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Western Alliance Bancorp (WAL)

Filed: 29 Jul 22, 5:02pm
0001212545us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2022-06-30
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
 
Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022
or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from__________ to __________

Commission file number: 001-32550 
WESTERN ALLIANCE BANCORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware 88-0365922
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
One E. Washington Street, Suite 1400PhoenixArizona 85004
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(602) 389-3500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading
Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 Par ValueWALNew York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, Each Representing a 1/400th Interest in a Share of
4.250% Fixed-Rate Reset Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A
WAL PrANew York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of July 25, 2022, Western Alliance Bancorporation had 108,280,237 shares of common stock outstanding.


INDEX
 


2

PART I
GLOSSARY OF ENTITIES AND TERMS
The acronyms and abbreviations identified below are used in various sections of this Form 10-Q, including "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," in Item 2 and the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 1 of this Form 10-Q.
ENTITIES / DIVISIONS:
ABAAlliance Bank of ArizonaFIBFirst Independent Bank
AmeriHomeAmeriHome Mortgage Company, LLCLVSPLas Vegas Sunset Properties
ArisAris Mortgage Holding Company, LLCTPBTorrey Pines Bank
BONBank of NevadaWA PWIWestern Alliance Public Welfare Investments, LLC
BridgeBridge BankWAB or BankWestern Alliance Bank
CompanyWestern Alliance Bancorporation and subsidiariesWABTWestern Alliance Business Trust
CSICS Insurance CompanyWAL or ParentWestern Alliance Bancorporation
DSTDigital Settlement Technologies LLC
TERMS:
AFSAvailable-for-SaleHELOCHome Equity Line of Credit
ALCOAsset and Liability Management CommitteeHFIHeld for Investment
AOCIAccumulated Other Comprehensive IncomeHFSHeld for Sale
APICAdditional paid in capitalHTMHeld-to-Maturity
ASCAccounting Standards CodificationHUDU.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
ASUAccounting Standards UpdateICSInsured Cash Sweep Service
Basel IIIBanking Supervision's December 2010 final capital frameworkIRCInternal Revenue Code
BODBoard of DirectorsIRLCInterest Rate Lock Commitment
Capital RulesThe FRB, the OCC, and the FDIC 2013 Approved Final RulesISDAInternational Swaps and Derivatives Association
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security ActLGDLoss Given Default
CBOEChicago Board Options ExchangeLIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
CDARSCertificate Deposit Account Registry ServiceLIHTCLow-Income Housing Tax Credit
CECLCurrent Expected Credit LossesMBSMortgage-Backed Securities
CEOChief Executive OfficerMSAMetropolitan Statistical Area
CET1Common Equity Tier 1MSRMortgage Servicing Right
CFOChief Financial OfficerNOLNet Operating Loss
CFPBConsumer Financial Protection BureauNPVNet Present Value
CLOCollateralized Loan ObligationNYSENew York Stock Exchange
COVID-19Coronavirus Disease 2019OCIOther Comprehensive Income
CRACommunity Reinvestment ActOREOOther Real Estate Owned
CRECommercial Real EstateOTTIOther-than-Temporary Impairment
DTADeferred Tax AssetPCDPurchased Credit Deteriorated
EADExposure at DefaultPDProbability of Default
EBOEarly buyoutPPNRPre-Provision Net Revenue
EPSEarnings per sharePPPPaycheck Protection Program
EVEEconomic Value of EquityROURight of use
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934, as amendedSBASmall Business Administration
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards BoardSBICSmall Business Investment Company
FDICFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationSECSecurities and Exchange Commission
FHAFederal Housing AdministrationSERPSupplemental Executive Retirement Plan
FHLBFederal Home Loan BankSOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
FHLMCFederal Home Loan Mortgage CorporationSRSupervision and Regulation Letters
FICOThe Financing CorporationTDRTroubled Debt Restructuring
FNMAFederal National Mortgage AssociationTEBTax Equivalent Basis
FOMCFederal Open Market CommitteeTSRTotal Shareholder Return
FRBFederal Reserve BankUPBUnpaid Principal Balance
FTCFederal Trade CommissionUSDAUnited States Department of Agriculture
FVOFair Value OptionVAVeterans Affairs
GAAPU.S. Generally Accepted Accounting PrinciplesVIEVariable Interest Entity
GNMAGovernment National Mortgage AssociationXBRLeXtensible Business Reporting Language
GSEGovernment-Sponsored Enterprise
3

Item 1.Financial Statements
WESTERN ALLIANCE BANCORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
(Unaudited)
(in millions,
except shares and per share amounts)
Assets:
Cash and due from banks$233 $166 
Interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions1,653 350
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash1,886 516 
Investment securities - AFS, at fair value; amortized cost of $7,960 at June 30, 2022 and $6,167 at December 31, 20217,268 6,189 
Investment securities - HTM, at amortized cost and net of allowance for credit losses of $3 and $5 (fair value of $1,122 and $1,146) at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively1,215 1,102 
Investment securities - equity170 159 
Investments in restricted stock, at cost149 92 
Loans HFS2,803 5,635 
Loans HFI, net of deferred loan fees and costs48,572 39,075 
Less: allowance for credit losses(273)(252)
Net loans held for investment48,299 38,823 
Mortgage servicing rights826 698 
Premises and equipment, net210 182 
Operating lease right of use asset136 133 
Bank owned life insurance180 180 
Goodwill and intangible assets, net695 635 
Deferred tax assets, net223 21 
Investments in LIHTC and renewable energy722 631 
Other assets1,273 987 
Total assets$66,055 $55,983 
Liabilities:
Deposits:
Non-interest-bearing demand$23,721 $21,353 
Interest-bearing29,991 26,259 
Total deposits53,712 47,612 
Other borrowings5,210 1,502 
Qualifying debt891 896 
Operating lease liability151 143 
Other liabilities1,132 867 
Total liabilities61,096 51,020 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)00
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock (par value $0.0001 and liquidation value per share of $25; 20,000,000 authorized; 12,000,000 issued and outstanding at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021)295 295 
Common stock (par value $0.0001; 200,000,000 authorized; 110,820,001 shares issued at June 30, 2022 and 108,981,341 at December 31, 2021) and additional paid in capital2,095 1,966 
Treasury stock, at cost (2,538,190 shares at June 30, 2022 and 2,350,021 shares at December 31, 2021)(104)(87)
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income(518)16 
Retained earnings3,191 2,773 
Total stockholders’ equity4,959 4,963 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$66,055 $55,983 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.

4

WESTERN ALLIANCE BANCORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENTS
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Interest income:
Loans, including fees$516.6 $353.8 $951.3 $652.2 
Investment securities57.6 41.8 104.3 74.6 
Dividends and other5.4 2.9 8.5 5.8 
Total interest income579.6 398.5 1,064.1 732.6 
Interest expense:
Deposits27.1 11.6 41.2 22.4 
Qualifying debt8.6 7.2 17.0 13.1 
Other borrowings18.9 9.2 31.4 9.3 
Total interest expense54.6 28.0 89.6 44.8 
Net interest income525.0 370.5 974.5 687.8 
Provision for (recovery of) credit losses27.5 (14.5)36.5 (46.9)
Net interest income after provision for (recovery of) credit losses497.5 385.0 938.0 734.7 
Non-interest income:
Net loan servicing revenue (expense)45.4 (20.8)86.5 (20.8)
Net gain on loan origination and sale activities27.2 132.0 64.1 132.0 
Gain on recovery from credit guarantees9.0 — 11.3 — 
Service charges and fees7.6 7.4 14.6 14.1 
Commercial banking related income5.8 4.5 10.9 7.9 
Income from equity investments5.2 6.8 9.3 14.4 
(Loss) gain on sales of investment securities(0.2)— 6.7 0.1 
Fair value (loss) gain on assets measured at fair value, net(10.0)3.2 (16.6)1.7 
Other income5.0 2.9 14.5 6.3 
Total non-interest income95.0 136.0 201.3 155.7 
Non-interest expense:
Salaries and employee benefits139.0 128.9 277.3 212.6 
Legal, professional, and directors' fees25.1 14.0 49.1 24.1 
Data processing19.7 15.0 37.3 24.9 
Deposit costs18.1 7.1 27.4 13.4 
Loan servicing expenses14.7 22.3 25.5 22.3 
Occupancy13.0 10.4 25.8 19.0 
Insurance6.9 5.5 14.1 9.7 
Loan acquisition and origination expenses6.4 10.5 12.9 10.5 
Business development and marketing5.4 3.2 9.8 4.6 
Net gain on sales and valuations of repossessed and other assets(0.3)(1.5)(0.2)(1.8)
Acquisition and restructure expenses 15.7 0.4 16.1 
Other expense20.9 13.7 38.1 24.4 
Total non-interest expense268.9 244.8 517.5 379.8 
Income before provision for income taxes323.6 276.2 621.8 510.6 
Income tax expense63.4 52.4 121.5 94.3 
Net income260.2 223.8 500.3 416.3 
Dividends on preferred stock3.2 — 6.4 — 
Net income available to common stockholders$257.0 $223.8 $493.9 $416.3 
Earnings per share:
Basic$2.40 $2.18 $4.63 $4.09 
Diluted2.39 2.17 4.61 4.07 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic107.3 102.7 106.7 101.8 
Diluted107.7 103.4 107.1 102.4 
Dividends declared per common share$0.35 $0.25 $0.70 $0.50 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
5

WESTERN ALLIANCE BANCORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
(in millions)
Net income$260.2 $223.8 $500.3 $416.3 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net:
Unrealized (loss) gain on AFS securities, net of tax effect of $93.3, $(14.6), $174.1, and $8.9 respectively(284.5)44.8 (532.4)(27.2)
Unrealized gain (loss) on junior subordinated debt, net of tax effect of $(0.7), $0.0, $(1.4), and $0.1 respectively2.0 (0.2)4.2 (0.5)
Realized gain on sale of AFS securities included in income, net of tax effect of $0.1, $0.0, $1.9, and $0.0 respectively(0.3)— (5.4)(0.1)
Net other comprehensive (loss) gain(282.8)44.6 (533.6)(27.8)
Comprehensive (loss) income$(22.6)$268.4 $(33.3)$388.5 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
6

WESTERN ALLIANCE BANCORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Three Months Ended June 30,
Preferred StockCommon StockAdditional Paid in CapitalTreasury StockAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Retained EarningsTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
(in millions)
Balance, March 31, 2021— $— 103.4 $— $1,608.2 $(84.0)$19.9 $2,168.6 $3,712.7 
Net income— — — — — — — 223.8 223.8 
Restricted stock, performance stock units, and other grants, net— — 0.1 — 9.6 — — — 9.6 
Restricted stock surrendered (1)— — — — — (0.2)— — (0.2)
Common stock issuance, net— — 0.7 — 69.8 — — — 69.8 
Dividends paid to common stockholders— — — — — — — (25.8)(25.8)
Other comprehensive loss, net— — — — — — 44.6 — 44.6 
Balance, June 30, 2021— $— 104.2 $— $1,687.6 $(84.2)$64.5 $2,366.6 $4,034.5 
Balance, March 31, 202212.0 $294.5 108.3 $ $2,083.7 $(104.1)$(235.1)$2,972.6 $5,011.6 
Net income       260.2 260.2 
Restricted stock, performance stock units, and other grants, net    11.1    11.1 
Restricted stock surrendered (1)     (0.2)  (0.2)
Dividends paid to preferred stockholders       (3.2)(3.2)
Dividends paid to common stockholders       (37.9)(37.9)
Other comprehensive loss, net      (282.8) (282.8)
Balance, June 30, 202212.0 $294.5 108.3 $ $2,094.8 $(104.3)$(517.9)$3,191.7 $4,958.8 
7

Six Months Ended June 30,
Preferred StockCommon StockAdditional Paid in CapitalTreasury StockAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Retained EarningsTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
(in millions)
Balance, December 31, 2020— $— 100.8 $— $1,390.9 $(71.1)$92.3 $2,001.4 $3,413.5 
Net income— — — — — — — 416.3 416.3 
Restricted stock, performance stock units, and other grants, net— — 0.6 — 17.7 — — — 17.7 
Restricted stock surrendered (1)— — (0.2)— — (13.1)— — (13.1)
Common stock issuance, net— — 3.0 — 279.0 — — — 279.0 
Dividends paid to common stockholders— — — — — — — (51.1)(51.1)
Other comprehensive income, net— — — — — — (27.8)— (27.8)
Balance, June 30, 2021— $— 104.2 $— $1,687.6 $(84.2)$64.5 $2,366.6 $4,034.5 
Balance, December 31, 202112.0 $294.5 106.6 $ $1,966.2 $(86.8)$15.7 $2,773.0 $4,962.6 
Net income       500.3 500.3 
Restricted stock, performance stock units, and other grants, net  0.6  20.9    20.9 
Restricted stock surrendered (1)  (0.2)  (17.5)  (17.5)
Common stock issuance, net  1.3  107.7    107.7 
Dividends paid to preferred stockholders       (6.4)(6.4)
Dividends paid to common stockholders       (75.2)(75.2)
Other comprehensive loss, net      (533.6) (533.6)
Balance, June 30, 202212.0 $294.5 108.3 $ $2,094.8 $(104.3)$(517.9)$3,191.7 $4,958.8 
(1)Share amounts represent Treasury Shares, see "Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" for further discussion.    
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
8

WESTERN ALLIANCE BANCORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Six Months Ended June 30,
20222021
(in millions)
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$500.3 $416.3 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Provision for (recovery of) credit losses36.5 (46.9)
Depreciation and amortization22.8 15.0 
Stock-based compensation20.9 17.5 
Deferred income taxes(10.9)10.3 
Amortization of net premiums for investment securities12.3 21.4 
Amortization of tax credit investments28.8 23.7 
Amortization of operating lease right of use asset10.8 6.7 
Amortization of net deferred loan fees and net purchase premiums(30.5)(38.7)
Purchases and originations of loans HFS(25,371.0)(21,841.1)
Proceeds from sales and payments on loans held for sale26,301.5 20,582.6 
Mortgage servicing rights capitalized upon sale of mortgage loans(397.5)(282.3)
Net (gains) losses on:
Change in fair value of loans HFS, mortgage servicing rights, and related derivatives(109.8)20.3 
Other4.9 1.5 
Changes in other assets and liabilities, net(59.1)(29.8)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$960.0 $(1,123.5)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Investment securities - AFS
Purchases$(2,235.4)$(2,927.2)
Principal pay downs and maturities410.5 963.3 
Proceeds from sales119.6 — 
Investment securities - HTM
Purchases(129.5)(406.4)
Principal pay downs and maturities18.9 4.4 
Equity securities carried at fair value
Purchases(34.9)(28.4)
Redemptions0.3 2.4 
Proceeds from sales14.1 0.6 
Proceeds from sale of mortgage servicing rights and related holdbacks, net363.8 777.6 
Purchase of other investments(168.6)(57.1)
Net increase in loans HFI(7,954.5)(3,523.8)
Purchase of premises, equipment, and other assets, net(47.4)(13.6)
Cash consideration paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired(50.0)(1,013.4)
Net cash used in investing activities$(9,693.1)$(6,221.6)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Net increase in deposits$6,100.1 $9,990.5 
Net proceeds from issuance of long-term debt486.6 831.4 
Payments on long-term debt(17.4)— 
Net increase (decrease) in short-term borrowings3,524.6 (2,967.7)
Cash paid for tax withholding on vested restricted stock and other(17.5)(12.9)
Cash dividends paid on common stock and preferred stock(81.6)(51.1)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock in offerings, net107.7 279.0 
Net cash provided by financing activities$10,102.5 $8,069.2 
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash1,369.4 724.1 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period516.4 2,671.7 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$1,885.8 $3,395.8 
9

Six Months Ended June 30,
20222021
(in millions)
Supplemental disclosure:
Cash paid during the period for:
Interest$87.9 $94.4 
Income taxes, net185.0 111.1 
Non-cash operating, investing, and financing activity:
Transfer of EBO loans previously classified as HFS to HFI$1,505.7 $— 
Transfers of mortgage-backed securities in settlement of secured borrowings281.5 312.8 
Net increase in unfunded commitments and obligations207.2 118.7 
Net increase in unsettled loans HFI and investment securities purchased22.7 618.4 
Transfers of securitized loans HFS to AFS securities89.6 — 
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
10

WESTERN ALLIANCE BANCORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of operation
WAL is a bank holding company headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware. WAL provides a full spectrum of customized loan, deposit, and treasury management capabilities, including 24/7 funds transfer and other blockchain-based offerings through its wholly-owned banking subsidiary, WAB.
WAB operates the following full-service banking divisions: ABA, BON, FIB, Bridge, and TPB. The Company also serves business customers through a national platform of specialized financial services, including mortgage banking services through AmeriHome, and has added to its capabilities with the acquisition of DST on January 25, 2022, which provides digital payment services for the class action legal industry. In addition, the Company has 2 non-bank subsidiaries, which are LVSP, which held and managed certain OREO properties, and CSI, a captive insurance company formed and licensed under the laws of the State of Arizona and established as part of the Company's overall enterprise risk management strategy.
Basis of presentation
The accounting and reporting policies of the Company are in accordance with GAAP and conform to practices within the financial services industry. The accounts of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries are included in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recent accounting pronouncements
Troubled Debt Restructurings and Vintage Disclosures
In March 2022, the FASB issued guidance within ASU 2022-02, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326). The amendments in this update eliminate the accounting guidance and related disclosures for TDRs by creditors in Subtopic 310-40, Receivables—Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors, while enhancing disclosure requirements for certain loan refinancings and restructurings by creditors when a borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and requiring an entity to disclose current-period gross writeoffs by year of origination for financing receivables and net investments in leases within the scope of Subtopic 326-20, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses—Measured at Amortized Cost.
The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years and are applied prospectively, except with respect to the recognition and measurement of TDRs, where an entity has the option to apply a modified retrospective transition method. Early adoption of the amendments in this update is permitted. An entity may elect to early adopt the amendments regarding TDRs and related disclosure enhancements separately from the amendments related to vintage disclosures. The adoption of this accounting guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recently adopted accounting guidance
Reference Rate Reform
In March 2020, the FASB issued guidance within ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, in response to the scheduled discontinuation of LIBOR. Since the issuance of this guidance, cessation of U.S. dollar LIBOR has been extended to June 30, 2023. The amendments in this update provide optional guidance designed to provide relief from the accounting analysis and impacts that may otherwise be required for modifications to agreements (e.g., loans, debt securities, derivatives, borrowings) necessitated by reference rate reform.
The following optional expedients for applying the requirements of certain ASC Topics or Industry Subtopics in the Codification are permitted for contracts that are modified because of reference rate reform and that meet certain scope guidance: 1) modifications of contracts within the scope of ASC Topics 310, Receivables, and 470, Debt, should be accounted for by prospectively adjusting the effective interest rate; 2) modifications of contracts within the scope of ASC Topic 842, Leases, should be accounted for as a continuation of the existing contracts with no reassessments of the lease classification and the discount rate or remeasurements of lease payments that otherwise would be required under this ASC Topic for modifications not accounted for as separate contracts; 3) modifications of contracts do not require an entity to reassess its original conclusion about whether that contract contains an embedded derivative that is clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract under Subtopic ASC 815-15, Derivatives and Hedging- Embedded
11

Derivatives; and 4) for other ASC Topics or Industry Subtopics in the Codification, the amendments in this update also include a general principle that permits an entity to consider contract modifications due to reference rate reform to be an event that does not require contract remeasurement at the modification date or reassessment of a previous accounting determination.
In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope in order to clarify that certain optional expedients and exceptions in ASC Topic 848 apply to derivatives that are affected by the discounting transition. Specifically, certain provisions in ASC Topic 848, if elected by an entity, apply to derivative instruments that use an interest rate for margining, discount, or contract price alignment that is modified as a result of reference rate reform.
Due to the prospective nature of the revised guidance, the adoption of this accounting guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
Convertible Debt and Derivatives and Hedging
In August 2020, the FASB issued guidance within ASU 2020-06, Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). The amendments in this update affect entities that issue convertible instruments and/or contracts indexed to and potentially settled in an entity’s own equity. This update simplifies the convertible accounting framework through elimination of the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models for convertible instruments. It also amends the accounting for certain contracts in an entity’s own equity that are currently accounted for as derivatives because of specific settlement provisions. In addition, the new guidance modifies how particular convertible instruments and certain contracts that may be settled in cash or shares impact the diluted EPS computation. The Company adopted the amendments within ASU 2020-06 using the modified retrospective method. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management's estimates and judgments are ongoing and are based on experience, current and expected future conditions, third-party evaluations and various other assumptions that management believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities, as well as identifying and assessing the accounting treatment with respect to commitments and contingencies. Actual results may differ from those estimates and assumptions used in the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes. Material estimates that are susceptible to significant changes in the near term, particularly to the extent that economic conditions worsen or persist longer than expected in an adverse state, relate to: 1) the determination of the allowance for credit losses; 2) certain assets and liabilities carried at fair value; and 3) accounting for income taxes.
Principles of consolidation
As of June 30, 2022, WAL has the following significant wholly-owned subsidiaries: WAB and 8 unconsolidated subsidiaries used as business trusts in connection with the issuance of trust-preferred securities.
WAB has the following significant wholly-owned subsidiaries: 1) WABT, which holds certain investment securities, municipal and nonprofit loans, and leases; 2) WA PWI, which holds interests in certain limited partnerships invested primarily in low income housing tax credits and small business investment corporations; 3) Helios Prime, which holds interests in certain limited partnerships invested in renewable energy projects; 4) BW Real Estate, Inc., which operates as a real estate investment trust and holds certain of WAB's real estate loans and related securities; and 5) Western Finance Company, which purchases and originates equipment finance leases and provides mortgage banking services through its wholly-owned subsidiary, AmeriHome Mortgage.
The Company does not have any other significant entities that should be consolidated. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Reclassifications
Certain amounts in the Consolidated Income Statements for the prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation. The reclassifications have no effect on net income or stockholders’ equity as previously reported.
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Interim financial information
The accompanying Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements as of and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 have been prepared in condensed format and, therefore, do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These statements have been prepared on a basis that is substantially consistent with the accounting principles applied to the Company's audited Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
The information furnished in these interim statements reflects all adjustments that are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair statement of the results for each respective period presented. Such adjustments are of a normal, recurring nature. The results of operations in the interim statements are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other quarter or for the full year. The interim financial information should be read in conjunction with the Company's audited Consolidated Financial Statements.
Business combinations
Business combinations are accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. Under the acquisition method, the acquiring entity in a business combination recognizes all of the acquired assets and assumed liabilities at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets and other identifiable intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. To the extent the fair value of net assets acquired, including identified intangible assets, exceeds the purchase price, a bargain purchase gain is recognized. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed from contingencies are also recognized at fair value if the fair value can be determined during the measurement period. Results of operations of an acquired business are included in the Consolidated Income Statement from the date of acquisition. Acquisition-related costs, including conversion and restructuring charges, are expensed as incurred.
Investment securities
Investment securities include debt and equity securities. Debt securities may be classified as HTM, AFS, or trading. The appropriate classification is initially decided at the time of purchase. Securities classified as HTM are those debt securities that the Company has both the intent and ability to hold to maturity regardless of changes in market conditions, liquidity needs, or general economic conditions. The sale of an HTM security within three months of its maturity date or after the majority of the principal outstanding has been collected is considered a maturity for purposes of classification and disclosure. Securities classified as AFS are debt securities that the Company intends to hold for an indefinite period of time, but not necessarily to maturity. Any decision to sell a security classified as AFS would be based on various factors, including significant movements in interest rates, changes in the maturity mix of the Company’s assets and liabilities, liquidity needs, decline in credit quality, and regulatory capital considerations.
HTM securities are carried at amortized cost. AFS securities are carried at their estimated fair value, with unrealized holding gains and losses reported in OCI, net of tax. When AFS debt securities are sold, the unrealized gains or losses are reclassified from OCI to non-interest income. Trading securities are carried at their estimated fair value, with changes in fair value reported in earnings as part of non-interest income.
Equity securities are carried at their estimated fair value, with changes in fair value required to be reported in earnings as part of non-interest income.
Interest income is recognized based on the coupon rate and includes the amortization of purchase premiums and the accretion of purchase discounts. Premiums and discounts on investment securities are generally amortized or accreted over the contractual life of the security using the interest method. For the Company's mortgage-backed securities, amortization or accretion of premiums or discounts are adjusted for anticipated prepayments. Gains and losses on the sale of investment securities are recorded on the trade date and determined using the specific identification method.
A debt security is placed on nonaccrual status at the time its principal or interest payments become 90 days past due. Interest accrued but not received for a security placed on nonaccrual is reversed against interest income.
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Allowance for credit losses on investment securities
The credit loss model under ASC 326-20, applicable to HTM debt securities, requires recognition of lifetime expected credit losses through an allowance account at the time the security is purchased. The Company measures expected credit losses on its HTM debt securities on a collective basis by major security type. The Company's HTM securities portfolio consists of low income housing tax-exempt bonds and private label residential MBS. Low income housing tax-exempt bonds share similar risk characteristics with the Company's CRE, non-owner occupied or construction and land loan pools, given the similarity in underlying assets or collateral. Accordingly, expected credit losses on HTM securities are estimated using the same models and approaches as these loan pools, which utilize risk parameters (probability of default, loss given default, and exposure at default) in the measurement of expected credit losses. The historical data used to estimate probability of default and severity of loss in the event of default is derived or obtained from internal and external sources and adjusted for the expected effects of reasonable and supportable forecasts over the expected lives of the securities on those historical losses. Accrued interest receivable on HTM securities, which is included in other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, is excluded from the estimate of expected credit losses.
The credit loss model under ASC 326-30, applicable to AFS debt securities, requires recognition of credit losses through an allowance account with credit losses recognized once securities become impaired. For AFS debt securities, a decline in fair value due to credit loss results in recognition of an allowance for credit losses. Impairment may result from credit deterioration of the issuer or collateral underlying the security. An assessment to determine whether a decline in fair value resulted from a credit loss is performed at the individual security level. Among other factors, the Company considers: 1) the extent to which the fair value is less than the amortized cost basis; 2) the financial condition and near term prospects of the issuer, including consideration of relevant financial metrics or ratios of the issuer; 3) any adverse conditions related to an industry or geographic area of an issuer; 4) any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency; and 5) any past due principal or interest payments from the issuer. If an assessment of the above factors indicates that a credit loss exists, the Company records an allowance for credit losses for the excess of the amortized cost basis over the present value of cash flows expected to be collected, limited to the amount that the security's fair value is less than its amortized cost basis. Subsequent changes in the allowance for credit losses are recorded as a provision for (or recovery of) credit loss expense. Interest accruals and amortization and accretion of premiums and discounts are suspended when the credit loss is recognized in earnings. Any interest received after the security has been placed on nonaccrual status is recognized on a cash basis. Accrued interest receivable on AFS debt securities, which is included in Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, is excluded from the estimate of expected credit losses.
For each AFS security in an unrealized loss position, the Company also considers: 1) its intent to retain the security until anticipated recovery of the security's fair value; and 2) whether it is more-likely-than not that the Company would be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the debt security is written down to its fair value and the write-down is charged against the allowance for credit losses with any incremental impairment recorded in earnings.
Write-offs are made through reversal of the allowance for credit losses and a direct write-off of the amortized cost basis of the AFS security. The Company considers the following events to be indicators that a write-off should be taken: 1) bankruptcy of the issuer; 2) significant adverse event(s) affecting the issuer in which it is improbable for the issuer to make its remaining payments on the security; and 3) significant loss of value of the underlying collateral behind a security. Recoveries on debt securities, if any, are recorded in the period received.
Restricted stock
WAB is a member of the Federal Reserve System and, as part of its membership, is required to maintain stock in the FRB in a specified ratio to its capital. In addition, WAB is a member of the FHLB system and, accordingly, maintains an investment in the capital stock of the FHLB based on the borrowing capacity used. These investments are considered equity securities with no actively traded market. Therefore, the shares are considered restricted investment securities. These investments are carried at cost, which is equal to the value at which they may be redeemed. Dividend income received from the stock is reported in interest income. The Company conducts a periodic review and evaluation of its restricted stock to determine if any impairment exists. No impairment has been recorded to date.
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Loans held for sale
The Company began holding loans HFS in connection with the AmeriHome acquisition and continues to purchase and originate loans as part of its mortgage banking business. Loans HFS are reported at fair value or the lower of cost or fair value, depending on the acquisition source. The Company has elected to record loans purchased from correspondent sellers or originated directly to consumers at fair value to more timely reflect the Company's performance. Changes in fair value of loans HFS are reported in current period income as a component of Net gain on loan origination and sale activities in the Consolidated Income Statement. Alternatively, delinquent loans repurchased under the terms of the GNMA MBS program, referred to as EBO loans, and which are classified as HFS, are reported at the lower of cost or fair value. For EBO loans, the amount by which cost exceeds fair value is accounted for as a valuation allowance and any changes in the valuation allowance are included in Net gain on loan origination and sale activities in the Consolidated Income Statement.
The Company recognizes a transfer of loans as a sale when it surrenders control over the transferred loans. Control is considered to be surrendered when the transferred loans have been legally isolated from the Company, the transferee has the right (free of conditions that constrain it from taking advantage of that right) to pledge or exchange the transferred loans, and the Company does not maintain effective control over the transferred loans through either an agreement that entitles or obligates the Company to repurchase or redeem the loans before their maturity or the ability to unilaterally cause the holder to return loans. If the transfer of loans qualifies as a sale, the Company derecognizes such loans. If the transfer of loans does not qualify as a sale, the proceeds from the transfer are accounted for as secured borrowings.
Loan acquisition and origination fees on loans HFS consist of fees earned by the Company for purchasing and originating loans and are recognized at the time the loans are purchased or originated. These fees generally represent flat, per loan fee amounts and are included as part of Net gain on loan origination and sale activities in the Consolidated Income Statement.
Recognition of interest income on non-government guaranteed or insured loans HFS is suspended and accrued unpaid interest receivable is reversed against interest income when loans become 90 days delinquent or when recovery of income and principal becomes doubtful. Loans return to accrual status when the principal and interest become current and it is probable that the amounts are fully collectible. For government guaranteed or insured loans HFS that are 90 days delinquent, the Company continues to recognize interest income at a rate between the debenture and note rates, as adjusted for probability of default for FHA loans and at the note rate for VA and USDA loans.
If management determines that it no longer intends to sell loans classified as HFS, such loans will be transferred to HFI classification. Loans transferred from HFS to HFI are transferred at amortized cost, and any valuation allowance previously recorded is reversed through the Consolidated Income Statement at the time of the transfer. The loans are then evaluated to determine the allowance for credit losses in accordance with the Company's policy as described in the Allowance for credit losses on HFI loans section within this note.
Loans held for investment
Loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or payoff are reported at amortized cost. Amortized cost is the amount of unpaid principal, adjusted for unamortized net deferred fees and costs, premiums and discounts, and write-offs. In addition, the amortized cost of loans subject to a fair value hedge are adjusted for changes in value attributable to the effective portion of the hedged benchmark interest rate risk.
The Company may also purchase loans or acquire loans through a business combination. At the purchase or acquisition date, loans are evaluated to determine whether there has been more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination. Loans that have experienced more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination are referred to as PCD loans. In its evaluation of whether a loan has experienced more than insignificant deterioration in credit quality since origination, the Company takes into consideration loan grades, loan-to-values greater than policy limits, past due and nonaccrual status, and TDR loans. The Company may also consider external credit rating agency ratings for borrowers and for non-commercial loans, FICO score or band, probability of default levels, and number of times past due. The initial estimate of credit losses on PCD loans is added to the purchase price on the acquisition date to establish the initial amortized cost basis of the loan; accordingly, the initial recognition of expected credit losses has no impact on net income. When the initial measurement of expected credit losses on PCD loans are calculated on a pooled loan basis, the expected credit losses are allocated to each loan within the pool. Any difference between the initial amortized cost basis and the unpaid principal balance of the loan represents a noncredit discount or premium, which is accreted (or amortized) into interest income over the life of the loan. Subsequent changes to the allowance for credit losses on PCD loans are recorded through the provision for credit losses. For purchased loans that are not deemed to have experienced more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination, any discounts or premiums included in the purchase price are accreted (or amortized) over the contractual life of the individual loan. For additional information, see "Note 5. Loans, Leases and Allowance for Credit Losses" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
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In applying the effective yield method to loans, the Company generally applies the contractual method whereby loan fees collected for the origination of loans less direct loan origination costs (net of deferred loan fees), as well as premiums and discounts and certain purchase accounting adjustments, are amortized over the contractual life of the loan through interest income. If a loan has scheduled payments, the amortization of the net deferred fee is calculated using the interest method over the contractual life of the loan. If a loan does not have scheduled payments, such as a line of credit, the net deferred loan fee is recognized as interest income on a straight-line basis over the contractual life of the loan commitment. Commitment fees based on a percentage of a customer’s unused line of credit and fees related to standby letters of credit are recognized over the commitment period. When loans are repaid, any remaining unamortized balances of premiums, discounts, or net deferred fees are recognized as interest income.
Nonaccrual loans
When a borrower discontinues making payments as contractually required by the note, the Company must determine whether it is appropriate to continue to accrue interest. The Company ceases accruing interest income when the loan has become delinquent by more than 90 days or when management determines that the full repayment of principal and collection of interest according to contractual terms is no longer likely. Past due status is based on the contractual terms of the loan. The Company may decide to continue to accrue interest on certain loans more than 90 days delinquent if the loans are well secured by collateral and in the process of collection. For government guaranteed or insured loans HFS that are 90 days delinquent, the Company continues to recognize interest income at a rate between the debenture rate and note rates, as adjusted for probability of default for FHA loans, and at the note rate for VA and USDA loans.
For all HFI loan types, when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, all interest accrued but uncollected is reversed against interest income in the period in which the status is changed, and the Company makes a loan-level decision to apply either the cash basis or cost recovery method. The Company may recognize income on a cash basis when a payment is received and only for those nonaccrual loans for which the collection of the remaining principal balance is not in doubt. Under the cost recovery method, subsequent payments received from the customer are applied to principal and generally no further interest income is recognized until the loan principal has been paid in full or until circumstances have changed such that payments are again consistently received as contractually required. Loans are returned to accrual status when all of the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured.
Troubled Debt Restructured Loans
A TDR loan is a loan on which the Company, for reasons related to a borrower’s financial difficulties, grants a concession to the borrower that the Company would not otherwise consider. In order to determine whether a borrower is experiencing financial difficulty, an evaluation is performed to assess the probability that the borrower will be in payment default on any of its debt in the foreseeable future without the modification. The evaluation is performed in accordance with the Company's internal underwriting policy. The loan terms that may be modified or restructured due to a borrower’s financial situation include, but are not limited to, a reduction in the stated interest rate, an extension of the maturity or renewal of the loan at an interest rate below current market, a reduction in the face amount of the debt, a reduction in the accrued interest, or deferral of interest payments. A TDR loan may be returned to accrual status when the loan is brought current, has performed in accordance with the contractual restructured terms for a reasonable period of time (generally six months), and the ultimate collectability of the total contractual restructured principal and interest is no longer in doubt. Consistent with regulatory guidance, a TDR loan that is subsequently modified in another restructuring agreement but has shown sustained performance and classification as a TDR, will be removed from TDR status provided that the modified terms were market-based at the time of modification.
Credit quality indicators
Loans are regularly reviewed to assess credit quality indicators and to determine appropriate loan classification and grading in accordance with applicable bank regulations. The Company’s risk rating methodology assigns risk ratings ranging from 1 to 9, where a higher rating represents higher risk. The Company differentiates its loan segments based on shared risk characteristics for which expected credit losses are measured on a pool basis.
The nine risk rating categories can generally be described by the following groupings for loans:
"Pass" (grades 1 through 5): The Company has five pass risk ratings, which represent a level of credit quality that ranges from having no well-defined deficiency or weakness to some noted weakness; however, the risk of default on any loan classified as pass is expected to be remote. The five pass risk ratings are described below:
Minimal risk. Consist of loans that are fully secured either with cash held in a deposit account at the Bank or by readily marketable securities with an acceptable margin based on the type of security pledged.
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Low risk. Consist of loans with a high investment grade rating equivalent.
Modest risk. Consist of loans where the credit facility greatly exceeds all policy requirements or with policy exceptions that are appropriately mitigated. A secondary source of repayment is verified and considered sustainable. Collateral coverage on these loans is sufficient to fully cover the debt as a tertiary source of repayment. Debt of the borrower is low relative to borrower’s financial strength and ability to pay.
Average risk. Consist of loans where the credit facility meets or exceeds all policy requirements or with policy exceptions that are appropriately mitigated. A secondary source of repayment is available to service the debt. Collateral coverage is more than adequate to cover the debt. The borrower exhibits acceptable cash flow and moderate leverage.
Acceptable risk. Consist of loans with an acceptable primary source of repayment, but a less than preferable secondary source of repayment. Cash flow is adequate to service debt, but there is minimal excess cash flow. Leverage is moderate or high.
"Special mention" (grade 6): These are generally assets that possess potential weaknesses that warrant management's close attention. These loans may involve borrowers with adverse financial trends, higher debt-to-equity ratios, or weaker liquidity positions, but not to the degree of being considered a “problem loan” where risk of loss may be apparent. Loans in this category are usually performing as agreed, although there may be non-compliance with financial covenants.
"Substandard" (grade 7): These assets are characterized by well-defined credit weaknesses and carry the distinct possibility that the Company will sustain some loss if such weakness or deficiency is not corrected. All loans 90 days or more past due and all loans on nonaccrual status are considered at least "Substandard," unless extraordinary circumstances would suggest otherwise.
"Doubtful" (grade 8): These assets have all the weaknesses inherent in those classified as "Substandard" with the added characteristic that the weaknesses present make collection or liquidation in full, on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions and values, highly questionable and improbable, but because of certain known factors that may work to the advantage and strengthening of the asset (for example, capital injection, perfecting liens on additional collateral and refinancing plans), classification as an estimated loss is deferred until a more precise status may be determined. Due to the high probability of loss, loans classified as "Doubtful" are placed on nonaccrual status.
"Loss" (grade 9): These assets are considered uncollectible and having such little recoverable value that it is not practical to defer writing off the asset. This classification does not mean that the loan has absolutely no recovery or salvage value, but rather that it is not practicable or desirable to defer writing off the asset, even though partial recovery may be achieved in the future.
Allowance for credit losses on HFI loans
Credit risk is inherent in the business of extending loans and leases to borrowers and is continuously monitored by management and reflected within the allowance for credit losses. The allowance for credit losses is an estimate of life-of-loan losses for the Company's loans HFI. The allowance for credit losses is a valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis of a loan to present the net amount expected to be collected on the loan. The estimate of expected credit losses excludes accrued interest receivable on these loans, except for accrued interest related to the Residential-EBO loan pool. Accrued interest receivable, net of an allowance for credit losses on the Residential-EBO loan pool, is included in Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Expected recoveries of amounts previously written off and expected to be written off are included in the valuation account and may not exceed the aggregate of amounts previously written off and expected to be written off. The Company formally re-evaluates and establishes the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses on a quarterly basis.
Determining the appropriateness of the allowance is complex and requires judgment by management about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. In future periods, evaluations of the overall loan portfolio or particular segments of the loan portfolio, in light of the factors and forecasts then prevailing, may result in significant changes in the allowance for credit losses and credit loss expense in those future periods. The allowance level is influenced by loan volumes, mix, loan performance metrics, asset quality characteristics, delinquency status, historical credit loss experience, and the inputs and assumptions in economic forecasts, such as macroeconomic inputs, length of reasonable and supportable forecast periods, and reversion methods. The methodology for estimating the amount of expected credit losses reported in the allowance for credit losses has two basic components: first, an asset-specific component involving individual loans that do not share similar risk characteristics with other loans and the measurement of expected credit losses for such individual loans and; second, a pooled component for estimated expected credit losses for loans that share similar risk characteristics.
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Loans that do not share risk characteristics with other loans
Loans that do not share risk characteristics with other loans are evaluated on an individual basis. Loans evaluated individually are not included in the collective evaluation. These loans consist of loans with unique features or loans that no longer share risk characteristics with other pooled loans. The process for determining whether a loan should be evaluated on an individual basis begins with determination of credit rating. With the exception of residential loans, all accruing loans graded substandard or worse with a total commitment of $1.0 million or more are assigned a reserve based on an individual evaluation. For these loans, the allowance is based primarily on the fair value of the underlying collateral, utilizing independent third-party appraisals, and assessment of borrower guarantees.
Loans that share similar risk characteristics with other loans
In estimating the component of the allowance for credit losses for loans that share similar risk characteristics with other loans, such loans are segregated into loan segments. The Company's primary portfolio segments align with the methodology applied in estimating the allowance for credit losses under CECL. Loans are designated into loan segments based on loans pooled by product types, business lines, and similar risk characteristics or areas of risk concentration.
In determining the allowance for credit losses, the Company derives an estimate of expected credit losses primarily using an expected loss methodology that incorporates risk parameters (probability of default, loss given default, and exposure at default), which are derived from various vendor models, internally-developed statistical models, or non-statistical estimation approaches. Probability of default is projected in these models or estimation approaches using a single economic scenario and were developed to incorporate relevant information about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. With the exception of the Company's residential loan segment, the Company's PD models share a common definition of default, which include loans that are 90 days past due, on nonaccrual status, have a charge-off, or obligor bankruptcy. Input reversion is used for all loan segment models, except for the commercial and industrial and CRE, owner-occupied loan segments. Output reversion is used for the commercial and industrial and CRE, owner-occupied loan segments by incorporating, after the forecast period, a one-year linear reversion to the long-term reversion rate in year three through the remaining life of the loans within the respective segments. LGDs are typically derived from the Company's historical loss experience. However, for the residential, warehouse lending, and municipal and nonprofit loan segments, where the Company has either zero (or near zero) losses, or has a limited loss history through the last economic downturn, certain non-modeled methodologies are employed to estimate LGD. Factors utilized in calculating average LGD vary for each loan segment and are further described below. Exposure at default refers to the Company's exposure to loss at the time of borrower default. For revolving lines of credit, the Company incorporates an expectation of increased line utilization for a higher EAD on defaulted loans based on historical experience. For term loans, EAD is calculated using an amortization schedule based on contractual loan terms, adjusted for a prepayment rate assumption. Prepayment trends are sensitive to interest rates and the macroeconomic environment. Fixed rate loans are more influenced by interest rates, whereas variable rate loans are more influenced by the macroeconomic environment. After the quantitative expected loss estimates are calculated, management then adjusts these estimates to incorporate considerations of current trends and conditions that are not captured in the quantitative loss estimates, through the use of qualitative and/or environmental factors.
The following provides credit quality indicators and risk elements most relevant in monitoring and measuring the allowance for credit losses on loans for each of the loan portfolio segments identified:
Warehouse lending
The warehouse lending portfolio segment consists of mortgage warehouse lines, MSR financing facilities, and note finance loans, which have a monitored borrowing base to mortgage companies and similar lenders and are primarily structured as commercial and industrial loans. The collateral for these loans is primarily comprised of residential whole loans and MSRs, with the borrowing base of these loans tightly monitored and controlled by the Company. The primary support for these loans takes the form of pledged collateral, with secondary support provided by the capacity of the financial institution. The collateral-driven nature of these loans distinguish them from traditional commercial and industrial loans. These loans are impacted by interest rate shocks, residential lending rates, prepayment assumptions, and general real estate stress. As a result of the unique loan characteristics, limited historical default and loss experience, and the collateral nature of this loan portfolio segment, the Company uses a non-modeled approach to estimate expected credit losses, leveraging grade information, grade migration history, and management judgment.
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Municipal and nonprofit
The municipal and nonprofit portfolio segment consists of loans to local governments, government-operated utilities, special assessment districts, hospitals, schools and other nonprofits. These loans are generally, but not exclusively, entered into for the purpose of financing real estate investment or for refinancing existing debt and are primarily structured as commercial and industrial loans. Loans are supported by taxes or utility fees, and in some cases tax liens on real estate, operating revenue of the institution, or other collateral support the loans. While unemployment rates and the market valuation of residential properties have an effect on the tax revenues supporting these loans, these loans tend to be less cyclical in comparison to similar commercial loans due to reliance on diversified tax bases. The Company uses a non-modeled approach to estimate expected credit losses for this portfolio segment, leveraging grade information and historical municipal default rates.
Tech & innovation
The tech & innovation portfolio segment is comprised of commercial loans that are originated within this business line and are not collateralized by real estate. The source of repayment of these loans is generally expected to be the income that is generated from the business. Expected credit losses for this loan segment are estimated using both a vendor model and an internally-developed model. These models incorporate market level and company-specific factors such as financial statement variables, adjusted for the current stage of the credit cycle and for the Company's loan performance data such as delinquency, utilization, maturity, and size of the loan commitment under specific macroeconomic scenarios to produce a probability of default. Macroeconomic variables include the Dow Jones Index, credit spread between the BBB Bond Yield and 10-Year Treasury Bond Yield, unemployment rate, and CBOE VIX Index quarterly high. LGD and the prepayment rate assumption for EAD for this loan segment are driven by unemployment levels.
Equity fund resources
The equity fund resources portfolio segment is comprised of commercial loans to private equity and venture capital funds. The primary source of repayment of these loans is typically uncalled capital commitments from institutional investors and high net worth individuals. The Company uses a non-modeled approach to estimate expected credit losses for this portfolio segment, leveraging loan grade information.
Other commercial and industrial
The other commercial and industrial segment is comprised of commercial and industrial loans that are not originated within the Company's specialty business lines and are not collateralized by real estate. The models used to estimate expected credit losses for this loan segment are the same as those used for the tech & innovation portfolio segment.
Commercial real estate, owner-occupied
The CRE, owner-occupied portfolio segment is comprised of commercial loans that are collateralized by real estate, where the borrower has a business that occupies the property. These loans are typically entered into for the purpose of providing real estate finance or improvement. The primary source of repayment of these loans is the income generated by the business and where rental or sale of the property may provide secondary support for the loan. These loans are sensitive to general economic conditions as well as the market valuation of CRE properties. The probability of default estimate for this loan segment is modeled using the same model as the commercial and industrial loan segment. LGD for this loan segment is driven by property appreciation and the prepayment rate assumption for EAD is driven by unemployment levels.
Hotel franchise finance
The hotel franchise finance segment is comprised of loans that are originated within this business line and are collateralized by real estate, where the owner is not the primary tenant. These loans are typically entered into for the purpose of financing or the improvement of commercial investment properties. The primary source of repayment of these loans are the rents paid by tenants and where the sale of the property may provide secondary support for the loan. These loans are sensitive to the market valuation of CRE properties, rental rates, and general economic conditions. The vendor model used to estimate expected credit losses for this loan segment projects probabilities of default and exposure at default based on multiple macroeconomic scenarios by modeling how macroeconomic conditions affect the commercial real estate market. Real estate market factors utilized in this model include vacancy rate, rental growth rate, net operating income growth rate, and commercial property price changes for each specific property type. The model then incorporates loan and property-level characteristics including debt coverage, leverage, collateral size, seasoning, and property type. LGD for this loan segment is derived from a non-modeled approach that is driven by property appreciation and the prepayment rate assumption for EAD is driven by the property appreciation for fixed rate loans and unemployment levels for variable rate loans.
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Other commercial real estate, non-owner occupied
The other commercial real estate, non-owner occupied segment is comprised of loans that are collateralized by real estate where the owner is not the primary tenant, but are not originated within the Company's specialty business lines. The model used to estimate expected credit losses for this loan segment is the same as the model used for the hotel franchise finance portfolio segment.
Residential
The residential loan portfolio segment is comprised of loans collateralized primarily by first liens on 1-4 residential family properties and home equity lines of credit that are collateralized by either first liens or junior liens on residential properties. The primary source of repayment of these loans is the value of the property and the capacity of the owner to make payments on the loan. Unemployment rates and the market valuation of residential properties will impact the ultimate repayment of these loans. The residential mortgage loan model is a vendor model that projects probability of default, loss given default severity, prepayment rate, and exposure at default to calculate expected losses. The model is intended to capture the borrower's payment behavior during the lifetime of the residential loan by incorporating loan level characteristics such as loan type, coupon, age, loan-to-value, and credit score and economic conditions such as Home Price Index, interest rate, and unemployment rate. A default event for residential loans is defined as 60 days or more past due, with property appreciation as the driver for LGD results. The prepayment rate assumption for exposure at default for residential loans is based on industry prepayment history.
Probability of default for HELOCs is derived from an internally-developed model that projects PD by incorporating loan level information such as delinquency status, loan term, and FICO score and macroeconomic conditions such as property appreciation. LGD for this loan segment is driven by property appreciation and lien position. Exposure at default for HELOCs is calculated based on utilization rate assumptions using a non-modeled approach and also incorporates management judgment.
Residential - EBO
The residential EBO loan portfolio segment is comprised of government guaranteed loans collateralized primarily by first liens on 1-4 residential family properties purchased from the FHA, VA, or USDA, which were at least three months delinquent at the time of purchase. These loans differ from the residential loans included in the Company's Residential loan portfolio segment as the principal balance of these loans are government guaranteed. The Company has not recognized an allowance for credit losses on this portfolio segment as management's expectation of nonpayment of the amortized cost basis, based on historical losses, adjusted for current and forecasted conditions, is zero.
Construction and land development
The construction and land portfolio segment is comprised of loans collateralized by land or real estate, which are entered into for the purpose of real estate development. The primary source of repayment of these loans is the eventual sale or refinance of the completed project and where claims on the property provide secondary support for the loan. These loans are impacted by the market valuation of CRE and residential properties and general economic conditions that have a higher sensitivity to real estate markets compared to other real estate loans. Default risk of a property is driven by loan-specific drivers, including loan-to-value, maturity, origination date, and the MSA in which the property is located, among other items. The variables used in the internally-developed model include loan level drivers such as origination loan-to-value, loan maturity, and macroeconomic drivers such as property appreciation, MSA level unemployment rate, and national GDP growth. LGD for this loan segment is driven by property appreciation. The prepayment rate assumption for EAD is driven by the property appreciation for fixed rate loans and unemployment levels for variable rate loans.
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Other
The other portfolio consists of loans not already captured in one of the aforementioned loan portfolio segments, which include, but may not be limited to, overdraft lines for treasury services, credit cards, consumer loans not collateralized by real estate, and small business loans collateralized by residential real estate. The consumer and small business loans are supported by the capacity of the borrower and the valuation of any collateral. General economic factors such as unemployment will have an effect on these loans. The Company uses a non-modeled approach to estimate expected credit losses, leveraging average historical default rates. LGD for this loan segment is driven by unemployment levels and lien position. The prepayment rate assumption for EAD is driven by the BBB corporate spread for fixed rate loans and unemployment levels for variable rate loans.
Off-balance sheet credit exposures, including unfunded loan commitments
The Company maintains a separate allowance for credit losses on off-balance-sheet credit exposures, including unfunded loan commitments, financial guarantees, and letters of credit, which is classified in Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The allowance for credit losses on off-balance sheet credit exposures is adjusted through increases or decreases to the provision for credit loss expense. The estimate includes consideration of the likelihood that funding will occur, an estimate of exposure at default that is derived from utilization rate assumptions using a non-modeled approach, and PD and LGD estimates that are derived from the same models and approaches for the Company's other loan portfolio segments described in the Allowance for credit losses on HFI loans section within this note as these unfunded commitments share similar risk characteristics with these loan portfolio segments. The Company does not record a credit loss estimate for off-balance sheet credit exposures that are unconditionally cancellable by the Company or for undrawn amounts under such arrangements that may be drawn prior to the cancellation of the arrangement.
Mortgage servicing rights
The Company generates MSRs from its mortgage banking business. When the Company sells mortgage loans in the secondary market and retains the right to service these loans, a servicing right asset is capitalized at the time of sale when the benefits of servicing are deemed to be greater than adequate compensation for performing the servicing activities. MSRs represent the then-current fair value of future net cash flows expected to be realized from performing servicing activities. The Company has elected to subsequently measure MSRs at fair value and report changes in fair value in current period income as a component of Net loan servicing revenue in the Consolidated Income Statement.
The Company may in the ordinary course of business sell MSRs and will recognize, as of the trade date, a gain or loss on the sale equal to the difference between the carrying value of the transferred MSRs and the value of the assets received as consideration. The Company subsequently derecognizes MSRs when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership are irrevocably passed to the transferee and any protection provisions retained by the Company are minor and can be reasonably estimated, which typically occurs on the settlement date. Protection provisions are considered to be minor if the obligation created by such provisions is estimated to be no more than 10 percent of the sales price and the Company retains the risk of prepayment for no more than 120 days. The Company records an estimated liability for retained protection provisions as of the trade date and continues to remeasure this liability until settlement, with any changes in the estimated liability recorded in earnings. In addition, fees to transfer loans associated with the sold MSRs to a new servicer are also recorded on the settlement date. Gains or losses on sales of MSRs, net of retained protection provisions, and transfer fees are included in Net loan servicing revenue in the Consolidated Income Statement.
Leases (lessee)
At inception, contracts are evaluated to determine whether the contract constitutes a lease agreement. For contracts that are determined to be an operating lease, a corresponding ROU asset and operating lease liability are recorded in separate line items on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. A ROU asset represents the Company’s right to use an underlying asset during the lease term and a lease liability represents the Company’s commitment to make contractually obligated lease payments. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the commencement date of the lease and are based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The measurement of the operating lease ROU asset includes any lease payments made and is reduced by lease incentives that are paid or are payable to the Company. Variable lease payments that depend on an index or rate such as the Consumer Price Index are included in lease payments based on the rate in effect at the commencement date of the lease. Lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term as part of Occupancy expense in the Consolidated Income Statements.
As the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable, the Company's incremental collateralized borrowing rate is used to determine the present value of lease payments. This rate gives consideration to the applicable FHLB collateralized borrowing rates and is based on the information available at the commencement date. The Company has elected to apply the short-term
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lease measurement and recognition exemption to leases with an initial term of 12 months or less; therefore, these leases are not recorded on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet, but rather, lease expense is recognized over the lease term on a straight-line basis. The Company’s lease agreements may include options to extend or terminate the lease. These options are included in the lease term when it is reasonably certain that the options will be exercised.
The Company also made an accounting policy election to not separate non-lease components from the associated lease component, and instead account for them together as part of the applicable lease component. The majority of the Company’s non-lease components such as common area maintenance, parking, and taxes are variable, and are expensed as incurred. Variable payment amounts are determined in arrears by the landlord depending on actual costs incurred.
Goodwill and other intangible assets
The Company records as goodwill the excess of the purchase price in a business combination over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired in accordance with applicable guidance. The Company performs its annual goodwill and intangibles impairment tests as of October 1 each year, or more often if events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. The Company can first elect to assess, through qualitative factors, whether it is more likely than not that goodwill is impaired. If the qualitative assessment indicates potential impairment, a quantitative impairment test is performed. If, based on the quantitative test, a reporting unit's carrying amount exceeds its fair value, a goodwill impairment charge for this difference is recorded to current period earnings as part of non-interest expense.
The Company’s intangible assets consist of correspondent relationships, operating licenses, tradenames, core deposit intangibles, customer relationships, and developed technology assets that are being amortized over periods of five to 40 years, with the exception of the Bridge Bank tradename which has an indefinite life. See "Note 2. Mergers, Acquisitions and Dispositions" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements for discussion of the intangible assets acquired as part of the AmeriHome and Digital Disbursements acquisitions.
The Company considers the remaining useful lives of its intangible assets each reporting period, as required by ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization. If the estimate of an intangible asset’s remaining useful life has changed, the remaining carrying amount of the intangible asset is amortized prospectively over the revised remaining useful life. The Company has not revised its estimates of the useful lives of its intangible assets during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 or 2021.
Stock compensation plans
The Company has an incentive plan that gives the BOD the authority to grant stock awards, consisting of unrestricted stock, stock units, dividend equivalent rights, stock options (incentive and non-qualified), stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, and performance and annual incentive awards. Compensation expense on non-vested restricted stock awards is based on the fair value of the award on the measurement date which, for the Company, is the date of the grant and is recognized ratably over the service period of the award. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of the award grant and revised in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The fair value of non-vested restricted stock awards is the market price of the Company’s stock on the date of grant.
The Company's performance stock units have a cumulative EPS target and a TSR performance measure component. The TSR component is a market-based performance condition that is separately valued as of the date of the grant. A Monte Carlo valuation model is used to determine the fair value of the TSR performance metric, which simulates potential TSR outcomes over the performance period and determines the payouts that would occur in each scenario. The resulting fair value of the TSR component is based on the average of these results. Compensation expense related to the TSR component is based on the fair value determination on the date of the grant and is not subsequently revised based on actual performance. Compensation expense related to the EPS component for these awards is based on the fair value (market price of the Company's stock on the date of the grant) of the award. Compensation expense related to both the TSR and EPS components is recognized ratably over the service period of the award.
See "Note 9. Stockholders' Equity" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of stock awards.
Dividends
WAL is a legal entity separate and distinct from its subsidiaries. As a holding company with limited significant assets other than the capital stock of its subsidiaries, WAL's ability to pay dividends depends primarily upon the receipt of dividends or other capital distributions from its subsidiaries. The Company's subsidiaries' ability to pay dividends to WAL is subject to, among other things, their individual earnings, financial condition, and need for funds, as well as federal and state governmental policies
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and regulations applicable to WAL and each of those subsidiaries, which limit the amount that may be paid as dividends without prior approval. In addition, the terms and conditions of other securities the Company issues may restrict its ability to pay dividends to holders of the Company's common stock. For example, if any required payments on outstanding trust preferred securities are not made, WAL would be prohibited from paying cash dividends on its common stock.
Preferred stock
On September 22, 2021, the Company issued an aggregate of 12,000,000 depositary shares, each representing a 1/400th ownership interest in a share of the Company’s 4.250% Fixed-Rate Reset Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Shares, Series A, par value $0.0001 per share, with a liquidation preference of $25 per Depositary Share (equivalent to $10,000 per share of Series A preferred stock). The Company's Series A preferred stock is perpetual preferred stock that is not subject to any mandatory redemption, resulting in classification as permanent equity. Dividends on preferred stock are recognized on the declaration date and are recorded as a reduction of retained earnings.
Treasury shares
The Company separately presents treasury shares, which represent shares surrendered to the Company equal in value to the statutory payroll tax withholding obligations arising from the vesting of employee restricted stock awards. Treasury shares are carried at cost.
Sales of common stock under ATM program
The Company has a distribution agency agreement with J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and Piper Sandler & Co., under which the Company may sell up to 6,132,670 shares of its common stock on the NYSE. The Company pays the distribution agents a mutually agreed rate, not to exceed 2% of the gross offering proceeds of the shares sold pursuant to the distribution agency agreement. The common stock is sold at prevailing market prices at the time of the sale or at negotiated prices and, as a result, prices will vary. Any sales under the ATM program are made pursuant to a prospectus dated May 14, 2021 and prospectus supplements filed with the SEC in an offering of shares from the Company's shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (No. 333-256120). See "Note 9. Stockholders' Equity" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of this program.
Derivative financial instruments
The Company uses interest rate swaps to mitigate interest-rate risk associated with changes to the fair value of certain fixed-rate financial instruments (fair value hedges).
The Company recognizes derivatives as assets or liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at their fair value in accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative instrument depends on whether it has been designated and qualifies as part of a hedging relationship and further, on the type of hedging relationship. Derivative instruments designated in a hedge relationship to mitigate exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset or liability attributable to a particular risk, such as interest rate risk, are considered fair value hedges.
The Company documents its hedge relationships, including identification of the hedging instruments and the hedged items, as well as its risk management objectives and strategies for undertaking the hedge transaction after the derivative contract is executed. At inception, the Company performs a quantitative assessment to determine whether the derivatives used in hedging transactions are highly effective (as defined in the guidance) in offsetting changes in the fair value of the hedged item. Retroactive effectiveness is assessed, as well as the continued expectation that the hedge will remain effective prospectively. After the initial quantitative assessment is performed, on a quarterly basis, the Company performs a qualitative hedge effectiveness assessment. This assessment takes into consideration any adverse developments related to the counterparty's risk of default and any negative events or circumstances that affect the factors that originally enabled the Company to assess that it could reasonably support, qualitatively, an expectation that the hedging relationship was and will continue to be highly effective. The Company discontinues hedge accounting prospectively when it is determined that a hedge is no longer highly effective. When hedge accounting is discontinued on a fair value hedge that no longer qualifies as an effective hedge, the derivative instrument continues to be reported at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, but the carrying amount of the hedged item is no longer adjusted for future changes in fair value. The adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item that existed at the date hedge accounting is discontinued is amortized over the remaining life of the hedged item into earnings.
Changes in the fair value of a derivative that is designated and qualifies as a fair value hedge, along with changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk, are recorded in the same line item as the offsetting loss or gain on the related interest rate swaps during the period of change. For loans, the gain or loss on the hedged item is included in interest income and for subordinated debt, the gain or loss on the hedged items is included in interest expense.
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Derivative instruments that are not designated as hedges, so called free-standing derivatives, are reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at fair value and the changes in fair value are recognized in earnings as non-interest income during the period of change. With the acquisition of AmeriHome, the Company's economic hedging volume has substantially increased. The Company enters into commitments to purchase mortgage loans that will be held for sale. These loan commitments, described as IRLCs, qualify as derivative instruments, except those that are originated rather than purchased, and intended for HFI classification. As of June 30, 2022, all IRLCs qualify as derivative instruments. Changes in fair value associated with changes in interest rates are economically hedged by utilizing forward sale commitments and interest rate futures. These hedging instruments are typically entered into contemporaneously with IRLCs. Loans that have been or will be purchased or originated may be used to satisfy the Company's forward sale commitments. In addition, derivative financial instruments are also used to economically hedge the Company's MSR portfolio. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that hedge IRLCs and loans HFS are included in Net gain on loan origination and sale activities in the Consolidated Income Statement. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that hedge MSRs are included in Net loan servicing revenue in the Consolidated Income Statement.
The Company may in the normal course of business purchase a financial instrument or originate a loan that contains an embedded derivative instrument. Upon purchasing the instrument or originating the loan, the Company assesses whether the economic characteristics of the embedded derivative are clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the remaining component of the financial instrument (i.e., the host contract) and whether a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded instrument would meet the definition of a derivative instrument. When it is determined that the embedded derivative possesses economic characteristics that are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the host contract and a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the embedded derivative is separated from the host contract and carried at fair value. However, in cases where the host contract is measured at fair value, with changes in fair value reported in current earnings, or the Company is unable to reliably identify and measure an embedded derivative for separation from its host contract, the entire contract is carried on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at fair value and is not designated as a hedging instrument.
Off-balance sheet instruments
In the ordinary course of business, the Company enters into off-balance sheet financial instrument arrangements consisting of commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit. Such financial instruments are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets when funded. These off-balance sheet financial instruments impact, to varying degrees, elements of credit risk in excess of amounts recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Losses could be experienced when the Company is contractually obligated to make a payment under these instruments and must seek repayment from the borrower, which may not be as financially sound in the current period as they were when the commitment was originally made. Commitments to extend credit are agreements to lend to a customer as long as there is no violation of any condition established in the contract and, in certain instances, may be unconditionally cancelable. Commitments generally have fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses and may require payment of a fee. The Company enters into credit arrangements that generally provide for the termination of advances in the event of a covenant violation or other event of default. Since many of the commitments are expected to expire without being drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements. The Company evaluates each customer’s creditworthiness on a case-by-case basis. The amount of collateral obtained, if deemed necessary by the Company upon extension of credit, is based on management’s credit evaluation of the party. The commitments are collateralized by the same types of assets used as loan collateral.
The Company also has off-balance sheet arrangements related to its derivative instruments. Derivative instruments are recognized in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value and their notional values are carried off-balance sheet. See "Note 11. Derivatives and Hedging Activities" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
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Fair values of financial instruments
The Company uses fair value measurements to record fair value adjustments to certain assets and liabilities. ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurement, and also sets forth disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The Company uses various valuation approaches, including market, income, and/or cost approaches. ASC 820 establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability and are developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the factors market participants would consider in pricing the asset or liability and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of inputs, as follows:
Level 1 - Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. These might include quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability (such as interest rates, prepayment speeds, volatilities, etc.) or model-based valuation techniques where all significant assumptions are observable, either directly or indirectly, in the market.
Level 3 - Valuation is generated from model-based techniques where one or more significant inputs are not observable, either directly or indirectly, in the market. These unobservable assumptions reflect the Company’s own estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Valuation techniques may include use of matrix pricing, discounted cash flow models, and similar techniques.
The availability of observable inputs varies based on the nature of the specific financial instrument. To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. For disclosure purposes, the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement determines the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement falls in its entirety.
Fair value is a market-based measure considered from the perspective of a market participant who may purchase the asset or assume the liability, rather than an entity-specific measure. When market assumptions are available, ASC 820 requires that the Company consider the assumptions that market participants would use to estimate the fair value of the financial instrument at the measurement date.
ASC 825, Financial Instruments, requires disclosure of fair value information about financial instruments, whether or not recognized in the balance sheet, for which it is practicable to estimate that value.
Management uses its best judgment in estimating the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments; however, there are inherent limitations in any estimation technique. Therefore, for substantially all financial instruments, the fair value estimates presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the amounts the Company could have realized in a sales transaction at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The estimated fair value amounts for June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 have been measured as of period-end, and have not been re-evaluated or updated for purposes of these Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements subsequent to those dates. As such, the estimated fair values of these financial instruments subsequent to the reporting date may be different than the amounts reported at period-end.
The information in "Note 15. Fair Value Accounting" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements should not be interpreted as an estimate of the fair value of the entire Company since a fair value calculation is only required for a limited portion of the Company’s assets and liabilities.
Due to the wide range of valuation techniques and the degree of subjectivity used in making the estimate, comparisons between the Company’s disclosures and those of other companies or banks may not be meaningful.
The following methods and assumptions were used by the Company in estimating the fair value of its financial instruments:
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Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
The carrying amounts reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet for cash and due from banks approximate their fair value.
Investment securities
The fair values of U.S. treasury and certain other debt securities as well as publicly-traded CRA investments and exchange-listed preferred stock are based on quoted market prices and are categorized as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy.
The fair values of debt securities are primarily determined based on matrix pricing. Matrix pricing is a mathematical technique that utilizes observable market inputs including, yield curves, credit ratings, and prepayment speeds. Fair values determined using matrix pricing are generally categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy. In addition to matrix pricing, the Company uses other pricing sources, including observed prices on publicly traded securities and dealer quotes, to estimate the fair value of debt securities, which are also categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Restricted stock
Restricted stock consists of investments in the capital stock of the FRB and the FHLB. As no ready market exists for them, and they have no quoted market value, the fair values of these investments have been categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Loans HFS
Government-insured or guaranteed and agency-conforming loans HFS are salable into active markets. Accordingly, the fair value of these loans is based on quoted market or contracted selling prices or a market price equivalent, which are categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
The fair value of non-agency loans HFS as well as certain loans that become nonsalable into active markets due to the identification of a defect is determined based on valuation techniques that utilize Level 3 inputs.
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Loans HFI
The fair value of loans is estimated based on discounted cash flows using interest rates currently being offered for loans with similar terms to borrowers with similar credit quality and adjustments that the Company believes a market participant would consider in determining fair value based on a third-party independent valuation. As a result, the fair value for loans is categorized as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.
Mortgage servicing rights
The fair value of MSRs is estimated using a discounted cash flow model that incorporates assumptions that a market participant would use in estimating the fair value of servicing rights, including, but not limited to, option adjusted spread, conditional prepayment rate, servicing fee rate, and cost to service. As a result, the fair value for MSRs is categorized as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.
Accrued interest receivable and payable
The carrying amounts reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet for accrued interest receivable and payable approximate their fair values.
Derivative financial instruments
All derivatives are recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. The valuation methodologies used to estimate the fair value of derivative instruments varies by type. Treasury futures and options, Eurodollar futures, and swap futures are measured based on valuation techniques using Level 1 Inputs from exchange-provided daily settlement quotes. Interest rate swaps and forward purchase and sales contracts are measured based on valuation techniques using Level 2 inputs, such as quoted market price, contracted selling price, or market price equivalent. IRLCs are measured based on valuation techniques that consider loan type, underlying loan amount, maturity date, note rate, loan program, and expected settlement date, with Level 3 inputs for the servicing release premium and pull-through rate. These measurements are adjusted at the loan level to consider the servicing release premium and loan pricing adjustment specific to each loan. The base value is then adjusted for the pull-through rate. The pull-through rate and servicing fee multiple are unobservable inputs based on historical experience.
Deposits
The fair value disclosed for demand and savings deposits is by definition equal to the amount payable on demand at the reporting date (that is, their carrying amount), as these deposits do not have a contractual term. The carrying amount for variable rate deposit accounts approximates their fair value. Fair values for fixed rate certificates of deposit are estimated using a discounted cash flow calculation that applies interest rates currently being offered on certificates to a schedule of aggregated expected monthly maturities on these deposits. The fair value measurement of deposit liabilities is categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
FHLB advances and customer repurchase agreements
The fair values of the Company’s borrowings are estimated using discounted cash flow analyses, based on the market rates for similar types of borrowing arrangements. The carrying value of FHLB advances and customer repurchase agreements approximate their fair values due to their short durations and have been categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Credit linked notes
The fair value of credit linked notes is based on observable inputs, when available, and as such credit linked notes are categorized as Level 2 liabilities.
Subordinated debt
The fair value of subordinated debt is based on the market rate for the respective subordinated debt security. Subordinated debt has been categorized as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Junior subordinated debt
Junior subordinated debt is valued based on a discounted cash flow model which uses the Treasury Bond rates and the 'BB' and 'BBB' rated financial indexes as inputs. Junior subordinated debt has been categorized as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.
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Income taxes
The Company is subject to income taxes in the United States and files a consolidated federal income tax return with all of its subsidiaries, with the exception of BW Real Estate, Inc. Deferred income taxes are recorded to reflect the effects of temporary differences between the financial reporting carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their income tax bases using enacted tax rates that are expected to be in effect when the taxes are actually paid or recovered. As changes in tax laws or rates are enacted, deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted through the provision for income taxes.
Net deferred tax assets are recorded to the extent that these assets will more-likely-than-not be realized. In making these determinations, all available positive and negative evidence is considered, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, tax planning strategies, projected future taxable income, and recent operating results. If it is determined that deferred income tax assets to be realized in the future are in excess of their net recorded amount, an adjustment to the valuation allowance will be recorded, which will reduce the Company's provision for income taxes.
A tax benefit from an unrecognized tax benefit may be recognized when it is more-likely-than-not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including related appeals or litigation, based on technical merits. Income tax benefits must meet a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold at the effective date to be recognized.
Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized as part of the provision for income taxes in the Consolidated Income Statement. Accrued interest and penalties are included in the related tax liability line with other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. See "Note 13. Income Taxes" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on income taxes.
Non-interest income
Non-interest income includes revenue associated with mortgage banking and commercial banking activities, investment securities, equity investments, and bank owned life insurance. These non-interest income streams are primarily generated by different types of financial instruments, held by the Company for which there is specific accounting guidance and therefore, are not within the scope of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
Non-interest income amounts within the scope of ASC 606 include service charges and fees, success fees related to equity investments, debit and credit card interchange fees, and legal settlement services fees. Service charges and fees consist of fees earned from performance of account analysis, general account services, and other deposit account services. These fees are recognized as the related services are provided. Success fees are one-time fees detailed as part of certain loan agreements and are earned immediately upon occurrence of a triggering event. Card income includes fees earned from customer use of debit and credit cards, interchange income from merchants, and international charges. Card income is generally within the scope of ASC 310, Receivables; however, certain processing transactions for merchants, such as interchange fees, are within the scope of ASC 606. The Company generally receives payment for its services during the period or at the time services are provided and, therefore, does not have material contract asset or liability balances at period end. Legal settlement service fees relate to payment services provided for the distribution of funds from legal settlements and are recognized upon transfer of funds to a claimant. See "Note 17. Revenue from Contracts with Customers" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details related to the nature and timing of revenue recognition for non-interest income revenue streams within the scope of this standard.

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2. MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND DISPOSITIONS
Acquisition of Digital Disbursements
On January 25, 2022, the Company completed its acquisition of Digital Settlement Technologies LLC, doing business as Digital Disbursements, a digital payments platform for the class action legal industry. The acquisition of DST is expected to extend the Company's digital payment efforts by providing a digital payments platform for the class action market and broader legal industry.
This transaction was accounted for as a business combination under the acquisition method of accounting. Assets purchased and liabilities assumed were recorded at their respective acquisition date estimated fair values. During the measurement period (not to exceed one year from the acquisition date), the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed are subject to adjustment if additional information becomes available to indicate a more accurate or appropriate value for an asset or liability. As the Company is still in the process of reviewing the fair value methodology and assumptions used in the valuation of identifiable intangible assets, the fair values of these intangible assets are considered provisional. The Company is also assessing the value of any associated DTAs, which are also provisional.
Total consideration of $67.8 million, comprised of cash paid at closing of $50.6 million and contingent consideration with an estimated fair value of $17.2 million, was exchanged for all of the issued and outstanding membership interests of DST. The terms of the acquisition include a contingent consideration arrangement that is based on performance for the three year period subsequent to the acquisition. There is no required minimum payment amount or maximum payment amount specified under the terms of the contingent consideration agreement. The fair value of the contingent consideration recognized on the acquisition date was estimated using a discounted cash flow approach, and is considered provisional, as the Company is still in the process of reviewing the fair value methodology and assumptions associated with the contingent consideration.
DST’s results of operations have been included in the Company's results beginning January 25, 2022 and are reported as part of the Consumer Related segment. Acquisition and restructure expenses related to the DST acquisition of $0.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022, were included as a component of non-interest expense in the Consolidated Income Statement, all of which are acquisition related costs as defined by ASC 805. There were no acquisition and restructure expenses incurred during the three months ended June 30, 2022.
The fair value amounts of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed as part of the DST acquisition are as follows:
January 25, 2022
(in millions)
Assets acquired:
Cash and cash equivalents$0.6 
Identified intangible assets27.5 
Other assets0.1 
Total assets$28.2 
Liabilities assumed:
Other liabilities$0.4 
Total liabilities0.4 
Net assets acquired$27.8 
Consideration paid
Cash$50.6 
Contingent consideration17.2 
Total consideration$67.8 
Goodwill$40.0 
In connection with the acquisition, the Company acquired identifiable intangible assets totaling $27.5 million, as detailed in the table below:
Acquisition Date Fair ValueEstimated Useful Life
(in millions)(in years)
Customer relationships$20.9 7
Developed technology6.2 5
Trade name0.4 10
Total$27.5 
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Goodwill in the amount of $40.0 million was recognized and is expected to be fully deductible for tax purposes. Goodwill was allocated entirely to the Consumer Related segment and represents the strategic, operational, and financial benefits expected from the acquisition, including expansion of the Company's settlement services offerings, diversification of its revenue sources, and post-acquisition synergies from integrating Digital Disbursements, as well as the value of the acquired workforce.
Acquisition of AmeriHome
On April 7, 2021, the Company completed its acquisition of Aris, the parent company of AmeriHome, and certain other parties, pursuant to which Aris merged with and into an indirect subsidiary of WAB. As a result of the merger, AmeriHome is a wholly-owned indirect subsidiary of the Company and continues to operate as AmeriHome Mortgage, a Western Alliance Bank company. AmeriHome is a leading national business-to-business mortgage acquirer and servicer. The acquisition of AmeriHome complements the Company’s national commercial businesses with a mortgage franchise that allows the Company to expand mortgage-related offerings to existing clients and diversifies the Company’s revenue profile by expanding sources of non-interest income.
Total cash consideration of $1.2 billion was paid in exchange for all of the issued and outstanding membership interests of Aris. AmeriHome's results of operations have been included in the Company's results beginning April 7, 2021 and are reported as part of the Consumer Related segment. There were no acquisition and restructure expenses related to the AmeriHome acquisition recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recognized $15.7 million and $16.1 million, respectively, in acquisition and restructure expenses related to the AmeriHome acquisition. Approximately $3.1 million and $3.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, were recorded as acquisition related costs as defined by ASC 805.
This transaction was accounted for as a business combination under the acquisition method of accounting. Assets purchased and liabilities assumed were recorded at their respective acquisition date estimated fair values, which are final.
The fair value amounts of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed as part of the AmeriHome acquisition are as follows:
April 7, 2021
(in millions)
Assets acquired:
Cash and cash equivalents$207.2 
Loans held for sale3,552.9 
Mortgage servicing rights1,347.0 
Premises and equipment, net11.3 
Operating right of use asset18.9 
Identified intangible assets141.0 
Loans eligible for repurchase2,744.7 
Deferred tax asset6.6 
Other assets236.0 
Total assets$8,265.6 
Liabilities assumed:
Other borrowings$3,633.9 
Operating lease liability18.9 
Liability for loans eligible for repurchase2,744.7 
Other liabilities149.5 
Total liabilities6,547.0 
Net assets acquired$1,718.6 
Consideration paid
Cash$1,231.6 
Elimination of pre-existing debt686.8 
Total consideration$1,918.4 
Goodwill$199.8 
30

In connection with the acquisition, the Company acquired identifiable intangible assets totaling $141.0 million, as detailed in the table below:
Acquisition Date Fair ValueEstimated Useful Life
(in millions)(in years)
Correspondent customer relationships$76.0 20
Operating licenses55.5 40
Trade name9.5 20
Total$141.0 
Goodwill in the amount of $199.8 million was recognized and allocated entirely to the Consumer Related segment. Goodwill represents the strategic, operational, and financial benefits expected from the acquisition, including expansion of the Company's mortgage offerings, diversification of its revenue sources, and post-acquisition synergies from integrating AmeriHome’s operating platform, as well as the value of the acquired workforce. Approximately $185.0 million of goodwill is expected to be deductible for tax purposes.
The following table presents pro forma information as if the AmeriHome acquisition was completed on January 1, 2020. The pro forma information includes adjustments for interest income and interest expense on existing loan agreements between WAL and AmeriHome prior to acquisition, the impact of MSR sales contemplated in connection with the acquisition, amortization of intangible assets arising from the acquisition, recognition of stock compensation expense for awards issued to certain AmeriHome executives, transaction costs, and related income tax effects. The pro forma information is not necessarily indicative of the results of operations as they would have been had the transactions been effected on the assumed dates.
Three Months Ended June 30, 2021Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
(in millions)
Interest income$400.5 $753.8 
Non-interest income132.4 222.0 
Net income243.8 424.0 

31

3. INVESTMENT SECURITIES
The carrying amounts and fair values of investment securities at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 are summarized as follows:
June 30, 2022
Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized (Losses)Fair Value
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity
Private label residential MBS$207 $ $(33)$174 
Tax-exempt1,011 4 (67)948 
Total HTM securities$1,218 $4 $(100)$1,122 
Available-for-sale debt securities
CLO$2,787 $ $(109)$2,678 
Commercial MBS issued by GSEs66  (5)61 
Corporate debt securities425  (26)399 
Private label residential MBS1,491  (179)1,312 
Residential MBS issued by GSEs2,096  (275)1,821 
Tax-exempt1,020 1 (97)924 
Other75 8 (10)73 
Total AFS debt securities$7,960 $9 $(701)$7,268 
Equity securities
CRA investments$54 $ $(3)$51 
Preferred stock124  (5)119 
Total equity securities$178 $ $(8)$170 
December 31, 2021
Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized (Losses)Fair Value
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity
Private label residential MBS$217 $— $(2)$215 
Tax-exempt890 43 (2)931 
Total HTM securities$1,107 $43 $(4)$1,146 
Available-for-sale debt securities
CLO$926 $$(1)$926 
Commercial MBS issued by GSEs68 — 69 
Corporate debt securities383 (9)383 
Private label residential MBS1,529 (24)1,508 
Residential MBS issued by GSEs2,028 (42)1,993 
Tax-exempt1,145 71 (1)1,215 
U.S. treasury securities13 — — 13 
Other75 11 (4)82 
Total AFS debt securities$6,167 $103 $(81)$6,189 
Equity securities
CRA investments$45 $— $— $45 
Preferred stock107 (1)114 
Total equity securities$152 $$(1)$159 
Securities with carrying amounts of approximately $1.9 billion and $2.2 billion at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, were pledged for various purposes as required or permitted by law.
32

The following tables summarize the Company's AFS debt securities in an unrealized loss position at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, aggregated by major security type and length of time in a continuous unrealized loss position: 
June 30, 2022
Less Than Twelve MonthsMore Than Twelve MonthsTotal
Gross Unrealized LossesFair ValueGross Unrealized LossesFair ValueGross Unrealized LossesFair Value
(in millions)
Available-for-sale debt securities
CLO$104 $2,493 $5 $125 $109 $2,618 
Commercial MBS issued by GSEs2 44 3 15 5 59 
Corporate debt securities18 294 8 92 26 386 
Private label residential MBS123 1,002 56 300 179 1,302 
Residential MBS issued by GSEs136 1,153 139 662 275 1,815 
Tax-exempt97 843   97 843 
Other3 19 7 25 10 44 
Total AFS securities$483 $5,848 $218 $1,219 $701 $7,067 
December 31, 2021
Less Than Twelve MonthsMore Than Twelve MonthsTotal
Gross Unrealized LossesFair ValueGross Unrealized LossesFair ValueGross Unrealized LossesFair Value
(in millions)
Available-for-sale debt securities
CLO$$171 $— $— $$171 
Commercial MBS issued by GSEs19 — — 19 
Corporate debt securities107 — — 107 
Private label residential MBS24 1,250 — — 24 1,250 
Residential MBS issued by GSEs32 1,356 142 41 1,498 
Tax-exempt141 — — 141 
Other— 28 30 
Total AFS securities$68 $3,046 $13 $170 $81 $3,216 
The total number of AFS debt securities in an unrealized loss position at June 30, 2022 is 785, compared to 179 at December 31, 2021.
On a quarterly basis, the Company performs an impairment analysis on its AFS debt securities that are in an unrealized loss position at the end of the period to determine whether credit losses should be recognized on these securities. Qualitative considerations made by the Company in its impairment analysis are further discussed below.
Government Issued Securities
Commercial and residential MBS are issued by either government agencies or GSEs. These securities are either explicitly or implicitly guaranteed by the U.S. government, are highly rated by major rating agencies, and have a long history of no credit losses. Further, principal and interest payments on these securities continue to be made on a timely basis.
Non-Government Issued Securities
Qualitative factors used in the Company's credit loss assessment of its securities that are not issued and guaranteed by the U.S. government include consideration of any adverse conditions related to a specific security, industry, or geographic region of its securities, any credit ratings below investment grade, the payment structure of the security and the likelihood of the issuer to be able to make payments that increase in the future, and failure of the issuer to make any scheduled principal or interest payments.
For the Company's corporate debt and tax-exempt securities, the Company also considers various metrics of the issuer including days of cash on hand, the ratio of long-term debt to total assets, the net change in cash between reporting periods, and consideration of any breach in covenant requirements. The Company's corporate debt securities continue to be highly rated, issuers continue to make timely principal and interest payments, and the unrealized losses on these security portfolios primarily relate to changes in interest rates and other market conditions that are not considered to be credit-related issues. The Company
33

continues to receive timely principal and interest payments on its tax-exempt securities and the majority of these issuers have revenues pledged for payment of debt service prior to payment of other types of expenses.
For the Company's private label residential MBS, which consist of non-agency collateralized mortgage obligations that are secured by pools of residential mortgage loans, the Company also considers metrics such as securitization risk weight factor, current credit support, whether there were any mortgage principal losses resulting from defaults in payments on the underlying mortgage collateral, and the credit default rate over the last twelve months. These securities primarily carry investment grade credit ratings, principal and interest payments on these securities continue to be made on a timely basis, and credit support for these securities is considered adequate.
The Company's CLO portfolio consists of highly rated securitization tranches, containing pools of medium to large-sized corporate, high yield bank loans. These are variable rate securities that have an investment grade rating of Single-A or better. The Company has increased its investment in these securities over the past year and unrealized losses on these securities are primarily a function of the differential from the offer price and the valuation mid-market price as well as changes in interest rates.
Unrealized losses on the Company's other securities portfolio relate to taxable municipal and trust preferred securities. The Company is continuing to receive timely principal and interest payments on its taxable municipal securities, these securities continue to be highly rated and the number of days of cash on hand is strong. The Company's trust preferred securities are investment grade and the issuers continue to make timely principal and interest payments.
Based on the qualitative factors noted above and as the Company does not intend to sell these securities and it is more likely than not that the Company will not be required to sell the securities prior to their anticipated recovery, no credit losses have been recognized on these securities during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021. In addition, as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, no allowance for credit losses on the Company's AFS securities has been recognized.
The credit loss model under ASC 326-20, applicable to HTM debt securities, requires recognition of lifetime expected credit losses through an allowance account at the time the security is purchased.
The following table presents a rollforward by major security type of the allowance for credit losses on the Company's HTM debt securities:
Three Months Ended June 30, 2022
Balance,
March 31, 2022
Provision for Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance,
June 30, 2022
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity debt securities
Tax-exempt$3 $ $ $ $3 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
Balance,
December 31, 2021
Recovery of Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance,
June 30, 2022
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity debt securities
Tax-exempt$5 $(2)$ $ $3 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2021:
Balance,
March 31, 2021
Recovery of Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance
June 30, 2021
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity debt securities
Tax-exempt$$(3)$— $— $
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021:
Balance,
January 1, 2021
Recovery of Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance
June 30, 2021
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity debt securities
Tax-exempt$$(1)$— $— $
34

No allowance has been recognized on the Company's HTM private label residential MBS as losses are not expected due to the Company holding a senior position in these securities.
Accrued interest receivable on HTM securities totaled $3 million at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, and is excluded from the estimate of expected credit losses.
The following tables summarize the carrying amount of the Company’s investment ratings position as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, which are updated quarterly and used to monitor the credit quality of the Company's securities: 
June 30, 2022
AAASplit-rated AAA/AA+AA+ to AA-A+ to A-BBB+ to BBB-BB+ and belowUnratedTotals
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity
Private label residential MBS$ $ $ $ $ $ $207 $207 
Tax-exempt      1,011 1,011 
Total HTM securities (1)$ $ $ $ $ $ $1,218 $1,218 
Available-for-sale debt securities
CLO$262 $ $2,139 $277 $ $ $ $2,678 
Commercial MBS issued by GSEs 61      61 
Corporate debt securities   74 325   399 
Private label residential MBS1,215  96  1   1,312 
Residential MBS issued by GSEs 1,821      1,821 
Tax-exempt17 16 418 445   28 924 
Other  10 9 27 8 19 73 
Total AFS securities (1)$1,494 $1,898 $2,663 $805 $353 $8 $47 $7,268 
Equity securities
CRA investments$ $25 $ $ $ $ $26 $51 
Preferred stock    90 18 11 119 
Total equity securities (1)$ $25 $ $ $90 $18 $37 $170 
(1)For rated securities, if ratings differ, the Company uses an average of the available ratings by major credit agencies.
December 31, 2021
AAASplit-rated AAA/AA+AA+ to AA-A+ to A-BBB+ to BBB-BB+ and belowUnratedTotals
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity
Private label residential MBS$— $— $— $— $— $— $217 $217 
Tax-exempt— — — — — — 890 890 
Total HTM securities (1)$— $— $— $— $— $— $1,107 $1,107 
Available-for-sale debt securities
CLO$45 $— $636 $245 $— $— $— $926 
Commercial MBS issued by GSEs— 69 — — — — — 69 
Corporate debt securities— — — 45 319 19 — 383 
Private label residential MBS1,420 — 87 — — — 1,508 
Residential MBS issued by GSEs— 1,993 — — — — — 1,993 
Tax-exempt43 40 469 629 — — 34 1,215 
U.S. treasury securities— 13 — — — — — 13 
Other— — 12 10 30 10 20 82 
Total AFS securities (1)$1,508 $2,115 $1,204 $929 $350 $29 $54 $6,189 
Equity securities
CRA investments$— $28 $— $— $— $— $17 $45 
Preferred stock— — — — 79 20 15 114 
Total equity securities (1)$— $28 $— $— $79 $20 $32 $159 
(1)For rated securities, if ratings differ, the Company uses an average of the available ratings by major credit agencies.
35

A security is considered to be past due once it is 30 days contractually past due under the terms of the agreement. As of June 30, 2022, the Company does not have a significant amount of investment securities that were past due or on nonaccrual status.
The amortized cost and fair value of the Company's debt securities as of June 30, 2022, by contractual maturities, are shown below. MBS are shown separately as individual MBS are comprised of pools of loans with varying maturities. Therefore, these securities are listed separately in the maturity summary.
June 30, 2022
Amortized CostEstimated Fair Value
(in millions)
Held-to-maturity
Due in one year or less$42 $42 
After one year through five years18 18 
After five years through ten years7 7 
After ten years944 881 
Mortgage-backed securities207 174 
Total HTM securities$1,218 $1,122 
Available-for-sale
Due in one year or less$2 $2 
After one year through five years125 117 
After five years through ten years1,161 1,116 
After ten years3,019 2,839 
Mortgage-backed securities3,653 3,194 
Total AFS securities$7,960 $7,268 
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company sold securities with a carrying value of $22 million and $107 million, respectively, and incurred a loss of $0.2 million and a gain of $6.9 million, respectively, on these sales. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company sold certain AFS securities as part of the Company's interest rate management actions to secure gains on tax-exempt municipal securities that were purchased at a discount at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company did not have significant sales of investment securities.

36

4. LOANS HELD FOR SALE
The Company purchases and originates residential mortgage loans through its AmeriHome mortgage banking business channel that are held for sale or securitization. The following is a summary of loans HFS by type:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
(in millions)
Government-insured or guaranteed:
EBO (1)$195 $1,693 
Non-EBO1,093 1,396 
Total government-insured or guaranteed1,288 3,089 
Agency-conforming1,515 2,483 
Non-agency 63 
Total loans HFS$2,803 $5,635 
(1)    EBO loans are delinquent FHA, VA, or USDA loans repurchased under the terms of the Ginnie Mae MBS program that can be repooled or resold when loans are brought current either through the borrower's reperformance or through completion of a loan modification.
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, the Company transferred $1.5 billion of EBO loans previously classified as HFS to HFI as management no longer intends to sell these loans. In addition, during the three months ended June 30, 2022, the Company purchased $481 million in EBO loans that were designated as HFI.
As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, there were no loans HFS that were pledged to secure warehouse borrowings.
The following is a summary of the net gain on loan purchase, origination, and sale activities:
Three Months Ended June 30, 2022April 7, 2021 through June 30, 2021Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
(in millions)
Mortgage servicing rights capitalized upon sale of loans$193.4 $282.3 $397.5 
Net proceeds from sale of loans (1)(361.7)(143.6)(698.6)
Provision for and change in estimate of liability for losses under representations and warranties, net0.8 (0.7)1.6 
Change in fair value of loans held for sale59.3 13.2 (6.9)
Change in fair value of derivatives related to loans HFS:
Unrealized (loss) gain on derivatives(49.8)(55.2)31.4 
Realized gain on derivatives167.9 9.4 303.5 
Total change in fair value of derivatives118.1 (45.8)334.9 
Net gain on loans held for sale$9.9 $105.4 $28.5 
Loan acquisition and origination fees17.3 26.6 35.6 
Net gain on loan origination and sale activities$27.2 $132.0 $64.1 
(1)     Represents the difference between cash proceeds received upon settlement and loan basis.


37

5. LOANS, LEASES AND ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES
The composition of the Company's HFI loan portfolio is as follows:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$5,132 $5,156 
Municipal & nonprofit1,548 1,579 
Tech & innovation1,648 1,418 
Equity fund resources4,752 3,830 
Other commercial and industrial7,832 6,465 
CRE - owner occupied1,681 1,723 
Hotel franchise finance3,112 2,534 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied4,625 3,952 
Residential12,967 9,243 
Residential - EBO1,897 — 
Construction and land development3,199 3,006 
Other179 169 
Total loans HFI48,572 39,075 
Allowance for credit losses(273)(252)
Total loans HFI, net of allowance$48,299 $38,823 
Loans classified as HFI are stated at the amount of unpaid principal, adjusted for net deferred fees and costs, premiums and discounts on acquired and purchased loans, and an allowance for credit losses. Net deferred loan fees of $122 million and $86 million reduced the carrying value of loans as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Net unamortized purchase premiums on acquired and purchased loans of $192 million and $185 million increased the carrying value of loans as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Nonaccrual and Past Due Loans
Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when management determines that the full repayment of principal and collection of interest according to contractual terms is no longer likely, generally when the loan becomes 90 days or more past due.
The following tables present nonperforming loan balances by loan portfolio segment:
June 30, 2022
Nonaccrual with No Allowance for Credit LossNonaccrual with an Allowance for Credit LossTotal NonaccrualLoans Past Due 90 Days or More and Still Accruing
(in millions)
Tech & innovation$ $5 $5 $ 
Other commercial and industrial18 5 23  
CRE - owner occupied7 2 9  
Hotel franchise finance 10 10  
Other CRE - non-owner occupied19 1 20  
Residential 17 17  
Residential - EBO   827 
Construction and land development1  1  
Total$45 $40 $85 $827 
Loan contractually delinquent by 90 days or more and still accruing totaled $827 million at June 30, 2022 and consist entirely of government guaranteed EBO residential loans.
38

December 31, 2021
Nonaccrual with No Allowance for Credit LossNonaccrual with an Allowance for Credit LossTotal NonaccrualLoans Past Due 90 Days or More and Still Accruing
(in millions)
Tech & innovation$$11 $13 $— 
Equity fund resources— — 
Other commercial and industrial13 16 — 
CRE - owner occupied12 13 — 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied11 13 — 
Residential— 15 15 — 
Construction and land development— — 
Other— — 
Total$39 $34 $73 $— 
The reduction in interest income associated with loans on nonaccrual status was approximately $1.2 million and $1.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and $2.3 million and $3.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The following table presents an aging analysis of past due loans by loan portfolio segment:
June 30, 2022
Current30-59 Days
Past Due
60-89 Days
Past Due
Over 90 days
Past Due
Total
Past Due
Total
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$5,132 $ $ $ $ $5,132 
Municipal & nonprofit1,548     1,548 
Tech & innovation1,648     1,648 
Equity fund resources4,751 1   1 4,752 
Other commercial and industrial7,823 9   9 7,832 
CRE - owner occupied1,681     1,681 
Hotel franchise finance3,112     3,112 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied4,625     4,625 
Residential12,859 100 8  108 12,967 
Residential - EBO868 134 68 827 1,029 1,897 
Construction and land development3,199     3,199 
Other179     179 
Total loans$47,425 $244 $76 $827 $1,147 $48,572 
December 31, 2021
Current30-59 Days
Past Due
60-89 Days
Past Due
Over 90 days
Past Due
Total
Past Due
Total
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$5,156 $— $— $— $— $5,156 
Municipal & nonprofit1,579 — — — — 1,579 
Tech & innovation1,418 — — — — 1,418 
Equity fund resources3,830 — — — — 3,830 
Other commercial and industrial6,465 — — — — 6,465 
CRE - owner occupied1,723 — — — — 1,723 
Hotel franchise finance2,534 — — — — 2,534 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied3,952 — — — — 3,952 
Residential9,191 51 — 52 9,243 
Construction and land development3,006 — — — — 3,006 
Other169 — — — — 169 
Total loans$39,023 $51 $$— $52 $39,075 
39

Credit Quality Indicators
The Company categorizes loans into risk categories based on relevant information about the ability of borrowers to service their debt such as current financial information, historical payment experience, credit documentation, public information, and current economic trends, among other factors. The Company analyzes loans individually to classify the loans as to credit risk. This analysis is performed on a quarterly basis. The risk rating categories are described in "Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements. The following tables present risk ratings by loan portfolio segment and origination year. The origination year is the year of origination or renewal.
Term Loan Amortized Cost Basis by Origination YearRevolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisTotal
June 30, 202220222021202020192018Prior
(in millions)
Warehouse lending
Pass$32 $231 $2 $ $ $ $4,867 $5,132 
Special mention        
Classified        
Total$32 $231 $2 $ $ $ $4,867 $5,132 
Municipal & nonprofit
Pass$73 $155 $193 $74 $45 $1,002 $ $1,542 
Special mention   6    6 
Classified        
Total$73 $155 $193 $80 $45 $1,002 $ $1,548 
Tech & innovation
Pass$263 $698 $88 $59 $5 $1 $471 $1,585 
Special mention4 17 8    29 58 
Classified  1 4    5 
Total$267 $715 $97 $63 $5 $1 $500 $1,648 
Equity fund resources
Pass$848 $35 $ $ $ $2 $3,867 $4,752 
Special mention        
Classified        
Total$848 $35 $ $ $ $2 $3,867 $4,752 
Other commercial and industrial
Pass$2,277 $1,818 $252 $299 $195 $189 $2,695 $7,725 
Special mention1 6 20 21 17  9 74 
Classified4 1 8 6 1 1 12 33 
Total$2,282 $1,825 $280 $326 $213 $190 $2,716 $7,832 
CRE - owner occupied
Pass$160 $368 $192 $177 $223 $462 $53 $1,635 
Special mention 10    7 2 19 
Classified8 2 3  5 9  27 
Total$168 $380 $195 $177 $228 $478 $55 $1,681 
Hotel franchise finance
Pass$697 $741 $145 $606 $331 $184 $123 $2,827 
Special mention  26 76    102 
Classified9 20  99 45 10  183 
Total$706 $761 $171 $781 $376 $194 $123 $3,112 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied
Pass$1,195 $1,255 $757 $455 $226 $332 $310 $4,530 
Special mention6 19 3 22 6 1  57 
Classified  11 4 4 19  38 
Total$1,201 $1,274 $771 $481 $236 $352 $310 $4,625 
40

Term Loan Amortized Cost Basis by Origination YearRevolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisTotal
June 30, 202220222021202020192018Prior
(in millions)
Residential
Pass$2,978 $8,419 $921 $333 $162 $99 $38 $12,950 
Special mention        
Classified1 12 1 1  2  17 
Total$2,979 $8,431 $922 $334 $162 $101 $38 $12,967 
Residential - EBO
Pass$ $270 $753 $448 $175 $251 $ $1,897 
Special mention        
Classified        
Total$ $270 $753 $448 $175 $251 $ $1,897 
Construction and land development
Pass$514 $1,006 $550 $107 $ $3 $1,005 $3,185 
Special mention        
Classified 1 12 1    14 
Total$514 $1,007 $562 $108 $ $3 $1,005 $3,199 
Other
Pass$5 $14 $14 $6 $3 $82 $54 $178 
Special mention     1  1 
Classified        
Total$5 $14 $14 $6 $3 $83 $54 $179 
Total by Risk Category
Pass$9,042 $15,010 $3,867 $2,564 $1,365 $2,607 $13,483 $47,938 
Special mention11 52 57 125 23 9 40 317 
Classified22 36 36 115 55 41 12 317 
Total$9,075 $15,098 $3,960 $2,804 $1,443 $2,657 $13,535 $48,572 

Term Loan Amortized Cost Basis by Origination YearRevolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisTotal
December 31, 202120212020201920182017Prior
(in millions)
Warehouse lending
Pass$243 $12 $— $— $— $— $4,901 $5,156 
Special mention— — — — — — — — 
Classified— — — — — — — — 
Total$243 $12 $— $— $— $— $4,901 $5,156 
Municipal & nonprofit
Pass$129 $195 $101 $53 $219 $878 $$1,579 
Special mention— — — — — — — — 
Classified— — — — — — — — 
Total$129 $195 $101 $53 $219 $878 $$1,579 
Tech & innovation
Pass$763 $157 $101 $$— $$334 $1,362 
Special mention26 — — — — 39 
Classified— — — 17 
Total$792 $167 $108 $$— $$344 $1,418 
Equity fund resources
Pass$$$— $— $$— $3,817 $3,830 
Special mention— — — — — — — — 
Classified— — — — — — — — 
Total$$$— $— $$— $3,817 $3,830 
41

Term Loan Amortized Cost Basis by Origination YearRevolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisTotal
December 31, 202120212020201920182017Prior
(in millions)
Other commercial and industrial
Pass$2,911 $360 $387 $210 $80 $98 $2,306 $6,352 
Special mention27 22 18 — — 15 87 
Classified— 10 — 26 
Total$2,916 $397 $415 $230 $81 $98 $2,328 $6,465 
CRE - owner occupied
Pass$417 $199 $220 $190 $278 $322 $56 $1,682 
Special mention— — — 10 — — 12 
Classified11 — 29 
Total$419 $201 $221 $205 $286 $335 $56 $1,723 
Hotel franchise finance
Pass$721 $205 $659 $332 $135 $64 $123 $2,239 
Special mention— — 88 51 — — — 139 
Classified30 — 99 16 11 — — 156 
Total$751 $205 $846 $399 $146 $64 $123 $2,534 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied
Pass$1,398 $755 $673 $279 $186 $283 $315 $3,889 
Special mention15 — 10 — — — 26 
Classified— — — 17 11 37 
Total$1,413 $755 $687 $284 $186 $301 $326 $3,952 
Residential
Pass$7,459 $1,019 $396 $201 $42 $75 $36 $9,228 
Special mention— — — — — — — — 
Classified— — 15 
Total$7,468 $1,020 $399 $202 $42 $76 $36 $9,243 
Construction and land development
Pass$958 $632 $394 $112 $$— $870 $2,970 
Special mention— 22 — — — — 28 
Classified— — — 
Total$959 $658 $395 $112 $10 $— $872 $3,006 
Other
Pass$16 $12 $$$$82 $46 $168 
Special mention— — — — — — — — 
Classified— — — — — — 
Total$16 $12 $$$$83 $46 $169 
Total by Risk Category
Pass$15,024 $3,548 $2,935 $1,387 $950 $1,803 $12,808 $38,455 
Special mention46 54 120 79 23 331 
Classified45 22 121 29 20 30 22 289 
Total$15,115 $3,624 $3,176 $1,495 $976 $1,836 $12,853 $39,075 
Troubled Debt Restructurings
A TDR loan is a loan on which the Company, for reasons related to a borrower’s financial difficulties, grants a concession to the borrower that the Company would not otherwise consider. The loan terms that have been modified or restructured due to a borrower’s financial situation include, but are not limited to, a reduction in the stated interest rate, an extension of the maturity or renewal of the loan at an interest rate below current market, a reduction in the face amount of the debt, a reduction in the accrued interest, or deferral of interest payments. The majority of the Company's modifications are extensions in terms or deferral of payments which result in no lost principal or interest followed by reductions in interest rates or accrued interest. Consistent with regulatory guidance, a TDR loan that is subsequently modified in another restructuring agreement but has shown sustained performance and classification as a TDR, will be removed from TDR status provided that the modified terms were market-based at the time of modification.
42

The following table presents TDR loans:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
Number of LoansRecorded InvestmentNumber of LoansRecorded Investment
(dollars in millions)
Tech & innovation1 $4 $
Other commercial and industrial8 5 
CRE - owner occupied1 1 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied5 10 11 
Construction and land development1 1 
Total16 $21 16 $21 
The allowance for credit losses on TDR loans totaled $1 million and zero as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. There were no outstanding commitments on TDR loans as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, the Company had no new TDR loans. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company had 1 new TDR loan with a recorded investment of $4 million. No principal amounts were forgiven and there were no waived fees or other expenses resulting from this TDR loan. During the three months ended June 30, 2021, the Company had 6 new TDR loans with a recorded investment of $10 million. During the six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company had 9 new TDR loans with a recorded investment of $14 million. No principal amounts were forgiven and there were no waived fees or other expenses resulting from these TDR loans.
A TDR loan is deemed to have a payment default when it becomes past due 90 days under the modified terms, goes on nonaccrual status, or is restructured again. Payment defaults, along with other qualitative indicators, are considered by management in the determination of the allowance for credit losses. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, there were no loans for which there was a payment default within 12 months following the modification. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, there was 1 commercial and industrial loan with a recorded investment of $6 million for which there was a payment default within 12 months following the modification, which resulted in a charge-off of $2 million.
Collateral-Dependent Loans
The following table presents the amortized cost basis of collateral-dependent loans by loan portfolio segment:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
Real Estate CollateralOther CollateralTotalReal Estate CollateralOther CollateralTotal
(in millions)
Other commercial and industrial$ $20 $20 $— $13 $13 
CRE - owner occupied22  22 23 — 23 
Hotel franchise finance183  183 156 — 156 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied34  34 31 — 31 
Construction and land development10  10 — 
Total$249 $20 $269 $214 $13 $227 
The Company did not identify any significant changes in the extent to which collateral secures its collateral dependent loans, whether in the form of general deterioration or from other factors during the period ended June 30, 2022.
43

Allowance for Credit Losses
The allowance for credit losses consists of the allowance for credit losses on funded HFI loans and an allowance for credit losses on unfunded loan commitments. The allowance for credit losses on HTM securities is estimated separately from loans, see "Note 3. Investment Securities" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion. Management considers the level of allowance for credit losses to be a reasonable and supportable estimate of expected credit losses inherent within the Company's HFI loan portfolio as of June 30, 2022.
The below tables reflect the activity in the allowance for credit losses on HFI loans by loan portfolio segment, which includes an estimate of future recoveries:
Three Months Ended June 30, 2022
Balance,
March 31, 2022
Provision for (Recovery of) Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance,
June 30, 2022
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$2.9 $0.8 $ $ $3.7 
Municipal & nonprofit13.4 0.2   13.6 
Tech & innovation28.0 (2.6)  25.4 
Equity fund resources6.6 7.4   14.0 
Other commercial and industrial115.7 5.1 2.3 (0.7)119.2 
CRE - owner occupied8.1 (0.7) (0.1)7.5 
Hotel franchise finance30.6 3.2   33.8 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied15.3 6.8   22.1 
Residential23.8 (5.0)  18.8 
Residential - EBO     
Construction and land development10.7 1.5   12.2 
Other2.5 0.3 0.1 (0.2)2.9 
Total$257.6 $17.0 $2.4 $(1.0)$273.2 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
Balance,
December 31, 2021
Provision for (Recovery of) Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance,
June 30, 2022
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$3.0 $0.7 $ $ $3.7 
Municipal & nonprofit13.7 (0.1)  13.6 
Tech & innovation25.7 (2.3) (2.0)25.4 
Equity fund resources9.6 4.4   14.0 
Other commercial and industrial103.6 19.4 4.9 (1.1)119.2 
CRE - owner occupied10.6 (3.2) (0.1)7.5 
Hotel franchise finance41.5 (7.7)  33.8 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied16.9 5.2   22.1 
Residential12.5 6.3   18.8 
Residential - EBO     
Construction and land development12.5 (0.3)  12.2 
Other2.9 (0.1)0.1 (0.2)2.9 
Total$252.5 $22.3 $5.0 $(3.4)$273.2 
44

Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
Balance,
March 31, 2021
Provision for (Recovery of) Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance,
June 30, 2021
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$3.6 $(0.4)$— $— $3.2 
Municipal & nonprofit15.2 0.7 — — 15.9 
Tech & innovation23.0 (0.6)2.0 (0.1)20.5 
Equity fund resources0.9 0.2 — — 1.1 
Other commercial and industrial78.4 (2.0)0.3 (0.3)76.4 
CRE - owner occupied9.7 (0.4)— — 9.3 
Hotel franchise finance49.4 — — — 49.4 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied32.7 (4.1)— (1.2)29.8 
Residential3.2 4.8 — (0.1)8.1 
Construction and land development25.9 (11.8)— — 14.1 
Other5.1 (0.5)— (0.5)5.1 
Total$247.1 $(14.1)$2.3 $(2.2)$232.9 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
Balance,
January 1, 2020
Provision for (Recovery of) Credit LossesWrite-offsRecoveriesBalance,
June 30, 2021
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$3.4 $(0.2)$— $— $3.2 
Municipal & nonprofit15.9 — — — 15.9 
Tech & innovation33.4 (11.2)2.0 (0.3)20.5 
Equity fund resources1.9 (0.8)— — 1.1 
Other commercial and industrial94.7 (18.5)0.4 (0.6)76.4 
CRE - owner occupied18.6��(9.3)— — 9.3 
Hotel franchise finance43.3 6.1 — — 49.4 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied39.9 (9.5)2.0 (1.4)29.8 
Residential0.8 7.2 — (0.1)8.1 
Construction and land development22.0 (7.9)— — 14.1 
Other5.0 (0.4)— (0.5)5.1 
Total$278.9 $(44.5)$4.4 $(2.9)$232.9 
Accrued interest receivable on loans totaled $237 million and $198 million at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, and is excluded from the estimate of credit losses, except for accrued interest related to the Residential-EBO loan portfolio segment, which has an allowance of $7 million as of June 30, 2022.
In addition to the allowance for credit losses on funded HFI loans, the Company maintains a separate allowance for credit losses related to off-balance sheet credit exposures, including unfunded loan commitments. This allowance is included in Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The below table reflects the activity in the allowance for credit losses on unfunded loan commitments:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2022202120222021
(in millions)
Balance, beginning of period$43.3 $32.6 $37.6 $37.0 
Provision for (recovery of) credit losses10.5 (1.3)16.2 (5.7)
Balance, end of period$53.8 $31.3 $53.8 $31.3 
45

The following tables disaggregate the Company's allowance for credit losses on funded HFI loans and loan balances by measurement methodology:
June 30, 2022
LoansAllowance
Collectively Evaluated for Credit LossIndividually Evaluated for Credit LossTotalCollectively Evaluated for Credit LossIndividually Evaluated for Credit LossTotal
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$5,132 $ $5,132 $3.7 $ $3.7 
Municipal & nonprofit1,548  1,548 13.6  13.6 
Tech & innovation1,644 4 1,648 24.5 0.9 25.4 
Equity fund resources4,752  4,752 14.0  14.0 
Other commercial and industrial7,802 30 7,832 115.0 4.2 119.2 
CRE - owner occupied1,657 24 1,681 7.5  7.5 
Hotel franchise finance2,929 183 3,112 27.1 6.7 33.8 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied4,587 38 4,625 22.1  22.1 
Residential12,967  12,967 18.8  18.8 
Residential EBO1,897  1,897    
Construction and land development3,185 14 3,199 12.2  12.2 
Other179  179 2.9  2.9 
Total$48,279 $293 $48,572 $261.4 $11.8 $273.2 
December 31, 2021
LoansAllowance
Collectively Evaluated for Credit LossIndividually Evaluated for Credit LossTotalCollectively Evaluated for Credit LossIndividually Evaluated for Credit LossTotal
(in millions)
Warehouse lending$5,156 $— $5,156 $3.0 $— $3.0 
Municipal & nonprofit1,579 — 1,579 13.7 — 13.7 
Tech & innovation1,401 17 1,418 22.9 2.8 25.7 
Equity fund resources3,830 — 3,830 9.6 — 9.6 
Other commercial and industrial6,442 23 6,465 101.1 2.5 103.6 
CRE - owner occupied1,699 24 1,723 10.6 — 10.6 
Hotel franchise finance2,378 156 2,534 30.7 10.8 41.5 
Other CRE - non-owner occupied3,917 35 3,952 16.9 — 16.9 
Residential9,243 — 9,243 12.5 — 12.5 
Construction and land development2,998 3,006 12.5 — 12.5 
Other169 — 169 2.9 — 2.9 
Total$38,812 $263 $39,075 $236.4 $16.1 $252.5 
Loan Purchases and Sales
Loan purchases during the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 totaled $3.1 billion and $2.4 billion, respectively, which primarily consisted of residential loan purchases. Loan purchases during the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 totaled $5.5 billion and $3.4 billion, respectively, which primarily consisted of residential loan purchases. There were no loans purchased with more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company did not have significant sales of HFI loans.

46

6. MORTGAGE SERVICING RIGHTS
The Company acquired MSRs initially as part of the AmeriHome acquisition and continues to generate new MSRs from its mortgage banking business. The following table presents the changes in fair value of the Company's MSR assets and other information related to its servicing portfolio:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
20222021 (1)
(in millions)
Balance, beginning of period$950 $— $698 
Acquired in AmeriHome acquisition 1,376  
Additions from loans sold with servicing rights retained194 282 398 
MSRs sold(350)(872)(350)
Change in fair value62 143 
Realization of cash flows(30)(67)(63)
Balance, end of period$826 $726 $826 
Unpaid principal balance of mortgage loans serviced for others$52,184 $57,089 
(1)Does not include the effect of acquisition measurement period adjustments recorded during the fourth quarter of 2021, as disclosed in the Company's audited Consolidated Financial Statements.
Changes in the fair value of MSRs are recorded as part of Net loan servicing revenue in the Consolidated Income Statement. Due to the regulatory capital impact of MSRs on capital ratios, the Company sells certain MSRs and related servicing advances in the normal course of business. These sales had an aggregate net sales price of $350 million and were completed during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022. The UPB of loans underlying these sales totaled $24.1 billion. During the period from the AmeriHome acquisition date through June 30, 2021, the Company completed sales of MSRs and related servicing advances with an aggregate net sales price of $872 million and UPB of loans underlying these sales of $65.3 billion. As of June 30, 2022, the Company had a remaining receivable balance of $68 million related to holdbacks on MSR sales for pending servicing transfer, which was recorded as part of Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
The Company receives loan servicing fees, net of subservicing costs, based on the UPB of the underlying loans. Loan servicing fees are collected from payments made by borrowers. The Company may receive other remuneration from rights to various borrower contracted fees, such as late charges, collateral reconveyance charges, and non-sufficient funds fees. Contractually specified servicing fees, late fees, and ancillary income associated with the Company's MSR portfolio totaled $48.9 million and $91.8 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, and $61.0 million for the period from the AmeriHome acquisition date through June 30, 2021, which are recorded as part of Net loan servicing revenue in the Consolidated Income Statement.
In accordance with its contractual loan servicing obligations, the Company is required to advance funds to or on behalf of investors when borrowers do not make payments. The Company advances property taxes and insurance premiums for borrowers who have insufficient funds in escrow accounts, plus any other costs to preserve real estate properties. The Company may also advance funds to maintain, repair, and market foreclosed real estate properties. The Company is entitled to recover all or a portion of the advances from borrowers of reinstated and performing loans, from the proceeds of liquidated properties or from the government agency or GSE guarantor of charged-off loans. Servicing advances are charged-off when they are deemed to be uncollectible. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, net servicing advances totaled $68 million and $82 million, respectively, which are recorded as part of Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
47

The following table presents the effect of hypothetical changes in the fair value of MSRs caused by assumed immediate changes in interest rates, discount rates, and prepayment speeds that are used to determine fair value:
June 30, 2022
(in millions)
Fair value of mortgage servicing rights$826 
Increase (decrease) in fair value resulting from:
Interest rate change of 50 basis points
Adverse change(35)
Favorable change27 
Discount rate change of 50 basis points
Increase(16)
Decrease17 
Conditional prepayment rate change of 1%
Increase(23)
Decrease25 
Cost to service change of 10%
Increase(10)
Decrease10 
Sensitivities are hypothetical changes in fair value and cannot be extrapolated because the relationship of changes in assumptions to changes in fair value may not be linear. In addition, the offsetting effect of hedging activities are not contemplated in these results and further, the effect of a variation in a particular assumption is calculated without changing any other assumptions, whereas a change in one factor may result in changes to another. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that actual results would be consistent with the results of these estimates. As a result, actual future changes in MSR values may differ significantly from those reported.
7. OTHER BORROWINGS
The following table summarizes the Company’s borrowings as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021: 
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
(in millions)
Short-Term:
Federal funds purchased$1,860 $675 
FHLB advances2,000 — 
Repurchase agreements79 17 
Secured borrowings40 35 
Total short-term borrowings$3,979 $727 
Long-Term:
AmeriHome senior notes, net of fair value adjustment$316 $318 
Credit linked notes, net of debt issuance costs915 457 
Total long-term borrowings$1,231 $775 
Total other borrowings$5,210 $1,502 
Short-Term Borrowings
Federal Funds Lines of Credit
The Company maintains federal fund lines of credit totaling $3.4 billion as of June 30, 2022, which have rates comparable to the federal funds effective rate plus 0.10% to 0.20%.
FHLB Advances
The Company also maintains secured lines of credit with the FHLB and the FRB. The Company’s borrowing capacity is determined based on collateral pledged, generally consisting of investment securities and loans, at the time of the borrowing. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had additional available credit with the FHLB of approximately $7.8 billion, and with the FRB of approximately $4.7 billion and $3.4 billion, respectively. The weighted average rate on FHLB advances was 1.68% as of June 30, 2022.
48

Repurchase Agreements
Other short-term borrowing sources available to the Company include customer and securities repurchase agreements. The weighted average rate on customer repurchase agreements was 0.15% as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 and was 1.96% for securities repurchase agreements as of June 30, 2022.
Secured Borrowings
Secured borrowings consist of transfers of loans HFS not qualifying for sales accounting treatment. The weighted average interest rate on secured borrowings was 4.75% and 3.05% as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Warehouse Borrowings
Warehouse borrowing lines of credit are used to finance the acquisition of loans through the use of repurchase agreements. Repurchase agreements operate as financings under which the Company transfers loans to secure these borrowings. The borrowing amounts are based on the attributes of the collateralized loans and are defined in the repurchase agreement of each warehouse lender. The Company retains beneficial ownership of the transferred loans and will receive the loans from the lender upon full repayment of the borrowing. The repurchase agreements may require the Company to transfer additional assets to the lender in the event the estimated fair value of the existing transferred loans declines.
As of June 30, 2022, the Company had access to approximately $1.0 billion in uncommitted warehouse funding, of which no amounts were drawn.
Long-Term Borrowings
AmeriHome Senior Notes
Prior to the Company's acquisition of AmeriHome, in October 2020, AmeriHome issued senior notes with an aggregate principal amount of $300 million, maturing on October 26, 2028. The senior notes accrue interest at a rate of 6.50% per annum, paid semiannually. The senior notes contain provisions that allow for redemption of up to 40% of the original aggregate principal amount of the notes during the first three years after issuance at a price equal to 106.50%, plus accrued and unpaid interest. After this three-year period, AmeriHome may redeem some or all of the senior notes at a price equal to 103.25% of the outstanding principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest. In 2025, the redemption price of these senior notes declines to 100% of the outstanding principal balance. The carrying amount of the senior notes includes a fair value adjustment (premium) of $19 million recognized as of the acquisition date that is being amortized over the term of the notes.
Credit Linked Notes
The Company has entered into credit linked note transactions that effectively transfer the risk of first losses on certain pools of the Company’s warehouse and equity fund resource loans to the purchasers of these notes. In the event of a failure to pay by the relevant obligor, insolvency of the relevant obligor, or restructuring of such loans that results in a loss on a loan that is included in any of the reference pools, the principal balance of the notes will be reduced to the extent of such loss and a gain on recovery of credit guarantees will be recognized within non-interest income in the Consolidated Income Statement. The purchasers of the notes have the option to acquire the underlying reference loan in the event of obligor default. Losses on the warehouse lines of credit, residential mortgages, and equity fund resource loans have not generally been significant.
On June 28, 2021, the Company issued $242 million aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured credit linked notes, which were recorded net of $3 million in debt issuance costs, on a $963 million reference pool of the Company's warehouse loans. The notes mature on December 30, 2024 and accrue interest at a rate equal to three-month LIBOR plus 5.50%, (which will convert to SOFR upon the discontinuation of LIBOR in June 2023), payable quarterly.
On June 23, 2022, the Company issued $300 million aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured credit linked notes, which were recorded net of $5 million in debt issuance costs, on a $2.2 billion reference pool of the Company's equity fund resource loans. The notes mature on June 30, 2028 and accrue interest at a rate equal to SOFR plus 6.75%, payable quarterly.
The Company has also entered into credit linked note transactions that effectively transfer the risk of first losses on reference pools of the Company's loans purchased under its residential mortgage purchase program to the purchasers of the notes. The principal and interest payable on these notes may be reduced by a portion of the Company's loss on such loans if one of the following occurs with respect to a covered loan: (i) realized losses incurred by the Company on a loan following a liquidation of the loan or certain other events, or (ii) a modification of the loan resulting in a reduction in payments. The aggregate losses, if any, for each payment date will be allocated to reduce the class principal amount and (for modifications) the current interest of the notes in reverse order of class priority.
49

On December 29, 2021, the Company issued $228 million aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured credit linked notes, which were recorded net of $3 million in debt issuance costs, on a $4.1 billion reference pool of the Company's residential loans. There are six classes of these notes, each with an interest rate of SOFR plus a spread that ranges from 3.15% to 8.50% (or, a weighted average spread of 4.67%), maturing on July 25, 2059.
On June 30, 2022, the Company issued $194 million aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured credit linked notes, which were recorded net of $3 million in debt issuance costs, on a $3.9 billion reference pool of the Company's residential loans. There are multiple classes of these notes, each with an interest rate of SOFR plus a spread that ranges from 2.25% to 15.00% (or, a weighted average spread of 6.00%), maturing on April 25, 2052.
8. QUALIFYING DEBT
Subordinated Debt
The Company's subordinated debt issuances are detailed in the tables below:
June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021
DescriptionIssuance DateMaturity DateInterest RatePrincipalDebt Issuance Costs at Origination
(in millions)
WAL fixed-to-variable-rate (1)June 2021June 15, 20313.00 %$600 $8 
WAB fixed-to-variable-rate (2)May 2020June 1, 20305.25 %225 3 
Total$825 $11 
(1)    Notes are redeemable, in whole or in part, beginning on June 15, 2026 at their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest and has a fixed interest rate of 3.00%. The notes also convert to a variable rate on this date, which is expected to be three-month SOFR plus 225 basis points.
(2)    Debt is redeemable, in whole or in part, on or after June 1, 2025 at its principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest and has a fixed interest rate of 5.25% through June 1, 2025 and then converts to a variable rate per annum equal to three-month SOFR plus 512 basis points.
The carrying value of all subordinated debt issuances totaled $816 million and $815 million at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Junior Subordinated Debt
The Company has formed or acquired through acquisition 8 statutory business trusts, which exist for the exclusive purpose of issuing Cumulative Trust Preferred Securities.
With the exception of debt issued by Bridge Capital Trust I and Bridge Capital Trust II, junior subordinated debt is recorded at fair value at each reporting date due to the FVO election made by the Company under ASC 825. The Company did not make the FVO election for the junior subordinated debt acquired as part of the Bridge acquisition. Accordingly, the carrying value of these trusts does not reflect the current fair value of the debt and includes a fair market value adjustment established at acquisition that is being accreted over the remaining life of the trusts.
The carrying value of junior subordinated debt was $75 million and $81 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. The weighted average interest rate of all junior subordinated debt as of June 30, 2022 was 4.62%, which is equal to three-month LIBOR plus the contractual spread of 2.34%, compared to a weighted average interest rate of 2.55% at December 31, 2021. Subsequent to June 30, 2023, interest rates on the Company's junior subordinated debt will be based on SOFR.
In the event of certain changes or amendments to regulatory requirements or federal tax rules, the debt is redeemable in whole. The obligations under these instruments are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company and rank subordinate and junior in right of payment to all other liabilities of the Company. Based on guidance issued by the FRB, the Company's securities continue to qualify as Tier 1 Capital.
9. STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Stock-Based Compensation
Restricted Stock Awards
Restricted stock awards granted to employees generally vest over a 3-year period. Stock grants made to non-employee WAL directors in 2022 will be fully vested on July 1, 2022. The Company estimates the compensation cost for stock grants based upon the grant date fair value. Stock compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award. The aggregate grant date fair value for the restricted stock awards granted during the three and six
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months ended June 30, 2022 was $1.4 million and $41.4 million, respectively. Stock compensation expense related to restricted stock awards granted to employees is included in Salaries and employee benefits in the Consolidated Income Statement. For restricted stock awards granted to WAL directors, the related stock compensation expense is included in Legal, professional, and directors' fees. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company recognized $7.6 million and $14.7 million, respectively, in stock-based compensation expense related to these stock grants, compared to $6.6 million and $12.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively.
In addition, the Company previously granted shares of restricted stock to certain members of executive management that had both performance and service conditions that affect vesting. There were no such grants made during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, however expense was still being recognized through June 30, 2021 for a grant made in 2017 with a four-year vesting period. The Company recognized $0.3 million and $0.6 million in stock-based compensation expense related to these performance-based restricted stock grants during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively.
Performance Stock Units
The Company grants performance stock units to members of its executive management that do not vest unless the Company achieves a specified cumulative EPS target and a TSR performance measure over a three-year performance period. The number of shares issued will vary based on the cumulative EPS target and relative TSR performance factor that is achieved. The Company estimates the cost of performance stock units based upon the grant date fair value and expected vesting percentage over the three-year performance period. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company recognized $3.4 million and $6.2 million, respectively, in stock-based compensation expense related to these performance stock units, compared to $2.5 million and $4.6 million in stock-based compensation expense for such units during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively.
The three-year performance period for the 2019 grant ended on December 31, 2021, and the Company's cumulative EPS and TSR performance measure for the performance period exceeded the level required for a maximum award under the terms of the grant. As a result, 203,646 shares became fully vested and distributed to executive management in the first quarter of 2022.
Preferred Stock
On September 15, 2021, the Company entered into an underwriting agreement, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell an aggregate of 12,000,000 depositary shares, each representing a 1/400th ownership interest in a share of the Company’s 4.250% Fixed-Rate Reset Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Shares, Series A, par value $0.0001 per share, with a liquidation preference of $25 per depositary share (equivalent to $10,000 per share of Series A preferred stock).
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company declared and paid a quarterly cash dividend of $0.27 per depositary share, for a total dividend payment to preferred shareholders of $3.2 million and $6.4 million, respectively.
Common Stock Issuances
Pursuant to ATM Distribution Agreement
The Company has a distribution agency agreement with J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and Piper Sandler & Co., under which the Company may sell up to 6,132,670 shares of its common stock on the NYSE. The Company pays the distribution agents a mutually agreed rate, not to exceed 2% of the gross offering proceeds of the shares sold pursuant to the distribution agency agreement. The common stock will be sold at prevailing market prices at the time of the sale or at negotiated prices and, as a result, prices will vary. Sales under the ATM program are being made pursuant to a prospectus dated May 14, 2021 and prospectus supplements filed with the SEC in an offering of shares from the Company's shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (No. 333-256120). During the three months ended June 30, 2022, the Company did not sell any shares under the ATM program. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company sold 1.3 million shares under the ATM program at a weighted-average selling price of $86.78 per share for gross proceeds of $108.4 million. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company sold 700,000 shares under the ATM program at a weighted-average selling price of $100.59 per share for gross proceeds of $70.4 million. Total related offering costs were $0.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022, substantially all of which relates to compensation costs paid to the distribution agents, and $0.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, of which $0.4 million relates to compensation costs paid to the distribution agent. As of June 30, 2022, the remaining number of shares that can be sold under this agreement totaled 1,750,856.
Registered Direct Offering
The Company sold 2.3 million shares of its common stock in a registered direct offering during the six months ended June 30, 2021. The shares were sold for $91.00 per share for aggregate net proceeds of $209.2 million.
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Cash Dividend on Common Shares
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company declared and paid a quarterly cash dividend of $0.35, for a total dividend payment to shareholders of $37.9 million and $75.2 million, respectively. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company declared and paid a quarterly cash dividend of $0.25 per share, for a total dividend payment to shareholders of $25.8 million and $51.1 million, respectively.
Treasury Shares
Treasury share purchases represent shares surrendered to the Company equal in value to the statutory payroll tax withholding obligations arising from the vesting of employee restricted stock awards. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company purchased treasury shares of 2,635 and 188,169, respectively, at a weighted average price of $77.50 and $93.29 per share, respectively. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company purchased treasury shares of 2,256 and 156,419, respectively, at a weighted average price of $106.23 and $83.89 per share, respectively.
10. ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
The following table summarizes the changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) by component, net of tax, for the periods indicated: 
Three Months Ended June 30,
Unrealized holding gains (losses) on AFS securitiesUnrealized holding losses on SERPUnrealized holding gains (losses) on junior subordinated debtTotal
(in millions)
Balance, March 31, 2022$(236.3)$(0.3)$1.5 $(235.1)
Other comprehensive (loss) income before reclassifications(284.5) 2.0 (282.5)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI(0.3)  (0.3)
Net current-period other comprehensive (loss) income(284.8) 2.0 (282.8)
Balance, June 30, 2022$(521.1)$(0.3)$3.5 $(517.9)
Balance, March 31, 2021$20.0 $(0.3)$0.2 $19.9 
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications44.8 — (0.2)44.6 
Amounts reclassified from AOCI— — — — 
Net current-period other comprehensive income (loss)44.8 — (0.2)44.6 
Balance, June 30, 2021$64.8 $(0.3)$— $64.5 
Six Months Ended June 30,
Unrealized holding gains (losses) on AFS securitiesUnrealized holding losses on SERPUnrealized holding gains (losses) on junior subordinated debtTotal
(in millions)
Balance, December 31, 2021$16.7 $(0.3)$(0.7)$15.7 
Other comprehensive (loss) income before reclassifications(532.4) 4.2 (528.2)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI(5.4)  (5.4)
Net current-period other comprehensive (loss) income(537.8) 4.2 (533.6)
Balance, June 30, 2022$(521.1)$(0.3)$3.5 $(517.9)
Balance, December 31, 2020$92.1 $(0.3)$0.5 $92.3 
Other comprehensive loss before reclassifications(27.2)— (0.5)(27.7)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI(0.1)— — (0.1)
Net current-period other comprehensive loss(27.3)— (0.5)(27.8)
Balance, June 30, 2021$64.8 $(0.3)$— $64.5 

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11. DERIVATIVES AND HEDGING ACTIVITIES
The Company is a party to various derivative instruments. Derivative instruments are contracts between two or more parties that have a notional amount and an underlying variable, require a small or no initial investment, and allow for the net settlement of positions. A derivative’s notional amount serves as the basis for the payment provision of the contract and takes the form of units, such as shares or dollars. A derivative’s underlying variable is a specified interest rate, security price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index, or other variable. The interaction between the notional amount and the underlying variable determines the number of units to be exchanged between the parties and influences the fair value of the derivative contract.
The primary types of derivatives that the Company uses are interest rate swaps, forward purchase and sale commitments, and interest rate futures. Generally, these instruments are used to help manage the Company's exposure to interest rate risk related to IRLCs and its inventory of loans HFS and MSRs and also to meet client financing and hedging needs.
Derivatives are recorded at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, after taking into account the effects of bilateral collateral and master netting agreements. These agreements allow the Company to settle all derivative contracts held with the same counterparty on a net basis, and to offset net derivative positions with related cash collateral, where applicable.
Derivatives Designated in Hedge Relationships
The Company utilizes derivatives that have been designated as part of a hedge relationship in accordance with the applicable accounting guidance to minimize the exposure to changes in benchmark interest rates and volatility of net interest income and EVE to interest rate fluctuations. The primary derivative instruments used to manage interest rate risk are interest rate swaps, which convert the contractual interest rate index of agreed-upon amounts of assets and liabilities (i.e., notional amounts) from either a fixed rate to a variable rate, or from a variable rate to a fixed rate.
The Company has pay fixed/receive variable interest rate swaps designated as fair value hedges of certain fixed rate loans. As a result, the Company receives variable-rate interest payments in exchange for making fixed-rate payments over the lives of the contracts without exchanging the notional amounts. The variable-rate interest payments are based on LIBOR and will convert to SOFR upon the discontinuation of LIBOR in June 2023.
The Company also had pay fixed/receive variable interest rate swaps, designated as fair value hedges using the last-of-layer method to manage the exposure to changes in fair value associated with fixed rate loans, resulting from changes in the designated benchmark interest rate (federal funds rate). These last-of-layer hedges provided the Company the ability to execute a fair value hedge of the interest rate risk associated with a portfolio of similar prepayable assets whereby the last dollar amount estimated to remain in the portfolio of assets was identified as the hedged item. Under these interest rate swap contracts, the Company received a variable rate and paid a fixed rate on the outstanding notional amount. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company completed a partial discontinuation of one of its last-of-layer hedges, which reduced the total hedged amount on these hedges from $1.0 billion to $880 million. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company discontinued the remaining portion of these last-of-layer hedges. The cumulative basis adjustment on the discontinued last-of-layer hedges totaled $31 million, which was allocated across the remaining loan pool upon termination of the hedges and is being amortized over the remaining term.
The Company had a receive fixed/pay variable interest rate swap, designated as a fair value hedge on its $175 million subordinated debentures issued on June 16, 2016. This swap was terminated during the year ended December 31, 2021 in connection with the full redemption of the debt. The Company was paying a variable rate of three-month LIBOR plus 3.25% and was receiving quarterly fixed payments of 6.25% to match the payments on the debt.
Derivatives Not Designated in Hedge Relationships
Management enters into certain foreign exchange derivative contracts and back-to-back interest rate swaps which are not designated as accounting hedges. Foreign exchange derivative contracts include spot, forward, forward window, and swap contracts. The purpose of these derivative contracts is to mitigate foreign currency risk on transactions entered into, or on behalf of customers. Contracts with customers, along with the related derivative trades that the Company places, are both remeasured at fair value, and are referred to as economic hedges since they economically offset the Company's exposure. The Company's back-to-back interest rate swaps are used to allow customers to manage long-term interest rate risk.
As it relates to the Company's mortgage banking business, it also uses derivative financial instruments to manage exposure to interest rate risk related to IRLCs and its inventory of loans HFS and MSRs. The Company economically hedges the changes in fair value associated with changes in interest rates generally by utilizing forward sale commitments and interest rate futures.
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Fair Value Hedges
As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the following amounts are reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets related to cumulative basis adjustments for outstanding fair value hedges:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
Carrying Value of Hedged Assets/(Liabilities)Cumulative Fair Value Hedging Adjustment (1)Carrying Value of Hedged Assets/(Liabilities)Cumulative Fair Value Hedging Adjustment (1)
(in millions)
Loans HFI, net of deferred loan fees and costs (2)$494 $6 $1,391 $39 
(1)Included in the carrying value of the hedged assets/(liabilities).
(2)As of December 31, 2021, included last-of-layer derivative instruments, with $880 million designated as the hedged amount (from a closed portfolio of prepayable fixed rate loans with a carrying value of $1.4 billion). The cumulative basis adjustment included in the carrying value of these hedged items totaled $16 million and the basis adjustment related to the discontinued portion was $1 million as of December 31, 2021.
For the Company's derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as a fair value hedge, the gain or loss on the derivative instrument as well as the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in current earnings in the same line item as the offsetting loss or gain on the related interest rate swaps. For loans, the gain or loss on the hedged item is included in interest income and for subordinated debt, the gain or loss on the hedged items was included in interest expense, as shown in the table below.
Three Months Ended June 30,
20222021
Income Statement ClassificationGain/(Loss) on SwapsGain/(Loss) on Hedged ItemGain/(Loss) on SwapsGain/(Loss) on Hedged Item
(in millions)
Interest income$15.2 $(15.2)$(10.8)$10.8 
Interest expense  3.7 (3.7)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20222021
Income Statement ClassificationGain/(Loss) on SwapsGain/(Loss) on Hedged ItemGain/(Loss) on SwapsGain/(Loss) on Hedged Item
(in millions)
Interest income$48.7 $(48.7)$27.9 $(27.9)
Interest expense  (1.9)1.9 
In addition to the gains and losses on the Company's outstanding fair value hedges presented in the above table, the Company recognized $3.0 million and $4.0 million in interest income related to the amortization of the cumulative basis adjustment on its discontinued last-of-layer hedges during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively.
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Fair Values, Volume of Activity, and Gain/Loss Information Related to Derivative Instruments
The following table summarizes the fair value of the Company's derivative instruments on a gross basis as of June 30, 2022, December 31, 2021, and June 30, 2021. The change in the notional amounts of these derivatives from June 30, 2021 to June 30, 2022 indicates the volume of the Company's derivative transaction activity during these periods. The derivative asset and liability balances are presented on a gross basis, prior to the application of bilateral collateral and master netting agreements. Total derivative assets and liabilities are adjusted to take into account the impact of legally enforceable master netting agreements that allow the Company to settle all derivative contracts with the same counterparty on a net basis and to offset the net derivative position with the related cash collateral. Where master netting agreements are not in effect or are not enforceable under bankruptcy laws, the Company does not adjust those derivative amounts with counterparties.
 June 30, 2022December 31, 2021June 30, 2021
Fair ValueFair ValueFair Value
Notional
Amount
Derivative AssetsDerivative LiabilitiesNotional
Amount
Derivative AssetsDerivative LiabilitiesNotional
Amount
Derivative AssetsDerivative Liabilities
(in millions)
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
Fair value hedges
Interest rate swaps (1)$500 $5 $11 $1,383 $14 $55 $1,682 $$66 
Total500 5 11 1,383 14 55 1,682 66 
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments (2):
Foreign currency contracts$138 $1 $ $180 $— $$132 $$
Forward purchase contracts4,764 32 10 11,714 18 7,293 22 
Forward sales contracts9,621 35 35 17,358 16 18 12,156 10 33 
Futures purchase contracts (3)192,369   218,054 — — 230,600 — — 
Futures sales contracts (3)197,741   229,040 — — 248,399 — — 
Interest rate lock commitments2,819 15 3 3,033 11 3,753 32 
Interest rate swaps64   — — — — 
Options contracts   — — — 650 — 
Total$407,516 $83 $48 $479,383 $35 $39 $502,986 $67 $38 
Margin(9)24 — — 
Total, including margin$407,516 $74 $72 $479,383 $36 $45 $502,986 $67 $38 
(1)Interest rate swap amounts include a notional amount of $880 million and $1.0 billion related to the last-of-layer hedges at December 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, respectively.
(2)Relate to economic hedging arrangements.
(3)The Company enters into forward purchase and sales contracts that are subject to daily remargining and almost all of which are based on three-month LIBOR to hedge against its MSR valuation exposure. The notional amount on these contracts is substantial as these contracts have a duration of only 0.25 years and are intended to cover the longer duration of MSR hedges.

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The fair value of derivative contracts, after taking into account the effects of master netting agreements, is included in other assets or other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, as summarized in the table below:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021June 30, 2021
Gross amount of recognized assets (liabilities)Gross offsetNet assets (liabilities)Gross amount of recognized assets (liabilities)Gross offsetNet assets (liabilities)Gross amount of recognized assets (liabilities)Gross offsetNet assets (liabilities)
(in millions)
Derivatives subject to master netting arrangements:
Assets
Forward purchase contracts$31 $ $31 $$— $$21 $— $21 
Forward sales contracts33  33 15 — 15 10 — 10 
Interest rate swaps5  5 14 — 14 — 
Margin(9) (9)— — — — 
Netting (55)(55)— (28)(28)— (31)(31)
$60 $(55)$5 $38 $(28)$10 $40 $(31)$
Liabilities
Forward purchase contracts$(10)$ $(10)$(18)$— $(18)$(3)$— $(3)
Forward sales contracts(34) (34)(18)— (18)(33)— (33)
Interest rate swaps(11) (11)(54)— (54)(66)— (66)
Margin(24) (24)(6)— (6)— — — 
Netting 55 55 — 28 28 — 31 31 
$(79)$55 $(24)$(96)$28 $(68)$(102)$31 $(71)
Derivatives not subject to master netting arrangements:
Assets
Foreign currency contracts$1 $ $1 $— $— $— $$— $
Forward purchase contracts1  1 — — — — — — 
Forward sales contracts2  2 — — — — 
Interest rate lock commitments15  15 11 — 11 32 — 32 
Options contracts   — — — — 
$19 $ $19 $12 $— $12 $36 $— $36 
Liabilities
Foreign currency contracts$ $ $ $(2)$— $(2)$(1)$— $(1)
Forward sales contracts(1) (1)— — — — — — 
Interest rate lock commitments(3) (3)(2)— (2)(1)— (1)
$(4)$ $(4)$(4)$— $(4)$(2)$— $(2)
Total derivatives and margin
Assets$79 $(55)$24 $50 $(28)$22 $76 $(31)$45 
Liabilities$(83)$55 $(28)$(100)$28 $(72)$(104)$31 $(73)

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The following table summarizes the net gain (loss) on derivatives included in income:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
20222021
($ in millions)
Net gain (loss) on loan origination and sale activities:
Interest rate lock commitments$23.2 $19.6 $2.4 
Forward contracts101.0 (67.7)342.3 
Other contracts(6.1)2.3 (9.8)
Total gain$118.1 $(45.8)$334.9 
Net loan servicing revenue:
Forward contracts$(8.0)$12.7 $(42.9)
Options contracts (1.0) 
Futures contracts(21.9)24.6 (43.9)
Total loss$(29.9)$36.3 $(86.8)
Counterparty Credit Risk
Like other financial instruments, derivatives contain an element of credit risk. This risk is measured as the expected replacement value of the contracts. Management enters into bilateral collateral and master netting agreements that provide for the net settlement of all contracts with the same counterparty. Additionally, management monitors counterparty credit risk exposure on each contract to determine appropriate limits on the Company's total credit exposure across all product types, which may require the Company to post collateral to counterparties when these contracts are in a net liability position and conversely, for counterparties to post collateral to the Company when these contracts are in a net asset position. Management reviews the Company's collateral positions on a daily basis and exchanges collateral with counterparties in accordance with standard ISDA documentation and other related agreements. The Company generally posts or holds collateral in the form of cash deposits or highly rated securities issued by the U.S. Treasury or government-sponsored enterprises, such as GNMA, FNMA, and FHLMC. The total collateral pledged by the Company to counterparties for its derivatives designated as hedging instruments totaled $27 million, $67 million, and $104 million as of June 30, 2022, December 31, 2021, and June 30, 2021, respectively.
12. EARNINGS PER SHARE
Diluted EPS is based on the weighted average outstanding common shares during the period, including common stock equivalents. Basic EPS is based on the weighted average outstanding common shares during the period.
The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted EPS: 
 Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 2022202120222021
 (in millions, except per share amounts)
Weighted average shares - basic107.3 102.7 106.7 101.8 
Dilutive effect of stock awards0.4 0.7 0.4 0.6 
Weighted average shares - diluted107.7 103.4 107.1 102.4 
Net income available to common stockholders$257.0 $223.8 $493.9 $416.3 
Earnings per share - basic2.40 2.18 4.63 4.09 
Earnings per share - diluted2.39 2.17 4.61 4.07 
The Company had no anti-dilutive stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2022 and 2021.
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13. INCOME TAXES
The Company's effective tax rate was 19.6% and 19.0% for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company's effective tax rate was 19.5% and 18.5%, respectively. The increase in the effective tax rate was primarily due to projected pretax book income growth outpacing growth in permanent tax benefit items for the year and an increase in state tax expense.
As of June 30, 2022, the net DTA balance totaled $223 million, an increase of $202 million from $21 million at December 31, 2021. This overall increase in the net DTA was primarily the result of decreases in the fair market value of AFS securities and expected tax credit carryovers. These items were not fully offset by increases to MSRs.
Although realization is not assured, the Company believes that the realization of the recognized deferred tax asset of $223 million at June 30, 2022 is more-likely-than-not based on expectations as to future taxable income and based on available tax planning strategies that could be implemented if necessary to prevent a carryover from expiring.
At June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had no deferred tax valuation allowance.
LIHTC and renewable energy projects
The Company holds ownership interests in limited partnerships and limited liability companies that invest in affordable housing and renewable energy projects. These investments are designed to generate a return primarily through the realization of federal tax credits and deductions. The limited liability entities are considered to be VIEs; however, as a limited partner, the Company is not the primary beneficiary and is not required to consolidate these entities.
Investments in LIHTC and renewable energy totaled $722 million and $631 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Unfunded LIHTC and renewable energy obligations are included as part of Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and totaled $424 million and $361 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. For the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, $15.4 million and $8.2 million, respectively, of amortization related to LIHTC investments was recognized as a component of income tax expense. For the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, $28.8 million and $23.7 million, respectively, of amortization related to LIHTC investments was recognized as a component of income tax expense.
14. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Unfunded Commitments and Letters of Credit
The Company is party to financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk in the normal course of business to meet the financing needs of its customers. These financial instruments include commitments to extend credit and letters of credit. They involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit risk in excess of amounts recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Lines of credit are obligations to lend money to a borrower. Credit risk arises when the borrower's current financial condition may indicate less ability to pay than when the commitment was originally made. In the case of letters of credit, the risk arises from the potential failure of the customer to perform according to the terms of a contract. In such a situation, the third party might draw on the letter of credit to pay for completion of the contract and the Company would look to its customer to repay these funds with interest. To minimize the risk, the Company uses the same credit policies in making commitments and conditional obligations as it would for a loan to that customer.
Letters of credit and financial guarantees are commitments issued by the Company to guarantee the performance of a customer to a third party in borrowing arrangements. The Company generally has recourse to recover from the customer any amounts paid under the guarantees. Typically, letters of credit issued have expiration dates within one year.
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A summary of the contractual amounts for unfunded commitments and letters of credit are as follows: 
 June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
 (in millions)
Commitments to extend credit, including unsecured loan commitments of $1,596 at June 30, 2022 and $1,200 at December 31, 2021$16,798 $13,396 
Credit card commitments and financial guarantees346 307 
Letters of credit, including unsecured letters of credit of $5 at June 30, 2022 and $13 at December 31, 2021251 198 
Total$17,395 $13,901 
Commitments to extend credit are agreements to lend to a customer provided that there is no violation of any condition established in the contract. Commitments generally have fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses and may require payment of a fee. The Company enters into credit arrangements that generally provide for the termination of advances in the event of a covenant violation or other event of default. Since many of the commitments are expected to expire without being drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements. The Company evaluates each customer’s creditworthiness on a case-by-case basis. The amount of collateral obtained, if deemed necessary by the Company upon extension of credit, is based on management’s credit evaluation of the party. The commitments are collateralized by the same types of assets used as loan collateral.
The Company has exposure to credit losses from unfunded commitments and letters of credit. As funds have not been disbursed on these commitments, they are not reported as loans outstanding. Credit losses related to these commitments are included in Other liabilities as a separate loss contingency and are not included in the allowance for credit losses reported in "Note 5. Loans, Leases and Allowance for Credit Losses" of these Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements. This loss contingency for unfunded loan commitments and letters of credit was $54 million and $38 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Changes to this liability are adjusted through the provision for credit losses in the Consolidated Income Statement.
Concentrations of Lending Activities
The Company does not have a single external customer from which it derives 10% or more of its revenues. The Company monitors concentrations of lending activities at the product and borrower relationship level. Commercial and industrial loans made up 43% and 47% of the Company's HFI loan portfolio as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. The Company's loan portfolio includes significant credit exposure to the CRE market. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, CRE related loans accounted for approximately 26% and 29% of total loans, respectively. Substantially all of these loans are secured by first liens with an initial loan-to-value ratio of generally not more than 75%. Approximately 19% and 23% of these CRE loans, excluding construction and land loans, were owner-occupied as of June 30, 2022 and as of December 31, 2021, respectively. No borrower relationships at both the commitment and funded loan level exceeded 5% of total HFI loans as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
Contingencies
The Company is involved in various lawsuits of a routine nature that are being handled and defended in the ordinary course of the Company’s business. Expenses are being incurred in connection with these lawsuits, but in the opinion of management, based in part on consultation with outside legal counsel, the resolution of these lawsuits and associated defense costs will not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
Lease Commitments
The Company has operating leases under which it leases its branch offices, corporate headquarters, other offices, and data facility centers. Operating lease costs totaled $6.2 million and $12.1 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to $4.4 million and $8.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. Other lease costs, which include common area maintenance, parking, and taxes, and were included as part of occupancy expense, totaled $1.0 million and $2.1 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to $0.9 million and $1.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021.

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15. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING
The fair value of an asset or liability is the price that would be received to sell that asset or paid to transfer that liability in an orderly transaction occurring in the principal market (or most advantageous market in the absence of a principal market) for such asset or liability. In estimating fair value, the Company utilizes valuation techniques that are consistent with the market approach, the income approach, and/or the cost approach. Such valuation techniques are consistently applied. Inputs to valuation techniques include the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. ASC 825 establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under ASC 825 are described in "Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of these Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
In general, fair value is based upon quoted market prices, where available. If such quoted market prices are not available, fair value is based upon internally-developed models that primarily use, as inputs, observable market-based parameters. Valuation adjustments may be made to ensure that financial instruments are recorded at fair value. These adjustments may include amounts to reflect counterparty credit quality and the Company’s creditworthiness, among other things, as well as unobservable parameters. Any such valuation adjustments are applied consistently over time. The Company’s valuation methodologies may produce a fair value calculation that may not be indicative of net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. While management believes the Company’s valuation methodologies are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date. Furthermore, the reported fair value amounts have not been comprehensively revalued since the presentation dates, and therefore, estimates of fair value after the balance sheet date may differ significantly from the amounts presented herein. A more detailed description of the valuation methodologies used for assets and liabilities measured at fair value is set forth below.
Under ASC 825, the Company elected th