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LKQ LKQ

Filed: 5 May 21, 4:16pm
false2021Q10001065696--12-310.010.011,000,000,0001,000,000,000321,170,573320,867,602302,370,072303,553,00018,800,50117,314,602183.43.31.11.23.53.5181.2

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
________________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
____________________________ 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition Period from              to
Commission File Number: 000-50404
____________________________ 
LKQ CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________ 
Delaware 36-4215970
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
500 West Madison Street,Suite 2800 
Chicago,Illinois60661
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (312) 621-1950
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareLKQNASDAQ Global Select Market
________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes    No 
At April 30, 2021, the registrant had outstanding an aggregate of 302,159,885 shares of Common Stock.

1


PART I
FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

LKQ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income
(In thousands, except per share data)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Revenue$3,170,786 $3,000,935 
Cost of goods sold1,877,072 1,787,059 
Gross margin1,293,714 1,213,876 
Selling, general and administrative expenses848,565 899,811 
Restructuring and acquisition related expenses7,885 6,970 
Impairment of net assets held for sale and (gain on disposal of business)15 (249)
Depreciation and amortization65,801 65,495 
Operating income371,448 241,849 
Other expense (income):
Interest expense, net of interest income24,179 25,931 
Loss on debt extinguishment12,751 
Other income, net(6,213)(3,622)
Total other expense, net17,966 35,060 
Income from continuing operations before provision for income taxes353,482 206,789 
Provision for income taxes92,969 60,411 
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated subsidiaries5,819 516 
Income from continuing operations266,332 146,894 
Net loss from discontinued operations(915)
Net income266,332 145,979 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest419 740 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest103 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders$265,913 $145,136 
Basic earnings per share: (1)
Income from continuing operations$0.88 $0.48 
Net loss from discontinued operations(0.00)
Net income0.88 0.48 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest0.00 0.00 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest0.00 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders$0.88 $0.47 
Diluted earnings per share: (1)
Income from continuing operations$0.88 $0.48 
Net loss from discontinued operations(0.00)
Net income0.88 0.48 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest0.00 0.00 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest0.00 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders$0.88 $0.47 
(1) The sum of the individual earnings per share amounts may not equal the total due to rounding.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
2




LKQ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(In thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Net income$266,332 $145,979 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest419 740 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest103 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders265,913 145,136 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation, net of tax(24,572)(103,965)
Net change in unrealized gains/losses on cash flow hedges, net of tax658 (7,321)
Net change in unrealized gains/losses on pension plans, net of tax313 120 
Other comprehensive loss from unconsolidated subsidiaries(3,512)(1,852)
Other comprehensive loss(27,113)(113,018)
Comprehensive income239,219 32,961 
Less: comprehensive income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest419 740 
Less: comprehensive income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest103 
Comprehensive income attributable to LKQ stockholders$238,800 $32,118 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
3



LKQ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$590,194 $312,154 
Receivables, net1,252,374 1,073,389 
Inventories2,392,714 2,414,612 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets218,664 233,877 
Total current assets4,453,946 4,034,032 
Property, plant and equipment, net1,204,643 1,248,703 
Operating lease assets, net1,373,238 1,353,124 
Intangible assets:
Goodwill4,515,634 4,591,569 
Other intangibles, net777,372 814,219 
Equity method investments170,729 155,224 
Other noncurrent assets169,895 163,662 
Total assets$12,665,457 $12,360,533 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$1,228,524 $932,406 
Accrued expenses:
Accrued payroll-related liabilities202,333 208,718 
Refund liability104,534 102,148 
Other accrued expenses356,126 334,890 
Other current liabilities104,510 130,021 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities200,637 221,811 
Current portion of long-term obligations239,962 58,497 
Total current liabilities2,436,626 1,988,491 
Long-term operating lease liabilities, excluding current portion1,219,267 1,197,963 
Long-term obligations, excluding current portion2,471,730 2,812,641 
Deferred income taxes285,584 291,421 
Other noncurrent liabilities369,546 374,640 
Commitments and contingencies
Redeemable noncontrolling interest24,077 24,077 
Stockholders' equity:
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 1,000,000,000 shares authorized, 321,170,573 shares issued and 302,370,072 shares outstanding at March 31, 2021; 320,867,602 shares issued and 303,553,000 shares outstanding at December 31, 2020
3,212 3,208 
Additional paid-in capital1,449,667 1,444,584 
Retained earnings5,041,953 4,776,040 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(126,122)(99,009)
Treasury stock, at cost; 18,800,501 shares at March 31, 2021 and 17,314,602 shares at December 31, 2020(526,084)(469,105)
Total Company stockholders' equity5,842,626 5,655,718 
Noncontrolling interest16,001 15,582 
Total stockholders' equity5,858,627 5,671,300 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$12,665,457 $12,360,533 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
4




LKQ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net income$266,332 $145,979 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization71,597 71,379 
Stock-based compensation expense7,792 7,968 
Loss on debt extinguishment12,751 
Other(9,202)(2,970)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effects from acquisitions and dispositions:
Receivables, net(197,594)(63,938)
Inventories(13,469)(7,522)
Prepaid income taxes/income taxes payable(20,694)41,585 
Accounts payable331,383 (27,170)
Other operating assets and liabilities86,367 16,501 
Net cash provided by operating activities522,512 194,563 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Purchases of property, plant and equipment(41,779)(44,538)
Proceeds from disposals of property, plant and equipment7,601 5,528 
Acquisitions, net of cash acquired(2,385)(7,220)
Proceeds from disposal of businesses, net of cash sold5,944 1,763 
Investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries(2,824)(405)
Net cash used in investing activities(33,443)(44,872)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Early-redemption premium(9,498)
Repayment of U.S. Notes (2023)(600,000)
Borrowings under revolving credit facilities1,287,810 460,186 
Repayments under revolving credit facilities(1,392,004)(134,674)
Repayments under term loans(4,375)(4,375)
Borrowings under receivables securitization facility111,300 
Repayments under receivables securitization facility(12,900)
Borrowings (repayments) of other debt, net25,574 (49,481)
Settlement of derivative instruments, net(56,804)
Purchase of treasury stock(56,979)(88,006)
Other financing activities, net(11,717)(7,291)
Net cash used in financing activities(208,495)(334,739)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(2,534)(11,746)
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash278,040 (196,794)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash of continuing operations, beginning of period312,154 528,387 
Add: Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash of discontinued operations, beginning of period6,470 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash of continuing and discontinued operations, beginning of period312,154 534,857 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period$590,194 $338,063 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
5



Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
Cash and cash equivalents$590,194 $332,784 
Restricted cash included in Other noncurrent assets5,279 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period$590,194 $338,063 
Supplemental disclosure of cash paid for:
Income taxes, net of refunds$116,135 $22,014 
Interest5,751 13,772 
Supplemental disclosure of noncash investing and financing activities:
Leased assets obtained in exchange for finance lease liabilities$1,828 $7,718 
Leased assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities90,784 39,460 
Noncash property, plant and equipment and software intangible additions in accounts payable and other accrued expenses9,127 7,594 
Notes payable and other financing obligations, including notes issued and debt assumed in connection with business acquisitions and disposals179 6,136 
Notes receivable acquired in connection with disposal of business7,994 
Contingent consideration liabilities— 2,933 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
6




LKQ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity
(In thousands)
LKQ Stockholders
 Common StockTreasury StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalRetained EarningsAccumulated
Other
Comprehensive Loss
Noncontrolling InterestTotal Stockholders' Equity
 SharesAmountSharesAmount
BALANCE, January 1, 2021320,868 $3,208 (17,315)$(469,105)$1,444,584 $4,776,040 $(99,009)$15,582 $5,671,300 
Net income— — — — — 265,913 — 419 266,332 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (27,113)— (27,113)
Purchase of treasury stock— — (1,486)(56,979)— — — — (56,979)
Vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee tax303 — — (2,709)— — — (2,705)
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 7,792 — — — 7,792 
BALANCE, March 31, 2021321,171 $3,212 (18,801)$(526,084)$1,449,667 $5,041,953 $(126,122)$16,001 $5,858,627 

LKQ Stockholders
 Common StockTreasury StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalRetained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Loss
Noncontrolling InterestTotal Stockholders' Equity
 SharesAmountSharesAmount
BALANCE, January 1, 2020319,927 $3,199 (13,196)$(351,813)$1,418,239 $4,140,136 $(200,885)$39,704 $5,048,580 
Net income— — — — — 145,136 — 843 145,979 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (113,018)— (113,018)
Purchase of treasury stock— — (3,300)(88,006)— — — — (88,006)
Vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee tax400 — — (2,073)— — — (2,069)
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 7,968 — — — 7,968 
Exercise of stock options112 — — 1,466 — — — 1,467 
Capital contributions from, net of dividends declared to, noncontrolling interest shareholder— — — — — — — 341 341 
Adoption of ASU 2016-13— — — — — (2,519)— — (2,519)
Disposition of subsidiary with noncontrolling interests (1)
— — — — — — — (11,404)(11,404)
BALANCE, March 31, 2020320,439 $3,204 (16,496)$(439,819)$1,425,600 $4,282,753 $(313,903)$29,484 $4,987,319 
(1) The amount disposed of during 2020 relates to discontinued operations. See Note 2, "Discontinued Operations," for further details.


The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
7



LKQ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

Note 1. Interim Financial Statements
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements represent the consolidation of LKQ Corporation, a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries. LKQ Corporation is a holding company and all operations are conducted by subsidiaries. When the terms "LKQ," "the Company," "we," "us," or "our" are used in this document, those terms refer to LKQ Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries.
We have prepared the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") applicable to interim financial statements. Accordingly, certain information related to our significant accounting policies and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") have been condensed or omitted. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect, in the opinion of management, all material adjustments (which include only normally recurring adjustments) necessary to fairly state, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented.
Results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that can be expected for any subsequent interim period or for a full year. These interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021 ("2020 Form 10-K").
The coronavirus disease 2019 ("COVID-19") pandemic and the resulting governmental actions taken to control the virus have impacted, and are expected to continue to impact, our business in 2020 and 2021. The effects include, but are not limited to, a reduction in demand for our products and services, liquidity challenges for certain of our customers and suppliers, and organizational changes, such as personnel reductions and route consolidation, driven by cost actions to mitigate the actual and expected revenue decline. We have considered COVID-19 impacts in the preparation of our financial statements and footnotes as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Specific disclosures are presented in the following footnotes as applicable.
The continuing impact of COVID-19 on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows is dependent on future developments, including the severity and duration of the pandemic and the related impact on the global economy, which are uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time, but may be material.

Note 2. Discontinued Operations
On May 30, 2018, we acquired Stahlgruber GmbH ("Stahlgruber"), a leading European wholesale distributor of aftermarket spare parts for passenger cars, tools, capital equipment and accessories with operations in Germany, Austria, Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia, with further sales to Switzerland. Prior to closing, on May 3, 2018, the European Commission cleared the acquisition of Stahlgruber for the entire European Union, except with respect to the wholesale automotive parts business in the Czech Republic. The acquisition of Stahlgruber’s Czech Republic wholesale business was referred to the Czech Republic competition authority for review. On May 10, 2019, the Czech Republic competition authority approved our acquisition of Stahlgruber’s Czech Republic wholesale business subject to the requirement that we divest certain of the acquired locations. We acquired Stahlgruber’s Czech Republic wholesale business on May 29, 2019 and decided to divest all of the acquired locations. We immediately classified the business as discontinued operations because the business was never integrated into our Europe segment.
We completed the sale of Stahlgruber's Czech Republic business on February 28, 2020, resulting in an immaterial loss on sale (presented in Net (loss) income from discontinued operations in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income). As part of the transaction, we purchased the 48.2% noncontrolling interest from the minority shareholder for a purchase price of €8 million, which included the issuance of €4 million of notes payable, and then immediately thereafter sold 100% of the business for a purchase price of €14 million, which included €7 million of notes receivable. This transaction resulted in a disposition of noncontrolling interest of $11 million. From January 1, 2020 through the date of sale, we recorded an immaterial amount of net income (excluding the loss on sale) from discontinued operations related to the business, of which an immaterial amount was attributable to the noncontrolling interest.

8


Note 3. Financial Statement Information
Allowance for Credit Losses
Receivables, net are reported net of an allowance for credit losses. Management evaluates the aging of customer receivable balances, the financial condition of our customers, historical trends, and macroeconomic factors to estimate the amount of customer receivables that may not be collected in the future and records a provision it believes is appropriate. Our reserve for expected lifetime credit losses was $68 million and $70 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Bad debt expense totaled $2 million and $9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Inventories
Inventories consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Aftermarket and refurbished products$2,020,707 $2,025,002 
Salvage and remanufactured products349,539 368,815 
Manufactured products22,468 20,795 
Total inventories$2,392,714 $2,414,612 
Aftermarket and refurbished products and salvage and remanufactured products are primarily composed of finished goods. As of March 31, 2021, manufactured products inventory was composed of $17 million of raw materials, $4 million of work in process, and $2 million of finished goods. As of December 31, 2020, manufactured products inventory was composed of $16 million of raw materials, $3 million of work in process, and $2 million of finished goods.
Intangible Assets
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually. We performed our annual impairment test during the fourth quarter of 2020 and we determined no impairment existed as all of our reporting units had a fair value estimate which exceeded the carrying value by at least 30%. Goodwill impairment testing may also be performed on an interim basis when events or circumstances arise that may lead to impairment. The fair value estimates of our reporting units were established using weightings of the results of a discounted cash flow methodology and a comparative market multiples approach. We did not identify a triggering event in the first quarter of 2021 that necessitated an interim test of goodwill impairment or indefinite-lived intangible assets impairment.
Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries
Our investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries was $171 million and $155 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
Europe Segment
Our investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries in Europe was $150 million and $137 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. We recorded equity in earnings of $6 million and $1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, mainly related to our investment in Mekonomen AB ("Mekonomen").    
On December 1, 2016, we acquired a 26.5% equity interest in Mekonomen for an aggregate purchase price of $181 million. In October 2018, we acquired an additional $48 million of equity in Mekonomen at a discounted share price as part of its rights issue, increasing our equity interest to 26.6%. We are accounting for our interest in Mekonomen using the equity method of accounting, as our investment gives us the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over the investee. As of March 31, 2021, our share of the book value of Mekonomen's net assets exceeded the book value of our investment in Mekonomen by $7 million; this difference is primarily related to Mekonomen's Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income balance as of our acquisition date in 2016. We are recording our equity in the net earnings of Mekonomen on a one quarter lag.
Mekonomen announced in March 2020 and February 2021, respectively, that the Mekonomen Board of Directors proposed no dividend payment in 2020 or 2021. The Level 1 fair value of our equity investment in the publicly traded Mekonomen common stock at March 31, 2021 was $230 million (using the Mekonomen share price of SEK 129 as of March 31, 2021) compared to a carrying value of $139 million.
North America Segment
9


Our investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries in the North America segment was $21 million and $19 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
Warranty Reserve
Some of our salvage mechanical products are sold with a standard six month warranty against defects. Additionally, some of our remanufactured engines are sold with a standard three or four year warranty against defects. We also provide a limited lifetime warranty for certain of our aftermarket products. These assurance-type warranties are not considered a separate performance obligation, and thus no transaction price is allocated to them. We record the warranty costs in Cost of goods sold in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income. Our warranty reserve is calculated using historical claim information to project future warranty claims activity and is recorded within Other accrued expenses and Other noncurrent liabilities on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets based on the expected timing of the related payments.
The changes in the warranty reserve are as follows (in thousands):
Balance as of December 31, 2020$27,914 
Warranty expense18,470 
Warranty claims(17,917)
Balance as of March 31, 2021$28,467 
Litigation and Related Contingencies
We have certain contingencies resulting from litigation, claims and other commitments and are subject to a variety of environmental and pollution control laws and regulations incident to the ordinary course of business. We currently expect that the resolution of such contingencies will not materially affect our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Government Assistance
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we recorded $9 million in financial assistance from foreign governments, primarily in the form of grants, of which $7 million and $2 million related to Europe and Canada, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, an immaterial amount was recorded as a reduction to Cost of goods sold, and $9 million was a reduction to Selling, general and administrative expenses, in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Income. Financial assistance received from governments is recorded during the period in which we incur the costs that the assistance is intended to offset (and only if it is probable that we will meet the conditions required under the terms of the assistance). No government assistance was recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
Leases - Cash Flow Disclosure
The amount disclosed for Leased assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities for the three months ended March 31, 2020 in the supplemental disclosure of noncash investing and financing activities in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows includes an immaterial correction of $18 million to address an omission of the impact of lease modifications and terminations.
Stockholders' Equity
Treasury Stock
As of March 31, 2021, our Board of Directors had authorized a stock repurchase program under which we may purchase up to $1.0 billion of our common stock from time to time through October 25, 2022. Repurchases under the program may be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, with the amount and timing of repurchases depending on market conditions and corporate needs. The repurchase program does not obligate us to acquire any specific number of shares and may be suspended or discontinued at any time.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we repurchased 1.5 million shares of common stock for an aggregate price of $57 million. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we repurchased 3.3 million shares of common stock for an aggregate price of $88 million. As of March 31, 2021, there was $474 million of remaining capacity under our repurchase program. Repurchased shares are accounted for as treasury stock using the cost method.
Noncontrolling Interest
In February 2020, as part of the sale of Stahlgruber's Czech Republic business, we divested the noncontrolling interest of the business, which resulted in a net decrease to Noncontrolling interest of $11 million in our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2020. See Note 2, "Discontinued Operations," for further information.
10


In December 2019, we modified the shares of a noncontrolling interest of a subsidiary acquired in connection with the Stahlgruber acquisition and issued new redeemable shares to the minority shareholder. The new redeemable shares contain (i) a put option for all noncontrolling interest shares at a fixed price of $24 million (€21 million) for the minority shareholder exercisable in the fourth quarter of 2023, (ii) a call option for all noncontrolling interest shares at a fixed price of $26 million (€23 million) for the Company exercisable beginning in the first quarter of 2026 through the end of the fourth quarter of 2027, and (iii) a guaranteed dividend to be paid quarterly to the minority shareholder through the fourth quarter of 2023. The new redeemable shares do not provide the minority shareholder with rights to participate in the profits and losses of the subsidiary prior to the exercise date of the put option. As the put option is outside the control of the Company, we recorded a $24 million Redeemable noncontrolling interest at the put option's redemption value outside of permanent equity on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In the first quarter of 2021, we adopted ASU No. 2019-12, "Income Taxes" (Topic 740) ("ASU 2019-12"), which simplifies the accounting for income taxes and adds guidance to reduce complexity in certain areas. We adopted the standard in the first quarter using the prospective approach. The adoption of this accounting standard did not have a material impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, "Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting" ("ASU 2020-04"), which provides temporary optional guidance to ease the potential burden in accounting for reference rate reform. ASU 2020-04 provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying generally accepted accounting principles to transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. These transactions include contract modifications, hedging relationships, and sale or transfer of debt securities classified as held-to-maturity. Entities may apply the provisions of the new standard as of the beginning of the reporting period when the election is made (i.e., as early as the first quarter of 2020). Unlike other topics, the provisions of this update are only available until December 31, 2022. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, and we have not yet elected an adoption date.

Note 4. Revenue Recognition
The majority of our revenue is derived from the sale of vehicle parts. We recognize revenue when the products are shipped to, delivered to or picked up by customers, which is the point when title has transferred and risk of ownership has passed.
Sources of Revenue
We report our revenue in two categories: (i) parts and services and (ii) other. The following table sets forth our revenue by category, with our parts and services revenue further disaggregated by reportable segment (in thousands):

Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
North America$1,018,437 $1,107,342 
Europe1,455,370 1,357,969 
Specialty457,959 347,406 
Parts and services2,931,766 2,812,717 
Other239,020 188,218 
Total revenue$3,170,786 $3,000,935 

Parts and Services
Our parts revenue is generated from the sale of vehicle products including replacement parts, components and systems used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles and specialty products and accessories to improve the performance, functionality and appearance of vehicles. Services revenue includes (i) additional services that are generally billed concurrently with the
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related product sales, such as the sale of service-type warranties, (ii) fees for admission to our self service yards, and (iii) diagnostic and repair services.
In North America, our vehicle replacement products include sheet metal collision parts such as doors, hoods, and fenders; bumper covers; head and tail lamps; automotive glass products such as windshields; mirrors and grilles; wheels; and large mechanical items such as engines and transmissions. In Europe, our products include a wide variety of small mechanical products such as brake pads, discs and sensors; clutches; electrical products such as spark plugs and batteries; steering and suspension products; filters; and oil and automotive fluids. In our Specialty operations, we serve six product segments: truck and off-road; speed and performance; recreational vehicles; towing; wheels, tires and performance handling; and miscellaneous accessories. 
Our service-type warranties typically have service periods ranging from 6 months to 36 months. Proceeds from these service-type warranties are deferred at contract inception and amortized on a straight-line basis to revenue over the contract period. The changes in deferred service-type warranty revenue are as follows (in thousands):
Balance as of January 1, 2021$25,622 
Additional warranty revenue deferred13,511 
Warranty revenue recognized(11,834)
Balance as of March 31, 2021$27,299 

Other Revenue
Revenue from other sources includes sales of scrap and precious metals (platinum, palladium, and rhodium), bulk sales to mechanical manufacturers (including cores) and sales of aluminum ingots and sows from our furnace operations. We derive scrap metal and other precious metals from several sources, including vehicles that have been used in both our wholesale and self service recycling operations and from original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") and other entities that contract with us for secure disposal of "crush only" vehicles. Revenue from the sale of hulks in our wholesale and self service recycling operations is recognized based on a price per ton of delivered material when the customer (processor) collects the scrap. Some adjustments may occur when the customer weighs the scrap at their location, and revenue is adjusted accordingly.
Revenue by Geographic Area
See Note 14, "Segment and Geographic Information" for information related to our revenue by geographic region.
Variable Consideration
The amount of revenue ultimately received from the customer can vary due to variable consideration including returns, discounts, rebates, refunds, credits, price concessions, incentives, performance bonuses, or other similar items. Under FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606 ("ASC 606"), we are required to select the “expected value method” or the “most likely amount” method in order to estimate variable consideration. We utilize both methods in practice depending on the type of variable consideration, with contemplation of any expected reversals in revenue. We recorded a refund liability and return asset for expected returns of $105 million and $59 million, respectively, as of March 31, 2021, and $102 million and $57 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2020. The refund liability is presented separately on the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets within current liabilities while the return asset is presented within Prepaid expenses and other current assets. Other types of variable consideration consist primarily of discounts, volume rebates, and other customer sales incentives that are recorded in Receivables, net on the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. We recorded a reserve for our variable consideration of $87 million and $127 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. While other customer incentive programs exist, we characterize them as material rights in the context of our sales transactions. We consider these programs to be immaterial to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

Note 5. Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses
2019 Global Restructuring Program
In the second quarter of 2019, we commenced a cost reduction initiative, covering all three of our reportable segments, designed to eliminate underperforming assets and cost inefficiencies. We have incurred and expect to incur costs for inventory write-downs; employee severance and other expenditures related to employee terminations; lease exit costs, such as lease termination fees, accelerated amortization of operating lease assets and impairment of operating lease assets; other costs related to facility exits, such as moving expenses to relocate inventory and equipment; and accelerated depreciation of fixed assets to be disposed earlier than the end of the previously estimated useful lives.
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During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, we incurred $1 million and $3 million, respectively, of restructuring expenses under this program, primarily related to facility exit costs and employee-related costs. These costs were recorded within Restructuring and acquisition related expenses in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income. The program costs incurred during the three months ended March 31, 2021 primarily related to our Europe segment. Of the program costs incurred during the three months ended March 31, 2020, $2 million and $1 million related to our Europe and North America segments, respectively.
The actions under this program are substantially complete. We estimate that total program costs will be approximately $46 million, of which approximately $31 million, $14 million and $1 million will be incurred by our Europe, North America and Specialty segments, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, the remaining expected costs and restructuring liabilities related to this program were immaterial.
2020 Global Restructuring Program
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, we initiated a further restructuring program aimed at cost reductions across all our reportable segments through the elimination of underperforming assets and cost inefficiencies. These actions are incremental to those initiated as part of the 2019 Global Restructuring Program, and include costs for inventory write-downs; employee severance and other expenditures related to employee terminations; lease exit costs, such as lease termination fees, accelerated amortization of operating lease assets and impairment of operating lease assets; other costs related to facility exits, such as moving expenses to relocate inventory and equipment; and accelerated depreciation of fixed assets to be disposed of earlier than the end of the previously estimated useful lives. We expanded this program during the second and third quarters of 2020 as we identified additional opportunities to eliminate inefficiencies, including actions in response to impacts to our business from COVID-19.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we recognized restructuring expenses of $2 million, representing $5 million of employee-related costs and facility exit costs, partially offset by a $3 million gain from the sale of a building to be closed as part of the restructuring plan. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we recognized $2 million of expenses related to the program. Of the cumulative program costs incurred to date, $27 million, $23 million and $1 million related to our North America, Europe and Specialty segments, respectively. We estimate total costs under the program through its expected completion date in 2023 will be between $65 million and $75 million, of which approximately $36 million, $31 million, and $2 million will be incurred by our Europe, North America and Specialty segments, respectively; these segment amounts represent the midpoints of the expected ranges of costs to be incurred by each segment.
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, restructuring liabilities incurred related to this program totaled $16 million and $21 million, respectively, including $13 million and $17 million, respectively, related to leases we have exited or expect to exit prior to the end of the lease term (reported in Current portion of operating lease liabilities and Long-term operating lease liabilities, excluding current portion on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets), and $3 million and $4 million, respectively, for employee termination costs (reported in Accrued payroll-related liabilities on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets). Our lease-related restructuring liabilities are estimated based on remaining rent payments after our actual exit date for facilities closed through the first quarter of 2021 and after our planned exit date for facilities we expect to close in future periods; these liabilities do not reflect any estimated proceeds we may be able to achieve through subleasing the facilities.
Acquisition Integration Plans
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we incurred immaterial restructuring expenses for our acquisition integration plans. Future expenses to complete our existing integration plans are expected to be immaterial.
During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we incurred $2 million of restructuring expenses for our acquisition integration plans. These expenses were primarily related to the integration of our acquisition of Andrew Page Limited.
1 LKQ Europe Program
In September 2019, we announced a multi-year program called "1 LKQ Europe" which is intended to create structural centralization and standardization of key functions to facilitate the operation of the Europe segment as a single business. Under the 1 LKQ Europe program, we will reorganize our non-customer-facing teams and support systems through various projects including the implementation of a common ERP platform, rationalization of our product portfolio, and creation of a Europe headquarters office and central back office. While certain projects were delayed in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as our procurement initiatives and the new headquarters in Switzerland, we also accelerated certain projects, such as the integration of previously acquired networks and sharing resources across LKQ Europe. We are targeting to complete the organizational design and implementation projects by the middle of 2021, with the remaining projects scheduled to be completed by 2024.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we incurred $5 million of restructuring charges related to the 1 LKQ Europe program related to employee-related costs. We estimate that we will incur between $45 million and $55 million in total
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personnel and inventory-related restructuring charges through 2024 under the program. We may identify additional initiatives and projects under the 1 LKQ Europe program in future periods that may result in additional restructuring expense, although we are currently unable to estimate the range of charges for such potential future initiatives and projects. As of March 31, 2021, the restructuring liabilities related to this program were immaterial.

Note 6. Stock-Based Compensation
In order to attract and retain employees, non-employee directors, consultants, and other persons associated with us, we grant equity-based awards under the LKQ Corporation 1998 Equity Incentive Plan (the “Equity Incentive Plan”). We have granted restricted stock units ("RSUs"), stock options, and restricted stock under the Equity Incentive Plan. We expect to issue new or treasury shares of common stock to cover past and future equity grants.
RSUs
The RSUs we have issued vest over periods of up to five years, subject to a continued service condition. Currently outstanding RSUs (other than PSUs, which are described below) contain either a time-based vesting condition or a combination of a performance-based vesting condition and a time-based vesting condition, in which case both conditions must be met before any RSUs vest. For all of the RSUs containing a performance-based vesting condition, the Company must report positive diluted earnings per share, subject to certain adjustments, during any fiscal year period within five years following the grant date. Each RSU converts into one share of LKQ common stock on the applicable vesting date. The grant date fair value of RSUs is based on the market price of LKQ stock on the grant date.
Starting with our 2019 grants, participants who are eligible for retirement (defined as a voluntary separation of service from the Company after the participant has attained at least 60 years of age and completed at least five years of service) will continue to vest in their awards following retirement; if retirement occurs during the first year of the vesting period (for RSUs subject to a time-based vesting condition) or the first year of the performance period (for RSUs with a performance-based vesting condition), the participant vests in a prorated amount of the RSU grant based on the portion of the year employed. For our RSU grants prior to 2019, participants forfeit their unvested shares upon retirement.
The fair value of RSUs that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $14 million; the fair value of RSUs vested is based on the market price of LKQ stock on the date vested.
The following table summarizes activity related to our RSUs under the Equity Incentive Plan for the three months ended March 31, 2021:
Number
Outstanding
Weighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Weighted Average Remaining Contractual Term
(in years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value
   (in thousands) (1)
Unvested as of January 1, 20211,479,672 $31.71 
Granted (2)
690,011 $38.52 
Vested(362,750)$32.86 
Forfeited / Canceled(13,774)$33.92 
Unvested as of March 31, 20211,793,159 $34.08 
Expected to vest after March 31, 20211,604,984 $34.25 3.3$67,939 
(1)    The aggregate intrinsic value of expected to vest RSUs represents the total pretax intrinsic value (the fair value of the Company's stock on the last day of each period multiplied by the number of units) that would have been received by the holders had all the expected to vest RSUs vested. This amount changes based on the market price of the Company’s common stock.
(2)    The weighted average grant date fair value of RSUs granted during the three months ended March 31, 2020 was $33.14.

In 2021 and 2020, we granted performance-based three-year RSUs ("PSUs") to certain employees, including our executive officers, under our Equity Incentive Plan. As these awards are performance-based, the exact number of shares to be paid out may be up to twice the grant amount, depending on the Company's performance and the achievement of certain performance metrics (adjusted earnings per share, average organic parts and services revenue growth, and average return on invested capital) over the applicable three year performance periods.
The following table summarizes activity related to our PSUs under the Equity Incentive Plan for the three months ended March 31, 2021:
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Number
Outstanding
Weighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Weighted Average Remaining Contractual Term
(in years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value
   (in thousands) (1)
Unvested as of January 1, 2021291,601 $29.98 
Granted (2)
121,810 $38.50 
Forfeited / Canceled$
Unvested as of March 31, 2021413,411 $32.49 
Expected to vest after March 31, 2021413,411 $32.49 1.7$17,500 
(1)     The aggregate intrinsic value of expected to vest PSUs represents the total pretax intrinsic value (the fair value of the Company's stock on the last day of each period multiplied by the number of units at target) that would have been received by the holders had all the expected to vest PSUs vested. This amount changes based on the market price of the Company’s common stock and the achievement of the performance metrics relative to the established targets.
(2)    Represents the number of PSUs at target payout. The weighted average grant date fair value of PSUs granted during the three months ended March 31, 2020 was $32.21.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Pre-tax stock-based compensation expense for RSUs and PSUs totaled $8 million for both the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. As of March 31, 2021, unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested RSUs and PSUs was $61 million. Stock-based compensation expense related to these awards will be different to the extent that forfeitures are realized and performance under the PSUs differs from target.

Note 7. Earnings Per Share
The following chart sets forth the computation of earnings per share (in thousands, except per share amounts):

Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Income from continuing operations$266,332 $146,894 
Denominator for basic earnings per share—Weighted-average shares outstanding303,043 306,238 
Effect of dilutive securities:
RSUs628 515 
PSUs94 
Stock options
Denominator for diluted earnings per share—Adjusted weighted-average shares outstanding303,765 306,757 
Basic earnings per share from continuing operations$0.88 $0.48 
Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations (1)
$0.88 $0.48 
(1)    Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations was computed using the treasury stock method for dilutive securities.
The following table sets forth the number of employee stock-based compensation awards outstanding but not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because their effect would have been antidilutive for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Antidilutive securities:
RSUs117 381

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Note 8. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The components of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) are as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2021
 Foreign
Currency
Translation
Unrealized (Loss) Gain
on Cash Flow Hedges
Unrealized (Loss) Gain
on Pension Plans
Other Comprehensive Loss from Unconsolidated SubsidiariesAccumulated
Other
Comprehensive
(Loss) Income
BALANCE, January 1, 2021$(57,126)$(968)$(32,967)$(7,948)$(99,009)
Pretax (loss) income(24,572)3,119 (21,453)
Income tax effect(736)(736)
Reclassification of unrealized (gain) loss(2,343)437 (1,906)
Reclassification of deferred income taxes618 (124)494 
Other comprehensive loss from unconsolidated subsidiaries(3,512)(3,512)
BALANCE, March 31, 2021$(81,698)$(310)$(32,654)$(11,460)$(126,122)


Three Months Ended
March 31, 2020
 Foreign
Currency
Translation
Unrealized Gain (Loss)
on Cash Flow Hedges
Unrealized (Loss) Gain
on Pension Plans
Other Comprehensive Loss from Unconsolidated SubsidiariesAccumulated
Other
Comprehensive
(Loss) Income
BALANCE, January 1, 2020$(170,893)$5,358 $(31,934)$(3,416)$(200,885)
Pretax (loss) income(104,060)4,182 (99,878)
Income tax effect(984)(984)
Reclassification of unrealized (gain) loss(13,707)114 (13,593)
Reclassification of deferred income taxes3,188 3,194 
Disposal of business95 95 
Other comprehensive loss from unconsolidated subsidiaries(1,852)(1,852)
BALANCE, March 31, 2020$(274,858)$(1,963)$(31,814)$(5,268)$(313,903)

The amounts of unrealized gains and losses on our Cash Flow Hedges reclassified to our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income are as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 Classification20212020
Unrealized (losses) gains on interest rate swapsInterest expense, net of interest income$(693)$3,296 
Unrealized gains on cross currency swapsInterest expense, net of interest income539 2,551 
Unrealized gains on cross currency swaps (1)
Other income, net1,973 7,860 
Unrealized gains on foreign currency forward contracts (1)
Other income, net524 
Total$2,343 $13,707 
(1)The amounts reclassified to Other income, net in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income offset the impact of the remeasurement of the underlying transactions.
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Net unrealized losses and gains related to our pension plans were reclassified to Other income, net in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.
Our policy is to reclassify the income tax effect from Accumulated other comprehensive loss to the Provision for income taxes when the related gains and losses are released to the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income.

Note 9. Long-Term Obligations
Long-term obligations consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Senior secured credit agreement:
Term loans payable$319,375 $323,750 
Revolving credit facilities533,882 642,958 
Euro Notes (2024)586,500 610,800 
Euro Notes (2026/28)1,173,000 1,221,600 
Receivables securitization facility
Notes payable through October 2030 at weighted average interest rates of 3.4% and 3.3%, respectively21,420 24,526 
Finance lease obligations at weighted average interest rates of 3.5% and 3.5%, respectively54,505 57,336 
Other debt at weighted average interest rates of 1.1% and 1.2%, respectively46,340 15,706 
Total debt2,735,022 2,896,676 
Less: long-term debt issuance costs(15,379)(25,225)
Less: current debt issuance costs(7,951)(313)
Total debt, net of debt issuance costs2,711,692 2,871,138 
Less: current maturities, net of debt issuance costs(239,962)(58,497)
Long term debt, net of debt issuance costs$2,471,730 $2,812,641 
Senior Secured Credit Agreement
On June 11, 2020, LKQ Corporation and certain other subsidiaries of LKQ (collectively, the "Borrowers") entered into Amendment No. 4 to the Fourth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated January 29, 2016 (the "Credit Agreement"), which modifies the maximum permitted net leverage ratio through the quarter ending September 30, 2021. Prior to the amendment, the maximum permitted net leverage ratio was 4.00:1.00. After the amendment, the maximum permitted net leverage ratio is (i) 5.00:1.00 for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, (ii) 4.50:1.00 for the quarter ending June 30, 2021, and (iii) 4.25:1.00 for the quarter ending September 30, 2021. Beginning with the quarter ending December 31, 2021, the maximum permitted net leverage ratio reverts to the terms in effect prior to the amendment. In the event that the net leverage ratio is greater than 4.00:1.00, the Company would be restricted from repurchasing its shares. We can at any time elect to cancel the modifications to the maximum permitted net leverage ratio and revert to the terms in effect prior to the amendment subject to compliance with the 4.00:1.00 ratio. Amendment No. 4 to the Credit Agreement also made certain other immaterial modifications.
On December 14, 2020, we entered into Amendment No. 5 to the Credit Agreement; the amendment added as a borrower our subsidiary LKQ Europe GmbH, a Swiss limited liability company, and made certain other immaterial or clarifying modifications.
The total availability under the revolving credit facility's multicurrency component is $3.15 billion. Amounts outstanding under the revolving credit facility are due and payable upon maturity of the Credit Agreement on January 29, 2024. Term loan borrowings, which totaled $319 million as of March 31, 2021, are due and payable in quarterly installments equal to     approximately $4 million on the last day of each fiscal quarter, with the remaining balance due and payable on January 29, 2024.
We are required to prepay the term loan by amounts equal to proceeds from the sale or disposition of certain assets if the proceeds are not reinvested within twelve months. We also have the option to prepay outstanding amounts under the Credit Agreement without penalty.
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The Credit Agreement contains customary representations and warranties and customary covenants that provide limitations and conditions on our ability to enter into certain transactions. The Credit Agreement also contains financial and affirmative covenants, including limitations on our net leverage ratio and a minimum interest coverage ratio.
Borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at variable rates, which depend on the currency and duration of the borrowing elected, plus an applicable margin. The applicable margin is subject to change in increments of 0.25% depending on our net leverage ratio. Interest payments are due on the last day of the selected interest period or quarterly in arrears depending on the type of borrowing. Including the effect of the interest rate swap agreements described in Note 10, "Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities," the weighted average interest rates on borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were 1.2% and 1.7%, respectively. We also pay a commitment fee based on the average daily unused amount of the revolving credit facilities. The commitment fee is subject to change in increments of 0.05% depending on our net leverage ratio. In addition, we pay a participation commission on outstanding letters of credit at an applicable rate based on our net leverage ratio, and a fronting fee of 0.125% to the issuing bank, which are due quarterly in arrears.
Of the total borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement, there were $18 million classified as current maturities at both March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020. As of March 31, 2021, there were letters of credit outstanding in the aggregate amount of $71 million. The amounts available under the revolving credit facilities are reduced by the amounts outstanding under letters of credit, and thus availability under the revolving credit facilities at March 31, 2021 was $2.5 billion.
Related to the execution of Amendment No. 4 to the Fourth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement in June 2020, we incurred $4 million of fees, the majority of which were capitalized as an offset to Long-Term Obligations and are amortized over the term of the agreement.
U.S. Notes (2023)
On January 10, 2020, we redeemed the $600 million aggregate principal amount of 4.75% senior notes due 2023 (the "U.S Notes (2023)") at a redemption price equal to 101.583% of the principal amount of the U.S. Notes (2023) plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but not including, January 10, 2020. The total redemption payment was $614 million, including an early-redemption premium of $9 million and accrued and unpaid interest of $4 million. In the first quarter of 2020, we recorded a loss on debt extinguishment of $13 million on the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income related to the redemption due to the early-redemption premium and the write-off of the unamortized debt issuance costs.
Euro Notes (2024)
On April 14, 2016, LKQ Italia Bondco S.p.A. ("LKQ Italia"), an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of LKQ Corporation, completed an offering of €500 million aggregate principal amount of senior notes due April 1, 2024 (the "Euro Notes (2024)") in a private placement conducted pursuant to Regulation S and Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933. The proceeds from the offering were used to repay a portion of the revolver borrowings under the Credit Agreement and to pay related fees and expenses. The Euro Notes (2024) are governed by the Indenture dated as of April 14, 2016 (the "Euro Notes (2024) Indenture") among LKQ Italia, LKQ Corporation and certain of our subsidiaries (the "Euro Notes (2024) Subsidiaries"), the trustee, and the paying agent, transfer agent, and registrar.
The Euro Notes (2024) bear interest at a rate of 3.875% per year from the date of original issuance or from the most recent payment date on which interest has been paid or provided for. Interest on the Euro Notes (2024) is payable in arrears on April 1 and October 1 of each year. The Euro Notes (2024) are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by LKQ Corporation and the Euro Notes (2024) Subsidiaries (the "Euro Notes (2024) Guarantors").
The Euro Notes (2024) and the related guarantees are, respectively, LKQ Italia's and each Euro Notes (2024) Guarantor's senior unsecured obligations and are subordinated to all of LKQ Italia's and the Euro Notes (2024) Guarantors' existing and future secured debt to the extent of the assets securing that secured debt. In addition, the Euro Notes (2024) are effectively subordinated to all of the liabilities of our subsidiaries that are not guaranteeing the Euro Notes (2024) to the extent of the assets of those subsidiaries. The Euro Notes (2024) have been listed on the ExtraMOT, Professional Segment of the Borsa Italia S.p.A. securities exchange and the Global Exchange Market of Euronext Dublin.
The Euro Notes (2024) are redeemable, in whole or in part, at any time at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date plus a "make whole" premium. On or after January 1, 2024, we may redeem some or all of the Euro Notes (2024) at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date. We may be required to make an offer to purchase the Euro Notes (2024) upon the sale of certain assets, subject to certain exceptions, and upon a change of control. In addition, in the event of certain developments affecting taxation or under certain other circumstances which, in any case, require the payment of certain additional amounts, we may redeem the Euro Notes (2024) in whole, but not in part, at any time at a redemption price of
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100% of the principal amount thereof plus accrued but unpaid interest, if any, and such certain additional amounts, if any, to the redemption date.
Euro Notes (2026/28)
On April 9, 2018, LKQ European Holdings B.V. ("LKQ Euro Holdings"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of LKQ Corporation, completed an offering of €1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of senior notes. The offering consisted of €750 million senior notes due 2026 (the "2026 notes") and €250 million senior notes due 2028 (the "2028 notes" and, together with the 2026 notes, the "Euro Notes (2026/28)") in a private placement conducted pursuant to Regulation S and Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933. The proceeds from the offering, together with borrowings under our senior secured credit facility, were used to (i) finance a portion of the consideration paid for the Stahlgruber acquisition, (ii) for general corporate purposes and (iii) to pay related fees and expenses, including the refinancing of net financial debt. The Euro Notes (2026/28) are governed by the Indenture dated as of April 9, 2018 (the “Euro Notes (2026/28) Indenture”) among LKQ Euro Holdings, LKQ Corporation and certain of our subsidiaries (the “Euro Notes (2026/28) Subsidiaries”), the trustee, paying agent, transfer agent, and registrar.
The 2026 notes and 2028 notes bear interest at rates of 3.625% and 4.125%, respectively, per year from the date of original issuance or from the most recent payment date on which interest has been paid or provided for. Interest on the Euro Notes (2026/28) is payable in arrears on April 1 and October 1 of each year. The Euro Notes (2026/28) are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by LKQ Corporation and the Euro Notes (2026/28) Subsidiaries (the "Euro Notes (2026/28) Guarantors").
The Euro Notes (2026/28) and the related guarantees are, respectively, LKQ Euro Holdings' and each Euro Notes (2026/28) Guarantor’s senior unsecured obligations and will be subordinated to all of LKQ Euro Holdings' and the Euro Notes (2026/28) Guarantors’ existing and future secured debt to the extent of the assets securing that secured debt. In addition, the Euro Notes (2026/28) are effectively subordinated to all of the liabilities of our subsidiaries that are not guaranteeing the Euro Notes (2026/28) to the extent of the assets of those subsidiaries. The Euro Notes (2026/28) have been listed on the Global Exchange Market of Euronext Dublin.
The Euro Notes (2026/28) are redeemable, in whole or in part, at any time at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date plus a "make whole" premium. On or after April 1, 2021, we may redeem some or all of the 2026 notes at the applicable redemption prices set forth in the Euro Notes (2026/28) Indenture. On or after April 1, 2023, we may redeem some or all of the 2028 notes at the applicable redemption prices set forth in the Euro Notes (2026/28) Indenture. We may be required to make an offer to purchase the Euro Notes (2026/28) upon the sale of certain assets, subject to certain exceptions, and upon a change of control. In addition, in the event of certain developments affecting taxation or under certain other circumstances which, in any case, require the payment of certain additional amounts, we may redeem the Euro Notes (2026/28) in whole, but not in part, at any time at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued but unpaid interest, if any, and such certain additional amounts, if any, to the redemption date.
On April 1, 2021, we redeemed the Euro Notes 2026 at a redemption price equal to 101.813% of the principal amount of the 2026 notes plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but not including, April 1, 2021. The total redemption payment was $915 million (€777 million), including an early-redemption premium of $16 million (€14 million) and accrued and unpaid interest of $16 million (€14 million). In the second quarter of 2021, we will record a loss on debt extinguishment of $24 million related to the redemption due to the early-redemption premium and the write-off of the unamortized debt issuance costs.
Receivables Securitization Facility
On December 20, 2018, we amended the terms of our receivables securitization facility with MUFG Bank, Ltd. ("MUFG") to: (i) extend the term of the facility to November 8, 2021; (ii) increase the maximum amount available to $110 million; and (iii) make other clarifying and updating changes. Under the facility, LKQ sells an ownership interest in certain receivables, related collections and security interests to MUFG for the benefit of conduit investors and/or financial institutions for cash proceeds. Upon payment of the receivables by customers, rather than remitting to MUFG the amounts collected, LKQ retains such collections as proceeds for the sale of new receivables generated by certain of the ongoing operations of the Company.
The sale of the ownership interest in the receivables is accounted for as a secured borrowing on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, under which the receivables included in the program collateralize the amounts invested by MUFG, the conduit investors and/or financial institutions (the "Purchasers"). The receivables are held by LKQ Receivables Finance Company, LLC ("LRFC"), a wholly owned bankruptcy-remote special purpose subsidiary of LKQ, and therefore, the receivables are available first to satisfy the creditors of LRFC, including the Purchasers. Net receivables totaling
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$111 million and $121 million were collateral for the investments under the receivables facility as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
Under the receivables facility, we pay variable interest rates plus a margin on the outstanding amounts invested by the Purchasers. The variable rates are based on (i) commercial paper rates, (ii), LIBOR, or (iii) base rates, and are payable monthly in arrears. The commercial paper rate is the applicable variable rate unless conduit investors are not available to invest in the receivables at commercial paper rates. In such case, financial institutions will invest at the LIBOR rate or at base rates. We also pay a commitment fee on the excess of the investment maximum over the average daily outstanding investment, payable monthly in arrears. There was no outstanding balance as of March 31, 2021 or December 31, 2020.

Note 10. Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities
We are exposed to market risks, including the effect of changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices. Under our current policies, we use derivatives to manage our exposure to variable interest rates on our senior secured debt and changing foreign exchange rates for certain foreign currency denominated transactions. We do not hold or issue derivatives for trading purposes.
Cash Flow Hedges
We hold interest rate swap agreements to hedge a portion of the variable interest rate risk on our variable rate borrowings under our Credit Agreement, with the objective of minimizing the impact of interest rate fluctuations and stabilizing cash flows. Under the terms of the interest rate swap agreements, we pay the fixed interest rate and receive payment at a variable rate of interest based on LIBOR for the respective currency of each interest rate swap agreement’s notional amount. Changes in the fair value of the interest rate swap agreements are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and are reclassified to Interest expense, net of interest income when the underlying interest payment has an impact on earnings. Our interest rate swap contracts have maturity dates in June 2021.
At December 31, 2020, we held cross currency swaps, which contained an interest rate swap component and a foreign currency forward contract component that, combined with related intercompany financing arrangements, effectively convert variable rate U.S. dollar-denominated borrowings into fixed rate euro-denominated borrowings. The swaps were intended to minimize the impact of fluctuating exchange rates and interest rates on the cash flows resulting from the related intercompany financing arrangements. Changes in the fair value of the derivative instruments were recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and were reclassified to Interest expense, net of interest income and Other income, net when the underlying transactions had an impact on earnings.
From time to time, we may hold foreign currency forward contracts related to certain foreign currency denominated intercompany transactions, with the objective of minimizing the impact of fluctuating exchange rates on these future cash flows. Under the terms of the foreign currency forward contracts, we will sell the foreign currency in exchange for U.S. dollars at a fixed rate on the maturity dates of the contracts. Changes in the fair value of the foreign currency forward contracts where we are applying hedge accounting are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and reclassified to Other income, net when the underlying transaction has an impact on earnings.
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we held cash flow hedges with the following notional amounts (in thousands):
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Interest rate swap agreements
USD denominated$150,000 $480,000 
Cross currency swap agreements
Euro denominated340,000 
Foreign currency forward contracts
SEK denominatedkrkr227,000 

The following tables summarize the fair values of our designated cash flow hedges as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 (in thousands):
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Other Accrued Expenses
Fair Value at March, 31 2021Fair Value at December 31, 2020
Interest rate swap agreements$335 $899 
Cross currency swap agreements56,328 
Foreign currency forward contracts1,350 
Total cash flow hedges$335 $58,577 

While certain derivative instruments executed with the same counterparty are subject to master netting arrangements, we present our cash flow hedge derivative instruments on a gross basis on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The impact of netting the fair values of these contracts would have no effect on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
The activity related to our cash flow hedges is included in Note 8, "Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)."
The activity related to our cash flow hedges is presented in either operating activities or financing activities in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Other Derivative Instruments Not Designated as Hedges
To manage our foreign currency exposure on non-functional currency denominated borrowings, we have entered into short term foreign currency forward contracts. We expect to enter into similar instruments as each instrument matures and expect to continue to do so until the foreign currency denominated borrowings are repaid. As of March 31, 2021, we held foreign currency forward contracts with notional amounts of $315 million and €184 million. At December 31, 2020, the notional amounts of similar contracts were €142 million and £75 million. On April 1, 2021, in connection with the redemption of the Euro Notes 2026, we entered into an additional foreign currency forward contract with a notional amount of $720 million.
We have elected not to apply hedge accounting for these transactions, and therefore the contracts are adjusted to fair value through our results of operations as of each balance sheet date, which could result in volatility in our earnings. The fair values of these other short-term derivative instruments are recorded in either Prepaid expenses and other current assets or Other accrued expenses on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The fair values of these contracts at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, along with the effect on our results of operations during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, were immaterial.
We hold other short-term derivative instruments, including foreign currency forward contracts, to manage our exposure to variability in the cash flows related to inventory purchases denominated in a non-functional currency. We have elected not to apply hedge accounting for these transactions. The notional amount and fair value of these contracts at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, along with the effect on our results of operations during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, were immaterial.

Note 11. Fair Value Measurements
Financial Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value
We use the market and income approaches to estimate the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities, and during the three months ended March 31, 2021, there were no significant changes in valuation techniques or inputs related to the financial assets or liabilities that we have historically recorded at fair value. The tiers in the fair value hierarchy include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted market prices in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as significant unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
The following tables present information about our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicate the fair value hierarchy of the valuation inputs we utilized to determine such fair value as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 (in thousands):
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 Balance as of March 31, 2021Fair Value Measurements as of March 31, 2021
Level 1Level 2Level 3
Assets:
Cash surrender value of life insurance$79,435 $$79,435 $
Foreign currency forward contracts4,451 4,451 
Total Assets$83,886 $$83,886 $
Liabilities:
Contingent consideration liabilities$3,422 $$$3,422 
Interest rate swaps335 335 
Deferred compensation liabilities81,231 81,231 
Foreign currency forward contracts632 632 
Total Liabilities$85,620 $$82,198 $3,422 

 Balance as of December 31, 2020Fair Value Measurements as of December 31, 2020
Level 1Level 2Level 3
Assets:
Cash surrender value of life insurance$72,250 $$72,250 $
Total Assets$72,250 $$72,250 $
Liabilities:
Contingent consideration liabilities$13,263 $$$13,263 
Interest rate swaps899 899 
Deferred compensation liabilities76,240 76,240 
Cross currency swap agreements56,328 56,328 
Foreign currency forward contracts5,190 5,190 
Total Liabilities$151,920 $$138,657 $13,263 

The cash surrender value of life insurance is included in Other noncurrent assets on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The current portion of contingent consideration liabilities is included in Other current liabilities on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets; the noncurrent portion of deferred compensation liabilities and contingent consideration liabilities is included in Other noncurrent liabilities on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets based on the expected timing of the related payments. The balance sheet classification of the interest rate swaps, cross currency swap agreements, and foreign currency forward contracts is presented in Note 10, "Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities."
Our Level 2 assets and liabilities are valued using inputs from third parties and market observable data. We obtain valuation data for the cash surrender value of life insurance and deferred compensation liabilities from third party sources, which determine the net asset values for our accounts using quoted market prices, investment allocations and reportable trades. We value our other derivative instruments using a third party valuation model that performs a discounted cash flow analysis based on the terms of the contracts and market observable inputs such as current and forward interest rates and current and forward foreign exchange rates.
Our contingent consideration liabilities are related to our business acquisitions. Under the terms of the contingent consideration agreements, payments may be made at specified future dates depending on the performance of the acquired business subsequent to the acquisition. The liabilities for these payments are classified as Level 3 liabilities because the related fair value measurement, which is determined using an income approach, includes significant inputs not observable in the market.
We also have equity investments recorded in Other noncurrent assets that are reported at fair value. We have used net asset value as a practical expedient to value these equity investments and thus they are excluded from the fair value hierarchy disclosure.

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Financial Assets and Liabilities Not Measured at Fair Value
Our debt is reflected on the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at cost. Based on market conditions as of both March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the fair value of our credit agreement borrowings reasonably approximated the carrying values of $853 million and $967 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 there were no outstanding borrowings under the receivables facility. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the fair values of the Euro Notes (2024) were approximately $633 million and $662 million, respectively, compared to carrying values of $587 million and $611 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the fair values of the Euro Notes (2026/28) were $1.2 billion and $1.3 billion, respectively, compared to a carrying value of $1.2 billion as of both dates.
The fair value measurements of the borrowings under our credit agreement and receivables facility are classified as Level 2 within the fair value hierarchy since they are determined based upon significant inputs observable in the market, including interest rates on recent financing transactions with similar terms and maturities. We estimated the fair value by calculating the upfront cash payment a market participant would require at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 to assume these obligations. The fair values of our Euro Notes (2024) and Euro Notes (2026/28) are determined based upon observable market inputs including quoted market prices in markets that are not active, and therefore are classified as Level 2 within the fair value hierarchy.

Note 12. Employee Benefit Plans
We have funded and unfunded defined benefit plans covering certain employee groups in the U.S. and various European countries. Local statutory requirements govern many of our European plans. The defined benefit plans are mostly closed to new participants and, in some cases, existing participants no longer accrue benefits. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the aggregate funded status of the defined benefit plans was a liability of $146 million and $153 million, respectively, and is reported in Other noncurrent liabilities and Accrued payroll-related liabilities on our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Net periodic benefit cost for our defined benefit plans included the following components for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Service cost$895 $670 
Interest cost342 718 
Expected return on plan assets(423)(478)
Amortization of actuarial loss437 114 
Net periodic benefit cost$1,251 $1,024 

For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the service cost component of net periodic benefit cost was classified in Selling, general and administrative expenses, while the other components of net periodic benefit cost were classified in Other income, net in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income.

Note 13. Income Taxes
At the end of each interim period, we estimate our annual effective tax rate and apply that rate to our interim earnings. We also record the tax impact of certain unusual or infrequently occurring items, including changes in judgment about valuation allowances and the effects of changes in tax laws or rates, in the interim period in which they occur.
The computation of the annual estimated effective tax rate at each interim period requires certain estimates and significant judgment including, but not limited to, the expected operating income for the year, projections of the proportion of income earned and taxed in state and foreign jurisdictions, permanent and temporary differences between book and taxable income, and the likelihood of recovering deferred tax assets generated in the current year. The accounting estimates used to compute the provision for income taxes may change as new events occur, additional information is obtained or as the tax environment changes.    
Our effective income tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was 26.3%, compared to 29.2% for the comparable prior year period. The lower estimated annual effective tax rate for 2021 is primarily attributable to the higher forecasted 2021 results of operations, as compared to the forecasts available during the comparable quarter in 2020, when COVID-19 pandemic economic disruptions were depressing forecasted 2020 results. Higher projected income contributes to lower anticipated valuation allowances on the tax benefit of net operating losses and suspended interest deductions in certain
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jurisdictions where realization may be uncertain. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, the effective tax rate was decreased 0.2% by favorable discrete items, primarily excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation. Net discrete items for the three months ended March 31, 2020 reduced the effective tax rate by 0.8%, primarily due to excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation and deferred tax adjustments as a result of statutory tax rate changes.

Note 14. Segment and Geographic Information
We have 4 operating segments: Wholesale – North America, Europe, Specialty and Self Service. Our Wholesale – North America and Self Service operating segments are aggregated into 1 reportable segment, North America, because they possess similar economic characteristics and have common products and services, customers, and methods of distribution. Our reportable segments are organized based on a combination of geographic areas served and type of product lines offered. The reportable segments are managed separately as each business serves different customers (i.e. geographic in the case of North America and Europe and product type in the case of Specialty) and is affected by different economic conditions. Therefore, we present 3 reportable segments: North America, Europe and Specialty.
The following tables present our financial performance by reportable segment for the periods indicated (in thousands):
North AmericaEuropeSpecialtyEliminationsConsolidated
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Revenue:
Third Party$1,249,374 $1,463,453 $457,959 $$3,170,786 
Intersegment319 980 (1,299)
Total segment revenue$1,249,693 $1,463,453 $458,939 $(1,299)$3,170,786 
Segment EBITDA$249,167 $140,958 $61,482 $$451,607 
Depreciation and amortization (1)
24,260 40,258 7,079 71,597 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Revenue:
Third Party$1,289,935 $1,363,594 $347,406 $$3,000,935 
Intersegment260 1,176 (1,436)
Total segment revenue$1,290,195 $1,363,594 $348,582 $(1,436)$3,000,935 
Segment EBITDA$211,438 $78,262 $32,232 $$321,932 
Depreciation and amortization (1)
23,148 41,095 7,136 71,379 
(1)    Amounts presented include depreciation and amortization expense recorded within Cost of goods sold and Restructuring and acquisition related expenses.
The key measure of segment profit or loss reviewed by our chief operating decision maker, our Chief Executive Officer, is Segment EBITDA. We use Segment EBITDA to compare profitability among our segments and evaluate business strategies. Segment EBITDA includes revenue and expenses that are controllable by the segment. Corporate general and administrative expenses are allocated to the segments based on usage, with shared expenses apportioned based on the segment's percentage of consolidated revenue. We calculate Segment EBITDA as EBITDA excluding restructuring and acquisition related expenses (which includes restructuring expenses recorded in Cost of goods sold); change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities; other gains and losses related to acquisitions, equity method investments, or divestitures; equity in losses and earnings of unconsolidated subsidiaries; equity investment mark to market adjustments; and impairment charges. EBITDA, which is the basis for Segment EBITDA, is calculated as net income attributable to LKQ stockholders excluding discontinued operations and discontinued noncontrolling interest, depreciation, amortization, interest (which includes gains and losses on debt extinguishment) and income tax expense.
The table below provides a reconciliation of Net Income to Segment EBITDA (in thousands):

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 Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Net income$266,332 $145,979 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest419 740 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest103 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders265,913 145,136 
Subtract:
Net loss from discontinued operations(915)
Net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest(103)
Net income from continuing operations attributable to LKQ stockholders265,913 146,154 
Add:
Depreciation and amortization65,801 65,495 
Depreciation and amortization - cost of goods sold5,615 5,085 
Depreciation and amortization - restructuring expenses (1)
181 799
Interest expense, net of interest income24,179 25,931 
Loss on debt extinguishment12,751 
Provision for income taxes92,969 60,411 
EBITDA454,658 316,626 
Subtract:
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated subsidiaries (2)
5,819 516 
Equity investment mark to market adjustments4,739 
Add:
Restructuring and acquisition related expenses (1)
7,704 6,171 
Restructuring expenses - cost of goods sold(163)(4)
Impairment of net assets held for sale and (gain on disposal of business)15 (249)
Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities(49)(96)
Segment EBITDA$451,607 $321,932 
(1)    The sum of these two captions represents the total amount that is reported in Restructuring and acquisition related expenses in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income. Refer to Note 5, "Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses," for further information.
(2)    Refer to "Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries" in Note 3, "Financial Statement Information," for further information.

The following table presents capital expenditures by reportable segment (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Capital Expenditures
North America$13,335 $29,321 
Europe26,298 13,048 
Specialty2,146 2,169 
Total capital expenditures$41,779 $44,538 
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The following table presents assets by reportable segment (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Receivables, net
North America$401,737 $386,289 
Europe680,067 598,615 
Specialty170,570 88,485 
Total receivables, net1,252,374 1,073,389 
Inventories
North America776,512 810,798 
Europe1,278,147 1,302,649 
Specialty338,055 301,165 
Total inventories2,392,714 2,414,612 
Property, plant and equipment, net
North America569,428 583,985 
Europe556,489 583,439 
Specialty78,726 81,279 
Total property, plant and equipment, net1,204,643 1,248,703 
Operating lease assets, net
North America777,546 755,430 
Europe520,857 520,131 
Specialty74,835 77,563 
Total operating lease assets, net1,373,238 1,353,124 
Equity method investments
North America21,098 18,676 
Europe149,631 136,548 
Total equity method investments170,729 155,224 
Other unallocated assets6,271,759 6,115,481 
Total assets$12,665,457 $12,360,533 

We report net receivables; inventories; net property, plant and equipment; net operating lease assets; and equity method investments by segment as that information is used by the chief operating decision maker in assessing segment performance. These assets provide a measure for the operating capital employed in each segment. Unallocated assets include cash and cash equivalents, prepaid and other current and noncurrent assets, goodwill and other intangibles.
Our largest countries of operation are the U.S., followed by the U.K. and Germany. Additional European operations are located in the Netherlands, Italy, Czech Republic, Belgium, Austria, Slovakia, Poland, and other European countries. Our operations in other countries include wholesale operations in Canada, remanufacturing operations in Mexico, an aftermarket parts freight consolidation warehouse in Taiwan, and administrative support functions in India. Our net sales are attributed to geographic area based on the location of the selling operation.
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The following table sets forth our revenue by geographic area (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Revenue
United States$1,605,433 $1,533,945 
United Kingdom403,438 390,619 
Germany387,876 374,552 
Other countries774,039 701,819 
Total revenue$3,170,786 $3,000,935 

The following table sets forth our tangible long-lived assets by geographic area (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Long-lived assets
United States$1,423,988 $1,419,113 
Germany344,602 360,184 
United Kingdom310,013 315,333 
Other countries499,278 507,197 
Total long-lived assets$2,577,881 $2,601,827 
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Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-Looking Statements
Statements and information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that are not historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are made pursuant to the “safe harbor” provisions of such Act.
Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our outlook, guidance, expectations, beliefs, hopes, intentions and strategies. Words such as “may,” “will,” “plan,” “should,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “if,” “estimate,” “intend,” “project” and similar words or expressions are used to identify these forward-looking statements. These statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors, including the unfavorable effects of COVID-19, that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different. All forward-looking statements are based on information available to us at the time the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual events or results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. The risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results to differ from the results predicted or implied by our forward-looking statements include factors discussed in our filings with the SEC, including those disclosed under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our 2020 Form 10-K and in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q (including this Quarterly Report).
Overview
We are a global distributor of vehicle products, including replacement parts, components and systems used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles, and specialty products and accessories to improve the performance, functionality and appearance of vehicles.
Buyers of vehicle replacement products have the option to purchase from primarily five sources: new products produced by OEMs; new products produced by companies other than the OEMs, which are referred to as aftermarket products; recycled products obtained from salvage and total loss vehicles; recycled products that have been refurbished; and recycled products that have been remanufactured. We distribute a variety of products to collision and mechanical repair shops, including aftermarket collision and mechanical products; recycled collision and mechanical products; refurbished collision products such as wheels, bumper covers and lights; and remanufactured engines and transmissions. Collectively, we refer to the four sources that are not new OEM products as alternative parts.
We are a leading provider of alternative vehicle collision replacement products and alternative vehicle mechanical replacement products, with our sales, processing, and distribution facilities reaching most major markets in the United States and Canada. We are also a leading provider of alternative vehicle replacement and maintenance products in Germany, the United Kingdom, the Benelux region (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg), Italy, Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia, Poland, and various other European countries. In addition to our wholesale operations, we operate self service retail facilities across the U.S. that sell recycled automotive products from end-of-life-vehicles. We are also a leading distributor of specialty vehicle aftermarket equipment and accessories reaching most major markets in the U.S. and Canada.
We are organized into four operating segments: Wholesale – North America; Europe; Specialty and Self Service. We aggregate our Wholesale – North America and Self Service operating segments into one reportable segment, North America, resulting in three reportable segments: North America, Europe and Specialty.
Our operating results have fluctuated on a quarterly and annual basis in the past and can be expected to continue to fluctuate in the future as a result of a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control. Please refer to the factors referred to in Forward-Looking Statements above. Due to these factors and others, which may be unknown to us at this time, our operating results in future periods can be expected to fluctuate. Accordingly, our historical results of operations may not be indicative of future performance.
Acquisitions and Investments
Since our inception in 1998, we have pursued a growth strategy through both organic growth and acquisitions. Through 2018, our acquisition strategy was focused on consolidation to build scale in fragmented markets across North America and Europe. We targeted companies that were market leaders, expanded our geographic presence and enhanced our ability to provide a wide array of vehicle products through our distribution network. In the last few years, we have shifted our focus from larger transactions to tuck-in acquisitions that target high synergies and/or add critical capabilities. Additionally, we have made investments in various businesses to advance our strategic objectives. See "Investments in Unconsolidated
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Subsidiaries" in Note 3, "Financial Statement Information," to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information related to our investments.
Sources of Revenue
We report our revenue in two categories: (i) parts and services and (ii) other. Our parts revenue is generated from the sale of vehicle products, including replacement parts, components and systems used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles, and specialty products and accessories to improve the performance, functionality and appearance of vehicles. Our service revenue is generated primarily from the sale of service-type warranties, fees for admission to our self service yards, and diagnostic and repair services. Revenue from other sources includes scrap and other metal (including precious metals - platinum, palladium and rhodium) sales, bulk sales to mechanical manufacturers (including cores) and sales of aluminum ingots and sows from our furnace operations. Other revenue will vary from period to period based on fluctuations in commodity prices and the volume of materials sold. See Note 4, "Revenue Recognition" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information related to our sources of revenue.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Our 2020 Form 10-K includes a summary of the critical accounting policies and estimates we believe are the most important to aid in understanding our financial results. There have been no changes to those critical accounting policies and estimates that have had a material impact on our reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue or expenses during the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
See "Recent Accounting Pronouncements" in Note 3, "Financial Statement Information" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for information related to new accounting standards.
Financial Information by Geographic Area
See Note 14, "Segment and Geographic Information" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for information related to our revenue and long-lived assets by geographic region.
1 LKQ Europe Program
We have undertaken the 1 LKQ Europe program to create structural centralization and standardization of key functions to facilitate the operation of the Europe segment as a single business. Under this multi-year program, we expect to recognize the following:

Restructuring expenses - Non-recurring costs resulting directly from the implementation of the 1 LKQ Europe program from which the business will derive no ongoing benefit. See Note 5, “Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses” to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further details.
Transformation expenses - Period costs incurred to execute the 1 LKQ Europe program that are expected to contribute to ongoing benefits to the business (e.g. non-capitalizable implementation costs related to a common ERP system). These expenses are recorded in Selling, general and administrative expenses.
Transformation capital expenditures - Capitalizable costs for long-lived assets, such as software and facilities, that directly relate to the execution of the 1 LKQ Europe program.

Costs related to the 1 LKQ Europe program incurred to date are reflected in Selling, general and administrative expenses and Purchases of property, plant and equipment in our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Beginning in the second half of March 2020, management delayed certain projects under the 1 LKQ Europe program to reduce expenses and preserve capital in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on our expectations in the second quarter of 2020 that the impacts on our business from COVID-19 had stabilized, we restarted the program in July 2020 with substantially the same initiatives and projects as prior to the pandemic. While certain projects were delayed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as our procurement initiatives and the new headquarters in Switzerland, we also accelerated certain projects, such as the integration of previously acquired networks and sharing resources across LKQ Europe. We have continued the project on schedule after the restart. We are targeting to complete the organizational design and implementation projects by the middle of 2021, with the remaining projects scheduled to be
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completed by 2024. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we incurred $14 million in costs across all three categories noted above. We expect that costs of the program, reflecting all three categories noted above, will range between $50 million and $70 million in 2021 with an additional $80 million to $100 million between 2022 and the projected program completion date in 2024. In the future, we may also identify additional initiatives and projects under the 1 LKQ Europe program that may result in additional expenditures, although we are currently unable to estimate the range of charges for such potential future initiatives and projects. We expect the transformation and restructuring expenses will be entirely funded by the improved trade working capital initiatives across our Europe segment.
COVID-19 Impact on Our Operations
In late February 2020, the Italian government began placing restrictions on activity as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. Sales volumes fell as fewer cars were on the road and less maintenance activity was performed. While our Italian operation is an important part of our European business, it represented approximately 10% of the segment’s revenue in 2019, and thus the disruption did not have a material impact on the Company. By mid-March, the COVID-19 impact began spreading across the rest of the geographies where we operate at a very rapid pace. Governments adopted aggressive restrictions on the operation of non-essential businesses and personal movement, which reduced miles driven and collisions. While our businesses have been deemed essential in most jurisdictions in which we operate, the change in behavior driven by the COVID-19 restrictions negatively impacted our sales volume. Our organic parts and services revenue declined by 16.8%, 4.5% and 5.2% in the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2020, respectively, relative to the comparable prior periods. We showed improvement in the third quarter of 2020 as governments gradually lifted restrictions for non-essential businesses and personal movement; however, in the fourth quarter of 2020 revenue declined as certain jurisdictions put restrictions back into place. As anticipated, April 2020 experienced the most negative revenue impact, with organic parts and services revenue (on a per day basis) down 30.3% compared to the prior year period. As movement restrictions lessened in May and June 2020, we experienced organic parts and services revenue declines (on a per day basis) of 13.2% and 7.3%, respectively, compared to the prior year periods. However, the pace of improvement flattened into the third quarter of 2020 as the increasing level of COVID-19 cases, especially in the United States, slowed the recovery. During the third quarter of 2020, organic parts and services revenue declined by 4.5% compared to the prior year period, a small improvement from the June 2020 decline of 7.3% (on a per day basis). During the fourth quarter of 2020, organic parts and services revenue declined by 6.1% (on a per day basis) and gradually worsened during the quarter with a decline of 7.2% (on a per day basis) in December. During the first quarter of 2021, organic parts and services revenue increased by 2.2% (on a per day basis) despite the continued COVID-19 impact on economic activity in the U.S. and Europe. Our revenue has been impacted to varying degrees depending on the segment, with North America experiencing the most negative impact due to the decrease in miles driven and collision activity. After seeing year over year decreases early in the pandemic, Specialty revenue has grown due to favorable trends in recreational vehicle activity. We expect consolidated revenue to continue to increase in the second quarter of 2021 off of a low base and a gradual recovery in the second half of 2021. The level of the year over year increase in revenue will depend on the extent of lockdown measures taken in response to the prevalence of the virus outbreak and the timing and effectiveness of the vaccination efforts.
Recognizing the demand changes in the first quarter of 2020, we took action in all of our business units to reduce our cost structure. These actions included, but were not limited to, employee furloughs and reductions in force, decreases in hours and overtime, lowering compensation for salaried employees, a hiring freeze, elimination of temporary labor, route consolidation, deferral of projects, and temporary branch closures. In the second quarter of 2020, these cost actions contributed to a reduction of approximately 18% in quarterly selling, general and administrative expenses compared to our first quarter 2020 run rate. We estimate that the cost actions generated a $10 million benefit in cost of goods sold compared to our second quarter of 2019. Some of the savings from the cost actions were delayed as we paid out vacation balances in April and covered medical benefits for employees in the United States during their furlough period. During the third and fourth quarters of 2020 and first quarter of 2021, we were able to sustain a portion of the cost benefits, with quarterly selling, general and administrative costs down between 6% and 10% for all periods compared to the first quarter 2020 run rate. If revenue increases during the remainder of 2021, we expect that some of the costs that were reduced as a result of COVID-19 will remain at a lower level; the management team has been implementing productivity initiatives to create lower cost structures going forward as seen in the third and fourth quarter of 2020 and first quarter of 2021 results.
We pursued certain financial assistance and relief programs that were available to us from governments in Europe and Canada, primarily in the form of grants to offset personnel expenses. During the quarter ended March 31, 2021, we qualified for $9 million of assistance. No government assistance was recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2020. We received $52 million of government assistance in 2020, with the largest portion coming in the second quarter. We currently do not anticipate qualifying for significant additional assistance in the remainder of 2021, but we still will receive some government assistance in England. This view may change in the future based on developments with the resurgence of the virus outbreak.
These cost actions lagged the revenue impact in the first and second quarters of 2020, which meant there was a negative timing impact of COVID-19 on our profitability in those periods in addition to the negative effect from reduced revenue. By the third quarter, the cost actions were aligned with the revenue changes, and we generated higher Segment
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EBITDA dollars and margins than in the third quarter of 2019. In the fourth quarter of 2020 and first quarter of 2021, profitability remained higher than the prior year.
We also emphasized the preservation of capital in 2020 with a deferral of growth driven capital projects, reductions in inventory orders, more active monitoring of customer receivables and terms, income and value added tax payment deferrals (the majority of which were paid during the third quarter of 2020), and suspension of our share buyback program (which was reinstated during the fourth quarter of 2020). This focus was successful as we improved our liquidity position at March 31, 2021 by approximately $1.4 billion relative to March 31, 2020 while managing through the disruption caused by the pandemic.
In each quarter of 2020, we prepared forecasts of future revenues, profits and cash flows to use in multiple analyses, including the interim goodwill impairment test, other impairment tests of long-lived assets, assessments of the recoverability of inventory, determination of customer and supplier rebate balances, calculation of the annual effective tax rate and evaluations of the realizability of deferred tax assets. Actual results showed an improving trend, with profitability in the second, third and fourth quarters all exceeding our prior forecast prepared in the first quarter of 2020. We will continue to assess COVID-19 developments and the potential impacts on our business in 2021 and update the applicable analyses as necessary.
As the economic impact of the pandemic is dependent on variables that are difficult to project and in many cases are outside of our control, it is possible that the estimates underlying our analyses may change materially in future periods. This is particularly the case because it appears that the prevalence of the virus outbreak fluctuates depending on various factors, including the level of economic and social activity in a region.
One of our top priorities is the health and safety of our employees, customers and the communities in which we operate. We are using all reasonable efforts to follow governmental instructions and safety guidelines with respect to the operations of our facilities. We have implemented protocols across our business units designed to help ensure the health and safety of our employees, customers and communities including, but not limited to: restricting access to and enhancing cleaning and disinfecting protocols at our facilities; use of personal protective equipment; adhering to social distancing guidelines; instituting remote work arrangements for many of our employees; and restricting travel.
See the Results of Operations and Liquidity sections for further detail on our year over year trends.

Key Performance Indicators
We believe that organic revenue growth, Segment EBITDA and free cash flow are key performance indicators for our business. Segment EBITDA is our key measure of segment profit or loss reviewed by our chief operating decision maker.  Free cash flow is a financial measure that is not prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“non-GAAP”).
Organic revenue growth - We define organic revenue growth as total revenue growth from continuing operations excluding the effects of acquisitions and divestitures (i.e., revenue generated from the date of acquisition to the first anniversary of that acquisition, net of reduced revenue due to the disposal of businesses) and foreign currency movements (i.e., impact of translating revenue at prior period exchange rates). Organic revenue growth includes incremental sales from both existing and new (i.e., opened within the last twelve months) locations and is derived from expanding business with existing customers, securing new customers and offering additional products and services. We believe that organic revenue growth is a key performance indicator as this statistic measures our ability to serve and grow our customer base successfully.
Segment EBITDA - Refer to Note 14, "Segment and Geographic Information,” in Part I, Item 1 of this Form 10-Q for a description of the calculation of Segment EBITDA. We believe that Segment EBITDA provides useful information to evaluate our segment profitability by focusing on the indicators of ongoing operational results.
Free Cash Flow - We calculate free cash flow as net cash provided by operating activities, less purchases of property, plant and equipment. Free cash flow provides insight into our liquidity and provides useful information to management and investors concerning our cash flow available to meet future debt service obligations and working capital requirements, to make strategic acquisitions and to repurchase stock.
These three key performance indicators are used as targets in determining incentive compensation at various levels of the organization, including senior management.  By using these performance measures, we attempt to motivate a balanced approach to the business that rewards growth, profitability and cash flow generation in a manner that enhances our long-term prospects.
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Results of Operations—Consolidated
The following table sets forth statements of income data as a percentage of total revenue for the periods indicated:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Revenue100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of goods sold59.2 %59.6 %
Gross margin40.8 %40.4 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses26.8 %30.0 %
Restructuring and acquisition related expenses0.2 %0.2 %
Impairment of net assets held for sale and (gain on disposal of business)0.0 %(0.0)%
Depreciation and amortization2.1 %2.2 %
Operating income11.7 %8.1 %
Total other expense, net0.6 %1.2 %
Income from continuing operations before provision for income taxes11.1 %6.9 %
Provision for income taxes2.9 %2.0 %
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated subsidiaries0.2 %0.0 %
Income from continuing operations8.4 %4.9 %
Net loss from discontinued operations— %(0.0)%
Net income8.4 %4.9 %
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest0.0 %0.0 %
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest— %0.0 %
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders8.4 %4.8 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 Compared to Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in revenue by category (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,Percentage Change in Revenue
20212020OrganicAcquisition and DivestitureForeign ExchangeTotal Change
Parts & services revenue$2,931,766 $2,812,717 0.6 %(0.6)%4.2 %4.2 %
Other revenue239,020 188,218 26.6 %— %0.4 %27.0 %
Total revenue$3,170,786 $3,000,935 2.3 %(0.6)%4.0 %5.7 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
The increase in parts and services revenue of 4.2% represented increases in segment revenue of 31.8% in Specialty and 7.2% in Europe, partially offset by a decline of 8.0% in North America segment revenue. Organic parts and services revenue growth was 0.6%, which included a 1.6% negative effect from approximately one less selling day in the first quarter, resulting in a per day organic increase of 2.2%. Through February 2021, parts and services revenue was down 4.4% per day due to the continuing effects of lockdown measures related to the pandemic. In March 2021, revenue growth was 15.7% on a per day basis as the negative pandemic effect in March 2020 was more severe than in the current year. We expect to report organic growth in the second quarter of 2021 coming off a low base as April and May 2020 had the most significant negative effects from the lockdown measures. The increase in other revenue of 27.0% was primarily driven by a $50 million organic increase, largely attributable to our North America segment. Refer to the discussion of our segment results of operations for factors contributing to the change in revenue by segment during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the prior year period.
Cost of Goods Sold. Cost of goods sold decreased to 59.2% of revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2021 from 59.6% of revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2020. Cost of goods sold decreased 0.6%, 0.2% and 0.2% in our
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Europe, North America and Specialty segments, respectively, partially offset by a 0.7% increase in cost of goods sold attributable to mix. The mix impact was a result of the decreased volumes in our North America segment primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as the higher margin North America segment made up a smaller percentage of the consolidated results, causing an unfavorable effect on the gross margin percentage. Refer to the discussion of our segment results of operations for factors contributing to the changes in cost of goods sold as a percentage of revenue by segment for the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the same period of 2020.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Our selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expenses as a percentage of revenue decreased to 26.8% in the three months ended March 31, 2021 from 30.0% in the three months ended March 31, 2020. SG&A expenses decreased over the prior year period as a result of (i) decreases of 1.2% in both our North America and Europe segments, (ii) a 0.4% decrease in our Specialty segment and (iii) a 0.4% decrease in SG&A expenses attributable to mix. The mix impact was a result of the increased revenues in our Specialty segment, as the lower SG&A expense percentage for the Specialty segment made up a larger percentage of the consolidated results, which had a favorable effect on the SG&A expense percentage. Refer to the discussion of our segment results of operations for factors contributing to the changes in SG&A expenses as a percentage of revenue by segment for the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020.
Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses. The following table summarizes restructuring and acquisition related expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020Change
Total restructuring and acquisition related expenses$7,885 (1)$6,970 (2)$915 
(1)Restructuring expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2021 primarily consisted of (i) $5 million related to our 1 LKQ Europe program and (ii) $2 million related to the 2020 global restructuring program.
(2) Restructuring expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily consisted of (i) $3 million related to our 2019 global restructuring program, (ii) $2 million related to our 2020 global restructuring program and (iii) $2 million related to integration costs from acquisitions.
See Note 5, "Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information on our restructuring and integration plans.
Depreciation and Amortization. The following table summarizes depreciation and amortization for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020Change
Depreciation$38,995 $37,204 $1,791 (1)
Amortization26,806 28,291 (1,485)(2)
Total depreciation and amortization$65,801 $65,495 $306 
(1)Depreciation expense increased by $2 million, primarily due to capital expenditures in our North America and Europe segments since March 31, 2020.
(2)The decrease in amortization expense primarily reflected (i) decreases of $3 million and $1 million related to the customer relationship intangible assets recorded upon our acquisitions of Stahlgruber and Rhiag, respectively, as the accelerated amortization of the customer relationship intangible assets resulted in lower amortization expense during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior year period, partially offset by (ii) a $2 million increase from foreign currency translation, primarily related to an increase in the euro exchange rate during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior year period.
Other Expense, Net. The following table summarizes the components of the change in other expense, net (in thousands):
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Other expense, net for the three months ended March 31, 2020$35,060 
Decrease due to:
Interest expense, net of interest income(1,752)(1)
Loss on debt extinguishment(12,751)(2)
Other income, net(2,591)(3)
Net decrease(17,094)
Other expense, net for the three months ended March 31, 2021$17,966 
(1)The decrease in interest is primarily related to (i) a $5 million decrease resulting from lower outstanding debt during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior year period, partially offset by (ii) a $2 million increase from foreign currency translation, primarily related to an increase in the euro exchange rate during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior year period.
(2)In January 2020, we recorded a loss on debt extinguishment of $13 million related to the redemption of the U.S. Notes (2023) due to the early-redemption premium and the write-off of the unamortized debt issuance costs.
(3)The favorable variance in Other income, net primarily related to a $4 million mark to market adjustment in 2021 for appreciation in our equity investments not accounted for under the equity method.
Provision for Income Taxes. Our effective income tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was 26.3%, compared to 29.2% for the comparable prior year period. The lower estimated annual effective tax rate for 2021 is primarily attributable to the higher forecasted 2021 results of operations, as compared to the forecasts available during the comparable quarter in 2020, when COVID-19 pandemic economic disruptions were depressing forecasted 2020 results. Higher projected income contributes to lower anticipated valuation allowances on the tax benefit of net operating losses and suspended interest deductions in certain jurisdictions where realization may be uncertain. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, the effective tax rate was decreased 0.2% by favorable discrete items, primarily excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation. Net discrete items for the three months ended March 31, 2020 reduced the effective tax rate by 0.8%, primarily due to excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation and deferred tax adjustments as a result of statutory tax rate changes. See Note 13, "Income Taxes" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information.
Equity in Earnings of Unconsolidated Subsidiaries. Equity in earnings of unconsolidated subsidiaries for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased by $5 million primarily related to improved year over year results reported by Mekonomen, which is our largest equity method investment.
Foreign Currency Impact. We translate our statements of income at the average exchange rates in effect for the period. Relative to the rates used during the three months ended March 31, 2020, the euro, pound sterling, Czech koruna and Canadian dollar rates used to translate the 2021 statements of income increased by 9.3%, 7.8%, 7.2% and 6.0%, respectively. The positive translation effect of the change in foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar netted against the negative impact of realized and unrealized currency gains and losses for the three months ended March 31, 2021, resulting in an immaterial negative effect on diluted earnings per share relative to the prior year period.
Net Income Attributable to Continuing and Discontinued Noncontrolling Interest. Net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest for the three months ended March 31, 2021 decreased an immaterial amount compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. Net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest was immaterial for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and related to the Stahlgruber Czech Republic wholesale business. See Note 2, "Discontinued Operations" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information on this business.
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Results of Operations—Segment Reporting
We have four operating segments: Wholesale – North America, Europe, Specialty and Self Service. Our Wholesale – North America and Self Service operating segments are aggregated into one reportable segment, North America, because they possess similar economic characteristics and have common products and services, customers, and methods of distribution. Therefore, we present three reportable segments: North America, Europe and Specialty.
We have presented the growth of our revenue and profitability in our operations on both an as reported and a constant currency basis. The constant currency presentation, which is a non-GAAP measure, excludes the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We believe providing constant currency information provides valuable supplemental information regarding our growth and profitability, consistent with how we evaluate our performance, as this statistic removes the translation impact of exchange rate fluctuations, which are outside of our control and do not reflect our operational performance. Constant currency revenue and Segment EBITDA results are calculated by translating prior year revenue and Segment EBITDA in local currency using the current year's currency conversion rate. This non-GAAP financial measure has important limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for an analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Our use of this term may vary from the use of similarly-titled measures by other issuers due to potential inconsistencies in the method of calculation and differences due to items subject to interpretation. In addition, not all companies that report revenue or profitability on a constant currency basis calculate such measures in the same manner as we do, and accordingly, our calculations are not necessarily comparable to similarly-named measures of other companies and may not be appropriate measures for performance relative to other companies.     

The following table presents our financial performance, including third party revenue, total revenue and Segment EBITDA, by reportable segment for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
 2021% of Total Segment Revenue2020% of Total Segment Revenue
Third Party Revenue
North America$1,249,374 $1,289,935 
Europe1,463,453 1,363,594 
Specialty457,959 347,406 
Total third party revenue$3,170,786 $3,000,935 
Total Revenue
North America$1,249,693 $1,290,195 
Europe1,463,453 1,363,594 
Specialty458,939 348,582 
Eliminations(1,299)(1,436)
Total revenue$3,170,786 $3,000,935 
Segment EBITDA
North America$249,167 19.9 %$211,438 16.4 %
Europe140,958 9.6 %78,262 5.7 %
Specialty61,482 13.4 %32,232 9.2 %
The key measure of segment profit or loss reviewed by our chief operating decision maker, our Chief Executive Officer, is Segment EBITDA. Segment EBITDA includes revenue and expenses that are controllable by the segment. Corporate general and administrative expenses are allocated to the segments based on usage, with shared expenses apportioned based on the segment's percentage of consolidated revenue. We calculate Segment EBITDA as EBITDA excluding restructuring and acquisition related expenses (which includes restructuring expenses recorded in Cost of goods sold); change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities; other gains and losses related to acquisitions, equity method investments, or divestitures; equity in losses and earnings of unconsolidated subsidiaries; equity investment mark to market adjustments; and impairment charges. EBITDA, which is the basis for Segment EBITDA, is calculated as net income attributable to LKQ stockholders excluding discontinued operations and discontinued noncontrolling interest, depreciation, amortization, interest (which includes gains and losses on debt extinguishment) and income tax expense. See Note 14, "Segment and Geographic Information" to the
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unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a reconciliation of total Segment EBITDA to net income.
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 Compared to Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
North America
Third Party Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in third party revenue by category in our North America segment (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Percentage Change in Revenue
North America20212020OrganicAcquisition and DivestitureForeign ExchangeTotal Change
Parts & services revenue$1,018,437 $1,107,342 (8.4)%(1)0.0 %0.4 %(8.0)%
Other revenue230,937 182,593 26.4 %(2)— %0.1 %26.5 %
Total third party revenue$1,249,374 $1,289,935 (3.5)%0.0 %0.3 %(3.1)%
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)Parts and services organic revenue declined with one fewer selling day in the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior year period. On a per day basis, organic revenue declined 7.0%. The organic decline was impacted by collision and liability repairable auto claims, which, according to industry data, were approximately 14% lower for the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior year period. This decrease in claims activity was primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic and had an adverse impact on sales volumes in our wholesale operations. Certain product lines did produce year over year growth, including remanufactured products and self service part sales. We expect to report organic growth in the second quarter of 2021 coming off a low base as April and May 2020 had the most significant negative effects from the lockdown measures.
(2)The $48 million year over year organic increase in other revenue is primarily related to (i) a $23 million increase in revenue from scrap steel due to higher prices and (ii) a $22 million increase in revenue from precious metals (platinum, palladium, and rhodium) primarily due to higher prices compared to the prior year. The higher prices from scrap steel and precious metals were partially offset due to lower purchase volumes and throughput mainly in our salvage operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Segment EBITDA. Segment EBITDA increased $38 million, or 17.8%, in the first quarter of 2021 including the impact of one fewer selling day compared to the prior year period. The adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sales volumes in our wholesale operations had a negative effect on Segment EBITDA but was more than offset in part due to higher revenue from precious metals and scrap steel prices, operational efficiencies, and rightsizing actions. Net sequential increases in scrap steel prices in our salvage and self service operations had a $21 million favorable impact on Segment EBITDA during the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to a $6 million favorable impact during the three months ended March 31, 2020 resulting from net sequential increases in scrap steel prices. This favorable impact for the three months ended March 31, 2021 resulted from the increase in scrap steel prices between the date we purchased a vehicle, which influences the price we pay for a vehicle, and the date we scrapped a vehicle, which influences the price we receive for scrapping a vehicle. Additionally, increases in precious metals prices contributed an estimated $19 million in Segment EBITDA improvement relative to the first quarter of 2020.
The following table summarizes the changes in Segment EBITDA as a percentage of revenue in our North America segment:
North AmericaPercentage of Total Segment Revenue
Segment EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 202016.4 %
Increase (decrease) due to:
Change in gross margin0.6 %(1)
Change in segment operating expenses3.1 %(2)
Change in other expense, net and net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest(0.2)%(3)
Segment EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 202119.9 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)    The increase in gross margin primarily reflected favorable impacts of 0.8% from our wholesale operations offset by a
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decline of 0.4% from our self service operations. Despite the adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sales volumes in our wholesale operations, gross margin was favorable primarily due to the positive impact of higher precious metals and scrap steel prices, lower discounting, cost reductions from operational efficiencies and rightsizing efforts, and strategic inventory purchases in the fourth quarter of 2020. The decline in self service gross margin percentage was primarily attributable to increased purchase costs in 2021 due to reduced availability of cars for purchase, partially offset by higher precious metal prices and sequential increases in scrap steel prices. Although we expect precious metals prices to decrease from near record levels, in the short term, we continue to expect a favorable impact on gross margin dollars due to lower precious metals prices in the prior year. In the mid to long term time frame, the year over year margin benefit from precious metals will decline if prices decrease as expected in 2021 compared to higher comparable prices in the prior year.
(2)    The decrease in segment operating expense as a percentage of revenue, despite the deleveraging impact of the organic revenue parts and services revenue decline of 7.0% compared to the prior year, on a per day basis, reflects (i) a favorable impact of 2.4% from personnel expenses related to permanent and temporary headcount reductions, operational efficiencies, limitations on travel, and government grants in Canada, partially offset by higher incentive compensation, (ii) a 0.6% favorable impact from distribution expenses due to rightsizing efforts and reduced miles driven and (iii) a 0.3% favorable impact from bad debt due to collections on past due debt as customers improve solvency and an increase in reserve in the prior year at the beginning of the pandemic. The impact was partially offset by a negative leverage effect of 0.3% from facility expenses, which are largely fixed. As the market recovers and volumes increase, we expect to bring back necessary resources to support our operations; however, we expect that permanent actions taken in 2020 will continue to provide a long-term favorable impact for the segment. The year over year improvement will moderate in subsequent quarters as we annualize the cost actions.
(3)     The increase in other expense, net and net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest was due to several individually immaterial factors that had an unfavorable impact of 0.2% in the aggregate.
Europe
Third Party Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in third party revenue by category in our Europe segment (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Percentage Change in Revenue
Europe20212020
Organic (1)
Acquisition and Divestiture (2)
Foreign Exchange (3)
Total Change
Parts & services revenue$1,455,370 $1,357,969 0.3 %(1.4)%8.3 %7.2 %
Other revenue8,083 5,625 33.1 %— %10.6 %43.7 %
Total third party revenue$1,463,453 $1,363,594 0.4 %(1.4)%8.3 %7.3 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)Parts and services organic revenue increased for the three months ended March 31, 2021 despite having one fewer selling day compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. On a per day basis, organic parts and services revenue increased 1.8%. Through February 2021, Europe parts and services revenue was down 3.4% per day due to the continuing effects of lockdown measures related to the pandemic. In March 2021, Europe reported per day revenue growth of 13.1% as the negative pandemic effect in March 2020 was more severe than in the current year. We expect to report organic growth in the second quarter of 2021 coming off a low base as April and May 2020 had the most significant negative effects from the lockdown measures.
(2)The decline for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was primarily a result of the disposal of a non-core telecommunications operation in Germany in the second quarter of 2020 and two additional smaller disposals in 2020.
(3)Compared to the prior year, exchange rates increased our revenue growth by $114 million, or 8.3%, primarily due to the weaker U.S. dollar against the euro, pound sterling and Czech koruna during the first quarter of 2021 relative to the prior year period.
Segment EBITDA. Segment EBITDA increased $63 million, or 80.1%, in the first quarter of 2021 compared to the prior year period. Our Europe Segment EBITDA included a positive year over year impact of $7 million related to the translation of local currency results into U.S. dollars at higher exchange rates than those experienced during the first quarter of 2020. On a constant currency basis (i.e., excluding the translation impact), Segment EBITDA increased by $55 million, or 70.7%, compared to the prior year. Refer to the Foreign Currency Impact discussion within the Results of Operations–Consolidated section above for further detail regarding foreign currency impact on our results for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
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The following table summarizes the changes in Segment EBITDA as a percentage of revenue in our Europe segment:
EuropePercentage of Total Segment Revenue
Segment EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 20205.7 %
Increase due to:
Change in gross margin1.2 %(1)
Change in segment operating expenses2.7 %(2)
Segment EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 20219.6 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1) The increase in gross margin was primarily attributable to favorable impacts of (i) 0.8% as a result of net price increases and margin improvement initiatives supporting the pursuit of profitable revenue growth, and (ii) 0.4% from the disposal of non-core operations in 2020.
(2) The decrease in segment operating expenses as a percentage of revenue reflects favorable impacts of (i) 0.8% from personnel costs primarily due to temporary and permanent headcount reductions, government assistance utilized by management and limited travel expenses, partially offset by increased incentive compensation, (ii) 0.6% from bad debt expense due to customers' improved solvency and an increase in reserve in the prior year at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, (iii) 0.3% from freight, vehicle and fuel expenses due to cost savings from restructuring activities primarily due to exiting facilities and route consolidation, (iv) 0.2% in transformation expenses related to the 1 LKQ Europe program, and (v) other individually immaterial factors that had an impact of 0.8% in the aggregate.
Specialty
Third Party Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in third party revenue by category in our Specialty segment (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,Percentage Change in Revenue
Specialty20212020
Organic (1)
Acquisition and DivestitureForeign ExchangeTotal Change
Parts & services revenue$457,959 $347,406 30.9 %0.4 %0.5 %31.8 %
Other revenue— — — %— %— %— %
Total third party revenue$457,959 $347,406 30.9 %0.4 %0.5 %31.8 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)Parts and services organic revenue increased 30.9% for the first quarter of 2021 compared to the prior year first quarter despite one fewer selling day. On a per day basis, organic revenue increased 33.0%. The organic increase was primarily due to strong demand for our products across all channels of our business. We believe the revenue growth was driven by our competitive advantage with our delivery service teams that enabled us to keep up with the strong demand and have more available inventory than our competitors.
Segment EBITDA. Segment EBITDA increased $29 million, or 90.7%, in the first quarter of 2021 compared to the prior year first quarter.
The following table summarizes the changes in Segment EBITDA as a percentage of revenue in our Specialty segment:
SpecialtyPercentage of Total Segment Revenue
Segment EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 20209.2 %
Increase due to:
Change in gross margin1.5 %(1)
Change in segment operating expenses2.7 %(2)
Segment EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 202113.4 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)    The increase in gross margin primarily reflects favorable impacts of (i) 2.3% due to favorable product and channel mix as well as changes in customer discounts due to inventory availability for the first quarter of 2021 and (ii) 0.4% due to freight income, reflecting higher shipping and handling fees tied to increased usage of third-party carriers (the
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offsetting delivery cost is a component of freight expense as mentioned below in the operating expenses discussion), partially offset by (iii) 0.9% related to customer rebates that were lower in the first quarter of 2020 due to lower volumes attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic and (iv) 0.3% higher product cost due to strategic purchase efforts in the fourth quarter of 2019 which benefited the first quarter of 2020 as they were recognized over a turn of inventory.
(2)    The decrease in segment operating expenses as a percentage of revenue, which includes the operating leverage impact from the organic parts and services revenue growth of 33.0% compared to the prior year, reflects a favorable impact of (i) 2.3% in personnel costs due to cost reductions in the second half of 2020, partially offset by increased incentive compensation, and (ii) several individually immaterial factors that had a favorable impact of 0.8% in the aggregate, partially offset by (iii) a 0.4% unfavorable impact in freight, vehicle and fuel expenses due to an increased use of third party freight due to customer mix.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table summarizes liquidity data as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020March 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents$590,194 $312,154 $332,784 
Total debt (1)
2,735,022 2,896,676 3,788,555 
Current maturities (2)
247,913 58,810 91,241 
Capacity under credit facilities (3)
3,260,000 3,260,000 3,260,000 
Availability under credit facilities (3)
2,654,767 2,546,081 1,528,449 
Total liquidity (cash and cash equivalents plus availability under credit facilities)3,244,961 2,858,235 1,861,233 
(1)     Debt amounts reflect the gross values to be repaid (excluding debt issuance costs of $23 million, $26 million and $25 million as of March 31, 2021, December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2020, respectively).
(2)     Debt amounts reflect the gross values to be repaid (excluding debt issuance costs of $8 million as of March 31, 2021 and immaterial amounts as of both December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2020).
(3)    Capacity under credit facilities includes our revolving credit facilities and our receivables securitization facility. Availability under credit facilities is reduced by our outstanding letters of credit.
We assess our liquidity in terms of our ability to fund our operations and provide for expansion through both internal development and acquisitions. Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flows from operations and our credit facilities. We utilize our cash flows from operations to fund working capital and capital expenditures, with the excess amounts going towards funding acquisitions, paying down outstanding debt or repurchasing our common stock. As we have pursued acquisitions as part of our historical growth strategy, our cash flows from operations have not always been sufficient to cover our investing activities. To fund our acquisitions, we have accessed various forms of debt financing, including revolving credit facilities, senior notes and a receivables securitization facility.
As of March 31, 2021, we had debt outstanding and additional available sources of financing as follows:
Senior secured credit facilities maturing in January 2024, composed of term loans totaling $350 million ($319 million outstanding at March 31, 2021) and $3.15 billion in revolving credit ($534 million outstanding at March 31, 2021), bearing interest at variable rates (although a portion of the outstanding debt is hedged through interest rate swap contracts), with availability reduced by $71 million of amounts outstanding under letters of credit
Euro Notes (2024) totaling $587 million (€500 million), maturing in April 2024 and bearing interest at a 3.875% fixed rate
Euro Notes (2026/28) totaling $1.2 billion (€1.0 billion), consisting of (i) €750 million maturing in April 2026 and bearing interest at a 3.625% fixed rate, and (ii) €250 million maturing in April 2028 and bearing interest at a 4.125% fixed rate
Receivables securitization facility with availability up to $110 million (no outstanding balance as of March 31, 2021), maturing in November 2021 and bearing interest at variable commercial paper rates
As of March 31, 2021, we had approximately $2.7 billion available under our credit facilities. Combined with $590 million of cash and cash equivalents at March 31, 2021, we had approximately $3.2 billion in available liquidity, an increase of
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$387 million from our available liquidity as of December 31, 2020. On April 1, 2021, we redeemed the Euro Notes (2026) with proceeds from borrowings on our revolving credit facility and cash on hand. After giving effect to this transaction, we had approximately $1.9 billion available under our credit facilities and $2.3 billion in available liquidity. The redemption will lower our weighted average cost of debt and provide meaningful interest expense savings in the current rate environment.
We believe that our current liquidity and cash expected to be generated by operating activities in future periods will be sufficient to meet our current operating and capital requirements. To support our liquidity position during the COVID-19 pandemic, we focused on preserving cash during the expected period of reduced demand. Our action plan to strengthen our liquidity position included a deferral of growth driven capital projects, reductions in inventory orders, more active monitoring of customer receivables and terms, income and value added tax deferrals, and suspension of our share buyback program, in addition to the cost saving measures discussed in the "COVID-19 Impact on Our Operations" section above. Given our success in strengthening our liquidity position as of September 30, 2020, we recommenced our share buyback program during the fourth quarter of 2020. Our 2021 plan includes spending to rebuild inventory levels and support growth driven capital projects. However, due to the rapidly evolving global situation, it is not possible to predict whether unanticipated consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are reasonably likely to materially affect our liquidity and capital resources negatively in the future.
With $3.2 billion of total liquidity as of March 31, 2021 and $248 million of current maturities, we have access to funds to meet our near term commitments even if the pandemic effect extends longer than our current expectations. We have a surplus of current assets over current liabilities, which further reduces the risk of short term cash shortfalls.
Our total liquidity includes availability under our senior secured credit facility, which includes the two financial maintenance covenants presented below (our required debt covenants and our actual ratios with respect to those covenants as calculated per the credit agreement as of March 31, 2021):
Covenant LevelRatio Achieved as of March 31, 2021
Maximum net leverage ratio5.00:1.001.4
Minimum interest coverage ratio3.00:1.0016.3
The terms net leverage ratio and minimum interest coverage ratio used in the credit agreement are specifically calculated per the credit agreement and differ in specified ways from comparable GAAP or common usage terms.
We amended our senior secured credit facility in June 2020 to increase the maximum net leverage ratio effective with our compliance certificate filed with respect to the second quarter of 2020; refer to "Senior Secured Credit Agreement" in Note 9, "Long-Term Obligations" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for information on the June 2020 amendment. We entered into the amendment out of an abundance of caution to reduce the risk of breaching the net leverage covenant if the pandemic had a severe and extended effect on profitability. Our internal models from the first quarter of 2020 suggested that we would be able to meet our payment obligations during the pandemic, but there was a risk that we might exceed the maximum 4.0x net leverage ratio in the event a severe downside scenario developed. With the amendment and the better than forecasted performance since the pandemic began, we believe that we have significantly reduced the risk of a covenant breach, including by reducing our net leverage ratio relative to the second quarter of 2020 in each successive quarter.
The indentures relating to our Euro Notes do not include financial maintenance covenants, and the indentures will not restrict our ability to draw funds on the credit facility. The indentures do not prohibit amendments to the financial covenants under the credit facility as needed.
In the long term, while we believe that we have adequate capacity under our existing credit facilities, from time to time we may need to raise additional funds through public or private financing, strategic relationships or other arrangements, such as (i) our November 2018 amendment to our senior secured credit facility and (ii) the issuance of the Euro Notes (2026/28) in April 2018 related to the Stahlgruber acquisition. There can be no assurance that additional funding, or refinancing of our credit facilities, if needed, will be available on terms attractive to us, or at all. Furthermore, any additional equity financing may be dilutive to stockholders, and debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants or higher interest costs. Our failure to raise capital if and when needed could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Beginning in 2019, a number of our European suppliers began participating in a supply chain financing initiative in select countries under which they may sell their accounts receivable to the participating financial institutions, allowing us to extend payment terms which in turn improves our operating cash flows. The initiative allows our suppliers to monetize the receivables prior to their payment date, subject to payment of a discount. We expect more suppliers will begin participating in our European supply chain financing initiative in 2021. Financial institutions participate in the supply chain financing initiative on an uncommitted basis and can cease purchasing receivables from our suppliers at any time. The initiative is at the sole discretion of both the supplier and the financial institution on terms that are negotiated between them. In the future, if the
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financial institutions did not continue to purchase receivables from our suppliers under the initiative, the participating vendors may need to renegotiate their payment terms with us, which in turn could cause our borrowings under our revolving credit facility to increase. All outstanding payments owed under the initiative to the participating financial institutions are recorded within Accounts payable in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Borrowings under the credit agreement accrue interest at variable rates which are tied to LIBOR or the Canadian Dollar Offered Rate ("CDOR"), depending on the currency and the duration of the borrowing, plus an applicable margin rate that is subject to change quarterly based on our reported leverage ratio. We hold interest rate swaps to hedge the variable rates on a portion of our credit agreement borrowings, with the effect of fixing the interest rates on the respective notional amounts. In addition, from time to time, we hold currency swaps that contain an interest rate swap component and a foreign currency forward contract component that, when combined with related intercompany financing arrangements, effectively convert variable rate U.S. dollar-denominated borrowings into fixed rate euro-denominated borrowings. These derivative transactions are described in Note 10, "Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. After giving effect to these contracts, the weighted average interest rate on borrowings outstanding under our credit agreement at March 31, 2021 was 1.2%. Including our senior notes, our overall weighted average interest rate on borrowings was 3.0% at March 31, 2021.
After 2021, it is unclear whether banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR. At this time, no consensus exists as to which reference rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, although the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a group of market participants convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the recommended alternative to LIBOR. On November 30, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR, with the support of the United States Federal Reserve and the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, announced plans to consult on ceasing publication of USD LIBOR on December 31, 2021 for the one week and two month USD LIBOR tenors, and on June 30, 2023 for all other USD LIBOR tenors. While this announcement extends the transition period to June 2023, the United States Federal Reserve concurrently issued a statement advising banks to stop new USD LIBOR issuances by the end of 2021. We cannot currently predict the effect of the discontinuation of, or other changes to, LIBOR or any establishment of alternative reference rates in the United States, the European Union or elsewhere on the global capital markets. Outstanding debt under our Credit Agreement, which constitutes the most significant of our LIBOR-based debt obligations, contains provisions that address the potential discontinuation of LIBOR and facilitate the adoption of an alternative rate of interest. We do not believe that the discontinuation of LIBOR, or its replacement with an alternative reference rate or rates such as the SOFR, will have a material impact on our results of operations, financial position or liquidity.
Cash interest payments were $6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021; these payments will increase by $33 million in the second quarter of 2021 as a result of our semi-annual interest payments on our Euro Notes (2024) and Euro Notes (2026/2028). Interest payments on our Euro Notes (2024) and Euro Notes (2026/2028) are made in April and October.
We had outstanding credit agreement borrowings of $853 million and $967 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Of these amounts, $18 million was classified as current maturities at both March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
The scheduled maturities of long-term obligations outstanding at March 31, 2021 are as follows (in thousands):
Nine months ending December 31, 2021 (1):
$237,439 
Years ending December 31:
202232,964 
202325,859 
20242,119,764 
20257,408 
Thereafter311,588 
Total debt (2)
$2,735,022 
(1)    Maturities of long-term obligations due by December 31, 2021 includes $55 million of short-term debt that may be extended beyond the current due date. Of the €750 million 2026 notes that were redeemed on April 1, 2021, in the table above $159 million is included in 2021 (reflecting the amount repaid with cash on hand) and $721 million is included in 2024 (reflecting the amount repaid using borrowings under the revolving credit facility).
(2)    The total debt amounts presented above reflect the gross values to be repaid (excluding debt issuance costs of $23 million as of March 31, 2021).
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Our credit agreement contains customary covenants that impose limitations and conditions on our ability to enter into certain transactions. The credit agreement also contains financial and affirmative covenants, including limitations on our net leverage ratio and a minimum interest coverage ratio. We were in compliance with all restrictive covenants under our credit agreement as of March 31, 2021.
As of March 31, 2021, the Company had cash and cash equivalents o$590 million, of which $496 million was held by foreign subsidiaries. In general, it is our practice and intention to permanently reinvest the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries, and that position has not changed following the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act") and the related imposition of the transition tax on the deemed repatriation of historical earnings of foreign subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017. Distributions of dividends from our foreign subsidiaries, if any, would be generally exempt from further U.S. taxation, either as a result of the 100% participation exemption under the Tax Act, or due to the previous taxation of foreign earnings under the transition tax and the Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) regime. We believe that we have sufficient cash flow and liquidity to meet our financial obligations in the U.S. without repatriating our foreign earnings. We may, from time to time, choose to selectively repatriate foreign earnings if doing so supports our financing or liquidity objectives.
The procurement of inventory is the largest operating use of our funds. We normally pay for aftermarket product purchases on standard payment terms or at the time of shipment, depending on the manufacturer and the negotiated payment terms. We normally pay for salvage vehicles acquired at salvage auctions and under direct procurement arrangements at the time that we take possession of the vehicles.
The following table sets forth a summary of our aftermarket and manufactured inventory procurement for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020Change
North America$260,000 $328,700 $(68,700)(1)
Europe893,600 867,800 25,800 (2)
Specialty391,300 307,300 84,000 (3)
Total$1,544,900 $1,503,800 $41,100 
(1)Inventory purchases across the North America segment have decreased in the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior year period. We are rebuilding our inventory levels after decreases in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, however, they did not reach our desired levels in the first quarter due to ocean freight driven delays in shipping and overall pandemic driven lower production volumes.
(2)The increase in inventory purchases in our Europe segment was primarily due to the increase of $77 million attributable to the increase in the value of the euro, and to a lesser extent, the pound sterling in the three months ended March, 31 2021 compared to the prior year period. On a constant currency basis, inventory purchases decreased compared to 2020, primarily due to ocean freight driven delays in shipping and overall pandemic driven lower production volumes as we attempt to rebuild our inventory levels.
(3)The increase in inventory purchases in the Specialty segment was primarily due to required restocking to keep up with the high demand for our products.
The following table sets forth a summary of our global wholesale salvage and self service procurement for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020% Change
North America wholesale salvage cars and trucks5072(30.6)%
Europe wholesale salvage cars and trucks770.0 %
Self service and "crush only" cars137149(8.1)%
Salvage purchases decreased relative to the prior year primarily due to limitations on vehicles at auctions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Self service vehicle purchases declined due to (i) increased competition in the market due to rising costs of precious metals and scrap steel and (ii) fewer purchases due to the elimination of underperforming locations in accordance with the 2020 restructuring plan.
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We expect to increase inventory purchases in 2021 to support the service and fill rate requirements of our businesses based on the revenue trend and expectations for full year 2021, including normal seasonality, as our inventory levels in 2020 decreased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we expect to be able to operate effectively at a lower inventory balance than at the end of 2019, before the impacts of the pandemic.
The following table summarizes the components of the year-over-year increase in cash provided by operating activities (in millions):
Net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2020$195 
Increase (decrease) due to:
Operating income130 (1)
Cash paid for taxes(94)(2)
Cash paid for interest
Working capital accounts: (3)
Receivables, net(134)
Inventories(6)
Accounts payable359 
Other operating activities65 (4)
Net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021$523 
(1)    Refer to the Results of Operations - Consolidated section for further information on the increase in operating income.
(2)    Cash payments related to income taxes increased for U.S. federal and state income taxes due to a projected increase in
pretax income and the timing of estimated tax payments.
(3)    Cash flows related to our primary working capital accounts can be volatile as the purchases, payments and collections can be timed differently from period to period.
Receivables, net was a $134 million greater outflow in 2021 primarily due to a significant increase in March 2021 revenue compared to March 2020, which translated to higher receivables balances and larger net outflows in the North America segment (of $36 million), in the Europe segment (of $57 million) and in the Specialty segment (of $42 million).
Inventories represented $6 million in incremental cash outflows in the first three months of 2021 compared to the same period of 2020. We expected a larger cash outflow in the first quarter as we work to rebuild our inventory levels, but as described in the procurement section, we were delayed in doing so. We now anticipate that the inventory build will take place over the balance of the year.
Accounts payable produced $359 million in higher cash inflows primarily due to higher accounts payable balances in the North America segment (of $205 million) due to timing of payments, and the Europe segment (of $148 million) compared to the prior year period, as a result of timing of payments and benefits of extended payment terms, including through our supply chain financing initiatives.
(4)    Cash flows from other operating activities increased $22 million as a result of the timing of value added tax payables payments compared to the prior year. The remaining amount reflects a number of individually insignificant fluctuations in cash paid for other operating activities.
Net cash used in investing activities totaled $33 million and $45 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Property, plant and equipment purchases were $42 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to $45 million in the prior year period. We invested $2 million of cash, net of cash acquired, in business acquisitions during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to $7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020. We received $14 million of net proceeds from divestitures of businesses held for sale and property, plant and equipment in the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to $7 million in the prior year period.
The following table reconciles Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities to Free Cash Flow (in thousands):
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Three Months Ended
 March 31,
 20212020
Net cash provided by operating activities$522,512 $194,563 
Less: purchases of property, plant and equipment41,779 44,538 
Free cash flow$480,733 $150,025 
Net cash used in financing activities totaled $208 million and $335 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, net repayments of our borrowings totaled $83 million compared to $230 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020. Financing cash outflows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 included the $600 million repayment of our U.S. Notes (2023) in January 2020. We repurchased $57 million of our common stock in the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to $88 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020. In January 2021, we settled our cross currency swap with the counterparty for $57 million due to strengthening in the Euro exchange rate relative to the contract rate.
We intend to continue to evaluate markets for potential growth through the internal development of distribution centers, processing and sales facilities, and warehouses, through further integration of our facilities, and through selected business acquisitions. Our future liquidity and capital requirements will depend upon numerous factors, including the costs and timing of our internal development efforts and the success of those efforts and costs.
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
    We are exposed to market risks arising from adverse changes in:
foreign exchange rates;
interest rates; and
commodity prices.
Foreign Exchange Rates
Foreign currency fluctuations may impact the financial results we report for the portions of our business that operate in functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Our operations outside of the U.S. represented 49.4% and 50.5% of our revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2020, respectively. An increase or decrease in the strength of the U.S. dollar against these currencies by 10% would result in a 4.9% change in our consolidated revenue and a 3.0% change in our operating income for the three months ended March 31, 2021. See our Results of Operations discussion in Part I, Item 2 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information regarding the impact of fluctuations in exchange rates on our year over year results.
Additionally, we are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations with respect to the purchase of aftermarket products from foreign countries, primarily in Europe and Asia. To the extent that our inventory purchases are not denominated in the functional currency of the purchasing location, we are exposed to exchange rate fluctuations. In several of our operations, we purchase inventory from manufacturers in Taiwan in U.S. dollars, which exposes us to fluctuations in the relationship between the local functional currency and the U.S. dollar, as well as fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the Taiwan dollar. We hedge our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations related to a portion of inventory purchases in our Europe operations, but the notional amount and fair value of these foreign currency forward contracts at March 31, 2021 were immaterial. We do not currently attempt to hedge foreign currency exposure related to our foreign currency denominated inventory purchases in our North America operations, and we may not be able to pass on any resulting price increases to our customers.
To the extent that we are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations related to non-functional currency denominated financing transactions, we may hedge the exposure through the use of foreign currency forward contracts. As of March 31, 2021, we held short term foreign currency forward contracts with notional amounts of $315 million and €184 million. In connection with the redemption of the Euro Notes (2026) on April 1, 2021, we entered into a short term foreign currency forward contract for $720 million. We expect to enter into similar instruments as each instrument matures and expect to continue to do so until the foreign currency denominated borrowings are repaid. The values of these contracts are subject to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
Other than with respect to a portion of our foreign currency denominated inventory purchases and certain financing transactions, we do not hold derivative contracts to hedge foreign currency risk. Our net investment in foreign operations is partially hedged by the foreign currency denominated borrowings we use to fund foreign acquisitions; however, our ability to use foreign currency denominated borrowings to finance our foreign operations may be limited based on local tax laws. We
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have elected not to hedge the foreign currency risk related to the interest payments on foreign third party borrowings as we generate cash flows in the local currencies that can be used to fund debt payments. As of March 31, 2021, we had outstanding borrowings of €500 million under our Euro Notes (2024) and €1.0 billion under our Euro Notes (2026/28) (€250 million after our April 2021 redemption of the 2026 notes), and £40 million, €85 million, and SEK 210 million under our revolving credit facilities. As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding borrowings of €500 million under our Euro Notes (2024), and €1.0 billion under our Euro Notes (2026/28); we had no foreign borrowings under our revolving credit facilities.
Interest Rates
Our results of operations are exposed to changes in interest rates primarily with respect to borrowings under our credit facilities, where interest rates are tied to the prime rate, LIBOR or CDOR. Therefore, we implemented a policy to manage our exposure to variable interest rates on a portion of our outstanding variable rate debt instruments through the use of interest rate swap contracts. These contracts convert a portion of our variable rate debt to fixed rate debt, matching the currency, effective dates and maturity dates to specific debt instruments. We designate our interest rate swap contracts as cash flow hedges, and net interest payments or receipts from interest rate swap contracts are included as adjustments to interest expense.
As of March 31, 2021, we held interest rate swap contracts with a total notional amount of $150 million, maturing in June 2021. All of our interest rate swap contracts have been executed with banks that we believe are creditworthy (Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. and Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A.). As of March 31, 2021, the fair value of the interest rate swap contracts was a liability of $0.3 million. The values of such contracts are subject to changes in interest rates.
In total, we had 18% of our variable rate debt under our credit facilities at fixed rates at March 31, 2021 compared to 87% at December 31, 2020. See Note 9, "Long-Term Obligations" and Note 10, "Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information.
At March 31, 2021, we had approximately $703 million of variable rate debt that was not hedged. Using sensitivity analysis, a 100 basis point movement in interest rates would change interest expense by $7 million over the next twelve months.
Commodity Prices
We are exposed to market risk related to price fluctuations in scrap metal and other metals (including precious metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium). Market prices of these metals affect the amount that we pay for our inventory and the revenue that we generate from sales of these metals. As both our revenue and costs are affected by the price fluctuations, we have a natural hedge against the changes. However, there is typically a lag between the effect on our revenue from metal price fluctuations and inventory cost changes, and there is no guarantee that the vehicle costs will decrease or increase at the same rate as the metals prices. Therefore, we can experience positive or negative gross margin effects in periods of rising or falling metals prices, particularly when such prices move rapidly. Additionally, if market prices were to change at a greater rate than our vehicle acquisition costs, we could experience a positive or negative effect on our operating margin. The average of scrap metal prices for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased 35% over the average for the fourth quarter of 2020. The average prices of rhodium, platinum and palladium for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased by 59%, 20% and 5%, respectively, over the average for the fourth quarter of 2020.

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Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
As of March 31, 2021, the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, an evaluation was carried out under the supervision and with the participation of LKQ Corporation's management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, of our "disclosure controls and procedures" (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that the Company's disclosure controls and procedures were effective in providing reasonable assurance that information we are required to disclose in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q has been recorded, processed, summarized and reported as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file under the Securities Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended March 31, 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

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PART II
OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings
We are from time to time subject to various claims and lawsuits incidental to our business. In the opinion of management, currently outstanding claims and suits will not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. There have been no material changes to the legal proceedings previously disclosed in our 2020 Form 10-K other than as follows:
In April 2021, the Company was advised that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") planned to issue enforcement letters regarding concerns with our NPDES stormwater permits at seven of our facilities. We have not yet received those letters. We do not expect that any proposed penalty will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and the trading price of our common stock. Please refer to our 2020 Form 10-K for information concerning risks and uncertainties that could negatively impact us.
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On October 25, 2018, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program under which we may purchase up to $500 million of our common stock from time to time through October 25, 2021. Repurchases under the program may be made at management's discretion in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions or pursuant to instruments or plans complying with Rule 10b5-1. The repurchase program does not obligate us to acquire any specific number of shares and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. Delaware law imposes restrictions on stock repurchases.
On October 25, 2019, our Board of Directors authorized an increase to our existing stock repurchase program under which the Company may purchase up to an additional $500 million of our common stock from time to time through October 25, 2022; this extended date also applies to the original repurchase program. With the increase, the Board of Directors has authorized a total of $1.0 billion of common stock repurchases.
The following table summarizes our stock repurchases for the three months ended March 31, 2021 (in thousands, except per share data):
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsApproximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
January 1, 2021 - January 31, 2021410 $35.20 410 $516,477 
February 1, 2021 - February 28, 2021503 $38.43 503 $497,127 
March 1, 2021 - March 31, 2021573 $40.52 573 $473,916 
Total1,486 1,486 

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Item 6. Exhibits
Exhibits
(b) Exhibits
Amendment No. 5 dated as of December 14, 2020 to the Fourth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, which is Exhibit A to the Amendment and Restatement Agreement dated as of January 29, 2016 by and among LKQ Corporation, LKQ Delaware LLP, and certain additional subsidiaries of LKQ Corporation, as borrowers, certain financial institutions, as lenders, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as administrative agent.
Change of Control Agreement between LKQ Corporation and Genevieve L. Dombrowski dated as of March 22, 2021.
Certification of Chief Executive Officer Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a), as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of Chief Financial Officer Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a), as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of Chief Executive Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of Chief Financial Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
101.INSInline XBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.
101.SCHInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
101.CALInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.DEFInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
101.LABInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
101.PREInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101)





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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, on May 5, 2021.
 
LKQ CORPORATION
/s/ Varun Laroyia
Varun Laroyia
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(As duly authorized officer and Principal Financial Officer)
/s/ Michael S. Clark
Michael S. Clark
Vice President - Finance and Controller
(As duly authorized officer and Principal Accounting Officer)



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