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MFA MFA Financial

Filed: 5 Aug 21, 2:22pm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
___________________________________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One) 
   QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021
 
or 
   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from                              to                             
 
Commission File Number: 1-13991
MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________________________________________________ 
Maryland13-3974868
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Vanderbilt Ave., 48th Floor
New YorkNew York10017
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
 (212) 207-6400
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
_____________________________________________

Not Applicable 
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last period)
____________________________________________________________________ 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareMFANew York Stock Exchange
7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable
Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share
MFA/PBNew York Stock Exchange
6.50% Series C Cumulative Redeemable
Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share
MFA/PCNew York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerx Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes ☐ No x

440,812,067 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value, were outstanding as of July 29, 2021.



MFA FINANCIAL, INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 





MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 (In Thousands Except Per Share Amounts)June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
 (Unaudited) 
Assets: 
Residential whole loans, net ($2,134,855 and $1,216,902 held at fair value, respectively) (1)(2)
$5,550,979 $5,325,401 
Securities, at fair value (2)
302,835 399,999 
Cash and cash equivalents906,409 814,354 
Restricted cash8,839 7,165 
Other assets (2)
439,347 385,381 
Total Assets$7,208,409 $6,932,300 
Liabilities:  
Financing agreements ($2,294,103 and $3,366,772 held at fair value, respectively)
$4,428,791 $4,336,976 
Other liabilities253,081 70,522 
Total Liabilities$4,681,872 $4,407,498 
Commitments and contingencies (See Note 10)00
Stockholders’ Equity:  
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; 7.5% Series B cumulative redeemable; 8,050 shares authorized; 8,000 shares issued and outstanding ($200,000 aggregate liquidation preference)$80 $80 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; 6.5% Series C fixed-to-floating rate cumulative redeemable; 12,650 shares authorized; 11,000 shares issued and outstanding ($275,000 aggregate liquidation preference)110 110 
Common stock, $0.01 par value; 874,300 and 874,300 shares authorized; 440,812 and 451,714 shares issued
  and outstanding, respectively
4,408 4,517 
Additional paid-in capital, in excess of par3,804,830 3,848,129 
Accumulated deficit(1,347,466)(1,405,327)
Accumulated other comprehensive income64,575 77,293 
Total Stockholders’ Equity$2,526,537 $2,524,802 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity$7,208,409 $6,932,300 

(1)Includes approximately $2.3 billion and $1.8 billion of Residential whole loans transferred to consolidated variable interest entities (“VIEs”) at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Such assets can be used only to settle the obligations of each respective VIE.
(2)See Note 6 for information regarding the Company’s pledged assets.




The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
1


MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(UNAUDITED)
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(In Thousands, Except Per Share Amounts)2021 20202021 2020
Interest Income: 
Residential whole loans$69,016 $84,837 $133,554 $190,872 
Securities, at fair value15,345 14,716 31,804 73,297 
Other interest-earning assets108 3,165 108 6,072 
Cash and cash equivalent investments59 60 113 546 
Interest Income$84,528 $102,778 $165,579 $270,787 
Interest Expense:  
Asset-backed and other collateralized financing arrangements$21,640 $82,085 $47,691 $159,945 
Other interest expense3,915 5,906 7,934 11,805 
Interest Expense$25,555 $87,991 $55,625 $171,750 
Net Interest Income$58,973 $14,787 $109,954 $99,037 
Reversal/(Provision) for credit and valuation losses on residential whole loans$8,867 $85,377 $31,617 $(65,334)
Net Interest Income after Provision for Credit and Valuation Losses$67,840 $100,164 $141,571 $33,703 
Other Income, net:
Impairment and other losses on securities available-for-sale and other assets$$(5,094)$$(424,745)
Net realized gain/(loss) on sales of securities and residential whole loans49,485 (188,895)
Net unrealized gain/(loss) on securities measured at fair value through earnings1,374 64,438 1,475 (13,523)
Net gain/(loss) on residential whole loans measured at fair value through earnings6,021 4,910 37,510 (70,399)
Loss on terminated swaps previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes(49,857)(49,857)
Net gain/(loss) on real estate owned5,125 (4,199)7,885 (5,684)
Other, net9,127 1,264 9,096 738 
Other Income/(Loss), net$21,647 $60,947 $55,966 $(752,365)
Operating and Other Expense:
Compensation and benefits$8,886 $8,578 $17,323 $17,477 
Other general and administrative expense7,887 7,652 14,679 12,227 
Loan servicing, financing and other related costs6,000 8,337 13,299 19,617 
Costs associated with restructuring/forbearance agreement39,966 $44,434 
Operating and Other Expense$22,773 $64,533 $45,301 $93,755 
Net Income/(Loss)$66,714 $96,578 $152,236 $(812,417)
Less Preferred Stock Dividend Requirement$8,219 $8,144 $16,438 13,359 
Net Income/(Loss) Available to Common Stock and Participating Securities$58,495 $88,434 $135,798 $(825,776)
Basic Earnings/(Loss) per Common Share$0.13 $0.19 $0.30 $(1.82)
Diluted Earnings/(Loss) per Common Share$0.13 $0.19 $0.30 $(1.82)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
2


MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME/(LOSS)
(UNAUDITED)
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(In Thousands)2021202020212020
Net income/(loss)$66,714 $96,578 $152,236 $(812,417)
Other Comprehensive (Loss):  
Unrealized (losses)/gains on securities available-for-sale(9,589)48,715 (13,444)393,503 
Reclassification adjustment for securities sales included in net income(144,736)(389,067)
Reclassification adjustment for impairments included in net income(344,269)
Derivative hedging instrument fair value changes, net(50,126)
Changes in fair value of financing agreements at fair value due to changes in instrument-specific credit risk491 726 
Reclassification adjustment for losses related to hedging instruments included in net income64,032 65,625 
Other Comprehensive (Loss)(9,098)(31,989)(12,718)(324,334)
Comprehensive income/(loss) before preferred stock dividends$57,616 $64,589 $139,518 $(1,136,751)
Dividends required on preferred stock(8,219)(8,144)(16,438)(13,359)
Comprehensive Income/(Loss) Available to Common Stock and Participating Securities$49,397 $56,445 $123,080 $(1,150,110)
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
3


MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(UNAUDITED)
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
(In Thousands, Except Per Share Amounts)
Preferred Stock
6.50% Series C Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable - Liquidation Preference $25.00 per Share
Preferred Stock
7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable - Liquidation Preference $25.00 per Share
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated
 Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive IncomeTotal
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202011,000 $110 8,000 $80 451,714 $4,517 $3,848,129 $(1,405,327)$77,293 $2,524,802 
Net Income— — — — — — — 85,522 — 85,522 
Issuance of common stock, net of expenses— — — — 559 376 — — 382 
Repurchase of shares of common stock (1)
— — — — (6,159)(62)(25,074)— — (25,136)
Equity based compensation expense— — — — — — 1,686 — — 1,686 
Change in accrued dividends attributable to stock-based awards— — — — — — 489 — — 489 
Dividends declared on common stock ($0.075 per share)— — — — — — — (33,521)— (33,521)
Dividends declared on Series B Preferred Stock ($0.46875 per share)— — — — — — — (3,750)— (3,750)
Dividends declared on Series C Preferred Stock ($0.40625 per share)— — — — — — (4,468)— (4,468)
Dividends attributable to dividend equivalents— — — — — — — (120)— (120)
Change in unrealized gains on MBS, net— — — — — — — — (3,855)(3,855)
Changes in fair value of financing agreements at fair value due to changes in instrument-specific credit risk— — — — — — — — 235 235 
Balance at March 31, 202111,000 $110 8,000 $80 446,114 $4,461 $3,825,606 $(1,361,664)$73,673 $2,542,266 
Net income    — — — 66,714 — 66,714 
Issuance of common stock, net of expenses    358 394 — — 398 
Repurchase of shares of common stock (1)
    (5,660)(57)(23,684)— — (23,741)
Equity based compensation expense    — — 2,741 — — 2,741 
Change in accrued dividends attributable to stock-based awards    — — (227)(61)— (288)
Dividends declared on common stock ($0.10 per share)    — — — (44,081)— (44,081)
Dividends declared on Series B Preferred Stock ($0.46875 per share)    — — — (3,750)— (3,750)
Dividends declared on Series C Preferred Stock ($0.40625 per share)    — — — (4,469)— (4,469)
Dividends attributable to dividend equivalents    — — — (155)— (155)
Change in unrealized gains on MBS, net    — — — — (9,589)(9,589)
Changes in fair value of financing agreements at fair value due to changes in instrument-specific credit risk    — — — — 491 491 
Balance at June 30, 202111,000 $110 8,000 $80 440,812 $4,408 $3,804,830 $(1,347,466)$64,575 $2,526,537 

(1)  For the six months ended June 30, 2021 includes approximately $799,000 (213,123 shares) surrendered for tax purposes related to equity-based compensation awards.



The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.











4

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(UNAUDITED)
Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
(In Thousands, Except Per Share Amounts)
Preferred Stock
6.50% Series C Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable - Liquidation Preference $25.00 per Share
Preferred Stock
7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable - Liquidation Preference $25.00 per Share
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated
 Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive IncomeTotal
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 20198,000 $80 452,369 $4,524 $3,640,341 $(631,040)$370,047 $3,383,952 
Cumulative effect adjustment on adoption of new accounting standard ASU 2016-13— — — — — — — (8,326)— (8,326)
Net loss— — — — — — — (908,995)— (908,995)
Issuance of Series C Preferred Stock, net of expenses11,000 110 — — — — 265,919 — — 266,029 
Issuance of common stock, net of expenses— — — — 1,106 680 — — 687 
Repurchase of shares of common stock (1)
— — — — (337)— (2,652)— — (2,652)
Equity based compensation expense— — — — — — 1,266 — — 1,266 
Change in accrued dividends attributable to stock-based awards— — — — — — 1,059 — — 1,059 
Change in unrealized losses on securities, net— — — — — — — — (243,812)(243,812)
Derivative hedging instruments fair value changes and amortization, net— — — — — — — — (48,533)(48,533)
Balance at March 31, 202011,000 $110 8,000 $80 453,138 $4,531 $3,906,613 $(1,548,361)$77,702 $2,440,675 
Net income— — — — — — — 96,578 — 96,578 
Issuance of common stock, net of expenses— — — — 106 36 — — 37 
Equity based compensation expense— — — — — — 1,709 — — 1,709 
Change in unrealized gains on MBS, net— — — — — — — — (96,021)(96,021)
Derivative hedging instruments fair value changes, net— — — — — — — — 64,032 64,032 
Warrants Issued— — — — — — 14,041 — — 14,041 
Balance at June 30, 202011,000 $110 8,000 $80 453,244 $4,532 $3,922,399 $(1,451,783)$45,713 $2,521,051 

(1)  For the six months ended June 30, 2020, includes approximately $2.7 million (337,026 shares) surrendered for tax purposes related to equity-based compensation awards.

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

5

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(In Thousands)20212020
Cash Flows From Operating Activities:  
Net income/(loss)$152,236 $(812,417)
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities: 
(Gains)/losses on residential whole loans and real estate owned, net(41,418)346,372 
Gains on securities, net(1,476)(71,430)
Impairment and other losses on securities available-for-sale and other assets424,745 
Loss on terminated swaps previously designed as hedges for accounting purposes49,857 
Accretion of purchase discounts on residential whole loans and securities(34,322)(20,244)
Amortization of purchase premiums on residential whole loans and securities, and amortization of terminated hedging instruments15,669 35,594 
(Reversal of provision)/provision for credit and valuation losses on residential whole loans and other financial instruments(33,234)65,334 
Net other non-cash losses included in net income9,214 42,540 
Decrease in other assets18,092 22,084 
Increase/(decrease) in other liabilities11,835 (25,791)
Net cash provided by operating activities$96,596 $56,644 
Cash Flows From Investing Activities:  
Purchases of residential whole loans, loan related investments and capitalized advances$(1,032,791)$(1,285,106)
Proceeds from sales of residential whole loans, and residential whole loan repurchases1,505,458 
Principal payments on residential whole loans and loan related investments917,553 862,480 
Purchases of securities(163,748)
Proceeds from sales of securities and other assets3,790,032 
Principal payments on securities110,320 590,921 
Purchases of real estate owned and capital improvements(624)(8,798)
Proceeds from sales of real estate owned88,625 113,359 
Additions to leasehold improvements, furniture and fixtures(43,589)837 
Net cash provided by investing activities$39,494 $5,405,435 
Cash Flows From Financing Activities: 
Principal payments on financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions$(698,220)$(21,021,793)
Proceeds from borrowings under financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions721,380 13,537,087 
Principal payments on other collateralized financing agreements(1,072,865)(57,404)
Proceeds from borrowings under other collateralized financing agreements1,243,860 2,517,556 
Payment made for other collateralized financing agreement related costs(5,119)
Principal payment on redemption of Senior notes(100,000)
Payments made for settlements and unwinds of Swaps(88,405)
Proceeds from issuance of series C preferred stock275,000 
Payments made for costs related to series C preferred stock issuance(8,948)
Proceeds from issuances of common stock772 724 
Proceeds from the issuance of warrants14,041 
Payments made for the repurchase of common stock through the share repurchase program(48,075)
Dividends paid on preferred stock(16,438)
Dividends paid on common stock and dividend equivalents(67,656)(90,749)
Net cash used in financing activities$(42,361)$(4,922,891)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$93,729 $539,188 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period$821,519 $134,664 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$915,248 $673,852 
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information 
Interest Paid$58,610 $165,333 
Non-cash Investing and Financing Activities:
Transfer from residential whole loans to real estate owned$38,370 $59,219 
Dividends and dividend equivalents declared and unpaid$44,236 $
Payable for unsettled residential whole loan purchases$131,275 $
Right-of-use lease asset and lease liability$40,893 $
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
6

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
 
1.   Organization
 
MFA Financial, Inc. (the “Company”) was incorporated in Maryland on July 24, 1997 and began operations on April 10, 1998.  The Company has elected to be treated as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes.  In order to maintain its qualification as a REIT, the Company must comply with a number of requirements under federal tax law, including that it must distribute at least 90% of its annual REIT taxable income to its stockholders.  The Company has elected to treat certain of its subsidiaries as taxable REIT subsidiaries (“TRS”). In general, a TRS may hold assets and engage in activities that the Company cannot hold or engage in directly and generally may engage in any real estate or non-real estate related business (see Note 2(m)).
 
2.   Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 
(a)  Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
 
The interim unaudited consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).  Certain information and note disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted in accordance with these SEC rules and regulations.  Management believes that the disclosures included in these interim unaudited consolidated financial statements are adequate to make the information presented not misleading.  The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.  In the opinion of management, all normal and recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the financial condition of the Company at June 30, 2021 and results of operations for all periods presented have been made.  The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 should not be construed as indicative of the results to be expected for the full year.
 
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with GAAP.  The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.  Although the Company’s estimates contemplate current conditions and how it expects them to change in the future, it is reasonably possible that actual conditions could differ from those estimates, which could materially impact the Company’s results of operations and its financial condition.  Management has made significant estimates in several areas, impairment, valuation allowances and loss allowances on residential whole loans (see Note 3), MBS, CRT securities and MSR-related assets (collectively, “Securities, at fair value”) (see Note 4) and Other assets (see Note 5), valuation of Securities, at fair value (see Notes 4 and 14), income recognition and valuation of residential whole loans (see Notes 3 and 14), valuation of derivative instruments (see Notes 5(c) and 14) and income recognition on certain Non-Agency MBS (defined below) purchased at a discount (see Note 4).  In addition, estimates are used in the determination of taxable income used in the assessment of REIT compliance and contingent liabilities for related taxes, penalties and interest (see Note 2(m)).  Actual results could differ from those estimates.

The Company has 1 reportable segment as it manages its business and analyzes and reports its results of operations on the basis of 1 operating segment: investing, on a leveraged basis, in residential mortgage assets.
 
The consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of all subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. In addition, the Company consolidates entities established to facilitate transactions related to the acquisition and securitization of residential whole loans completed in prior years. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. In particular, prior period disclosures have been conformed to the current period presentation of interest income from residential whole loans at fair value. Starting in the current quarter, interest income for these loans is presented in interest income in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Previously, interest income received on residential whole loans at fair value was presented in other income in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

7

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
(b)  Residential Whole Loans (including Residential Whole Loans transferred to consolidated VIEs)

Residential whole loans included in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets are primarily comprised of pools of fixed- and adjustable-rate residential mortgage loans acquired through consolidated trusts in secondary market transactions. The accounting model utilized by the Company is determined at the time each loan package is initially acquired. Prior to the second quarter of 2021, the fair value option was typically elected on loans that were 60 or more days delinquent at purchase (“Purchased Non-performing Loans”). Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans acquired prior to the second quarter of 2021, and where the underlying borrower had a delinquency status of less than 60 days at the acquisition date, are typically held at carrying value. Purchased Performing Loans acquired prior to the second quarter of 2021 are also typically held at carrying value, but the accounting methods for income recognition and determination and measurement of any required credit loss reserves (as discussed below) differ from those used for Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans held at carrying value. Starting in the second quarter of 2021, the Company elected the fair value option for all loan purchases, irrespective of borrower delinquency status at purchase. Over time, the Company expects that election of the fair value option should serve to simplify reporting of the results of its loan investment activities as fair value accounting will be used for the majority of loans in the Company’s portfolio. The accounting model initially applied to loan acquisitions is not permitted to be subsequently changed. Consequently, the Company is not permitted to retroactively apply fair value accounting to loans held at carrying value acquired in periods prior to the second quarter of 2021.

The Company’s residential whole loans pledged as collateral against financing agreements are included in the consolidated balance sheets with amounts pledged disclosed in Note 6.  Purchases and sales of residential whole loans that are subject to an extended period of due diligence that crosses a reporting date are recorded in our balance sheet at amounts reflecting management’s current estimate of assets that will be acquired or disposed at the closing of the transaction. This estimate is subject to revision at the closing of the transaction, pending the outcome of due diligence performed prior to closing. Residential whole loans purchased under flow arrangements with loan origination partners are generally recorded at the transaction settlement date. Recorded amounts of residential whole loans for which the closing of the purchase transaction is yet to occur are not eligible to be pledged as collateral against any financing agreement until the closing of the purchase transaction. Interest income, credit related losses and changes in the fair value of loans held at fair value are recorded post settlement for acquired loans and until transaction settlement for sold loans (see Notes 3, 6, 7, 14 and 15).

Purchased Performing Loans

Acquisitions of Purchased Performing Loans to date have been primarily comprised of: (i) loans to finance (or refinance) one-to-four family residential properties that are not considered to meet the definition of a “Qualified Mortgage” in accordance with guidelines adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“Non-QM loans”), (ii) short-term business purpose loans collateralized by residential properties made to non-occupant borrowers who intend to rehabilitate and sell the property for a profit (“Rehabilitation loans” or “Fix and Flip loans”), (iii) loans to finance (or refinance) non-owner occupied one-to four-family residential properties that are rented to one or more tenants (“Single-family rental loans”), (iv) previously originated loans secured by residential real estate that is generally owner occupied (“Seasoned performing loans”), and (v) loans on investor properties that conform to the standards for purchase by a federally chartered corporation, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) (“Agency eligible investor loans”). Purchased Performing Loans are initially recorded at their purchase price. Interest income on Purchased Performing Loans acquired at par is accrued based on each loan’s current interest bearing balance and current interest rate, net of related servicing costs. Interest income on such loans purchased at a premium/discount to par is recorded each period based on the contractual coupon net of any amortization of premium or accretion of discount, adjusted for actual prepayment activity. For loans acquired with related servicing rights retained by the seller, interest income is reported net of related serving costs.

For Purchased Performing Loans acquired prior to the second quarter of 2021 and where the fair value option was not elected, an allowance for credit losses is recorded at acquisition, and maintained on an ongoing basis, for all losses expected over the life of the respective loan. Any required credit loss allowance would reduce the net carrying value of the loan with a corresponding charge to earnings, and may increase or decrease over time. Significant judgments are required in determining any allowance for credit loss, including assumptions regarding the loan cash flows expected to be collected, the value of the underlying collateral and the ability of the Company to collect on any other forms of security, such as a personal guaranty provided either by the borrower or an affiliate of the borrower. Income recognition is suspended, and interest accruals are reversed against income, for loans at the earlier of the date at which payments become 90 days past due or when, in the opinion of management, a full recovery of income and principal becomes doubtful (i.e., such loans are placed on nonaccrual status).
8

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
For nonaccrual loans, interest income is recorded under the cash basis method as interest payments are received. Interest accruals are resumed when the loan becomes contractually current. A loan is written off when it is no longer realizable and/or it is legally discharged. Modified loans are considered “troubled debt restructurings” if the Company grants a concession to a borrower who is experiencing financial difficulty (including the interpretation of this definition set forth in OCC Bulletin 2020-35).

Charge-offs to the allowance for loan losses occur when losses are confirmed through the receipt of cash or other consideration from the completion of a sale; when a modification or restructuring takes place in which we grant a concession to a borrower or agree to a discount in full or partial satisfaction of the loan; when we take ownership and control of the underlying collateral in full satisfaction of the loan; when loans are reclassified as other investments; or when significant collection efforts have ceased and it is highly likely that a loss has been realized.

The aggregate allowance for credit losses is equal to the sum of the losses expected over the life of each respective loan. Expected losses are generally calculated based on the estimated probability of default and loss severity of loans in the portfolio, which involves projecting each loan’s expected cash flows based on their contractual terms, expected prepayments, and estimated default and loss severity rates. The results were not discounted. The default and severity rates were estimated based on the following steps: (i) obtained the Company’s historical experience through an entire economic cycle for each loan type or, to the extent the Company did not have sufficient historical loss experience for a given loan type, publicly available data derived from the historical loss experience of certain banks, which data the Company believes is generally representative of its portfolio, (ii) obtained historical economic data (U.S. unemployment rates and home price appreciation) over the same period, and (iii) estimated default and severity rates during three distinct future periods based on historical default and severity rates during periods when economic conditions similar to those forecasted were experienced. The default and severity rates were applied to the estimated amount of loans outstanding during each future period, based on contractual terms and expected prepayments. Expected prepayments are estimated based on historical experience and current and expected future economic conditions, including market interest rates. The three periods were as follows: (i) a one-year forecast of economic conditions based on U.S. unemployment rates and home price appreciation, followed by (ii) a two-year “reversion” period during which economic conditions (U.S. unemployment rates and home price appreciation) are projected to revert to historical averages on a straight line basis, followed by (iii) the remaining life of each loan, during which period economic conditions (U.S. unemployment rates and home price appreciation) are projected to equal historical averages. In addition, a liability is established (and recorded in Other Liabilities) each period using a similar methodology for committed but undrawn loan amounts. The Company forecasts future economic conditions based on forecasts provided by an external preparer of economic forecasts, as well as its own knowledge of the market and its portfolio. The Company generally considers multiple scenarios and selects the one that it believes results in the most reasonable estimate of expected losses. The Company may apply qualitative adjustments to these results as further described in Note 3. For certain loans where foreclosure has been deemed to be probable, loss estimates are based on whether the value of the underlying collateral is sufficient to recover the carrying value of the loan. This methodology has not changed from the calculation of the allowance for credit losses on January 1, 2021.

Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans

The Company has elected to account for these loans as credit deteriorated as they have experienced a more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality since origination and were acquired at discounted prices that reflect, in part, the impaired credit history of the borrower. Substantially all of these loans have previously experienced payment delinquencies and the amount owed may exceed the value of the property pledged as collateral. Consequently, these loans generally have a higher likelihood of default than newly originated mortgage loans with loan-to-value ratios (“LTVs”) of 80% or less to creditworthy borrowers. The Company believes that amounts paid to acquire these loans represent fair market value at the date of acquisition. Loans considered credit deteriorated are initially recorded at the purchase price on a net basis, after establishing an initial allowance for credit losses (their initial cost basis is equal to their purchase price plus the initial allowance for credit losses). Subsequent to acquisition, the gross recorded amount for these loans reflects the initial cost basis, plus accretion of interest income, less principal and interest cash flows received. Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans acquired prior to the second quarter of 2021, or where the fair value option was not otherwise elected, are presented on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets at carrying value, which reflects the recorded cost basis reduced by any allowance for credit losses. Interest income on such loans purchased is recorded each period based on the contractual coupon net of amortization of the difference between their cost basis and unpaid principal balance (“UPB”), subject to the Company’s nonaccrual policy.

9

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Residential Whole Loans at Fair Value

Certain of the Company’s residential whole loans are presented at fair value on its consolidated balance sheets as a result of a fair value election made at the time of acquisition. Prior to the second quarter of 2021, this accounting election was made primarily on Purchased Non-performing Loans. Starting in the second quarter of 2021, the Company made the fair value election on all loan purchases, which, to date, have been comprised exclusively of Purchased Performing Loans. The Company generally considers accounting for these loans at fair value to be more reflective of the expected pattern of returns from these loans under current economic conditions. The Company determines the fair value of its residential whole loans held at fair value after considering portfolio valuations obtained from a third-party that specializes in providing valuations of residential mortgage loans and trading activity observed in the market place. Subsequent changes in fair value are reported in current period earnings and presented in Net (loss)/gain on residential whole loans measured at fair value through earnings on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

Interest income is recorded on these loans based on their yield and is presented as part of interest income in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Cash outflows associated with loan-related advances made by the Company on behalf of the borrower are included in the basis of the loan and are reflected in unrealized gains or losses reported each period.

(c)  Securities, at Fair Value

MSR-Related Assets

The Company has investments in financial instruments whose cash flows are considered to be largely dependent on underlying MSRs that either directly or indirectly act as collateral for the investment. These financial instruments, which are referred to as MSR-related assets, are discussed in more detail below. The Company’s MSR-related assets pledged as collateral against repurchase agreements are included in the consolidated balance sheets with the amounts pledged disclosed in Note 6. Purchases and sales of MSR-related assets are recorded on the trade date (see Notes 4, 6, 7 and 14).

Term Notes Backed by MSR-Related Collateral
The Company has invested in term notes that are issued by special purpose vehicles (“SPV”) that have acquired rights to receive cash flows representing the servicing fees and/or excess servicing spread associated with certain MSRs. The Company considers payment of principal and interest on these term notes to be largely dependent on the cash flows generated by the underlying MSRs as this impacts the cash flows available to the SPV that issued the term notes. Credit risk borne by the holders of the term notes is also mitigated by structural credit support in the form of over-collateralization. Credit support is also provided by a corporate guarantee from the ultimate parent or sponsor of the SPV that is intended to provide for payment of interest and principal to the holders of the term notes should cash flows generated by the underlying MSRs be insufficient.

The Company’s term notes backed by MSR-related collateral are treated as “available-for-sale” (“AFS”) securities and reported at fair value on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets with unrealized gains and losses excluded from earnings and reported in Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) (“AOCI”), a component of Stockholders’ Equity, subject to impairment and loss allowances. Interest income is recognized on an accrual basis on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The Company’s valuation process for such notes is similar to that used for residential mortgage securities and considers a number of observable market data points, including prices obtained from pricing services, brokers and repurchase agreement counterparties, dialogue with market participants, as well as management’s observations of market activity. Other factors taken into consideration include estimated changes in fair value of the related underlying MSR collateral, as applicable, and the financial performance of the ultimate parent or sponsoring entity of the issuer, which has provided a guarantee that is intended to provide for payment of interest and principal to the holders of the term notes should cash flows generated by the related underlying MSR collateral be insufficient.

Corporate Loans
The Company has made or participated in loans to provide financing to entities that originate residential mortgage loans and own the related MSRs. These corporate loans are generally secured by certain MSRs, as well as certain other unencumbered assets owned by the borrower.

10

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Corporate loans are recorded on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets at the drawn amount, on which interest income is recognized on an accrual basis on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations, subject to loss allowances. Commitment fees received on the undrawn amount are deferred and recognized as interest income over the remaining loan term at the time of draw. At the end of the commitment period, any remaining deferred commitment fees are recorded as Other Income on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The Company evaluates the recoverability of its corporate loans on a quarterly basis considering various factors, including the current status of the loan, changes in the fair value of the MSRs that secure the loan and the recent financial performance of the borrower.

Residential Mortgage Securities
 
Prior to the quarter ended June 30, 2020, the Company had invested in residential mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) that are issued or guaranteed as to principal and/or interest by a federally chartered corporation, such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or an agency of the U.S. Government, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) (collectively, “Agency MBS”), and residential MBS that are not guaranteed by any agency of the U.S. Government or any federally chartered corporation (“Non-Agency MBS”). The Company disposed of its investments in Agency MBS during 2020 and has substantially reduced its investments in Non-Agency MBS. In addition, the Company has investments in CRT securities that are issued by or sponsored by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The coupon payments on CRT securities are paid by the issuer and the principal payments received are dependent on the performance of loans in either a reference pool or an actual pool of loans. As the loans in the underlying pool are paid, the principal balance of the CRT securities is paid. As an investor in a CRT security, the Company may incur a principal loss if the performance of the actual or reference pool loans results in either an actual or calculated loss that exceeds the credit enhancement of the security owned by the Company.
 
Designation
 
MBS that the Company generally intends to hold until maturity, but that it may sell from time to time as part of the overall management of its business, are designated as AFS. Such MBS are carried at their fair value with unrealized gains and losses excluded from earnings (except when an allowance for loan losses is recognized, as discussed below) and reported in AOCI, a component of Stockholders’ Equity.
 
Upon the sale of an AFS security, any unrealized gain or loss is reclassified out of AOCI to earnings as a realized gain or loss using the specific identification method.

The Company had elected the fair value option for certain of its previously held Agency MBS that it did not intend to hold to maturity. These securities were carried at their fair value with changes in fair value included in earnings for the period and reported in Other Income, net on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

In addition, the Company has elected the fair value option for certain of its CRT securities as it considers this method of accounting to more appropriately reflect the risk-sharing structure of these securities. Such securities are carried at their fair value with changes in fair value included in earnings for the period and reported in Other Income, net on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.
 
Revenue Recognition, Premium Amortization and Discount Accretion
 
Interest income on securities is accrued based on their outstanding principal balance and their contractual terms. Premiums and discounts associated with Agency MBS and Non-Agency MBS assessed as high credit quality at the time of purchase are amortized into interest income over the life of such securities using the effective yield method. Adjustments to premium amortization are made for actual prepayment activity.
 
Determination of Fair Value for Residential Mortgage Securities
 
In determining the fair value of the Company’s residential mortgage securities, management considers a number of observable market data points, including prices obtained from pricing services, brokers and repurchase agreement counterparties, dialogue with market participants, as well as management’s observations of market activity (see Note 14).
 
11

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Allowance for credit losses

When the fair value of an AFS security is less than its amortized cost at the balance sheet date, the security is considered impaired.  The Company assesses its impaired securities, as well as securities for which a credit loss allowance had been previously recorded, on at least a quarterly basis and determines whether any changes to the allowance for credit losses are required.  If the Company intends to sell an impaired security, or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the impaired security before its anticipated recovery, then the Company must recognize a write-down through charges to earnings equal to the entire difference between the investment’s amortized cost and its fair value at the balance sheet date.  If the Company does not expect to sell an impaired security, only the portion of the impairment related to credit losses is recognized through a loss allowance charged to earnings with the remainder recognized through AOCI on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.  Impairments recognized through other comprehensive income/(loss) (“OCI”) do not impact earnings.  Credit loss allowances are subject to reversal through earnings resulting from improvements in expected cash flows. The determination as to whether to record (or reverse) a credit loss allowance is subjective, as such determinations are based on factual information available at the time of assessment as well as the Company’s estimates of future performance and cash flow projections.  As a result, the timing and amount of losses constitute material estimates that are susceptible to significant change (see Note 4).

Balance Sheet Presentation
 
The Company’s residential mortgage securities pledged as collateral against financing agreements and interest rate swap agreements (“Swaps”) are included on the consolidated balance sheets with the fair value of the securities pledged disclosed in Note 6.  Purchases and sales of securities are recorded on the trade date. 

(d)  Cash and Cash Equivalents
 
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on deposit with financial institutions and investments in money market funds, all of which have original maturities of three months or less.  Cash and cash equivalents may also include cash pledged as collateral to the Company by its financing counterparties as a result of reverse margin calls (i.e., margin calls made by the Company).  The Company did not hold any cash pledged by its counterparties at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020. At June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $906.4 million and $814.4 million, respectively. At June 30, 2021, the Company had $878.4 million of investments in overnight money market funds, which are not bank deposits and are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any other government agency. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $752.4 million worth of investments in overnight money market funds. In addition, deposits in FDIC insured accounts generally exceed insured limits (see Notes 7 and 14).
 
(e) Restricted Cash
 
Restricted cash represents the Company’s cash held by its counterparties in connection with certain of the Company’s Swaps and/or financing agreements that is not available to the Company for general corporate purposes. Restricted cash may be applied against amounts due to financing agreement and/or Swap counterparties, or may be returned to the Company when the related collateral requirements are exceeded or at the maturity of the Swap and/or financing agreements.  The Company had aggregate restricted cash held as collateral or otherwise in connection with its financing agreements and/or Swaps of $8.8 million and $7.2 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively (see Notes 5(c), 6, 7 and 14).

(f) Real Estate Owned (“REO”)
REO represents real estate acquired by the Company, including through foreclosure, deed in lieu of foreclosure, or purchased in connection with the acquisition of residential whole loans. REO acquired through foreclosure or deed in lieu of foreclosure is initially recorded at fair value less estimated selling costs. REO acquired in connection with the acquisition of residential whole loans is initially recorded at its purchase price. Subsequent to acquisition, REO is reported, at each reporting date, at the lower of the current carrying amount or fair value less estimated selling costs and for presentation purposes is included in Other assets on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. Changes in fair value that result in an adjustment to the reported amount of an REO property that has a fair value at or below its carrying amount are reported in Other Income, net on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The Company has acquired certain properties that it holds for investment purposes, including rentals to third parties. These properties are held at their historical basis less depreciation, and are subject to impairment. Related rental income and expenses are recorded in Other Income, net (see Note 5).
12

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

(g)  Leases and Depreciation
 
Leases

The Company records its operating lease liabilities and operating lease right-of-use assets on its consolidated balance sheets. The operating lease liabilities are equal to the present value of the remaining fixed lease payments (excluding real estate tax and operating expense escalations) discounted at the Company’s estimated incremental borrowing rate at the date of lease commencement, and the operating lease right-of-use assets are equal to the operating lease liabilities adjusted for lease incentives and initial direct costs. As lease payments are made, the operating lease liabilities are reduced to the present value of the remaining lease payments and the operating lease right-of-use assets are reduced by the difference between the lease expense (straight-lined over the lease term) and the theoretical interest expense amount (calculated using the incremental borrowing rate at the date of lease commencement). See Notes 5 and 10 for further discussion on leases.

Leasehold Improvements, Real estate and Other Depreciable Assets
 
Depreciation is computed on the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the related assets or, in the case of leasehold improvements, over the shorter of the useful life or the lease term.  Furniture, fixtures, computers and related hardware have estimated useful lives ranging from five to eight years at the time of purchase. The building component of real estate held-for-investment is depreciated over 27.5 years.
 
(h)  Loan Securitization and Other Debt Issuance Costs
 
Loan securitization related costs are costs associated with the issuance of beneficial interests by consolidated VIEs and incurred by the Company in connection with various financing transactions completed by the Company.  These costs may include underwriting, rating agency, legal, accounting and other fees.  Such costs, which reflect deferred charges (unless the debt is recorded at fair value, as discussed below), are included on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as a direct deduction from the corresponding debt liability. These deferred charges are amortized as an adjustment to interest expense using the effective interest method. For certain financing agreements, such costs are amortized over the shorter of the period to the expected or stated legal maturity of the debt instruments. The Company periodically reviews the recoverability of these deferred costs and, in the event an impairment charge is required, such amount will be included in Operating and Other Expense on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

(i)  Financing Agreements

The Company finances the majority of its residential mortgage assets with financing agreements that include repurchase agreements and other forms of collateralized financing.  Under repurchase agreements, the Company sells assets to a lender and agrees to repurchase the same assets in the future for a price that is higher than the original sale price.  The difference between the sale price that the Company receives and the repurchase price that the Company pays represents interest paid to the lender.  Although legally structured as sale and repurchase transactions, the Company accounts for repurchase agreements as secured borrowings. Under its repurchase agreements and other forms of collateralized financing, the Company pledges its assets as collateral to secure the borrowing, in an amount which is equal to a specified percentage of the fair value of the pledged collateral, while the Company retains beneficial ownership of the pledged collateral.  At the maturity of a repurchase financing, unless the repurchase financing is renewed with the same counterparty, the Company is required to repay the loan including any accrued interest and concurrently receives back its pledged collateral from the lender.  With the consent of the lender, the Company may renew a repurchase financing at the then prevailing financing terms.  Margin calls, whereby a lender requires that the Company pledge additional assets or cash as collateral to secure borrowings under its repurchase financing with such lender, are routinely experienced by the Company when the value of the assets pledged as collateral declines as a result of principal amortization and prepayments or due to changes in market interest rates, spreads or other market conditions.  The Company also may make margin calls on counterparties when collateral values increase.
 
The Company’s repurchase financings collateralized by residential mortgage securities and MSR-related assets typically have terms ranging from one month to six months at inception, while the majority of our financing arrangements collateralized by residential whole loans have terms of twelve months or longer.  Should a counterparty decide not to renew a financing arrangement at maturity, the Company must either refinance elsewhere or be in a position to satisfy the obligation.  If, during the term of a financing, a lender should default on its obligation, the Company might experience difficulty recovering its
13

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
pledged assets which could result in an unsecured claim against the lender for the difference between the amount loaned to the Company plus interest due to the counterparty and the fair value of the collateral pledged by the Company to such lender, including accrued interest receivable on such collateral (see Notes 6, 7 and 14).
 
The Company has elected the fair value option on certain of its financing agreements. These agreements are reported at their fair value, with changes in fair value being recorded in earnings each period (or other comprehensive income, to the extent the change results from a change in instrument specific credit risk), as further detailed in Note 6. Financing costs, including “up front” fees paid at inception related to financing agreements at fair value are expensed as incurred. Interest expense is recorded based on the current interest rate in effect for the related agreement.

(j)  Equity-Based Compensation
 
Compensation expense for equity-based awards that are subject to vesting conditions, is recognized ratably over the vesting period of such awards, based upon the fair value of such awards at the grant date. 
 
The Company has made annual grants of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), certain of which cliff vest after a three-year period, subject only to continued employment, and others of which cliff vest after a three-year period, subject to both continued employment and the achievement of certain performance criteria based on a formula tied to the Company’s achievement of average total shareholder return (“TSR”) during that three-year period, as well as the TSR of the Company relative to the TSR of a group of peer companies (over the three-year period) selected by the Compensation Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Compensation Committee”) at the date of grant. The features in these awards related to the attainment of TSR over a specified period constitute a “market condition,” which impacts the amount of compensation expense recognized for these awards.  Specifically, the uncertainty regarding the achievement of the market condition was reflected in the grant date fair valuation of the RSUs, which is recognized as compensation expense over the relevant vesting period.  The amount of compensation expense recognized is not dependent on whether the market condition was or will be achieved.
 
The Company makes dividend equivalent payments in connection with certain of its equity-based awards.   A dividend equivalent is a right to receive a distribution equal to the dividend distributions that would be paid on a share of the Company’s common stock.  Dividend equivalents may be granted as a separate instrument or may be a right associated with the grant of another award (e.g., an RSU) under the Company’s Equity Compensation Plan (the “Equity Plan”), and they are paid in cash or other consideration at such times and in accordance with such rules, terms and conditions, as the Compensation Committee may determine in its discretion.  Payments pursuant to dividend equivalents are generally charged to Stockholders’ Equity to the extent that the attached equity awards are expected to vest.  Compensation expense is recognized for payments made for dividend equivalents to the extent that the attached equity awards (i) do not or are not expected to vest and (ii) grantees are not required to return payments of dividends or dividend equivalents to the Company (see Notes 2(k) and 13).
 
(k)  Earnings per Common Share (“EPS”)
 
Basic EPS is computed using the two-class method, which includes the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period and an estimate of other securities that participate in dividends, such as the Company’s dividend equivalents attached to/associated with RSUs, to arrive at total common equivalent shares.  In applying the two-class method, earnings are allocated to both shares of common stock and estimated securities that participate in dividends based on their respective weighted-average shares outstanding for the period.  For the diluted EPS calculation, common equivalent shares are further adjusted for the effect of RSUs outstanding that are unvested and have dividends that are subject to forfeiture, and for the effect of outstanding warrants, using the treasury stock method.  Under the treasury stock method, common equivalent shares are calculated assuming that all dilutive common stock equivalents are exercised and the proceeds, along with future compensation expenses associated with such instruments (if any), are used to repurchase shares of the Company’s outstanding common stock at the average market price during the reported period.  In addition, the Company’s Convertible Senior Notes are included in the calculation of diluted EPS if the assumed conversion into common shares is dilutive, using the “if-converted” method. This calculation involves adding back the periodic interest expense associated with the Convertible Senior Notes to the numerator and by adding the shares that would be issued in an assumed conversion (regardless of whether the conversion option is in or out of the money) to the denominator for the purposes of calculating diluted EPS (see Note 12).
 
14

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
(l)  Comprehensive Income/(Loss)
 
The Company’s comprehensive income/(loss) available to common stock and participating securities includes net income, the change in net unrealized gains/(losses) on its AFS securities and derivative hedging instruments (to the extent that such changes are not recorded in earnings), adjusted by realized net gains/(losses) reclassified out of AOCI for sold AFS securities and terminated hedging relationships, as well as the portion of unrealized gains/(losses) on its financing agreements held at fair value related to instrument-specific credit risk, and is reduced by dividends declared on the Company’s preferred stock and issuance costs of redeemed preferred stock.
 
(m)  U.S. Federal Income Taxes

The Company has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (the “Code”), and the corresponding provisions of state law.  The Company expects to operate in a manner that will enable it to satisfy the various requirements to maintain its status as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. In order to maintain its status as a REIT, the Company must, among other things, distribute at least 90% of its REIT taxable income (excluding net long-term capital gains) to stockholders in the timeframe permitted by the Code.  As long as the Company maintains its status as a REIT, the Company will not be subject to regular federal income tax to the extent that it distributes 100% of its REIT taxable income (including net long-term capital gains) to its stockholders within the permitted timeframe.  Should this not occur, the Company would be subject to federal taxes at prevailing corporate tax rates on the difference between its REIT taxable income and the amounts deemed to be distributed for that tax year.  As the Company’s objective is to distribute 100% of its REIT taxable income to its stockholders within the permitted timeframe, 0 provision for current or deferred income taxes has been made in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.  Should the Company incur a liability for corporate income tax, such amounts would be recorded as REIT income tax expense on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Furthermore, if the Company fails to distribute during each calendar year, or by the end of January following the calendar year in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, at least the sum of (i) 85% of its REIT ordinary income for such year, (ii) 95% of its REIT capital gain income for such year, and (iii) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, the Company would be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amounts actually distributed. To the extent that the Company incurs interest, penalties or related excise taxes in connection with its tax obligations, including as a result of its assessment of uncertain tax positions, such amounts will be included in Operating and Other Expense on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

In addition, the Company has elected to treat certain of its subsidiaries as TRS. In general, a TRS may hold assets and engage in activities that the Company cannot hold or engage in directly and generally may engage in any real estate or non-real estate-related business. Generally, a domestic TRS is subject to U.S. federal, state and local corporate income taxes. Given that a portion of the Company’s business is conducted through one or more TRS, the net taxable income earned by its domestic TRS, if any, is subject to corporate income taxation. To maintain the Company’s REIT election, no more than 20% of the value of the Company’s assets at the end of each calendar quarter may consist of stock or securities in TRS. For purposes of the determination of U.S. federal and state income taxes, the Company’s subsidiaries that elected to be treated as TRS record current or deferred income taxes based on differences (both permanent and timing) between the determination of their taxable income and net income under GAAP. NaN net deferred tax benefit was recorded by the Company for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, related to the net taxable losses in the TRS, since a valuation allowance for the full amount of the associated deferred tax asset of approximately $72.6 million was recognized as its recovery is not considered more likely than not. The related net operating loss carryforwards generated prior to 2018 will begin to expire in 2034; those generated in 2021, 2020 and 2019 can be carried back to each of the five taxable years preceding the taxable year of such loss and thereafter can be carried forward and do not expire.

Based on its analysis of any potentially uncertain tax positions, the Company concluded that it does not have any material uncertain tax positions that meet the relevant recognition or measurement criteria as of June 30, 2021, December 31, 2020, or June 30, 2020. As of the date of this filing, the Company’s tax returns for tax years 2017 through 2019 are open to examination.

(n)  Derivative Financial Instruments
 
The Company may use a variety of derivative instruments to economically hedge a portion of its exposure to market risks, including interest rate risk and prepayment risk. The objective of the Company’s risk management strategy is to reduce fluctuations in net book value over a range of interest rate scenarios.
15

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Swaps
 
Historically, the Company’s derivative instruments have generally been comprised of Swaps, the majority of which were designated as cash flow hedges against the interest rate risk associated with its borrowings. The Company documented its risk-management policies, including objectives and strategies, for its hedging activities and the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged liability for all Swaps designated as hedging transactions.  The Company assessed, both at the inception of a hedge and on a quarterly basis thereafter, whether or not the hedge was “highly effective.”
 
During the first quarter of 2020, the Company terminated all of its Swaps. Prior to their termination, Swaps were carried on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets at fair value, in Other assets, if their fair value was positive, or in Other liabilities, if their fair value was negative.  Changes in the fair value of the Company’s Swaps previously designated in hedging transactions were recorded in OCI provided that the hedge remained effective.  Periodic payments accrued in connection with Swaps designated as hedges were included in interest expense and treated as an operating cash flow.

The Company discontinued hedge accounting for the terminated swaps as it determined that it was no longer probable that the forecasted transactions would occur (see Notes 5(c), 7 and 14).

Changes in the fair value of the Company’s Swaps not designated in hedging transactions are recorded in Other income, net on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

To Be Announced (“TBA”) Securities

The Company has entered into transactions to take short positions in TBA securities in connection with the management of interest rate and other market risks associated with purchases of Agency eligible investor loans. As the Company does not intend to physically settle its transactions in TBA securities, they are required to be accounted for as derivative financial instruments. The Company does not apply hedge accounting to its TBA securities. Accordingly, TBA securities are recorded on the Company’s balance sheets at fair value, with realized and unrealized changes in fair value each period recorded in Other income, net in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

(o)  Fair Value Measurements and the Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
 
The Company’s presentation of fair value for its financial assets and liabilities is determined within a framework that stipulates that the fair value of a financial asset or liability is an exchange price in an orderly transaction between market participants to sell the asset or transfer the liability in the market in which the reporting entity would transact for the asset or liability, that is, the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability.  The transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability is a hypothetical transaction at the measurement date, considered from the perspective of a market participant that holds the asset or owes the liability.  This definition of fair value focuses on exit price and prioritizes the use of market-based inputs over entity-specific inputs when determining fair value.  In addition, the framework for measuring fair value establishes a three-level hierarchy for fair value measurements based upon the observability of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. 

In addition to the financial instruments that it is required to report at fair value, the Company has elected the fair value option for certain of its financial assets and liabilities at the time of acquisition or issuance. Subsequent changes in the fair value of these financial instruments are generally reported in Other income, net, in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. A decision to elect the fair value option for an eligible financial instrument, which may be made on an instrument by instrument basis, is irrevocable (see Notes 2(b), 2(c), 3, 4, and 14).

(p)  Variable Interest Entities
 
An entity is referred to as a VIE if it meets at least one of the following criteria:  (i) the entity has equity that is insufficient to permit the entity to finance its activities without the additional subordinated financial support of other parties; or (ii) as a group, the holders of the equity investment at risk lack (a) the power to direct the activities of an entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance; (b) the obligation to absorb the expected losses; or (c) the right to receive the expected residual returns; or (iii) the holders of the equity investment at risk have disproportional voting rights and the entity’s activities are conducted on behalf of the investor that has disproportionately few voting rights.
 
16

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The Company consolidates a VIE when it has both the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIE and a right to receive benefits or absorb losses of the entity that could be potentially significant to the VIE.   The Company is required to reconsider its evaluation of whether to consolidate a VIE each reporting period, based upon changes in the facts and circumstances pertaining to the VIE.
 
The Company has entered into several financing transactions which resulted in the Company forming entities to facilitate these transactions.  In determining the accounting treatment to be applied to these transactions, the Company concluded that the entities used to facilitate these transactions are VIEs and that they should be consolidated.  If the Company had determined that consolidation was not required, it would have then assessed whether the transfers of the underlying assets would qualify as sales or should be accounted for as secured financings under GAAP (see Note 15).

The Company also includes on its consolidated balance sheets certain financial assets and liabilities that are acquired/issued by trusts and/or other special purpose entities that have been evaluated as being required to be consolidated by the Company under the applicable accounting guidance.

(q)  Offering Costs Related to Issuance and Redemption of Preferred Stock

Offering costs related to the issuance of preferred stock are recorded as a reduction in Additional paid-in capital, a component of Stockholders’ Equity, at the time such preferred stock is issued. On redemption of preferred stock, any excess of the fair value of the consideration transferred to the holders of the preferred stock over the carrying amount of the preferred stock in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets is included in the determination of Net Income Available to Common Stock and Participating Securities in the calculation of EPS.

(r)  New Accounting Standards and Interpretations

Accounting Standards Adopted in 2021

ASU 2020-06 Early Adoption

In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (or ASU 2020-06). ASU 2020-06 was issued in order to reduce the complexity associated with recording financial instruments with characteristics of both liabilities and equity by eliminating certain accounting models associated with such instruments and enhancing disclosure requirements. The Company early adopted ASU 2020-06 in the first quarter of 2021 and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s accounting or disclosures.
17

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
3.    Residential Whole Loans

Included on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 are approximately $5.6 billion and $5.3 billion, respectively, of residential whole loans arising from the Company’s interests in certain trusts established to acquire the loans and certain entities established in connection with its loan securitization transactions. The Company has assessed that these entities are required to be consolidated for financial reporting purposes. Starting in the second quarter of 2021, the Company elected the fair value option for all loan purchases. Prior to the second quarter of 2021, the fair value option was typically elected only for Purchased Non-performing Loans.

The following table presents the components of the Company’s Residential whole loans, and the accounting model designated at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
Held at Carrying ValueHeld at Fair ValueTotal
(Dollars In Thousands)June 30, 2021December 31, 2020June 30, 2021December 31, 2020June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Purchased Performing Loans:
Non-QM loans$1,960,855 $2,357,185 $479,859 $$2,440,714 $2,357,185 
Rehabilitation loans364,463 581,801 68,234 432,697 581,801 
Single-family rental loans417,544 446,374 109,685 527,229 446,374 
Seasoned performing loans118,366 136,264 118,366 136,264 
Agency eligible investor loans308,626 308,626 
Total Purchased Performing Loans$2,861,228 $3,521,624 $966,404 $$3,827,632 $3,521,624 
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans$609,157 $673,708 $$$609,157 $673,708 
Allowance for Credit Losses$(54,261)$(86,833)$$$(54,261)$(86,833)
Purchased Non-Performing Loans$$$1,168,451 $1,216,902 $1,168,451 $1,216,902 
Total Residential Whole Loans$3,416,124 $4,108,499 $2,134,855 $1,216,902 $5,550,979 $5,325,401 
Number of loans11,434 13,112 7,158 5,622 18,592 18,734 



















18

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The following table presents additional information regarding the Company’s Residential whole loans, at carrying value at June 30, 2021:
June 30, 2021
Carrying ValueAmortized Cost BasisUnpaid Principal Balance (“UPB”)
Weighted Average Coupon (1)
Weighted Average Term to Maturity (Months)
Weighted Average LTV Ratio (2)
Weighted Average Original FICO (3)
Aging by Amortized Cost Basis
Past Due Days
(Dollars In Thousands)Current30-5960-8990+
Purchased Performing Loans:
Non-QM loans (4)
$1,948,763 $1,960,855 $1,908,905 5.81 %34763 %712$1,725,889 $58,059 $36,856 $140,051 
Rehabilitation loans (4)
352,859 364,463 364,463 7.21 565 723226,865 17,150 11,506 108,942 
Single-family rental loans (4)
415,184 417,544 413,060 6.29 32269 730386,091 5,858 3,000 22,595 
Seasoned performing loans (4)
118,309 118,366 129,536 2.96 16739 722107,762 943 538 9,123 
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans (4)(5)
581,009 609,157 712,102 4.54 28471 N/AN/MN/MN/M105,487 
Residential whole loans, at carrying value, total or weighted average$3,416,124 $3,470,385 $3,528,066 5.67 %289

December 31, 2020
Carrying ValueAmortized Cost BasisUnpaid Principal Balance (“UPB”)
Weighted Average Coupon (1)
Weighted Average Term to Maturity (Months)
Weighted Average LTV Ratio (2)
Weighted Average Original FICO (3)
Aging by Amortized Cost Basis
Past Due Days
(Dollars In Thousands)Current30-5960-8990+
Purchased
   Performing Loans:
Non-QM loans (4)
$2,336,117 $2,357,185 $2,294,086 5.84 %35164 %712$2,099,134 $73,163 $36,501 $148,387 
Rehabilitation loans (4)
563,430 581,801 581,801 7.29 363 719390,706 29,315 25,433 136,347 
Single-family rental loans (4)
442,456 446,374 442,208 6.32 32470 730415,386 6,652 3,948 20,388 
Seasoned performing loans (4)
136,157 136,264 149,004 3.30 17140 723124,877 2,186 1,170 8,031 
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans (4)(5)
630,339 673,708 782,319 4.46 28776 N/AN/MN/MN/M119,621 
Residential whole loans, at carrying value, total or weighted average$4,108,499 $4,195,332 $4,249,418 5.77 %282

(1)Weighted average is calculated based on the interest bearing principal balance of each loan within the related category. For loans acquired with servicing rights released by the seller, interest rates included in the calculation do not reflect loan servicing fees. For loans acquired with servicing rights retained by the seller, interest rates included in the calculation are net of servicing fees.
(2)LTV represents the ratio of the total unpaid principal balance of the loan to the estimated value of the collateral securing the related loan as of the most recent date available, which may be the origination date. For Rehabilitation loans, the LTV presented is the ratio of the maximum unpaid principal balance of the loan, including unfunded commitments, to the estimated “after repaired” value of the collateral securing the related loan, where available. For certain Rehabilitation loans, totaling $134.2 million and $189.9 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, an after repaired valuation was not obtained and the loan was underwritten based on an “as is” valuation. The weighted average LTV of these loans based on the current unpaid principal balance and the valuation obtained during underwriting, is 69% and 69% at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Excluded from the calculation of weighted average LTV are certain low value loans secured by vacant lots, for which the LTV ratio is not meaningful.
(3)Excludes loans for which no Fair Isaac Corporation (“FICO”) score is available.
(4)At June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 the difference between the Carrying Value and Amortized Cost Basis represents the related allowance for credit losses.
(5)Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans tend to be characterized by varying performance of the underlying borrowers over time, including loans where multiple months of payments are received in a period to bring the loan to current status, followed by months where no payments are received. Accordingly, delinquency information is presented only for loans that are more than 90 days past due.





19

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
NaN Residential whole loans were sold during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, $955.4 million and $1.8 billion of Non-QM loans were sold, realizing losses of $127.2 million and $273.0 million, respectively During the three months ended June 30, 2020, Purchased Non-Performing loans with an aggregate unpaid principal balance of $24.1 million were sold, realizing net losses of $800,000.

Allowance for Credit Losses

The following table presents a roll-forward of the allowance for credit losses on the Company’s Residential Whole Loans, at Carrying Value:
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
(Dollars In Thousands)Non-QM Loans
Rehabilitation Loans (1)(2)
Single-family Rental LoansSeasoned Performing Loans
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans (3)
Totals
Allowance for credit losses at December 31, 2020$21,068 $18,371 $3,918 $107 $43,369 $86,833 
Current provision(6,523)(3,700)(1,172)(41)(10,936)(22,372)
Write-offs(1,003)(214)(1,217)
Allowance for credit losses at March 31, 2021$14,545 $13,668 $2,746 $66 $32,219 $63,244 
Current provision/(reversal)(2,416)(1,809)(386)(9)(3,963)(8,583)
Write-offs(37)(255)(108)(400)
Allowance for credit losses at June 30, 2021$12,092 $11,604 $2,360 $57 $28,148 $54,261 

Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
(Dollars In Thousands)Non-QM Loans
Rehabilitation Loans (1)(2)
Single-family Rental LoansSeasoned Performing Loans
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans (3)
Totals
Allowance for credit losses at December 31, 2019$388 $2,331 $62 $$244 $3,025 
Transition adjustment on adoption of ASU 2016-13 (4)
6,904 517 754 19 62,361 70,555 
Current provision26,358 33,213 6,615 230 8,481 74,897 
Write-offs(428)(219)(647)
Valuation adjustment on loans held for sale70,181 70,181 
Allowance for credit and valuation losses at March 31, 2020$103,831 $35,633 $7,431 $249 $70,867 $218,011 
Current provision/(reversal)(2,297)(5,213)(500)(25)(2,579)(10,614)
Write-offs(420)(207)(627)
Valuation adjustment on loans held for sale(70,181)(70,181)
Allowance for credit losses at June 30, 2020$31,353 $30,000 $6,931 $224 $68,081 $136,589 

(1)In connection with purchased Rehabilitation loans at carrying value, the Company had unfunded commitments of $40.3 million and $94.5 million as of June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, with an allowance for credit losses of $512,000 and $2.1 million at June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Such allowance is included in “Other liabilities” in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets (see Note 9).
(2)Includes $120.4 million and $181.8 million of loans that were assessed for credit losses based on a collateral dependent methodology as of June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
(3)Includes $83.1 million and $100.0 million of loans that were assessed for credit losses based on a collateral dependent methodology as of June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
(4)Of the $70.6 million of reserves recorded on adoption of ASU 2016-13, $8.3 million was recorded as an adjustment to stockholders’ equity and $62.4 million was recorded as a “gross up” of the amortized cost basis of Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans.

The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 (“CECL”) on January 1, 2020 (see Note 2). The anticipated impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on expected economic conditions, including forecasted unemployment, home price appreciation, and prepayment rates, for the short to medium term resulted in significantly increased estimates of credit losses recorded under CECL for the first quarter of 2020 for residential whole loans held at carrying value. Since the end of the first quarter of 2020, primarily as a result of generally more stable markets and an ongoing economic recovery, the Company has made subsequent revisions to certain macro-economic assumptions, including its estimates related to future rates of unemployment and home price appreciation, and has made adjustments to the quantitative model outputs for relevant qualitative factors. The net impact
20

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
of these assumption revisions and qualitative adjustments, as well as reductions in balances subject to CECL, has resulted in a reversal of a portion of the allowance for loan loss since the end of the first quarter of 2020. The qualitative adjustments, which have the effect of increasing expected loss estimates, were determined based on a variety of factors, including differences between the Company’s loan portfolio and the loan portfolios represented by data available in regulatory filings of certain banks that are considered to have similar loan portfolios (available proxy data), and differences between current (and expected future) market conditions in comparison to market conditions that occurred in historical periods. Such differences include uncertainty with respect to the ongoing impact of the pandemic, the speed of vaccine deployment and time period for a significant portion of society to be vaccinated, the extent and timing of government stimulus efforts and heightened political uncertainty. The Company’s estimates of credit losses reflect the Company’s expectation that full recovery to pre-pandemic economic conditions will take an extended period, resulting in increased delinquencies and defaults during this period compared to historical periods. Estimates of credit losses under CECL are highly sensitive to changes in assumptions and current economic conditions have increased the difficulty of accurately forecasting future conditions.

The amortized cost basis of Purchased Performing Loans on nonaccrual status as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 was $307.3 million and $373.3 million, respectively. The amortized cost basis of Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans on nonaccrual status as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 was $122.2 million and $151.4 million, respectively. The fair value of Purchased Non-performing Loans on nonaccrual status as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 was $660.7 million and $730.9 million, respectively. At June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, there were approximately $117.3 million and $130.7 million, respectively, of loans on nonaccrual status that did not have an associated allowance for credit losses because they were determined to be collateral dependent and the estimated fair value of the related collateral exceeded the carrying value of each loan, respectively.

In periods prior to the adoption of CECL, an allowance for loan losses was recorded when, based on current information and events, it was probable that the Company would be unable to collect all amounts due under the existing contractual terms of the loan agreement. Any required loan loss allowance would reduce the carrying value of the loan with a corresponding charge to earnings. Significant judgments were required in determining any allowance for loan loss, including assumptions regarding the loan cash flows expected to be collected, the value of the underlying collateral and the ability of the Company to collect on any other forms of security, such as a personal guaranty provided either by the borrower or an affiliate of the borrower.




























21

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The following table presents certain additional credit-related information regarding our Residential whole loans, at Carrying Value:
Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year and LTV Bands
(Dollars In Thousands)20212020201920182017PriorTotal
Non-QM loans
LTV <= 80% (1)
$78,630 $372,416 $890,461 $480,645 $48,635 $5,301 $1,876,088 
LTV > 80% (1)
4,206 39,402 19,981 16,585 4,442 151 84,767 
Total Non-QM loans$82,836 $411,818 $910,442 $497,230 $53,077 $5,452 $1,960,855 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Gross write-offs$— $— $$37 $— $— $37 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Recoveries— — — — — — — 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Net write-offs$— $— $$37 $— $— $37 
Rehabilitation loans
LTV <= 80% (1)
$14,042 $37,161 $262,144 $44,333 $3,857 $$361,537 
LTV > 80% (1)
1,226 1,700 2,926 
Total Rehabilitation loans$14,042 $37,161 $263,370 $44,333 $5,557 $$364,463 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Gross write-offs$— $$1,052 $186 $20 $$1,258 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Recoveries— — — — — — — 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Net write-offs$— $$1,052 $186 $20 $$1,258 
Single family rental loans
LTV <= 80% (1)
$15,618 $38,458 $240,444 $104,531 $12,050 $$411,101 
LTV > 80% (1)
513 5,843 87 6,443 
Total Single family rental loans$15,618 $38,971 $246,287 $104,618 $12,050 $$417,544 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Gross write-offs$— $— $— $— $— $— $— 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Recoveries— — — — — — — 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Net write-offs$— $— $— $— $— $— $— 
Seasoned performing loans
LTV <= 80% (1)
$$$$$$112,734 $112,734 
LTV > 80% (1)
5,632 5,632 
Total Seasoned performing loans$$$$$$118,366 $118,366 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Gross write-offs$— $— $— $— $— $— $— 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Recoveries— — — — — — — 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Net write-offs$— $— $— $— $— $— $— 
Purchased credit deteriorated loans
LTV <= 80% (1)
$$$$$624 $434,978 $435,602 
LTV > 80% (1)
173,555 173,555 
Total Purchased credit deteriorated loans$$$$$624 $608,533 $609,157 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Gross write-offs$— $— $— $— $— $322 $322 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Recoveries— — — — — 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Net write-offs$— $— $— $— $— $322 $322 
Total LTV <= 80% (1)
$108,290 $448,035 $1,393,049 $629,509 $65,166 $553,013 $3,197,062 
Total LTV > 80% (1)
4,206 39,915 27,050 16,672 6,142 179,338 273,323 
Total residential whole loans, at carrying value$112,496 $487,950 $1,420,099 $646,181 $71,308 $732,351 $3,470,385 
Total Gross write-offs$— $$1,052 $223 $20 $322 $1,617 
Total Recoveries— — — — — 
Total Net write-offs$— $$1,052 $223 $20 $322 $1,617 
(1)LTV represents the ratio of the total unpaid principal balance of the loan to the estimated value of the collateral securing the related loan as of the most recent date available, which may be the origination date. For Rehabilitation loans, the LTV presented is the ratio of the maximum unpaid principal balance of the loan, including unfunded commitments, to the estimated “after repaired” value of the collateral securing the related loan, where available. For certain Rehabilitation loans, totaling $134.2 million at June 30, 2021, an after repaired valuation was not obtained and the loan was underwritten based on an “as is” valuation. The weighted average LTV of these loans based on the current unpaid principal balance and the valuation obtained during underwriting is 69% at June 30, 2021. Certain low value loans secured by vacant lots are categorized as LTV > 80%.

22

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The following tables present certain information regarding the LTVs of the Company’s Residential whole loans that are 90 days or more delinquent:

June 30, 2021
(Dollars In Thousands)Carrying Value / Fair ValueUPB
LTV (1)
Residential whole loans, at carrying value
Purchased credit deteriorated loans$105,487 $128,147 84.6 %
Non-QM loans$140,051 $137,252 65.8 %
Rehabilitation loans$108,942 $108,942 67.9 %
Single-family rental loans$22,595 $22,595 73.7 %
Seasoned performing loans$9,123 $9,792 50.1 %
Total Residential whole loans, at carrying value$386,198 $406,728 
Residential whole loans, at fair value
Purchased non-performing loans$510,611 $527,572 82.2 %
Purchased performing loans$2,974 $3,003 65.3 %
Total Residential whole loans, at fair value$513,585 $530,575 

December 31, 2020
(Dollars In Thousands)Carrying Value / Fair ValueUPB
LTV (1)
Residential whole loans, at carrying value
Purchased credit deteriorated loans$119,621 $145,028 86.7 %
Non-QM loans$148,387 $144,681 65.9 %
Rehabilitation loans$136,347 $136,347 65.8 %
Single-family rental loans$20,388 $20,233 72.7 %
Seasoned performing loans$8,031 $8,823 55.1 %
Total Residential whole loans, at carrying value$432,774 $455,112 
Residential whole loans, at fair value
Purchased non-performing loans$571,729 $625,621 86.8 %
Purchased performing loans$$%
Total Residential whole loans, at fair value$571,729 $625,621 

(1)LTV represents the ratio of the total unpaid principal balance of the loan to the estimated value of the collateral securing the related loan as of the most recent date available, which may be the origination date. For Rehabilitation loans, the LTV presented is the ratio of the maximum unpaid principal balance of the loan, including unfunded commitments, to the estimated “after repaired” value of the collateral securing the related loan, where available. For certain Rehabilitation loans, an after repaired valuation was not obtained and the loan was underwritten based on an “as is” valuation. Excluded from the calculation of weighted average LTV are certain low value loans secured by vacant lots, for which the LTV ratio is not meaningful.










23

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The following tables present the components of interest income on the Company’s Residential whole loans for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Held at Carrying ValueHeld at Fair ValueTotal
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Three Months Ended
June 30,
 (In Thousands)202120202021202020212020
Purchased Performing Loans:
Non-QM loans$20,164 $37,259 $1,804 $$21,968 $37,259 
Rehabilitation loans6,954 13,312 375 7,329 13,312 
Single-family rental loans6,439 7,268 467 6,906 7,268 
Seasoned performing loans1,540 2,253 1,540 2,253 
Agency eligible investor loans262 262 
Total Purchased Performing Loans$35,097 $60,092 $2,908 $$38,005 $60,092 
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans$11,303 $9,335 $$$11,303 $9,335 
Purchased Non-Performing Loans$$$19,708 $15,410 $19,708 $15,410 
Total Residential Whole Loans$46,400 $69,427 $22,616 $15,410 $69,016 $84,837 

Held at Carrying ValueHeld at Fair ValueTotal
Six Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 (In Thousands)202120202021202020212020
Purchased Performing Loans:
Non-QM loans$42,352 $86,329 $1,804 $$44,156 $86,329 
Rehabilitation loans13,621 28,639 375 13,996 28,639 
Single-family rental loans13,520 14,611 467 13,987 14,611 
Seasoned performing loans3,531 4,853 3,531 4,853 
Agency eligible investor loans262 262 
Total Purchased Performing Loans$73,024 $134,432 $2,908 $$75,932 $134,432 
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans$19,593 $18,481 $$$19,593 $18,481 
Purchased Non-Performing Loans$$$38,029 $37,959 $38,029 $37,959 
Total Residential Whole Loans$92,617 $152,913 $40,937 $37,959 $133,554 $190,872 

The following table presents the components of Net gain/(loss) on residential whole loans measured at fair value through earnings for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 (In Thousands)2021202020212020
Net unrealized gains/(losses)$6,226 $2,010 $38,313 $(72,546)
Other Income (1)
(205)2,900 (803)2,147 
    Total$6,021 $4,910 $37,510 $(70,399)

(1)Primarily includes cash payments received from private mortgage insurance on liquidated loans and losses on liquidations of non-performing loans.

24

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
4.                  Securities, at Fair Value

MSR-Related Assets
 
Term Notes Backed by MSR-Related Collateral

At June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had $196.5 million and $239.0 million, respectively, of term notes issued by SPVs that have acquired rights to receive cash flows representing the servicing fees and/or excess servicing spread associated with certain MSRs. Payment of principal and interest on these term notes is considered to be largely dependent on cash flows generated by the underlying MSRs, as this impacts the cash flows available to the SPV that issued the term notes.

At June 30, 2021, these term notes had an amortized cost of $147.2 million, gross unrealized gains of approximately $49.3 million, a weighted average yield of 12.7% and a weighted average term to maturity of 6.3 years. At December 31, 2020, the term notes had an amortized cost of $184.9 million, gross unrealized gains of approximately $54.0 million, a weighted average yield of 12.30% and a weighted average term to maturity of 8.7 years. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company sold certain term notes for $574.9 million and $711.7 million, realizing gains of $53.3 million and $28.7 million, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company recognized an impairment loss related to its term notes of $280.8 million based on its intent to sell, or the likelihood it will be required to sell, such notes.

CRT Securities

CRT securities are debt obligations issued by or sponsored by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The coupon payments on CRT securities are paid by the issuer and the principal payments received are dependent on the performance of loans in either a reference pool or an actual pool of loans. As an investor in a CRT security, the Company may incur a principal loss if the performance of the actual or reference pool loans results in either an actual or calculated loss that exceeds the credit enhancement of the security owned by the Company. The Company assesses the credit risk associated with its investments in CRT securities by assessing the current and expected future performance of the associated loan pool. The Company pledges a portion of its CRT securities as collateral against its borrowings under repurchase agreements (see Note 7).

Agency and Non-Agency MBS

MBS investments held during the year ended December 31, 2020 or in prior periods included Agency MBS and Non-Agency MBS which include MBS issued prior to 2008 (“Legacy Non-Agency MBS”). These MBS are secured by: (i) hybrid mortgages (“Hybrids”), which have interest rates that are fixed for a specified period of time and, thereafter, generally adjust annually to an increment over a specified interest rate index; (ii) adjustable-rate mortgages (“ARMs”), which have interest rates that reset annually or more frequently (collectively, “ARM-MBS”); and (iii) 15 and 30 year fixed-rate mortgages for Agency MBS and, for Non-Agency MBS, 30-year and longer-term fixed rate mortgages. In addition, the Company’s MBS are also comprised of MBS backed by securitized re-performing/non-performing loans (“RPL/NPL MBS”), where the cash flows of the bond may not reflect the contractual cash flows of the underlying collateral. The Company’s RPL/NPL MBS are generally structured with a contractual coupon step-up feature where the coupon increases from 300 - 400 basis points at 36 - 48 months from issuance or sooner. The Company pledges a significant portion of its MBS as collateral against its borrowings under repurchase agreements (see Note 7).
 
Agency MBS: Agency MBS are guaranteed as to principal and/or interest by a federally chartered corporation, such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or an agency of the U.S. Government, such as Ginnie Mae.  The payment of principal and/or interest on Ginnie Mae MBS is explicitly backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.  Since the third quarter of 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency, which significantly strengthened the backing for these government-sponsored entities. The Company sold its remaining holdings of Agency MBS during the quarter ended June 30, 2020.
 
25

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Non-Agency MBS:  The Company’s Non-Agency MBS are primarily secured by pools of residential mortgages, which are not guaranteed by an agency of the U.S. Government or any federally chartered corporation.  Credit risk associated with Non-Agency MBS is regularly assessed as new information regarding the underlying collateral becomes available and based on updated estimates of cash flows generated by the underlying collateral. During 2020, the Company sold all of its holdings of Legacy Non-Agency MBS and substantially reduced its holdings of other Non-Agency MBS. Due to issuer redemptions, remaining holdings of Non-Agency MBS were reduced to 0 as of June 30, 2021.
 

The following tables present certain information about the Company’s residential mortgage securities at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
 
June 30, 2021
(In Thousands)Principal/ Current
Face
Purchase
Premiums
Accretable
Purchase
Discounts
Discount
Designated
as Credit Reserve (1)
Gross Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Net
Unrealized
Gain/(Loss)
Fair 
Value
Total residential mortgage securities (2)(4)(5)
$103,757 $4,803 $(63)$(20,768)$87,729 $18,572 $(16)$18,556 $106,285 

December 31, 2020
(In Thousands)Principal/ Current
Face
Purchase
Premiums
Accretable
Purchase
Discounts
Discount
Designated
as Credit Reserve (1)
Gross Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Net
Unrealized
Gain/(Loss)
Fair Value
Total residential mortgage securities (2)(3)(4)(5)
$161,878 $3,022 $(8,206)$(21,437)$135,257 $26,926 $(1,183)$25,743 $161,000 
 
(1)Discount designated as Credit Reserve is generally not expected to be accreted into interest income.
(2)Based on managements current estimates of future principal cash flows expected to be received.
(3)Includes RPL/NPL MBS, which at December 31, 2020 had a $55.0 million Principal/Current face, $46.9 million amortized cost and $53.9 million fair value.
(4)At December 31, 2020, the Company expected to recover approximately 99% of the then-current face amount of Non-Agency MBS.
(5)Amounts disclosed at June 30, 2021 includes CRT securities with a fair value of $67.6 million for which the fair value option has been elected. Such securities had $1.7 million gross unrealized gains and gross unrealized losses of approximately $16,000 at June 30, 2021. Amounts disclosed at December 31, 2020 includes CRT securities with a fair value of $66.2 million for which the fair value option has been elected. Such securities had gross unrealized gains of approximately $551,000 and gross unrealized losses of approximately $322,000 at December 31, 2020.


26

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Sales of Residential Mortgage Securities
 
The following table presents information about the Company’s sales of its residential mortgage securities for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. The Company has no continuing involvement with any of the sold securities.

Three Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Three Months Ended
June 30, 2020
(In Thousands)Sales ProceedsGains/(Losses)Sales ProceedsGains/(Losses)
Agency MBS$$$535,742 $3,563 
Non-Agency MBS1,054,980 151,095 
CRT Securities207,379 (24,992)
Total$$$1,798,101 $129,666 

Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2020
(In Thousands)Sales ProceedsGains/(Losses)Sales ProceedsGains/(Losses)
Agency MBS$$$1,500,875 $(19,291)
Non-Agency MBS1,318,842 107,951 
CRT Securities243,025 (27,011)
Total$$$3,062,742 $61,649 

Unrealized Losses on Residential Mortgage Securities

There were no gross unrealized losses on the Company’s AFS securities at June 30, 2021.
  
The Company did 0t recognize an allowance for credit losses (or other than temporary impairment in prior year periods) through earnings related to its MBS for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company recognized an aggregate impairment loss related to its MBS of $63.5 million based on its intent to sell, or the likelihood it will be required to sell, certain securities at such time.
27

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

The following table presents a roll-forward of the allowance for credit losses on the Company’s Residential mortgage securities and MSR-related assets:

Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(Dollars In Thousands)2021202020212020
Allowance for credit losses at beginning of period$$$$
Current provision:
Securities with no prior loss allowance344,269 
Securities with a prior loss allowance
Write-offs, including allowance related to securities the Company intended to sell(344,269)
Allowance for credit losses at end of period$$$$

Impact of AFS Securities on AOCI
 
The following table presents the impact of the Company’s AFS securities on its AOCI for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(In Thousands)2021202020212020
AOCI from AFS securities:    
Unrealized gain on AFS securities at beginning of period$75,752 $148,910 $79,607 $392,722 
Unrealized (losses)/gains on securities available-for-sale(9,589)48,715 (13,444)393,503 
Reclassification adjustment for MBS sales included in net income(144,736)(389,067)
Reclassification adjustment for impairment included in net income(344,269)
Change in AOCI from AFS securities(9,589)(96,021)(13,444)(339,833)
Balance at end of period$66,163 $52,889 $66,163 $52,889 
 
28

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Interest Income on Securities, at Fair Value
 
The following table presents the components of interest income on the Company’s Securities, at fair value for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020: 
 Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(In Thousands)2021202020212020
Agency MBS
Coupon interest$$402 $$14,038 
Effective yield adjustment (1)
(412)(5,186)
Interest income$$(10)$$8,852 
Legacy Non-Agency MBS
Coupon interest$$897 $14 $18,179 
Effective yield adjustment (2)(3)
1,153 670 10,560 
Interest income$$2,050 $684 $28,739 
RPL/NPL MBS
Coupon interest$21 $1,228 $373 $6,811 
Effective yield adjustment (1)(4)
77 8,136 355 
Interest income$22 $1,305 $8,509 $7,166 
CRT securities
Coupon interest$923 $1,622 $1,844 $5,107 
Effective yield adjustment (2)
1,043 1,787 (515)
Interest income$1,966 $1,630 $3,631 $4,592 
MSR-related assets
Coupon interest$2,044 $6,133 $4,449 $20,340 
Effective yield adjustment (1)(2)(5)
11,313 3,608 14,531 3,608 
Interest income$13,357 $9,741 $18,980 $23,948 
 
(1)  Includes amortization of premium paid net of accretion of purchase discount.  For Agency MBS, RPL/NPL MBS and the corporate loan secured by MSRs, interest income is recorded at an effective yield, which reflects net premium amortization/accretion based on actual prepayment activity.
(2) The effective yield adjustment is the difference between the net income calculated using the net yield less the current coupon yield. The net yield may be based on management’s estimates of the amount and timing of future cash flows or in the instrument’s contractual cash flows, depending on the relevant accounting standards.
(3) Includes accretion income recognized due to the impact of redemptions of certain securities that had been previously purchased at a discount of approximately $670,000 during the six months ended June 30, 2021.
(4) Includes accretion income recognized due to the impact of redemptions of certain securities that had been previously purchased at a discount of approximately $8.1 million and $277,000 during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
(5) Includes $8.4 million of accretion income recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 due to the impact of the redemption at par of an MSR-related asset that had been held at amortized cost basis below par due to an impairment charge recorded in the first quarter of 2020.

29

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

5.    Other Assets

The following table presents the components of the Company’s Other assets at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

(In Thousands)June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
REO (1)
$204,762 $249,699 
Capital contributions made to loan origination partners81,512 47,148 
Other interest-earning assets7,875 
Interest receivable36,225 38,850 
Other MBS and loan related receivables22,198 16,682 
Lease right-of-use asset (2)
38,137 758 
Other48,638 32,244 
Total Other Assets$439,347 $385,381 

(1) Includes $53.3 million and $61.8 million of REO that is held-for-investment at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
(2) An estimated incremental borrowing rate of 7.5% was used in connection with the Company’s primary operating lease (see Notes 2 and 10).

(a) Real Estate Owned

At June 30, 2021, the Company had 766 REO properties with an aggregate carrying value of $204.8 million. At December 31, 2020, the Company had 946 REO properties with an aggregate carrying value of $249.7 million.
At June 30, 2021, $203.7 million of residential real estate property was held by the Company that was acquired either through a completed foreclosure proceeding or from completion of a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure or similar legal agreement. In addition, formal foreclosure proceedings were in process with respect to $144.9 million of residential whole loans held at carrying value and $405.2 million of residential whole loans held at fair value at June 30, 2021.

30

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The following table presents the activity in the Company’s REO for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(In Thousands)2021202020212020
Balance at beginning of period$220,393 $411,473 $249,699 $411,659 
Adjustments to record at lower of cost or fair value(68)(7,138)(943)(11,889)
Transfer from residential whole loans (1)
18,302 8,526 38,370 59,219 
Purchases and capital improvements, net406 3,492 624 9,301 
Disposals (2)
(34,181)(67,537)(82,567)(119,271)
Depreciation(90)(300)(421)(503)
Balance at end of period$204,762 $348,516 $204,762 $348,516 
Number of properties766 1,352 766 1,352 

(1)Includes a net gain recorded on transfer of approximately $22,000 for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and a net loss recorded on transfer of approximately $190,000 for the three months ended June 30, 2020; and a net loss recorded on transfer of approximately $1.1 million and $4.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
(2)During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company sold 139 and 319 REO properties for consideration of $38.0 million and $88.6 million, realizing net gains of approximately $3.9 million and $6.1 million, respectively. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company sold 296 and 545 REO properties for consideration of $70.5 million and $125.3 million, realizing net gains of approximately $3.0 million and $6.1 million, respectively. These amounts are included in Other Income, net on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.


(b) Capital Contributions Made to Loan Origination Partners

The Company has made investments in several loan originators as part of its strategy to be a reliable source of capital to select partners from whom it sources residential mortgage loans through both flow arrangements and bulk purchases. To date, such contributions of capital include the following investments (based on their carrying value prior to any impairments): $49.7 million of common equity (including partnership interests) and $100.4 million of preferred equity. In addition, for certain partners, options or warrants may have also been acquired that provide the Company the ability to increase the level of its investment if certain conditions are met. At the end of each reporting period, or earlier if circumstances warrant, the Company evaluates whether the nature of its interests and other involvement with the investee entity requires the Company to apply equity method accounting or consolidate the results of the investee entity with the Company’s financial results. As of June 30, 2021, the nature of the Company’s interests and/or involvement with investee companies has not resulted in consolidation. Further, to the extent that the nature of the Company’s interests has resulted in the need for the Company to apply equity method accounting, the impact of such accounting on the Company’s results for periods subsequent to that in which the Company was determined to have significant influence over the investee company was not material for any period. As the interests acquired to date by the Company generally do not have a readily determinable fair value, the Company accounts for its non-equity method interests (including any acquired options and warrants) in loan originators initially at cost. The carrying value of these investments will be adjusted if it is determined that an impairment has occurred or if there has been a subsequent observable transaction in either the investee company’s equity securities or a similar security that provides evidence to support an adjustment to the carrying value. Following an evaluation of the anticipated impact of COVID-19 on economic conditions for the short to medium term, the Company recorded impairment charges of $7.1 million and $65.2 million on investments in certain loan origination partners during the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively, which was included in “Impairment and other losses on securities available-for-sale and other assets” on the consolidated statements of operations. The Company did 0t record any impairment charges to earnings on investments in certain loan origination partners during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. At June 30, 2021, approximately $704.0 million of the Company’s Residential whole loans, at carrying value were serviced by entities in which the Company has an investment.


31

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
(c) Derivative Instruments
 
The Company’s derivative instruments have historically generally been comprised of Swaps, the majority of which were designated as cash flow hedges against the interest rate risk associated with certain borrowings. In addition, in connection with managing risks associated with purchases of longer duration Agency MBS, the Company also entered into Swaps that were not designated as hedges for accounting purposes.

In response to the turmoil in the financial markets resulting from COVID-19 experienced during the three months ended March 31, 2020, and given that management no longer considered these transactions to be effective hedges in the then prevailing interest rate environment, the Company unwound all of its approximately $4.1 billion of Swap hedging transactions late in the first quarter of 2020 in order to recover previously posted margin.
 
The following table presents the net impact of the Company’s derivative hedging instruments on its net interest expense and the weighted average interest rate paid and received for such Swaps for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(Dollars in Thousands)2021202020212020
Interest (expense)/income attributable to Swaps$$$$(3,359)
Weighted average Swap rate paid%%%2.06 %
Weighted average Swap rate received%%%1.63 %
 
During the six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company recorded net losses on Swaps not designated in hedging relationships of approximately $4.3 million, which included $9.4 million of losses realized on the unwind of certain Swaps. These amounts are included in Other income, net on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

Impact of Derivative Hedging Instruments on AOCI
 
The following table presents the impact of the Company’s derivative hedging instruments on its AOCI for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(In Thousands)2021202020212020
AOCI from derivative hedging instruments:
Balance at beginning of period$$(71,208)$$(22,675)
Net loss on Swaps(50,126)
Reclassification adjustment for losses/gains related to hedging instruments included in net income64,032 65,625 
Balance at end of period$$(7,176)$$(7,176)

TBA Securities

In order to economically hedge the risks arising from the investments in Agency eligible investor loans, the Company has entered into short positions in certain TBA securities. The table below summarizes open short positions in TBA securities as of June 30, 2021.

TBA SecurityNotional AmountSettlement Date
(In Thousands)
FNCL 2.0 7/21$100,000 July 14, 2021
FNCL 2.5 7/21$120,000 July 14, 2021
32

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

TBA short positions are subject to margining requirements which serve to mitigate counterparty credit risk associated with these transactions. Open TBA positions are measured at fair value each reporting date, with realized and unrealized changes in the fair value of these positions recorded in Other income, net in our consolidated statements of operations. For the three months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recorded a net loss on TBA short positions of $1.1 million. No TBA short positions had been entered into in prior periods.


6.      Financing Agreements

The following tables present the components of the Company’s Financing agreements at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

June 30, 2021
(In Thousands)Unpaid Principal BalanceAmortized Cost Balance
Fair Value/Carrying Value(1)
Financing agreements, at fair value
Agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions$793,754 $793,754 $795,341 
Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions858,066 858,066 858,066 
Securitized debt636,170 636,163 640,696 
Total Financing agreements, at fair value$2,287,990 $2,287,983 $2,294,103 
Financing agreements, at carrying value
Securitized debt$1,412,476 $1,405,685 
Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions503,303 503,191 
Convertible senior notes230,000 225,812 
Total Financing agreements, at carrying value$2,145,779 $2,134,688 
Total Financing agreements$4,433,769 $4,428,791 

December 31, 2020
(In Thousands)Unpaid Principal BalanceAmortized Cost Balance
Fair Value/Carrying Value(1)
Financing agreements, at fair value
Agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions$1,156,899 $1,156,899 $1,159,213 
Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions1,338,077 1,338,077 1,338,077 
Securitized debt866,203 857,553 869,482 
Total Financing agreements, at fair value$3,361,179 $3,352,529 $3,366,772 
Financing agreements, at carrying value
Securitized debt$648,300 $645,027 
Convertible senior notes230,000 225,177 
Senior notes100,000 100,000 
Total Financing agreements, at carrying value$978,300 $970,204 
Total Financing agreements$4,339,479 $4,336,976 

(1)    Financing agreements at fair value are reported at estimated fair value each period as a result of the Company’s fair value option election. Other financing arrangements are reported at their carrying value (amortized cost basis) as the fair value option was not elected on these liabilities. Consequently, Total Financing agreements as presented reflects a summation of balances reported at fair value and carrying value.
33

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

(a) Financing Agreements, at Fair Value

In conjunction with its exit from forbearance arrangements in the second quarter of 2020, the Company entered into several asset backed financing arrangements and renegotiated financing arrangements for certain assets with existing lenders, which together resulted in the Company essentially refinancing the majority of its investment portfolio. The Company elected the fair value option on these financing arrangements, primarily to simplify the accounting associated with costs incurred to establish the new facilities or renegotiate existing facilities.

The Company considers the most relevant feature that distinguishes between the various asset backed financing arrangements is how the financing arrangement is collateralized, including the ability of the lender to make margin calls on the Company based on changes in value of the underlying collateral securing the financing. Accordingly, further details are provided below regarding assets that are financed with agreements that have non-mark-to-market collateral provisions and assets that are financed with agreements that have mark-to-market collateral provisions.

Agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions

In June 2020, the Company and certain of its subsidiaries entered into a non-mark-to-market term loan facility with certain lenders with an initial borrowing capacity of $1.65 billion. The Company’s borrowing subsidiaries have pledged, as collateral security for the facility, certain of their residential whole loans (excluding Rehabilitation loans), as well as the equity in subsidiaries that own the loans. The facility has an initial term of two years, which may be extended for up to an additional three years, subject to certain conditions, including the payment of an extension fee and provided that no events of default have occurred. For the initial two-year term, the financing cost for the facility will be calculated at a spread over the lender’s financing cost, which, depending on the lender, is expected to be based either on three-month London Interbank Offered Rate (‘LIBOR”), or an index that it expected over time to be closely correlated to changes in three-month LIBOR. At June 30, 2021, the amount financed under this facility was approximately $639.7 million.

In addition, the Company also entered into non-mark-to-market financing facilities on Rehabilitation loans. Under these facilities, Rehabilitation loans, as well as the equity in subsidiaries that own the loans, are pledged as collateral. The facilities have a two-year term and the financing cost is calculated at a spread over three-month LIBOR. At June 30, 2021, the amount financed under these facilities was approximately $155.7 million.

The following table presents information with respect to the Company’s financing agreements, at fair value with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions and associated assets pledged as collateral at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in Thousands)June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
Non-mark-to-market financing secured by residential whole loans$786,951 $1,156,125 
Fair value of residential whole loans pledged as collateral under financing agreements$1,343,544 $1,930,283 
Weighted average haircut on residential whole loans40.85 %39.46 %
Non-mark-to-market financing secured by real estate owned$8,390 $3,088 
Fair value of real estate owned pledged as collateral under financing agreements$21,161 $7,441 
Weighted average haircut on real estate owned60.04 %59.73 %

Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions

In addition to entering into the financing arrangements discussed above, the Company also entered into a reinstatement agreement with certain lending counterparties that facilitated its exit from the forbearance arrangements that the Company had previously entered into. In connection with the reinstatement agreement, terms of its prior financing arrangements on certain residential whole loans were renegotiated and those arrangements were reinstated on a go-forward basis. These financing arrangements continue to contain mark-to-market provisions that permit the lending counterparties to make margin calls on the Company should the value of the pledged collateral decline. The Company is also permitted to recover previously posted margin payments, should values of the pledged collateral subsequently increase. These facilities generally have a maturity ranging from one to three months and can be renewed at the discretion of the lending counterparty at financing costs reflecting prevailing market pricing. At June 30, 2021, the amount financed under these agreements was approximately $858.1 million.
34

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
 
The following table presents information with respect to the Company’s financing agreements, at fair value with mark-to-market collateral provisions and associated assets pledged as collateral at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in Thousands)June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
Mark-to-market financing agreements secured by residential whole loans$847,922 $1,113,553 
Fair value of residential whole loans pledged as collateral under financing agreements (1)
$1,362,771 $1,798,813 
Weighted average haircut on residential whole loans (2)
35.14 %34.17 %
Mark-to-market financing agreements secured by securities at fair value$$213,915 
Securities at fair value pledged as collateral under financing agreements$$399,999 
Weighted average haircut on securities at fair value (2)
%41.16 %
Mark-to-market financing agreements secured by real estate owned$10,144 $10,609 
Fair value of real estate owned pledged as collateral under financing agreements$40,617 $22,525 
Weighted average haircut on real estate owned (2)
69.71 %55.56 %
 
(1)At December 31, 2020, includes Non-Agency MBS with an aggregate fair value of $141.9 million obtained in connection with the Company’s loan securitization transactions that are eliminated in consolidation.
(2)Haircut represents the percentage amount by which the collateral value is contractually required to exceed the loan amount.

In addition, the Company had cash pledged as collateral in connection with its financing agreements of $8.8 million and $7.2 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

The following table presents repricing information (excluding the impact of associated derivative hedging instruments, if any) about the Company’s financing agreements, at fair value that have non-mark-to-market collateral provisions as well as those that have mark-to-market collateral provisions, at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

 June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Amortized Cost BasisWeighted Average Interest RateAmortized Cost BasisWeighted Average Interest Rate
Time Until Interest Rate Reset
(Dollars in Thousands)    
Within 30 days$1,651,820 2.76 %$2,494,976 3.16 %
Over 30 days to 3 months
Over 3 months to 12 months
Over 12 months
Total financing agreements$1,651,820 2.76 %$2,494,976 3.16 %


Senior Secured Term Loan Facility

On June 26, 2020, the Company entered into a $500 million senior secured term loan facility (the “Term Loan Facility”) with certain funds, accounts and/or clients managed by affiliates of Apollo Global Management, Inc. and affiliates of Athene Holding Ltd. The outstanding balance of the Term Loan Facility was repaid and the Term Loan Facility was terminated prior to December 31, 2020.

(b) Financing Agreements, at Carrying Value

Additional information regarding the Company’s Other financing arrangements as of June 30, 2021, is included below:

Securitized Debt

Securitized debt represents third-party liabilities of consolidated VIEs and excludes liabilities of the VIEs acquired by the Company that are eliminated in consolidation. The third-party beneficial interest holders in the VIEs have no recourse to the general credit of the Company. The weighted average fixed rate on the securitized debt was 1.57% at June 30, 2021 (see Notes 10 and 15 for further discussion).
35

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions

The following table presents information with respect to the Company’s financing agreements, at carrying value with mark-to-market collateral provisions, for which the fair value option was not elected, and associated assets pledged as collateral at June 30, 2021 (none were outstanding at December 31, 2020):
(Dollars in Thousands)June 30,
2021
Mark-to-market financing agreements secured by residential whole loans$324,834 
Fair value of residential whole loans pledged as collateral under financing agreements$374,194 
Weighted average haircut on residential whole loans (1)
13.16 %
Mark-to-market financing agreements secured by securities at fair value$178,357 
Securities at fair value pledged as collateral under financing agreements$302,835 
Weighted average haircut on securities at fair value (1)
39.27 %

(1)Haircut represents the percentage amount by which the collateral value is contractually required to exceed the loan amount.

The following table presents repricing information (excluding the impact of associated derivative hedging instruments, if any) about the Company’s financing agreements, at carrying value that have mark-to-market collateral provisions, for which the fair value option was not elected, at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

 June 30, 2021
Amortized Cost BasisWeighted Average Interest Rate
Time Until Interest Rate Reset
(Dollars in Thousands)  
Within 30 days$503,303 1.73 %
Over 30 days to 3 months
Over 3 months to 12 months
Over 12 months
Total financing agreements$503,303 1.73 %


Convertible Senior Notes

On June 3, 2019, the Company issued $230.0 million in aggregate principal amount of its Convertible Senior Notes in an underwritten public offering, including an additional $30.0 million issued pursuant to the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional Convertible Senior Notes. The total net proceeds the Company received from the offering were approximately $223.3 million, after deducting offering expenses and the underwriting discount.  The Convertible Senior Notes bear interest at a fixed rate of 6.25% per year, paid semiannually on June 15 and December 15 of each year commencing December 15, 2019 and will mature on June 15, 2024, unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased in accordance with their terms. The Convertible Senior Notes are convertible at the option of the holders at any time until the close of business on the business day immediately preceding the maturity date into shares of the Company’s common stock based on an initial conversion rate of 125.7387 shares of the Company’s common stock for each $1,000 principal amount of the Convertible Senior Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $7.95 per share of common stock. The Convertible Senior Notes have an effective interest rate, including the impact of amortization to interest expense of debt issuance costs, of 6.94%. The Company does not have the right to redeem the Convertible Senior Notes prior to maturity, except to the extent necessary to preserve its status as a REIT, in which case the Company may redeem the Convertible Senior Notes, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to the principal amount redeemed plus accrued and unpaid interest.

The Convertible Senior Notes are the Company’s senior unsecured obligations and are effectively junior to all of the Company’s secured indebtedness, which includes the Company’s repurchase agreements and other financing arrangements, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and equal in right of payment to the Company’s existing and future senior unsecured obligations, including the Senior Notes.

36

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Senior Notes

On April 11, 2012, the Company issued $100.0 million in aggregate principal amount of its Senior Notes in an underwritten public offering.  On January 6, 2021, the Company redeemed all of its outstanding Senior Notes. The Senior Notes bore interest at a fixed rate of 8.00% per year, paid quarterly in arrears on January 15, April 15, July 15 and October 15. The Senior Notes had an effective interest rate, including the impact of amortization to interest expense of debt issuance costs, of 8.31%.

(c) Counterparties

The Company had financing agreements, including repurchase agreements and other forms of secured financing, with 7 counterparties at both June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The following table presents information with respect to each counterparty under financing agreements for which the Company had greater than 5% of stockholders’ equity at risk in the aggregate at June 30, 2021:
 
June 30, 2021
Counterparty
Rating (1)
Amount 
at Risk (2)
Weighted 
Average Months 
to Repricing for
Repurchase Agreements
Percent of
Stockholders’ Equity
Counterparty
(Dollars in Thousands)
Barclays Bank (3)
BBB/Aa3/A$444,204 117.6 %
Credit SuisseBBB+/Baa1/A-309,749 112.3 
Wells FargoA+/Aa2/AA-283,746 111.2 
(1)As rated at June 30, 2021 by S&P, Moody’s and Fitch, Inc., respectively.  The counterparty rating presented is the lowest published rating for these entities.
(2)The amount at risk reflects the difference between (a) the amount loaned to the Company through financing agreements, including interest payable, and (b) the cash and the fair value of the securities pledged by the Company as collateral, including accrued interest receivable on such securities.
(3)Includes amounts at risk with various affiliates of Athene Holding, Ltd., held via participation in a loan syndication administered by Barclays Bank.


(d) Pledged Collateral

The following tables present the Company’s assets (based on carrying value) pledged as collateral for its various financing arrangements as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

June 30, 2021
Financing Agreements
(In Thousands)Non-Mark-to-MarketMark-to-MarketSecuritizedTotal
Assets:
Residential whole loans, at carrying value$916,778 $682,947 $1,808,332 $3,408,057 
Residential whole loans, at fair value413,804 1,016,692 484,586 1,915,082 
Securities, at fair value
Other assets: REO17,765 34,801 38,432 90,998 
Total$1,348,347 $1,734,440 $2,331,350 $5,414,137 

37

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
December 31, 2020
Financing Agreements
(In Thousands)Non-Mark-to-MarketMark-to-MarketSecuritizedTotal
Assets:
Residential whole loans, at carrying value$1,497,281 $1,207,364 $1,436,316 $4,140,961 
Residential whole loans, at fair value430,183 396,817 382,349 1,209,349 
Securities, at fair value122,609 122,609 
Other assets: REO49,477 49,477 
Total$1,927,464 $1,726,790 $1,868,142 $5,522,396 


7. Collateral Positions
 
The Company pledges securities or cash as collateral to its counterparties in relation to certain of its financing arrangements. In addition, the Company receives securities or cash as collateral pursuant to financing provided under reverse repurchase agreements.  The Company exchanges collateral with its counterparties based on changes in the fair value, notional amount and term of the associated financing arrangements and Swap contracts, as applicable.  In connection with these margining practices, either the Company or its counterparty may be required to pledge cash or securities as collateral.  When the Company’s pledged collateral exceeds the required margin, the Company may initiate a reverse margin call, at which time the counterparty may either return the excess collateral or provide collateral to the Company in the form of cash or equivalent securities.

The Company’s assets pledged as collateral are described in Notes 2(e) - Restricted Cash, 5(c) - Derivative Instruments and 6 - Financing Agreements. The total fair value of assets pledged as collateral with respect to the Company’s borrowings under its financing arrangements and/or derivative hedging instruments was $3.5 billion and $4.2 billion at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. An aggregate of $16.6 million and $24.6 million of accrued interest on those assets had also been pledged as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

8.    Offsetting Assets and Liabilities

Certain of the Company’s financing arrangements and derivative transactions are governed by underlying agreements that generally provide for a right of setoff in the event of default or in the event of a bankruptcy of either party to the transaction. In the Company’s consolidated balance sheets, all balances associated with repurchase agreements are presented on a gross basis.

The fair value of financial instruments pledged against the Company’s financing arrangements was $3.4 billion and $4.2 billion at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. There were 0 financial instruments pledged against the Company’s Swaps at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. In addition, cash that has been pledged as collateral against financing arrangements and Swaps (if any) is reported as Restricted cash on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets (see Notes 2(e), 5(c) and 6).

38

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
9. Other Liabilities

The following table presents the components of the Company’s Other liabilities at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

(In Thousands)June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Payable for unsettled residential whole loans purchases$131,275 $
Dividends and dividend equivalents payable44,236 34,016 
Lease liability41,680 636 
Accrued interest payable6,406 11,116 
Accrued expenses and other29,484 24,754 
Total Other Liabilities$253,081 $70,522 


10.    Commitments and Contingencies
 
(a) Lease Commitments
 
  The Company’s primary lease commitments relate to its corporate headquarters. In April 2021, the Company relocated its corporate headquarters, terminating its prior lease on April 30, 2021. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recorded aggregate lease expense of approximately $1.0 million and $1.8 million, respectively, in connection with these two leases.

The term specified in the current lease is approximately fifteen years with an option to renew for an additional five years. The Company’s current estimate of annual lease expense under the current lease, excluding real estate tax and operating expense escalation charges (which at this point are unknown) and incentives, is approximately $4.8 million.

At June 30, 2021, the contractual minimum rental payments (exclusive of possible rent escalation charges and normal recurring charges for maintenance, insurance and taxes) were as follows:

Year Ended December 31, Minimum Rental Payments
(In Thousands) 
2021 (1)
$349 
20224,618 
20234,619 
20244,599 
20254,534 
Thereafter54,156 
Total$72,875 

(1) Reflects contractual minimum rental payments due for the period from July 1, 2021 through December 31, 2021.

(b) Representations and Warranties in Connection with Loan Securitization Transactions

In connection with the loan securitization transactions entered into by the Company, the Company has the obligation under certain circumstances to repurchase assets previously transferred to securitization vehicles upon breach of certain representations and warranties. As of June 30, 2021, the Company had 0 reserve established for repurchases of loans and was not aware of any material unsettled repurchase claims that would require the establishment of such a reserve (see Note 15).

(c) Rehabilitation Loan Commitments

At June 30, 2021, the Company had unfunded commitments of $89.7 million in connection with its purchased Rehabilitation loans.

39

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
(d) Residential Whole Loan Purchase Commitments

At June 30, 2021, the Company has agreed, subject to the completion of due diligence and customary closing conditions, to purchase residential whole loans held at fair value with an aggregate estimated purchase price of $131.3 million, with a corresponding liability recorded in Other Liabilities and included in Payable for unsettled residential whole loan purchases.

11.    Stockholders’ Equity
 
(a) Preferred Stock
 
7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (“Series B Preferred Stock”)
On April 15, 2013, the Company completed the issuance of 8.0 million shares of its Series B Preferred Stock with a par value of $0.01 per share, and a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share plus accrued and unpaid dividends, in an underwritten public offering. The Company’s Series B Preferred Stock is entitled to receive a dividend at a rate of 7.50% per year on the $25.00 liquidation preference before the Company’s common stock is paid any dividends and is senior to the Company’s common stock with respect to distributions upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up. Dividends on the Series B Preferred Stock are payable quarterly in arrears on or about March 31, June 30, September 30 and December 31 of each year. The Series B Preferred Stock is redeemable at $25.00 per share plus accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not authorized or declared), exclusively at the Company’s option.

The Series B Preferred Stock generally does not have any voting rights, subject to an exception in the event the Company fails to pay dividends on such stock for 6 or more quarterly periods (whether or not consecutive).  Under such circumstances, the Series B Preferred Stock will be entitled to vote to elect 2 additional directors to the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”), until all unpaid dividends have been paid or declared and set apart for payment.  In addition, certain material and adverse changes to the terms of the Series B Preferred Stock cannot be made without the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock.

The following table presents cash dividends declared by the Company on its Series B Preferred Stock from January 1, 2021 through June 30, 2021:

Declaration DateRecord DatePayment DateDividend Per Share
May 24, 2021June 7, 2021June 30, 2021$0.46875
February 19, 2021March 5, 2021March 31, 2021$0.46875

Issuance of 6.50% Series C Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (“Series C Preferred Stock”)

On February 28, 2020, the Company amended its charter through the filing of articles supplementary to reclassify 12,650,000 shares of the Company’s authorized but unissued common stock as shares of the Company’s Series C Preferred Stock. On March 2, 2020, the Company completed the issuance of 11.0 million shares of its Series C Preferred Stock with a par value of $0.01 per share, and a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share plus accrued and unpaid dividends, in an underwritten public offering. The total net proceeds the Company received from the offering were approximately $266.0 million, after deducting offering expenses and the underwriting discount.

The Company’s Series C Preferred Stock is entitled to receive dividends (i) from and including the original issue date to, but excluding, March 31, 2025, at a fixed rate of 6.50% per year on the $25.00 liquidation preference and (ii) from and including March 31, 2025, at a floating rate equal to three-month LIBOR plus a spread of 5.345% per year of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference before the Company’s common stock is paid any dividends, and is senior to the Company’s common stock with respect to distributions upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up. Dividends on the Series C Preferred Stock are payable quarterly in arrears on or about March 31, June 30, September 30 and December 31 of each year. The Series C Preferred Stock is not redeemable by the Company prior to March 31, 2025, except under circumstances where it is necessary to preserve the Company’s qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and upon the occurrence of certain specified change in control transactions. On or after March 31, 2025, the Company may, at its option, subject to certain procedural requirements, redeem any or all of the shares of the Series C Preferred Stock for cash at a redemption price of
40

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
$25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but excluding, the redemption date.

The Series C Preferred Stock generally does not have any voting rights, subject to an exception in the event the Company fails to pay dividends on such stock for 6 or more quarterly periods (whether or not consecutive).  Under such circumstances, the Series C Preferred Stock will be entitled to vote to elect 2 additional directors to the Company’s Board, until all unpaid dividends have been paid or declared and set apart for payment. In addition, certain material and adverse changes to the terms of the Series C Preferred Stock cannot be made without the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3 of the outstanding shares of Series C Preferred Stock.

The following table presents cash dividends declared by the Company on its Series C Preferred Stock from January 1, 2021 through June 30, 2021:

Declaration DateRecord DatePayment DateDividend Per Share
May 24, 2021June 7, 2021June 30, 2021$0.40625
February 19, 2021March 5, 2021March 31, 2021$0.40625

(b)  Dividends on Common Stock
 
The following table presents cash dividends declared by the Company on its common stock from January 1, 2021 through June 30, 2021:

Declaration Date
Record DatePayment DateDividend Per Share 
June 15, 2021June 30, 2021July 30, 2021$0.100(1)
March 12, 2021March 31, 2021April 30, 2021$0.075

(1) At June 30, 2021, we had accrued dividends and dividend equivalents payable of $44.2 million related to the common stock dividend declared on June 15, 2021.

(c) Discount Waiver, Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan (“DRSPP”)
 
On October 15, 2019, the Company filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), for the purpose of registering additional common stock for sale through its DRSPP.  Pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, this shelf registration statement became effective automatically upon filing with the SEC and, when combined with the unused portion of the Company’s previous DRSPP shelf registration statements, registered an aggregate of 9.0 million shares of common stock.  The Company’s DRSPP is designed to provide existing stockholders and new investors with a convenient and economical way to purchase shares of common stock through the automatic reinvestment of dividends and/or optional cash investments.  At June 30, 2021, approximately 8.5 million shares of common stock remained available for issuance pursuant to the DRSPP shelf registration statement.
 
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company issued 92,316 and 197,588 shares of common stock through the DRSPP, raising net proceeds of approximately $406,807 and $794,979, respectively.  From the inception of the DRSPP in September 2003 through June 30, 2021, the Company issued 34,811,991 shares pursuant to the DRSPP, raising net proceeds of $288.4 million.

(d) At-the-Market Offering Program

On August 16, 2019 the Company entered into a distribution agreement under the terms of which the Company may offer and sell shares of its common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $400.0 million (the “ATM Shares”), from time to time, through various sales agents, pursuant to an at-the-market equity offering program (the “ATM Program”). Sales of the ATM Shares, if any, may be made in negotiated transactions or by transactions that are deemed to be “at-the-market” offerings, as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) or sales made to or through a market maker other than an exchange. The sales agents are entitled to compensation of up to 2 percent of the gross sales price per share for any shares of common stock sold under the distribution agreement.
41

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company did 0t sell any shares of common stock through the ATM Program. At June 30, 2021, approximately $390.0 million remained outstanding for future offerings under this program.

(e)  Stock Repurchase Program
 
On November 2, 2020, the Company’s Board authorized a share repurchase program under which the Company may repurchase up to $250 million of its common stock through the end of 2022. The Board’s authorization replaces the authorization under the Company’s existing stock repurchase program that was adopted in December 2013, which authorized the Company to repurchase up to 10.0 million shares of common stock and under which approximately 6.6 million remained available for repurchase.

The stock repurchase program does not require the purchase of any minimum number of shares. The timing and extent to which the Company repurchases its shares will depend upon, among other things, market conditions, share price, liquidity, regulatory requirements and other factors, and repurchases may be commenced or suspended at any time without prior notice. Acquisitions under the share repurchase program may be made in the open market, through privately negotiated transactions or block trades or other means, in accordance with applicable securities laws (including, in the Company’s discretion, through the use of one or more plans adopted under Rule 10b5-1 promulgated under the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)).

During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company repurchased 5,659,551 and 11,606,229 shares of its common stock through the stock repurchase program at an average cost of $4.19 and $4.14 per share and a total cost of approximately $23.7 million and $48.1 million, net of fees and commissions paid to the sales agent of approximately $57,000 and $116,000, respectively. As of June 30, 2021, the Company was permitted to purchase an additional $117.7 million of its common stock.

42

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
(f) Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income/(Loss)

The following table presents changes in the balances of each component of the Company’s AOCI for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021:
Three Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
(In Thousands)Net Unrealized
Gain/(Loss) on
AFS Securities
Net 
Gain/(Loss)
on Swaps
Net Unrealized Gain/(Loss) on Financing Agreements (3)
Total 
AOCI
Net Unrealized
Gain/(Loss) on
AFS Securities
Net 
Gain/(Loss)
on Swaps
Net Unrealized Gain/(Loss) on Financing Agreements (3)
Total 
AOCI
Balance at beginning of period$75,752 $$(2,079)$73,673 $79,607 $$(2,314)$77,293 
OCI before reclassifications(9,589)491 (9,098)(13,444)726 (12,718)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI (1)
Net OCI during the period (2)
(9,589)491 (9,098)(13,444)726 (12,718)
Balance at end of period$66,163 $$(1,588)$64,575 $66,163 $$(1,588)$64,575 

(1)  See separate table below for details about these reclassifications.
(2)  For further information regarding changes in OCI, see the Company’s consolidated statements of comprehensive income/(loss).
(3) Net Unrealized Gain/(Loss) on Financing Agreements at Fair Value due to changes in instrument-specific credit risk.
 

The following table presents changes in the balances of each component of the Company’s AOCI for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020:
Three Months Ended
June 30, 2020
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2020
(In Thousands)Net Unrealized
Gain/(Loss) on
AFS Securities
Net Gain/(Loss) on SwapsTotal AOCINet Unrealized
Gain/(Loss) on
AFS Securities
Net 
Gain/(Loss) on Swaps
Total AOCI
Balance at beginning of period$148,910 $(71,208)$77,702 $392,722 $(22,675)$370,047 
OCI before reclassifications48,715 48,715 393,503 (50,126)343,377 
Amounts reclassified from AOCI (1)
(144,736)64,032 (80,704)(733,336)65,625 (667,711)
Net OCI during the period (2)
(96,021)64,032 (31,989)(339,833)15,499 (324,334)
Balance at end of period$52,889 $(7,176)$45,713 $52,889 $(7,176)$45,713 

(1)  See separate table below for details about these reclassifications.
(2)  For further information regarding changes in OCI, see the Company’s consolidated statements of comprehensive income/(loss).
 
The following table presents information about the significant amounts reclassified out of the Company’s AOCI for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021:
Three Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Details about AOCI ComponentsAmounts Reclassified from AOCIAffected Line Item in the Statement
Where Net Income is Presented
(In Thousands)
AFS Securities:
Realized gain on sale of securities$$Net realized loss on sales of securities and residential whole loans
Impairment recognized in earningsOther, net
Total AFS Securities$$
Total reclassifications for period$$
 

43

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The following table presents information about the significant amounts reclassified out of the Company’s AOCI for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020:
Three Months Ended
June 30, 2020
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2020
Details about AOCI ComponentsAmounts Reclassified from AOCIAffected Line Item in the Statement
Where Net Income is Presented
(In Thousands)
AFS Securities:
Realized gain on sale of securities$(144,736)$(389,067)Net realized loss on sales of securities and residential whole loans
Impairment recognized in earnings(344,269)Other, net
Total AFS Securities$(144,736)$(733,336)
Swaps designated as cash flow hedges:
Amortization of de-designated hedging instruments64,032 65,625 Other, net
Total Swaps designated as cash flow hedges64,032 65,625 
Total reclassifications for period$(80,704)$(667,711)

44

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021

12.    EPS Calculation
 
The following table presents a reconciliation of the earnings/(loss) and shares used in calculating basic and diluted earnings/(loss) per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(In Thousands, Except Per Share Amounts)2021202020212020
Basic Earnings/(Loss) per Share:
Net income/(loss) to common stockholders$66,714 $96,578 $152,236 $(812,417)
Dividends declared on preferred stock(8,219)(8,144)(16,438)(13,359)
Dividends, dividend equivalents and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities(205)(297)(479)
Net income/(loss) to common stockholders - basic$58,290 $88,137 $135,319 $(825,776)
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding441,532 453,205 446,307 453,092 
Basic Earnings/(Loss) per Share$0.13 $0.19 $0.30 $(1.82)
Diluted Earnings/(Loss) per Share:
Net income/(loss) to common stockholders - basic$58,290 $88,137 135,319 (825,776)
Interest expense on Convertible Senior Notes3,893 7,823 
Dividends, dividend equivalents and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities205 
Net income/(loss) to common stockholders - diluted$58,495 $92,030 $143,142 $(825,776)
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding441,532 453,205 446,307 453,092 
Effect of assumed conversion of Convertible Senior Notes to common shares28,920 28,920 
Unvested and vested restricted stock units1,730 
Effect of Warrants375 
Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding (1)
443,262 482,500 475,227 453,092 
Diluted Earnings/(Loss) per Share$0.13 $0.19 $0.30 $(1.82)

(1)At June 30, 2021, the Company had approximately 4.8 million equity instruments outstanding that were not included in the calculation of diluted EPS for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive.  These equity instruments reflect RSUs (based on current estimate of expected share settlement amount) with a weighted average grant date fair value of $4.23. These equity instruments may have a dilutive impact on future EPS.  

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, the Convertible Senior Notes were determined to be dilutive and were included in the calculation of diluted EPS under the “if-converted” method. Under this method, the periodic interest expense for dilutive notes is added back to the numerator and the weighted average number of shares that the notes are entitled to (if converted, regardless of whether the conversion option is in or out of the money) is included in the denominator for the purpose of calculating diluted EPS. The Convertible Senior Notes may have a dilutive impact on future EPS.

13.    Equity Compensation and Other Benefit Plans
 
(a)  Equity Compensation Plan
 
In accordance with the terms of the Company’s Equity Plan, which was adopted by the Company’s stockholders on June 10, 2020 (and which amended and restated the Company’s 2010 Equity Compensation Plan), directors, officers and employees of the Company and any of its subsidiaries and other persons expected to provide significant services for the Company and any of its subsidiaries are eligible to receive grants of stock options (“Options”), restricted stock, RSUs, dividend equivalent rights and other stock-based awards under the Equity Plan.
 
Subject to certain exceptions, stock-based awards relating to a maximum of 18.0 million shares of common stock may be granted under the Equity Plan; forfeitures and/or awards that expire unexercised do not count toward this limit.  At June 30,
45

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
2021, approximately 11.8 million shares of common stock remained available for grant in connection with stock-based awards under the Equity Plan.  A participant may generally not receive stock-based awards in excess of 2.0 million shares of common stock in any one year and no award may be granted to any person who, assuming exercise of all Options and payment of all awards held by such person, would own or be deemed to own more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock.  Unless previously terminated by the Board, awards may be granted under the Equity Plan until June 10, 2030.
 
Restricted Stock Units

Under the terms of the Equity Plan, RSUs are instruments that provide the holder with the right to receive, subject to the satisfaction of conditions set by the Compensation Committee at the time of grant, a payment of a specified value, which may be a share of the Company’s common stock, the fair market value of a share of the Company’s common stock, or such fair market value to the extent in excess of an established base value, on the applicable settlement date.  Although the Equity Plan permits the Company to issue RSUs that can settle in cash, all of the Company’s outstanding RSUs as of June 30, 2021 are designated to be settled in shares of the Company’s common stock.  The Company granted 215,958 and 2,701,082 RSUs during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and granted 1,204,713 RSUs during the six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. There were 0 RSUs forfeited during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. All RSUs outstanding at June 30, 2021 may be entitled to receive dividend equivalent payments depending on the terms and conditions of the award either in cash at the time dividends are paid by the Company, or for certain time-based and performance-based RSU awards, as a grant of stock at the time such awards are settled.  At June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had unrecognized compensation expense of $11.3 million and $6.8 million, respectively, related to RSUs.  The unrecognized compensation expense at June 30, 2021 is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.0 years.

Restricted Stock
 
The Company did 0t grant any shares of restricted common stock during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and the Company granted 79,545 shares of restricted common stock during the three and six months ended June 30, 2020. At June 30, 2021, the Company did 0t have any unvested shares of restricted common stock outstanding.

Dividend Equivalents
 
A dividend equivalent is a right to receive a distribution equal to the dividend distributions that would be paid on a share of the Company’s common stock.  Dividend equivalents may be granted as a separate instrument or may be a right associated with the grant of another award (e.g., an RSU) under the Equity Plan, and they are paid in cash or other consideration at such times and in accordance with such rules as the Compensation Committee of the Board shall determine in its discretion.  Payments made on the Company’s outstanding dividend equivalent rights are generally charged to Stockholders’ Equity when common stock dividends are declared to the extent that such equivalents are expected to vest.  The Company made dividend equivalent payments associated with RSU awards of approximately $120,000 and $257,000 during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and approximately $276,000 during the six months ended June 30, 2020. In addition, 0 dividend equivalents rights awarded as separate instruments were granted during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
 
 Expense Recognized for Equity-Based Compensation Instruments
 
The following table presents the Company’s expenses related to its equity-based compensation instruments for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(In Thousands)2021202020212020
RSUs$2,744 $1,554 $4,432 $2,827 
Total$2,744 $1,554 $4,432 $2,827 

(b)  Deferred Compensation Plans
 
The Company administers deferred compensation plans for its senior officers and non-employee directors (collectively, the “Deferred Plans”), pursuant to which participants may elect to defer up to 100% of certain cash compensation.  The Deferred Plans are designed to align participants’ interests with those of the Company’s stockholders.
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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
 
Amounts deferred under the Deferred Plans are considered to be converted into “stock units” of the Company.  Stock units do not represent stock of the Company, but rather are a liability of the Company that changes in value as would equivalent shares of the Company’s common stock.  Deferred compensation liabilities are settled in cash at the termination of the deferral period, based on the value of the stock units at that time.  The Deferred Plans are non-qualified plans under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and, as such, are not funded.  Prior to the time that the deferred accounts are settled, participants are unsecured creditors of the Company.
 
The Company’s liability for stock units in the Deferred Plans is based on the market price of the Company’s common stock at the measurement date.  The following table presents the Company’s expenses related to its Deferred Plans for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(In Thousands)2021202020212020
Non-employee directors$314 $347 $445 $(1,558)
Total$314 $347 $445 $(1,558)
 
The following table presents the aggregate amount of income deferred by participants of the Deferred Plans through June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 that had not been distributed and the Company’s associated liability for such deferrals at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
 
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
(In Thousands)
Undistributed Income Deferred (1)
 Liability Under Deferred Plans
Undistributed Income Deferred (1)
 Liability Under Deferred Plans
Non-employee directors$2,442 $2,499 $2,197 $1,809 
Total$2,442 $2,499 $2,197 $1,809 

(1)  Represents the cumulative amounts that were deferred by participants through June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, which had not been distributed through such respective date.
 
(c)  Savings Plan
 
The Company sponsors a tax-qualified employee savings plan (the “Savings Plan”) in accordance with Section 401(k) of the Code.  Subject to certain restrictions, all of the Company’s employees are eligible to make tax-deferred contributions to the Savings Plan subject to limitations under applicable law.  Participant’s accounts are self-directed and the Company bears the costs of administering the Savings Plan.  The Company matches 100% of the first 3% of eligible compensation deferred by employees and 50% of the next 2%, subject to a maximum as provided by the Code.  The Company has elected to operate the Savings Plan under the applicable safe harbor provisions of the Code, whereby among other things, the Company must make contributions for all participating employees and all matches contributed by the Company immediately vest 100%.  For the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company recognized expenses for matching contributions of $125,000 and $120,000, respectively, and $250,000 and $240,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.


14.  Fair Value of Financial Instruments
 
GAAP requires the categorization of fair value measurements into three broad levels that form a hierarchy. A financial instrument’s categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.  The three levels of valuation hierarchy are defined as follows:
 
Level 1 — Inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
 
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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Level 2 — Inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
 
Level 3 — Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.
 
The following describes the valuation methodologies used for the Company’s financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis, as well as the general classification of such instruments pursuant to the valuation hierarchy.
 
Residential Whole Loans, at Fair Value
 
The Company determines the fair value of its residential whole loans held at fair value after considering valuations obtained from a third-party that specializes in providing valuations of residential mortgage loans. The valuation approach applied generally depends on whether the loan is considered performing or non-performing at the date the valuation is performed. For performing loans, estimates of fair value are derived using a discounted cash flow approach, where estimates of cash flows are determined from the scheduled payments, adjusted using forecasted prepayment, default and loss given default rates. For non-performing loans, asset liquidation cash flows are derived based on the estimated time to liquidate the loan, the estimated value of the collateral, expected costs and estimated home price levels. Estimated cash flows for both performing and non-performing loans are discounted at yields considered appropriate to arrive at a reasonable exit price for the asset. Indications of loan value such as actual trades, bids, offers and generic market color may be used in determining the appropriate discount yield. The Company’s residential whole loans held at fair value are classified as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.

Securities, at Fair Value

Term Notes Backed by MSR-Related Collateral

The Company’s valuation process for term notes backed by MSR-related collateral is similar to that used for other residential mortgage securities and considers a number of observable market data points, including prices obtained from pricing services, brokers and repurchase agreement counterparties, dialogue with market participants, as well as management’s observations of market activity. Other factors taken into consideration include estimated changes in fair value of the related underlying MSR collateral and, as applicable, the financial performance of the ultimate parent or sponsoring entity of the issuer, which has provided a guarantee that is intended to provide for payment of interest and principal to the holders of the term notes should cash flows generated by the related underlying MSR collateral be insufficient. Based on its evaluation of the observability of the data used in its fair value estimation process, these assets are classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.

Other Residential Mortgage Securities (including short positions in TBA securities)

In determining the fair value of the Company’s other residential mortgage securities, management considers a number of observable market data points, including prices obtained from pricing services and brokers as well as dialogue with market participants.  Valuation of TBA securities positions are based on executed levels for positions entered into and subsequently rolled forward, as well as prices obtained from pricing services for outstanding positions at each reporting date . These valuations are assessed for reasonableness by considering market TBA levels observed via Bloomberg for the same coupon and term to maturity. In valuing Non-Agency MBS, the Company understands that pricing services use observable inputs that include, in addition to trading activity observed in the marketplace, loan delinquency data, credit enhancement levels and vintage, which are taken into account to assign pricing factors such as spread and prepayment assumptions.  The Company collects and considers current market intelligence on all major markets, including benchmark security evaluations and bid-lists from various sources, when available.
 
The Company’s residential mortgage securities are valued using various market data points as described above, which management considers directly or indirectly observable parameters.  Accordingly, these securities are classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
 
Financing Agreements, at Fair Value

Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions

These agreements are secured and subject to margin calls and their base interest rates reset frequently to market based rates. As a result, no credit valuation adjustment is required, and the primary factor in determining their fair value is the credit spread paid over the base rate, which is a non-observable input as it is determined based on negotiations with the counterparty. The Company’s financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions held at fair value are classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy if the credit spreads used to price the instrument reset frequently, which is typically the case with shorter term repurchase agreement contracts collateralized by securities. Financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions that are typically longer term and are collateralized by residential whole loans where the credit spread paid over the base rate on the instrument is not reset frequently are classified as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.

Agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions

These agreements are secured, but not subject to margin calls, and their base interest rates reset frequently to market based rates. As a result, a credit valuation adjustment would only be required if there were a significant decrease in collateral value, and the primary factor in determining their fair value is the credit spread paid over the base rate, which is a non-observable input as it is determined based on negotiations with the counterparty. The Company’s financing agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions held at fair value are classified as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.

Securitized Debt

In determining the fair value of securitized debt, management considers a number of observable market data points, including prices obtained from pricing services and brokers as well as dialogue with market participants. Accordingly, the Company’s securitized debt is classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.

Changes to the valuation methodologies used with respect to the Company’s financial instruments are reviewed by management to ensure any such changes result in appropriate exit price valuations.  The Company will refine its valuation methodologies as markets and products develop and pricing methodologies evolve.  The methods described above may produce fair value estimates that may not be indicative of net realizable value or reflective of future fair values.  Furthermore, while the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with those used by market participants, the use of different methodologies, or assumptions, to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date.  The Company uses inputs that are current as of the measurement date, which may include periods of market dislocation, during which price transparency may be reduced.  The Company reviews the classification of its financial instruments within the fair value hierarchy on a quarterly basis, and management may conclude that its financial instruments should be reclassified to a different level in the future.

49

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
The following tables present the Company’s financial instruments carried at fair value on a recurring basis as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, on the consolidated balance sheets by the valuation hierarchy, as previously described:

Fair Value at June 30, 2021
 
(In Thousands)Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets:
Residential whole loans, at fair value$$$2,134,855 $2,134,855 
Securities, at fair value302,835 302,835 
Total assets carried at fair value$$302,835 $2,134,855 $2,437,690 
Liabilities:
Agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions$$$795,341 $795,341 
Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions858,066 858,066 
Securitized debt640,696 640,696 
Total liabilities carried at fair value$$640,696 $1,653,407 $2,294,103 

Fair Value at December 31, 2020
 
(In Thousands)Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets:    
Residential whole loans, at fair value$$$1,216,902 $1,216,902 
Securities, at fair value399,999 399,999 
Total assets carried at fair value$$399,999 $1,216,902 $1,616,901 
Liabilities:
Agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions$$$1,159,213 $1,159,213 
Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions213,915 1,124,162 1,338,077 
Securitized debt869,482 869,482 
Total liabilities carried at fair value$$1,083,397 $2,283,375 $3,366,772 
 
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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Changes in Level 3 Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

The following table presents additional information for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 about the Company’s Residential whole loans, at fair value, which are classified as Level 3 and measured at fair value on a recurring basis:

Residential Whole Loans, at Fair Value
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(In Thousands)
2021 (1)
202020212020
Balance at beginning of period$1,207,997 $1,243,792 $1,216,902 $1,381,583 
Purchases837,859 4,679 837,859 8,198 
Originations and draws423 423 
Changes in fair value recorded in Net gain on residential whole loans measured at fair value through earnings6,226 2,010 38,313 (72,546)
Repayments(38,932)(28,608)(64,502)(52,412)
  Sales and repurchases430 (18,225)430 (18,530)
  Transfer to REO(10,423)(2,667)(25,845)(45,312)
Balance at end of period$2,003,580 $1,200,981 $2,003,580 $1,200,981 

(1) Excluded from the table above are approximately $131.3 million of Residential whole loans, at fair value for which the closing of the purchase transaction had not occurred as of June 30, 2021.

The following table presents additional information for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 about the Company’s financing agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions, which are classified as Level 3 and measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
Agreements with Non-mark-to-market Collateral Provisions
(In Thousands)Three Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Balance at beginning of period$1,041,283 $1,159,213 
Issuances
Payment of principal(245,451)(363,146)
Changes in unrealized losses(491)(726)
Balance at end of period$795,341 $795,341 

The following table presents additional information for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 about the Company’s financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions, which are classified as Level 3 and measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
Agreements with Mark-to-market Collateral Provisions
(In Thousands)Three Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Balance at beginning of period$979,541 $1,124,162 
Issuances299,650 391,647 
Payment of principal(421,125)(657,743)
Changes in unrealized losses
Balance at end of period$858,066 $858,066 

At June 30, 2020, the Company’s financing agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions and the Company’s financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions had just been issued and were therefore classified as Level 2 since their values were based on market transactions. However, market information for similar financings was not available at June 30, 2021 and the Company valued these financing instruments based on unobservable inputs.
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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Fair Value Methodology for Level 3 Financial Instruments

Residential Whole Loans, at Fair Value

The following tables present a summary of quantitative information about the significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of the Company’s residential whole loans held at fair value for which it has utilized Level 3 inputs to determine fair value as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:

June 30, 2021
(Dollars in Thousands)
Fair Value (1)
Valuation TechniqueUnobservable Input
Weighted Average (2)
Range
Purchased Non-Performing Loans$773,449 Discounted cash flowDiscount rate3.5 %
2.5-11.8%
Prepayment rate14.0 %
0.0-43.9%
Default rate4.1 %
0.0-49.1%
Loss severity12.0 %
0.0-100.0%
$394,736 Liquidation modelDiscount rate8.0 %
6.7-50.0%
Annual change in home prices7.0 %
4.3-12.1%
Liquidation timeline
(in years)
1.8
0.7-4.8
Current value of underlying properties (3)
$765 
$5-$3,704
Total$1,168,185 

December 31, 2020
(Dollars in Thousands)
Fair Value (1)
Valuation TechniqueUnobservable Input
Weighted Average (2)
Range
Purchased Non-Performing Loans$789,576 Discounted cash flowDiscount rate3.9 %
3.3-8.0%
Prepayment rate5.4 %
0.0-17.6%
Default rate4.1 %
0.0-47.7%
Loss severity12.7 %
0.0-100.0%
$427,061 Liquidation modelDiscount rate8.1 %
6.7-50.0%
Annual change in home prices3.6 %
1.8-6.5%
Liquidation timeline
(in years)
1.8
0.8-4.8
Current value of underlying properties (3)
$729 
$12-$4,500
Total$1,216,637 

(1) Excludes approximately $266,000 and $265,000 of loans for which management considers the purchase price continues to reflect the fair value of such loans at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
(2) Amounts are weighted based on the fair value of the underlying loan.
(3) The simple average value of the properties underlying residential whole loans held at fair value valued via a liquidation model was approximately $410,000 and $380,000 as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
June 30, 2021
(Dollars in Thousands)
Fair Value (1)
Valuation TechniqueUnobservable Input
Weighted Average (2)
Range
Purchased Performing Loans$832,928 Discounted cash flowDiscount rate3.1 %0.8-7.3%
Prepayment rate20.2 %0.0-46.1%
Default rate0.4 %0.0-22.1%
Loss severity9.2 %0.0-10.0%
$2,249 Liquidation modelDiscount rate7.5 %7.5-7.5%
Annual change in home prices8.1 %6.8-8.7%
Liquidation timeline
(in years)
2.52.0-3.3
Current value of underlying properties (3)
$1,048 $124-$1,750
Total$835,177 

(1) Excludes approximately $131.3 million of loans for which management considers the purchase price continues to reflect the fair value of such loans at June 30, 2021.

Changes in market conditions, as well as changes in the assumptions or methodology used to determine fair value, could result in a significant increase or decrease in the fair value of residential whole loans. Loans valued using a discounted cash flow model are most sensitive to changes in the discount rate assumption, while loans valued using the liquidation model technique are most sensitive to changes in the current value of the underlying properties and the liquidation timeline. Increases in discount rates, default rates, loss severities, or liquidation timelines, either in isolation or collectively, would generally result in a lower fair value measurement, whereas increases in the current or expected value of the underlying properties, in isolation, would result in a higher fair value measurement. In practice, changes in valuation assumptions may not occur in isolation and the changes in any particular assumption may result in changes in other assumptions, which could offset or amplify the impact on the overall valuation.

The following table presents the carrying values and estimated fair values of the Company’s financial instruments at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
 
June 30, 2021June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Level in Fair Value HierarchyCarrying
Value
Estimated Fair ValueCarrying
Value
Estimated Fair Value
(In Thousands)
Financial Assets:
Residential whole loans3$5,550,979 $5,757,133 $5,325,401 $5,499,303 
Securities, at fair value2302,835 302,835 399,999 399,999 
Cash and cash equivalents1906,409 906,409 814,354 814,354 
Restricted cash18,839 8,839 7,165 7,165 
Financial Liabilities (1):
Financing agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions3795,341 795,341 1,159,213 1,159,213 
Financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions31,182,900 1,183,012 1,124,162 1,124,162 
Financing agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions2178,357 178,357 213,915 213,915 
Securitized debt (2)
22,046,381 2,055,295 1,514,509 1,519,567 
Convertible senior notes2225,812 236,053 225,177 228,287 
Senior notes (3)
1100,000 100,031 
53

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
 
(1)Carrying value of securitized debt, Convertible Senior Notes, Senior Notes and certain repurchase agreements is net of associated debt issuance costs.
(2)Includes Securitized debt that is carried at amortized cost basis and fair value.
(3)On January 6, 2021, the Company redeemed all of its outstanding Senior Notes (see Note 6).

Other Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis

The Company holds REO at the lower of the current carrying amount or fair value less estimated selling costs. During the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company recorded REO with an aggregate estimated fair value, less estimated cost to sell, of $38.4 million and $59.2 million, respectively, at the time of foreclosure. The Company classifies fair value measurements of REO as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.


15.  Use of Special Purpose Entities and Variable Interest Entities
 
A Special Purpose Entity (“SPE”) is an entity designed to fulfill a specific limited need of the company that organized it.  SPEs are often used to facilitate transactions that involve securitizing financial assets or re-securitizing previously securitized financial assets.  The objective of such transactions may include obtaining non-recourse financing, obtaining liquidity or refinancing the underlying financial assets on improved terms.  Securitization involves transferring assets to a SPE to convert all or a portion of those assets into cash before they would have been realized in the normal course of business, through the SPE’s issuance of debt or equity instruments.  Investors in a SPE usually have recourse only to the assets in the SPE and, depending on the overall structure of the transaction, may benefit from various forms of credit enhancement such as over-collateralization in the form of excess assets in the SPE, priority with respect to receipt of cash flows relative to holders of other debt or equity instruments issued by the SPE, or a line of credit or other form of liquidity agreement that is designed with the objective of ensuring that investors receive principal and/or interest cash flow on the investment in accordance with the terms of their investment agreement. 

The Company has entered into several financing transactions that resulted in the Company consolidating as VIEs the SPEs that were created to facilitate these transactions. See Note 2(p) for a discussion of the accounting policies applied to the consolidation of VIEs and transfers of financial assets in connection with financing transactions.
 
The Company has engaged in loan securitizations primarily for the purpose of obtaining improved overall financing terms as well as non-recourse financing on a portion of its residential whole loan portfolio. Notwithstanding the Company’s participation in these transactions, the risks facing the Company are largely unchanged as the Company remains economically exposed to the first loss position on the underlying assets transferred to the VIEs.
 
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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Loan Securitization Transactions

The following table summarizes the key details of the Company’s loan securitization transactions currently outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in Thousands)June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Aggregate unpaid principal balance of residential whole loans sold$2,756,479 $2,232,561 
Face amount of Senior Bonds issued by the VIE and purchased by third-party investors$2,511,113 $1,862,068 
Outstanding amount of Senior Bonds, at carrying value$1,405,685 (1)$645,027 (1)
Outstanding amount of Senior Bonds, at fair value$640,696 $869,482 
Outstanding amount of Senior Bonds, total$2,046,381 $1,514,509 
Weighted average fixed rate for Senior Bonds issued1.57 %(2)2.11 %(2)
Weighted average contractual maturity of Senior Bonds41 years(2)41 years(2)
Face amount of Senior Support Certificates received by the Company (3)
$215,157 $268,548 
Cash received$2,511,087 $1,853,408 
(1)Net of $6.8 million and $3.2 million of deferred financing costs at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
(2)At June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, $445.2 million and $568.7 million, respectively, of Senior Bonds sold in securitization transactions contained a contractual coupon step-up feature whereby the coupon increases by either 100 or 300 basis points or more at 36 months from issuance if the bond is not redeemed before such date.
(3)Provides credit support to the Senior Bonds sold to third-party investors in the securitization transactions.

During the three months ended June 30, 2021, the Company issued Senior Bonds with a current face of $805.9 million to third-party investors for proceeds of $805.9 million, before offering costs and accrued interest. The Senior Bonds issued by the Company during the three months ended June 30, 2021 are included in “Financing agreements, at carrying value” (at carrying value) on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets (see Note 6).

As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, as a result of the transactions described above, securitized loans of approximately $2.3 billion and $1.8 billion are included in “Residential whole loans” and REO with a carrying value of approximately $38.4 million and $49.5 million are included in “Other assets” on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets, respectively. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the aggregate carrying value of Senior Bonds issued by consolidated VIEs was $2.0 billion and $1.5 billion, respectively.  These Senior Bonds are disclosed as “Securitized debt” and are included in Other liabilities on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.  The holders of the securitized debt have no recourse to the general credit of the Company, but the Company does have the obligation, under certain circumstances, to repurchase assets from the VIE upon the breach of certain representations and warranties with respect to the residential whole loans sold to the VIE.  In the absence of such a breach, the Company has no obligation to provide any other explicit or implicit support to any VIE.

The Company concluded that the entities created to facilitate the loan securitization transactions are VIEs.  The Company completed an analysis of whether each VIE created to facilitate the securitization transactions should be consolidated by the Company, based on consideration of its involvement in each VIE, including the design and purpose of the SPE, and whether its involvement reflected a controlling financial interest that resulted in the Company being deemed the primary beneficiary of each VIE.  In determining whether the Company would be considered the primary beneficiary, the following factors were assessed:
 
whether the Company has both the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIE;  and
whether the Company has a right to receive benefits or absorb losses of the entity that could be potentially significant to the VIE.
 
Based on its evaluation of the factors discussed above, including its involvement in the purpose and design of the entity, the Company determined that it was required to consolidate each VIE created to facilitate the loan securitization transactions.

55

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
Residential Whole Loans and REO (including Residential Whole Loans and REO transferred to consolidated VIEs)

Included on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 are a total of $5.6 billion and $5.3 billion, respectively, of residential whole loans. These assets, and certain of the Company’s REO assets, are directly owned by certain trusts established by the Company to acquire the loans and entities established in connection with the Company’s loan securitization transactions. The Company has assessed that these entities are required to be consolidated (see Notes 3 and 5(a)).

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MFA FINANCIAL, INC.
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
JUNE 30, 2021
16. Subsequent Events


Completion of Acquisition of Lima One Holdings, LLC

On July 1, 2021, the Company completed the previously announced acquisition from affiliates of Magnetar Capital of their ownership interests in Lima One Holdings, LLC, the parent company of Lima One Capital, LLC. In connection with this transaction, the Company also acquired from certain members of management of Lima One their ownership interests in Lima One Holdings. With the completion of these transactions, the Company now owns all of the outstanding ownership interests of Lima One Holdings.
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Item 2.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
In this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we refer to MFA Financial, Inc. and its subsidiaries as “the Company,” “MFA,” “we,” “us,” or “our,” unless we specifically state otherwise or the context otherwise indicates.
 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and accompanying notes included in Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Forward Looking Statements

When used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, in future filings with the SEC or in press releases or other written or oral communications, statements which are not historical in nature, including those containing words such as “will,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “may,” the negative of these words or similar expressions, are intended to identify “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act and, as such, may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.

These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results with respect to our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives.  Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, may be forward-looking: risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including its effects on the general economy and our business, financial position and results of operations (including, among other potential effects, increased delinquencies and greater than expected losses in our whole loan portfolio); changes in interest rates and the market (i.e., fair) value of our residential whole loans, MBS and other assets; changes in the prepayment rates on residential mortgage assets, an increase of which could result in a reduction of the yield on certain investments in our portfolio and could require us to reinvest the proceeds received by us as a result of such prepayments in investments with lower coupons, while a decrease in which could result in an increase in the interest rate duration of certain investments in our portfolio making their valuation more sensitive to changes in interest rates and could result in lower forecasted cash flows; credit risks underlying our assets, including changes in the default rates and management’s assumptions regarding default rates on the mortgage loans in our residential whole loan portfolio; our ability to borrow to finance our assets and the terms, including the cost, maturity and other terms, of any such borrowings; implementation of or changes in government regulations or programs affecting our business; our estimates regarding taxable income the actual amount of which is dependent on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, changes in the amount of interest income and financing costs, the method elected by us to accrete the market discount on residential whole loans and the extent of prepayments, realized losses and changes in the composition of our residential whole loan portfolios that may occur during the applicable tax period, including gain or loss on any MBS disposals and whole loan modifications, foreclosures and liquidations; the timing and amount of distributions to stockholders, which are declared and paid at the discretion of our Board and will depend on, among other things, our taxable income, our financial results and overall financial condition and liquidity, maintenance of our REIT qualification and such other factors as the Board deems relevant; our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes; our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (or the Investment Company Act), including statements regarding the concept release issued by the SEC relating to interpretive issues under the Investment Company Act with respect to the status under the Investment Company Act of certain companies that are engaged in the business of acquiring mortgages and mortgage-related interests; our ability to continue growing our residential whole loan portfolio, which is dependent on, among other things, the supply of loans offered for sale in the market; expected returns on our investments in nonperforming residential whole loans (or NPLs), which are affected by, among other things, the length of time required to foreclose upon, sell, liquidate or otherwise reach a resolution of the property underlying the NPL, home price values, amounts advanced to carry the asset (e.g., taxes, insurance, maintenance expenses, etc. on the underlying property) and the amount ultimately realized upon resolution of the asset; targeted or expected returns on our investments in recently-originated loans, the performance of which is, similar to our other mortgage loan investments, subject to, among other things, differences in prepayment risk, credit risk and financing cost associated with such investments; risks associated with our investments in MSR-related assets, including servicing, regulatory and economic risks, risks associated with our investments in loan originators, risks associated with investing in real estate assets, including changes in business conditions and the general economy and risks associated with the integration of our recently-completed acquisition of Lima One Holdings, LLC, and the ongoing operation thereof (including, without limitation, unanticipated expenditures relating to or liabilities arising from the transaction and/or the inability to obtain, or delays in obtaining, expected benefits from the transaction).  These and other risks, uncertainties and factors, including those described in the annual, quarterly and current reports that we file with the SEC, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements we make.  All forward-looking statements are based on beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available.  Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they are made.  New risks and uncertainties arise over time and it is not possible to predict those events or how
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they may affect us.  Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 
Business/General
 
We are a specialty finance company that invests in and finances residential mortgage assets. We invest, on a leveraged basis, in residential whole loans, residential mortgage-backed securities, MSR-related assets and other real estate assets.  Through certain of our subsidiaries, we also originate and service business purpose loans for real estate investors. Our principal business objective is to deliver shareholder value through the generation of distributable income and through asset performance linked to residential mortgage credit fundamentals. We selectively invest in residential mortgage assets with a focus on credit analysis, projected prepayment rates, interest rate sensitivity and expected return.  We are an internally-managed real estate investment trust.

At June 30, 2021, we had total assets of approximately $7.2 billion, of which $5.6 billion, or 77%, represented residential whole loans acquired through interests in certain trusts established to acquire the loans. Our Purchased Performing Loans, which as of June 30, 2021 comprised approximately 68% of our residential whole loans, include: (i) loans to finance (or refinance) one-to-four family residential properties that are not considered to meet the definition of a “Qualified Mortgage” in accordance with guidelines adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (or Non-QM loans), (ii) short-term business purpose loans collateralized by residential properties made to non-occupant borrowers who intend to rehabilitate and sell the property for a profit (or Rehabilitation loans or Fix and Flip loans), (iii) loans to finance (or refinance) non-owner occupied one-to-four family residential properties that are rented to one or more tenants (or Single-family rental loans), (iv) previously originated loans secured by residential real estate that is generally owner occupied (or Seasoned performing loans), and (v) loans on investor properties that conform to the standards for purchase by a federally chartered corporation, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) (or Agency eligible investor loans). In addition, at June 30, 2021, we had approximately $302.8 million in investments in Securities, at fair value, which represented approximately 4% of our total assets.  At such date, our Securities, at fair value included MSR-related assets and CRT securities. Our MSR-related assets include term notes whose cash flows are considered to be largely dependent on MSR collateral and loan participations to provide financing to mortgage originators that own MSRs. Our remaining investment-related assets, which represent approximately 4% of our total assets at June 30, 2021, were primarily comprised of REO, capital contributions made to loan origination partners and MBS and loan-related receivables.

The results of our business operations are affected by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, and primarily depend on, among other things, the level of our net interest income and the market value of our assets, which is driven by numerous factors, including the supply and demand for residential mortgage assets in the marketplace, the terms and availability of adequate financing, general economic and real estate conditions (both on a national and local level), the impact of government actions in the real estate and mortgage sector, and the credit performance of our credit sensitive residential mortgage assets. Changes in these factors, or uncertainty in the market regarding the potential for changes in these factors, can result in significant changes in the value and/or performance of our investment portfolio. Further, our GAAP results may be impacted by market volatility, resulting in changes in market values of certain financial instruments for which changes in fair value are recorded in net income each period, such certain residential whole loans and CRT securities. Our net interest income varies primarily as a result of changes in interest rates, the slope of the yield curve (i.e., the differential between long-term and short-term interest rates), borrowing costs (i.e., our interest expense) and prepayment speeds, the behavior of which involves various risks and uncertainties. Interest rates and conditional prepayment rates (or CPRs) (which measure the amount of unscheduled principal prepayment on an asset as a percentage of the asset balance), vary according to the type of investment, conditions in the financial markets, competition and other factors, none of which can be predicted with any certainty. Our financial results are impacted by estimates of credit losses that are required to be recorded when loans that are not accounted for at fair value through net income are acquired or originated, as well as changes in these credit loss estimates that will be required to be made periodically.
 
With respect to our business operations, increases in interest rates, in general, may over time cause: (i) the interest expense associated with our borrowings to increase; (ii) the value of certain of our residential mortgage assets and, correspondingly, our stockholders’ equity to decline; (iii) coupons on our adjustable-rate assets to reset, on a delayed basis, to higher interest rates; (iv) prepayments on our assets to decline, thereby slowing the amortization of purchase premiums and the accretion of our purchase discounts, and slowing our ability to redeploy capital to generally higher yielding investments; and (v) the value of our derivative hedging instruments, if any, and, correspondingly, our stockholders’ equity to increase. Conversely, decreases in interest rates, in general, may over time cause: (i) the interest expense associated with our borrowings to decrease; (ii) the value of certain of our residential mortgage assets and, correspondingly, our stockholders’ equity to increase; (iii) coupons on our
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adjustable-rate assets, on a delayed basis, to lower interest rates; (iv) prepayments on our assets to increase, thereby accelerating the amortization of purchase premiums and the accretion of our purchase discounts, and accelerating the redeployment of our capital to generally lower yielding investments; and (v) the value of our derivative hedging instruments, if any, and, correspondingly, our stockholders’ equity to decrease.  In addition, our borrowing costs and credit lines are further affected by the type of collateral we pledge and general conditions in the credit market.
 
Our investments in residential mortgage assets expose us to credit risk, meaning that we are generally subject to credit losses due to the risk of delinquency, default and foreclosure on the underlying real estate collateral. Our investment process for credit sensitive assets focuses primarily on quantifying and pricing credit risk. With respect to investments in Purchased Performing Loans, we believe that sound underwriting standards, including low LTVs at origination, significantly mitigate our risk of loss. Further, we believe the discounted purchase prices paid on Purchased Non-performing and Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans mitigate our risk of loss in the event that, as we expect on most such investments, we receive less than 100% of the par value of these investments.

Premiums arise when we acquire an MBS at a price in excess of the aggregate principal balance of the mortgages securing the MBS (i.e., par value) or when we acquire residential whole loans at a price in excess of their aggregate principal balance Conversely, discounts arise when we acquire an MBS at a price below the aggregate principal balance of the mortgages securing the MBS or when we acquire residential whole loans at a price below their aggregate principal balance.  Accretable purchase discounts on these investments are accreted to interest income. Premiums paid to purchase loans, primarily on certain of our Non-QM and business purpose loans, are amortized against interest income over the life of the investment using the effective yield method, adjusted for actual prepayment activity. An increase in the prepayment rate, as measured by the CPR, will typically accelerate the amortization of purchase premiums, thereby reducing the interest income earned on these assets.
 
CPR levels are impacted by, among other things, conditions in the housing market, new regulations, government and private sector initiatives, interest rates, availability of credit to home borrowers, underwriting standards and the economy in general. In particular, CPR reflects the conditional repayment rate (or CRR), which measures voluntary prepayments of a loan, and the conditional default rate (or CDR), which measures involuntary prepayments resulting from defaults. CPRs on our residential mortgage securities and whole loans may differ significantly. For the three months ended June 30, 2021, the average CPR on our Non-QM loan portfolio was 40%. For the three months ended June 30, 2021, the average CPR on our Single-family rental loan portfolio was 27%.
 
It is generally our business strategy to hold our residential mortgage assets as long-term investments. On at least a quarterly basis, excluding investments for which the fair value option has been elected or for which specialized loan accounting is otherwise applied, we assess our ability and intent to continue to hold each asset and, as part of this process, we monitor our investments in securities that are designated as AFS for impairment. A change in our ability and/or intent to continue to hold any of these securities that are in an unrealized loss position, or a deterioration in the underlying characteristics of these securities, could result in our recognizing future impairment charges or a loss upon the sale of any such security.
 
Our residential mortgage investments have longer-term contractual maturities than our financing liabilities. Even though the majority of our investments have interest rates that adjust over time based on short-term changes in corresponding interest rate indices (typically following an initial fixed-rate period for our Hybrids), the interest rates we pay on our borrowings will typically change at a faster pace than the interest rates we earn on our investments. In order to reduce this interest rate risk exposure, we may enter into derivative instruments, which in the past have generally been comprised of Swaps and currently include short positions in TBA securities. The majority of our Swap derivative instruments have generally been designated as cash-flow hedges against a portion of our then current and forecasted LIBOR-based repurchase agreements. Following the significant interest rate decreases that occurred late in the first quarter of 2020, we unwound all of our Swap transactions at the end of the first quarter of 2020.





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Recent Market Conditions and Our Strategy
 
Second quarter 2021 Portfolio Activity and impact on financial results:

At June 30, 2021, our residential mortgage asset portfolio, which includes residential whole loans and REO, and Securities, at fair value was approximately $6.1 billion compared to $5.8 billion at March 31, 2021.

The following table presents the activity for our residential mortgage asset portfolio for the three months ended June 30, 2021:
(In Millions)March 31, 2021
Runoff (1)
Acquisitions
Other (2)
June 30, 2021Change
Residential whole loans and REO$5,409 $(538)$857 $28 $5,756 $347 
Securities, at fair value351 (52)— 303 (48)
Totals$5,760 $(590)$857 $32 $6,059 $299 

(1)    Primarily includes principal repayments and sales of REO.
(2)    Primarily includes changes in fair value, draws on previously originated Rehabilitation loans, and changes in the allowance for credit losses.

At June 30, 2021, our total recorded investment in residential whole loans and REO was $5.8 billion, or 95.0% of our residential mortgage asset portfolio. Of this amount, $3.8 billion are Purchased Performing Loans, $581.0 million are Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans and $1.2 billion are Purchased Non-performing Loans. For the three months ended June 30, 2021, we recognized approximately $69.0 million of income on Residential whole loans in Interest Income on our consolidated statements of operations, representing an effective yield of 5.48%, with Purchased Performing Loans generating an effective yield of 4.45%, Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans generating an effective yield of 7.17% and Purchased Non-performing Loans generating an effective yield of 7.98%. In addition, all of our Purchased Non-performing Loans and certain of our Purchased Performing Loans are measured at fair value as a result of the election of the fair option at acquisition. Included in earnings in Other income, net are net gains on these loans of $6.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021. At June 30, 2021 and March 31, 2021, we had REO with an aggregate carrying value of $204.8 million and $220.4 million, respectively, which is included in Other assets on our consolidated balance sheets.

In response to the financial impact of COVID-19 on borrowers, and in compliance with various federal and state guidelines, starting in the first quarter of 2020, we offered short-term relief to certain borrowers who were contractually current at the time the pandemic started to impact the economy. Under the terms of such plans, for certain borrowers a deferral plan was entered into where missed payments were deferred to the maturity of the related loan, with a corresponding change to the loan’s next payment due date. In addition, certain borrowers were granted up to a seven-month “zero pay” forbearance with payments required to resume at the conclusion of the plan. For these borrowers, delinquent payments were permitted to be placed on specified repayment plans. While the majority of the borrowers granted relief have resumed making payments at the conclusion of such deferral and forbearance periods, certain borrowers, particularly in our Non-QM loan portfolio, continue to be impacted financially by COVID-19 and have not yet resumed payments. When these borrowers became more than 90 days delinquent on payments, any interest income receivable related to the associated loans was reversed in accordance with our non-accrual policies. At June 30, 2021, Non-QM loans with an unpaid principal balance of $140.3 million, or 6.2% of the portfolio, were more than 90 days delinquent. For these and other borrowers that have been impacted by the COVID-19, we are continuing to evaluate loss mitigation options with respect to these loans, including forbearance, repayment plans, loan modification and foreclosure. In addition, at June 30, 2021, Rehabilitation Loans to fix and flip borrowers with an unpaid principal balance of $108.9 million, or 26.5% of the portfolio, were more than 90 days delinquent. Because rehabilitation loans are shorter term and repayment is usually dependent on completion of the rehabilitation project and sale of the property, the strategy to resolve delinquent rehabilitation loans differs from owner occupied loans. Consequently, forbearance and repayment plans are offered less frequently. However, we seek to work with delinquent fix and flip borrowers whose projects are close to completion or are listed for sale in order to provide the borrower the opportunity to sell the property and repay our loan. In circumstances where the borrower is not able to complete the project or we are not able to work with the borrower to our mutual benefit, we pursue foreclosure or other forms of resolution.

At June 30, 2021, our Securities, at fair value totaled $302.8 million and included $196.5 million of MSR-related assets and $106.3 million of CRT securities. The net yield on our Securities, at fair value was 24.57% for the second quarter of 2021, compared to 8.20% for the second quarter 2020. The increase in the net yield on our Securities, at fair value portfolio primarily reflects accretion income of approximately $8.4 million recognized in the current year quarter due to the redemption at par of an MSR-related asset that had been held at an amortized cost basis below par due to an impairment charge recorded in the first quarter of 2020.
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We adopted the new accounting standard addressing the measurement of credit losses on financial instruments (CECL) on January 1, 2020. CECL requires that reserves for credit losses be estimated at the reporting date based on expected cash flows for the life of the loan or financial asset, including anticipated prepayments and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions. For the second quarter of 2021, we recorded a reversal of provision for credit losses on residential whole loans held at carrying value of $8.9 million. The reversal for the period primarily reflects lower loan balances and adjustments to certain macro-economic inputs used in our credit loss forecasts. The total allowance for credit losses recorded on residential whole loans held at carrying value at June 30, 2021 was $54.3 million. In addition, as of June 30, 2021, CECL reserves for credit losses totaling approximately $512,000 were recorded related to undrawn commitments on loans held at carrying value.

During the second quarter of 2021, we continued to execute on our strategy of entering into more durable forms of financing by completing a securitization consisting of $395.1 million of Non-QM loans, generating approximately $88.6 million of additional liquidity. As the weighted average coupon of the bonds sold was approximately 1.37%, this transaction lowered the funding rate of the underlying assets by 203 basis points. During the second quarter, we also completed a securitization transaction collateralized by $473.2 million of previously securitized and other re-performing loans. As the weighted average coupon of the bonds sold was approximately 1.30%, this transaction lowered the funding rate of the underlying assets by 85 basis points.

Our GAAP book value per common share was $4.65 as of June 30, 2021. Book value per common share increased from $4.63 as of March 31, 2021. Economic book value per common share, a non-GAAP financial measure of our financial position that adjusts GAAP book value by the amount of unrealized mark-to-market gains on our residential whole loans held at carrying value, was $5.12 as of June 30, 2021, an increase from $5.09 as of March 31, 2021. Increases in GAAP and Economic book value during the second quarter of 2021 reflect GAAP earnings in excess of dividends declared and relatively stable asset prices across our residential loan portfolio. For additional information regarding the calculation of Economic book value per share, including a reconciliation to GAAP book value per share, refer to page 82 under the heading “Economic Book Value.”

Completion of Acquisition Lima One Holdings LLC:

On July 1, 2021, we completed the previously announced acquisition from affiliates of Magnetar Capital of their ownership interests in Lima One Holdings, LLC, the parent company of Lima One Capital, LLC (collectively “Lima One”). In connection with this transaction, we also acquired from certain members of Lima One management their ownership interests in the company. With the completion of these transactions, we now own all of the outstanding ownership interests of Lima One and its financial results will be included in our consolidated financial statements starting with the third quarter of 2021. The transaction is expected to be accretive to our overall profitability. Based on current loan origination levels we anticipate that the amount of business purpose loans held on our balance sheet will increase. The overall level of our general and administrative expenses in future periods is also expected to be higher.




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Information About Our Assets

The table below presents certain information about our asset allocation at June 30, 2021:
 
ASSET ALLOCATION
(Dollars in Millions)
Purchased Performing Loans (1)
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans (2)
Purchased Non-Performing LoansSecurities, at fair valueReal Estate Owned
Other,
net
(3)
Total
Fair Value/Carrying Value$3,802 $581 $1,168 $303 $205 $1,027 $7,086 
Payable for Unsettled Purchases(131)— — — — — (131)
Financing Agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions(419)(136)(232)— (8)— (795)
Financing Agreements with mark-to-market collateral provisions(929)(105)(139)(178)(10)— (1,361)
Less Securitized Debt(1,397)(232)(391)— (26)— (2,046)
Less Convertible Senior Notes— — — — — (226)(226)
Net Equity Allocated$926 $108 $406 $125 $161 $801 $2,527 
Debt/Net Equity Ratio (4)
3.1 x4.4 x1.9 x1.4 x0.3 x1.8 x

(1)Includes $2.4 billion of Non-QM loans, $421.1 million of Rehabilitation loans, $524.9 million of Single-family rental loans, $118.3 million of Seasoned performing loans, and $308.6 million of Agency eligible investor loans. At June 30, 2021, the total fair value of these loans is estimated to be approximately $3.9 billion.
(2)At June 30, 2021, the total fair value of these loans is estimated to be approximately $697.1 million.
(3)Includes $906.4 million of cash and cash equivalents, $8.8 million of restricted cash, and $81.5 million of capital contributions made to loan origination partners, as well as other assets and other liabilities.    
(4)Total Debt/Net Equity ratio represents the sum of borrowings under our financing agreements noted above as a multiple of net equity allocated. 
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Residential Whole Loans

The following table presents the contractual maturities of our residential whole loan portfolios at June 30, 2021. Amounts presented do not reflect estimates of prepayments or scheduled amortization.

(In Thousands)
Purchased
Performing Loans
(1)(2)
Purchased Credit
Deteriorated Loans
(3)
Purchased Non-Performing Loans
Amount due: 
Within one year$374,991 $1,093 $4,501 
After one year:
Over one to five years84,551 3,212 3,224 
Over five years3,236,815 604,852 1,160,726 
Total due after one year$3,321,366 $608,064 $1,163,950 
Total residential whole loans$3,696,357 $609,157 $1,168,451 

(1)Excludes an allowance for credit losses of $26.1 million at June 30, 2021.
(2)Excluded from the table above are approximately $131.3 million of Purchased Performing Loans for which the closing of the purchase transaction had not occurred as of June 30, 2021.
(3)Excludes an allowance for credit losses of $28.1 million at June 30, 2021.



The following table presents, at June 30, 2021, the dollar amount of certain of our residential whole loans, contractually maturing after one year, and indicates whether the loans have fixed interest rates or adjustable interest rates:

(In Thousands)
Purchased
Performing Loans
(1)(2)(3)
Purchased Credit
 Deteriorated Loans (1)(4)
Purchased Non-Performing Loans (1)
Interest rates: 
Fixed$1,529,515 $473,644 $890,197 
Adjustable1,791,851 134,420 273,753 
Total$3,321,366 $608,064 $1,163,950 

(1)Includes loans on which borrowers have defaulted and are not making payments of principal and/or interest as of June 30, 2021.
(2)Excludes an allowance for credit losses of $26.1 million at June 30, 2021.
(3)Excluded from the table above are approximately $131.3 million of Purchased Performing Loans for which the closing of the purchase transaction had not occurred as of June 30, 2021.
(4)Excludes an allowance for credit losses of $28.1 million at June 30, 2021.

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Securities, at Fair Value

The following table presents information with respect to our Securities, at fair value at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
(Dollars in Thousands)June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
MSR-Related Assets
Face/Par$197,569 $249,769 
Fair Value196,549 238,999 
Amortized Cost147,239 184,908 
Weighted average yield12.67 %12.30 %
Weighted average time to maturity6.3 years8.7 years
CRT Securities
Face/Par$103,757 $104,031 
Fair Value106,285 104,234 
Amortized Cost87,729 86,214 
Weighted average yield10.31 %7.37 %
Weighted average time to maturity19.2 years19.7 years
RPL/NPL MBS   
Face/Par$—  $54,998 
Fair Value—  53,946 
Amortized Cost—  46,862 
Weighted average yield— %7.55 %
Weighted average time to maturityN/A28.7 years



Tax Considerations
 
Current period estimated taxable income

We estimate that for the six months ended June 30, 2021, our taxable income was approximately $50.1 million. We have until the filing of our 2020 tax return (due not later than October 15, 2021) to declare the distribution of any 2020 REIT taxable income not previously distributed.

Key differences between GAAP net income and REIT Taxable Income

Residential Whole Loans and Securities
  
The determination of taxable income attributable to residential whole loans and securities is dependent on a number of factors, including principal payments, defaults, loss mitigation efforts and loss severities. In estimating taxable income for such investments during the year, management considers estimates of the amount of discount expected to be accreted. Such estimates require significant judgment and actual results may differ from these estimates.

Potential timing differences can arise with respect to the accretion of discount and amortization of premium into income as well as the recognition of gain or loss for tax purposes as compared to GAAP. For example: a) while our REIT uses fair value accounting for GAAP in some instances it generally is not used for purposes of determining taxable income; b) impairments generally are not recognized by us for income tax purposes until the asset is written-off or sold; c) capital losses may only be recognized by us to the extent of its capital gains; capital losses in excess of capital gains generally are carried over by us for potential offset against future capital gains; and d) tax hedge gains and losses resulting from the termination of interest rate swaps by us generally are amortized over the remaining term of the swap.

Securitization

Generally, securitization transactions for GAAP and Tax can be characterized as either sales or financings, depending on transaction type, structure and available elections. For GAAP purposes, our securitizations have been treated as on-balance sheet financing transactions. For tax purposes, they have been characterized as both financing and sale transactions.
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Where a securitization has been characterized as a sale, gain or loss is recognized for tax purposes. In addition, we own or may in the future acquire interests in securitization and/or re-securitization trusts, in which several of the classes of securities are or will be issued with original issue discount (or OID). As the holder of the retained interests in the trust, for tax purposes we generally will be required to include OID in our current gross interest income over the term of the applicable securities as the OID accrues. The rate at which the OID is recognized into taxable income is calculated using a constant rate of yield to maturity, with realized losses impacting the amount of OID recognized in REIT taxable income once they are actually incurred. REIT taxable income may be recognized in excess of economic income (i.e., OID) or in advance of the corresponding cash flow from these assets, thereby affecting our dividend distribution requirement to stockholders.
For securitization and/or re-securitization transactions that were treated as a sale of the underlying collateral for tax purposes, the unwinding of any such transaction will likely result in taxable income or loss. Given that securitization and re-securitization transactions are typically accounted for as financing transactions for GAAP purposes, such income or loss is not likely to be recognized for GAAP. As a result, the income recognized from securitization and re-securitization transactions may differ for tax and GAAP purposes.

Whether our investments are held by our REIT or one of its Taxable REIT Subsidiaries (TRS)

Net income generated by our TRS subsidiaries is included in consolidated GAAP net income, but may not be included in REIT taxable income in the same period. REIT taxable income generally does not include taxable income of the TRS unless and until it is distributed to the REIT. For example, because our securitization transactions that are treated as a sale for tax purposes are undertaken by a domestic TRS any gain or loss recognized on the sale is not included in our REIT taxable income until it is distributed by the TRS. Similarly, the income earned from loans, securities, REO and other investments held by our domestic TRS is excluded from REIT taxable income until it is distributed by the TRS. Net income of our foreign domiciled TRS subsidiaries is included in REIT taxable income as if distributed to the REIT in the taxable year it is earned by the foreign domiciled TRS.

Consequently, our REIT taxable income calculated in a given period may differ significantly from our GAAP net income.


Regulatory Developments
 
The U.S. Congress, U.S. Federal Reserve, U.S. Treasury, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, SEC and other governmental and regulatory bodies have taken actions in response to the 2007-2008 financial crisis. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (or the Dodd-Frank Act) created a new regulator, an independent bureau housed within the U.S. Federal Reserve System known as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (or the CFPB). The CFPB has broad authority over a wide range of consumer financial products and services, including mortgage lending and servicing. One portion of the Dodd-Frank Act, the Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory Lending Act (or Mortgage Reform Act), contains underwriting and servicing standards for the mortgage industry, restrictions on compensation for mortgage loan originators, and various other requirements related to mortgage origination and servicing. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act grants enforcement authority and broad discretionary regulatory authority to the CFPB to prohibit or condition terms, acts or practices relating to residential mortgage loans that the CFPB finds abusive, unfair, deceptive or predatory, as well as to take other actions that the CFPB finds are necessary or proper to ensure responsible affordable mortgage credit remains available to consumers. The Dodd-Frank Act also affects the securitization of mortgages (and other assets) with requirements for risk retention by securitizers and requirements for regulating rating agencies.

Numerous regulations have been issued pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, including regulations regarding mortgage loan servicing, underwriting and loan originator compensation and others could be issued in the future. As a result, we are unable to fully predict at this time how the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as other laws or regulations that may be adopted in the future, will affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, or the environment for repurchase financing and other forms of borrowing, the investing environment for Agency MBS, Non-Agency MBS and/or residential mortgage loans, the securitization industry, Swaps and other derivatives. We believe that the Dodd-Frank Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder are likely to continue to increase the economic and compliance costs for participants in the mortgage and securitization industries, including us.

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In addition to the regulatory actions implemented under the Dodd-Frank Act, on August 31, 2011, the SEC issued a concept release under which it is reviewing interpretive issues related to Section 3(c)(5)(C) of the Investment Company Act. Section 3(c)(5)(C) excludes from the definition of “investment company” entities that are primarily engaged in, among other things, “purchasing or otherwise acquiring mortgages and other liens on and interests in real estate.” Many companies that engage in the business of acquiring mortgages and mortgage-related instruments seek to rely on existing interpretations of the SEC Staff with respect to Section 3(c)(5)(C) so as not to be deemed an investment company for the purpose of regulation under the Investment Company Act. In connection with the concept release, the SEC requested comments on, among other things, whether it should reconsider its existing interpretation of Section 3(c)(5)(C). To date, the SEC has not taken or otherwise announced any further action in connection with the concept release.

The Federal Housing Finance Agency (or FHFA) and both houses of Congress have discussed and considered various measures intended to restructure the U.S. housing finance system and the operations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Congress may continue to consider legislation that would significantly reform the country’s mortgage finance system, including, among other things, eliminating Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and replacing them with a single new MBS insurance agency. Many details remain unsettled, including the scope and costs of the agencies’ guarantee and their affordable housing mission, some of which could be addressed even in the absence of large-scale reform. On March 27, 2019, then President Trump issued a memorandum on federal housing finance reform that directed the Secretary of the Treasury to develop a plan for administrative and legislative reforms as soon as practicable to achieve the following housing reform goals: 1) ending the conservatorships of the Government-sponsored enterprises (or GSEs) upon the completion of specified reforms; 2) facilitating competition in the housing finance market; 3) establishing regulation of the GSEs that safeguards their safety and soundness and minimizes the risks they pose to the financial stability of the United States; and 4) providing that the federal government is properly compensated for any explicit or implicit support it provides to the GSEs or the secondary housing finance market. On September 5, 2019, in response to then President Trump’s memorandum, the U.S. Department of the Treasury released a plan, developed in conjunction with the FHFA, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and other government agencies, which includes legislative and administrative reforms to achieve each of these reform goals. On June 23, 2021, the United States Supreme Court concluded that the FHFA was unconstitutional as structured and remanded the case for further proceedings. Subsequent to the Supreme Court’s ruling, President Biden dismissed the FHFA director and appointed an acting replacement, raising further questions as to whether any of these legislative or regulatory reforms discussed above will be enacted or implemented. The prospects for passage of any of these plans are uncertain and the change in FHFA leadership underscores the potential for change to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

While the likelihood of enactment of major mortgage finance system reform in the short term remains uncertain, it is possible that the adoption of any such reforms could adversely affect the types of assets we can buy, the costs of these assets and our business operations.  A reduction in the ability of mortgage loan originators to access Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to sell their mortgage loans may adversely affect the mortgage markets generally and adversely affect the ability of mortgagors to refinance their mortgage loans. In addition, any decline in the value of securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac may affect the value of MBS in general. The recent change of FHFA Leadership and the fact that a permanent Director has yet to be confirmed raise further uncertainties about whether, and if so on what timeline, the Biden administration will address the conservatorships of the GSEs and any comprehensive housing reform.

On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (or CARES Act) was signed into law. Among the provisions in this wide-ranging law are protections for homeowners experiencing financial difficulties due to COVID-19, including forbearance provisions and procedures. Borrowers with federally backed mortgage loans, regardless of delinquency status, were permitted to request loan forbearance for a six-month period, with the option to extend forbearance for another six-month period if necessary. Although the initial deadline to request forbearance on federally backed loans was set to expire under the CARES Act on December 31, 2020, FHFA and CFPB have announced extensions of several measures to align COVID-19 mortgage relief policies across the federal government, including additional three-month extensions of COVID-19 forbearance or payment deferral options for certain borrowers. Federally backed mortgage loans are loans secured by first- or subordinate-liens on 1-4 family residential real property, including individual units of condominiums and cooperatives, which are insured or guaranteed pursuant to certain government housing programs, such as by the Federal Housing Administration, or U.S. Department of Agriculture, or are purchased or securitized by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. The CARES Act also included a temporary 60-day foreclosure moratorium that applies to federally backed mortgage loans, which lasted until July 24, 2020. However, the foreclosure moratorium was extended several times to July 31, 2021 and the forbearance enrollment window was extended through September 30, 2021 by Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Agriculture and FHFA, which includes mortgages backed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Although the Federal foreclosure moratorium expired on July 31, 2021, various states and local jurisdictions also imposed foreclosure moratoriums, some of which will still be in effect after the federal moratorium expires.

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In December 2020, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 was signed into law, which is an omnibus spending bill that included a second COVID-19 stimulus bill (or Second Stimulus). In addition to providing stimulus checks for individuals and families, the Second Stimulus provides for, among other things, (i) an extension of federal unemployment insurance benefits, (ii) funding to help individuals connect remotely during the pandemic, (iii) tax credits for companies offering paid sick leave and (iv) funding for vaccine distribution and development. As further described below, the Second Stimulus provided an additional $25 billion in tax-free rental assistance and an executive order by President Biden extended the temporary eviction moratorium promulgated by the CDC (described below) through March 31, 2021.

On September 1, 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) issued an order effective September 4, 2020 through December 31, 2020 temporarily halting residential evictions to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. The Second Stimulus extended the order to January 31, 2021 and, on January 20, 2021, President Joseph Biden signed an executive order that, among other things, further extended the temporary eviction moratorium promulgated by the CDC through March 31, 2021. The CDC order was further extended through July 31, 2021, and on August 3, 2021, it was further extended through October 3, 2021, to those U.S. counties experiencing substantial and high spread of the COVID-19 as of such date (which includes a significant majority of the counties in the United States). The CDC order will likely prevent some mortgagors from evicting certain tenants who are not current on their monthly payments of rent and who qualify for relief under the CDC order, which may present a greater risk that the mortgagor will stop making monthly mortgage loan payments. The CDC order by its terms does not preempt or preclude state and local jurisdictions from issuing more expansive orders than those currently in place or from imposing additional or more restrictive requirements than the CDC order to provide greater public health protection and, across the country, similar moratoriums are in place in various states and local jurisdictions to stop evictions and foreclosures in an effort to lessen the financial burden created by COVID-19. The CDC’s moratorium and any other similar state moratoriums or bans could adversely impact the cash flow on mortgage loans.

On July 30, 2021, FHFA announced that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are extending the moratorium on single-family real estate owned (REO) evictions until September 30, 2021. The Biden Administration may pass additional stimulus bills, foreclosure relief measures and may reinstate foreclosure and eviction moratoriums that may continue to adversely impact the cash flow on mortgage loans.


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Results of Operations

Quarter Ended June 30, 2021 Compared to the Quarter Ended June 30, 2020
 
General
 
For the second quarter of 2021, we had a net income available to our common stock and participating securities of $58.5 million, or $0.13 per basic and diluted common share, compared to $88.4 million, or $0.19 per basic and diluted common share, for the second quarter of 2020. This decrease in net income available to common stock and participating securities primarily reflects a significantly lower reversal of provision for credit losses on residential whole loans and lower Other income, partially offset by higher net interest income from our investments and lower operating and other expenses. The prior year period results includes the impact of actions taken to bolster and stabilize our balance sheet, improve our liquidity position and renegotiate the financing associated with our remaining investments, following the COVID-19 related market disruptions experienced during the first and second quarters of 2020. These actions included disposing our remaining Agency and the significant majority of our Legacy Non-Agency MBS portfolios, substantially reducing our investments in MSR-related assets, CRT securities and sales of certain residential whole loans. These disposals resulted in net realized gains that were recorded in Other income for the second quarter of 2020 totaling $49.5 million. In addition, for the second quarter of 2020 we recorded a net reversal in our provision credit losses of $85.4 million, which included the reversal of a valuation adjustment on loans held for sale of $70.2 million. Further, during the second quarter of 2020, Other income included impairment losses on other assets of $5.1 million, primarily related to write-downs of the carrying values of investments in certain loan originators, $63.0 million of higher unrealized gains on securities measured at fair value through earnings and $49.9 million of losses on terminated Swaps that had previously been designated as hedges for accounting purposes. The prior year period results also included $40.0 million of professional services and other costs in connection with negotiating forbearance arrangements with our lenders, entering into new financing arrangements and reinstating prior financing arrangements on the exit from forbearance.

Net Interest Income

Net interest income represents the difference between income on interest-earning assets and expense on interest-bearing liabilities. Net interest income depends primarily upon the volume of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities and the corresponding interest rates earned or paid. Our net interest income varies primarily as a result of changes in interest rates, the slope of the yield curve (i.e., the differential between long-term and short-term interest rates), borrowing costs (i.e., our interest expense) and prepayment speeds on our investments. Interest rates and CPRs (which measure the amount of unscheduled principal prepayment on a bond or loan as a percentage of its unpaid balance) vary according to the type of investment, conditions in the financial markets and other factors, none of which can be predicted with any certainty.
 
The changes in average interest-earning assets and average interest-bearing liabilities and their related yields and costs are discussed in greater detail below under “Interest Income” and “Interest Expense.”
 
For the second quarter of 2021, our net interest spread and margin were 3.02% and 3.86%, respectively, compared to a net interest spread and margin of (0.88)% and 0.81%, respectively, for the second quarter of 2020. Our net interest income increased by $44.2 million, or 298.82%, to $59.0 million for the second quarter of 2021 compared to net interest income of $14.8 million for the second quarter of 2020. For the second quarter of 2021, net interest income includes higher net interest income from our residential whole loan portfolio of approximately $35.3 million compared to the second quarter of 2020, primarily due to lower financing rates and balances of financing agreements and higher yields earned on our residential whole loans portfolio. This was partially offset by lower average amounts invested in these assets. Net interest income also includes higher net interest income from our Securities, at fair value portfolio for the second quarter of 2021, of approximately $8.8 million compared to the second quarter of 2020, primarily due the redemption at par of an MSR-related asset. Further, interest expense for the second quarter of 2020 included of $2.0 million related to Senior Notes that were redeemed in the first quarter of 2021.


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Analysis of Net Interest Income
 
The following table sets forth certain information about the average balances of our assets and liabilities and their related yields and costs for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. Average yields are derived by dividing annualized interest income by the average amortized cost of the related assets, and average costs are derived by dividing annualized interest expense by the daily average balance of the related liabilities, for the periods shown. The yields and costs include premium amortization and purchase discount accretion, which are considered adjustments to interest rates.

 Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
 20212020
 Average Balance InterestAverage
Yield/Cost
Average Balance InterestAverage Yield/Cost
(Dollars in Thousands)  
Assets:
Interest-earning assets:
Residential whole loans$5,036,675 $69,016 5.48 %$6,526,612 $84,837 5.20 %
 Securities, at fair value (1)(2)
249,813 15,345 24.57 717,783 14,716 8.20 
Cash and cash equivalents845,650 59 0.03 364,286 60 0.07 
Other interest-earning assets5,044 108 8.56 132,735 3,165 9.54 
Total interest-earning assets6,137,182 84,528 5.51 7,741,416 102,778 5.31 
Total non-interest-earning assets634,637 438,119 
Total assets$6,771,819 $8,179,535 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity:
Interest-bearing liabilities:
Collateralized financing agreements (3)(4)
$2,062,052 $13,563 2.60 %$4,736,610 $75,928 6.34 %
Securitized debt (5)
1,773,472 8,077 1.80 538,220 5,393 3.96 
Convertible Senior Notes225,602 3,915 6.94 224,130 3,893 6.94 
Senior Notes— — — 96,879 2,013 8.31 
Senior secured credit agreement— — — 27,473 764 11.00 
Total interest-bearing liabilities4,061,126 25,555 2.49 5,623,312 87,991 6.19 
Total non-interest-bearing liabilities186,044 95,923 
Total liabilities4,247,170 5,719,235 
Stockholders’ equity2,524,649 2,460,300 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$6,771,819 $8,179,535 
Net interest income/net interest rate spread (6)
$58,973 3.02 %$14,787 (0.88)%
Net interest-earning assets/net interest margin (7)
$2,076,056 3.86 %$2,118,104 0.81 %

(1)Yields presented throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are calculated using average amortized cost data for securities which excludes unrealized gains and losses and includes principal payments receivable on securities.  For GAAP reporting purposes, purchases and sales are reported on the trade date. Average amortized cost data used to determine yields is calculated based on the settlement date of the associated purchase or sale as interest income is not earned on purchased assets and continues to be earned on sold assets until settlement date.  
(2)The net yield of 24.57% includes $8.4 million of accretion recognized on the redemption at par of an MSR-related asset that had been held at amortized cost basis below par due to an impairment charge recorded in the first quarter of 2020. Excluding this accretion, the yield reported would have been 11.13%.
(3)Collateralized financing agreements include the following: Secured term notes, Non-mark-to-market term-asset based financing, and repurchase agreements. For additional information, see Note 6, included under Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
(4)Average cost of repurchase agreements in the prior year period includes the cost of Swaps allocated based on the proportionate share of the overall estimated weighted average portfolio duration.
(5)Includes both Securitized debt, at carrying value and Securitized debt, at fair value.
(6)Net interest rate spread reflects the difference between the yield on average interest-earning assets and average cost of funds.
(7)Net interest margin reflects annualized net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets.


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Rate/Volume Analysis

The following table presents the extent to which changes in interest rates (yield/cost) and changes in the volume (average balance) of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities have affected our interest income and interest expense during the periods indicated. Information is provided in each category with respect to: (i) the changes attributable to changes in volume (changes in average balance multiplied by prior rate); (ii) the changes attributable to changes in rate (changes in rate multiplied by prior average balance); and (iii) the net change. The changes attributable to the combined impact of volume and rate have been allocated proportionately, based on absolute values, to the changes due to rate and volume.
Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
Compared to
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2020
 Increase/(Decrease) due toTotal Net
Change in
Interest Income/Expense
(In Thousands)VolumeRate
Interest-earning assets:   
Residential whole loans$(20,195)$4,374 $(15,821)
Securities, at fair value(14,308)14,937 629 
Cash and cash equivalents50 (51)(1)
Other interest-earning assets(2,762)(295)(3,057)
Total net change in income from interest-earning assets$(37,215)$18,965 $(18,250)
Interest-bearing liabilities:  
Residential whole loan financing agreements$(25,904)$(27,772)$(53,676)
Securities, at fair value repurchase agreements(4,133)(4,079)(8,212)
REO financing agreements59 58 117 
Other repurchase agreements(297)(297)(594)
Securitized debt6,917 (4,233)2,684 
Convertible Senior Notes and Senior Notes(1,674)(317)(1,991)
Senior secured credit agreement(382)(382)(764)
Total net change in expense from interest-bearing liabilities$(25,414)$(37,022)$(62,436)
Net change in net interest income$(11,801)$55,987 $44,186 
 


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The following table presents certain quarterly information regarding our net interest spread and net interest margin for the quarterly periods presented:
 
 Total Interest-Earning Assets and Interest-
Bearing Liabilities
Net Interest
Spread (1)
Net Interest
Margin (2)
Quarter Ended
June 30, 20213.02 %3.86 %
March 31, 20212.31 3.29 
December 31, 20201.23 2.41 
September 30, 20200.27 1.59 
June 30, 2020(0.88)0.81 
 
(1)Reflects the difference between the yield on average interest-earning assets and average cost of funds.
(2)Reflects annualized net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets.

The following table presents the components of the net interest spread earned on our Residential whole loans, for the quarterly periods presented:

 Quarter Ended
June 30, 2021March 31, 2021December 31, 2020September 30, 2020June 30, 2020
Purchased Performing Loans
Net Yield (1)
4.45 %4.41 %4.57 %4.58 %5.17 %
Cost of Funding (2)
2.09 %2.46 %2.77 %3.42 %6.34 %
Net Interest Spread (3)
2.36 %1.95 %1.80 %1.16 %(1.17)%
Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans
Net Yield (1)
7.17 %5.00 %5.16 %4.89 %5.07 %
Cost of Funding (2)
2.39 %2.86 %3.02 %3.22 %6.03 %
Net Interest Spread (3)
4.78 %2.14 %2.14 %1.67 %(0.96)%
Purchased Non-Performing Loans
Net Yield (1)
7.98 %7.13 %7.06 %5.99 %5.42 %
Cost of Funding (2)
2.71 %3.41 %3.57 %3.78 %5.55 %
Net Interest Spread (3)
5.27 %3.72 %3.49 %2.21 %(0.13)%
Total Residential Whole Loans
Net Yield (1)
5.48 %5.03 %5.13 %4.89 %5.20 %
Cost of Funding (2)
2.25 %2.70 %2.97 %3.47 %6.15 %
Net Interest Spread (3)
3.23 %2.33 %2.16 %1.42 %(0.95)%

(1)Reflects annualized interest income on Residential whole loans divided by average amortized cost of Residential whole loans. Excludes servicing costs.
(2)Reflects annualized interest expense divided by average balance of repurchase agreements, agreements with non-mark-to-market collateral provisions, and securitized debt. Cost of funding for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 includes the impact of amortization of $12.5 million of losses previously recorded in OCI related to Swaps unwound during the quarter ended March 31, 2020 that had been previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes. The amortization of these losses increased the funding cost by 116 basis points for Purchased Performing Loans, 107 basis points for Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans, 77 basis points for Purchased Non-performing Loans, and 108 basis points for total Residential whole loans during the quarter ended June 30, 2020. At June 30, 2020, following the closing of certain financing transactions and our exit from forbearance arrangements, and an evaluation of our anticipated future financing transactions, $49.9 million of unamortized losses on Swaps previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes was
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transferred from OCI to earnings, as it was determined that certain financing transactions that were previously expected to be hedged by these Swaps were no longer probable of occurring. In addition, cost of funding for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 was significantly higher than for prior periods as it reflects default interest and/or higher rates charged by lenders while we were under a forbearance agreement. During the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we transferred from AOCI to earnings approximately $7.2 million of losses on Swaps that had been previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes as we had assessed that the underlying transactions were no longer probable of occurring.
(3)Reflects the difference between the net yield on average Residential whole loans and average cost of funds on Residential whole loans.

The following table presents the components of the net interest spread earned on our residential mortgage securities and MSR-related assets for the quarterly periods presented:
 
Securities, at fair value
Quarter Ended
Net
Yield (1)(2)
Cost of
Funding 
(3)
Net Interest
Rate
Spread (4)
June 30, 202124.57 %1.81 %22.76 %
March 31, 202122.25 2.02 20.23 
December 31, 202010.15 2.69 7.46 
September 30, 20209.80 3.49 6.31 
June 30, 20208.20 5.81 2.39 
 
(1)Reflects annualized interest income divided by average amortized cost. Impairment charges recorded on MSR-related assets resulted in a lower amortized cost basis which impacted the calculation of net yields in subsequent periods.
(2)For the quarter ended June 30, 2021, the net yield of 24.57% includes $8.4 million of accretion income recognized on the redemption at par of an MSR-related asset that had been held at amortized cost basis below par due to an impairment charge recorded in the first quarter of 2020. Excluding this accretion, the yield reported would have been 11.13%. For the quarter ended March 31, 2021, the net yield of 22.25% includes $8.1 million of accretion income recognized on the redemption of an RPL/NPL MBS security that was previously purchased at a discount. Excluding this accretion, the yield reported would have been 11.26%.
(3)Reflects annualized interest expense divided by average balance of repurchase agreements, including the cost of Swaps allocated based on the proportionate share of the overall estimated weighted average portfolio duration and securitized debt. Cost of funding for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 includes the impact of amortization of $278,000 of losses previously recorded in OCI related to Swaps unwound during the quarter ended March 31, 2020 that had been previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes. The amortization of these losses increased the funding cost by 174 basis points for total RPL/NPL MBS during the quarter ended June 30, 2020. At June 30, 2020, following the closing of certain financing transactions and our exit from forbearance arrangements, and an evaluation of our anticipated future financing transactions, $49.9 million of unamortized losses on Swaps previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes was transferred from OCI to earnings, as it was determined that certain financing transactions that were previously expected to be hedged by these Swaps were no longer probable of occurring. In addition, during the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we transferred from AOCI to earnings approximately $7.2 million of losses on Swaps that had been previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes as we had assessed that the underlying transactions were no longer probable of occurring.
(4)Reflects the difference between the net yield on average Securities, at fair value and average cost of funds on Securities, at fair value.

Interest Income
 
Interest income on our Residential whole loans decreased by $15.8 million, or 18.6%, for the second quarter of 2021, to $69.0 million compared to $84.8 million for the second quarter of 2020. This decrease primarily reflects a $1.5 billion decrease in the average balance of this portfolio to $5.0 billion for the second quarter of 2021 from $6.5 billion for the second quarter of 2020, partially offset by an increase in the yield to 5.48% for the second quarter of 2021 from 5.20% for the second quarter of 2020.

Interest income on our Securities, at fair value portfolio increased $629,000 to $15.3 million for the second quarter of 2021 from $14.7 million for the second quarter of 2020. This increase primarily reflects an increase in the net yield on our Securities, at fair value to 24.57% for the second quarter of 2021, compared to 8.20% for the second quarter of 2020. The increase in the net yield on our Securities, at fair value portfolio primarily reflects accretion income of approximately $8.4 million recognized in the current quarter due to the redemption of an MSR-related asset that had been held at amortized cost basis below par due to an impairment charge recorded in the first quarter of 2020.

Interest Expense
 
Our interest expense for the second quarter of 2021 decreased by $62.4 million, or 71.0%, to $25.6 million, from $88.0 million for the second quarter of 2020. This decrease primarily reflects a decrease in our average repurchase agreement borrowings to finance our residential mortgage asset portfolio and a decrease in financing rates on our financing agreements.
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Further in the first quarter of 2021, we completed the redemption of our Senior Notes, which resulted in lower interest expense for the second quarter of 2021 of $2.0 million compared to the second quarter of 2020. The effective interest rate paid on our borrowings decreased to 2.49% for the second quarter of 2021, from 6.19% for the second quarter of 2020. 

Provision for Credit and Valuation Losses on Residential Whole Loans Held at Carrying Value and Other Financial Instruments

For the second quarter of 2021, we recorded a reversal of provision for credit losses on residential whole loans held at carrying value of $8.9 million (which includes a reversal of provision for credit losses on undrawn commitments of $284,000) compared to a provision of $15.2 million for the second quarter of 2020. The reversal for the period primarily reflects lower loan balances and updates to certain macro-economic assumptions used in our credit loss projections. With respect to our residential whole loans held at carrying value and other financial instruments, CECL requires that reserves for credit losses are estimated at the reporting date based on expected cash flows over the life of the loan or financial instrument, including anticipated prepayments and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions.

Other Income/(Loss), net

For the second quarter of 2021, Other Income, net decreased by $39.3 million to $21.6 million, compared to $60.9 million for the second quarter of 2020.  The components of Other Income/(Loss), net for the second quarter of 2021 and 2020 are summarized in the table below:

Quarter Ended June 30,
(In Thousands)20212020
Net gain on residential whole loans measured at fair value through earnings$6,021 $4,910 
Transfer from OCI of loss on swaps previously designated as hedges for accounting purposes— (49,857)
Liquidation gains on Purchased Credit Deteriorated Loans and other loan related income862 1,303 
Impairment and other losses on securities available-for-sale and other assets— (5,094)
Net unrealized gain on securities, at fair value measured at fair value through earnings1,374 64,438 
Net realized gain on sales of securities, at fair value— 49,485 
Net gain/(loss) on real estate owned5,125 (4,199)
Other8,265 (39)
Total Other Income/(Loss), net$21,647 $60,947 

Operating and Other Expense

For the second quarter of 2021, we had compensation and benefits and other general and administrative expenses of $16.8 million, or 2.66% of average equity, compared to $16.2 million, or 2.64% of average equity, for the second quarter of 2020. Compensation and benefits expense increased by approximately $308,000 to $8.9 million for the second quarter of 2021, compared to $8.6 million for the second quarter of 2020, primarily reflecting higher expense in connection with long-term incentive awards and an adjustment to the current year incentive compensation accrual, partially offset by lower salary costs. Our other general and administrative expenses increased by $235,000 to $7.9 million for the quarter ended June 30, 2021, compared to $7.7 million for the second quarter of 2020. The current period includes Directors compensation costs related to the annual grant of equity awards to non-employee Directors. The prior year period did not include such costs as this award was made in the third quarter of 2020. However, the prior year period did include costs related to the write-off of certain internally developed software. In addition, prior year Other expenses included professional service and other costs of $40.0 million related to negotiating forbearance arrangements with our lenders, entering into new financing arrangements and reinstating prior financing arrangements on the exit from forbearance.

Operating and Other Expense for the second quarter of 2021 also includes $6.0 million of loan servicing and other related operating expenses related to our residential whole loan activities. These expenses decreased compared to the prior year period by approximately $2.3 million, or 28.0%, primarily due to lower servicing fees and non-recoverable advances on our residential whole loan and REO portfolios.

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Selected Financial Ratios
 
The following table presents information regarding certain of our financial ratios at or for the dates presented:
 
At or for the Quarter Ended
Return on
Average Total
Assets (1)
Return on
Average Total
Stockholders’
Equity (2)
Total Average
Stockholders’
Equity to Total
Average Assets (3)
Dividend Payout
Ratio (4)
Leverage Multiple (5)
Book Value
per Share
of Common
Stock (6)
Economic Book Value per Share of Common Stock (7)
June 30, 20213.46 %10.57 %37.28 %0.771.8$4.65 $5.12 
March 31, 20214.55 13.54 37.21 0.441.64.63 5.09 
December 31, 20202.12 7.24 35.72 0.941.74.54 4.92 
September 30, 20204.17