of 2.5%, or 7.0%; (ii) a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 6.0%, plus the capital conservation buffer, or 8.5%; (iii) a minimum ratio of Total (Tier 1 plus Tier 2) capital to risk-weighted assets of 8.0% plus the capital conservation buffer, or 10.5%; and (iv) a minimum leverage ratio of 4%, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 capital to balance sheet exposures plus certain off-balance sheet exposures (computed as the average of the month-end ratios each month during a calendar quarter).
Banking institutions with a ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the capital conservation buffer face constraints on their ability to pay dividends, effect equity repurchases and pay discretionary bonuses to executive officers, which constraints vary based on the amount of the shortfall.
Under the Basel III Rules, mortgage-servicing assets and deferred tax assets are subject to certain restrictions on their inclusion as capital. In July 2019, the Federal Reserve and the other federal banking regulators issued a final rule to simplify the regulatory capital treatment of mortgage-servicing assets, certain deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences and investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions. This final rule revises the individual CET1 deduction threshold for these assets from 10% to 25%, eliminates the aggregate deduction threshold of 15% for these assets, and assigns a 250% risk weight for any mortgage-servicing assets or deferred tax assets not deducted from CET1 capital .

The Basel III Rules also include, as part of the definition of CET1, a requirement that banking institutions include the amount of additional other comprehensive income, or AOCI, which primarily consists of unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities, which are not required to be treated as other-than-temporary impairment, net of tax) in calculating regulatory capital, unless the institution makes a one-time opt-out election from this provision in connection with the filing of its first regulatory reports after applicability of the Basel III Rules to that institution. The Company opted out of this requirement and, as such, does not include AOCI in its regulatory capital calculation.
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The Basel III Rules provide for the manner of calculating risk-weighted assets, including the recognition of credit risk mitigation, such as financial collateral and a range of eligible guarantors. They also include the risk weighting of equity exposures and past due loans; and higher (greater than 100%) risk weighting for certain commercial real estate exposures that have higher credit risk profiles, including higher loan-to-value, or LTV, and equity components. In particular, loans categorized as “high-volatility commercial real estate,” or HVCRE, loans are required to be assigned a 150% risk weighting and require additional capital support. HVCRE loans are defined to include any credit facility that finances or has financed the acquisition, development or construction of real property, unless it finances: 1-4 family residential properties; certain community development investments; agricultural land used or usable for, and whose value is based on, agricultural use; or commercial real estate projects in which: (i) the LTV is less than the applicable maximum supervisory LTV ratio established by the bank regulatory agencies; (ii) the borrower has contributed cash or unencumbered readily marketable assets, or has paid development expenses out of pocket, equal to at least 15% of the appraised “as completed” value; (iii) the borrower contributes its 15% before the bank advances any funds; and (iv) the capital contributed by the borrower, and any funds internally generated by the project, is contractually required to remain in the project until the facility is converted to permanent financing, sold or paid in full. The “Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act,” or the 2018 Act, expanded the exclusion from HVCRE loans to include credit facilities financing the acquisition or refinance of, or improvements to, existing income producing property, secured by the property, if the cash flow being generated by the property is sufficient to support the debt service and expenses of the property in accordance with the institution’s loan criteria for permanent financing. The 2018 Act also provides that the value of contributed property will be its appraised value, rather than its cost. The 2018 Act permits an institution to reclassify an HVCRE loan as a non-HVCRE loan upon substantial completion of the project, where the cash flow from the property is sufficient to support debt service and expenses, in accordance with the institution’s underwriting criteria for permanent financing. In November 2019, the federal banking agencies jointly amended the Basel III Rules to implement this provision of the 2018 Act applicable to HVCRE exposures.
The 2018 Act also directed the federal banking agencies to develop a “Community Bank Leverage Ratio,” calculated by dividing tangible equity capital by average consolidated total assets. In October 2019, the federal banking agencies adopted a Community Bank Leverage Ratio of 9%, which was temporarily lowered to 8% as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. If a “qualified community bank,” generally a depository institution or depository institution holding company with consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, has a leverage ratio which exceeds the Community Bank Leverage Ratio, then such institution is considered to have met all generally applicable leverage and risk based capital requirements; the capital ratio requirements for “well capitalized” status under Section 38 of the FDIA, and any other leverage or capital requirements to which it is subject. An institution or holding company may be excluded from qualifying community bank status based on its risk profile, including consideration of its off-balance sheet exposures; trading assets and liabilities; total notional derivatives exposures; and such other facts as the appropriate federal banking agencies determine to be appropriate. The Company and Bank qualify for this simplified capital regime, but there can be no assurance that satisfaction of the Community Bank Leverage Ratio will provide adequate capital for their operations and growth, or an adequate cushion against increased levels of nonperforming assets or weakened economic conditions if the Company and Bank elect to apply this regime.
As discussed below, the Basel III Rules also integrate the capital requirements into the prompt corrective action provisions under Section 38 of the FDIA.
The capital ratios described above are the minimum levels that the federal banking agencies expect. Our state and federal regulators have the discretion to require us to maintain higher capital levels based upon our concentrations of loans, the risk of our lending or other activities, the performance of our loan and investment portfolios and other factors. Failure to maintain such higher capital expectations could result in a lower composite regulatory rating, which would impact our deposit insurance premiums and could affect our ability to borrow and costs of borrowing, and could result in additional or more severe enforcement actions. In respect of institutions with high concentrations of loans in areas deemed to be higher risk, or during periods of significant economic stress, regulators may require an institution to maintain a higher level of capital, and/or to maintain more stringent risk management measures, than those required by these regulations.
In December 2017, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published the last version of the Basel III accord, generally referred to as “Basel IV.” The Basel Committee stated that a key objective of the revisions incorporated into the framework is to reduce excessive variability of risk-weighted assets, or RWA, which will be accomplished by enhancing the robustness and risk sensitivity of the standardized approaches for credit risk and operational risk, which will facilitate the comparability of banks’ capital ratios; constraining the use of internally modeled approaches; and complementing the risk-weighted capital ratio with a finalized leverage ratio and a revised and robust capital floor. Leadership of the federal banking agencies who are tasked with implementing Basel IV supported the revisions. Although it is uncertain at this time, it is anticipated that some, if not all, of the Basel IV accord may be incorporated into the capital requirements framework applicable to the Bank effective January 1, 2023.
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In 2016, FASB issued the current and expected credit losses model (“CECL”), which became applicable to us on January 1, 2020. CECL required financial institutions to estimate and establish a provision for expected credit losses over the lifetime of the asset, at the origination or the date of acquisition of the asset, as opposed to reserving for incurred or probable losses through the balance sheet date. Upon implementation, an institution recognized a one-time cumulative effect adjustment to the ACL. The federal banking regulators have adopted a rule providing for an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects upon adopting CECL. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal banking regulators issued a final rule in March 2020 that provided banking organizations with an alternative option to temporarily delay for two years the estimated impact of the adoption of the CECL methodology on regulatory capital, followed by the three-year phase-in period. The cumulative amount that is not recognized in regulatory capital will be phased in at 25% per year beginning January 1, 2022. We have elected to adopt the March 2020 interim final rule.

Prompt Corrective Action. Under Section 38 of the FDIA, each federal banking agency is required to implement a system of prompt corrective action for institutions that it regulates. The federal banking agencies have promulgated substantially similar regulations for this purpose. The following capital requirements currently apply to the Bank for purposes of Section 38.
Capital CategoryTotal Risk-Based
Capital Ratio
Tier 1 Risk-Based
Capital Ratio
Common Equity
Tier 1 Capital Ratio
Leverage RatioTangible Equity
to Assets
Well Capitalized 10% or greater 8% or greater 6.5% or greater 5% or greater n/a
Adequately Capitalized 8% or greater 6% or greater 4.5% or greater 4% or greater n/a
Undercapitalized Less than 8%Less than 6%Less than 4.5%Less than 4%n/a
Significantly Undercapitalized Less than 6%Less than 4%Less than 3%Less than 3%n/a
Critically Undercapitalized n/a n/an/a n/a Less than 2%
An institution generally must file a written capital restoration plan which meets specified requirements with the appropriate federal banking agency within 45 days of the date the institution receives notice or is deemed to have notice that it is undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. The appropriate federal banking agency must provide the institution with written notice of approval or disapproval within 60 days after receiving a capital restoration plan, subject to extensions by the applicable agency.
An institution that is required to submit a capital restoration plan must concurrently submit a performance guaranty by each company that controls the institution. Such guaranty shall be limited to the lesser of (i) an amount equal to 5.0% of the institution’s total assets at the time the institution was notified or deemed to have notice that it was undercapitalized or (ii) the amount necessary at such time to restore the relevant capital measures of the institution to the levels required for the institution to be classified as adequately capitalized. Such a guaranty shall expire after the appropriate federal banking agency notifies the institution that it has remained adequately capitalized for four consecutive calendar quarters. An institution that fails to submit a written capital restoration plan within the requisite period, including any required performance guaranty, or fails in any material respect to implement a capital restoration plan, shall be subject to the restrictions in Section 38 of the FDIA that are applicable to significantly undercapitalized institutions.
A “critically undercapitalized institution” is required to be placed in conservatorship or receivership within 90 days, unless the FDIC formally determines that forbearance from such action would better protect the Deposit Insurance Fund. Unless the FDIC or other appropriate federal banking agency makes specific further findings and certifies that the institution is viable and is not expected to fail, an institution that remains critically undercapitalized during the fourth calendar quarter after the date it became critically undercapitalized must be placed in receivership. The general rule is that the FDIC will be appointed as receiver within 90 days after an institution becomes critically undercapitalized unless good cause is shown and an extension is agreed to by the federal regulators. In general, good cause requires that adequate capital has been raised and is imminently available for infusion into the institution, except for certain technical requirements, which may delay the infusion for a period of time beyond the 90 day time period.
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Immediately upon becoming undercapitalized, an institution shall become subject to the provisions of Section 38 of the FDIA, which (i) restrict payment of capital distributions and management fees; (ii) require that the appropriate federal banking agency monitor the condition of the institution and its efforts to restore its capital; (iii) require submission of a capital restoration plan; (iv) restrict the growth of the institution’s assets; and (v) require prior approval of certain expansion proposals. The appropriate federal banking agency for an undercapitalized institution also may take any number of discretionary supervisory actions if the agency determines that any of these actions is necessary to resolve the problems of the institution at the least possible long-term cost to the Deposit Insurance Fund, subject in certain cases to specified procedures. These discretionary supervisory actions include: requiring the institution to raise additional capital; restricting transactions with affiliates; requiring divestiture of the institution or the sale of the institution to a willing purchaser; and any other supervisory action that the agency deems appropriate. These and additional mandatory and permissive supervisory actions may be taken with respect to significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized institutions.
Additionally, under Section 11(c)(5) of the FDIA, a conservator or receiver may be appointed for an institution where: (i) an institution’s obligations exceed its assets; (ii) there is substantial dissipation of the institution’s assets or earnings as a result of any violation of law or any unsafe or unsound practice; (iii) the institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition; (iv) there is a willful violation of a cease-and-desist order; (v) the institution is unable to pay its obligations in the ordinary course of business; (vi) losses or threatened losses deplete all or substantially all of an institution’s capital, and there is no reasonable prospect of becoming “adequately capitalized” without assistance; (vii) there is any violation of law or unsafe or unsound practice or condition that is likely to cause insolvency or substantial dissipation of assets or earnings, weaken the institution’s condition, or otherwise seriously prejudice the interests of depositors or the insurance fund; (viii) an institution ceases to be insured; (ix) the institution is undercapitalized and has no reasonable prospect that it will become adequately capitalized, fails to become adequately capitalized when required to do so, or fails to submit or materially implement a capital restoration plan; or (x) the institution is critically undercapitalized or otherwise has substantially insufficient capital.
Regulatory Enforcement Authority. Federal banking law grants substantial enforcement powers to the federal banking agencies. This enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, to issue cease-and-desist or removal orders and to initiate injunctive actions against banking organizations and institution-affiliated parties. In general, these enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of laws and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices. Other actions or inactions may provide the basis for enforcement action, including misleading or untimely reports filed with regulatory authorities.
The Dodd-Frank Act. The Dodd-Frank Act made significant changes to the U.S. bank regulatory structure, affecting the lending, deposit, investment, trading and operating activities of financial institutions and their holding companies. The Dodd-Frank Act required a number of federal agencies to adopt a broad range of rules and regulations. The following provisions are considered to be of greatest significance to the Company:
Expanded the authority of the Federal Reserve Board to examine bank holding companies and their subsidiaries, including insured depository institutions.
Required a bank holding company to be well capitalized and well managed to receive approval of an interstate bank acquisition.
Provided mortgage reform provisions regarding a customer’s ability to pay and making more loans subject to provisions for higher-cost loans and new disclosures.
Created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or CFPB, which has rulemaking authority for a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all banks, and has broad powers to supervise and enforce consumer protection laws.
Created the Financial Stability Oversight Council with authority to identify institutions and practices that might pose a systemic risk.
Introduced additional corporate governance and executive compensation requirements on companies subject to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or Exchange Act.
Permitted FDIC-insured banks to pay interest on business demand deposits.
Adopted Section 13 of the Act, commonly referred to as the Volcker Rule, which restricts the ability of institutions and their holding companies to and affiliates to make proprietary investments in securities and to invest in certain covered nonpublic investment vehicles, and to extend credit to such vehicles.
Codified the requirement that holding companies and other companies that directly or indirectly control an insured depository institution to serve as a source of financial strength.
Made permanent the $250 thousand limit for federal deposit insurance.
Permitted national and state banks to establish interstate branches to the same extent as the branch host state allows establishment of in-state branches.
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The 2018 Act includes provisions revising Dodd-Frank Act provisions, including provisions that, among other things: (i) exempt banks with less than $10 billion in assets from the ability-to-repay requirements for certain qualified residential mortgage loans; (ii) exempt certain transactions valued at less than $400,000 in rural areas from appraisal requirements; (iii) exempt banks and credit unions that originate fewer than 500 open-end and 500 closed-end mortgages from the expanded data disclosures required under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, or HMDA; (iv) amend the SAFE Mortgage Licensing Act by providing registered mortgage loan originators in good standing with 120 days of transitional authority to originate loans when moving from a federal depository institution to a non-depository institution or across state lines; (v) require the CFPB to clarify how TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure applies to mortgage assumption transactions and construction-to-permanent home loans as well as outline certain liabilities related to model disclosure use; (vi) revise treatment of HVCRE exposures; and (vii) create the simplified Community Bank Leverage Capital Ratio. The 2018 Act also exempts community banks from the Volcker Rule, if they have less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets. The 2018 Act also adds certain protections for consumers, including veterans and active duty military personnel, expands credit freezes, and calls for the creation of an identity theft protection database.
In addition, other new proposals for legislation continue to be introduced in the Congress that could further substantially increase regulation of the bank and non-bank financial services industries and impose restrictions on the operations and general ability of firms within the industry to conduct business consistent with historical practices. Federal and state regulatory agencies also frequently adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. Certain aspects of current or proposed regulatory or legislative changes to laws applicable to the financial industry, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability of our business activities, require more oversight or change certain of our business practices, including the ability to offer new products, obtain financing, attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest spreads and could expose the Company to additional costs, including increased compliance costs. These changes also may require significant management attention and resources to make any necessary changes to operations to comply and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. The Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB, a new, independent federal agency with broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Truth in Lending Act, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the consumer financial privacy provisions of the GLB Act and certain other statutes. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with over $10 billion in assets. Smaller institutions, including the Bank, are subject to rules promulgated by the CFPB but continue to be examined and supervised by federal banking agencies for compliance with federal consumer protection laws and regulations. The CFPB also has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products. The Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations.
The changes resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act and CFPB rulemakings and enforcement policies may impact the profitability of our business activities, limit our ability to make, or the desirability of making, certain types of loans, including non-qualified mortgage loans, require us to change our business practices, impose upon us more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage ratio requirements or otherwise adversely affect our business or profitability. The changes may also require us to dedicate significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make necessary changes to comply with the new statutory and regulatory requirements.
The CFPB has concentrated much of its rulemaking efforts on reforms related to residential mortgage transactions. The CFPB has issued rules related to a borrower’s ability to repay and qualified mortgage standards, mortgage servicing standards, loan originator compensation standards, requirements for high-cost mortgages, appraisal and escrow standards and requirements for higher-priced mortgages. The CFPB has also issued rules establishing integrated disclosure requirements for lenders and settlement agents in connection with most closed end, real estate secured consumer loans and rules which, among other things, expand the scope of information lenders must report in connection with mortgage and other housing-related loan applications under HMDA. These rules include significant regulatory and compliance changes and are expected to have a broad impact on the financial services industry.
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The rule implementing the Dodd-Frank Act requirement that lenders determine whether a consumer has the ability to repay a mortgage loan, established certain minimum requirements for creditors when making ability to pay determinations, and established certain protections from liability for mortgages meeting the definition of “qualified mortgages.” Generally, the rule applies to all consumer-purpose, closed-end loans secured by a dwelling including home-purchase loans, refinances and home equity loans – whether a first or subordinate lien. The rule does not cover, among other things, home equity lines of credit or other open-end credit; temporary or “bridge” loans with a term of 12 months or less, such as a loan to finance the initial construction of a dwelling; a construction phase of 12 months or less of a construction-to-permanent loan; and business-purpose loans, even if secured by a dwelling. The rule afforded greater legal protections for lenders making qualified mortgages that are not “higher priced.” Qualified mortgages must generally satisfy detailed requirements related to product features, underwriting standards, and a points and fees requirement whereby the total points and fees on a mortgage loan cannot exceed specified amounts or percentages of the total loan amount. Mandatory features of a qualified mortgage include: (1) a loan term not exceeding 30 years; and (2) regular periodic payments that do not result in negative amortization, deferral of principal repayment, or a balloon payment. Further, the rule clarified that qualified mortgages do not include “no-doc” loans and loans with negative amortization, interest-only payments, or balloon payments. The rule created special categories of qualified mortgages originated by certain smaller creditors. To the extent that we seek to make qualified mortgages, we are required to comply with these rules, subject to available exclusions. Our business strategy, product offerings, and profitability may change as the rule is interpreted by the regulators and courts.
In December 2020, the CFPB issued a final rule to create a new category of seasoned qualified mortgages (“Seasoned QMs”), which are presumed to meet the ability-to-pay requirements established by the Dodd-Frank Act. To be considered a Seasoned QM, loans would have to be first-lien, fixed-rate mortgages that have met certain performance requirements over a 36-month seasoning period. Covered transactions would also have to be held on the creditor’s portfolio during the seasoning period, comply with general restrictions on product features and points and fees and meet certain underwriting requirements (including verification of the consumer’s debt-to-income ratio or residual income at origination). The rule took effect on February 27, 2021, but compliance is not mandatory until July 1, 2021. We are continuing to evaluate the impact of the final rule on our operations.

Fair and Responsible Banking. Banks and other financial institutions are subject to numerous laws and regulations intended to promote fair and responsible banking and prohibit unlawful discrimination and unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in banking. These laws include, among others, the Dodd-Frank Act, Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and the Fair Housing Act. Many states and local jurisdictions have consumer protection laws analogous, and in addition, to those listed above. These federal, state and local laws regulate the manner in which financial institutions deal with customers taking deposits, making loans or conducting other types of transactions. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could give rise to regulatory sanctions, and actions by the U.S. Department of Justice and state attorneys general.
Financial Privacy. Under the Federal Right to Privacy Act of 1978, which imposes a duty to maintain confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribes procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records, financial institutions are required to disclose their policies for collecting and protecting confidential information. Consumers generally may prevent financial institutions from sharing personal financial information with nonaffiliated third parties except for third parties that market the institutions’ own products and services. Additionally, financial institutions generally may not disclose consumer account numbers to any nonaffiliated third party for use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing or other marketing through electronic mail to consumers.
Community Reinvestment Act. The Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) requires that, in connection with examinations of insured depository institutions within their respective jurisdictions, the federal banking agencies evaluate the record of each financial institution in meeting the needs of its local community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The Bank’s record of performance under the CRA is publicly available. A bank’s CRA performance is also considered in evaluating applications seeking approval for mergers, acquisitions, and new offices or facilities. Failure to adequately meet these criteria could result in additional requirements and limitations being imposed on the Bank. Additionally, we must publicly disclose the terms of certain CRA-related agreements. In September 2020, the Federal Reserve issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (“ANPR”) that invites public comment on an approach to modernize the Federal Reserve’s regulations that implement the CRA. The ANPR seeks feedback on ways to evaluate how banks meet the needs of low- and moderate-income communities and address inequities in credit access. The comment period for the ANPR ended on February 16, 2021.

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Concentration and Risk Guidance. The federal banking regulatory agencies promulgated joint interagency guidance regarding material direct and indirect asset and funding concentrations. The guidance defines a concentration as any of the following: (i) asset concentrations of 25% or more of Total Capital (loan related) or Tier 1 Capital (non-loan related) by individual borrower, small interrelated group of individuals, single repayment source or individual project; (ii) asset concentrations of 100% or more of Total Capital (loan related) or Tier 1 Capital (non-loan related) by industry, product line, type of collateral, or short-term obligations of one financial institution or affiliated group; (iii) funding concentrations from a single source representing 10% or more of Total Assets; or (iv) potentially volatile funding sources that when combined represent 25% or more of Total Assets (these sources may include brokered, large, high-rate, uninsured, internet-listing-service deposits, Federal funds purchased or other potentially volatile deposits or borrowings). If a concentration is present, management must employ heightened risk management practices including board and management oversight and strategic planning, development of underwriting standards, risk assessment and monitoring through market analysis and stress testing, third party review and increasing capital requirements.
Additionally, the federal bank regulatory agencies have issued guidance governing financial institutions with concentrations in commercial real estate lending. The guidance provides that institutions that have (i) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land which represent 100% or more of an institution’s total risk-based capital; or (ii) total reported commercial real estate loans, excluding loans secured by owner-occupied commercial real estate, representing 300% or more of the institution’s total risk-based capital and the institution’s commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased 50% or more during the prior 36 months, are identified as having potential commercial real estate concentration risk. Institutions, which are deemed to have concentrations in commercial real estate lending are expected to employ heightened levels of risk management with respect to their commercial real estate portfolios, and may be required to hold higher levels of capital.
FDIC Insurance Premiums. The FDIC maintains a risk-based assessment system for determining deposit insurance premiums. The FDIC has established four risk categories, each subject to a different premium rate, ranging from a low of 2.5 basis points up to 45 basis points, based upon an institution’s status as well capitalized, adequately capitalized or undercapitalized, and the institution’s supervisory rating. In general, an institution’s assessment base for calculating its deposit insurance premium is determined by subtracting its tangible equity and certain allowable deductions from its consolidated average assets. There are three adjustments that can be made to an institution’s initial base assessment rate: (1) a potential decrease for long-term unsecured debt, including senior and subordinated debt and, for small institutions, a portion of Tier 1 capital; (2) a potential increase for secured liabilities above a threshold amount; and (3) for institutions other than those with the lowest risk rating, a potential increase for brokered deposits above a threshold amount. Institutions with less than $10.0 billion in assets that have been FDIC-insured for at least five years, instead of the four risk categories, a financial ratios method based on a statistical model estimating the bank's probability of failure over three years, utilizing seven financial ratios (leverage ratio; net income before taxes/total assets; nonperforming loans and leases/gross assets; other real estate owned/gross assets; brokered deposit ratio; one year asset growth; and loan mix index) and a weighted average of supervisory ratings components. The financial ratios method also provides that community banks with brokered deposits in excess of 10% of total consolidated assets (inclusive of reciprocal deposits if a bank is not well-capitalized or has a composite supervisory rating other than a 1 or 2) may be subject to an increased assessment rate if it has experienced rapid growth; lowers the range of authorized assessment rates to 1.5 basis points for institutions posing the least risk, increases the range up to 40 basis points for institutions posing the most risk; and further lowers the range of assessment rates if the reserve ratio of the Deposit Insurance Fund increases to 2% or more. Institutions with over $10.0 billion in total consolidated assets are required to pay a surcharge of 4.5 basis points on their assessment basis, subject to certain adjustments. This surcharge is expected to apply to the Bank after December 31, 2021. The FDIC may also impose special assessments from time to time. Under the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”), FDIC insured institutions with assets in excess of $10 billion are also subject to a phase out of the deductibility of deposit insurance premiums.

The Dodd-Frank Act permanently increased the maximum deposit insurance amount for banks, savings institutions and credit unions to $250 thousand per depositor. The Dodd-Frank Act also broadened the base for calculating FDIC insurance assessments. Assessments are now based on a financial institution’s average consolidated total assets less tangible equity capital. The Dodd-Frank Act required the FDIC to increase the reserve ratio of the Deposit Insurance Fund to 1.35% of insured deposits and eliminated the requirement that the FDIC pay dividends to insured depository institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds certain thresholds.
Increased Focus on Lending to Members of the Military. The federal banking agencies and the Department of Justice have recently increased their focus on financial institution compliance with the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (“SCRA”). The SCRA requires a bank to cap the interest rate at 6% for any loan to a member of the military who goes on active duty after taking out the loan. It also limits the actions the bank can take when a servicemember is in foreclosure. The Bank fully complies with this rule.
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Affiliate Transactions. The Company and Bank are separate and distinct legal entities, and the Company is an affiliate of the Bank. Federal laws strictly limit the ability of banks to engage in certain transactions with their affiliates. Transactions deemed to be a “covered transaction” under Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act between a bank and an affiliate are limited to 10% of the bank's capital and surplus and, with respect to all affiliates, to an aggregate of 20% of the bank's capital and surplus. Further, covered transactions that are loans and extensions of credit generally are required to be secured by eligible collateral in specified amounts. Federal law also requires that covered transactions and certain other transactions listed in Section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act between a bank and its affiliates be on terms as favorable to the bank as transactions with non-affiliates.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves risks. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully read and consider the risk factors described below as well as the other information included in this report and other documents we file with the SEC, as the same may be updated from time to time. Any of these risks, if they actually occur, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect us. In any such case, you could lose all or a portion of your original investment.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected, and is likely to continue to adversely affect, our customers and other businesses in our market area, as well as counterparties and third party vendors. The resulting adverse impacts on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations have been, and may continue to be significant.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting containment measures have resulted in widespread economic and financial disruptions that have adversely affected, and are likely to continue to adversely effect, our customers and other businesses in our market area, as well as counterparties and third-party vendors. We continue to see the impact of the pandemic on our business, which we expect may potentially worsen, particularly since there remains ongoing uncertainty as to how long the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures will continue, both in our market area and the rest of the country. This impact has been, in certain areas, and could continue to be significant, adverse and potentially material. The full extent of this impact, and the resulting impact on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations, remains inestimable at this time, and will depend on a number of evolving factors and future developments beyond our control and that we are unable to predict, including the duration, spread and severity of the pandemic; the nature, extent and effectiveness of containment measures; the timing of development and widespread availability of medical treatments or vaccines; the extent and duration of the effect on the economy, unemployment, consumer confidence and consumer and business spending; the impact and continued availability of monetary, fiscal and other economic policies and programs designed to provide economic assistance to individuals and small businesses; and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. It is also possible that any adverse impacts of the pandemic and containment measures may continue once the pandemic is controlled and the containment measures are lifted.
We expect the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations to continue, and be the most severe in the following areas:
Loan Credit Quality. The significant disruption resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic has been materially affecting the businesses of our customers and of their customers, which impacts their creditworthiness, their ability to pay amounts owed to us and our ability to collect those amounts. Among the industry’s most clearly impacted by the pandemic are the Accommodation and Food Service industry, exposure to which represents 10% of our loan portfolio as of December 31, 2020, and the Retail Trade industry, which represents 1% of our loan portfolio as of December 31, 2020. In addition, approximately 6% of our loan portfolio as of December 31, 2020 is secured by restaurants, hotels or retail properties. These areas may have a longer recovery period than other industries. Despite high home sales volumes and our strong performance in gains from residential mortgage loans for the quarter and year ended December 31, 2020, such volumes and performance may not be stable. Economic conditions may likely result in future material declines in real estate values and home sales volumes, and an increase in tenants failing to make or deferring rent payments. A large portion of our loan portfolio is related to real estate, with 73% consisting of commercial real estate and real estate construction loans, and 85% of our loans being secured by real estate. As a result of actual or expected credit losses, we may downgrade loans, increase our allowance for loan losses, and write-down or charge-off credit relationships, any of which would negatively impact our results of operations. In addition, market upheavals are likely to affect the value of real estate and commercial assets. In the event of foreclosure, it is unlikely that we will be able to sell the foreclosed property at a price that will allow us to recoup a significant portion of the delinquent loan.
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Allowance for Credit Losses. We began using a new credit reserving methodology known as the CECL methodology effective January 1, 2020. Our ability to accurately forecast future losses under that methodology may be impaired by the significant uncertainty surrounding the pandemic and containment measures and the lack of a comparable precedent. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, after the initial adjustment to the ACL as of January 1, 2020, we further increased the ACL by $45.6 million of provisioning, respectively, inclusive of $167 thousand of ACL on AFS debt securities recorded in 2020. We may need to record additional provisions for credit losses in future, as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, and our losses on our loans and other exposures could exceed our allowance.
Increased Demands on Capital and Liquidity. We have experienced increased volume of loan originations, particularly SBA loans pursuant to the PPP created by recent legislation. Certain of these SBA loans have mandated interest rates that are lower than our usual rates and may not be purchased by the SBA or other third parties within expected timeframes. In addition, borrowers may draw on existing lines of credit or seek additional loans to finance their businesses. These factors may result in reduced levels of capital and liquidity being available to originate more profitable loans, which will negatively impact our ability to serve our existing customers and our ability to attract new customers.
Deposit Business. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, deposit customers are expected to retain higher levels of cash. While increased low-interest deposits could have a positive impact in the short-term, we would not expect these funds to be replenished as customers use deposit funds for liquidity for their business and individual needs. If deposit levels decline, our available liquidity would decline, and we could be forced to obtain liquidity on terms less favorable than current deposit terms, which would in turn compress margins and negatively impact our results of operations.
Interest Rate Risk. Our net interest income, lending activities, deposits and profitability have been and could continue to be negatively affected by volatility in interest rates caused by uncertainties stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, the Federal Reserve lowered the target range for the federal funds rate to a range from 0 to 0.25 percent. A prolonged period of extremely volatile and unstable market conditions would likely increase our funding costs and negatively affect market risk mitigation strategies. Higher income volatility from changes in interest rates and spreads to benchmark indices could cause a loss of future net interest income and a decrease in current fair market values of our assets. Fluctuations in interest rates will impact both the level of income and expense recorded on most of our assets and liabilities and the market value of all interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our net income, operating results or financial condition.
Operational Risk. Current and future restrictions on our workforce's access to our facilities could limit our ability to meet customer servicing expectations and have a material adverse effect on our operations. We rely on business processes and branch activity that largely depend on people and technology, including access to information technology systems as well as information, applications, payment systems and other services provided by third parties. In response to COVID-19, we have modified our business practices by directing a portion of our employees to work remotely from their homes to minimize interruptions to our operations. These actions will likely result in increased spending on our business continuity efforts, such as technology and readiness procedures for returning to our offices. We could also experience an increased strain on our risk management policies, including, but not limited to, the effectiveness and accuracy of our models, given the lack of data inputs and comparable precedent. Further, technology in employees' homes may not be as robust as in our offices and could cause the networks, information systems, applications, and other tools available to employees to be more limited or less reliable than in our offices. The continuation of these work-from-home measures also introduces additional operational risk, including related to the effectiveness of our anti-money laundering and other compliance programs, as well as increased cybersecurity risk. These cyber risks include greater phishing, malware, and other cybersecurity attacks, vulnerability to disruptions of our information technology infrastructure and telecommunications systems for remote operations, increased risk of unauthorized dissemination of confidential information, limited ability to restore the systems in the event of a systems failure or interruption, greater risk of a security breach resulting in destruction or misuse of valuable information, and potential impairment of our ability to perform critical functions, including wiring funds, all of which could expose us to risks of data or financial loss, litigation and liability and could seriously disrupt our operations and the operations of any impacted customers.
External Vendors and Service Providers. We rely on many outside service providers that support our day-to-day operations including data processing and electronic communications, real estate appraisal, loan servicers and local and federal government agencies, offices and courthouses. In light of the containment measures responding to COVID-19, many of these entities may limit the availability and access of their services, which may impact our business. For example, loan origination could be delayed due to the limited availability of real estate appraisers for the collateral. Loan closings could be delayed related to reductions in available staff in recording offices or the closing of courthouses, which slows the process for title work, mortgage and UCC filings. If the third-party service providers continue to have limited capacities for a prolonged period or if additional limitations or potential disruptions in these services materialize, it may negatively affect our operations.
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Strategic and Reputational Risk. The pandemic and containment measures have caused us to modify our strategic plans and business practices, and we may take further actions that we determine are in the best interests of our colleagues, customers and business partners. If we do not respond appropriately to the pandemic, or if customers or other stakeholders do not perceive our response to be adequate, we could suffer damage to our reputation and our brand, which could materially adversely affect our business. We also face an increased risk of litigation and governmental and regulatory scrutiny as a result of the effects of the pandemic on market and economic conditions and actions governmental authorities take in response to those conditions, as detailed in the Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

We may not be able to manage future growth and competition.
We have grown in the past several years through organic growth. We intend to seek further growth in the level of our assets and deposits and selectively in the number of our branches, within our existing footprint in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, although no additional branches are currently anticipated in 2021. We cannot provide any assurance that we will continue to be able to maintain our rate of growth at acceptable risk levels and upon acceptable terms, while managing the costs and implementation risks associated with our growth strategy. We may be unable to continue to increase our volume of loans and deposits or to introduce new products and services at acceptable risk levels for a variety of reasons, including an inability to maintain capital and liquidity sufficient to support continued growth. If we are successful in continuing our growth, we cannot assure you that further growth would offer the same levels of potential profitability, or that we would be successful in controlling costs and maintaining asset quality. Accordingly, an inability to maintain growth, or an inability to effectively manage growth, could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and stock price.
Failure to maintain effective systems of internal and disclosure control could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation, financial condition and stock price.
Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation, operating results or stock price could be adversely impacted. As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal and disclosure controls, we occasionally discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal and disclosure controls that require remediation; as we did in our 2019 assessment of internal controls. See “Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.” A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Any failure to maintain effective controls or to timely implement any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls, or to effect remediation of any material weakness or significant deficiency, could, among other things, result in losses from fraud or error, harm our reputation, or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation, financial condition or stock price.
Management reviews and updates our systems of internal control and disclosure controls and procedures, as well as corporate governance policies and procedures, as appropriate. Any system of controls is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our continued growth depends on our ability to meet minimum regulatory capital levels. Growth and shareholder returns may be adversely affected if sources of capital are not available to help us meet them.
As we grow, we will have to maintain our regulatory capital levels at or above the required minimum levels. If earnings do not meet our current estimates, if we incur unanticipated losses or expenses, or if we grow faster than expected, we may need to obtain additional capital sooner than expected or we may be required to reduce our level of assets or reduce our rate of growth in order to maintain regulatory compliance. Under those circumstances net income and the rate of growth of net income may be adversely affected. The significant level of ADC loans in our portfolio, and new loans sought by customers, which may be required to be assigned a higher risk weight, could require us to maintain additional capital for these loans.


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Our results of operations, financial condition and the value of our shares may be adversely affected if we are not able to continue to grow our assets.
Since opening for business in 1998, our asset level, loans and net income available to common shareholders have increased significantly. We may not be able to achieve continued growth in asset levels, loans, or earnings in future years. Moreover, as our asset size, loan portfolio and earnings increase, it may become more difficult to achieve high rates of increase. Additionally, it may become more difficult to achieve continued improvements in our expense levels and efficiency ratio. We may not be able to maintain the relatively low levels of nonperforming assets that we have experienced to date. Declines in the rate of growth of income or assets or deposits, and increases in operating expenses or nonperforming assets may have an adverse impact on the value of the common stock.
We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations.
Liquidity risk is the possibility of being unable to meet obligations as they come due, pay deposits when withdrawn, and fund loan and investment opportunities as they arise because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding on a timely basis, at a reasonable cost and within acceptable risk tolerances. If a financial institution is unable to meet its payment obligations on a daily basis, it is subject to being placed into receivership, regardless of its capital levels. Our largest source of liquidity is customer deposit accounts, including noninterest bearing demand deposit accounts, which constituted 31% of our total deposits at December 31, 2020. If we are unable to increase customer deposits in an amount sufficient to fund loan growth, we may be required to rely on other, potentially more expensive, sources of liquidity, such as FHLB borrowings, brokered deposits and repurchase agreements, to fund loan growth, which could adversely affect our earnings, or reduce our rate of growth, which could adversely affect our earnings and stock price.
We also have a significant amount of deposits, which are in excess of the maximum FDIC insurance coverage limits. At any time, customers who have uninsured deposits may decide to move their deposits to institutions which are perceived as safer, sounder, or “too big to fail” or could elect to use other non-deposit funding products, such as repurchase agreements, that may require the Bank to pay higher interest and to provide securities as collateral for the Bank’s repurchase obligation. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had approximately $3.3 billion of uninsured deposits, or 36% of our total deposits.
While we believe that our strong earnings, capital position, relationship banking model and reputation as a safe and sound institution mitigate the risk of losing deposits, there can be no assurance that we will not have to replace a significant amount of deposits with alternative funding sources, such as repurchase agreements, federal funds lines, certificates of deposit, brokered deposits, other categories of interest bearing deposits and FHLB borrowings, all of which are more expensive than noninterest bearing deposits, and can be more expensive than other categories of deposits. While we believe that we would be able to maintain adequate liquidity at reasonable cost, the loss of a significant amount of deposits, particularly noninterest bearing deposits, could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, net interest margin, rate of growth and stock price.
We may face risks with respect to future expansion or acquisition activity.
We may seek to selectively expand our banking operations through limited de novo branching or opportunistic acquisition activities. We cannot be certain that any expansion activity, through de novo branching, acquisition of branches of another financial institution or a whole institution, or the establishment or acquisition of nonbanking financial service companies, will prove profitable or will increase shareholder value. The success of any acquisition will depend, in part, on our ability to realize the estimated cost savings and revenue enhancements from combining the businesses of the Company and the target company. Our ability to realize increases in revenue will depend, in part, on our ability to retain customers and employees, and to capitalize on existing relationships for the provision of additional products and services. If our estimates turn out to be incorrect or we are not able to successfully combine companies, the anticipated cost savings and increased revenues may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company’s ongoing business or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies that adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with clients and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits of the merger. As with any combination of banking institutions, there also may be disruptions that cause us to lose customers or cause customers to withdraw their deposits from our bank. Customers may not readily accept changes to their banking arrangements that we make as part of or following an acquisition. Additionally, the value of an acquisition to the Company is dependent on our ability to successfully identify and estimate the magnitude of any asset quality issues of acquired companies.

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Our concentrations of loans may create a greater risk of loan defaults and losses.
A substantial portion of our loans are secured by commercial real estate in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and substantially all of our loans are to borrowers in that area. We also have a significant amount of real estate construction loans and land related loans for residential and commercial developments. At December 31, 2020, 85% of our loans were secured or partially secured by real estate, primarily commercial real estate. Management believes that the commercial real estate concentration risk is mitigated by diversification among the types and characteristics of real estate collateral properties, sound underwriting practices, and ongoing portfolio monitoring and market analysis. Of these loans, $1.0 billion, or 13.3% of portfolio loans, were land, land development, and construction loans. An additional $1.4 billion, or 19% of portfolio loans, were commercial and industrial loans, which are generally not secured by real estate. The repayment of these loans often depends on the successful operation of a business or the sale or development of the underlying property and, as a result, is more likely to be adversely affected by adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy in general. While we believe that our loan portfolio is well diversified in terms of borrowers and industries, these concentrations expose us to the risk that adverse developments in the real estate market, or in the general economic conditions in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, could increase the levels of nonperforming loans and charge-offs, and reduce loan demand. In that event, we would likely experience lower earnings or higher losses. Additionally, if, for any reason, economic conditions in our market area deteriorate, or there is significant volatility or weakness in the economy or any significant sector of the area’s economy, our ability to develop our business relationships may be diminished, the quality and collectability of our loans may be adversely affected, the value of collateral may decline and loan demand may be reduced.
Commercial, commercial real estate and construction loans tend to have larger balances than single family mortgages loans and other consumer loans. Because the loan portfolio contains a significant number of commercial and commercial real estate and construction loans with relatively large balances, the deterioration of one or a few of these loans may cause a significant increase in nonperforming assets. An increase in nonperforming loans could result in: a loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses, an increase in loan charge-offs, and/or an increase in operating expenses which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our Residential Lending department may not continue to provide us with significant noninterest income.
In 2020, the Bank originated $1.3 billion and sold $1.2 billion of residential mortgage loans to investors, as compared to $666 million originated and $628 million sold to investors in 2019. The residential mortgage business is highly competitive, and highly susceptible to changes in market interest rates, consumer confidence levels, employment statistics, the capacity and willingness of secondary market purchasers to acquire and hold or securitize loans, and other factors beyond our control. Changes in tax laws could make home ownership less attractive, reducing the demand for residential mortgage loans. Additionally, in many respects, the traditional mortgage origination business is relationship based, and dependent on the services of individual mortgage loan officers. The loss of services of one or more loan officers could have the effect of reducing the level of our mortgage production, or the rate of growth of production. As a result of these factors we cannot be certain that we will be able to continue to maintain or increase the volume or percentage of revenue or net income produced by the residential mortgage business.
Our financial condition, earnings and asset quality could be adversely affected if we are required to repurchase loans originated for sale by our Residential Lending department.
The Bank originates residential mortgage loans for sale to secondary market investors, subject to contractually specified and limited recourse provisions. Because the loans are intended to be originated within investor guidelines, using designated automated underwriting and product specific requirements as part of the loan application, the loans sold have a limited recourse provision. In general, the Bank may be required to repurchase a previously sold mortgage loan or indemnify the investor if there is non-compliance with defined loan origination or documentation standards including fraud, negligence, material misstatement in the loan documents or non-compliance with applicable law. In addition, the Bank may have an obligation to repurchase a loan if the mortgagor has defaulted early in the loan term or return profits made should the loan prepay within a short period. The potential mortgagor early default repurchase period is up to approximately twelve months after sale of the loan to the investor. The recourse period for fraud, material misstatement, breach of representations and warranties, non-compliance with law, or similar matters could be as long as the term of the loan. Mortgages subject to recourse are collateralized by single family residential properties, have loan-to-value ratios of 80% or less, or have private mortgage insurance. Our experience to date has been minimal in the case of loan repurchases due to default, fraud, breach of representations, material misstatement, or legal non-compliance. While not a significant matter in the past, should repurchases become a material issue, our earnings and asset quality could be adversely impacted, which could adversely impact our share price.
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Our financial condition, earnings and asset quality could be adversely affected if our consumer facing operations do not operate in compliance with applicable regulations.
While all aspects of our operations are subject to detailed and complex compliance regimes, those portions of our lending operations which most directly deal with consumers pose particular challenges given the emphasis on consumer compliance by bank regulators at all levels. Residential mortgage lending raises significant compliance risks resulting from the detailed and complex nature of mortgage lending regulations imposed by federal regulatory agencies, and the relatively independent operating environment in which mortgage lending officers operate. As a result, despite the education, compliance training, supervision and oversight we exercise in these areas, individual loan officers intentionally trying to conceal improper activities could result in the Bank being strictly liable for restitution or damages to individual borrowers, and to regulatory enforcement activity.
Changes in interest rates and other factors beyond our control could have an adverse impact on our financial performance and results.
Our operating income and net income depend to a great extent on our net interest margin, i.e., the difference between the interest yields we receive on loans, securities and other interest bearing assets and the interest rates we pay on interest bearing deposits and other liabilities. Net interest margin is affected by changes in market interest rates, because different types of assets and liabilities may react differently, and at different times, to market interest rate changes. When interest bearing liabilities mature or re-price more quickly than interest earning assets in a period, an increase in market rates of interest could reduce net interest income. Similarly, when interest earning assets mature or re-price more quickly than interest bearing liabilities, falling interest rates could reduce net interest income. These rates are highly sensitive to many factors beyond our control, including competition, general economic conditions and monetary and fiscal policies of various governmental and regulatory authorities, including the Federal Reserve Board.
We attempt to manage our risk from changes in market interest rates by adjusting the rates, maturity, re-pricing, and balances of the different types of interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities, but interest rate risk management techniques are not exact. As a result, a rapid increase or decrease in interest rates could have an adverse effect on our net interest margin and results of operations. At December 31, 2020, our cumulative net asset sensitive twelve month gap position was +4% of total assets. As such, we expect modest increases of approximately 5.1% and 8.8%, respectively, in projected net interest income and net income over a twelve month period resulting from a 100 basis point increase in rates. In addition, our residential mortgage origination and sale volume could decline if interest rates increase. The results of our interest rate sensitivity simulation model depend upon a number of assumptions, which may not prove to be accurate. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully manage our interest rate risk.
Adverse changes in the real estate market in our market area could also have an adverse effect on our cost of funds and net interest margin, as we have a large amount of noninterest bearing deposits related to real estate sales and development. While we expect that we would be able to replace the liquidity provided by these deposits, the replacement funds would likely be more costly, negatively impacting earnings.
Uncertainty relating to the discontinuation, reform or replacement of LIBOR may adversely affect our results of operations.
In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee, or ARRC, has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, as the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR from USD-LIBOR and organizations are currently working on industry wide and company specific transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to USD-LIBOR. The Company has material contracts that are indexed to USD-LIBOR and is monitoring this activity and evaluating the related risks.
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The inability to obtain LIBOR rates, and the uncertainty as to the nature, comparability and utility of alternative reference rates which have been or may be established may adversely affect the value of LIBOR-based loans, investment securities and other financial instruments in our portfolio, and may impact the availability and cost of hedging instruments and borrowings. If LIBOR rates are no longer available, and the Bank is required to implement substitute indices for the calculation of interest rates under its loan agreements, it may incur additional expenses in effecting the transition, and may be subject to disputes or litigation with customers over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the substitute indices, which could have an adverse effect on its results of operations. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect that these developments, any discontinuance, modification or other reforms to LIBOR or any other reference rate, the establishment of alternative reference rates, or the impact of any such events on contractual mechanisms may have on the markets, us or our fixed-to-floating rate debt securities. Uncertainty as to the nature of such potential discontinuance, modification, alternative reference rates or other reforms may negatively impact market liquidity, our access to funding required to operate our business and the trading market for our fixed-to-floating rate debt securities. Furthermore, the use of alternative reference rates or other reforms could cause the interest payable on our outstanding fixed-to-floating rate debt securities to be materially different, and potentially higher, than expected.
We may not be able to successfully compete with others for business.
The Washington, D.C. metropolitan area in which we operate is considered highly attractive from an economic and demographic viewpoint, and is a highly competitive banking market. We compete for loans, deposits, and investment dollars with numerous regional and national banks, online divisions of out-of-market banks, and other community banking institutions, as well as other kinds of financial institutions and enterprises, such as securities firms, insurance companies, savings associations, credit unions, mortgage brokers, private lenders and nontraditional competitors such as fintech companies and internet-based lenders, depositories and payment systems. Our profitability depends upon our continued ability to successfully compete with traditional and new financial services providers, some of which maintain a physical presence in our market areas and others of which maintain only a virtual presence. Many competitors have substantially greater resources than us, and some operate under less stringent regulatory environments. The differences in resources and regulations may make it harder for us to compete profitably, reduce the rates that we can earn on loans and investments, increase the rates we must offer on deposits and other funds, and adversely affect our overall financial condition and earnings.
The Bank has been very successful in developing customer relationships. Going forward, should competitive pressures increase, we are subject to the risk that we may not be able to retain the loans and deposits produced by these new relationships. While we believe that our relationship banking model will enable us to keep a significant percentage of these new relationships, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so, that we would be able to maintain favorable pricing, margins and asset quality, or that we will be able to grow at the same rate we did when alternative financing was not widely available.
Our customers and businesses in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area in general, may be adversely impacted as a result of changes in government spending.
The Washington, D.C. metropolitan area is characterized by a significant number of businesses that are federal government contractors or subcontractors, or which depend on such businesses for a significant portion of their revenues. While the Company does not have a significant level of loans to federal government contractors or their subcontractors, the impact of a shutdown of federal government operations, a decline in federal government spending, a reallocation of government spending to different industries or different areas of the country, or a delay in payments to such contractors, could have a ripple effect. Temporary layoffs, staffing freezes, salary reductions or furloughs of government employees or government contractors could have adverse impacts on other businesses in the Company’s market and the general economy of the greater Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and may indirectly lead to a loss of revenues by the Company’s customers, including vendors and lessors to the federal government and government contractors or to their employees, as well as a wide variety of commercial and retail businesses. Accordingly, such potential federal government actions could lead to increases in past due loans, nonperforming loans, credit loss reserves, and charge-offs, and a decline in liquidity.




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We rely upon independent appraisals to determine the value of the real estate, that secures a significant portion of our loans, and the values indicated by such appraisals may not be realizable if we are forced to foreclose upon such loans.
A significant portion of our loan portfolio consists of loans secured by real estate. We rely upon independent appraisers to estimate the value of such real estate. Appraisals are only estimates of value and the independent appraisers may make mistakes of fact or judgment, which adversely affect the reliability of their appraisals. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to increase or decrease. As a result of any of these factors, the real estate securing some of our loans may be more or less valuable than anticipated at the time the loans were made. If a default occurs on a loan secured by real estate that is less valuable than originally estimated, we may not be able to recover the outstanding balance of the loan and will suffer a loss.
We are exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which we take title.
In the course of our business we lend against, and from time to time foreclose and take title to, real estate, potentially becoming subject to environmental liabilities associated with the properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and cleanup costs or we may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. Costs associated with investigation or remediation activities can be substantial. If the Bank is the lender to, or owner or former owner of, a contaminated site, it may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. These costs and claims could adversely affect our business.
Our operations rely significantly on certain external vendors.
Our business is dependent on the use of outside service providers that support our day-to-day operations including data processing and electronic communications. Our operations are exposed to risk that a service provider may not perform in accordance with established performance standards required in our agreements for any number of reasons including equipment or network failure, a change in their senior management, their financial condition, their product line or mix and how they support existing customers, or a simple change in their strategic focus. While we have comprehensive policies and procedures in place to mitigate risk at all phases of service provider management from selection, to performance monitoring and renewals, the failure of a service provider to perform in accordance with contractual agreements could be disruptive to our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial conditions and results of our operations.
RISKS RELATED TO INVESTING IN OUR STOCK
Our ability to make distributions in respect of our securities may be limited.
Our ability to pay a cash dividend on our common stock, to repurchase shares of our common stock, or to pay interest on our subordinated debt will depend largely upon the ability of the Bank, the Company’s principal operating business, to declare and pay dividends to the Company. Payment of distributions on our securities will also depend upon the Bank’s earnings, financial condition, and need for funds, as well as laws, regulations and governmental policies applicable to the Company and the Bank, which limit the amount of distributions that may be made. In addition to the minimum CET1, Tier 1, leverage ratio and total capital ratios, the Company and the Bank each must maintain a capital conservation buffer consisting of additional CET1 capital greater than 2.5% of risk-weighted assets above the required minimum risk-based capital levels in order to avoid limitations on paying dividends and repurchasing shares. The payment of dividends in any period, and the adoption or implementation of a share repurchase program, do not mean that the Company will continue to pay dividends at the current level, or at all, or that it will repurchase any additional shares of common stock. Refer to “Regulation” under Item 1 and to “Market for Common Stock” under Item 5 for additional information.





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We may issue additional equity securities, or engage in other transactions, which could affect the priority of our common stock, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
In accordance with our Amended Articles of Incorporation, our Board of Directors may determine from time to time that we need to raise additional capital by issuing additional shares of our common stock or other securities. We are not restricted from issuing additional shares of common stock, including securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any future offerings, or the prices at which such offerings may be effected. Such offerings could be dilutive to common shareholders. Pursuant to our Amended Articles of Incorporation, the Company’s Board of Directors is authorized to issue up to one million shares of preferred stock, on such terms and with such powers, preferences, rights and provisions as it may determine, and to divide the preferred stock into one or more classes or series. New investors, and particularly investors in any preferred stock the Company may issue from time to time, will therefore have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to, and that adversely affect, our then current common shareholders. Additionally, if we raise additional capital by making additional offerings of debt or preferred equity securities, upon liquidation of the Company, holders of our debt securities and shares of preferred stock, and lenders with respect to other borrowings, will receive distributions of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing shareholders or reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution.

Substantial regulatory limitations on changes of control and anti-takeover provisions of Maryland law may make it more difficult for shareholders to receive a change in control premium.

With certain limited exceptions, federal regulations prohibit a person or company or a group of persons deemed to be “acting in concert” from, directly or indirectly, acquiring more than 10% (5% if the acquiror is a bank holding company) of any class of the Company’s voting stock or obtaining the ability to control in any manner the election of a majority of its directors or otherwise direct the management or policies of the Company without prior notice or application to and the approval of the Federal Reserve. There are comparable prior approval requirements for changes in control under Maryland law. Also, the Maryland General Corporation Law, as amended, contains several provisions that may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of the Company without the approval of its Board of Directors, and may make it more difficult or expensive for a third party to acquire a majority of its outstanding common stock.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR LEGAL AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
Due to our increased asset size, the Company may be subject to additional regulation, increased supervision and increased costs in the future.

As of December 31, 2020, our total assets were $11.1 billion. In addition to our current regulatory requirements, banks with $10 billion or more in total assets are examined directly by the CFPB with respect to various federal consumer protection laws, subject to enhanced prudential regulation, and subject to additional regulatory requirements. Compliance with these additional ongoing requirements may necessitate additional personnel, the design and implementation of additional internal controls, or the incurrence of significant expenses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In November 2020, the federal banking regulators issued an interim final rule that provides temporary relief for certain community banking organizations related to certain regulations and reporting requirements as a result, in large part, of their growth in size from participating in COVID-19 pandemic response programs, such as the PPP and other lending that supports the U.S. economy. Under the interim final rule, community banking organizations that have crossed a relevant threshold generally will have until 2022 to either reduce their size, or to prepare for new regulatory and reporting standards. The rule applies to community banking organizations and financial institutions with less than $10 billion in total assets as of December 31, 2019, including the Company.

Our concentrations of loans may require us to maintain higher levels of capital.
Under guidance adopted by the federal banking agencies, banks which have concentrations in construction, land development or commercial real estate loans (other than loans for majority owner occupied properties) would be expected to maintain higher levels of risk management and, potentially, higher levels of capital. Although not currently anticipated, we may be required to maintain higher levels of capital than we would otherwise be expected to maintain as a result of our levels of construction, development and commercial real estate loans.
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Litigation and regulatory actions, possibly including enforcement actions, could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments or other requirements resulting in increased expenses or restrictions on our business activities.
In the normal course of our business, we are named as a defendant in various legal actions, arising in connection with our current and/or prior business activities or public disclosures. Legal actions could include claims for substantial compensatory or punitive damages or claims for indeterminate amounts of damages. Further, we may be subject to regulatory enforcement actions. We are also, from time to time, the subject of subpoenas, requests for information, reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by various agencies and other bodies regarding our current and/or prior business activities. Additionally, we also from time to time receive demand letters from shareholders, and such letters may lead to these shareholders filing claims or derivative suits against us if our engagement with such shareholders ends in a failure to successfully negotiate a settlement. The Company has received various document requests and subpoenas from securities and banking regulators and U.S. Attorney’s offices in connection with investigations, which the Company believes relate to the Company's identification, classification and disclosure of related party transactions; the retirement of certain former officers and directors; and the relationship of the Company and certain of its former officers and directors with a local public official, among other things. The Company is currently defending against shareholder litigation. Any such legal or regulatory actions may subject us to substantial compensatory or punitive damages, significant fines, penalties, obligations to change our business practices, required changes in our senior officers, or other requirements resulting in increased expenses, diminished income and damage to our business. Our involvement in any such matters, whether tangential or otherwise, and even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor, could also cause significant harm to our reputation and divert management attention from the operation of our business. Further, any settlement, regulatory order or agreement, informal enforcement action, or adverse judgment in connection with any formal or informal proceeding or investigation by government agencies may result in adverse audit findings, or additional litigation, investigations or proceedings as other parties, including other litigants and/or government agencies begin independent reviews of the same activities. As a result, the outcome of legal and regulatory actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and stock price, including in any particular reporting period.

Further, in such matters, it is inherently difficult to determine whether any loss is probable or whether it is possible to estimate the amount of any reasonably possible loss. We cannot predict with certainty if, how or when such proceedings will be resolved or what the eventual fine, penalty or other relief, conditions or restrictions, if any, may be, particularly for actions that are in their early stages of investigation. We may be required to pay fines or civil money penalties, or make other payments in connection with certain of these issues. This uncertainty makes it difficult to estimate probable losses, which, in turn, can lead to substantial disparities between the reserves we may establish for such proceedings and the eventual settlements, fines, or penalties. While the Company and Bank carry insurance to protect us from material outlays (excluding regulatory fees and penalties), such insurance may not always fully or even substantially cover such outlays, and any adverse determinations in such actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and stock price.

The banking industry is highly regulated, and the regulatory framework, together with any future legislative or regulatory changes, may have a materially adverse effect on our operations.
The banking industry is highly regulated and supervised under federal and state laws and regulations that are intended primarily for the protection of depositors, customers, the public, the banking system as a whole or the FDIC Deposit Insurance Fund, not for the protection of our shareholders and creditors. The Company and Bank are subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve, the FDIC, as well as our state regulator. Compliance with these laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations can impose additional compliance costs. The laws and regulations applicable to the Company and Bank govern a variety of matters, including permissible types, amounts and terms of loans and investments they may make, the maximum interest rate that may be charged, the amount of reserves that must hold against deposits, the types of deposits that may be accepted and the rates that may be paid on such deposits, maintenance of adequate capital and liquidity, changes in control of the Company and Bank, transactions between the Bank and its affiliates, handling of nonpublic information, restrictions on distributions to shareholders through dividends or share repurchases, dividends and establishment of new offices. We must obtain approval from our regulators before engaging in certain activities, and there is risk that such approvals may not be granted, either in a timely manner or at all. These requirements may constrain our operations, and the adoption of new laws and changes to or repeal of existing laws may have a further impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, the burden imposed by those laws and regulations may place banks in general, including the Bank in particular, at a competitive disadvantage compared to its non-bank competitors. Our failure to comply with any applicable laws or regulations, or regulatory policies and interpretations of such laws and regulations, could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties or damage to our reputation, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applicable federal and state laws, regulations, interpretations, enforcement policies and accounting principles have been subject to significant changes in recent years, and may be subject to significant future changes. Future changes may have a
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material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Federal regulatory agencies may adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. We cannot predict the substance or effect of future legislation or regulation or the application of laws and regulations to us. Compliance with current and potential regulation, as well as regulatory scrutiny, may significantly increase our costs, impede the efficiency of our internal business processes, require us to increase regulatory capital, and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner by requiring it to expend significant time, effort and resources to ensure compliance and respond to any regulatory inquiries or investigations.
In addition, regulators may elect to alter standards or the interpretation of the standards used to measure regulatory compliance or to determine the adequacy of liquidity, risk management or other operational practices for financial service companies in a manner that impacts our ability to implement our strategy and could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the regulatory agencies have extremely broad discretion in their interpretation of laws and regulations and their assessment of the quality of our loan portfolio, securities portfolio and other assets. If any regulatory agency’s assessment of the quality of our assets, operations, lending practices, investment practices, capital structure or other aspects of our business differs from our assessment, we may be required to take additional charges or undertake, or refrain from taking, actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to laws regarding the privacy, information security and protection of personal information, and any violation of these laws or another incident involving personal, confidential, or proprietary information of individuals could damage our reputation and otherwise adversely affect our business.
Our business requires the collection and retention of large volumes of customer data, including personally identifiable information, or PII, in various information systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third party service providers. We also maintain important internal company data such as PII about our employees and information relating to our operations. We are subject to complex and evolving laws and regulations governing the privacy and protection of PII of individuals (including customers, employees and other third parties), as well as planning for responding to data security breaches. Various federal and state banking regulators and states have also enacted data breach notification requirements with varying levels of individual, consumer, regulatory or law enforcement notification in the event of a security breach. Ensuring that our collection, use, transfer and storage of PII complies with all applicable laws and regulations can increase our costs. Furthermore, we may not be able to ensure that customers and other third parties have appropriate controls in place to protect the confidentiality of the information that they exchange with us, particularly where such information is transmitted by electronic means. If personal, confidential or proprietary information of customers or others were to be mishandled or misused (in situations where, for example, such information was erroneously provided to parties who are not permitted to have the information, or where such information was intercepted or otherwise compromised by third parties), we could be exposed to litigation or regulatory sanctions under privacy and data protection laws and regulations. Concerns regarding the effectiveness of our measures to safeguard PII, or even the perception that such measures are inadequate, could cause us to lose customers or potential customers and thereby reduce our revenues. Accordingly, any failure, or perceived failure, to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws and regulations may subject us to inquiries, examinations and investigations that could result in requirements to modify or cease certain operations or practices or in significant liabilities, fines or penalties, and could damage our reputation and otherwise adversely affect our operations, financial condition and results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION

Changes in the value of goodwill and intangible assets could reduce our earnings.
The Company accounts for goodwill and other intangible assets in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), which, in general, requires that goodwill not be amortized, but rather that it be tested for impairment at least annually at the reporting unit level. Testing for impairment of goodwill is performed annually and involves the identification of the reporting unit and the estimation of fair value. The estimation of fair values involves a high degree of judgment and subjectivity in the assumptions used. Changes in the local and national economy, the federal and state legislative and regulatory environments for financial institutions, the stock market, interest rates and other external factors (such as natural disasters or significant world events) may occur from time to time, often with great unpredictability, and may materially impact the fair value of publicly traded financial institutions and could result in an impairment charge at a future date.


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Changes in tax laws could have an adverse effect on us, the banking industry, our customers, the value of collateral securing our loans and demand for loans.
We are subject to the effect of changes in tax laws which could increase the effective tax rate payable by us to federal and state governments, reduce the value of our beneficial tax attributes or otherwise adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. Additionally, changes in tax laws could have a negative impact on the banking industry, borrowers, the market for single family residential or commercial real estate, or business borrowing. To the extent that changes in law discourage borrowing, ownership of real property or business investment, such changes may have an adverse effect on the demand for our loans. Further, the value of the properties securing loans in our portfolio may be adversely impacted as a result of the changing economics of real estate ownership and borrowing, which could require an increase in our ACL, which would reduce our profitability and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, certain borrowers could become less able to service their debts as a result of changes in taxation. Any such changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in accounting standards could impact our financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time there are changes in the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can be operationally complex to implement and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some instances, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the restatement of prior period financial statements. Effective January 1, 2020, we implemented the CECL framework for our ACL. Any such changes (while not anticipated) could adversely affect the Company’s and Bank’s capital, regulatory capital ratios, ability to make larger loans, earnings and performance metrics.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued a new credit impairment model, the Current Expected Credit Loss, or CECL model, which became applicable to us on January 1, 2020 as stated above. CECL requires financial institutions to estimate and establish a provision for credit losses over the lifetime of the asset, at the origination or the date of acquisition of the asset, as opposed to reserving for incurred or probable losses through the balance sheet date. The CECL model also applies to certain financial assets other than loans, including held-to-maturity debt securities of which the Bank has none.. Under the CECL model, expected credit deterioration would be reflected in the income statement in the period of origination or acquisition of an asset, with changes in expected credit losses due to further credit deterioration or improvement reflected in the periods in which the expectation changes. The measurement of expected credit losses is based on information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. Accordingly, the CECL model could require financial institutions, like the Bank, to increase their allowances for credit losses. We elected the Federal Reserve and FDIC’s rule providing for an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects upon adopting the standard. If we need to make significant and unanticipated increases in our loss allowance in the future, our business, results of operations, capital and financial condition could be materially adversely affected at that time.
The adoption of the CECL model materially affected how we determine our ACL, and resulted in changes to our allowance. Moreover, the CECL model has and may continue to create more volatility in our level of ACL. We are always evaluating the impact the CECL accounting model will have on our accounting, as it had an initial $14.7 million one-time increase in our reserve, inclusive of the reserve for unfunded commitments, as of January 1, 2020 as a cumulative-effect adjustment to the ACL recognized through shareholder’s equity ($10.9 million). Please refer to Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a more detailed discussion of CECL.
The implementation of the CECL model involves the use of estimates and forecasts based on difficult, subjective, and complex judgments, including estimates as to the direction and effects of economic conditions and how these economic conditions might affect the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans or the value of assets. To the extent that our analysis of our prior loss experience, current and forecast economic conditions, and other factors included in our estimates of expected loss are incorrect, our ACL may be inadequate. Additionally, to the extent that economic conditions and forecasts and prior loss experience have been favorable, rapid or unforeseen changes in economic conditions or performance of our loans and other financial assets could result in our ACL being inadequate, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. There can be no assurance that our judgments about our historical loss experience, categorization of loans and other assets and forecasts of economic conditions and other facts that will impact the expected losses on an asset will be correct.


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RISKS RELATED TO THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY
Our operations, including our transactions with customers, are increasingly conducted via electronic means, and this has increased risks related to cybersecurity.
We are exposed to the risk of cyber-attacks in the normal course of business. In addition, we are exposed to cyber-attacks on vendors and merchants that affect us and our customers. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. We have observed an increased level of attention in the industry focused on cyber-attacks that include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. To combat against these attacks, policies and procedures are in place to identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover from the possible security breach of its information systems and cyber-fraud. While we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions including significant self-insured deductibles, cover certain aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses. While we have not incurred any material losses related to cyber-attacks, we may incur substantial costs and suffer other negative consequences if we fall victim to successful cyber-attacks. Such negative consequences could include remediation costs that may include liability for stolen assets or information, and repairing system damage that may have been caused; deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees, and engaging third-party experts and consultants; lost revenues resulting from unauthorized use of proprietary information or the failure to retain or attract customers following an attack; disruption or failures of physical infrastructure, operating systems or networks that support our business and customers resulting in the loss of customers and business opportunities; additional regulatory scrutiny and possible regulatory penalties; litigation; and, reputational damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence.
A breach or interruption of information security or cyber-related threats could negatively affect our earnings.
We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in our customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of the failure, interruption or security breach of our information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failures, interruptions or security breaches will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. Although we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions including significant self-insured deductibles, cover certain aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses. The occurrence of any failures, interruptions or security breaches of our information systems could damage our reputation, adversely affecting customer or investor confidence, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible regulatory penalties, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. On December 15, 2020, the federal banking agencies issued a notice of proposed rulemaking that would require a banking organization to notify its primary federal regulators within 36 hours of identifying a computer-security incident that meets certain criteria. We are evaluating the potential impact of the proposal on our operations.

Failure to keep up with the rapid technological changes in the financial services industry could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position and profitability.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to implement new technology-driven products and services effectively or be successful in marketing these products and services to customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could harm our ability to compete effectively and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. As these technologies are improved in the future, we may be required to make significant capital expenditures in order to remain competitive, which may increase our overall expenses and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


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We depend on the use of data and modeling in both management’s decision-making, generally, and in meeting regulatory expectations, in particular.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitatively-based analyses is endemic to bank decision-making and regulatory compliance processes, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, allowance for credit loss measurement, portfolio stress testing, assessing capital adequacy and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. We anticipate that model-derived insights will be used more widely in decision-making in the future. While these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data, flawed quantitative approaches or poorly designed or implemented models could yield adverse or faulty outcomes and decisions, and could result in regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and share price.
GENERAL RISKS
The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, which may make it difficult for investors to resell shares of common stock at a time or price they find attractive.
Our stock price may fluctuate significantly as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. In addition to those described in “Caution About Forward Looking Statements,” these factors include:
Actual or anticipated quarterly fluctuations in our operating results and financial condition;
Changes in financial estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to us or other financial institutions;
Reports in the press, internet, or investment community generally or relating to our reputation or the financial services industry, whether or not those reports are based on accurate, complete or transparent information;
Uncertainties related to our regulatory relationships or status;
Strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, restructurings, dispositions or financings;
Fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors;
Future sales of our equity or equity-related securities;
Proposed or adopted regulatory changes or developments;
Domestic and international economic and political factors unrelated to our performance;
Actions of one or more investors in selling our common stock short; and
General market conditions and, in particular, developments related to market conditions for the financial services industry.
In addition, the stock market in general has experienced price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant effect on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including for reasons unrelated to their operating performance. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect our stock price, notwithstanding our operating results. We expect that the market price of our common stock will continue to fluctuate and there can be no assurances about the levels of the market prices for our common stock.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Our principal office is located in Bethesda, Maryland. All properties out of which the Company operates are leased properties. As of December 31, 2020, the Company and its subsidiaries operated out of 30 leased facilities; which include branch offices and operating facilities in Washington, D.C., Suburban, Maryland, and Northern Virginia metropolitan areas. Additional information with respect to premises and equipment is presented in Notes 5 and 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
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As disclosed in Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company and its subsidiaries are involved in various legal proceedings incidental to their business in the ordinary course, and the disclosure set forth in Note 21 relating to certain legal matters is incorporated herein by reference.

Based on information currently available, the Company does not believe that the liabilities (if any) resulting from such legal proceedings will have a material effect on the financial position of the Company.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF COMMON EQUITY
Market for Common Stock. The Company’s common stock is listed for trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EGBN.” Over the twelve month period ended December 31, 2020, the average daily trading volume amounted to approximately 166,811 shares, a decrease from approximately 236,138 shares over the twelve month period ended December 31, 2019. No assurance can be given that a more active trading market will develop or can be maintained. As of February 1, 2021, there were 31,783,355 shares of common stock outstanding, held by approximately 587 shareholders of record. Based on the most recent mailings, the Company believes beneficial shareholders number approximately 8,639. As of February 1, 2021, our directors and executive officers own approximately 2% of our outstanding shares of common stock.
Dividends. The Company commenced the payment of a regular quarterly dividend, in the amount of $0.22 per share, in the second quarter of 2019. The Company declared aggregate cash dividends of $0.88 per share, or $28.3 million, during 2020.
The payment of a cash dividend on common stock will depend largely upon the ability of the Bank, the Company’s principal operating business, to declare and pay dividends to the Company. Payment of dividends on the common stock will also depend upon the Bank’s earnings, financial condition, and need for funds, as well as governmental policies and regulations applicable to the Company and the Bank. The payment of dividends in any period does not mean that the Company will continue to pay dividends at the current level, or at all.
Regulations of the Federal Reserve Board and Maryland law place limits on the amount of dividends the Bank may pay to the Company without prior approval. Prior regulatory approval is required to pay dividends which exceed the Bank’s net profits for the current year plus its retained net profits for the preceding two calendar years, less required transfers to surplus. Under Maryland law, dividends may only be paid out of retained earnings. State and federal bank regulatory agencies also have authority to prohibit a bank from paying dividends if such payment is deemed to be an unsafe or unsound practice, and the Federal Reserve Board has the same authority over bank holding companies. At December 31, 2020 the Bank could pay dividends to the Company to the extent of its earnings so long as it maintained required capital ratios.
The Federal Reserve Board has established requirements with respect to the maintenance of appropriate levels of capital by registered bank holding companies. Compliance with such standards, as presently in effect, or as they may be amended from time to time, could possibly limit the amount of dividends that the Company may pay in the future. In 1985, the Federal Reserve Board issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies. In the statement, the Federal Reserve Board expressed its view that a holding company experiencing earnings weaknesses should not pay cash dividends exceeding its net income, or which could only be funded in ways that weaken the holding company’s financial health, such as by borrowing. As a depository institution, the deposits of which are insured by the FDIC, the Bank may not pay dividends or distribute any of its capital assets while it remains in default on any assessment due the FDIC. The Bank currently is not in default under any of its obligations to the FDIC.




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Issuer Repurchase of Common Stock.
Period
Total Number of 
Shares Purchased (3)(4)
Average Price Paid Per
Share
Total Number of Shares 
Purchased as Part
of Publicly Announced 
Plan or Program
Maximum Number of 
Shares that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the 
Plans or Programs (1) (2)
 
October 1-31, 2020— n/an/a458,069 
November 1-30, 2020371,300 37.46 371,300 86,769 
December 1-31, 202086,769 38.51 86,769 — 
Total458,069 37.66 458,069 — 
(1) In August 2019, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized the purchase of up to 1,715,547 shares of the Company’s common stock from the date of approval of the plan through December 31, 2019, subject to earlier termination by the Board of Directors. The program was announced by a press release dated August 9, 2019 and a Form 8-K filed on August 9, 2019. On December 18, 2019, the Company’s Board of Directors extended and expanded the program, authorizing the purchase of up to an aggregate of 1,641,000 shares of the Company’s common stock (inclusive of shares remaining under the initial authorization), through December 31, 2020, subject to earlier termination by the Board of Directors (as extended, the “Repurchase Program”). The extension of the program was announced by a press release dated December 18, 2019 and a Form 8-K filed on December 18, 2019. Under the Repurchase Program, the Company may acquire its common stock in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, including 10b5-1 plans. The Repurchase Program may be modified, suspended or terminated by the Board of Directors at any time without notice. We suspended our share repurchase program during the first quarter of 2020, but the suspension was lifted in the third quarter of 2020. We did not repurchase any shares during the second and third quarters of 2020.
(2) On December 16, 2020, the Company's Board of Directors adopted a new share repurchase program to take effect starting January 1, 2021, after the expiration of the previous repurchase program on December 31, 2020. The Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of 1,588,848 shares of common stock, or approximately 5% of the Company's outstanding shares of common stock, under the new repurchase program, which will expire on December 31, 2021, subject to earlier termination of the program by the Board of Directors. The program was announced by a press release dated December 17, 2020 and a Form 8-K filed on December 17, 2020.
(3) Inclusive of shares remaining available for purchase under the “Repurchase Program”.
(4) Includes shares of the Company’s common stock acquired by the Company in connection with satisfaction of tax withholding obligations on vested restricted shares or restricted share units and certain forfeitures and terminations of employment-related awards and for potential re-issuance to certain employees under equity incentive plans.
See Item 12 - Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters for “Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans.”

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Stock Price Performance. The following table compares the cumulative total return on a hypothetical investment of $100 in the Company’s common stock on December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020, with the hypothetical cumulative total return on the Nasdaq Stock Market Index (U.S. Companies) and the KBW Regional Banking Index for the comparable period, including reinvestment of dividends. The KBW Regional Banking Index seeks to reflect the performance of publicly traded companies that do business as regional banks or thrifts listed on all U.S. stock markets.
Eagle Bancorp, Inc.
egbn-20201231_g1.jpg
Period Ending
Index12/31/201512/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
Eagle Bancorp, Inc.100.00 120.76 114.72 96.51 97.25 84.81
Nasdaq Composite Index100.00 108.87 141.13 137.12 187.44 271.64
KBW Nasdaq Regional Banking Index100.00 139.02 141.45 116.70 144.49 131.91
ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table shows selected historical consolidated financial data for the Company. It should be read in conjunction with the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation” section and the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included elsewhere in this report.
Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
The information set forth below contains certain financial information determined by methods other than in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures are “tangible common equity,” “tangible book value per common share,” “efficiency ratio,” and “return on average common equity.” Management uses these non-GAAP measures in its analysis of our performance because it believes these measures are used as a measure of our performance by investors.
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These disclosures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for results determined in accordance with GAAP, and are not necessarily comparable to non-GAAP performance measures which may be presented by other bank holding companies. Management compensates for these limitations by providing detailed reconciliations between GAAP information and the non-GAAP financial measures. A reconciliation table is set forth below following the selected historical consolidated financial data.
Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands except per share data)20202019201820172016
Balance Sheets - Period End
Securities$1,151,083 $843,363 $784,139 $589,268 $538,108 
Loans held for sale88,20556,707 19,254 25,096 51,629 
Loans7,760,2127,545,748 6,991,447 6,411,528 5,677,893 
Allowance for credit losses109,579 73,658 69,944 64,758 59,074 
Intangible assets, net105,114104,739 105,766 107,212 107,419 
Total assets11,117,8028,988,719 8,389,137 7,479,029 6,890,096 
Deposits9,189,2037,224,391 6,974,285 5,853,984 5,716,114 
Borrowings568,077498,667 247,709 618,466 285,390 
Total liabilities9,876,9107,798,038 7,280,196 6,528,591 6,047,297 
Total shareholders’ equity1,240,8921,190,681 1,108,941 950,438 842,799 
Tangible common equity (1)
1,135,7781,085,942 1,003,175 843,226 735,380 
Statements of Income        
Interest income$389,986 $429,630 $393,286 $324,034 $285,805 
Interest expense68,424105,585 76,293 40,147 27,640 
Provision for credit losses45,57113,091 8,660 8,971 11,331 
Noninterest income45,69625,699 22,586 29,372 27,284 
Noninterest expense144,162139,862 126,711 118,552 115,016 
Income before taxes176,145196,791 204,208 185,736 159,102 
Income tax expense (2)
43,92853,848 51,932 85,504 61,395 
Net income (2)
132,217142,943 152,276 100,232 97,707 
Cash dividends declared28,330 22,332 — — — 
Net income available to common shareholders (2)
132,217142,943 152,276 100,232 97,707 
Total Revenue (3)
435,682349,744 339,579 313,259 285,449 
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Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands except per share data)20202019201820172016
Per Common Share Data
Net income, basic (2)
$4.09 $4.18 $4.44 $2.94 $2.91 
Net income, diluted (2)
4.09 4.18 4.42 2.92 2.86 
Dividends declared0.88 0.66 — — — 
Book value (2)
39.05 35.82 32.25 27.80 24.77 
Tangible book value (2) (4)
35.74 32.67 29.17 24.67 21.61 
Common shares outstanding31,779,663 33,241,496 34,387,919 34,185,163 34,023,850 
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic32,334,201 34,178,804 34,306,336 34,138,536 33,587,254 
Weighted average common shares outstanding, diluted32,362,556 34,210,646 34,443,040 34,320,639 34,181,616 
Ratios        
Net interest margin3.19 %3.77 %4.10 %4.15 %4.16 %
Efficiency ratio (5)
39.25 %39.99 %37.31 %37.84 %40.29 %
Return on average assets (2)
1.28 %1.61 %1.91 %1.41 %1.52 %
Return on average common equity (2)
10.98 %12.20 %14.89 %11.06 %12.27 %
Return on average tangible common equity (2)
12.03 %13.40 %16.63 %12.54 %14.19 %
CET1 capital (to risk weighted assets)13.49 %12.87 %12.49 %11.23 %10.80 %
Total capital (to risk weighted assets)17.04 %16.20 %16.08 %15.02 %14.89 %
Tier 1 capital (to risk weighted assets)13.49 %12.87 %12.49 %11.23 %10.80 %
Tier 1 capital (to average assets)10.31 %11.62 %12.10 %11.45 %10.72 %
Tangible common equity ratio10.31 %12.22 %12.11 %11.44 %10.84 %
Dividend payout ratio21.59 %15.79 %— — — 
Asset Quality        
Nonperforming assets and loans 90+ past due$65,930 $50,216 $17,671 $14,632 $20,569 
Nonperforming assets and loans 90+ past due to total assets0.59 %0.56 %0.21 %0.20 %0.30 %
Nonperforming loans to total loans0.79 %0.65 %0.23 %0.21 %0.31 %
Allowance for credit losses to loans1.41 %0.98 %1.00 %1.01 %1.04 %
Allowance for credit losses to nonperforming loans179.80 %151.16 %429.72 %489.20 %330.49 %
Net charge-offs$20,097 $9,377 $3,475 $3,286 $4,945 
Net charge-offs to average loans0.26 %0.13 %0.05 %0.06 %0.09 %
(1)Tangible common equity, a non-GAAP financial measure, is defined as total common shareholders’ equity reduced by goodwill and other intangible assets.
(2)The reported figure for 2017 includes one-time charges to reduce the carrying value of net deferred tax assets by $14.6 million, required as a result of the reduction in corporate income tax rates to 21% in the 2017 Tax Act. As the magnitude of the net deferred tax asset revaluation distorts the operational results of the Company, we present in the GAAP reconciliation below this table that show the effect of the net deferred tax asset revaluation during the year ended December 31, 2017. We believe the information below is important to enable shareholders and other interested parties to assess the core operational performance of the Company.
(3)Total revenue calculated as net interest income plus noninterest income
(4)Tangible book value per common share, a non-GAAP financial measure, is defined as tangible common shareholders’ equity divided by total common shares outstanding.
(5)Computed by dividing noninterest expense by the sum of net interest income and noninterest income.


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The following table details our Non-GAAP to GAAP reconciliation for the years 2016 through 2020.
Non-GAAP ReconciliationYears Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands except per share data)20202019201820172016
Common shareholders’ equity$1,240,891 $1,190,681 $1,108,941 $950,438 $842,799 
Less: Intangible assets(105,114)(104,739)(105,766)(107,212)(107,419)
Tangible common equity$1,135,777 $1,085,942 $1,003,175 $843,226 $735,380 
Book value per common share$39.05 $35.82 $32.25 $27.80 $24.77 
Less: Intangible book value per common share(3.31)(3.15)(3.08)(3.13)(3.16)
Tangible book value per common share$35.74 $32.67 $29.17 $24.67 $21.61 
Total assets$11,117,802 $8,988,719 $8,389,137 $7,479,029 $6,890,096 
Less: Intangible assets(105,114)(104,739)(105,766)(107,212)(107,419)
Tangible assets$11,012,688 $8,883,980 $8,283,371 $7,371,817 $6,782,677 
Tangible common equity ratio10.31 %12.22 %12.11 %11.44 %10.84 %
Average common shareholders’ equity$1,204,341 $1,172,051 $1,022,642 $906,169 $796,400 
Less: Average intangible assets(104,903)(105,167)(106,806)(107,117)(107,207)
Average tangible common equity$1,099,438 $1,066,884 $915,836 $799,052 $689,193 
Net Income$132,217 $142,943 $152,276 $100,232 $97,707 
Average tangible common equity$1,099,438 $1,066,884 $915,836 $799,052 $689,193 
Return on Average Tangible Common Equity12.03 %13.40 %16.63 %12.54 %14.18 %
    The below table shows 2017 without deferred tax asset revaluation.
Year Ended December 31, 2017 (1)
(dollars in thousands except per share data)GAAPChangeNon-GAAP
Income Statements:      
Income tax expense85,504 (14,588)70,916 
Net income$100,232 (14,588)$114,820 
Earnings Per Common Share      
Basic$2.94 $0.43 $3.36 
Diluted$2.92 $0.42 $3.35 
Performance Ratios:      
Return on average assets1.41 %1.62 %
Return on average common equity11.06 %12.67 %
(1) Presented here only. Not included in the Selected Financial Data table above.
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As of December 31, 2017
GAAPChangeNon-GAAP
Assets
Deferred income taxes28,770 14,588 43,358 
Total Assets$7,479,029 $14,588 $7,493,617 
Shareholders’ Equity      
Retained earnings431,544 14,588 446,132 
Total Shareholders’ Equity950,438 14,588 965,026 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity$7,479,029 14,588 $7,493,617 
ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion provides information about the results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, and capital resources of the Company. The Company’s primary subsidiary is the Bank, and the Company’s other direct and indirect active subsidiaries are Bethesda Leasing, LLC, Eagle Insurance Services, LLC, and Landroval Municipal Finance, Inc.
This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto, appearing elsewhere in this report.
Caution About Forward Looking Statements. This report contains forward looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These forward looking statements represent plans, estimates, objectives, goals, guidelines, expectations, intentions, projections and statements of our beliefs concerning future events, business plans, objectives, expected operating results and the assumptions upon which those statements are based. Forward looking statements include without limitation, any statement that may predict, forecast, indicate or imply future results, performance or achievements, and are typically identified with words such as “may,” “will,” “can,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “plans,” “estimates,” “potential,” “assume," "probable," "possible," "continue,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “strive," "seeks,” "deem," "projections," "forecast," "consider," "indicative," "uncertainty," "likely," "unlikely," ""likelihood," "unknown," "attributable," "depends," "intends," "generally," "feel" "typically," "judgment," "subjective" and similar words or phrases. These forward looking statements are based largely on our expectations and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties that are subject to change based on factors which are, in many instances, beyond our control. Actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those contemplated, expressed, or implied by the forward looking statements.

The following factors, among others, could cause our financial performance to differ materially from that expressed in such forward looking statements:
The macroeconomic and other challenges and uncertainties resulting from the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic;
The timely development of competitive new products and services and the acceptance of these products and services by new and existing customers;
The willingness of customers to substitute competitors’ products and services for our products and services;
Our management of risks inherent in our real estate loan portfolio, and the risk of a prolonged downturn in the real estate market, which could impair the value of, and our ability to sell, properties which stand as collateral for loans we make;
The effect of acquisitions we may make, including, without limitation, the failure to achieve the expected revenue growth and/or expense savings from such acquisitions;
The growth and profitability of noninterest or fee income being less than expected;
Changes in the level of our nonperforming assets and charge-offs;
Changes in consumer spending and savings habits;
Changing bank regulatory conditions, policies or programs, whether arising as new legislation or regulatory initiatives, that could lead to restrictions on activities of banks generally, or our subsidiary bank in particular, more restrictive regulatory capital requirements, increased costs, including deposit insurance premiums, regulation or prohibition of certain income producing activities or changes in the secondary market for loans and other products;
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The impact of changes in financial services policies, laws and regulations, including laws, regulations and policies concerning taxes, banking, securities and insurance, and the application thereof by regulatory bodies;
The effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary and fiscal policies and laws, including interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve Board, inflation, interest rate, market and monetary fluctuations;
Results of examinations of us by our regulators, including the possibility that our regulators may, among other things, require us to increase our allowance for credit losses, to write-down assets or to hold more capital;
The effects or impact of any litigation, regulatory proceeding, including enforcement proceedings, and any possibly resulting fines, judgments, expenses or restrictions on our business activities;
Unanticipated regulatory or judicial proceedings;
The effect of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted from time-to-time by bank regulatory agencies, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board or the Financial Accounting Standards Board;
Technological and social media changes;
Cybersecurity breaches, threats, and cyber-fraud that cause the Bank to sustain financial losses;
The strength of the United States economy, in general, and the strength of the local economies in which we conduct operations;
Geopolitical conditions, including acts or threats of terrorism, actions taken by the United States or other governments in response to acts or threats of terrorism and/or military conflicts, which could impact business and economic conditions in the United States and abroad; and
The factors discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in this report.

If one or more of the factors affecting our forward looking information and statements proves incorrect, then our actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, forward looking information and statements contained in this report. You should not place undue reliance on our forward looking information and statements. We will not update the forward looking statements to reflect actual results or changes in the factors affecting the forward looking statements.
GENERAL
The Company is a growth-oriented, one-bank holding company headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, which is currently celebrating twenty-two years of successful operations. The Company provides general commercial and consumer banking services through the Bank, its wholly owned banking subsidiary, a Maryland chartered bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System. The Company was organized in October 1997 and to be the holding company for the Bank. The Bank was organized in 1998 as an independent, community oriented, full service banking alternative to the super regional financial institutions, which dominate the Company’s primary market area. The Company’s philosophy is to provide superior, personalized service to its customers. The Company focuses on relationship banking, providing each customer with a number of services and becoming familiar with and addressing customer needs in a proactive, personalized fashion. The Bank currently has a total of twenty branch offices, including nine in Northern Virginia, six in Suburban Maryland, and five in Washington, D.C. Refer to the Business Section above which describes in detail the various banking services offered.

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As 2020 began, expectations were high that the Federal Reserve Open Market Committee, or FOMC, would continue generally accommodative monetary policy, in support of strong GDP, low levels of unemployment and lower than expected inflation. The Federal Reserve had purchases of securities expanding their balance sheet as late as year-end 2019. Actual GDP growth for 2020 in the U.S. was expected to be slightly below 2019 and before a global pandemic occurred in the first quarter of 2020 (termed COVID-19), which severely impacted business activity and person to person interactions. The 2020 U.S. official unemployment rate increased to 6.7% by year-end 2020 from a record low level of 3.6% pre-pandemic. The U.S. and world economies were turned upside down with the health care community placed on high alert in March and April 2020, which continued throughout the remainder of the year. In 2020 there was volatile job markets across the country and Washington D.C. metropolitan region with transitions to work from home and different degrees of economic lockdowns at different times as State Governors adopted different responses. These fundamentals were factored into the Federal Reserve Board's monetary policy, as the situation led to 200 basis points of rate cuts in the overnight federal fund rate back to near 0% and massive expansion in liquidity support in the form of U.S. Treasury and mortgage backed security ("MBS") bond purchases. Additionally, fiscal policy accommodation was provided with the U.S. Congress passing three stimulus measures approaching $2.6 trillion in 2020, adding to an already high level of total National Debt. The Federal Reserve Board is currently indicating that a continued high level of monetary policy support is appropriate and that extraordinary support will continue through 2021, including continued very low interest rates.

Longer-term U.S. interest rates were much lower in 2020 than expected, with the ten year U.S. Treasury rate averaging 0.88% in 2020 as compared to 2.15% in 2019. The yield curve in 2020 was steeper than in 2019 (two year as compared to ten year U.S. Treasury rates) as the short end of the yield curve fell more sharply than the long end although the long end also fell dramatically.

As the ten year U.S. Treasury rate dropped back to 2016 levels in the summer of 2020, the volume of residential mortgage lending began to increase. Overall, real estate values in most of the Company's markets were stable to increasing in 2020 as interest rates remained historically low. Political gridlock continued in Washington, D.C. over concerns of pandemic policy, public debt and deficits, as well as tax policy and spending levels, and the November elections.

The Company’s primary market, the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, has continued to perform well relative to other parts of the country notwithstanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to a stable public sector along with increased government spending. The private sector lost jobs which was attributable in large part to the difficulties in the Leisure and Hospitality sector brought on by challenges associated with the pandemic. In spite of these challenges, the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area maintains a diverse economy including a large healthcare component, substantial business services, and a highly educated work force.

The Company has had the financial resources to meet, and has remained committed to meeting, the credit needs of its community, which resulted in modest growth in the Bank’s loan portfolio during 2020, as COVID-19 related factors slowed new lending opportunities while loan payoffs continued on schedule demonstrating successful projects and financings. Liquidity levels grew ever higher as we moved through 2020, which negatively impacted net interest margins and resulted in a much lower loan to deposit ratio. Furthermore, the Company’s capital position remained strong in 2020 as a result of good earnings despite higher legal expenses. Additionally, with longer term interest rates very low, residential lending and refinance activity was very strong which resulted in favorable noninterest income growth, largely from gain on sale of residential loans. As a result of the Company’s strong capital position and earnings, it was able to sustain a quarterly dividend in 2020 and to execute a share repurchase program amounting to about 5% of shares outstanding. The Company believes its strategy of remaining growth-oriented, retaining talented staff and maintaining focus on seeking quality lending and deposit relationships has proven successful and is evidenced in its financial and performance ratios. Additionally, the Company believes such focus and strategy of relationship building has fostered future growth opportunities, as the Company’s reputation in the marketplace has continued to grow. At December 31, 2020, the Company had total assets of approximately $11.1 billion, total loans of $7.8 billion, total deposits of $9.2 billion and twenty branches in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

Operating in the weaker economic environment of 2020, the Bank was able to produce growth in average loans of 3.1%, excluding PPP loans. Additionally, the Bank was able to grow its net interest spread earnings, as a result of very strong average deposit growth, retain a solid position regarding asset quality, and generate continued favorable operating leverage due to its seasoned and professional staff.



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Impact of COVID-19
In March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The spread of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis that has resulted in unprecedented uncertainty, volatility and disruption in financial markets and in governmental, commercial and consumer activity in the U.S. and globally, including the markets that we serve. Governmental responses to the pandemic have included orders closing nonessential businesses, directing individuals to restrict their movements, observe social distancing, and shelter in place. These actions, together with responses to the pandemic by businesses and individuals, have resulted in rapid decreases in commercial and consumer activity, temporary closures of many businesses that have led to a loss of revenues and a rapid increase in unemployment, material decreases in oil and gas prices and in business valuations, disrupted global supply chains, market downturns and volatility, changes in consumer behavior related to COVID-19 pandemic fears, related emergency response legislation and an expectation that Federal Reserve policy will maintain a low interest rate environment for the foreseeable future.

Our business and consumer customers are experiencing varying degrees of financial distress. In order to protect the health of our customers and employees, and to comply with applicable government directives, we have modified our business practices, including directing employees to work from home insofar as is possible, implementing our business continuity plans and protocols to the extent necessary, and our branches have modified hours and advanced safety measures. We have established general guidelines for returning that include having employees maintain safe distances, staggered work schedules to limit the number of employees in a single location, more frequent cleaning of our facilities and other practices encouraging a safe working environment during this challenging time, including required COVID-19 training programs.

On March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was signed into law. It contains substantial tax and spending provisions intended to address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The CARES Act created the PPP, a program designed to aid small- and medium-sized businesses through federally guaranteed loans distributed through banks. These loans are intended to guarantee payroll and other costs to help those businesses remain viable and allow their workers to pay their bills. On December 27, 2020, The Economic Aid to Hard-Hit Small Businesses, Nonprofits, and Venues Act was enacted, which includes additional funding for the PPP.

As an SBA preferred lender, the Bank is participating in the PPP, and at December 31, 2020, had an outstanding balance of PPP loans of $454.8 million to just over 1,400 businesses. The statutory interest rate on these loans is 1.00% and the average yield, which includes fee amortization, was 2.55% for 2020.

There have also been various governmental actions taken or proposed to provide forms of relief, such as streamlining the application process for forgiveness of all PPP loans under $150,000, limiting debt collections efforts, including foreclosures, and encouraging or requiring extensions, modifications or forbearance, with respect to certain loans and fees. Governmental actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have not always been coordinated or consistent across jurisdictions but, in general, have been expanding in scope and intensity. The efficacy and ultimate effect of these actions is not known. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have also implemented a short-term loan modification program to provide temporary payment relief to certain borrowers who meet the program's qualifications. Initial modifications under the program have predominantly been for 90 days, with a second 90 day modification, if warranted. The deferred payments along with interest accrued during the deferral period are due and payable on the existing maturity date of the existing loan. As of December 31, 2020, we had ongoing temporary modifications on approximately 36 loans representing $72 million (approximately 1% of total loans) in outstanding balances. Overall, throughout 2020, the Bank's COVID-19 modification program granted temporary modifications on approximately 750 loans representing approximately $1.6 billion in outstanding balances, including 714 temporary modifications representing $1.5 billion that have or are expected to return to pre-modification terms.

None of the deferrals are reflected in the Company's asset quality measures (i.e., non-performing loans) due to the provision of the CARES Act that permits U.S. financial institutions to temporarily suspend the U.S. GAAP requirements to treat such short-term loan modifications as TDRs. Similar provisions have also been confirmed by interagency guidance issued by the federal banking agencies and confirmed with staff members of the Financial Accounting Standards Board.

Significant uncertainties as to future economic conditions exist, and we have taken deliberate actions in response, including maintaining record levels of on and off-balance sheet liquidity and have maintained regulatory capital ratios significantly above the well capitalized. Furthermore, we suspended our share repurchase program during the first quarter of 2020. Accordingly, we made no share repurchases in the second quarter of 2020. The Company’s Board of Directors approved lifting the suspension of the Company’s share repurchase program in the third quarter of 2020 and commenced repurchasing the balance of the 458,069 shares available for repurchase under that program. Subsequently on December 16, 2020, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of 1,588,848 shares of common stock, or approximately 5% of the Company’s outstanding
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shares of common stock, under a new repurchase program (effective January 1, 2021), which will expire on December 31, 2021, subject to earlier termination of the program by the Board of Directors.

Additionally, the economic pressures, coupled with the implementation of the expected loss methodology for determining our provision for credit losses as required by the CECL standard described below, have contributed to an increased provision for credit losses for the full year 2020. We continue to monitor the impact of COVID-19 closely, as well as any effects that may result from the CARES Act and other legislative and regulatory developments related to COVID-19; however, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our operations and financial results during 2021 is highly uncertain.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP and follow general practices within the banking industry. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates, assumptions, and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements; accordingly, as this information changes, the Consolidated Financial Statements could reflect different estimates, assumptions, and judgments. Certain policies, including those identified below for the year ended December 31, 2020, inherently have a greater reliance on the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments and, as such, have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported. Estimates, assumptions, and judgments are necessary when assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at fair value, when a decline in the value of an asset not carried on the financial statements at fair value warrants an impairment write-down or a valuation reserve to be established, or when an asset or liability needs to be recorded contingent upon a future event. Carrying assets and liabilities at fair value inherently results in more financial statement volatility.
Investment Securities
The fair values and the information used to record valuation adjustments for investment securities available-for-sale are based either on quoted market prices or are provided by other third-party sources, when available. The Company’s investment portfolio is categorized as available-for-sale with unrealized gains and losses net of income tax being a component of shareholders’ equity and accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) unless required to be accounted for as an impairment loss.
Provision for Credit Losses and Provision for Unfunded Commitments
A consequence of lending activities is that we may incur credit losses, so we record an allowance for credit losses ("ACL") with respect to loan receivables and a reserve for unfunded commitments (“RUC”) as estimates of those losses. The amount of such losses will vary depending upon the risk characteristics of the loan portfolio as affected by economic conditions such as changes in interest rates, the financial performance of borrowers and regional unemployment rates, which management estimates by using a national forecast and estimating a regional adjustment based on historical differences between the two.

As a result of our January 1, 2020 adoption of FASB's Accounting Standard Codification ("ASC") 326, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, and its related amendments, our methodology for estimating these credit losses changed significantly from prior years. The new standard replaced the “incurred loss” approach with a “current expected credit loss” approach known as CECL, which requires an estimate of the credit losses expected over the life of an exposure (or pool of exposures). CECL removes the incurred loss approach’s threshold that delayed the recognition of a credit loss until it was “probable” a loss event was “incurred.”

The Provision for Unfunded Commitments represents the expected credit losses on off-balance sheet commitments such as unfunded commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit. The RUC is determined by estimating future draws and applying the expected loss rates on those draws.

Management has significant discretion in making the judgments inherent in the determination of the provisions for credit loss, ACL, and the RUC. Our determination of these amounts requires significant reliance on estimates and significant judgment as to the amount and timing of expected future cash flows on loans, significant reliance on historical loss rates on homogenous portfolios, consideration of our quantitative and qualitative evaluation of economic factors, and the reliance on our reasonable and supportable forecasts.

The Provision for Credit Losses ("PCL") represents the expected credit losses arising from the Company's loan and AFS securities portfolios. The PCL is determined by following:
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The Company uses a loan-level probability of default ("PD")/ loss given default ("LGD") cash flow method with an exposure at default ("EAD") model to estimate expected credit losses for the commercial, income producing – commercial real estate, owner occupied – commercial real estate, real estate mortgage - residential, construction – commercial and residential, construction – C&I (owner occupied), home equity, and other consumer loan pools. For each of these loan segments, the Company generates cash flow projections at the instrument level wherein payment expectations are adjusted for estimated prepayment speed, probability of default, and loss given default. The modeling of expected prepayment speeds is based on historical internal data. PPP loans are included in the model but do not carry a reserve, as these loans are fully guaranteed by the SBA, whose guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.

The Company uses regression analysis of historical internal and peer data (as Company loss data is insufficient) to determine suitable loss drivers to utilize when modeling lifetime probability of default and loss given default. This analysis also determines how expected probability of default will react to forecasted levels of the loss drivers. For our cash flow model, management utilizes and forecasts regional unemployment by using a national forecast and estimating a regional adjustment based on historical differences between the two as a loss driver over our reasonable and supportable period of two years, and reverts back to a historical loss rate over the following twelve months on a straight-line basis. COVID-19 has negatively impacted unemployment projections, which inform our CECL economic forecast and increased our loss reserve during 2020. Management leverages economic projections from reputable and independent third parties to inform its loss driver forecasts over the forecast period.
The ACL also includes an amount for inherent risks not reflected in the historical analyses. Relevant factors include, but are not limited to, concentrations of credit risk, changes in underwriting standards, experience and depth of lending staff, and trends in delinquencies. While our methodology in establishing the reserve for credit losses attributes portions of the ACL and RUC to the commercial and consumer portfolio segments, the entire ACL and RUC is available to absorb credit losses expected in the total loan portfolio and total amount of unfunded credit commitments, respectively.
Going forward, the impact of utilizing the CECL approach to calculate the reserve for credit losses will be significantly
influenced by the composition, characteristics and quality of our loan portfolio, as well as the prevailing economic conditions and forecasts utilized. Material changes to these and other relevant factors may result in greater volatility to the reserve for credit losses, and therefore, greater volatility to our reported earnings. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the performance outlook in the Accommodation & Food Service segment of our loan portfolio, which informs our CECL economic forecast and increased our loss reserve as of December 31, 2020. See Notes 1 and 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the “Provision for Credit Losses” section in Management’s Discussion and Analysis, and the COVID-19 risk factors in Item 1A for more information on the provision for credit losses.

Goodwill and Other Intangibles
Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired. Other intangible assets represent purchased assets and mortgage servicing rights ("MSRs") that lack physical substance but can be distinguished from goodwill because of contractual or other legal rights. Intangible assets that have finite lives, such as core deposit intangibles, are amortized over their estimated useful lives and subject to periodic impairment testing. Intangible assets (other than goodwill) are amortized to expense using accelerated or straight-line methods over their respective estimated useful lives.
Goodwill is subject to impairment testing at the reporting unit level, which must be conducted at least annually. The Company performs impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year (as of December 31) or when events or changes in circumstances indicate the assets might be impaired.
The Company performs a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit under the goodwill impairment test is judgmental and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. Similarly, estimates and assumptions are used in determining the fair value of other intangible assets. Estimates of fair value are primarily determined using discounted cash flows, market comparisons and recent transactions. These approaches use significant estimates and assumptions including projected future cash flows, discount rates reflecting the market rate of return, projected growth rates and determination and evaluation of appropriate market comparables.
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As of June 30, 2020, COVID-19 caused the occurrence of what management deemed to be a triggering event that caused us to perform a goodwill impairment test to determine if an impairment charge was required for that period. Based on the results of the assessment of the reporting unit, the Company concluded that no goodwill impairment existed as of June 30, 2020. However, future events could cause the Company to conclude that goodwill or other intangibles have become impaired, which would result in recording an impairment loss. Any resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. Management did not consider a triggering event to have occurred during the fourth quarter of 2020. Management did, however, perform its annual assessment of goodwill as of December 31, 2020. Based on the results of qualitative assessments of the reporting unit as part of its annual goodwill impairment testing, the Company concluded that no impairment existed at December 31, 2020. However, future events could cause the Company to conclude that goodwill or other intangibles have become impaired, which would result in recording an impairment loss. Any resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. See “Item 1A Risk Factors—Changes in the value of goodwill and intangible assets could reduce our earnings” for more information.

Accounting for Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes by recording deferred income taxes that reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes, as well as, certain tax attributes, such as net operating losses. Management exercises significant judgment in the evaluation of the amount and timing of the recognition of the resulting tax assets and liabilities. The judgments and estimates required for the evaluation are updated based upon changes in business factors and the tax laws. If actual results differ from the assumptions and other considerations used in estimating the amount and timing of tax recognized, there might be additional expenses required in future periods. The Company’s accounting policy follows the prescribed authoritative guidance that a minimal probability threshold of a tax position must be met before a financial statement benefit is recognized. The Company recognizes, when applicable, interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in other noninterest expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Assessment of uncertain tax positions requires careful consideration of the technical merits of a position based on management’s analysis of tax laws, regulations and other procedural guidance. Significant judgment may be involved in applying the applicable reporting and accounting requirements.
Management expects that the Company’s adherence to the required accounting guidance may result in volatility in quarterly and annual effective income tax rates due to the requirement that any change in judgment or measurement of a tax position taken in a prior period be recognized as a discrete event in the period in which it occurs. Factors that could impact management’s judgment include changes in income, tax laws and regulations, and tax planning strategies. See “Item 1A Risk Factors—Changes in tax laws could have an adverse effect on us, the banking industry, our customers, the value of collateral securing our loans and demand for loans” for more information.

Stock Based Compensation
The Company follows the provisions of ASC Topic 718, “Compensation,” which requires the expense recognition for the fair value of share based compensation awards, such as stock options, restricted stock awards, and performance based shares. This standard allows management to establish modeling assumptions as to expected stock price volatility, option terms, forfeiture rates and dividend rates which directly impact estimated fair value. The accounting standard also allows for the use of alternative option pricing models which may impact fair value as determined. The Company’s practice is to utilize reasonable and supportable assumptions.
Derivatives
FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, provides the disclosure requirements for derivatives and hedging activities with the intent to provide users of financial statements with an enhanced understanding of: (a) how and why an entity uses derivative instruments, (b) how the entity accounts for derivative instruments and related hedged items, and (c) how derivative instruments and related hedged items affect an entity’s financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Further, qualitative disclosures are required that explain the Company’s objectives and strategies for using derivatives, as well as quantitative disclosures about the fair value of and gains and losses on derivative instruments.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
Net income for the years ending December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 was $132.2 million, $142.9 million, and $152.3 million, respectively. Net income per basic and diluted common share for 2020 was $4.09 compared to $4.18 per basic and diluted common share for 2019, a 2% decrease.
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Net income decreased for 2020 relative to 2019 primarily due to a decline in the net interest margin, and increased provisioning for credit losses (see "Provision for Credit Losses" section below, and Notes 1 - "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" and Note 4 - "Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses" to the consolidated financials statements for further detail on CECL), partially offset by higher noninterest income (as discussed in the "Noninterest Income" section below).
The most significant portion of revenue (i.e., net interest income plus noninterest income) is net interest income, which decreased to $321.6 million for 2020 compared to $324.0 million for 2019. The decrease resulted from a decline in the net interest margin substantially offset by growth in average earning assets of 17%.
The net interest margin, which measures the difference between interest income and interest expense (i.e., net interest income) as a percentage of earning assets, was 3.19% for 2020 and 3.77% for 2019. The drivers of the change are detailed in the "Net Interest Income and Net Interest Margin" section below.
The benefit of noninterest sources funding earning assets decreased by 34 basis points to 38 basis points for 2020 as compared to 72 basis points for 2019, due to significantly lower market interest rates. The combination of a 58 basis point decrease in the net interest spread and a 34 basis point decrease in the value of noninterest sources resulted in a 92 basis point decrease in the net interest margin for 2020 as compared to 2019. Despite currently having lesser value resulting from lower interest rates, the Company continues to consider the value of its noninterest sources of funds as very significant to its business model and its overall profitability over the longer term.
The provision for credit losses in 2020 was $45.6 million as compared to $13.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The higher provisioning for 2020, as compared 2019, is primarily due to the implementation of the CECL accounting standard and the impact of COVID-19 on our actual and expected future credit losses. For information on the components and drivers of these changes see "Provision for Credit Losses" section below.

Total noninterest income for 2020 increased to $45.7 million from $25.7 million for 2019, a 78% increase. For further information on the components and drivers of these changes see "Noninterest Income" section below.
Noninterest expenses totaled $144.2 million for 2020, as compared to $139.9 million for 2019, a 3% increase. See the "Noninterest Expense" section for further detail on the components and drivers of the change.
The efficiency ratio, which measures the ratio of noninterest expense to total revenue, was 39.25% for 2020 as compared to 39.99% for 2019.
Income tax expense was $43.9 million for 2020, a decrease of $9.9 million or 18% compared to the same period in 2019. The components and drivers of the change are discussed in the "Income Tax Expense" section below.
At December 31, 2020, total loan balances (including PPP loans) were 3% higher than they were at December 31, 2019, and average loans were 7% higher in 2020 as compared to 2019. PPP loans represented $454.8 million of total loans at the end of 2020. Excluding PPP loans, average loans increased 3% in 2020. The slower loan growth in 2020 (excluding PPP loans) is mostly attributable to the successful completion of construction projects and the related construction loan payoff, coupled with the Company’s de-emphasizing new construction lending. Average deposit growth was strong throughout 2020, and resulted in well above average overnight liquidity. Deposit funding during 2020 was primarily from noninterest bearing and money market accounts. In order to fund such loan increases and sustain significant liquidity, the Company has relied on funding from interest bearing accounts primarily as a result of inflows from certain financial intermediary relationships. In large part due to those inflows, total deposits at December 31, 2020 were 27% higher than deposits at December 31, 2019, while average deposits were 18% higher for 2020 compared with 2019. This increase in deposits allowed the Company to sustain strong primary and secondary sources of liquidity in the fourth quarter of 2020.

In terms of the average asset composition or mix, loans, which generally have higher yields than securities and other earning assets, represented 76% and 83% of average earning assets for 2020 and 2019, respectively. For 2020, as compared to 2019, average loans, excluding loans held for sale, increased $535.6 million, or 7%, due primarily to growth in PPP, income producing commercial real estate, and commercial loans. Average investment securities for 2020 and 2019 both amounted to 9% average earning assets. The combination of federal funds sold, interest bearing deposits with other banks and loans held for sale represented 12% and 5% of average earning assets for 2020 and 2019, respectively, as much higher levels of on-balance sheet liquidity existed throughout 2020.

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The ratio of common equity to total assets decreased to 11.16% at December 31, 2020 from 13.25% at December 31, 2019, due to total assets growing faster than common equity, including common equity reductions due to $61 million in share repurchase activity, the approximate $10.9 million charge to common equity due to implementation of CECL on January 1, 2020, and $28.3 million of cash dividends declared. As discussed later in “Capital Resources and Adequacy,” the regulatory capital ratios of the Bank and Company remain above well capitalized levels.

For 2020, the Company reported an annualized return on average assets (“ROAA”) of 1.28%, as compared to 1.61% for 2019. Total shareholders’ equity was $1.24 billion at December 31, 2020 and $1.19 billion and 2019, an increase of 4%. The annualized return on average common equity (“ROACE”) for 2020 was 10.98% as compared to 12.20% for 2019. The annualized return on average tangible common equity (“ROATCE”) for 2020 was 12.03% as compared to 13.40% for 2019. Refer to the “Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section for additional detail and a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP financial measures. The decline in these ratios was primarily due to the implementation of CECL and COVID-19 impacts on loan loss provisioning, as well as a lower net interest margin.
Net Interest Income and Net Interest Margin
Net interest income is the difference between interest income on earning assets and the cost of funds supporting those assets. Earning assets are composed primarily of loans, loans held for sale, investment securities, and interest bearing deposits with banks. The cost of funds represents interest expense on deposits, customer repurchase agreements and other borrowings, which consist of federal funds purchased, advances from the FHLB and subordinated notes. For additional information on the Company’s subordinated notes, please refer to Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, as well as the “Capital Resources and Adequacy” section below. Noninterest bearing deposits and capital are other components representing funding sources. Changes in the volume and mix of assets and funding sources, along with the changes in yields earned and rates paid, determine changes in net interest income.

Net interest income in 2020 was $321.6 million compared to $324.0 million in 2019 and $317.0 million in 2018.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, net interest income decreased 0.8% over the same period for 2019. Average loans increased $535.6 million (7%) and average deposits increased by $1.3 billion (18%). The net interest margin was 3.19% for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 3.77% for the same period in 2019. Excluding PPP loans, average loans increased 3% in 2020. The yield on PPP loans was lower than other loans, which depressed loan yields and the net interest margin for 2020. Excluding PPP loans, the yield on loans for 2020 was 4.87%, and the net interest margin was 3.28%. The Company has maintained its disciplined loan pricing practices in 2020, and the Company has also managed its funding costs lower in 2020 while maintaining a favorable deposit mix, wherein noninterest deposits averaged 31% of average total deposits. Higher levels of on-balance sheet liquidity contributed to margin compression in 2020.

The table below presents the average balances and rates of the major categories of the Company’s assets and liabilities for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. Included in the table is a measurement of interest rate spread and margin. Interest rate spread is the difference (expressed as a percentage) between the interest rate earned on earning assets less the interest expense on interest bearing liabilities. While the interest rate spread provides a quick comparison of earnings rates as compared to cost of funds, management believes that the net interest margin provides a better measurement of performance. The net interest margin (as compared to the net interest spread) includes the effect of noninterest bearing sources in its calculation and is net interest income expressed as a percentage of average earning assets.







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Eagle Bancorp, Inc.
Consolidated Average Balances, Interest Yields And Rates (Unaudited)
(dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Yield /
Rate
Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Yield /
Rate
Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Yield /
Rate
Assets                  
Interest earning assets:                  
Interest bearing deposits with other banks and other short-term investments$1,181,591 $2,601 0.22 %$392,245 $7,438 1.90 %$356,017 $6,616 1.86 %
Loans held for sale67,361 2,125 3.15 %40,192 1,565 3.89 %23,877 1,095 4.59 %
Loans (1) (2)
7,868,523 366,729 4.66 %7,332,886 399,358 5.45 %6,638,136 367,511 5.54 %
Investment securities available-for-sale (2)929,983 18,440 1.98 %796,608 21,037 2.64 %692,753 17,907 2.58 %
Federal funds sold32,781 91 0.28 %23,253 232 1.00 %15,618 157 1.01 %
Total interest earning assets10,080,239 389,986 3.87 %8,585,184 429,630 5.00 %7,726,401 393,286 5.09 %
Noninterest earning assets371,345 339,565 299,653 
Less: allowance for credit losses101,621 71,683 67,113 
Total noninterest earning assets269,724 267,882 232,540 
Total Assets$10,349,963 $8,853,066 $7,958,941 
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity      
Interest bearing liabilities:      
Interest bearing transaction$783,568 $3,190 0.41 %$743,361 $6,491 0.87 %$460,599 $3,348 0.73 %
Savings and money market3,925,413 26,271 0.67 %2,873,054 50,042 1.74 %2,691,726 35,534 1.32 %
Time deposits1,149,185 24,105 2.10 %1,404,748 34,493 2.46 %1,141,795 21,328 1.87 %
Total interest bearing deposits5,858,166 53,566 0.91 %5,021,163 91,026 1.81 %4,294,120 60,210 1.40 %
Customer repurchase agreements and federal funds purchased29,345 293 1.00 %30,024 345 1.15 %44,333 225 0.51 %
Other short-term borrowings280,126 1,870 0.66 %135,699 2,298 1.67 %192,131 3,942 2.02 %
Long-term borrowings259,975 12,696 4.80 %217,507 11,916 5.40 %217,117 11,916 5.41 %
Total interest bearing liabilities6,427,612 68,425 1.06 %5,404,393 105,585 1.95 %4,747,701 76,293 1.61 %
Noninterest bearing liabilities:      
Noninterest bearing demand2,643,856 2,210,516 2,150,431 
Other liabilities74,154 66,106 38,167 
Total noninterest bearing liabilities2,718,010 2,276,622 2,188,598 
Shareholders’ equity1,204,341 1,172,051 1,022,642 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity$10,349,963 $8,853,066 $7,958,941 
Net interest income$321,561 $324,045 $316,993 
Net interest spread2.81 %3.05 %3.48 %
Net interest margin3.19 %3.77 %4.10 %
Cost of funds0.68 %1.23 %0.99 %
(1)Loans placed on nonaccrual status are included in average balances. Net loan fees and late charges included in interest income on loans totaled $22.3 million, $17.8 million, and $19.6 million, for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
(2)Interest and fees on loans and investments exclude tax equivalent adjustments.
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Rate/Volume Analysis of Net Interest Income
The rate/volume table below presents the composition of the change in net interest income for the periods indicated, as allocated between the change in net interest income due to changes in the volume of average earning assets and interest bearing liabilities, and the changes in net interest income due to changes in interest rates. As the table shows, the decrease in net interest income in 2020, as compared to 2019 was a function of an increase in the volume of earning assets more than offset by a decline in the net interest margin. The increase in net interest income in 2019 as compared to 2018 was a function of an increase in the volume of earning assets more than offsetting a decline in the net interest margin.

2020 compared with 20192019 compared with 2018
(dollars in thousands)Change
Due to
Volume
Change
Due to
Rate
Total
Increase
(Decrease)
Change
Due to
Volume
Change
Due to
Rate
Total
Increase
(Decrease)
Interest earned on
Loans$29,171 $(61,799)$(32,628)$38,464 $(6,617)$31,847 
Loans held for sale1,058 (498)560 748 (278)470 
Investment securities3,522 (6,119)(2,597)2,685 445 3,130 
Interest bearing bank deposits14,968 (19,805)(4,837)673 149 822 
Federal funds sold95 (236)(141)77 (2)75 
Total interest income48,814 (88,457)(39,643)42,647 (6,303)36,344 
Interest paid on      
Interest bearing transaction351 (3,652)(3,301)2,055 1,088 3,143 
Savings and money market18,329 (42,101)(23,772)2,394 12,114 14,508 
Time deposits(6,275)(4,113)(10,388)4,912 8,253 13,165 
Customer repurchase agreements(8)(44)(52)(73)193 120 
Other borrowings4,772 (4,420)352 (1,136)(508)(1,644)
Total interest expense17,169 (54,330)(37,161)8,152 21,140 29,292 
Net interest income$31,645 $(34,127)$(2,482)$34,495 $(27,443)$7,052 
Provision for Credit Losses
The provision for credit losses represents the amount of expense charged to current earnings to fund the ACL on loans and the ACL on available for sale investment securities. The amount of the ACL on loans is based on many factors that reflect management’s assessment of the risk in the loan portfolio. Those factors include historical losses based on internal and peer data (as Company loss data is insufficient), economic conditions and trends, the value and adequacy of collateral, volume and mix of the portfolio, performance of the portfolio, and internal loan processes of the Company and Bank. The ACL under CECL (adopted January 1, 2020) utilizes an economic forecast that is updated quarterly with the significant measure being the expected regional unemployment rate, which management estimates by using a national forecast and estimating a regional adjustment based on historical differences between the two.

The provision for credit losses was $45.6 million in 2020, as compared to $13.1 million in 2019. The increase was due substantially to the implementation of the CECL methodology and the related impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The provision for unfunded commitments is presented separately on the Statement of Income. This provision considers the probability that unfunded commitments will fund. The provision was $1.4 million in 2020, as compared to no provision expense in 2019 (prior to CECL).

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Management has developed a comprehensive analytical process to monitor the adequacy of the ACL. The process and guidelines were developed utilizing, among other factors, the guidance from federal banking regulatory agencies, relevant available information, from internal and external sources, relating to past events, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Historical credit loss experience provides the basis for the estimation of expected credit losses. Adjustments to historical loss information are made for differences in current loan-specific risk characteristics such as differences in underwriting standards, portfolio mix, loan concentrations, credit quality, or term as well as for changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in unemployment rates, property values or other relevant factors. Refer to additional detail regarding these forecasts in the “Cash Flow Method" section of Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The results of this process, in combination with conclusions of the Bank’s outside consultants’ review of the risk inherent in the loan portfolio, support management’s assessment as to the adequacy of the allowance at the balance sheet date. Please refer to the discussion under “Critical Accounting Policies” above and in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for an overview of the methodology management employs on a quarterly basis to assess the adequacy of the allowance and the provisions charged to expense. Also, refer to the table in the "Allowance for Credit Losses" section which reflects activity in the ACL.
The ACL increased $35.9 million at December 31, 2020 as compared to December 31, 2019, reflecting $45.6 million in provision for credit losses, day one CECL impact of $10.6 million charged to retained earnings, and $20.1 million in net charge-offs during 2020. Net charge-offs of $20.1 million during 2020 represented 0.26% of average loans, excluding loans held for sale, as compared to $9.4 million or 0.13% of average loans, excluding loans held for sale, in 2019. Net charge-offs during 2020 were attributable primarily to commercial real estate ($7.2 million), commercial loans ($12 million), and residential mortgages ($815 thousand).

At December 31, 2020 the ACL represented 1.41% of loans outstanding (1.50% excluding PPP loans), as compared to 0.98% at December 31, 2019. The ACL represented 180% of nonperforming loans at December 31, 2020, as compared to 151% at December 31, 2019.
As part of its comprehensive loan review process, internal loan and credit committees carefully evaluate loans that are past-due 30 days or more. The committees make a thorough assessment of the conditions and circumstances surrounding each delinquent loan. The Bank’s loan policy requires that loans be placed on nonaccrual if they are ninety days past-due, unless they are well secured and in the process of collection. Additionally, Credit Administration specifically analyzes the status of development and construction projects, sales activities and utilization of interest reserves in order to carefully and prudently assess potential increased levels of risk requiring additional reserves.
The maintenance of a high quality loan portfolio, with an adequate ACL, will continue to be a primary management objective for the Company.
Noninterest Income
Total noninterest income includes service charges on deposits, gain on sale of loans, gain on sale of investment securities, income from bank owned life insurance (“BOLI”) and other income.
Total noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $45.7 million as compared to $25.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, a 78% increase due substantially to $13.7 million higher gains on sale of residential mortgage loans, $2.9 million higher gains associated with the origination, securitization, sale and servicing of FHA loans, $1.2 million gain on the sale of OREO, and $1.1 million on swap fee income, partially offset by $1.8 million lower service charges on deposits.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, service charges on deposit accounts decreased $1.8 million to $4.4 million from $6.2 million for the same period in 2019, a decrease of 29%, due primarily to waived fees due to the pandemic.
Gain on sale of loans consists of gains on the sale of SBA and residential mortgage loans. For the year ended December 31, 2020, gain on sale of loans increased from $8.5 million to $22.1 million, an increase of 161%, compared to the same period in 2019.

The Company is an originator of SBA loans and its practice is to sell the guaranteed portion of those loans at a premium. Income from this source was $269 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $309 thousand for the same period in 2019. Activity in SBA loan sales to secondary markets can vary widely from year to year.

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The Company originates residential mortgage loans and utilizes both “mandatory delivery” and “best efforts” forward loan sale commitments to sell those loans with servicing released. Sales of residential mortgage loans yielded gains of $21.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $8.2 million in the same period in 2019, due to higher loan locked volume ($367.7 million for 2020 as compared to $49.9 million for 2019). Loans sold are subject to repurchase in circumstances where documentation is deficient or the underlying loan becomes delinquent or pays off within a specified period following loan funding and sale. The Bank considers these potential recourse provisions to be a minimal risk, but has established a reserve under generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") for possible repurchases. There were no repurchases due to fraud by the borrower during the year ended December 31, 2020. The reserve amounted to $205 thousand at December 31, 2020 and is included in other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Bank does not originate “sub-prime” loans and has no exposure to this market segment.

As a result of elevated origination volumes and market dislocations associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic, beginning in the second quarter of 2020, and continuing through the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company began to shift its pipeline strategy towards a best efforts lock basis.

The decision whether to sell residential mortgage loans on a mandatory or best efforts lock basis is a function of multiple factors, including but not limited to overall market volumes of mortgage loan originations, forecasted “pull-through” rates of origination, loan underwriting and closing operational considerations, pricing differentials between the two methods, and availability and pricing of various interest rate hedging strategies associated with the mortgage origination pipeline. The Company continually monitors these factors to maximize profitability and minimize operational and interest rate risks.

Gain on the sale of investments amounted to $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Other income totaled $15.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to $7.8 million for 2019, a increase of 97%. The FHA business unit generated income of $3.4 million on the origination, securitization, servicing and sale of FHA Multifamily-Backed GNMA securities for the full year 2020 compared to $501 thousand for the same period in 2019. There was also a $1.2 million gain on OREO and $1.1 million gain on swaps.

Servicing agreements relating to the Ginnie Mae ("GNMA") mortgage backed securities program require the Company to advance funds to make scheduled payments of principal, interest, taxes and insurance, if such payments have not been received from the borrowers. The Company will generally recover funds advanced pursuant to these arrangements under the FHA insurance and guarantee program. However, in the interim, the Company must absorb the cost of the funds it advances during the time the advance is outstanding. The Company must also bear the costs of attempting to collect on delinquent and defaulted mortgage loans. In addition, if a defaulted loan is not cured, the mortgage loan would be canceled as part of the foreclosure proceedings and the Company would not receive any future servicing income with respect to that loan. At December 31, 2020, the Company did not have any funds advanced outstanding under FHA mortgage loan servicing agreements. The funds advanced were in conjunction with a single loan of $90 thousand that suffered financial hardship due to COVID-19 and was granted forbearance by the Company on November 25th, 2020 for the period from December 1, 2020 to December 31, 2021. Under the Forbearance Agreement, the borrower has the option to extend the Forbearance Period through February 28, 2021. During this time, the Company will advance principal and interest on the borrower’s behalf and will be repaid in 12 monthly installments beginning on March 1, 2021 and ending on February 1, 2022. To the extent the loan currently in forbearance or other mortgage loans underlying the Company’s servicing portfolio experience delinquencies, the Company would be required to dedicate cash resources to comply with its obligation to advance funds as well as incur additional administrative costs related to increases in collection efforts.

Noninterest Expense
Total noninterest expense includes salaries and employee benefits, premises and equipment expenses, marketing and advertising, data processing, legal, accounting and professional fees, FDIC insurance premiums, and other expenses.
Total noninterest expenses totaled $144.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to $139.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, a 3% increase.
For the year 2020, the efficiency ratio (ratio of noninterest expenses to total revenue) was 39.25% as compared to 39.99% for the same period in 2019.
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Salaries and employee benefits were $74.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to $79.8 million for the same period in 2018, a decrease of 7%. Cost decreased as result of 2019 having $8.2 million of nonrecurring charges related to acceleration of share based compensation expenses associated with the retirement of our former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and the resignation of certain directors. The decrease was partially offset by higher salaries attributable to merit increases and increased headcount in 2020. At December 31, 2020, the Company’s full time equivalent staff numbered 519, as compared to 492 at December 31, 2019.
Premises and equipment expenses amounted to $15.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to $14.4 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of 9%. The largest increase related to adjustments for lease extensions not previously recorded. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized $469 thousand of sublease revenue as compared to $527 thousand for the same period in 2019. The sublease revenue is accounted for as a reduction to premises and equipment expenses.

Marketing and advertising expenses decreased to $4.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $4.8 million for 2019, a decrease of 11%, due primarily to a reduction in sponsorship fees as several expected conferences did not happen as result of COVID-19 in 2020.
Data processing expenses increased from $9.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $10.7 million for 2020, an increase of 14%, primarily due to yearly increases in license fee renewals and additional networking capacity needed related to COVID-19.
Legal, accounting and professional fees and expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased to $16.4 million from $12.2 million in 2019, a 35% increase. The increased expenses were primarily associated with legal fees and expenditures related to ongoing governmental investigations and subpoenas and document requests. The Company expects to continue to incur elevated levels of legal and professional fees and expenses in 2021 as it continues to cooperate with these investigations. Refer to "Item 3- Legal Proceedings" for additional information on the Company’s recent proceedings.

FDIC insurance increased $4.7 million to $7.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of 148% compared to 2019, primarily due to a nonrecurring $1.8 million credit in 2019 and a higher assessment base in 2020 resulting from growth in total assets.
Other expenses decreased to $14.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $16.0 million for the same period in 2019, a decrease of 8%. The major components of cost in this category include broker fees, franchise tax, core deposit intangible amortization, insurance expenses, and director compensation. Cost control remains a significant operating objective of the Company.
Income Tax Expense
The Company recorded income tax expense of $43.9 million in 2020 compared to $53.8 million in 2019, resulting in an effective tax rate of 24.9% and 27.4%, respectively. The decrease was due primarily to a decrease in nondeductible expenses related to executive compensation, state taxes and adjustments related to the completion of the 2019 tax returns.
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS
Overview
Total assets at December 31, 2020 were $11.1 billion, a 24% increase as compared to $9.0 billion at December 31, 2019. Total loans (excluding loans held for sale) were $7.8 billion at December 31, 2020, an 3% increase as compared to $7.5 billion at December 31, 2019. Loans held for sale amounted to $88.2 million at December 31, 2020 as compared to $56.7 million at December 31, 2019, a 56% increase. The investment portfolio totaled $1.2 billion at December 31, 2020, a 36% increase from $843.4 million at December 31, 2019.
Total borrowed funds (excluding customer repurchase agreements) were $568.1 million at December 31, 2020 and $467.7 million at December 31, 2019, a 21% increase.
Total shareholders’ equity at December 31, 2020 increased 4%, remaining at a rounded $1.24 billion from $1.19 billion at December 31, 2019. The relatively modest increase in shareholders’ equity from December 31, 2019 was due to favorable net income being largely offset by share repurchases, cash dividends and a Day 1 adjustment to the Allowance for Credit Losses for adoption of the CECL accounting methodology.
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The total risk based capital ratio was 17.04% at December 31, 2020, as compared to 16.20% at December 31, 2019. In addition, the tangible common equity ratio was 10.31% at December 31, 2020, compared to 12.22% at December 31, 2019. The ratio of common equity to total assets was 11.16% at December 31, 2020 as compared to 13.25% at December 31, 2019. The Company’s capital position remains well in excess of regulatory requirements for well capitalized status.

Investment Securities Available-for-Sale and Short-Term Investments
The tables below and Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information regarding the Company’s investment securities categorized as “available-for-sale” or AFS. The Company classifies all its investment securities as AFS. This classification requires that investment securities be recorded at their fair value with any difference between the fair value and amortized cost (the purchase price adjusted by any discount accretion or premium amortization) reported as a component of shareholders’ equity (accumulated other comprehensive income), net of deferred income taxes. At December 31, 2020, the Company had a net unrealized gain in AFS securities of $22.0 million with a deferred tax liability of $5.5 million as compared to a net unrealized loss in AFS securities of $4.2 million at December 31, 2019, with a deferred tax asset of $757 thousand.
The AFS portfolio is comprised of U.S. agency securities (16% of AFS securities) with an average duration of 1.9 years, seasoned mortgage backed securities that are 100% agency issued (72% of AFS securities) which have an average expected life of 3.2 years with contractual maturities of the underlying mortgages of up to thirty years, municipal bonds (9% of AFS securities) which have an average duration of seven years, corporate bonds (3% of AFS securities) which have an average duration of four years, and equity investments which comprise less than 1% of AFS securities. The equity investment consists of common stock of two community banking companies with an estimated fair value of $198 thousand. 96 percent of the investment securities which are debt instruments are rated AAA or AA or have the implicit guarantee of the U.S. Treasury.
At December 31, 2020, the investment portfolio amounted to $1.2 billion as compared to $843.4 million at December 31, 2019, an increase of 36%. The investment portfolio is managed to achieve goals related to liquidity, income, interest rate risk management and to provide collateral for customer repurchase agreements and other borrowing relationships.
The following table provides information regarding the composition of the Company’s investment securities portfolio at the dates indicated. Amounts are reported at estimated fair value. The change in composition of the portfolio at December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019 was due principally to ALCO decisions to buy longer-term municipal investments and increase holdings of mortgage backed securities to better position the Company for the current interest rate environment while maintaining portfolio cash flow and liquidity. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the investment portfolio balances at fair value increased as compared to balances at December 31, 2019, as the Bank’s deposit growth outpaced loan growth.
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(dollars in thousands)BalancePercent of TotalBalancePercent of TotalBalancePercent of Total
U. S. agency securities$181,921 15.8 %$179,794 21.3 %$256,345 32.7 %
Residential mortgage backed securities825,001 71.7 %543,852 64.5 %472,231 60.3 %
Municipal bonds108,113 9.4 %73,931 8.8 %45,769 5.8 %
Corporate bonds35,850 3.1 %10,733 1.3 %9,576 1.2 %
U.S. treasury— — %34,855 4.1 %— — 
$1,150,885 $— $843,363 100 %$784,139 100 %
At December 31, 2020, there were no issuers, other than the U.S. Government and its agencies, whose securities owned by the Company had a book or fair value exceeding 10% of the Company’s shareholders’ equity.
The following table provides information, on an amortized cost basis, regarding the contractual maturity and weighted-average yield of the investment portfolio at December 31, 2020. Expected maturities will differ from contractual maturities because borrowers may have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties. Yields on tax exempt securities have not been calculated on a tax equivalent basis.
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One Year or LessAfter One Year
Through Five Years
After Five Years
Through Ten Years
After Ten YearsTotal
(dollars in thousands)Amortized
Cost
Weighted
Average
Yield
Amortized
Cost
Weighted
Average
Yield
Amortized
Cost
Weighted
Average
Yield
Amortized
Cost
Weighted
Average
Yield
Amortized
Cost
Weighted
Average
Yield
U. S. Government agency securities$53,916 0.70 %$110,083 1.33 %$17,087 1.26 %$— — $181,086 1.14 %
Residential mortgage backed securities57,278 0.99 %648,455 0.86 %105,595 1.36 %— — 811,328 0.93 %
Municipal bonds4,329 3.86 %26,622 2.54 %69,309 2.19 %2,000 2.67 %102,260 2.41 %
Corporate bonds5,218 3.68 %22,189 3.77 %6,976 4.72 %— — 34,383 3.95 %
$120,741 1.08 %$807,349 0.98 %$198,967 1.76 %$2,000 2.67 %$1,129,057 1.19 %
Federal funds sold amounted to $28.2 million at December 31, 2020 as compared to $39.0 million at December 31, 2019. These funds represent excess daily liquidity which is invested on an unsecured basis with well capitalized banks, in amounts generally limited both in the aggregate and to any one bank.
Interest bearing deposits with banks and other short-term investments amounted to $1.8 billion at December 31, 2020 as compared to $195.4 million at December 31, 2019. These short term investments represent liquid funds held at the Federal Reserve to meet future loan demand, to fund future increases in investment securities and to meet other general liquidity needs of the Company. The Bank no longer holds any time deposits at December 31, 2020 and held $1.6 million at December 31, 2019.
Loan Portfolio
In its lending activities, the Company seeks to develop and expand relationships with clients whose businesses and individual banking needs will grow with the Bank. Superior customer service, local decision making, and accelerated turnaround time from application to closing have been significant factors in growing the loan portfolio, and meeting the lending needs in the markets served, while maintaining sound asset quality.
Loan growth over the past year has been favorable, with loans outstanding reaching $7.8 billion at December 31, 2020, an increase of $214.5 million or 3% as compared to $7.5 billion at December 31, 2019.
Loan production in 2020 was predominantly in the income producing - commercial real estate and owner occupied – commercial real estate loan categories, while construction loans have been de-emphasized. That said, the Company continues to be active as a construction lender and we expect to continue to see construction commitments funded up over time. Despite an increased level of in-market competition for business, the Bank continued to experience organic loan production, having originated more than $1 billion in new CRE loan commitments during 2020. This production was offset by the continued successful completion of projects and subsequent paydowns. Notwithstanding increased supply of units, multi-family commercial real estate leasing in the Bank’s market area has held up well, particularly for well-located close-in projects. While as a general comment there has been softening in the office leasing market, in certain well-located pockets and submarkets, the sector has evidenced some resilience. Overall, commercial real estate values have generally held up well, but we continue to be cautious of the cap rates at which some assets are trading and we are being careful with valuations as a result.
Owner occupied commercial real estate and construction – C&I (owner occupied) loans represent 15% of the loan portfolio. The Bank has a large portion of its loan portfolio related to real estate, with 73% consisting of commercial real estate and real estate construction loans. When owner occupied commercial real estate and construction – C&I (owner occupied) are excluded, the percentage of total loans represented by commercial real estate decreases to 58%. Real estate also serves as collateral for loans made for other purposes, resulting in 85% of loans being secured or partially secured by real estate.
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The following table shows the trends in the composition of the loan portfolio over the past five years.
Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
(dollars in thousands)Amount%Amount%Amount%Amount%Amount%
Commercial$1,437,433 19 %$1,545,906 20 %$1,553,112 22 %$1,375,939 21 %$1,200,728 21 %
PPP loans454,771 %— — %— — %— — %— — %
Income producing - commercial real estate3,687,000 47 %3,702,747 50 %3,256,900 46 %3,047,094 48 %2,509,517 44 %
Owner occupied - commercial real estate997,694 13 %985,409 13 %887,814 13 %755,444 12 %640,870 12 %
Real estate mortgage - residential76,592 %104,221 %106,418 %104,357 %152,748 %
Construction - commercial and residential873,261 11 %1,035,754 14 %1,039,815 15 %973,141 15 %932,531 16 %
Construction - C&I (owner occupied)158,905 %89,490 %57,797 %58,691 %126,038 %
Home equity73,167 %80,061 %86,603 %93,264 %105,096 %
Other consumer1,389 — %2,160 — 2,988 — 3,598 — 10,365 — 
Total loans7,760,212 100 %7,545,748 100 %6,991,447 100 %6,411,528 100 %5,677,893 100 %
Less: Allowance for credit losses(109,579)(73,658)(69,944)(64,758)(59,074)
Net loans$7,650,633 $7,472,090 $6,921,503 $6,346,770 $5,618,819 
As noted above, a significant portion of the loan portfolio consists of commercial, construction and commercial real estate loans, primarily made in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and secured by real estate or other collateral in that market. Although these loans are made to a diversified pool of unrelated borrowers across numerous businesses, adverse developments in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan real estate market could have an adverse impact on this portfolio of loans and the Company’s income and financial position. While our basic market area is the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, the Bank has made loans outside that market area where the applicant is an existing customer and the nature and quality of such loans was consistent with the Bank’s lending policies. At present, the Company believes that commercial real estate values are stable to improving in those sub-markets of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area in which the Company has significant real estate exposure.
The federal banking regulators have issued guidance for those institutions which are deemed to have concentrations in commercial real estate lending. Pursuant to the supervisory criteria contained in the guidance for identifying institutions with a potential commercial real estate concentration risk, institutions which have (1) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land acquisitions which represent 100% or more of an institution’s total risk-based capital; or (2) total commercial real estate loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s total risk-based capital and the institution’s commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased 50% or more during the prior 36 months are identified as having potential commercial real estate concentration risk. Institutions which are deemed to have concentrations in commercial real estate lending are expected to employ heightened levels of risk management with respect to their commercial real estate portfolios, and may be required to hold higher levels of capital. The Company, like many community banks, has a concentration in commercial real estate loans, and the Company has experienced growth in its commercial real estate portfolio in recent years. As of December 31, 2020, non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans (including construction, land and land development loans) represent 321% of consolidated risk based capital; however, growth in that segment over the past 36 months at 18% does not exceed the 50% threshold laid out in the regulatory guidance. Construction, land and land development loans represent 122% of consolidated risk based capital. Management has extensive experience in commercial real estate lending, and has implemented and continues to maintain heightened risk management procedures, and strong underwriting criteria with respect to its commercial real estate portfolio. Loan monitoring practices include but are not limited to periodic stress testing analysis to evaluate changes to cash flows, owing to interest rate increases and declines in net operating income. Nevertheless, we may be required to maintain higher levels of capital as a result of our commercial real estate concentrations, which could require us to obtain additional capital, and may adversely affect shareholder returns. The Company has an extensive Capital Policy and Capital Plan, which includes pro-forma projections including stress testing within which the Board of Directors has established internal minimum targets for regulatory capital ratios that are in excess of well capitalized ratios.
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As of December 31, 2020, loans to the Accommodation and Food Service industry represent 10% of the loan portfolio compared to 9% as of December 31, 2019. At December 31, 2020, the Company had no other concentrations of loans in any one industry exceeding 10% of its total loan portfolio. An industry for this purpose is defined as a group of businesses that are engaged in similar activities and have similar economic characteristics that would cause their ability to meet contractual obligations to be similarly affected by changes in economic or other conditions.
Certain directors and executive officers have had loan transactions with the Company. Such loans were made in the ordinary course of business on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with outsiders. Refer to Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further detail regarding related party loans.
Loan Portfolio Exposures- COVID-19:
Industry areas of potential concern within the Loan Portfolio are presented below as of December 31, 2020
IndustryPrincipal Balance
(in 000's)
% of Loan Portfolio
Accommodation & Food Services$768,568 
(1)
9.9 %
Retail Trade$98,882 
(2)
1.3 %
(1) Includes $81,832 of PPP loans.
(2) Includes $13,512 of PPP loans.

Concerns over exposures to the Accommodation and Food Service industry and Retail Trade are the most immediate at this time. Accommodation and Food Service exposure represents 10% of the Bank’s loan portfolio as of December 31, 2020 among 311 customers. Retail Trade exposure represents 1% of the Bank’s loan portfolio and represented 111 customers. The Bank has ongoing extensive outreach to these customers and is assisting where necessary with PPP loans and payment deferrals or interest-only periods in the short term while customers work with the Bank to develop longer term stabilization strategies as the landscape of the COVID-19 pandemic evolves. The uncertain duration and severity of the pandemic will likely impact future credit challenges in these areas.
The table below is collateral-based and shows exposures on loans secured by CRE by tenant type as of December 31, 2020. This table excludes loans disclosed in the industry table above.
Property TypePrincipal Balance (in 000’s)% of Loan
Portfolio
Restaurant$44,541 0.6 %
Hotel35,741 0.5 %
Retail377,269 4.9 %
Although not evidenced at December 31, 2020, it is anticipated that some portion of the CRE loans secured by the above property types could be impacted by the tenancies associated with impacted industries. The Bank is working with CRE borrowers and monitoring rent collections as part of our portfolio management oversight.
Loan Maturity
The following table sets forth the time to contractual maturity of the loan portfolio as of December 31, 2020.
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Due In
(dollars in thousands)TotalOne Year or LessOver One to Five YearsOver Five to Ten YearsOver Ten Years
Commercial$1,437,432 $543,070 $726,409 $133,838 $34,115 
PPP loans454,771 — 454,771 — — 
Income producing - commercial real estate3,687,000 1,014,785 1,942,146 730,069 — 
Owner occupied - commercial real estate997,694 93,506 342,672 480,801 80,715 
Real estate mortgage - residential76,592 20,618 39,057 2,795 14,122 
Construction - commercial and residential873,261 633,584 173,584 50,014 16,079 
Construction - C&I (owner occupied)158,905 8,508 44,007 75,346 31,044 
Home equity73,167 6,867 17,031 2,739 46,530 
Other consumer1,390 733 171 — 486 
Total loans$7,760,212 $2,321,671 $3,739,848 $1,475,602 $223,091 
Loans with:          
Predetermined fixed interest rate$3,523,055 $481,868 $2,062,449 $867,641 $111,097 
Floating or Adjustable interest rate4,237,157 1,839,803 1,677,399 607,961 111,994 
Total loans$7,760,212 $2,321,671 $3,739,848 $1,475,602 $223,091 
Loans are shown in the period based on final contractual maturity. Demand loans, having no contractual maturity, and overdrafts, are reported as due in one year or less.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The provision for credit losses represents the amount of expense charged to current earnings to fund the ACL. The amount of the ACL is based on many factors which reflect management’s assessment of the risk in the loan portfolio. Those factors include economic conditions and trends, the value and adequacy of collateral, volume and mix of the portfolio, performance of the portfolio, and internal loan processes of the Company and Bank.
Management has developed a comprehensive analytical process to monitor the adequacy of the ACL. This process and guidelines were developed utilizing, among other factors, the guidance from federal banking regulatory agencies. The results of this process, in combination with conclusions of the Bank’s outside consultants’ review of the risk inherent in the loan portfolio, support management’s assessment as to the adequacy of the allowance at December 31, 2020. During 2020, a provision for credit losses was made in the amount of $45.6 million and net charge-offs amounted to $20.1 million. A full discussion of the accounting for ACL is contained in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and activity in the ACL is contained in Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Also, please refer to the discussion under the caption “Critical Accounting Policies” within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation for further discussion of the methodology which management employs to maintain an adequate ACL, as well as the discussion under the caption “Provision for Credit Losses.”
The ACL represented 1.41% of total loans at December 31, 2020 as compared to 0.98% at December 31, 2019. At December 31, 2020, the allowance represented 180% of nonperforming loans as compared to 151% at December 31, 2019. The increase in the ratio of the allowance for loan losses to total loans was partially due to the adoption of CECL, as well as changes in the economic conditions and forecasts due to COVID-19 in 2020. The increase in the allowance coverage ratio was also due to the same factors.
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As part of its comprehensive loan review process, the Bank’s Board of Directors, Directors’ Loan Committee and Credit Review Committee carefully evaluate loans which are past due 30 days or more. The Committees make a thorough assessment of the conditions and circumstances surrounding delinquent and potential problem loans. The Bank’s loan policy requires that loans be placed on nonaccrual if they are 90 days past due, unless they are well secured and in the process of collection. The Credit Administration department specifically analyzes the status of development and construction projects, including sales activities and utilization of interest reserves in order to carefully and prudently assess potential increased levels of risk which may require additional reserves. Additionally, for COVID-19 impacted relationships, a Task Force comprised of senior executives has been formed to evaluate each request for deferral or modification, along with a remediation plan, before any modification to any loan is made.

At December 31, 2020, the Company had $60.9 million of loans classified as nonperforming, and $91.2 million of additional loans considered potential problem loans, as compared to $48.7 million of nonperforming loans and $20.0 million of potential problem loans at December 31, 2019. The $91.2 million in potential problem loans at December 31, 2020, increased from $20.0 million at December 31, 2019 due primarily to one commercial real estate loan and one assisted living property. Please refer to Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements under the caption “Loans” for a discussion of the Company’s policy regarding impairment of loans. Please refer to the “Nonperforming Assets” section for a discussion of problem and potential problem assets.
The Company has taken a conservative posture with respect to risk rating its loan portfolio. Based upon their status as potential problem loans, these loans receive heightened scrutiny and ongoing intensive risk management. Additionally, the Company's loan loss allowance methodology incorporates increased reserve factors for certain loans considered potential problem loans as compared to the general portfolio. See the “Allowance for Credit Losses” section for a description of the allowance methodology.
As the loan portfolio and ACL review processes continue to evolve, and with the adoption of CECL, there may be changes to elements of the allowance and this may have an effect on the overall level of the allowance maintained. Historically, the Bank has enjoyed a high quality loan portfolio with relatively low levels of net charge-offs and low delinquency rates. In 2020, the Company experienced an increased level of net charge-offs as a percentage of average loans compared to 2019 (0.26% as compared to 0.13%). The maintenance of a high quality portfolio will continue to be a high priority for both management and the Board of Directors.
Bank management, being aware of the loan growth experienced by the Bank, is intent on maintaining strong portfolio management and a strong risk rating process. The Bank provides analysis of credit requests and the management of problem credits. The Bank has developed and implemented analytical procedures for evaluating credit requests, has refined the Company’s risk rating system, and has adopted enhanced monitoring of the loan portfolio (in particular the construction loan portfolio) and the adequacy of the ACL, including stress test analyses. Additionally, fair value assessments of loans acquired is made as part of analytical procedures. The loan portfolio analysis process is ongoing and proactive in order to maintain a portfolio of quality credits and to quickly identify any weaknesses before they become more severe.
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The following table sets forth activity in the allowance for credit losses for the past five years.
Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)20202019201820172016
Balance at beginning of year$73,658 $69,944 $64,758 $59,074 $52,687 
Impact of adopting CECL10,614— — — — 
Charge-offs:
Commercial12,082 4,868 3,491 747 3,745 
Income producing - commercial real estate4,300 1,847 121 1,470 2,341 
Owner occupied - commercial real estate20 — 132 — — 
Real estate mortgage - residential815 — — — — 
Construction - commercial and residential2,947 3,496 1,160 2,158 — 
Home equity92 — — 100 217 
Other consumer81 100 37 
Total charge-offs20,259 10,219 4,985 4,575 6,340 
Recoveries:
Commercial130 405 340 681 220 
Income producing - commercial real estate— 26 80 908 
Owner occupied - commercial real estate— 
Real estate mortgage - residential— 
Construction - commercial and residential354 1,009 492 215 
Home equity— — 133 12 
Other consumer28 51 18 21 31 
Total recoveries162 842 1,511 1,288 1,396 
Net charge-offs20,097 9,377 3,474 3,287 4,944 
Provision for Credit Losses- Loans$45,404 13,091 8,660 8,971 11,331 
Balance at end of year$109,579 $73,658 $69,944 $64,758 $59,074 
Ratio of allowance for credit losses to total loans outstanding at year end1.41 %0.98 %1.00 %1.01 %1.04 %
Ratio of net charge-offs during the year to average loans outstanding during the year0.26 %0.13 %0.05 %0.06 %0.09 %
The following table presents the allocation of the ACL by loan category and the percent of loans each category bears to total loans. The allocation of the allowance at December 31, 2020 includes specific reserves of $15.4 million against individually assessed loans of $71.2 million as compared to specific reserves of $10.0 million against impaired loans of $54.9 million at December 31, 2019. The allocation of the allowance to each category is not necessarily indicative of future losses or charge-offs and does not restrict the usage of the allowance for any specific loan or category.
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Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
(dollars in thousands)Amount
% (1)
Amount
% (1)
Amount
% (1)
Amount
% (1)
Amount
% (1)
Commercial$26,569 24 %$18,832 20 %$15,857 22 %$13,102 21 %$14,700 21 %
Income producing - commercial real estate55,385 51 %29,265 50 %28,034 46 %25,376 48 %21,105 44 %
Owner occupied - commercial real estate14,000 13 %5,838 13 %6,242 13 %5,934 12 %4,010 12 %
Real estate mortgage - residential1,020 %1,557 %965 %944 %1,284 %
Construction - commercial and residential9,092 %16,372 14 %17,484 15 %17,805 15 %15,002 16 %
Construction - C&I (owner occupied)2,437 %1,113 %691 %687 %1,485 %
Home equity1,039 %656 %599 %770 %1,328 %
Other consumer37 — %25 — 72 — 140 — 160 — 
Total allowance for credit losses$109,579 100 %$73,658 100 %$69,944 100 %$64,758 100 %$59,074 100 %
(1)Represents the percent of loans in each category to total loans.
Nonperforming Assets
As shown in the table below, the Company’s level of nonperforming assets, which is comprised of loans delinquent 90 days or more, nonaccrual loans, which includes the nonperforming portion of troubled debt restructurings, or TDR, and other real estate owned ("OREO"), totaled $65.9 million at December 31, 2020, representing 0.59% of total assets, as compared to $50.2 million of nonperforming assets at December 31, 2019, representing 0.56% of total assets. The Company had no accruing loans 90 days or more past due at December 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019. Management remains attentive to early signs of deterioration in borrowers’ financial conditions and to taking the appropriate action to mitigate risk. Furthermore, the Company is diligent in placing loans on nonaccrual status and believes, based on its loan portfolio risk analysis, that its ACL at 1.41% of total loans at December 31, 2020, is adequate to absorb potential credit losses within the loan portfolio at that date. Total nonperforming loans amounted to $60.9 million at December 31, 2020, representing 0.79% of total loans, compared to $48.7 million at December 31, 2019, representing 0.65% of total loans. The majority of nonperforming loans are believed to be adequately secured by real estate.
The CECL standard allows for institutions to evaluate individual loans in the event that the asset does not share similar risk characteristics with its original segmentation. This can occur due to credit deterioration, increased collateral dependency or other factors leading to impairment. In particular, the Company individually evaluates loans on nonaccrual and those identified as TDRs, though it may individually evaluate other loans or groups of loans as well if it determines they no longer share similar risk with their assigned segment. Reserves on individually assessed loans are determined by one of two methods: the fair value of collateral or the discounted cash flow. Fair value of collateral is used for loans determined to be collateral dependent, and the fair value represents the net realizable value of the collateral, adjusted for sales costs, commissions, senior liens, etc. Discounted cash flow is used on loans that are not collateral dependent where structural concessions have been made and continuing payments are expected. The continuing payments are discounted over the expected life at the loan’s original contract rate and include adjustments for risk of default.
Under the incurred loss methodology that the Company applied as of December 31, 2020, nonperforming assets included loans that the Company considered to be individually assessed. Individually assessed loans were defined as those as to which we believed it was probable that we would not collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement, as well as those loans whose terms had been modified in a TDR that had not shown a period of performance as required under applicable accounting standards. For collateral dependent individually assessed loans, the carrying amount of the loan was determined by current appraised value less estimated costs to sell the underlying collateral, which may have been adjusted downward under certain circumstances for actual events and/or changes in market conditions. For example, current average actual selling prices less average actual closing costs on an impaired multi-unit real estate project may have indicated the need for an adjustment in the appraised valuation of the project, which in turn could increase the associated ASC Topic 310 specific reserve for the loan. Generally, all appraisals associated with individually assessed loans were updated on a not less than annual basis.

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Loans are considered to have been modified in a TDR when, due to a borrower's financial difficulties, the Company makes unilateral concessions to the borrower that it would not otherwise consider. Concessions could include interest rate reductions, principal or interest forgiveness, forbearance, and other actions intended to minimize economic loss and to avoid foreclosure or repossession of collateral. Alternatively, management, from time-to-time and in the ordinary course of business, implements renewals, modifications, extensions, and/or changes in terms of loans to borrowers who have the ability to repay on reasonable market-based terms, as circumstances may warrant. Such modifications are not considered to be TDRs as the accommodation of a borrower's request does not rise to the level of a concession if the modified transaction is at market rates and terms and/or the borrower is not experiencing financial difficulty. For example: (1) adverse weather conditions may create a short term cash flow issue for an otherwise profitable retail business which suggests a temporary interest only period on an amortizing loan; (2) there may be delays in absorption on a real estate project which reasonably suggests extension of the loan maturity at market terms; or (3) there may be maturing loans to borrowers with demonstrated repayment ability who are not in a position at the time of maturity to obtain alternate long-term financing.
The most common change in terms provided by the Company is an extension of an interest only term. The determination of whether a restructured loan is a TDR requires consideration of all of the facts and circumstances surrounding the change in terms, and the exercise of prudent business judgment. The Company had 10 TDRs at December 31, 2020, totaling approximately $19.2 million, as compared to nine TDRs totaling approximately $19.1 million at December 31, 2019. At December 31, 2020, six of these TDR loans, totaling approximately $10.5 million, are performing under their modified terms, as compared to the same period in 2019, there were seven performing TDR loans totaling approximately $16.6 million. During 2020, there were two performing TDRs totaling $6.3 million that defaulted on their modified terms which were reclassified to nonperforming loans, as compared to the same period in 2019, there were three performing TDR loans totaling approximately $9.5 million that defaulted on their modified terms and were reclassified to nonperforming loans. A default is considered to have occurred once the TDR is past due 90 days or more, or it has been placed on nonaccrual. During 2020, there were two restructured loans totaling approximately $572 thousand, and one TDR loan totaling $138 thousand defaulted on its modified terms and was charged off. During 2019, there were three restructured loans totaling approximately $9.5 million, one loan totaling $4.8 million had its collateral property sold for approximately $3 million and the remaining $1.8 million was charged-off during the year, the second loan totaling $2.3 million defaulted on its modified terms and was charged off, the third loan totaling $2.4 million defaulted on its modified terms and migrated to nonperforming. During 2020 there were no TDR loans that were re-underwritten, and there were two restructured loans totaling approximately $870 thousand that were paid off from the sale proceeds of the collateral property. During 2019 there was one TDR totaling $10.4 million that was re-underwritten into two new loans which provided better collateral for the Bank. During 2019 there was also one restructured loan totaling approximately $309 thousand that was paid off from the sale proceeds of the collateral property.
Commercial and consumer loans modified in a TDR are closely monitored for delinquency as an early indicator of possible future default. If loans modified in a TDR subsequently default, the Company evaluates the loan for possible further impairment. The allowance may be increased, adjustments may be made in the allocation of the allowance, or partial charge-offs may be taken to further write-down the carrying value of the loan. During 2020, there were two loan modified in a TDR totaling approximately $572 thousand, as compared to the same period in 2019, there was one loan modified in a TDR totaling approximately $2.3 million. Refer to Note 4 - " Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses" to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional detail.
Included in nonperforming assets at December 31, 2020 is OREO of $5.0 million, consisting of three foreclosed properties. Included in nonperforming assets at December 31, 2019 was OREO of $1.5 million, consisting of three foreclosed properties. OREO properties are carried at fair value less estimated costs to sell. The increase was due to a foreclosure involving an ultra high-end residential property located in Washington, D.C. The Company is continuing to see softness in the market for ultra high-end residential properties. This is particularly true in light of COVID-19 and the related limitations in marketing residential properties.
It is the Company's policy to generally obtain third party appraisals prior to foreclosure, and to obtain updated third party appraisals on OREO properties generally not less frequently than annually. Generally, the Company would obtain updated appraisals or evaluations where it has reason to believe, based upon market indications (such as comparable sales, legitimate offers below carrying value, broker indications and similar factors), that the current appraisal does not accurately reflect current value. During 2020, there was one OREO sale compared to no sales in 2019.
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There is uncertainty regarding the region’s overall economic outlook given lack of clarity over how long COVID-19 will continue to impact our region. Management has been working with customers on payment deferrals to assist companies in managing through this crisis. Through December 31, 2020, we granted approximately 750 temporary modifications representing approximately $1.6 billion in outstanding balances, including 714 temporary modifications representing $1.5 billion that have or are expected to return to pre-modification terms. We have also granted second deferrals totaling $67 million on 33 notes as of December 31, 2020. Of all the deferrals granted only 36 notes amounting to $72 million were outstanding as of December 31, 2020 (approximately 1% of total loans). All loans that received a second deferral were automatically downgraded and added to our watch list to raise visibility within the loan portfolio. Additionally, none of the deferrals are reflected in the Company’s asset quality measures (i.e. non-performing loans) due to the provision of the CARES Act that permits U.S. financial institutions to temporarily suspend the GAAP requirements to treat such short-term loan modifications as TDRs. Similar provisions have also been confirmed by interagency guidance issued by the federal banking agencies and confirmed with staff members of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. Other loan portfolio areas of concern and additional COVID-19 loan related matters are discussed below.
The following table details the deferrals discussed above as of December 31, 2020:
Industry/Collateral TypeNumber of NotesTotal Outstanding (in millions)Deferred Note CountTotal Deferred Outstanding (in millions)Percentage Outstanding DeferredWeighted Avg LTV of RE CollateralAverage Loan Size (in millions)
Hotels43$529 — $— — %N/AN/A
Transportation & Warehousing60171 2938 22 %70 %$1.3 
Restaurants393238 2%75 %2.5 
Retail139276 1%75 %
Other Real Estate9113,688 2>0.5%44 %
Healthcare197274 119 %87 %19 
Art/Entertainment/Recreation66139 0— — %N/AN/A
Other3,138 2,445 10.4 >0.5%68 %0.5 
Total4,947 $7,760 36 $72.4 %N/AN/A

The following table shows the amounts and relevant ratios of nonperforming assets at the dates indicated:
(dollars in thousands)20202019201820172016
Nonaccrual Loans:
Commercial$15,352 $14,928 $7,115 $3,493 $2,521 
Income producing - commercial real estate18,879 9,711 1,766 832 10,508 
Owner occupied - commercial real estate23,158 6,463 2,368 5,501 2,093 
Real estate mortgage - residential2,932 5,631 1,510 775 555 
Construction - commercial and residential206 11,509 3,031 2,052 2,072 
Construction - C&I (owner occupied)— — — — — 
Home equity416 487 487 494 — 
Other consumer— — — 91 126 
Accrual loans-past due 90 days— — — — — 
Total nonperforming loans (1)(2)
60,943 48,729 16,277 13,238 17,875 
Other real estate owned4,987 1,487 1,394 1,394 2,694 
Total nonperforming assets$65,930 $50,216 $17,671 $14,632 $20,569 
Coverage ratio, allowance for credit losses to total nonperforming loans179.80 %151.16 %429.72 %489.20 %330.49 %
Ratio of nonperforming loans to total loans0.79 %0.65 %0.23 %0.21 %0.31 %
Ratio of nonperforming assets to total assets0.59 %0.56 %0.21 %0.20 %0.30 %
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(1) At December 31, 2020, nonaccrual loans reported in the table above included two loans totaling approximately $6.3 million which migrated from performing troubled debt restructuring.
(2) Gross interest income of $3.7 million and $3.0 million would have been recorded for 2020 and 2019, respectively, if nonaccrual loans shown above had been current and in accordance with their original terms, while interest actually recorded on such loans were $679 thousand and $630 thousand at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of the Company’s policy for placing loans on nonaccrual status.
Significant variation in the amount of nonperforming loans may occur from period to period because the amount of nonperforming loans depends largely on the condition of a relatively small number of individual credits and borrowers relative to the total loan portfolio.
Other Earning Assets
Residential mortgage loans held for sale amounted to $88.2 million at December 31, 2020 compared to $56.7 million at December 31, 2019. The Company’s general practice is to originate and sell such loans only on a “servicing released” basis in order to enhance noninterest income. See the “Business” section for a description of the Bank’s residential mortgage lending and sales activities.
BOLI is utilized by the Company in accordance with income tax regulations as part of the Company’s financing of its benefit programs. At December 31, 2020, this asset amounted to $76.7 million as compared to $75.7 million at December 31, 2019, which reflected the increase in cash surrender value of the policies during 2020. Refer to Note 19 to Consolidated Financial Statements for further detail.
Intangible Assets
The Company recognizes a servicing asset for the computed value of servicing fees on the sales of multifamily FHA loans, the guaranteed portion of SBA loans, and other loans sold with retained servicing which is in excess of the normal servicing fees. Assumptions related to loan term and amortization are made to arrive at the initial recorded value, which is included in intangible assets, net, on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
For 2020, excess servicing fees of $666 thousand were recorded and $228 thousand was amortized as a reduction of actual service fees collected, which is a component of other income. At December 31, 2020, the balance of excess servicing fees was $946 thousand. For 2019, excess servicing fees of $175 thousand were recorded and $246 thousand was amortized as a reduction of actual service fees collected, which is a component of other income. At December 31, 2019, the balance of excess servicing fees was $507 thousand.
In connection with the acquisitions of Fidelity in 2008 and Virginia Heritage in 2014, the Company allocated a portion of the purchase price to core deposit intangibles, based upon an independent evaluation, and which is included in intangible assets, on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The amount of the core deposit intangible relating to the Fidelity and Virginia Heritage acquisitions was fully amortized at December 31, 2020, as a component of other noninterest expense.
In 2008, the Company recorded an unidentified intangible asset (goodwill) incident to the acquisition of Fidelity of $2.2 million. In 2014, the Company recorded an initial amount of unidentified intangible (goodwill) incident to the acquisition of Virginia Heritage of approximately $102 million.
As of June 30, 2020, the Company performed a qualitative assessment to determine whether it was more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit was less than its carrying amount. As of June 30, 2020, a triggering event was deemed to have occurred as a result of COVID-19 and, accordingly, a step one assessment was performed by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount (including goodwill). Determining the fair value of a reporting unit under the goodwill impairment test is subjective and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. Estimates of fair value are primarily determined using discounted cash flows, market comparisons and recent transactions. These approaches use significant estimates and assumptions including projected future cash flows, discount rates reflecting the market rate of return, projected growth rates and determination and evaluation of appropriate market comparable factors. Based on the results of the assessment of the reporting unit, the Company concluded that no impairment existed as of June 30, 2020. The Company determined that there were no triggering events and an impairment analysis was not performed as of September 30, 2020. An impairment analysis was performed during the fourth quarter as part of our regularly scheduled annual impairment testing and again found no impairment existed. Future events could cause the Company to conclude that goodwill or other intangibles have become impaired, which would result in recording an impairment loss. Any resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
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Refer to Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information on the initial and current carrying values as well as additions and amortization.
Deposits and Other Borrowings
The principal sources of funds for the Bank are core deposits, consisting of demand deposits, money market accounts, NOW accounts, and savings accounts. Additionally, the Bank obtains certificates of deposits from the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. The deposit base includes transaction accounts, time and savings accounts and accounts which customers use for cash management and which provide the Bank with a source of fee income and cross-marketing opportunities, as well as an attractive source of lower cost funds. To meet funding needs during periods of high loan demand and seasonal variations in core deposits, the Bank utilizes alternative funding sources such as secured borrowings from the FHLB, federal funds purchased lines of credit from correspondent banks and brokered deposits from regional and national brokerage firms.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, total deposits increased by $2.0 billion or 27% compared to the same period in 2019. Noninterest bearing deposits increased $745.0 million or 36% to $2.8 billion at December 31, 2020 as compared to $2.1 billion at December 31, 2019, while interest bearing deposits increased by $1.4 billion, or 31%. Within interest bearing deposits, money market and savings accounts collectively amounted to $4.6 billion at December 31, 2020, or 51% of total deposits, as compared to $3.0 billion, or 42% of total deposits, at December 31, 2019, an increase of $1.6 billion, or 54%.
Average total deposits for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $8.5 billion, as compared to $7.2 billion for the same period in 2019, an 18% increase.
Approximately 11% of the Bank’s deposits at December 31, 2020 ($977.8 million) were time deposits, which are generally the most expensive form of deposit because of their fixed rate and term, as compared to 18% at December 31, 2019 ($1.3 billion).
The following table sets forth the maturities of time deposits with balances of $250 thousand or more, which represents 11% and 5% of total deposits as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the maturities of time deposits and the Average Balances Table in the “Net Interest Income and Net Interest Margin” section for the average rates paid on interest-bearing deposits. Time deposits of $250 thousand or more can be more volatile and more expensive than time deposits of less than $250 thousand. However, because the Bank focuses on relationship banking, and its marketplace demographics are favorable, its historical experience has been that large time deposits have not been more volatile or significantly more expensive than smaller denomination certificates.
Time deposits $250,000 or more
(dollars in thousands)20202019
Three months or less$201,312 $63,099 
More than three months through twelve months325,329 197,141 
Over twelve months451,119 90,361 
Total$977,760 $350,601 
From time to time, when appropriate in order to fund strong loan demand, the Bank accepts brokered time deposits, generally in denominations of less than $250 thousand, from a regional brokerage firm, and other national brokerage networks, including IntraFi. Additionally, the Bank participates in the CDARS and the ICS products, which provides for reciprocal (“two-way”) transactions among banks facilitated by IntraFi for the purpose of maximizing FDIC insurance. The total of reciprocal deposits at December 31, 2020 was $790.0 million (9% of total deposits) as compared to $502.9 million at December 31, 2019 (7% of total deposits). These sources are believed by the Company to represent a reliable and cost efficient alternative funding source for the Bank. The Bank also is able to obtain one way CDARS deposits and participates in IntraFi’s Insured Network Deposit, (“IND”). The Bank had $1.3 billion and $533.1 million of “IND” brokered deposits as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. However, to the extent that the condition or reputation of the Company or Bank deteriorates, or to the extent that there are significant changes in market interest rates which the Company and Bank do not elect to match, we may experience an outflow of brokered deposits. In that event we would be required to obtain alternate sources for funding.
At December 31, 2020, total deposits included $2.4 billion of brokered deposits (excluding the CDARS and ICS two-way), which represented 26% of total deposits. At December 31, 2019, total brokered deposits (excluding the CDARS and ICS two-way) were $1.8 billion, or 25% of total deposits.
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At December 31, 2020, the Company had $2.8 billion in noninterest bearing demand deposits, representing 31% of total deposits. This compared to $2.1 billion of noninterest bearing demand deposits at December 31, 2019 or 29% of total deposits. The Bank also offers business NOW accounts and business savings accounts to accommodate those customers who may have excess short term cash to deploy in interest earning assets.
As an enhancement to the basic noninterest bearing demand deposit account, the Company offers a sweep account, or “customer repurchase agreement,” allowing qualifying businesses to earn interest on short-term excess funds, which are not suited for either a certificate of deposit or a money market account. The balances in these accounts were $26.7 million at December 31, 2020 compared to $31.0 million at December 31, 2019. Customer repurchase agreements are not deposits and are not insured by the FDIC, but are collateralized by U.S. agency securities and or U.S. agency backed mortgage backed securities. These accounts are particularly suitable to businesses with significant fluctuation in the levels of cash flows. Attorney and title company escrow accounts are examples of accounts which can benefit from this product, as are customers who may require collateral for deposits in excess of FDIC insurance limits but do not qualify for other pledging arrangements. This program requires the Company to maintain a sufficient investment securities level to accommodate the fluctuations in balances which may occur in these accounts.
The Company had no outstanding balances under its federal funds lines of credit provided by correspondent banks (which are unsecured) at December 31, 2020 and 2019. At December 31, 2020, the Company had $300.0 million of FHLB advances borrowed as part of the overall asset liability strategy. The Company had $250.0 million FHLB advances outstanding as of December 31, 2019. Outstanding FHLB advances are secured by collateral consisting of a blanket lien on qualifying loans in the Bank’s commercial mortgage, residential mortgage and home equity loan portfolios.
Long-term borrowings outstanding at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 consisted of the Company’s August 5, 2014 issuance of $70.0 million of subordinated notes, due September 1, 2024 and the Company’s July 26, 2016 issuance of $150.0 million of subordinated notes, due August 1, 2026. For additional information on the Company’s subordinated notes, please refer to Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, as well as the “Capital Resources and Adequacy” section below. Additionally, long-term borrowings consisted of FHLB advances with maturities over one year, which amounted to $50 million at December 31, 2020 and $0 at December 31, 2019.

COMPARISON OF THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019 AND 2018
For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company’s net income was $142.9 million, a 6% decrease as compared to $152.3 million. For the year ended December 31, 2019, net income was $4.18 per basic and diluted common share as compared to $4.44 per basic common share and $4.42 per diluted common share for 2018, a 6% decrease in basic and 5% decrease in diluted earnings per share for the full year of 2019 as compared to 2018.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company reported a return on average assets, or ROAA, of 1.61% as compared to 1.91% for the year ended December 31, 2018. The return on average common equity, or ROACE, for the year ended December 31, 2019 was 12.20%, as compared to 14.89% for the year ended December 31, 2018. The return on average tangible common equity, or ROATCE, for the year ended December 31, 2019 was 13.40%, as compared to 16.63% for the year ended December 31, 2018.

The Company’s earnings were largely dependent on net interest income, the difference between interest income and interest expense, which represented 93%% of total revenue (defined as net interest income plus noninterest income) for both the full year of 2019 and 2018, respectively.

The net interest margin, which measures the difference between interest income and interest expense (i.e., net interest income) as a percentage of average earning assets, decreased 33 basis points from 4.10% for the year ended December 31, 2018 to 3.77% for the year ended December 31, 2019. Average earning asset yields decreased by 9 basis points (5.09% to 5.00%) for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the same period in 2018, while the cost of interest bearing liabilities increased by 34 basis points (to 1.95% from 1.61%).

For 2019, in spite of competitive factors, the Company was able to maintain its loan portfolio yields relatively close to 2018 levels (5.45% as compared to 5.54%) due to disciplined loan pricing practices. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the net interest spread decreased by 43 basis points (to 3.05% from 3.48%) as compared to 2018, due primarily to an increase in the average cost of interest bearing liabilities. The cost of interest bearing liabilities increased in 2019 largely as a result of interest rate increases by the FOMC in mid to late 2018 and increased competition for deposits within our market area,
though funding costs started to moderate in the second half of 2019, as the market rate cuts passed through to the liability base.

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Overall, the Company believed its deposit mix and cost of funds remained favorable across 2018 and 2019. The benefit of noninterest sources funding earning assets increased by 10 basis points to 72 basis points for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to 62 basis points for the year ended December 31, 2018 as a result of a favorable mix of noninterest bearing deposits. The percentage of average noninterest deposits relative to average total deposits was 31% for the full year 2019 compared to 33% for the same period in 2018. The combination of a 43 basis point decrease in the net interest spread and a 10 basis point increase in the value of noninterest sources resulted in the 33 basis point decrease in the net interest margin for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to the same period in 2018.

Net interest income in 2019 was $324.0 million compared to $317.0 million in 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2019, net interest income increased 2% over the same period for 2018. Average loans increased $694.8 million (10%) and average deposits increased by $787.1 million (12%). The net interest margin was 3.77% for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to 4.10% for the same period in 2018. The Company was able to maintain its loan yields in 2019 relatively close to 2018 levels due to disciplined loan pricing practices, and was able to manage its funding costs while maintaining a favorable deposit mix; much of which has occurred from sales efforts to increase and deepen client relationships. In spite of margin compression, the Company believed its net interest margin remains were favorable as compared to its peer banking companies across 2018 and 2019.

The provision for credit losses was $13.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Net charge-offs of $9.4 million during 2019 represented 0.13% of average loans, excluding loans held for sale, as compared to $3.5 million or 0.05% of average loans, excluding loans held for sale, in 2018. Net charge-offs during 2019 were attributable primarily to commercial real estate ($5.0 million) and commercial loans ($4.5 million). At December 31, 2019, the ACL represented 0.98% of loans outstanding, as compared to 1.00% at December 31, 2018. The ACL represented 151% of nonperforming loans at December 31, 2019, as compared to 430% at December 31, 2018.

The efficiency ratio, which measures the ratio of noninterest expense to total revenue, remained favorable at 39.99% for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to 37.31% for the same period in 2018. Total noninterest expenses totaled $139.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to $126.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, a 10% increase. As a percentage of average assets, total noninterest expense was 1.58% for the year of 2019 as compared to 1.59% for the same period in 2018.

Total noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $25.7 million as compared to $22.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, a 14% increase due to $2.7 million higher gains on sale of residential mortgage loans, $1.4 million higher gain on sale of investment securities, partially offset by $767 thousand lower service charges on deposits.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, service charges on deposit accounts decreased $767 thousand to $6.2 million from $7.0 million for the same period in 2018, a decrease of 11%, due primarily to a lower volume of insufficient funds charges.

Gain on sale of loans consisted of gains on the sale of SBA and residential mortgage loans. For the year ended December 31, 2019, gain on sale of loans increased from $6.0 million to $8.5 million, an increase of 42%, compared to the same period in 2018.

The Company is an originator of SBA loans and its practice is to sell the guaranteed portion of those loans at a premium. Income from this source was $309 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $540 thousand for the same period in 2018. Activity in SBA loan sales to secondary markets can vary widely from year to year as seen in 2019 and 2018.

Other income totaled $7.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to $8.0 million for the same period in 2018, a decrease of 3%.

Gain on sale of investments amounted to $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $97 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2018.

The FHA business unit generated income of $501 thousand on the origination, securitization, servicing and sale of FHA Multifamily-Backed GNMA securities for the full year 2019 compared to $357 thousand for the same period in 2018.

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Total noninterest expenses totaled $139.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to $126.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, a 10% increase. For 2019, the efficiency ratio was 39.99% as compared to 37.31% for the same period in 2018.
Salaries and employee benefits were $79.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to $67.7 million for the same period in 2018, an increase of 18%. Cost increases for salaries and benefits were due primarily to $8.2 million of nonrecurring charges related to acceleration of share based compensation expenses associated with the retirement of our former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and the resignation of certain directors. In addition, $4.0 million of the increase resulted from additional staffing, merit increases, and incentives. At December 31, 2019, the Company’s full time equivalent staff numbered 492, as compared to 470 at December 31, 2018.

Premises and equipment expenses amounted to $14.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to $15.7 million for the same period in 2018, a decrease of 8%. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recognized $527 thousand of sublease revenue as compared to $501 thousand for the same period in 2018. The sublease revenue is accounted for as a reduction to premises and equipment expenses.

Marketing and advertising expenses increased to $4.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $4.6 million for the same period in 2018, an increase of 6%, due primarily to increased digital and print advertising spend.

Data processing expenses decreased from $9.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $9.4 million for 2019, a decrease of 3%, primarily due to ongoing contract renegotiations.

Legal, accounting and professional fees and expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 increased to $12.2 million from $9.7 million in 2018, a 25% increase. The increased expenses were primarily associated with legal fees and expenditures associated with governmental investigations and related subpoenas and document requests.

FDIC insurance decreased $306 thousand to $3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of 9% compared to 2018, due to one time premium credits in the second and third quarters of 2019 due to the deposit insurance fund exceeding regulatory levels partially offset by premiums on a larger deposit base.

Other expenses increased to $16.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $15.8 million for the same period in 2018, an increase of 1%. The major components of cost in this category included broker fees, franchise tax, core deposit intangible amortization, insurance expenses, and director compensation. Cost control was and remains a significant operating objective of the Company, which helped to contribute to the minimal increase year-over-year between 2019 and 2018.

The Company recorded income tax expense of $53.8 million in 2019 compared to $51.9 million in 2018, resulting in an effective tax rate of 27.4% and 25.4%, respectively. The higher effective tax rate for 2019 was due primarily to a decrease in federal tax credits, an increase in nondeductible expenses, and adjustments related to the completion of the 2018 tax returns.

Total assets at December 31, 2019 were $9.0 billion a 7% increase as compared to $8.39 billion at December 31, 2018. Total loans (excluding loans held for sale) were $7.5 billion at December 31, 2019, an 8% increase as compared to $6.99 billion at December 31, 2018. Loans held for sale amounted to $56.7 million at December 31, 2019 as compared to $19.3 million at December 31, 2018, a 195% increase. The investment portfolio totaled $843.4 million at December 31, 2019, an 8% increase from $784.1 million at December 31, 2018.

Total borrowed funds (excluding customer repurchase agreements) were $467.7 million at December 31, 2019 and $217.3 million at December 31, 2018, a 115% increase due to the $250.0 million in FHLB advances that had been outstanding as of December 31, 2019. Total shareholders’ equity at December 31, 2019 increased 7%, to $1.2 billion from $1.1 billion at December 31, 2018. The increase in shareholders’ equity from December 31, 2018 was primarily due to increased retained earnings. During 2019 and 2018, growth in retained earnings has enhanced the Company’s capital position well in excess of regulatory requirements.

The total risk based capital ratio was 16.20% at December 31, 2019, as compared to 16.08% at December 31, 2018. In addition, the tangible common equity ratio was 12.22% at December 31, 2019, compared to 12.11% at December 31, 2018. The ratio of common equity to total assets was 13.25% at December 31, 2019 as compared to 13.22% at December 31, 2018.

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Interest bearing deposits with banks and other short-term investments amounted to $195.4 million at December 31, 2019 as compared to $303.2 million at December 31, 2018. These short term investments represented liquid funds that were held at the Federal Reserve to meet future loan demand, to fund future increases in investment securities and to meet other general liquidity needs of the Company. The Bank also holds a time deposit amounting to $1.6 million at both December 31, 2019 and 2018.

Loan growth over the past year has been favorable, with loans outstanding reaching $7.5 billion at December 31, 2019, an increase of $554 million or 8% as compared to $6.99 billion at December 31, 2018. The bank's continued strong financial performance over the last twelve months has remained relatively flat due to the Bank's dedication to our relationship-first strategy of supporting the needs of the markets we serve and working with our existing clients.

The ACL represented 0.98% of total loans at December 31, 2019 as compared to 1.00% at December 31, 2018. At December 31, 2019, the allowance represented 151% of nonperforming loans as compared to 430% at December 31, 2018. The decline in the ratio of the allowance for loan losses to total loans was due to a higher percentage increase in loans outstanding as compared to the allowance growth. The decrease in the allowance coverage ratio was due to a higher percentage increase in nonperforming loans as compared to the allowance growth. The majority of nonperforming loans are believed to be adequately secured by real estate.

At December 31, 2019, the Company had $48.7 million of loans classified as nonperforming, and $20.0 million of additional loans considered potential problem loans, as compared to $16.3 million of nonperforming loans and $102.7 million of potential problem loans at December 31, 2018. The $20.0 million in potential problem loans at December 31, 2019, decreased from $102.7 million at December 31, 2018 due primarily to two commercial real estate secured relationships.

The Company had no accruing loans 90 days or more past due at December 31, 2019 or December 31, 2018. During both 2019 and 2018, management was attentive to early signs of deterioration in borrowers’ financial conditions and to taking the appropriate action to mitigate risk. Furthermore, the Company is diligent in placing loans on nonaccrual status and believed, based on its loan portfolio risk analysis, that its ACL at 0.98% of total loans at December 31, 2019, was adequate to absorb potential credit losses within the loan portfolio at that date. Total nonperforming loans amounted to $48.7 million at December 31, 2019, representing 0.65% of total loans, compared to $16.3 million at December 31, 2018, representing 0.23% of total loans. The majority of nonperforming loans were believed to be adequately secured by real estate.

At December 31, 2019, there were $20.0 million of performing loans considered potential problem loans, defined as loans that are not included in the 90 days past due, nonaccrual or restructured categories, but for which known information about possible credit problems causes management to be uncertain as to the ability of the borrowers to comply with the present loan repayment terms which may in the future result in disclosure in the past due, nonaccrual or restructured loan categories. The $20.0 million in potential problem loans at December 31, 2019, decreased from $102.7 million at December 31, 2018 due primarily to two commercial real estate secured relationships. The balance of potential problem loans at December 31, 2019 included $11.9 million of loans that were considered potential problem loans at December 31, 2018.

BOLI is utilized by the Company in accordance with income tax regulations as part of the Company’s financing of its benefit programs. At December 31, 2019, this asset amounted to $75.7 million as compared to $73.4 million at December 31, 2018, which reflected the purchase of $580 thousand in additional policies during 2019 and an increase in cash surrender values.

For 2019, excess servicing fees of $175 thousand were recorded and $246 thousand was amortized as a reduction of actual service fees collected, which is a component of other income. At December 31, 2019, the balance of excess servicing fees was $507 thousand. For 2018, excess servicing fees of $1.8 million were recorded, $672 thousand of the FHA mortgage servicing was sold, and $1.1 million was amortized as a reduction of actual service fees collected, which is a component of other income.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, total deposits increased by $250.1 million or 4% compared to the same period in 2018. Noninterest bearing deposits decreased $39.9 million or 2% to $2.06 billion at December 31, 2019 as compared to $2.10 billion at December 31, 2018, while interest bearing deposits increased by $290.0 million, or 6%. Within interest bearing deposits, money market and savings accounts collectively amounted to $3.0 billion at December 31, 2019, or 42% of total deposits, as compared to $2.95 billion, or 42% of total deposits, at December 31, 2018, an increase of $63.6 million, or 2%.

Approximately 18% of the Bank’s deposits at December 31, 2019 ($3.0 billion) were time deposits, which are generally the most expensive form of deposit because of their fixed rate and term, as compared to 19% at December 31, 2018 ($1.33 billion).
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At December 31, 2019, total deposits included $1.80 billion of brokered deposits (excluding the CDARS and ICS two-way), which represented 25% of total deposits. At December 31, 2018, total brokered deposits (excluding the CDARS and ICS two-way) were $1.36 billion, or 19% of total deposits.

The Company had no outstanding balances under its federal funds lines of credit provided by correspondent banks (which are unsecured) at December 31, 2019 and 2018. At December 31, 2019, the Company had $350.0 million of FHLB advances borrowed as part of the overall asset liability strategy and to support loan growth. The Company did not have FHLB advances outstanding as of December 31, 2018.

Long-term borrowings outstanding at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 include the Company’s August 5, 2014 issuance of $70.0 million of subordinated notes, due September 1, 2024 and the Company’s July 26, 2016 issuance of $150.0 million of subordinated notes, due August 1, 2026.


CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

The Company has various financial obligations, including contractual obligations and commitments that may require future cash payments. Except for its loan commitments, as shown in Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the following table shows details on these fixed and determinable obligations as of December 31, 2020 in the time period indicated.
(dollars in thousands)Within One
Year
One to
Three Years
Three to
Five Years
Over Five
Years
Total
Deposits without a stated maturity (1)
$8,211,443 $— $— $— $8,211,443 
Time deposits (1)
526,641 376,825 74,294 — $977,760 
Borrowed funds (2)
326,726 — 70,000 200,000 $596,726 
Operating lease obligations8,342 12,741 9,283 9,500 $39,866 
Outside data processing (3)
4,592 8,190 1,677 — $14,459 
George Mason sponsorship (4)
675 1,350 1,363 6,775 $10,163 
D.C. United (5)
820 844 — — $1,664 
LIHTC investments (6)
5,343 2,070 672 676 $8,761 
Other (7)
$— $2,000 $— $— $2,000 
Total$9,084,582 $404,020 $157,289 $216,951 $9,862,842 
(1)Excludes accrued interest payable at December 31, 2020.
(2)Borrowed funds include customer repurchase agreements, and other short-term and long-term borrowings.
(3)The Bank has outstanding obligations under its current core data processing contract that expire in June 2024 and one other vendor arrangement that relates to network infrastructure and data center services that expires in December 2021.
(4)The Bank has the option of terminating the George Mason agreement at the end of contract years 10 and 15 (that is, effective June 30, 2025 or June 30, 2030). Should the Bank elect to exercise its right to terminate the George Mason contract, contractual obligations would decrease $3.5 million and $3.6 million for the first option period (years 11-15) and the second option period (16-20), respectively.
(5)Marketing sponsorship agreement with D.C. United.
(6)Low Income Housing Tax Credits (“LIHTC”) expected payments for unfunded affordable housing commitments.
(7)As disclosed in the 8-K dated January 25, 2021, pursuant to the executed stipulation of settlement of the demand litigation, the Company has agreed to invest an additional $2 million incremental spend above 2020 levels by the end of 2023 to enhance its corporate governance, and risk and compliance controls and infrastructure.
The Company is party to financial instruments with off-balance-sheet risk in the normal course of business to meet the financing needs of its customers and to reduce its own exposure to fluctuations in interest rates. These financial instruments include commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit. They involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit risk in excess of the amount recognized in the balance sheets. The contract or notional amounts of those instruments reflect the extent of involvement the Company has in particular classes of financial instruments.
Various commitments to extend credit are made in the normal course of banking business. Letters of credit are also issued for the benefit of customers. These commitments are subject to loan underwriting standards and geographic boundaries consistent with the Company’s loans outstanding.
Commitments to extend credit are agreements to lend to a customer as long as there is no violation of any condition established in the contract. Commitments generally have fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses and may require
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payment of a fee. Since some of the commitments are expected to expire without being drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements.
Loan commitments outstanding and lines and letters of credit at December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:
(dollars in thousands)20202019
Unfunded loan commitments$2,175,271 $2,176,641 
Unfunded lines of credit107,683 86,426 
Letters of credit70,779 69,723 
Total$2,353,733 $2,332,790 
Additionally, unfunded loan commitments of $367.7 million as of December 31, 2020 and $49.9 million as of December 31, 2019 were related to interest rate lock commitments on residential mortgage loans and were of a short-term nature.
The Company’s exposure to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by the other party to the financial instrument for commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit is represented by the contractual amount of those instruments. The Company uses the same credit policies in making commitments and conditional obligations as it does for on-balance-sheet instruments. See Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a summary list of loan commitments at December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Loan commitments represent agreements to lend to a customer as long as there is no violation of any condition established in the contract and which have been accepted in writing by the borrower. Commitments generally have fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses and may require payment of a fee. Since some of the commitments may expire without being drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements. The Company evaluates each customer’s creditworthiness on a case-by-case basis. The amount of collateral obtained is based on management’s credit evaluation of the borrower. Collateral obtained varies, and may include certificates of deposit, accounts receivable, inventory, property and equipment, residential and commercial real estate.
Standby letters of credit are conditional commitments issued by the Company which guarantee the performance of a customer to a third party. The credit risk involved in issuing letters of credit is essentially the same as that involved in extending loan facilities to customers. Collateral held varies as specified above and is required in instances which the Company deems necessary. At December 31, 2020, approximately 63% of the dollar amount of standby letters of credit was collateralized.
In connection with deposit guarantees, the Bank collateralizes certain public funds using qualified investment securities.
With the exception of these off-balance sheet arrangements, the Company has no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on the Company’s financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, capital expenditures or capital resources, that is material to investors.
LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT
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Liquidity is a measure of the Company’s and Bank’s ability to meet loan demand and to satisfy depositor withdrawal requirements in an orderly manner. The Bank’s primary sources of liquidity consist of cash and cash balances due from correspondent banks, excess reserves at the Federal Reserve, loan repayments, federal funds sold and other short-term investments, maturities and sales of investment securities, income from operations and new core deposits into the Bank. The Bank’s investment portfolio of debt securities is held in an available-for-sale status which allows for flexibility, subject to holdings held as collateral for customer repurchase agreements and public funds, to generate cash from sales as needed to meet ongoing loan demand. These sources of liquidity are considered primary and are supplemented by the ability of the Company and Bank to borrow funds or issue brokered deposits, which are termed secondary sources of liquidity and which are substantial. Additionally, the Bank can purchase up to $142.5 million in federal funds on an unsecured basis from its correspondents, against which there were no amounts outstanding at December 31, 2020 and can borrow unsecured funds under one-way CDARS and ICS brokered deposits in the amount of $1.34 billion, against which there was $682 thousand outstanding at December 31, 2020. The Bank also has a commitment at December 31, 2020 from IntraFi to place up to 2.0 billion of brokered deposits from its IND program in amounts requested by the Bank, as compared to an actual balance of $1.3 billion at December 31, 2020. At December 31, 2020, the Bank was also eligible to make advances from the FHLB up to $1.64 billion based on collateral at the FHLB, of which there were $350 million outstanding as of December 31, 2020. The Bank may enter into repurchase agreements as well as obtain additional borrowing capabilities from the FHLB provided adequate collateral exists to secure these lending relationships. The Bank also has a back-up borrowing facility through the Discount Window at the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond (“Federal Reserve Bank”). This facility, which amounts to approximately $600 million, is collateralized with specific loan assets identified to the Federal Reserve Bank. It is anticipated that, except for periodic testing, this facility would be utilized for contingency funding only.
The loss of deposits, through disintermediation, is one of the greater risks to liquidity. Disintermediation occurs most commonly when rates rise and depositors withdraw deposits seeking higher rates in alternative savings and investment sources than the Bank may offer. The Bank was founded under a philosophy of relationship banking and, therefore, believes that it has less of an exposure to disintermediation and resultant liquidity concerns than do many banks. The Bank makes competitive deposit interest rate comparisons weekly and feels its interest rate offerings are competitive. There is, however, a risk that some deposits would be lost if rates were to increase and the Bank elected not to remain competitive with its deposit rates. Under those conditions, the Bank believes that it is well positioned to use other sources of funds such as FHLB borrowings, brokered deposits, repurchase agreements and correspondent banks’ lines of credit to offset a decline in deposits in the short run. Over the long-term, an adjustment in assets and change in business emphasis could compensate for a potential loss of deposits. The Bank also maintains a marketable investment portfolio to provide flexibility in the event of significant liquidity needs. The ALCO has adopted policy guidelines, which emphasize the importance of core deposits, adequate asset liquidity and a contingency funding plan.
At December 31, 2020, under the Bank’s liquidity formula, it had $3.5 billion of primary and secondary liquidity sources. Management believes the amount is deemed adequate to meet current and projected funding needs.
CAPITAL RESOURCES AND ADEQUACY
The assessment of capital adequacy depends on a number of factors such as asset quality and mix, liquidity, earnings performance, changing competitive conditions and economic forces, stress testing, regulatory measures and policy, as well as the overall level of growth and complexity of the balance sheet. The adequacy of the Company’s current and future capital needs is monitored by management on an ongoing basis. Management seeks to maintain a capital structure that will assure an adequate level of capital to support anticipated asset growth and to absorb potential losses.
The federal banking regulators have issued guidance for those institutions, which are deemed to have concentrations in commercial real estate lending. Pursuant to the supervisory criteria contained in the guidance for identifying institutions with a potential commercial real estate concentration risk, institutions which have (1) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land acquisitions which represent 100% or more of an institution’s total risk-based capital; or (2) total commercial real estate loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s total risk-based capital and the institution’s commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased 50% or more during the prior 36 months are identified as having potential commercial real estate concentration risk. Institutions which are deemed to have concentrations in commercial real estate lending are expected to employ heightened levels of risk management with respect to their commercial real estate portfolios, and may be required to hold higher levels of capital. The Company, like many community banks, has a concentration in commercial real estate loans, and the Company continues to pursue lending opportunities in its commercial real estate portfolio.
Loan monitoring practices include but are not limited to periodic stress testing analysis to evaluate changes to cash flows, owing to interest rate increases and declines in net operating income. Nevertheless, we may be required to maintain higher levels of capital as a result of our commercial real estate concentrations, which could require us to obtain additional
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capital, and may adversely affect shareholder returns. The Company has an extensive Capital Policy and Capital Plan, which includes pro-forma projections including stress testing within which the Board of Directors has established internal policy limits for regulatory capital ratios that are in excess of well capitalized ratios (as defined in the section “Regulation” above).
The Company and the Bank are subject to regulatory capital requirements administered by federal banking agencies. Capital adequacy guidelines and prompt corrective action regulations involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities, and certain off-balance-sheet items calculated under regulatory accounting practices. Capital amounts and classifications are also subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weightings, and other factors and the regulators can lower classifications in certain cases. Failure to meet various capital requirements can initiate regulatory action that could have a direct material effect on the financial statements.
The prompt corrective action regulations provide five categories, including well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized, although these terms are not used to represent overall financial condition. If a bank is only adequately capitalized, regulatory approval is required to, among other things, accept, renew or roll-over brokered deposits. If a bank is undercapitalized, capital distributions and growth and expansion are limited, and plans for capital restoration are required.
At December 31, 2020, the capital position of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, the Bank, continue to exceed regulatory requirements and well-capitalized guidelines. The primary indicators relied on by bank regulators in measuring the capital position are four ratios as follows: Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, Total risk-based capital ratio, the Leverage ratio and the CET1 ratio. Tier 1 capital consists of common and qualifying preferred shareholders’ equity less goodwill and other intangibles. Total risk-based capital consists of Tier 1 capital, plus qualifying subordinated debt, and the qualifying portion of the ACL, and for the Company to a limited extent, excess amounts of restricted core capital elements. Risk-based capital ratios are calculated with reference to risk-weighted assets, which are prescribed by regulation. The measure of Tier 1 capital to average assets for the prior quarter is often referred to as the leverage ratio. The CET 1 ratio is the Tier 1 capital ratio but excluding preferred stock.
The Federal Reserve Board and the other federal banking agencies have adopted the Basel III Rules to implement the Basel III capital guidelines for U.S. banks. The capital rules require a CET1 ratio of 4.5% and a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of risk-weighted assets, effectively resulting in a minimum CET1 ratio of 7.0%; a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 6.0%, or 8.5% with the fully phased in capital conservation buffer; a minimum total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 10.5% with the fully phased-in capital conservation buffer; and a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%. The Basel III Rules also increased risk weights for certain assets and off-balance-sheet exposures. See the “Regulation” section for additional information regarding regulatory capital requirements.
The Company’s capital ratios were all well in excess of guidelines established by the Federal Reserve Board and the Bank’s capital ratios were in excess of those required to be classified as a “well capitalized” institution under the prompt corrective action provisions of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act. The Company’s and Bank’s capital ratios at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 are shown in Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The ability of the Company to continue to grow is dependent on its earnings and those of the Bank, the ability to obtain additional funds for contribution to the Bank’s capital, through additional borrowings, through the sale of additional common stock or preferred stock, or through the issuance of additional qualifying capital instruments, such as subordinated debt. The capital levels required to be maintained by the Company and Bank may be impacted as a result of the Bank’s concentrations in commercial real estate loans. See further detail at the “Regulation” and “Risk Factors” sections.
IMPACT OF INFLATION AND CHANGING PRICES
The Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto have been prepared in accordance with GAAP in the United States of America, which require the measurement of financial position and operating results in terms of historical dollars without considering the changes in the relative purchasing power of money over time due to inflation. The impact of inflation is reflected in the increased cost of operations. Unlike most industrial companies, nearly all of our assets and liabilities are monetary in nature. As a result, interest rates have a greater impact on our performance than do the effects of general levels of inflation. Interest rates do not necessarily move in the same direction or to the same extent as the price of goods or services.
NEW AUTHORITATIVE ACCOUNTING GUIDANCE
Refer to Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for New Authoritative Accounting Guidance and their expected impact on the Company’s Financial Statements.
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ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Asset/Liability Management of Interest Rate Risk
A fundamental risk in banking is exposure to market risk, or interest rate risk, since a bank’s net income is largely dependent on net interest income. The Bank’s ALCO formulates and monitors the management of interest rate risk through policies and guidelines established by it and the full Board of Directors and through review of detailed reports discussed quarterly. In its consideration of risk limits, the ALCO considers the impact on earnings and capital, the level and direction of interest rates, liquidity, local economic conditions, outside threats and other factors. Banking is generally a business of managing the maturity and repricing mismatch inherent in its asset and liability cash flows and to provide net interest income growth consistent with the Company’s profit objectives.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company's net interest income decreased by 1%, as a result of compression in the net interest margin largely offset by growth in average earnings assets. The Company believes it is able to continue to manage its overall interest rate risk position to a moderate level.
The Company, through its ALCO and ongoing financial management practices, monitors the interest rate environment in which it operates and adjusts the rates and maturities of its assets and liabilities to remain competitive and to achieve its overall financial objectives subject to established risk limits. In the current and expected future interest rate environment, the Company has been maintaining its investment portfolio to manage the balance between yield and prepayment risk in its portfolio of mortgage-backed securities should interest rates remain at current levels. Further, the Company has been managing the investment portfolio to mitigate extension risk and related declines in market values in that same portfolio should interest rates increase. Additionally, the Company has limited call risk in its U.S. agency investment portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the average investment portfolio balances increased by 17% as compared to balances at December 31, 2019, in the effort to maintain the overall proportion of AFS securities to total assets, while also prudently managing significant deposit growth that outpaced loan growth. Cash flows from mortgage backed securities and sales of U.S. agency securities were reinvested primarily into a similar combination of mortgage backed securities and agencies. Additional investments have been made in community bank sub-debt and SBA bonds. The percentage mix of municipal securities increased to 9% of total investments at December 31, 2020 from 8% at December 31, 2019, as the focus shifted to shorter duration instruments with more cash flow. The portion of the portfolio invested in mortgage backed securities increased to 72% at December 31, 2020 from 65% at December 31, 2019 while the portion of the portfolio represented in U.S. agency investments decreased from 22% to 16%. Shorter duration floating rate corporate bonds were 3% of total investments at December 31, 2020 and SBA bonds, which are included in mortgage backed securities, were 6% of total investments at December 31, 2020. The duration of the investment portfolio was 3.2 years at December 31, 2020 and 3.4 at December 31, 2019. The lower duration was due to the passage of time and maturity of the bond portfolio and the faster mortgage prepayment environment, mitigated by purchases of a higher mix and dollar amount of longer duration mortgage backed securities and municipal bonds.
In the loan portfolio, the repricing duration was 21 months at December 31, 2020 and 20 months at December 31, 2019, with fixed rate loans amounting to 45% of total loans at December 31, 2020 and 41% at December 31, 2019. Variable and adjustable rate loans comprised 55% of total loans at December 31, 2020 and 59% for 2019. Variable rate loans are generally indexed to either the one month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or the Wall Street Journal prime interest rate, while adjustable rate loans are indexed primarily to the five year U.S. Treasury interest rate.
The duration of the deposit portfolio lengthened to 42 months at December 31, 2020 from 27 months at December 31, 2019. The change since December 31, 2019 was due to measured nonmaturity deposit decay rates extending due to an economic slowdown and a resulting lack of deposit competition as rates fell. The Company experienced $2.0 billion in total deposit growth for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to total loan growth of $214.5 million.

While loan growth was impacted in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company has continued its emphasis on funding loans in its marketplace, and has continued to achieve discplined loan pricing, even at the expense of growing new loans. A disciplined approach to loan pricing has resulted in a loan portfolio yield of 4.66% for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 5.45% for the same period in 2019. In the competitive interest rate environment of 2020, the interest rates on new loan originations have been well below the rates of loan paydowns and payoffs. Additionally, significant amounts of variable and adjustable rate loans have repriced down as market interest rates decreased.

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The net unrealized gain before income tax on the investment portfolio was $22.0 million at December 31, 2020 as compared to a net unrealized gain before tax of $4.2 million at December 31, 2019, with $1.8 million of realized net gains recorded during the year ended December 31, 2020. The higher net unrealized gain on the investment portfolio was due primarily to lower interest rates at year end 2020 as compared to year end 2019. At December 31, 2020, the unrealized gain position represented 2% of the portfolio’s book value.
The Company is a party to interest rate swaps as part of its interest rate risk management strategy intended to mitigate the potential risk of rising interest rates on the Bank’s cost of funds. As of both December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had one interest rate swap transaction outstanding that had a notional amount of $100.0 million associated with the Company’s variable rate deposits. The interest rate swap is designated as a cash flow hedge and involves the receipt of variable rate amounts from a counterparty in exchange for the Company making fixed payments that began in April 2016. The net unrealized loss before income tax on the interest rate swap was $516 thousand at December 31, 2020 as compared to a net unrealized loss before income tax of $202 thousand at December 31, 2019, and is included in accumulated other comprehensive income (net of taxes) on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The increased unrealized gain in value since year end 2019 was due to the declines in market interest rates.
During the third quarter of 2018, the Company entered into credit RPAs with institutional counterparties, under which the Company assumes its pro-rata share of the credit exposure associated with a borrower’s performance related to interest rate derivative contracts. The fair value of RPAs is calculated by determining the total expected asset or liability exposure of the derivatives to the borrowers and applying the borrowers’ credit spread to that exposure. Total expected exposure incorporates both the current and potential future exposure of the derivatives, derived from using observable inputs, such as yield curves and volatilities. These derivatives are not designated as hedges, are not speculative, and have a notional value of $26.9 million as of December 31, 2020. The changes in fair value for these contracts are recognized directly in earnings.
There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to successfully achieve its optimal asset liability mix, as a result of competitive pressures, customer preferences and the inability to perfectly forecast future interest rates and movements.
One of the tools used by the Company to manage its interest rate risk is a static gap analysis presented below. The Company also employs an earnings simulation model on a quarterly basis to monitor its interest rate sensitivity and risk and to model its balance sheet cash flows and the related income statement effects in different interest rate scenarios. The model utilizes current balance sheet data and attributes and is adjusted for assumptions as to investment maturities (including prepayments), loan prepayments, interest rates, and the level of noninterest income and noninterest expense. The data is then subjected to a “shock test” which assumes a simultaneous change in interest rates up 100, 200, 300, and 400 basis points or down 100 and 200 basis points, along the entire yield curve, but not below zero. The results are analyzed as to the impact on net interest income, net income and the market equity over the next twelve and twenty-four month periods from December 31, 2020. In addition to analysis of simultaneous changes in interest rates along the yield curve, changes based on interest rate “ramps” is also performed and reviewed by ALCO, but is not herein disclosed. Such analysis represents the impact of a more gradual change in interest rates, as well as yield curve shape changes.

For the analysis presented below, at December 31, 2020, the simulation assumes a 50 basis point change in interest rates on money market and interest bearing transaction deposits for each 100 basis point change in market interest rates in a decreasing interest rate shock scenario with a floor of 10 basis points, and assumes a 70 basis point change in interest rates on money market and interest bearing transaction deposits for each 100 basis point change in market interest rates in an increasing interest rate shock scenario.
As quantified in the table below, the Company’s analysis at December 31, 2020 shows a moderate effect on net interest income over the next 12 months, as well as a moderate effect on the economic value of equity when interest rates are shocked both down 100 and 200 basis points and up 100, 200, 300, and 400 basis points. This moderate impact is due substantially to the significant level of variable rate and repriceable assets and liabilities and related shorter asset and liability durations. The repricing duration of the investment portfolio at December 31, 2020 is 3.2 years, the loan portfolio 1.7 years, the interest bearing deposit portfolio 2.65 years and the borrowed funds portfolio 5.8 years.
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The following table reflects the result of simulation analysis on the December 31, 2020 asset and liability balances:
Change in interest
rates (basis points)
Percentage change in net
interest income
Percentage change in
net income
Percentage change in
market value of portfolio
equity
+400+14.0+23.8+8.1
+300+9.4+16.0+6.4
+200+5.0+8.5+4.7
+100+1.6+2.8+2.8
(100)(1.6)(2.6)(11.3)
(200)(1.9)(3.2)(23.6)
The results of simulation analysis are within the relevant policy limits adopted by the Company except for the negative 200 basis point scenario for the market value of portfolio equity, which becomes harder to interpret as assets and liabilities go down to the zero lower bound in the simulation. For net interest income, the Company has adopted a policy limit of 10% for a 100 basis point change, 12% for a 200 basis point change, 18% for a 300 basis point change and 24% for a 400 basis point change. For the market value of equity, the Company has adopted a policy limit of 12% for a 100 basis point change, 15% for a 200 basis point change, 25% for a 300 basis point change and 30% for a 400 basis point change. Due to the level of market rates at December 31, 2020, all down interest rate shocks (-100, -200, -300 and -400 basis points) leave the Bank with zero and negative rate instruments and are not considered practical or informative. The changes in net interest income, net income and the economic value of equity in both a higher and lower interest rate shock scenario at December 31, 2020 are not considered to be excessive. The positive impact of +1.6% in net interest income and +2.8% in net income given a 100 basis point increase in market interest rates at December 31, 2020 compares to +5.1% in net interest income and +8.8 in net income for the same period in 2019 and reflects in large measure the impact of variable and adjustable rate loans that are at floor rates at December 31, 2020 and won’t reprice above floors without more significant rate movements as compared to December 31, 2019.

Generally speaking, the loss of economic value of portfolio equity in a lower interest rate environment is due to lower values of core deposits more than offsetting the gains in loan and investment values; while the gain of economic value of portfolio equity in a higher interest rate environment is due to higher value of core deposits more than offsetting lower values of fixed rate loans and investments. The Company believes its balance sheet is well positioned in the current interest rate environment.
During 2020, largely as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company experienced sharply lower market interest rates together with significantly higher levels of deposit growth as compared to loan growth. This resulted in extraordinary levels of liquidity which was able to be invested in overnight funds which yielded a weighted average rate over the course of the year of just 0.22%. This event resulted in a decline in the net interest spread. Additionally, while a significant mix of the deposit growth was in noninterest bearing funds, the value of these interest free funds decreased in the lower market rate environment. In this challenging interest rate environment in 2020, the Company continued to manage its interest rate sensitivity position to moderate levels of risk, as indicated in the simulation results above. The interest rate risk position at December 31, 2020 was dissimilar to the interest rate risk position at December 31, 2019. As compared to December 31, 2019, the sum of federal funds sold, interest bearing deposits with banks and other short-term investments and loans held for sale increased by $1.5 billion at December 31, 2020, and as noted above, significant amounts of variable rate loans were below floor levels at December 31, 2020.

Certain shortcomings are inherent in the method of analysis presented in the foregoing table. For example, although certain assets and liabilities may have similar maturities or repricing periods, they may react in different degrees to changes in market interest rates. Also, the interest rates on certain types of assets and liabilities may fluctuate in advance of changes in market interest rates, while interest rates on other types may lag behind changes in market rates. Additionally, certain assets, such as adjustable-rate mortgage loans, have features that limit changes in interest rates on a short-term basis and over the life of the loan. Further, in the event of a change in interest rates, prepayment and early withdrawal levels could deviate significantly from those assumed in calculating the tables. Finally, the ability of many borrowers to service their debt may decrease in the event of a significant interest rate increase.
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During 2020, average market interest rates declined sharply, and resulted in a flattening of the yield curve. As compared to the year 2019, the average two year U.S. Treasury rate in 2020 decreased by 159 basis points from 1.98% to 0.39%. The average five year U.S. Treasury rate decreased by 142 basis points from 1.96% to 0.53% while the average ten year U.S. Treasury rate decreased by 127 basis points from 2.15% to 0.88%. In that environment, the Company was able to achieve a net interest spread for 2020 of 2.81% compared to 3.05% for the year of 2019. The decline was due primarily to a decrease in the yield on earnings assets, of which higher average liquidity was a significant factor. The Company believes that the change in the net interest spread for the full year 2020 has been consistent with its risk analysis at December 31, 2019. On an annual basis, the Company back-tests the actual change in its net interest spread against expected change and actual market interest rate movements and other factors impacting actual as compared to projected results.
Gap Analysis
Banks and other financial institutions earnings are significantly dependent upon net interest income, which is the difference between interest earned on earning assets and interest expense on interest bearing liabilities. Net interest income represented 88% and 92% of the Company’s revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. The Company’s net interest margin was 3.19% for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 3.77% for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decline in net interest margin for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, was due to increased funding costs from term deposits gathered early in the year, new loan and variable rate loans adjusting downward as market rates fell, exacerbated by a decrease in the average loan to deposit ratio, as the Bank experienced high levels of on balance sheet liquidity.

In falling interest rate environments, net interest income is maximized with longer term, higher yielding assets being funded by lower yielding short-term funds, or what is referred to as a negative mismatch or negative gap. Conversely, in a rising interest rate environment, net interest income is maximized with shorter term, higher yielding assets being funded by longer-term liabilities or what is referred to as a positive mismatch or positive gap.
The gap position, which is a measure of the difference in maturity and repricing volume between assets and liabilities, is a means of monitoring the sensitivity of a financial institution to changes in interest rates. The chart below provides an indication of the sensitivity of the Company to changes in interest rates. A negative gap indicates the degree to which the volume of repriceable liabilities exceeds repriceable assets in given time periods.
At December 31, 2020, the Company had a positive gap position of approximately $464 million or 4.2% of total assets out to three months and a positive cumulative gap position of $352 million or 3% of total assets out to 12 months; as compared to a positive gap position of approximately $295 million or 3% of total assets out to three months and a positive cumulative gap position of approximately $243 million or 3% of total assets out to 12 months at December 31, 2019. The change in the positive gap position at December 31, 2020, as compared to December 2019, was minimal and contributed to the neutral interest rate risk position of the Company. The change in the gap position at December 31, 2020 as compared to December 31, 2019 is not deemed material to the Company’s overall interest rate risk position. The overall interest rate risk position relies more heavily on simulation analysis, which captures the full optionality within the balance sheet. The current position is within guideline limits established by the ALCO. While management believes that this overall position creates a reasonable balance in managing its interest rate risk and maximizing its net interest margin within plan objectives, there can be no assurance as to actual results.
Management has carefully considered its strategy to maximize interest income by reviewing interest rate levels, economic indicators and call features within its investment portfolio. These factors have been discussed with the ALCO and management believes that current strategies are appropriate to current economic and interest rate trends.
If interest rates increase by 100 basis points, the Company’s net interest income and net interest margin are expected to increase modestly due to the repricing of variable rate assets and the assumption of an increase in money market interest rates by 70% of the change in market interest rates.
If interest rates decline by 100 basis points, the Company’s net interest income and margin are expected to decline modestly as the impact of lower market rates on a large amount of liquid assets more than offsets the ability to lower interest rates on interest bearing liabilities.
Because competitive market behavior does not necessarily track the trend of interest rates but at times moves ahead of financial market influences, the change in the cost of liabilities may be different than anticipated by the gap model. If this were to occur, the effects of a declining interest rate environment may not be in accordance with management’s expectations.
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Gap Analysis
December 31, 2020
(dollars in thousands)
Repricible in:0-3 months4-12 months13-36 months37-60 monthsOver 60 monthsTotal Rate
Sensitive
Non SensitiveTotal
RATE SENSITIVE ASSETS:                
Investment securities$129,321 $146,042 $271,885 $183,583 $420,252 $1,151,083     
Loans (1)(2)
3,805,449 588,026 1,873,182 739,945 841,815 $7,848,417     
Fed funds and other short-term investments1,780,619 — — — — $1,780,619     
Other earning assets76,729 — — — — $76,729     
Total$5,792,118 $734,068 $2,145,067 $923,528 $1,262,067 $10,856,848 260,954 $11,117,802 
RATE SENSITIVE LIABILITIES:                
Noninterest bearing demand$97,582 $272,338 $596,428 $445,919 $1,402,067 $2,814,334     
Interest bearing transaction751,923 — — — — $751,923     
Savings and money market4,320,186 — — — 325,000 $4,645,186     
Time deposits201,312 325,329 376,825 71,164 3,130 $977,760     
Customer repurchase agreements and fed funds purchased26,726 — — — — $26,726     
Other borrowings— 148,531 — 69,546 350,000 $568,077     
Total$5,397,729 $746,198 $973,253 $586,629 $2,080,197 $9,784,006 92,904 $9,876,910 
Gap$394,389 $(12,130)$1,171,814 $336,899 $(818,130)$1,072,842     
Cumulative Gap$364,389 $352,259 $1,524,073 $1,860,972 $1,042,842       
Cumulative gap as percent of total assets3.55 %3.44 %13.98 %17.01 %9.65 %    
OFF BALANCE-SHEET:                
Interest Rate Swaps - Fed Funds based100,000 (100,000)$—     
Total$100,000 $(100,000)$— $— $— $— $— $— 
Gap$494,389 $(112,130)$1,171,814 $336,899 $(818,130)$1,072,842     
Cumulative Gap$464,389 $352,259 $1,524,073 $1,860,972 $1,042,842     
Cumulative gap as percent of total assets4.45 %3.44 %13.98 %17.01 %9.65 %    
(1)Includes loans held for sale
(2)Nonaccrual loans are included in the over 60 months category
The sum of federal funds sold, interest bearing deposits with banks and other short-term investments increased by $1.6 billion at December 31, 2020 as compared to December 31, 2019. The Company was able to curtail some short term liabilities at year end 2020 as compared to 2019, but was holding more time deposits that are due to mature and reprice in the 4-12 month time horizon. This change resulted in the cumulative gap position within 12 months decreasing to 3.2% of total assets at December 31, 2020 from 3% of total assets at December 31, 2019.
Although NOW and money market accounts are subject to immediate repricing, the Bank’s gap model has incorporated a repricing schedule to account for a lag in rate changes based on our experience, as measured by the amount of those deposit rate changes relative to the amount of rate change in assets.
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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Eagle Bancorp, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Eagle Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, changes in shareholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB"), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated March 1, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Change in Accounting Principle

As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed its method of accounting for credit losses effective January 1, 2020, due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) related to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Allowance for Credit Losses

As described in Notes 1 and 4 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s allowance for credit losses was $109.6 million at December 31, 2020. As described by management in Note 1, the Company adopted ASC Topic 326 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses on January 1, 2020. The allowance is estimated using information about past events, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Estimates that can and do change when actual events occur are made for the following components:
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Reserves on pools of loans sharing similar risk characteristics using a lifetime loss rate model adjusted for a reasonable and supportable forecast.
Reserves on loans that do not share similar risk characteristics are evaluated on an individual basis.
Incremental reserves on pools of loans sharing similar risk characteristics for any necessary qualitative adjustments.

Estimating an appropriate allowance for credit losses requires management to make certain assumptions about expected losses on loans in the loan portfolio over their remaining contractual life as of the balance sheet date. Significant judgments in estimating the allowance for credit losses include determining:

The appropriate historical loss experience to use in calculating a lifetime loss rate.
A reasonable and supportable forecast.
The nature and amount of qualitative adjustments.

We identified the allowance for credit losses as a critical audit matter. The principal considerations for that determination included management’s judgment necessary in subjectively determining appropriate historical loss experience, specifically the use of peer data, selecting a reasonable and supportable forecast and determining the nature and amount of qualitative adjustments. In turn, auditing management’s judgments around those estimates involved a high degree of subjectivity.

The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included, among others:
We evaluated the design and operating effectiveness of controls relating to management’s determination of the allowance for credit losses, including:
Controls over the development of the allowance for credit losses model, including validation of the model.
Controls over management’s selection of appropriate historical loss experience.
Controls over management’s review and approval of the allowance for credit losses, including management’s evaluation of qualitative adjustments that might impact the calculation of the allowance and management’s determination of a reasonable and supportable forecast.
We evaluated, with the support of specialists, management’s use of peer loss data in calculating historical loss rates by comparing the resulting historical loss experience to a group of the Company’s peers.
We evaluated management’s application of qualitative adjustments to the allowance for credit losses, which included substantively testing management’s process for developing and applying qualitative factors and assessing relevance of data used to develop factors including evaluating their judgements and assumptions for reasonableness.
We evaluated, with the support of specialists, management’s selection of a reasonable and supportable forecast and tested the accuracy of the application of that forecast to the lifetime historical loss rate calculation. We also evaluated with the support of specialists, the conceptual design of the credit loss model and the independent model validation.


/s/ Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2016.

Charlotte, North Carolina
March 1, 2021
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Eagle Bancorp Inc.


Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Eagle Bancorp Inc. and Subsidiaries’ (the “Company”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and our report dated March 1, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

The Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP

Charlotte, North Carolina
March 1, 2021
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EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
AssetsDecember 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Cash and due from banks$8,435 $7,539 
Federal funds sold28,200 38,987 
Interest bearing deposits with banks and other short-term investments1,752,420 195,447 
Investment securities available-for-sale, at fair value (amortized cost of $1,129,057 and $838,994 and allowance for credit losses of $167 and $0 as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively).1,151,083 843,363 
Federal Reserve and Federal Home Loan Bank stock40,104 35,194 
Loans held for sale88,205 56,707 
Loans7,760,212 7,545,748 
Less allowance for credit losses(109,579)(73,658)
Loans, net7,650,633 7,472,090 
Premises and equipment, net13,553 14,622 
Operating lease right-of-use assets25,237 27,372 
Deferred income taxes38,571 29,804 
Bank owned life insurance76,729 75,724 
Goodwill and intangible assets, net105,114 104,739 
Other real estate owned4,987 1,487 
Other assets134,531 85,644 
Total Assets$11,117,802 $8,988,719 
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
Liabilities
Deposits:
Noninterest bearing demand$2,809,334 $2,064,367 
Interest bearing transaction756,923 863,856 
Savings and money market4,645,186 3,013,129 
Time, $100,000 or more546,173 663,987 
Other time431,587 619,052 
Total deposits9,189,203 7,224,391 
Customer repurchase agreements26,726 30,980 
Other short-term borrowings300,000 250,000 
Long-term borrowings268,077 217,687 
Operating lease liabilities28,022 29,959 
Reserve for unfunded commitments5,498 
Other liabilities59,384 45,021 
Total Liabilities9,876,910 7,798,038 
Shareholders’ Equity
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share; shares authorized 100,000,000, shares issued and outstanding 31,779,663 and 33,241,496, respectively315 331 
Additional paid in capital427,016 482,286 
Retained earnings798,061 705,105 
Accumulated other comprehensive income15,500 2,959 
Total Shareholders’ Equity1,240,892 1,190,681 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity$11,117,802 $8,988,719 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Income
Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
202020192018
Interest Income      
Interest and fees on loans$368,854 $400,923 $368,606 
Interest and dividends on investment securities18,440 21,037 17,907 
Interest on balances with other banks and short-term investments2,601 7,438 6,616 
Interest on federal funds sold91 232 157 
Total interest income389,986 429,630 393,286 
Interest Expense
Interest on deposits53,566 91,026 60,210 
Interest on customer repurchase agreements293 345 225 
Interest on short-term borrowings1,869 2,298 3,942 
Interest on long-term borrowings12,696 11,916 11,916 
Total interest expense68,424 105,585 76,293 
Net Interest Income321,562 324,045 316,993 
Provision for Credit Losses45,571 13,091 8,660 
Provision for Unfunded Commitments1,380 
Net Interest Income After Provision For Credit Losses274,611 310,954 308,333 
Noninterest Income
Service charges on deposits4,416 6,247 7,014 
Gain on sale of loans22,089 8,474 5,963 
Gain on sale of investment securities1,815 1,517 97 
Increase in the cash surrender value of bank owned life insurance2,071 1,703 1,507 
Other income15,305 7,758 8,005 
Total noninterest income45,696 25,699 22,586 
Noninterest Expense
Salaries and employee benefits74,440 79,842 67,734 
Premises and equipment expenses15,715 14,387 15,660 
Marketing and advertising4,278 4,826 4,566 
Data processing10,702 9,412 9,714 
Legal, accounting and professional fees16,406 12,195 9,742 
FDIC insurance7,941 3,206 3,512 
Other expenses14,680 15,994 15,783 
Total noninterest expense144,162 139,862 126,711 
Income Before Income Tax Expense176,145 196,791 204,208 
Income Tax Expense43,928 53,848 51,932 
Net Income132,217 142,943 152,276 
Earnings Per Common Share
Basic$4.09 $4.18 $4.44 
Diluted$4.09 $4.18 $4.42 
    See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
202020192018
Net Income$132,217 $142,943 $152,276 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Unrealized gain (loss) on securities available for sale14,422 11,254 (3,841)
Reclassification adjustment for net gains included in net income(1,363)(1,101)(72)
Total unrealized gain (loss) on investment securities13,059 10,153 (3,913)
Unrealized (loss) gain on derivatives(1,378)(2,049)1,806 
Reclassification adjustment for gain (loss) included in net income860 (870)(418)
Total unrealized (loss) gain on derivatives(518)(2,919)1,388 
Other comprehensive income (loss)12,541 7,234 (2,525)
Comprehensive Income$144,758 $150,177 $149,751 
    See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity
(dollars in thousands except share data)
CommonAdditional Paid
in Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance January 1, 201834,185,163 $340 $520,304 $431,544 $(1,750)$950,438 
Net Income— — — 152,276 — $152,276 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — (1,851)(1,851)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 6,494 — — 6,494 
Issuance of common stock related to options exercised, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes108,201 775 — — 776 
Vesting of time based stock awards issued at date of grant, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes(14,162)(1)— — — 
Time based stock awards granted94,344 — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock related to employee stock purchase plan14,373 808 — 808 
Balance Reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act from AOCI (ASU 2018-02)— — — 674 (674)— 
Balance December 31, 201834,387,919 $342 $528,380 $584,494 $(4,275)$1,108,941 
Net Income— — — 142,943 — $142,943 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — 7,234 7,234 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 7,684 — — 7,684 
Issuance of common stock related to options exercised, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes26,784 332 — — 332 
Vesting of time based stock awards issued at date of grant, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes(15,127)(1)— — — 
Vesting of performance based stock awards, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes17,655 — — — — — 
Time based stock awards granted112,636 — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock related to employee stock purchase plan16,129 — 782 — — 782 
Cash dividends declared ($0.66 per share)— — — (22,332)— (22,332)
Common stock repurchased(1,304,500)(12)(54,891)— — (54,903)
Balance December 31, 201933,241,496 331 482,286 705,105 2,959 1,190,681 
Net Income— — — 132,217 — 132,217 
Cumulative effect adjustment due to the adoption of
ASC 326, net of tax
 $ $ $(10,931)$ (10,931)
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — 12,541 12,541 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 5,324 — — 5,324 
Issuance of common stock related to options exercised, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes3,300 — 63 — — 63 
Vesting of time based stock awards issued at date of grant, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes(28,811)— (1)— — (1)
Vesting of performance based stock awards, net of shares withheld for payroll taxes4,126 — — — — — 
Time based stock awards granted176,252 — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock related to employee stock purchase plan24,210 — 760 — — 760 
Cash dividends declared ($0.88 per share)— — — (28,330)— (28,330)
Common stock repurchased(1,640,910)(16)(61,416)— — (61,432)
Balance December 31, 202031,779,663 $315 $427,016 $798,061 $15,500 $1,240,892 
    See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
88

EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(dollars in thousands)
89

Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
Cash Flows From Operating Activities:      
Net Income$132,217 $142,943 $152,276 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Provision for credit losses45,571 13,091 8,660 
Provision for unfunded commitments1,380 
Depreciation and amortization4,696 6,174 6,969 
Gains on sale of loans(22,089)(8,474)(5,963)
Gain on MSRs(667)
Securities premium amortization (discount accretion), net8,196 5,186 4,445 
Origination of loans held for sale(1,240,682)(665,726)(325,109)
Proceeds from sale of loans held for sale1,231,273 636,747 337,256 
Net increase in cash surrender value of BOLI(2,071)(1,703)(1,507)
Deferred income tax (benefit) expense(8,332)(61)(3,497)
Net gain on sale of other real estate owned(1,180)
Net gain on sale of investment securities(1,815)(1,517)(97)
Stock-based compensation expense5,324 7,684 6,494 
Net tax (expense) benefits from stock compensation118 (48)110 
Increase in other assets(28,626)(21,421)(16,643)
Increase in other liabilities9,826 19,809 2,061 
Net cash provided by operating activities133,139 132,684 165,455 
Cash Flows From Investing Activities:
Purchases of available-for-sale investment securities(739,955)(374,648)(331,884)
Proceeds from maturities of available-for-sale securities302,471 214,204 93,848 
Proceeds from sale/call of available-for-sale securities124,144 104,785 36,292 
Purchases of Federal Reserve and Federal Home Loan Bank stock(9,160)(100,939)(47,872)
Proceeds from redemption of Federal Reserve and Federal Home Loan Bank stock4,250 89,250 60,690 
Net increase in loans(240,911)(563,771)(583,393)
Purchase of BOLI(580)(11,000)
Purchase of annuities(2,589)
Proceeds from sale of other real estate owned4,430 
Purchases of premises and equipment(2,945)(2,839)(1,482)
Net cash used in investing activities(557,676)(637,127)(784,801)
Cash Flows From Financing Activities:
Increase in deposits1,964,812 250,106 1,120,301 
Increase (decrease) in customer repurchase agreements(4,254)567 (46,148)
Increase (decrease) in short-term borrowings50,000 250,000 (325,000)
Increase in long-term borrowings50,000 
Proceeds from exercise of equity compensation plans63 332 776 
Proceeds from employee stock purchase plan760 782 808 
Common stock repurchased(61,432)(54,903)
Cash dividends paid(28,330)(22,332)
Net cash provided by financing activities1,971,619 424,552 750,737 
Net (Decrease) Increase In Cash and Cash Equivalents1,547,082 (79,891)131,391 
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of Period241,973 321,864 190,473 
Cash and Cash Equivalents at End of Period$1,789,055 $241,973 $321,864 
Supplemental Cash Flows Information:
Interest paid$70,183 $105,985 $73,806 
Income taxes paid$37,400 $54,650 $55,200 
Non-Cash Investing Activities
Initial recognition of operating lease right-of-use assets$1,696 $29,574 $
Transfers from loans to other real estate owned$6,750 $93 $
Change in fair value of cash flow hedge$(904)$$
Change in fair value of investments$17,822 $$
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Eagle Bancorp, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018:
Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Eagle Bancorp, Inc. (the "Parent") and its subsidiaries (together with the Parent, the “Company”) with all significant intercompany transactions eliminated. EagleBank (the “Bank”), a Maryland chartered commercial bank, is the Company’s principal subsidiary. The investment in subsidiaries is recorded on the Company’s books (Parent Only) on the basis of its equity in the net assets of the subsidiary (see Note 26 "Parent Company Financial Information" for further detail). The accounting and reporting policies of the Company conform to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and to general practices in the banking industry. The following is a summary of the significant accounting policies.
Nature of Operations
The Company, through the Bank, conducts a full service community banking business, primarily in Northern Virginia, Suburban Maryland, and Washington, D.C. The primary financial services offered by the Bank include real estate, commercial and consumer lending, as well as traditional deposit and repurchase agreement products. The Bank is also active in the origination and sale of residential mortgage loans, the origination of small business loans, and the origination, securitization and sale of multifamily Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”) loans. The guaranteed portion of small business loans, guaranteed by the Small Business Administration (“SBA”), is typically sold to third party investors in a transaction apart from the loan’s origination. As of December 31, 2020, the Bank offers its products and services through 20 banking offices, 6 lending centers and various electronic capabilities, including remote deposit services and mobile banking services. Eagle Insurance Services, LLC, a subsidiary of the Bank, offers access to insurance products and services through a referral program with a third party insurance broker. Landroval Municipal Finance, Inc., a subsidiary of the Bank, focuses on lending to municipalities by buying debt on the public market as well as direct purchase issuance.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to the financial statements.
Risks and Uncertainties
The outbreak of COVID-19 and the ongoing pandemic has adversely impacted a broad range of industries in which the Company’s customers operate and has impaired and could continue to impair their ability to fulfill their financial obligations to the Company. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic indicating that almost all public commerce and related business activities must be, to varying degrees, curtailed with the goal of decreasing the rate of new infections. The ongoing pandemic has caused significant disruptions in the U.S. economy and has disrupted banking and other financial activity in the areas in which the Company operates. While there has been no material adverse impact on the Company’s employees and operations to date, COVID-19 could still potentially create widespread business continuity or credit issues for the Company depending on how much longer the pandemic lasts. Congress, the President, and the Federal Reserve have taken several actions designed to cushion the economic fallout. Most notably, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (“CARES”) Act was signed into law at the end of March 2020 as a $2 trillion legislative package. The goal of the CARES Act is to prevent a severe economic downturn through various measures, including direct financial aid to American families and economic stimulus to significantly impacted industry sectors. The package also includes extensive emergency funding for hospitals and providers. The CARES Act also created the Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP”), a program designed to aid small- and medium-sized businesses through federally guaranteed loans distributed through banks. These loans are intended to guarantee payroll and other costs to help those businesses remain viable and allow their workers to pay their bills. On December 27, 2020, The Economic Aid to Hard-Hit Small Businesses, Nonprofits, and Venues Act was enacted, which includes additional funding for the PPP. In addition to the general impact of COVID-19, certain provisions of the CARES Act as well as other follow-up legislative and regulatory relief efforts have had and are expected to continue to have a material impact on the Company’s operations.

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The Company’s business is dependent upon the willingness and ability of its employees and customers to conduct banking and other financial transactions. If the global response to control and manage COVID-19 escalates further or is unsuccessful, the Company could experience a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. While it is not possible to know the full universe or extent that the impact of COVID-19, and resulting measures to curtail its spread, will have on the Company’s operations, the Company is disclosing potentially material items of which it is aware.

Financial position and results of operations

The Company’s fee income has been and could be further reduced due to COVID-19. In keeping with guidance from regulators, the Company is actively working with COVID-19 affected customers to waive fees from a variety of sources, such as, but not limited to, insufficient funds and overdraft fees, ATM fees, account maintenance fees, etc. These reductions in fees are thought, at this time, to be temporary in conjunction with the length of the expected COVID-19 related economic crisis. At this time, the Company is unable to project the full extent of the materiality of such an impact, but recognizes the breadth of the economic impact is likely to impact its fee income in future periods.

The Company’s interest income could be reduced due to COVID-19. In keeping with guidance from regulators, the Company is actively working with COVID-19 affected borrowers to defer their payments, interest, and fees. While interest and fees will still accrue to income, through normal GAAP accounting, should eventual credit losses on these deferred payments emerge, interest income and fees accrued would need to be reversed. In such a scenario, interest income in future periods could be negatively impacted. At this time the Company is unable to project the full extent of the materiality of such an impact, but recognizes the breadth of the economic impact may affect its borrowers’ ability to repay in future periods.

Capital and liquidity

While the Company believes that it has sufficient capital to withstand an extended economic recession brought about by COVID-19, its reported and regulatory capital ratios could be adversely impacted by further credit losses. The Company maintains access to multiple sources of liquidity. Wholesale funding markets have remained open to us, and rates for short term funding have recently been very low. If funding costs were to become elevated for an extended period of time, it could have an adverse effect on the Company’s net interest margin. If an extended recession caused large numbers of the Company’s customers to withdraw their funds, the Company might become more reliant on volatile or more expensive sources of funding.

Asset valuation

Currently, the Company does not expect COVID-19 to affect its ability to account timely for the assets on its balance sheet; however, this could change in future periods. While certain valuation assumptions and judgments will change to account for pandemic-related circumstances such as widening credit spreads, the Company does not anticipate significant changes in methodology used to determine the fair value of assets measured in accordance with GAAP. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused and could continue to cause prolonged volatility and potential declines in the Company’s stock price.

As of June 30, 2020, the Company performed a qualitative assessment to determine whether it was more likely than not that the fair value of the only reporting unit was less than its carrying amount. As of June 30, 2020, a triggering event was deemed to have occurred as a result of COVID-19 and, accordingly, a step one assessment was performed by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount (including goodwill). Determining the fair value of a reporting unit under the goodwill impairment test is subjective and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. Estimates of fair value are primarily determined using discounted cash flows, market comparisons and recent transactions. These approaches use significant estimates and assumptions including projected future cash flows, discount rates reflecting the market rate of return, projected growth rates and determination and evaluation of appropriate market comparable factors. Based on the results of the assessment of the reporting unit, the Company concluded that no impairment existed as of June 30, 2020. The Company determined that there were no triggering events as of September 30, 2020 and an impairment analysis was not performed. An impairment analysis was performed during the fourth quarter (as of December 31, 2020) as part of our regularly scheduled annual impairment testing and again found no impairment existed. Future events could cause the Company to conclude that goodwill or other intangibles have become impaired, which would result in recording an impairment loss. Any resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Business Continuity Plan

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The Company has implemented a remote working strategy for many of its employees. The Company does not anticipate incurring additional material cost related to its continued deployment of the remote working strategy. No material operational or internal control challenges or risks have been identified to date. The Company does not anticipate significant challenges to its ability to maintain its systems and controls in light of the measures the Company has taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19. We have established general guidelines for returning to the workplace that include having employees maintain safe distances, staggered work schedules to limit the number of employees in a single location, more frequent cleaning of our facilities and other practices encouraging a safe working environment during this challenging time, including required COVID-19 training programs. The Company does not currently face any material resource constraint through the implementation of its business continuity plans.

Lending operations and accommodations to borrowers

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and consistent with regulatory guidance, we have also implemented a short-term loan modification program to provide temporary payment relief to certain borrowers who meet the program's qualifications. At December 31, 2020, the Company had 0 accruing loans 90 days or more past due. The deferred payments along with interest accrued during the deferral period are due and payable on the maturity date of the existing loan. As of December 31, 2020, we had ongoing temporary modifications on 36 loans representing approximately $72 million (approximately 0.9% of total loans) in outstanding balances. Additionally, none of the deferrals are reflected in the Company's asset quality measures (i.e., non-performing loans) due to the provision of the CARES Act that permits U.S. financial institutions to temporarily suspend GAAP requirements to treat such short-term loan modifications as troubled debt restructurings ("TDRs"). Similar provisions have also been confirmed by interagency guidance issued by the federal banking agencies and confirmed with staff members of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. The Company actively participates in the PPP, administered by the Small Business Administration (“SBA”). The PPP loans originated by the Bank generally have a two-year term and earn interest at 1% plus fees. The Company believes that the majority of these loans will ultimately be forgiven by the SBA in accordance with the terms of the program. As of December 31, 2020, PPP loans totaled $454.8 million to just over 1,400 businesses. The Company understands that loans funded through the PPP are fully guaranteed by the U.S. government. Should those circumstances change, the Company could be required to establish additional allowance for credit loss through additional credit loss expense charges to earnings.

Credit

The Company is working with customers directly affected by COVID-19. The Company is prepared to offer short-term assistance in accordance with regulatory guidelines. As a result of the current economic environment caused by the COVID-19 virus, the Company is engaging in more frequent communication with borrowers to better understand their situation and the challenges faced, allowing it to respond proactively as needs and issues arise. Should economic conditions worsen, the Company could experience further increases in its required allowance for credit losses (“ACL”) and record additional provision for credit losses. It is possible that the Company’s asset quality measures could worsen at future measurement periods if the effects of COVID-19 are prolonged.

Cash Flows
For purposes of reporting cash flows, cash and cash equivalents include cash and due from banks, federal funds sold, and interest bearing deposits with other banks that have an original maturity of three months or less.
Loans Held for Sale
The Company regularly engages in sales of residential mortgage loans held for sale and the guaranteed portion of SBA loans originated by the Bank. The Company has elected to carry loans held for sale at fair value. Fair value is derived from secondary market quotations for similar instruments. Gains and losses on sales of these loans are recorded as a component of noninterest income in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
The Company’s current practice is to sell residential mortgage loans held for sale on a servicing released basis, and, therefore, it has 0 intangible asset recorded in the normal course of business for the value of such servicing as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
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The Company enters into commitments to originate residential mortgage loans whereby the interest rate on the loan is determined prior to funding (i.e. interest rate lock commitments). Such interest rate lock commitments on mortgage loans to be sold in the secondary market are considered to be derivatives. To protect against the price risk inherent in residential mortgage loan commitments, the Company utilizes either or both “best efforts” and “mandatory delivery” forward loan sale commitments to mitigate the risk of potential decreases in the values of loans that would result from the exercise of the derivative loan commitments.

Under a “best efforts” contract, the Company commits to deliver an individual mortgage loan of a specified principal amount and quality to an investor. The investor commits to a price, representing a premium on the day the borrower commits to an interest rate, that it will purchase the loan from the Company if the loan to the underlying borrower closes with the intent that the buyer/investor has assumed the interest rate risk on the loan as the Company protects itself from changes in interest rates. As a result, the Bank is not generally exposed to losses on loans sold utilizing best efforts, nor will it realize gains related to rate lock commitments due to changes in interest rates. The market values of interest rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts are not readily ascertainable with precision because rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts are not actively traded. Because of the high correlation between rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts, very little gain or loss should occur on the interest rate lock commitments.

Under a “mandatory delivery” contract, the Company commits to deliver a certain principal amount of mortgage loans to an investor at a specified price on or before a specified date. If the Company fails to deliver the amount of mortgages necessary to fulfill the commitment by the specified date, it is obligated to pay the investor a “pair-off” fee, based on then-current market prices, to compensate the investor for the shortfall. The Company manages the interest rate risk on interest rate lock commitments by entering into forward sale contracts of mortgage-backed securities, whereby the Company obtains the right to deliver securities to investors in the future at a specified price. Such contracts are accounted for as derivatives and are recorded at fair value in derivative assets or liabilities, carried on the Consolidated Balance Sheet within other assets or other liabilities with changes in fair value recorded in other income within the Consolidated Statements of Income. The period of time between issuance of a loan commitment to the customer and closing and sale of the loan to an investor generally ranges from 30 to 90 days under current market conditions. The gross gains on loan sales are recognized based on new loan commitments with adjustment for price and pair-off activity. Commission expenses on loans held for sale are recognized based on loans closed.

In circumstances where the Company does not deliver the whole loan to an investor, but rather elects to retain the loan in its portfolio, the loan is transferred from held for sale to loans at fair value at the date of transfer.
The sale of the guaranteed portion of SBA loans on a servicing retained basis gives rise to an excess servicing asset, which is computed on a loan by loan basis with the unamortized amount being included in intangible assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. This excess servicing asset is being amortized on a straight-line basis (with adjustment for prepayments) as an offset to servicing fees collected and is included in other income in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
The Company originates multifamily FHA loans through the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Multifamily Accelerated Program (“MAP”). The Company securitizes these loans through the Government National Mortgage Association (”Ginnie Mae”) MBS I program and sells the resulting securities in the open market to authorized dealers in the normal course of business and periodically bundles and sells the servicing rights. When servicing is retained on multifamily FHA loans securitized and sold, the Company computes an excess servicing asset on a loan by loan basis with the unamortized amount being included in Intangible assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Unamortized multifamily FHA MSRs totaled $807 thousand as of December 31, 2020 and $310 thousand as of December 31, 2019.
Noninterest Income includes gains from the sale of the Ginnie Mae securities and net revenues earned on the servicing of multifamily FHA loans underlying the Ginnie Mae securities. Revenue from servicing commercial multifamily FHA mortgages is recognized as earned based on the specific contractual terms of the underlying servicing agreements, along with amortization of and changes in impairment of mortgage servicing rights.
Investment Securities
The Company has no securities classified as trading or as held-to-maturity. Securities available-for-sale are acquired as part of the Company’s asset/liability management strategy and may be sold in response to changes in interest rates, current market conditions, loan demand, changes in prepayment risk and other factors. Securities available-for-sale are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains or losses, other than impairment losses, being reported as accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss), a separate component of shareholders’ equity, net of deferred income tax. Realized gains and losses, using the specific identification method, are included as a separate component of noninterest income in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Premiums and discounts on investment securities are amortized/accreted to the earlier of call or maturity based on expected lives, which lives are adjusted based on prepayment assumptions and call optionality. Declines in the fair value of
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individual available-for-sale securities below their cost that are other-than-temporary in nature result in write-downs of the individual securities to their fair value. Factors affecting the determination of whether other-than-temporary impairment has occurred include a downgrading of the security by a rating agency, a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer, or a change in management’s intent and ability to hold a security for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value. Management systematically evaluates investment securities for other-than-temporary declines in fair value on a quarterly basis. This analysis requires management to consider various factors, which include the: (1) duration and magnitude of the decline in value; (2) financial condition of the issuer or issuers; and (3) structure of the security.
For the impairment of investment securities please see "Allowance for Credit Losses - Available-for-Sale Debt Securities" below.
Loans
Loans are stated at the principal amount outstanding, net of unamortized deferred costs and fees. Interest income on loans is accrued at the contractual rate on the principal amount outstanding. It is the Company’s policy to discontinue the accrual of interest when circumstances indicate that collection is doubtful. Deferred fees and costs are being amortized on the interest method over the term of the loan.
Management considers individual loans impaired when, based on current information, it is probable that the Company will not collect all principal and interest payments according to contractual terms. Loans are evaluated for impairment in accordance with the Company’s portfolio monitoring and ongoing risk assessment procedures. Management considers the financial condition of the borrower, cash flow of the borrower, payment status of the loan, and the value of the collateral, if any, securing the loan. Generally, individually assessed loans do not include large groups of smaller balance homogeneous loans such as residential real estate and consumer type loans which are evaluated collectively for impairment and are generally placed on nonaccrual when the loan becomes 90 days past due as to principal or interest. Loans specifically reviewed for impairment are not considered impaired during periods of “minimal delay” in payment (90 days or less) provided eventual collection of all amounts due is expected. The impairment of a loan is measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, or the fair value of the collateral if repayment is expected to be provided solely by the collateral. In appropriate circumstances, interest income on individually assessed loans may be recognized on a cash basis.
Allowance for Credit Losses

On January 1, 2020, we adopted ASC 326 “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” (“ASC 326”), which replaced the incurred loss methodology for determining our provision for credit losses and allowance for credit losses ("ACL") with an expected loss methodology that is referred to as the current expected credit loss ("CECL") model. The measurement of expected credit losses under the CECL methodology is applicable to financial assets measured at amortized cost, including loans receivable and held-to-maturity (“HTM”) debt securities. It also applies to off-balance sheet credit exposures not accounted for as insurance (loan commitments, standby letters of credit, financial guarantees, and other similar instruments) and net investments in leases recognized by a lessor in accordance with ASC 842 "Leases". In addition, ASC 326 changed the accounting for available-for-sale (“AFS”) debt securities. One such change is to require credit-related impairments to be recognized as an ACL rather than as a write-down of the securities amortized cost basis when management does not intend to sell or believes that it is not more than likely that they will be required to sell the securities prior to recovery of the securities amortized cost basis. We adopted ASC 326 using the modified retrospective method. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2020 are presented under ASC 326 while prior period amounts continue to be reported in accordance with previously applicable GAAP. The Company does not own HTM investment debt securities.
The following table illustrates the impact of ASC 326.
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January 1, 2020
(dollars in thousands)As Reported Under ASC 326Pre-ASC 326 AdoptionImpact of ASC 326 Adoption
Assets:
Loans
Commercial$1,545,906 $1,545,906 $
Income producing - commercial real estate3,702,747 3,702,747 
Owner occupied - commercial real estate985,409 985,409 
Real estate mortgage - residential104,221 104,221 
Construction - commercial and residential1,035,754 1,035,754 
Construction - C&I (owner occupied)89,490 89,490 — 
Home equity80,061 80,061 
Other consumer2,160 2,160 
Allowance for credit losses on loans$(84,272)$(73,658)$(10,614)
Liabilities: Reserve for Unfunded Commitments$(4,118)$$(4,118)
The following table presents a breakdown of the provision for credit losses included in our Consolidated Statements of Income for the applicable periods (in thousands):
For the Year Ended
(dollars in thousands)December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Provision for credit losses- loans$45,404 $13,091 
Provision for credit losses- AFS debt securities167 
Total provision for credit losses$45,571 $13,091 

Allowance for Credit Losses- Loans
The ACL is an estimate of the expected credit losses in the loans held for investment portfolio.
ASC 326 replaced the incurred loss impairment model that recognizes losses when it becomes probable that a credit loss will be incurred, with a requirement to recognize lifetime expected credit losses immediately when a financial asset is originated or purchased. The ACL is a valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis of loans to present the net amount expected to be collected on the loans. Loans, or portions thereof, are charged off against the allowance when they are deemed uncollectible. Expected recoveries do not exceed the aggregate of amounts previously charged-off and expected to be charged- off.
Reserves on loans that do not share risk characteristics are evaluated on an individual basis (nonaccrual, TDR). Nonaccrual loans are specifically reviewed for loss potential and when deemed appropriate are assigned a reserve based on an individual evaluation. The remainder of the portfolio, representing all loans not assigned an individual reserve, is segregated by call report codes and a loan-level probability of default (“PD”) / Loss Given Default (“LGD”) cash flow method with and using an exposure at default (“EAD”) model. These historical loss rates are then modified to incorporate our reasonable and supportable forecast of future losses at the portfolio segment level, as well as any necessary qualitative adjustments.
The Company uses regression analysis of historical internal and peer data (as Company loss data is insufficient) to determine suitable credit loss drivers to utilize when modeling lifetime PD and LGD. This analysis also determines how expected PD will be impacted by different forecasted levels of the loss drivers.
A similar process is employed to calculate a reserve assigned to off-balance sheet commitments, specifically unfunded loan commitments and letters of credit, and any needed reserve is recorded in reserve for unfunded commitments (“RUC”) on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. For periods beyond which we are able to develop reasonable and supportable forecasts, we revert to the historical loss rate on a straight-line basis over a twelve-month period.
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The Company uses a loan-level PD/LGD cash flow method with an EAD model to estimate expected credit losses. In accordance with ASC 326, expected credit losses are measured on a collective (pooled) basis for financial assets with similar risk characteristics. The bank groups collectively assessed loans using a call report code. Some unique loan types, such as PPP loans, are grouped separately due to their specific risk characteristics.

For each of these loan segments, the Company generates cash flow projections at the instrument level wherein payment expectations are adjusted for estimated prepayment speeds, PD rates, and LGD rates. The modeling of expected prepayment speeds is based on historical internal data. EAD is based on each instrument's underlying amortization schedule in order to estimate the bank's expected credit loss exposure at the time of the borrower's potential default.
For our cash flow model, management utilizes and forecasts regional unemployment by using a national forecast and estimating a regional adjustment based on historical differences between the two as the loss driver over our reasonable and supportable period of two years and reverts back to a historical loss rate over twelve months on a straight-line basis over the loan's remaining maturity. In 2020, COVID-19 negatively impacted unemployment projections, which inform our CECL economic forecast and resulted in increased our ACL during 2020. Management leverages economic projections from reputable and independent third parties to inform its loss driver forecasts over the forecast period.
The ACL also includes an amount for inherent risks not reflected in the historical analyses. Relevant factors include, but are not limited to, concentrations of credit risk, changes in underwriting standards, experience and depth of lending staff, and trends in delinquencies.
While our methodology in establishing the ACL attributes portions of the ACL and RUC to the separate loan pools or segments, the entire ACL and RUC is available to absorb credit losses expected in the total loan portfolio and total amount of unfunded credit commitments, respectively. Portfolio segments are used to pool loans with similar risk characteristics and align with our methodology for measuring expected credit losses.
A summary of our primary portfolio segments is as follows:
Commercial. The commercial loan portfolio is comprised of lines of credit and term loans for working capital, equipment, and other business assets across a variety of industries. These loans are used for general corporate purposes including financing working capital, internal growth, and acquisitions; and are generally secured by accounts receivable, inventory, equipment and other assets of our clients’ businesses.
Income producing – commercial real estate. Income producing commercial real estate loans are comprised of permanent and bridge financing provided to professional real estate owners/managers of commercial and residential real estate projects and properties who have a demonstrated a record of past success with similar properties. Collateral properties include apartment buildings, office buildings, hotels, mixed-use buildings, retail, data centers, warehouse, and shopping centers. The primary source of repayment on these loans is generally expected to come from lease or operation of the real property collateral. Income producing commercial real estate loans are impacted by fluctuation in collateral values, as well as rental demand and rates.
Owner occupied – commercial real estate. The owner occupied commercial real estate portfolio is comprised of permanent financing provided to operating companies and their related entities for the purchase or refinance of real property wherein their business operates. Collateral properties include industrial property, office buildings, religious facilities, mixed-use property, health care and educational facilities.
Real Estate Mortgage – Residential. Real estate mortgage residential loans are comprised of consumer mortgages for the purpose of purchasing or refinancing first lien real estate loans secured by primary-residence, second-home, and rental residential real property.
Construction – commercial and residential. The construction commercial and residential loan portfolio is comprised of loans made to builders and developers of commercial and residential property, for both renovation, new construction, and development projects. Collateral properties include apartment buildings, mixed use property, residential condominiums, single and 1-4 residential property, and office buildings. The primary source of repayment on these loans is expected to come from the sale, permanent financing, or lease of the real property collateral. Construction loans are impacted by fluctuations in collateral values and the ability of the borrower or ultimate purchaser to obtain permanent financing.
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Construction – commercial and industrial ("C&I") (owner occupied). The construction C&I (owner occupied) portfolio comprises loans to operating companies and their related entities for new construction or renovation of the real or leased property in which they operate. Generally these loans contain provisions for conversion to an owner occupied commercial real estate or to a commercial loan after completion of construction. Collateral properties include industrial, healthcare, religious facilities, restaurants, and office buildings.
Home Equity. The home equity portfolio is comprised of consumer lines of credit and loans secured by subordinate liens on residential real property.
Other Consumer. The other consumer portfolio is comprised of consumer purpose loans not secured by real property, including personal lines of credit and loans, overdraft lines, and vehicle loans. This category also includes other loan items such as overdrawn deposit accounts as well as loans and loan payments in process.
We have several pass credit grades that are assigned to loans based on varying levels of risk, ranging from credits that are secured by cash or marketable securities, to watch credits which have all the characteristics of an acceptable credit risk but warrant more than the normal level of monitoring. Special mention loans are those that are currently protected by the sound worth and paying capacity of the borrower, but that are potentially weak and constitute an additional credit risk. These loans have the potential to deteriorate to a substandard grade due to the existence of financial or administrative deficiencies. Substandard loans have a well-defined weakness or weaknesses that jeopardizes the liquidation of the debt. They are characterized by the distinct possibility that we will sustain some loss if the deficiencies are not corrected. Some substandard loans are inadequately protected by the sound worth and paying capacity of the borrower and of the collateral pledged and may be considered impaired. Substandard loans can be accruing or can be on nonaccrual depending on the circumstances of the individual loans.
Loans classified as doubtful have all the weaknesses inherent in substandard loans with the added characteristics that the weaknesses make collection in full highly questionable and improbable. The possibility of loss is extremely high. All doubtful loans are on nonaccrual.
Classified loans represent the sum of loans graded substandard and doubtful.

The methodology used in the estimation of the allowance, which is performed at least quarterly, is designed to be dynamic and responsive to changes in portfolio credit quality and forecasted economic conditions. Changes are reflected in the pool-basis allowance and in specific reserves assigned on an individual basis as the collectability of classified loans is evaluated with new information. As our portfolio has matured, historical loss ratios have been closely monitored. The review of the appropriateness of the allowance is performed by executive management and presented to management committees, Director’s Loan Committee, the Audit Committee, and the Board of Directors. The committees' reports to the Board are part of the Board's review on a quarterly basis of our consolidated financial statements.
When management determines that foreclosure is probable, and for certain collateral-dependent loans where foreclosure is not considered probable, expected credit losses are based on the estimated fair value of the collateral adjusted for selling costs, when appropriate. A loan is considered collateral-dependent when the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and repayment is expected to be provided substantially through the operation or sale of the collateral.
Expected credit losses are estimated over the contractual term of the loans, adjusted for expected prepayments when appropriate. The contractual term excludes expected extensions, renewals and modifications unless management has a reasonable expectation that a loan will be in a trouble debt restructuring.
We do not measure an ACL on accrued interest receivable balances because these balances are written off in a timely manner as a reduction to interest income when loans are placed on nonaccrual status.
Collateral Dependent Financial Assets
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Loans that do not share risk characteristics are evaluated on an individual basis. For collateral dependent financial assets where the Company has determined that foreclosure of the collateral is probable, or where the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and the Company expects repayment of the financial asset to be provided substantially through the sale of the collateral, the ACL is measured based on the difference between the fair value of the collateral and the amortized cost basis of the asset as of the measurement date. When repayment is expected to be from the operation of the collateral, expected credit losses are calculated as the amount by which the amortized cost basis of the financial asset exceeds the NPV from the operation of the collateral. When repayment is expected to be from the sale of the collateral, expected credit losses are calculated as the amount by which the amortized costs basis of the financial asset exceeds the fair value of the underlying collateral less estimated cost to sell. The ACL may be zero if the fair value of the collateral at the measurement date exceeds the amortized cost basis of the financial asset.
A loan that has been modified or renewed is considered a TDR when two conditions are met: 1) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and 2) concessions are made for the borrower's benefit that would not otherwise be considered for a borrower or transaction with similar credit risk characteristics. The Company’s ACL reflects all effects of a TDR when an individual asset is specifically identified as a reasonably expected TDR. The Company has determined that a TDR is reasonably expected no later than the point when the lender concludes that modification is the best course of action and it is at least reasonably possible that the troubled borrower will accept some form of concession from the lender to avoid a default. Reasonably expected TDRs and executed non-performing TDRs are evaluated individually to determine the required ACL. For further detail on TDRs regarding the CARES Act, please see Note 1 - "Summary of Significant Accounting Principles" - "Impact of COVID."
Allowance for Credit Losses - Available-for-Sale Debt Securities
Although ASC 326 replaced the legacy other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”) model with a credit loss model, it retained the fundamental nature of the legacy OTTI model. One notable change from the legacy OTTI model is when evaluating whether credit loss exists, an entity may no longer consider the length of time fair value has been less than amortized cost. For AFS debt securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company first assesses whether it intends to sell, or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either criterion is met, the security’s amortized cost basis is written down to fair value through income. For AFS debt securities that do not meet the aforementioned criteria, the Company evaluates whether the decline in fair value has resulted from credit losses or other factors. In making this assessment, management considers the extent to which fair value is less than amortized cost, any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency, and adverse conditions specifically related to the security, among other factors. If this assessment indicates that a credit loss exists, the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security is compared to the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a credit loss exists and an ACL is recorded for the credit loss, limited by the amount that the fair value is less than the amortized cost basis. Any impairment that has not been recorded through an ACL is recognized in other comprehensive income, as a non-credit-related impairment.
The entire amount of an impairment loss is recognized in earnings only when: (1) the Company intends to sell the security; or (2) it is more likely than not that the Company will have to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis; or (3) the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security. In all other situations, only the portion of the impairment loss representing the credit loss must be recognized in earnings, with the remaining portion being recognized in shareholders’ equity as comprehensive income, net of deferred taxes.

Changes in the ACL are recorded as a provision for (or reversal of) credit losses. Losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the uncollectability of an AFS security is confirmed or when either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met. The majority of available-for-sale debt securities as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 were issued by U.S. agencies. However, as of December 31, 2020, the Company determined that part of the unrealized loss positions in AFS corporate and municipal securities could be the result of credit losses, and therefore, an ACL of $167 thousand was recorded. See Note 3 - "Investment Securities" for more information.
We have made a policy election to exclude accrued interest from the amortized cost basis of available-for-sale debt securities and report accrued interest separately in accrued interest and other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Available-for-sale debt securities are placed on nonaccrual status when we no longer expect to receive all contractual amounts due, which is generally at 90 days past due. Accrued interest receivable is reversed against interest income when a security is placed on nonaccrual status. Accordingly, we do not recognize an allowance for credit loss against accrued interest receivable.


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Loan Commitments and Allowance for Credit Losses on Off-Balance Sheet Credit Exposures
Financial instruments include off-balance sheet credit instruments such as commitments to make loans and commercial letters of credit issued to meet customer financing needs. The Company's exposure to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by the other party to the financial instrument for off-balance sheet loan commitments is represented by the contractual amount of those instruments. Such financial instruments are recorded when they are funded.
The Company records a reserve for unfunded commitments (“RUC”) on off-balance sheet credit exposures through a charge to provision for credit loss expense in the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Income. The RUC on off-balance sheet credit exposures is estimated by loan segment at each balance sheet date under the current expected credit loss model using the same methodologies as portfolio loans, taking into consideration the likelihood that funding will occur, and is included in the RUC on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization computed using the straight-line method for financial reporting purposes. Premises and equipment are depreciated over the useful lives of the assets, which generally range from three to seven years for furniture, fixtures and equipment, three to five years for computer software and hardware, and five to twenty years for building improvements. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the terms of the respective leases, which may include renewal options where management has the positive intent to exercise such options, or the estimated useful lives of the improvements, whichever is shorter. The costs of major renewals and betterments are capitalized, while the costs of ordinary maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. These costs are included as a component of premises and equipment expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Other Real Estate Owned (OREO)
Assets acquired through loan foreclosure are held for sale and are recorded at fair value less estimated selling costs when acquired, establishing a new cost basis. The new basis is supported by appraisals that are generally no more than twelve months old. Costs after acquisition are generally expensed. If the fair value of the asset declines, a write-down is recorded through noninterest expense. The valuation of foreclosed assets is subjective in nature and may be adjusted in the future because of changes in market conditions or appraised values.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired, including other intangible assets. Other intangible assets include purchased assets and mortgage servicing rights (“MSRs”) that lack physical substance but can be distinguished from goodwill because of contractual or other legal rights. Intangible assets that have finite lives, such as core deposit intangibles, are amortized over their estimated useful lives. All intangible assets are subject to periodic impairment testing. Intangible assets (other than goodwill) are amortized to expense using accelerated or straight-line methods over their respective estimated useful lives.
Goodwill is subject to impairment testing at the reporting unit level, which must be conducted at least annually or upon the occurrence of a triggering event. The Company has determined that it has a single reporting unit. If the fair values of the reporting unit exceed the book value, no write-down of recorded goodwill is required. If the fair value of a reporting unit is less than book value, an expense may be required to write-down the related goodwill to the proper carrying value. Any impairment would be recorded through a reduction of goodwill or the intangible and an offsetting charge to noninterest expense. The Company performs impairment testing at any quarter-end when events or changes in circumstances indicate the assets might be impaired, or at least annually as of December 31.
The Company performs a qualitative impairment assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. The Company assesses qualitative factors on a quarterly basis. Based on the assessment of these qualitative factors, if it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is not less than the carrying value, then performing the impairment process is not necessary. However, if it is determined that it is more likely than not that the carrying value exceeds the fair value a quantified analysis is required to determine whether an impairment exists. Based on the results of qualitative assessments of the reporting unit, the Company concluded that no impairment existed at December 31, 2020. However, future events could cause the Company to conclude that goodwill or other intangibles have become impaired, which would result in recording an impairment loss. Any resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
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Interest Rate Swap Derivatives
As required by ASC Topic 815 "Derivatives and Hedging", the Company records all derivatives on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the intended use of the derivative, whether the Company has elected to designate a derivative in a hedging relationship and apply hedge accounting and whether the hedging relationship has satisfied the criteria necessary to apply hedge accounting. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset, liability, or firm commitment attributable to a particular risk, such as interest rate risk, are considered fair value hedges. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows, or other types of forecasted transactions, are considered cash flow hedges. Hedge accounting generally provides for the matching of the timing of gain or loss recognition on the hedging instrument with the recognition of the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk in a fair value hedge or the earnings effect of the hedged forecasted transactions in a cash flow hedge. The Company may enter into derivative contracts that are intended to economically hedge certain of its risk, even though hedge accounting does not apply or the Company elects not to apply hedge accounting.
Customer Repurchase Agreements
The Company enters into agreements under which it sells securities subject to an obligation to repurchase the same securities. Under these arrangements, the Company may transfer legal control over the assets but still retain effective control through an agreement that both entitles and obligates the Company to repurchase the assets. As a result, securities sold under agreements to repurchase are accounted for as collateralized financing arrangements and not as a sale and subsequent repurchase of securities. The agreements are entered into primarily as accommodations for large commercial deposit customers. The obligation to repurchase the securities is reflected as a liability in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets, while the securities underlying the securities sold under agreements to repurchase remain in the respective assets accounts and are delivered to and held as collateral by third party trustees.
Marketing and Advertising
Marketing and advertising costs are generally expensed as incurred.
Income Taxes
The Company employs the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes as required by ASC 740, “Income Taxes.” Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities (i.e. temporary timing differences) and are measured at the enacted rates that will be in effect when these differences reverse. The Company utilizes statutory requirements for its income tax accounting, and limits risks associated with potentially problematic tax positions that may incur challenge upon audit, where an adverse outcome is more likely than not. Therefore, no provisions are necessary for either uncertain tax positions nor accompanying potential tax penalties and interest for underpayments of income taxes in the Company’s tax valuation allowance. In accordance with ASC 740, the Company may establish a reserve against deferred tax assets in those cases where realization is less than certain.
The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties on income taxes in other noninterest expenses. The Company remains subject to examination for income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service, as well as all of the states where it conducts business, for the years ending after December 31, 2017. There are currently no examinations in process as of December 31, 2020.
Transfer of Financial Assets
Transfers of financial assets are accounted for as sales, when control over the assets has been surrendered. Control over transferred assets is deemed to be surrendered when (1) the assets have been isolated from the Company, (2) the transferee obtains the right (free of conditions that constrain it from taking advantage of that right) to pledge or exchange the transferred assets, and (3) the Company does not maintain effective control over the transferred assets through an agreement to repurchase them before their maturity. In certain cases, the recourse to the Bank to repurchase assets may exist but is deemed immaterial based on the specific facts and circumstances.
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Earnings per Common Share
Basic net income per common share is derived by dividing net income available to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period measured. Diluted earnings per common share is computed by dividing net income available to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period measured including the potential dilutive effects of common stock equivalents.
Stock-Based Compensation
In accordance with ASC Topic 718, “Compensation,” the Company records as salaries and employee benefits expense on its Consolidated Statements of Income an amount equal to the amortization (over the remaining service period) of the fair value of option and restricted stock awards computed at the date of grant. Salary and employee benefits expense on variable stock grants (i.e., performance based grants) is recorded based on the probability of achievement of the goals underlying the performance grant. Refer to Note 17 - "Stock-Based Compensation" for a description of stock-based compensation awards, activity and expense for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. The Company records the discount from the fair market value of shares issued under its Employee Share Purchase Plan as a component of Salaries and employee benefits expense in its Consolidated Statement of Income.
New Authoritative Accounting Guidance
Accounting Standards Adopted in 2020
In March 2020, various regulatory agencies, including the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, (“the Agencies”) issued an interagency statement on loan modifications and reporting for financial institutions working with customers affected by COVID-19. The interagency statement was effective immediately and impacted accounting and disclosures for loan modifications. Under Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 310-40, “Receivables – Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors,” (“ASC 310-40”), a restructuring of debt constitutes a TDR if the creditor, for economic or legal reasons related to the debtor’s financial difficulties, grants a concession to the debtor that it would not otherwise consider. The Agencies confirmed with the staff of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) that short-term modifications made on a good faith basis in response to COVID-19 to borrowers who were current prior to any relief, are not to be considered TDRs. This includes short-term (e.g. six months) modifications such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or other delays in payment that are insignificant. Borrowers considered current are those that are less than 30 days past due on their contractual payments at the time a modification program is implemented. This interagency guidance has had, and is expected to continue to have, a material impact on the Company’s financial statements; however, the full extent of such impact cannot be quantified at this time. See Note 4 - "Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses" for further detail.
ASU 2016-13, “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (Topic 326).” Under the CECL standard and based on the January 1, 2020 effective date, the Company made an initial adjustment to the ACL of $10.6 million along with $4.1 million to the reserve for unfunded commitments. In accordance with adoption of CECL, the initial January 1, 2020 cumulative-effect adjustment was to retained earnings (net of taxes) under the modified retrospective approach. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2020 are presented under ASC 326 while prior period amounts continue to be reported in accordance with previously applicable GAAP. Refer to the “Allowance for Credit Losses- Loans”
section above for additional detail.

ASU 2017-04, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350"): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, in January 2017. The objective of this guidance is to simplify an entity’s required test for impairment of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. In Step 2 an entity measured a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. Under this Update, an entity should perform its annual or quarterly goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount and record an impairment charge for the excess of the carrying amount over the reporting unit’s fair value. The loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit and the entity must consider the income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. The Company adopted this standard during the current year and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

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ASU 2018-13, "Fair Value Measurement" (Topic 820): The ASU removes, modifies, and adds certain disclosures related to Level 3 investments, including: to disclose changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant observable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty. The ASU became effective January 1, 2020 and had no significant impact on the Company's documentation requirements, financial statement or disclosures.

ASU 2020-2 "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) and Leases (Topic 842)" ("ASU 2020-2") incorporates SEC SAB 119 (updated from SAB 102) into the Accounting Standards Codification (the "Codification") by aligning SEC recommended policies and procedures with ASC 326. ASU 2020-2 was effective on January 1, 2020 and had no significant impact on the Company's documentation requirements, financial statement or disclosures.

ASU 2020-3 "Codification Improvements to Financial Instruments" ("ASU 2020-3") revised a wide variety of topics in the Codification with the intent to make the Codification easier to understand and apply by eliminating inconsistencies and providing clarifications. ASU 2020-3 was effective immediately upon its release in March 2020 and did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.

Accounting Standards Pending Adoption

ASU 2019-12 "Income Taxes (Topic 740)" ("ASU 2019-12") simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions and improves the consistent application of GAAP by clarifying and amending other existing guidance. ASU 2019-12 was effective for us on January 1, 2021 and is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 2021.

ASU 2020-4, "Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848)" ("ASU 2020-4") provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to loan and lease agreements, derivative contracts, and other transactions affected by the anticipated transition away from LIBOR toward new interest rate benchmarks. For transactions that are modified because of reference rate reform and that meet certain scope guidance (i) modifications of loan agreements should be accounted for by prospectively adjusting the effective interest rate and the modification will be considered "minor" so that any existing unamortized origination fees/ costs would carry forward and continue to be amortized and (ii) modifications of lease agreements should be accounted for as a continuation of the existing agreement with no reassessments of the lease classification and the discount rate or remeasurements of lease payments that otherwise would be required for modifications not accounted for as separate contracts. ASU 2020-4 also provides numerous optional expedients for derivative accounting. ASU 2020-4 is effective March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. An entity may elect to apply ASU 2020-4 for contract modifications as of January 1, 2020, or prospectively from a date within an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020, up to the date that the financial statements are available to be issued. Once elected for a Topic or an Industry Subtopic within the Codification, the amendments in this ASU must be applied prospectively for all eligible contract modifications for that Topic or Industry Subtopic. We anticipate this ASU will simplify any modifications we execute between the selected start date (yet to be determined) and December 31, 2022 that are directly related to LIBOR transition by allowing prospective recognition of the continuation of the contract, rather than extinguishment of the old contract resulting in writing off unamortized fees/costs. We are evaluating the impacts of this ASU and have not yet determined whether LIBOR transition and this ASU will have material effects on the Company's business operations and consolidated financial statements.


Note 2 – Cash and Due from Banks
Regulation D of the Federal Reserve Act requires that banks maintain noninterest reserve balances with the Federal Reserve Bank ("FRB") based principally on the type and amount of their deposits. During 2020, the Bank maintained balances at the Federal Reserve sufficient to meet reserve requirements, as well as significant excess reserves, on which interest is paid. The average daily balance maintained in 2020 was $1.1 billion and in 2019 was $307 million. The Company also has deposits with other banks that serve as collateral for derivative positions it holds, totaling $5.1 million at December 31, 2020 and $780 thousand at December 31, 2019.
Additionally, the Bank maintains interest-bearing balances with the Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB") of Atlanta and noninterest bearing balances with domestic correspondent banks to cover associated costs for services they provide to the Bank.
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Note 3 – Investment Securities Available-for-Sale
Amortized cost and estimated fair value of securities available-for-sale are summarized as follows:
December 31, 2020Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Allowance forEstimated
Fair
Value
(dollars in thousands)Credit Losses
U. S. agency securities$181,087 $1,461 $(627)$— $181,921 
Residential mortgage backed securities811,328 14,506 (833)— 825,001 
Municipal bonds102,259 5,872 (18)108,113 
Corporate bonds34,383 1,624 (8)(149)35,850 
$1,129,057 $23,463 $(1,468)$(167)$1,150,885 
December 31, 2019Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Estimated
Fair
Value
(dollars in thousands)
U. S. agency securities$180,228 $621 $(1,055)$179,794 
Residential mortgage backed securities541,490 4,337 (1,975)543,852 
Municipal bonds71,902 2,034 (5)73,931 
Corporate bonds10,530 203 — 10,733 
U.S. Treasury34,844 11 — 34,855 
$838,994 $7,206 $(3,035)$843,165 
In addition, at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company held $40.1 million and $35.2 million in equity securities, respectively, in a combination of FRB and FHLB stocks, which are required to be held for regulatory purposes and which are not marketable, and therefore are carried at cost.
The unrealized losses that exist at December 31, 2020 are generally the result of changes in market interest rates and interest spread relationships since original purchases. However, as of December 31, 2020, the Company determined that part of the unrealized loss positions in AFS corporate and municipal securities were due to credit-related events, and therefore, an ACL of $167 thousand was recorded. The weighted average duration of debt securities, which comprise 99.9% of total investment securities, is relatively short at 3.2 years. If quoted prices are not available, fair value is measured using independent pricing models or other model-based valuation techniques such as the present value of future cash flows, adjusted for the security’s credit rating, prepayment assumptions and other factors such as credit loss assumptions. The Company does not intend to sell the investments and it is more likely than not that the Company will not have to sell the securities before recovery of its amortized cost basis, which may be at maturity.

Gross unrealized losses and fair value by length of time that the individual available-for-sale securities have been in a continuous unrealized loss position as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:
<
Less than
12 Months
12 Months
or Greater
Total
December 31, 2020Number of
Securities
Estimated
Fair
Value
Unrealized
Losses
Estimated
Fair
Value
Unrealized
Losses
Estimated
Fair
Value
Unrealized
Losses
(dollars in thousands)
U. S. agency securities28 $46,412 $67 $41,320 $560 $87,732 $627 
Residential mortgage backed securities35 170,178 782 6,419 51 176,597 833