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DLB Dolby Laboratories

Filed: 4 May 21, 5:06pm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 26, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition Period From              To             
Commission File Number: 001-32431
dlb-20210326_g1.jpg
DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware90-0199783
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1275 Market StreetSan FranciscoCalifornia94103-1410
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

(415) 558-0200
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, $0.001 par valueDLBThe New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated Filer  
Non-accelerated Filer  
Smaller Reporting Company  
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No 
On April 23, 2021, the registrant had 65,253,071 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 36,107,779 shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.


DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
FORM 10-Q
For the Fiscal Quarter Ended March 26, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

2

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
The following table summarizes certain terms and abbreviations that may be used within the text of this report:
AbbreviationTerm
AACAdvanced Audio Coding
AFSAvailable-For-Sale (Securities)
AOCIAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASPAverage Selling Price
ASUAccounting Standards Update
ATSCAdvanced Television Systems Committee
AVCAdvanced Video Coding
AVRAudio/Video Receiver
CEConsumer Electronics
CODMChief Operating Decision Maker
COGSCost Of Goods Sold
COSOCommittee Of Sponsoring Organizations (Of The Treadway Commission)
DDDolby Digital®
DD+Dolby Digital Plus™
DMADigital Media Adapter
DTVDigital Television
DVBDigital Video Broadcasting
DVDDigital Versatile Disc
EPSEarnings Per Share
ESPEstimated Selling Price
ESPPEmployee Stock Purchase Plan
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FCPAForeign Corrupt Practices Act
G&AGeneral and Administrative
HDHigh Definition
HDRHigh-Dynamic Range
HDTVHigh Definition Television
HE-AACHigh Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding
HEVCHigh Efficiency Video Coding
HTIBHome Theater In-A-Box
ICIntegrated Circuit
IBRIncremental Borrowing Rate
IPIntellectual Property
LPLimited Partner/Partnership
NOLNet Operating Loss
OECDOrganization For Economic Co-Operation & Development
OEMOriginal Equipment Manufacturer
OTTOver-The-Top
PCPersonal Computer
PCSPost-Contract Support
PP&EProperty, Plant, and Equipment
PSOPerformance-Based Stock Option
PSUPerformance-Based Restricted Stock Unit
R&DResearch and Development
ROURight-Of-Use
RSURestricted Stock Unit
S&MSales and Marketing
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SERPSupplemental Executive Retirement Plan
STBSet-Top Box
TSRTotal Stockholder Return
UHDUltra-High Definition
U.S. GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles In The United States

3

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. UNAUDITED INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(unaudited)

March 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$1,104,570 $1,071,876 
Restricted cash8,926 8,103 
Short-term investments58,582 46,948 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for credit losses of $11,671 and $15,908283,505 180,340 
Contract assets, net of allowance for credit losses of $189 and $0233,379 161,357 
Inventories, net14,881 25,550 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets47,305 53,022 
Total current assets1,751,148 1,547,196 
Long-term investments42,188 52,149 
Property, plant, and equipment, net542,702 541,963 
Operating lease right-of-use assets71,976 76,515 
Intangible assets, net136,944 152,431 
Goodwill338,235 336,945 
Deferred taxes135,551 118,881 
Other non-current assets87,546 91,245 
Total assets$3,106,290 $2,917,325 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$8,385 $12,617 
Accrued liabilities254,163 219,974 
Income taxes payable11,087 3,260 
Contract liabilities20,029 15,436 
Operating lease liabilities15,313 15,822 
Total current liabilities308,977 267,109 
Non-current contract liabilities23,369 24,342 
Non-current operating lease liabilities61,165 65,315 
Other non-current liabilities118,559 122,154 
Total liabilities512,070 478,920 
Stockholders’ equity:
Class A, $0.001 par value, 1 vote per share, 500,000,000 shares authorized: 65,206,586 shares issued and outstanding at March 26, 2021 and 64,167,725 at September 25, 202059 58 
Class B, $0.001 par value, 10 votes per share, 500,000,000 shares authorized: 36,107,779 shares issued and outstanding at March 26, 2021 and 36,128,720 at September 25, 202041 41 
Retained earnings2,591,870 2,443,138 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(4,039)(10,594)
Total stockholders’ equity – Dolby Laboratories, Inc.2,587,931 2,432,643 
Controlling interest6,289 5,762 
Total stockholders’ equity2,594,220 2,438,405 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$3,106,290 $2,917,325 
See accompanying notes to unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements
4

DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
 
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Revenue:
Licensing$303,585 $328,865 $676,590 $586,548 
Products and services15,973 22,950 32,842 57,144 
Total revenue319,558 351,815 709,432 643,692 
Cost of revenue:
Cost of licensing16,060 13,243 29,006 25,585 
Cost of products and services16,318 23,587 38,676 48,560 
Total cost of revenue32,378 36,830 67,682 74,145 
Gross margin287,180 314,985 641,750 569,547 
Operating expenses:
Research and development65,808 60,086 129,580 117,736 
Sales and marketing78,046 88,485 153,491 183,603 
General and administrative59,398 60,800 113,852 113,329 
Gain on sale of assets(13,871)
Restructuring charges/(credits)741 (331)10,764 344 
Total operating expenses203,993 209,040 393,816 415,012 
Operating income83,187 105,945 247,934 154,535 
Other income/(expense):
Interest income962 4,721 1,936 9,653 
Interest expense(167)(25)(252)(97)
Other income, net1,385 138 2,711 1,142 
Total other income2,180 4,834 4,395 10,698 
Income before income taxes85,367 110,779 252,329 165,233 
Provision for income taxes(9,022)(22,105)(33,294)(27,968)
Net income including controlling interest76,345 88,674 219,035 137,265 
Less: net income attributable to controlling interest(128)(178)(7,620)(16)
Net income attributable to Dolby Laboratories, Inc.$76,217 $88,496 $211,415 $137,249 
Net income per share:
Basic$0.75 $0.88 $2.09 $1.36 
Diluted$0.73 $0.86 $2.02 $1.33 
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic101,464 100,854 101,090 100,595 
Diluted104,581 102,773 104,414 103,133 
Related party rent expense:
Included in operating expenses$(403)$78 $(387)$148 
Included in net income attributable to controlling interest$121 $327 $240 $221 
Cash dividend declared per common share$0.22 $0.22 $0.44 $0.44 
Cash dividend paid per common share$0.22 $0.22 $0.44 $0.44 
See accompanying notes to unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements
5

DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

 Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Net income including controlling interest$76,345 $88,674 $219,035 $137,265 
Other comprehensive income:
Currency translation adjustments gains/(losses), net of tax expense of ($35), ($40), $(507), and $0(766)(10,191)7,402 (6,571)
Unrealized gains/(losses) on investments, net of tax benefit/(expense) of $44, $54, $46, and $(207)(195)273 (360)(889)
Unrealized loss on cash flow hedges, net of tax benefit/(expense) of ($40), $37, $(330), and $0(2,364)(4,008)(218)(3,724)
Total other comprehensive income/(loss), net of tax(3,325)(13,926)6,824 (11,184)
Total comprehensive income73,020 74,748 225,859 126,081 
Less: comprehensive (income)/loss attributable to controlling interest(234)193 (7,889)178 
Comprehensive income attributable to Dolby Laboratories, Inc.$72,786 $74,941 $217,970 $126,259 
See accompanying notes to unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements
6

DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

Fiscal Quarter Ended
 Dolby Laboratories, Inc.  
 Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total Stockholders' Equity - Dolby
Laboratories,
Inc.
Controlling
Interest
Total Stockholders' Equity
Balance at December 25, 2020$100 $0 $2,565,670 $(608)$2,565,162 $6,055 $2,571,217 
Net income— — 76,217 — 76,217 128 76,345 
Other comprehensive income/(loss), net of tax— — — (3,431)(3,431)106 (3,325)
Stock-based compensation expense— 24,413 — — 24,413 — 24,413 
Repurchase of common stock(1)(43,115)(27,674)— (70,790)— (70,790)
Cash dividends declared and paid on common stock— — (22,343)— (22,343)— (22,343)
Common stock issued under employee stock plans19,834 — — 19,834 — 19,834 
Tax withholdings on vesting of restricted stock(1,132)— (1,131)(1,131)
Balance at March 26, 2021$100 $0 $2,591,870 $(4,039)$2,587,931 $6,289 $2,594,220 


Fiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 Dolby Laboratories, Inc.  
 Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income/(Loss)
Total Stockholders' Equity - Dolby
Laboratories,
Inc.
Controlling
Interest
Total Stockholders' Equity
Balance at September 25, 2020$99 $0 $2,443,138 $(10,594)$2,432,643 $5,762 $2,438,405 
Net income— — 211,415 — 211,415 7,620 219,035 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — 6,555 6,555 269 6,824 
Distributions to controlling interest— — — — — (7,362)(7,362)
Stock-based compensation expense— 50,726 — — 50,726 — 50,726 
Repurchase of common stock(1)(92,665)(18,109)— (110,775)— (110,775)
Cash dividends declared and paid on common stock— — (44,574)— (44,574)— (44,574)
Common stock issued under employee stock plans71,155 — — 71,157 — 71,157 
Tax withholdings on vesting of restricted stock— (29,216)— — (29,216)— (29,216)
Balance at March 26, 2021$100 $0 $2,591,870 $(4,039)$2,587,931 $6,289 $2,594,220 


Fiscal Quarter Ended
 Dolby Laboratories, Inc.  
 Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total Stockholders' Equity - Dolby
Laboratories,
Inc.
Controlling
Interest
Total Stockholders' Equity
Balance at December 27, 2019$99 $0 $2,351,251 $(18,060)$2,333,290 $5,411 $2,338,701 
Net income— — 88,496 — 88,496 178 88,674 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — (13,555)(13,555)(371)(13,926)
Stock-based compensation expense— 20,951 — — 20,951 — 20,951 
Repurchase of common stock(1)(49,751)(21,917)— (71,669)— (71,669)
Cash dividends declared and paid on common stock— — (22,255)— (22,255)— (22,255)
Common stock issued under employee stock plans29,612 — — 29,613 — 29,613 
Tax withholdings on vesting of restricted stock(812)— — (812)(812)
Balance at March 27, 2020$99 $0 $2,395,575 $(31,615)$2,364,059 $5,218 $2,369,277 

Fiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 Dolby Laboratories, Inc.  
 Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total Stockholders' Equity - Dolby
Laboratories,
Inc.
Controlling
Interest
Total Stockholders' Equity
Balance at September 27, 2019$99 $0 $2,327,877 $(20,625)$2,307,351 $5,679 $2,313,030 
Net income— — 137,249 — 137,249 16 137,265 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — (10,990)(10,990)(194)(11,184)
Distributions to controlling interest— — — — — (283)(283)
Stock-based compensation expense— 43,565 — — 43,565 — 43,565 
Repurchase of common stock(1)(76,456)(25,215)— (101,672)— (101,672)
Cash dividends declared and paid on common stock— — (44,336)— (44,336)— (44,336)
Common stock issued under employee stock plans53,985 — — 53,986 — 53,986 
Tax withholdings on vesting of restricted stock(21,094)— — (21,094)— (21,094)
Balance at March 27, 2020$99 $0 $2,395,575 $(31,615)$2,364,059 $5,218 $2,369,277 
See accompanying notes to unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements
7

DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 Fiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Operating activities:
Net income including controlling interest$219,035 $137,265 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization47,399 40,212 
Stock-based compensation50,726 43,565 
Amortization of premium on investments697 334 
Provision/(benefit) for credit losses(65)2,955 
Deferred income taxes(16,992)(15,141)
Gain on sale of assets(13,871)
Other non-cash items affecting net income(1,847)3,753 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net(102,791)(60,870)
Contract assets(72,197)(28,086)
Inventories10,398 (5,376)
Operating lease right-of-use assets6,809 (20,102)
Prepaid expenses and other assets10,552 (16,068)
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities26,926 (21,431)
Income taxes, net9,982 13,238 
Contract liabilities3,589 452 
Operating lease liabilities(6,987)20,099 
Other non-current liabilities(5,735)2,100 
Net cash provided by operating activities165,628 96,899 
Investing activities:
Purchases of investment securities(26,449)(167,292)
Proceeds from sales of investment securities4,594 109,907 
Proceeds from maturities of investment securities18,620 54,599 
Purchases of property, plant, and equipment(28,887)(41,782)
Proceeds from sale of assets16,365 
Purchase of intangible assets(2,640)
Net cash used in investing activities(15,757)(47,208)
Financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of common stock71,157 53,986 
Repurchase of common stock(110,775)(101,672)
Payment of cash dividend(44,574)(44,336)
Distribution to controlling interest(7,362)(283)
Shares repurchased for tax withholdings on vesting of restricted stock(29,216)(21,094)
Payment related to prior purchases of intangible assets(91)
Payment of deferred consideration for prior business combination(3,000)
Net cash used in financing activities(120,770)(116,490)
Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash4,416 (4,350)
Net increase/(decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash33,517 (71,149)
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period1,079,979 805,593 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$1,113,496 $734,444 
Supplemental disclosure:
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds received$29,584 $35,096 
Non-cash investing activities:
Change in property, plant, and equipment purchased, unpaid at period-end$1,799 $(4,914)
Purchase consideration payable for intangibles$$260 
See accompanying notes to unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements
8

DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

1. Basis of Presentation
Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
We have prepared the accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and with SEC rules and regulations, which allow for certain information and footnote disclosures that are normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP to be condensed or omitted. In our opinion, these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 25, 2020 and include all adjustments necessary for fair presentation. The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 25, 2020, which are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC.
The results for the fiscal quarter ended March 26, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any subsequent quarterly or annual financial period, including the fiscal year ending September 24, 2021.
Principles of Consolidation
The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Dolby Laboratories, Inc. ("Dolby") and our wholly owned subsidiaries. In addition, we have consolidated the financial results of jointly owned affiliated companies in which our principal stockholder has a controlling interest. We report these controlling interests as a separate line in our condensed consolidated statements of operations as net income attributable to controlling interest and in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as a controlling interest. We eliminate all intercompany accounts and transactions upon consolidation.
Operating Segments
Since we operate as a single reportable segment, all required financial segment information is included in our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements. This reflects the fact that our CODM, our Chief Executive Officer, evaluates our financial information and resources, and assesses the performance of these resources on a consolidated basis.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.
Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include estimated shipments by our licensees for which we are owed a sales–based royalty. These estimates involve the use of historical data and judgment for several key attributes including industry estimates of expected shipments, the percentage of markets using our technologies, and average sale prices. Our estimates of royalty-based revenue also take into consideration the macroeconomic effect of global events, such as the coronavirus pandemic ("COVID-19") or other natural disasters which may impact our licensees' supply chain activities as well as demand for shipments.
Additional significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include ESPs for performance obligations within revenue arrangements; allowances for credit losses for accounts receivable; carrying values of inventories and certain PP&E, goodwill and intangible assets; fair values of investments; accrued liabilities including liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits, deferred income tax assets and liabilities, and stock-based compensation. Actual results could differ from our estimates.
Fiscal Year
Our fiscal year is a 52 or 53 week period ending on the last Friday in September. The fiscal periods presented herein include the 13 week periods ended March 26, 2021 and March 27, 2020. Our fiscal year ending September 24,
9

2021 (fiscal 2021) and our fiscal year ended September 25, 2020 (fiscal 2020) both consist of 52 weeks. Our fiscal year ending September 30, 2022 (fiscal 2022) consists of 53 weeks.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Adopted Standards
Collaborative Arrangements. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606, which clarifies that certain transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement should be accounted for under ASC 606 when the counterparty is a customer. In addition, ASU 2018-18 precludes an entity from presenting consideration from a transaction in a collaborative arrangement as revenue from contracts with customers if the counterparty is not a customer for that transaction. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2021 and it did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Financial Instruments. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which modifies the measurement of expected credit losses of certain financial instruments, including trade receivables, contract assets, and lease receivables. The standard provides guidance regarding methodologies and disclosures for expected credit losses on financial instruments, resulting in immediate recognition of estimated credit losses over the remaining life of financial assets at initiation or purchase date. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2021, using the modified retrospective method. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Standards Not Yet Adopted
Income Taxes. In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which modifies and eliminates certain exceptions to the general principles of ASC 740, Income Taxes. This standard will be effective for Dolby beginning September 25, 2021. We are currently evaluating the impact of the standard on our condensed consolidated financial statements.



3. Revenue Recognition
We enter into revenue arrangements with our customers to license technologies, trademarks and patents for sound, imaging and voice solutions, and to sell products and services. We recognize revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation by transferring control over the use of a license, product, or service to a customer.
A. Identification of the Contract or Contracts with Customers
We generally determine that a contract with a customer exists upon the execution of an agreement and after consideration of collectability, which could include an evaluation of the customer's payment history, the existence of a standby letter-of-credit between the customer’s financial institution and our financial institution, public financial information, and other factors. At contract inception, we also evaluate whether two or more non-standard agreements with a customer should be combined and accounted for as a single contract.
B. Identification of Performance Obligations in a Contract
We generate revenue principally from the following sources, which represent performance obligations in our contracts with customers:
Licensing.   We license our technologies, including patents, to a range of customers who incorporate them into their products for enhanced audio, imaging and voice functionality across broadcast, mobile, CE, PC, gaming, and other markets.
Product Sales. We design and provide audio and imaging products for the cinema, television, broadcast, communications, and entertainment industries.
Services.   We provide various services to support theatrical and television production for cinema exhibition, broadcast, and home entertainment, including equipment training, mixing room alignment, equalization, as well as audio, color and light image calibration.
PCS. We provide PCS for products sold and for equipment leased, and we support the implementation of our licensing technologies in our licensees’ products.
Equipment Leases. We collaborate with established cinema exhibitors to offer Dolby Cinema, a branded premium cinema offering for movie audiences by leasing equipment and licensing our IP. We also lease hardware that facilitates the Dolby conferencing experience, including the Dolby Conference Phone, and the Dolby Voice Room solution.
Licensing Administration Fees. We generate service fees for managing patent pools on behalf of third party patent owners through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Via Licensing Corporation.
Some of our revenue arrangements include multiple performance obligations, such as hardware, software, support and maintenance, and extended warranty services. We evaluate whether promised products and services are distinct performance obligations.
The majority of our arrangements with multiple performance obligations pertain to our digital cinema server and processor sales that include the following distinct performance obligations to which we allocate portions of the transaction price based on their stand-alone selling price:
Digital cinema server hardware and embedded software, which is highly dependent on and highly interrelated with the hardware. Accordingly, the hardware and embedded software represent a single performance obligation.
The right to support and maintenance, which is included with the purchase of the digital cinema server hardware, is a distinct performance obligation.
The right to receive commissioning services is a distinct performance obligation within the sale of the Dolby Atmos Cinema Processor. These services consist of the review of venue designs specifying proposed speaker placement as well as calibration services performed for installed speakers to ensure optimal playback.
C. Determination of Transaction Price for Performance Obligations in a Contract
After identifying the distinct performance obligations, we determine the transaction price in accordance with the
11

terms of the underlying executed contract which may include variable consideration such as discounts, rebates, refunds, rights of returns, and incentives. We assess and update, if necessary, the amount of variable consideration to which we are entitled for each reporting period. At the end of each reporting period, we estimate and accrue a liability for returns and adjustments as a reduction to revenue based on several factors, including past returns history.
With the exception of our sales-based royalties, we evaluate whether a significant financing component exists when we recognize revenue in advance of customer payments that occur over time. For example, some of our licensing arrangements include payment terms greater than one year from when we transfer control of our IP to a licensee and the receipt of the final payment for that IP. If a significant financing component exists, we classify a portion of the transaction price as interest income, instead of recognizing all of the transaction price as revenue. We do not adjust the transaction price for the effects of financing if, at contract inception, the period between the transfer of control to a customer and final payment is expected to be one year or less.
D. Allocation of Transaction Price to Distinct Performance Obligations in a Contract
For our sales-based royalties where the license is the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we present all revenue as licensing.
For revenue arrangements that include multiple performance obligations, we determine the stand-alone selling price for each distinct performance obligation based on the actual selling prices made to customers. If the performance obligation is not sold separately, we estimate the stand-alone selling price. We do so by considering market conditions such as competitor pricing strategies, customer specific information and industry technology lifecycles, internal conditions such as cost and pricing practices, or applying the residual approach method when the selling price of the good, most commonly a license, is highly variable or uncertain.
Once the transaction price, including any variable consideration, has been determined, we allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations identified in the contract, and recognize revenue as or when control is transferred for each distinct performance obligation.
E. Revenue Recognition as Control is Transferred to a Customer
We generate our licensing revenue by licensing our technologies and patents to various types of licensees, such as chip manufacturers ("implementation licensees"), consumer product manufacturers, software vendors, and communications service providers. Our revenue recognition policies for each of these arrangements are summarized below.
Initial fees from implementation licensees. Implementation licensees incorporate our technologies into their chipsets that, once approved by Dolby, are available for purchase by OEMs for use in end-user products. Implementation licensees only pay us a nominal initial fee on contract execution as consideration for the ongoing services that we provide to assist in their implementation process. Revenue from these initial fees is recognized ratably over the contractual term as a component of licensing revenue.
Sales-based licensing fees. In our royalty bearing licensing agreements with OEMs, control is transferred upon the later of contract execution or the contract’s effective date. We apply the royalty exception, which requires that we recognize sales-based royalties when the sales occur based on our estimates. These estimates involve the use of historical data and judgment for several key attributes including industry estimates of expected shipments, the percentage of markets using our technologies, and average sale prices. Generally, our estimates represent the current period’s shipments to which we expect our licensees to submit royalty statements in the following quarter. Upon receipt of royalty statements from the licensees with the actual reporting of sales-based royalties that we estimated previously, we record a favorable or unfavorable adjustment based on the difference, if any, between estimated and actual sales. In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, we recorded a favorable adjustment of approximately $16 million, which was primarily related to October through December shipments and largely based on actual royalty statements received from licensees.
Fixed and guaranteed licensing fees.   In certain cases, our arrangements require the licensee to pay fixed, non-refundable fees. In these cases, control is transferred and fees are recognized upon the later of contract execution or the effective date. Additionally and separate from initial fees from implementation licensees, our sales- and usage-based licensing agreements include a nominal fee, which is also recognized at a point in time in which control of the IP has been transferred. Revenue from these arrangements is included as a component of licensing revenue.
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Recoveries.   Through compliance efforts, we identify misreported licensed activity related to non-current periods. We may record a favorable or unfavorable revenue adjustment in connection with the findings from these compliance efforts generally upon resolution with the licensee through agreement of the findings, or upon receipt of the licensee’s correction statement. Revenue from these arrangements is included as a component of licensing revenue.
We undertake activities aimed at identifying potential unauthorized uses of our technologies, which when successful result in the recognition of revenue. Recoveries stem from third parties who agree to remit payments to us based on past use of our technology. In these scenarios, a legally binding contract did not exist at time of use of our technology, and therefore, we recognize revenue recoveries upon execution of the agreement as that is the point in time to which a contract exists and control is transferred. This revenue is classified as licensing revenue.
In general, we classify legal costs associated with activities aimed at identifying potential unauthorized uses of our technologies, auditing existing licensees, and on occasion, pursuing litigation as S&M in our condensed consolidated statements of operations.
We recognize licensing revenue gross of withholding taxes, which our licensees remit directly to their local tax authorities, and for which we receive a partial foreign tax credit in our income tax provision.
In addition to our licensing arrangements, we also enter into arrangements to deliver products and services.
Product Sales.   Revenue from the sale of products is recognized when the customer obtains control of the promised good or service, which is generally upon shipment. Payments are generally made within 90 days of sale.
Services.   We provide various services, such as engineering services related to movie soundtrack print mastering, equipment training and maintenance, mixing room alignment, equalization, and image calibration, which we bill on a fixed fee and time and materials basis. Most of these services are of a short duration and are recognized as control of the performance obligations are transferred which is when the related services are performed.
Collaborative Arrangements.   We collaborate with established cinema exhibitors to offer Dolby Cinema, a branded premium cinema offering for movie audiences. Under such collaborations, Dolby and the exhibitor are both active participants, and share the risks and rewards associated with the business. Accordingly, these collaborations are governed by revenue sharing arrangements under which Dolby receives revenue based on box office receipts, reported to Dolby by exhibitor partners on a monthly or quarterly basis, our proprietary designs and trademarks as well as for the use of our equipment at the exhibitor's venue. The use of our product solution meets the definition of a lease, and for the related portion of Dolby's share of revenue, we apply ASC 842, Leases, and recognize revenue based on monthly box office reports from exhibitors. Our revenue share is recognized as licensing revenue in our condensed consolidated statements of operations.
In addition, we also enter into hybrid agreements where a portion of our revenue share involves guaranteed payments, which in some cases result in classifying the arrangement as a sales-type lease. In such arrangements, we consider control to transfer at the point in time to which we have installed and tested the equipment, at which point we record such guaranteed payments as product revenue.
Via Administration Fee. We generate service fees for managing patent pools on behalf of third party patent owners through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Via Licensing Corporation ("Via"). As an agent to licensors in the patent pool, Via receives a share of the sales-based royalty that the patent pool licensors earn from licensees. As such, we apply the sales-based royalty exception as the service provided is directly related to the patent pool licensors’ provision of IP, which results in recognition based on estimates of the licensee’s quarter shipments that use the pool’s patents. In addition to sales-based royalties, Via also has contracts where the fees are fixed. The revenue share Via receives from licensors on fixed fee contracts is recognized over the term in which we are providing services associated with the fixed fee contract. We recognize our administrative fees net of the consideration paid to the patent licensors in the pool as licensing revenue.
Deferred revenue, which is a component of contract liabilities, represents amounts that are ultimately expected to be recognized as revenue, but for which we have yet to satisfy the performance obligation. As of March 26, 2021, we had $41.8 million of remaining performance obligations, 30% of which we expect to recognize as revenue in fiscal 2021, 26% in fiscal 2022, and the balance of 44% in fiscal years beyond 2022.
F. Disaggregation of revenue
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The following table presents a summary of the composition of our revenue for all periods presented:
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
RevenueMarch 26, 2021March 27, 2020March 26, 2021March 27, 2020
Licensing$303,585 95 %$328,865 93 %$676,590 95 %$586,548 91 %
Products and services15,973 %22,950 %32,842 %57,144 %
Total revenue$319,558 100 %$351,815 100 %$709,432 100 %$643,692 100 %
The following table presents the composition of our licensing revenue for all periods presented:
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
MarketMarch 26, 2021March 27, 2020March 26, 2021March 27, 2020
Broadcast$104,813 35 %$128,677 39 %$244,113 36 %$230,810 39 %
Mobile65,673 22 %75,697 23 %171,296 25 %110,178 19 %
CE48,284 16 %49,199 15 %100,205 15 %98,044 17 %
PC51,104 17 %45,791 14 %83,839 12 %77,634 13 %
Other33,711 10 %29,501 %77,137 12 %69,882 12 %
Total licensing revenue$303,585 100 %$328,865 100 %$676,590 100 %$586,548 100 %
We license our technologies in approximately 60 countries, and our licensees distribute products that incorporate our technologies throughout the world. As shown in the table below, we generate the majority of our revenue from outside the United States. Geographic data for our licensing revenue is based on the location of our licensees’ headquarters, products revenue is based on the destination to which we ship our products, and services revenue is based on the location where services are performed.
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
Revenue By Geographic LocationMarch 26, 2021March 27, 2020March 26, 2021March 27, 2020
United States$153,267 48 %$186,586 53 %$254,341 36 %$294,213 46 %
International166,291 52 %165,229 47 %455,091 64 %349,479 54 %
Total revenue$319,558 100 %$351,815 100 %$709,432 100 %$643,692 100 %
G. Contract balances
Our contract assets represent rights to consideration from licensees for the use of our IP that we have estimated in a given period in the absence of receiving actual royalty statements from licensees. These estimates reflect our best judgment at that time, and are developed using a number of inputs, including historical data, industry estimates of expected shipments, anticipated sales price and performance, and third-party data supporting the percentage of markets using our technologies. In the event that our estimates differ from actual amounts reported, we record an adjustment in the quarter in which the royalty statement is received which is typically the quarter following our estimate. Actual amounts reported are typically paid within 60 days following the end of the quarter of shipment. The main drivers for change in the contract assets account are variances in quarterly estimates, and to a lesser degree, timing of receipt of actual royalty statements.
Our contract liabilities consist of advance payments and billings in advance of performance, deferred revenue that is typically satisfied within one year, and deferred interest where we have significant financing. The non-current portion of contract liabilities is separately disclosed in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. We present the net contract asset or liability when we have both contract assets and contract liabilities for a single contract. In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, we recognized $7.3 million from prior period deferred revenue.
The following table presents a summary of the balances to which contract assets and liabilities related to revenue are recorded for all periods presented (in thousands):
March 26, 2021September 25, 2020Change ($)Change (%)
Accounts receivable, net$283,505 $180,340 $103,165 57 %
Contract assets, net233,379 161,357 72,022 45 %
Contract liabilities - current20,029 15,436 4,593 30 %
Contract liabilities - non-current23,369 24,342 (973)(4)%

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4. Composition of Certain Financial Statement Captions
The following tables present detailed information from our condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020 (amounts displayed in thousands).
Accounts Receivable and Contract Assets
March 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
Trade accounts receivable$171,383 $147,618 
Accounts receivable from patent administration program licensees123,793 48,630 
Contract assets233,568 161,357 
Accounts receivable, gross and contract assets, gross528,744 357,605 
Less: allowance for credit losses(11,860)(15,908)
Total$516,884 $341,697 
Accounts receivable, gross includes unbilled accounts receivable balances of $118.2 million and $62.1 million as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, respectively, related to amounts that are contractually owed. The unbilled balance represents our unconditional right to consideration related to fixed fee contracts which we are entitled to as a result of satisfying, or partially satisfying, performance obligations, as well as Via's unconditional right to consideration related to their patent administration programs.
We maintain a provision for estimated credit losses on receivables resulting from our customers' inability to make required payments. In determining the provision, we pool receivables with similar risk characteristics to evaluate the collectability of our accounts receivable. Risk characteristics considered in creating these risk pools include assessing historical or expected loss patterns, credit ratings, current economic conditions that could impact collectability of cash flows (such as the macroeconomic effects of COVID-19), and structure of customer agreements. In cases where circumstances have changed such that specific customers no longer share similar risk characteristics, customers are excluded from their current pool and their risk profiles are evaluated separately. We recognize allowances for credit losses based on our actual historical loss information, the current business environment, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Actual future losses from uncollectible accounts may differ from our estimates.
Allowance for Credit LossesBeginning BalanceCharges/(Credits) 
to G&A
DeductionsEnding Balance
For fiscal year ended:
September 25, 2020$9,775 $7,689 $(1,556)$15,908 
March 26, 202115,908 (65)(3,983)11,860 
Inventories
March 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
Raw materials$3,517 $3,770 
Work in process6,082 9,214 
Finished goods5,282 12,566 
Total$14,881 $25,550 
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Inventory with a consumption period expected to exceed twelve months is recorded within other non-current assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. We have included $2.1 million and $2.6 million of raw materials inventory within other non-current assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, respectively. Based on anticipated inventory consumption rates, and aside from existing write-downs due to excess inventory, we do not believe that material risk of obsolescence exists prior to ultimate sale.
Prepaid Expenses And Other Current Assets
March 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
Prepaid expenses$20,078 $17,884 
Other current assets27,227 35,138 
Total$47,305 $53,022 

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In fiscal year 2019, management committed to a plan to sell a property, which included land and a building, after the lease on the property expired and we re-assessed the real estate needs of our business. This property was previously classified as held for sale and was included in other current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets, with a carrying value of $2.2 million as of September 25, 2020. In the first quarter of fiscal 2021, we finalized the sale on this property, and as a result, we realized a gain of $13.9 million, which was recorded to gain on sale of assets on the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The property was 51% owned by the controlling interest, therefore 51% of the gain realized in gain on sale of assets has been attributed to the controlling interest.
Accrued Liabilities
March 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
Amounts payable to patent administration program partners$79,089 $60,427 
Accrued compensation and benefits97,296 89,684 
Accrued professional fees11,541 10,344 
Unpaid property, plant, and equipment additions16,444 15,102 
Accrued customer refunds4,824 10,053 
Accrued market development funds19,860 6,612 
Other accrued liabilities25,109 27,752 
Total$254,163 $219,974 
Other Non-Current Liabilities
March 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
Supplemental retirement plan obligations$4,447 $4,181 
Non-current tax liabilities (1)
88,222 85,943 
Other liabilities25,890 32,030 
Total$118,559 $122,154 
(1)    Refer to Note 12 “Income Taxes” for additional information related to our tax liabilities.

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5. Investments and Fair Value Measurements
We use cash holdings to purchase investment grade securities diversified among security types, industries, and issuers. All of our investment securities are measured at fair value, and are recorded within cash equivalents and both short-term and long-term investments in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. With the exception of our mutual fund investments held in our SERP and classified as trading securities, all of our investments are classified as AFS securities. Derivative contracts are used to hedge currency risk, these are carried at fair value and classified as other assets and other liabilities.
Our investment securities primarily consist of government bonds, certificates of deposit, municipal debt securities, corporate bonds, U.S. agency securities, and commercial paper. In addition, our cash and cash equivalents also consist of highly-liquid money market funds. Consistent with our investment policy, none of our municipal debt investments are supported by letters of credit or standby purchase agreements. Our cash and investment portfolio consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 26, 2021
CostUnrealizedEstimated Fair Value
GainsLossesTotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash$791,545 $— $— $791,545 $791,545 $— $— 
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds312,685 — — 312,685 312,685 — — 
Government bonds340 340 340 — — 
Cash and cash equivalents1,104,570 1,104,570 1,104,570 — 
Short-term investments:
Certificate of deposit1,825 1,825 — 1,825 — 
U.S. agency securities1,397 20 1,417 — 1,417 — 
Government bonds1,645 11 1,656 100 1,556 — 
Commercial paper6,079 6,081 — 6,081 — 
Corporate bonds24,461 116 (3)24,574 — 24,574 — 
Municipal debt securities22,925 105 (1)23,029 — 23,029 — 
Short-term investments58,332 254 (4)58,582 100 58,482 — 
Long-term investments:
Certificate of deposit630 630 — 630 — 
U.S. agency securities1,961 19 (1)1,979 — 1,979 — 
Government bonds7,731 56 (6)7,781 1,627 6,154 — 
Corporate bonds19,477 186 (11)19,652 — 19,652 — 
Municipal debt securities8,387 82 (1)8,468 — 8,468 — 
Other long-term investments (1)
3,678 3,678 — — 
Long-term investments41,864 343 (19)42,188 1,627 36,883 — 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and investments$1,204,766 $597 $(23)$1,205,340 $1,106,297 $95,365 $ 
Investments held in supplemental retirement plan:
Assets$4,545 $— $— $4,545 $4,545 $— $— 
Included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and other non-current assets
Liabilities$4,545 $— $— $4,545 $4,545 $— $— 
Included in accrued liabilities and other non-current liabilities
Currency derivatives as hedge instruments:
Assets: Included in other current assets$$4,977 $$4,977 $$4,977 $
Liabilities: Included in other accrued liabilities(112)(112)(112)
(1)Other long-term investments as of March 26, 2021 is comprised of one equity method investment which is not carried at fair value of $3.7 million.
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September 25, 2020
CostUnrealizedEstimated Fair Value
GainsLossesTotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash$856,740 $— $— $856,740 $856,740 $— $— 
Cash equivalents:
Commercial paper900 — — 900 — 900 — 
Money market funds214,111 — — 214,111 214,111 — — 
Government bonds125 — — 125 125 
Cash and cash equivalents1,071,876 — 1,071,876 1,070,976 900 — 
Short-term investments:
Certificate of deposit2,277 2,278 — 2,278 — 
U.S. agency securities999 12 1,011 — 1,011 — 
Government bonds5,118 47 5,165 1,370 3,795 — 
Commercial paper4,727 4,731 — 4,731 — 
Corporate bonds18,754 87 (3)18,838 — 18,838 — 
Municipal debt securities14,828 97 14,925 — 14,925 — 
Short-term investments46,703 248 (3)46,948 1,370 45,578 — 
Long-term investments:
U.S. agency securities2,214 56 2,270 2,270 — 
Government bonds5,137 80 5,217 1,633 3,584 — 
Corporate bonds24,657 419 (7)25,069 — 25,069 — 
Municipal debt securities15,220 203 (6)15,417 — 15,417 — 
Other long-term investments (1)4,176 4,176 — — 
Long-term investments51,404 758 (13)52,149 1,633 46,340 — 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and investments$1,169,983 $1,006 $(16)$1,170,973 $1,073,979 $92,818 $ 
Investments held in supplemental retirement plan:
Assets$4,279 $— $— $4,279 $4,279 $— $— 
Included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and other non-current assets
Liabilities$4,279 $— $— $4,279 $4,279 $— $— 
Included in accrued liabilities and other non-current liabilities
Currency derivatives as hedge instruments:
Assets: Included in other current assets$$4,267 $$4,267 $$4,267 $
Assets: included in other non-current assets369 369 369 
Liabilities: Included in other accrued liabilities(79)(79)(79)

(1)Other long-term investments as of September 25, 2020 is comprised of one equity method investment which is not carried at fair value of $4.2 million.
Fair Value Hierarchy.    Fair value is the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability, in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. We minimize the use of unobservable inputs and use observable market data, if available, when determining fair value. We classify our inputs to measure fair value using the following three-level hierarchy:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets at the measurement date for identical assets and liabilities. We base the fair value of our Level 1 financial instruments, which are traded in active markets, using quoted market prices for identical instruments.
Level 2: Prices may be based upon quoted prices in active markets or inputs not quoted on active markets but are corroborated by market data. We obtain the fair value of our Level 2 investments from a professional pricing service, which may use quoted market prices for identical or comparable instruments, or model driven valuations using observable market data or inputs corroborated by observable market data. To validate the fair value determination provided by our primary pricing service, we perform quality controls over values received which include comparing our pricing service provider’s assessment of the fair values of our investment securities against the fair values of our investment securities obtained from another independent source, reviewing the pricing movement in the
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context of overall market trends, and reviewing trading information from our investment managers. In addition, we assess the inputs and methods used in determining the fair value in order to determine the classification of securities in the fair value hierarchy. The fair value of the currency derivatives are calculated from market spot rates, forward rates, interest rates, and credit ratings at the end of the period.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs are used when little or no market data is available and reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
Securities In Gross Unrealized Loss Position.    We periodically evaluate our investments for other-than- temporary declines in fair value. The unrealized losses on our AFS securities were primarily the result of unfavorable changes in interest rates subsequent to the initial purchase of these securities. The following table presents the gross unrealized losses and fair value for those AFS securities that were in an unrealized loss position for less than twelve months as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020 (in thousands):
March 26, 2021September 25, 2020
Less Than 12 MonthsLess Than 12 Months
Investment TypeFair ValueGross Unrealized LossesFair ValueGross Unrealized Losses
Certificate of deposit$630 $$$
U.S. agency securities555 (1)
Government bonds3,929 (6)
Corporate bonds14,261 (13)7,076 (10)
Municipal debt securities5,747 (2)2,505 (6)
Total$25,122 $(22)$9,581 $(16)
As of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, there were no gross unrealized losses and no AFS securities that were in an unrealized loss position for twelve months or greater. Although we had certain securities that were in an unrealized loss position for less than twelve months as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, we expect to recover the full carrying value of these securities. As a result, we do not consider any portion of the unrealized losses at either March 26, 2021 or September 25, 2020 to represent an other-than-temporary impairment, nor do we consider any of the unrealized losses to be credit losses.
Investment Maturities.    The following table summarizes the amortized cost and estimated fair value of the AFS securities within our investment portfolio based on stated maturities as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, which are recorded within cash equivalents and both short and long-term investments in our condensed consolidated balance sheets (in thousands):
March 26, 2021September 25, 2020
Range of maturityAmortized CostFair ValueAmortized CostFair Value
Due within 1 year$371,358 $371,608 $261,839 $262,085 
Due in 1 to 2 years23,164 23,459 29,328 29,814 
Due in 2 to 5 years15,021 15,050 17,900 18,159 
Total$409,543 $410,117 $309,067 $310,058 

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6. Property, Plant, and Equipment
PP&E are recorded at cost, with depreciation expense included in cost of licensing, cost of products and services, R&D, S&M, and G&A expenses in our condensed consolidated statements of operations.
As of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, PP&E consisted of the following (in thousands):
Property, Plant, and EquipmentMarch 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
Land$42,047 $41,955 
Buildings and building improvements283,357 283,617 
Leasehold improvements84,830 83,764 
Machinery and equipment124,644 126,942 
Computer equipment and software244,946 230,800 
Furniture and fixtures32,476 31,845 
Equipment provided under operating leases207,506 199,561 
Construction-in-progress28,488 19,545 
Property, plant, and equipment, gross1,048,294 1,018,029 
Less: accumulated depreciation(505,592)(476,066)
Property, plant, and equipment, net$542,702 $541,963 

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7. Leases
As Lessee
As a lessee, we enter into contracts to access and utilize office space, including those payable to our principal stockholder and portions attributable to the controlling interests in our consolidated subsidiaries. We determine if a contract contains a lease based on whether we have the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from the use of an identified asset and whether we have the right to direct the use of an identified asset in exchange for consideration, which relates to an asset which we do not own. ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets are recognized as the lease liability, adjusted for lease incentives received. Lease liabilities are recognized at the present value of the future lease payments at the lease commencement date. The interest rate used to determine the present value of the future lease payments is our IBR, because the interest rate implicit in our leases is not readily determinable. The IBR is a hypothetical rate based on our understanding of what our credit rating would be and resulting interest we would pay to borrow an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment over the lease term on a collateralized basis. Lease payments may be fixed or variable, however, only fixed payments are included in our lease liability calculation. Variable lease payments are recognized in operating expenses in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred.
The lease term of operating leases vary from less than a year to 11 years. We have leases that include one or more options to extend the lease term for up to 9 years as well as options to terminate the lease within one year. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise such options.
The components of lease expense were as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
March 26, 2021March 27, 2020March 26, 2021March 27, 2020
Lease cost
Operating lease cost$4,953 $5,797 $9,747 $11,153 
Variable lease cost142 183 233 577 
Total lease cost$5,095 $5,980 $9,980 $11,730 
Supplemental cash flow information related to leases was as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To Date Ended
March 26, 2021March 27, 2020March 26, 2021March 27, 2020
Other information
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of operating lease liabilities$5,143 $5,525 $10,064 $10,766 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease obligations883 16,044 1,719 28,860 
Supplemental balance sheet information related to leases was as follows:
March 26, 2021September 25, 2020
Operating Leases
Weighted-average remaining lease term6.2 years6.5 years
Weighted-average discount rate3.1 %3.1 %

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The following table presents the maturity analysis of lease liabilities (in thousands):
March 26, 2021
Operating Leases
Remainder of Fiscal 2021$9,001 
Fiscal 202216,502 
Fiscal 202314,295 
Fiscal 202413,279 
Fiscal 20259,565 
Thereafter23,221 
Total undiscounted lease payments85,863 
Less: imputed interest(9,385)
Total lease liabilities$76,478 
As Lessor
As a lessor, we lease our Dolby Cinema product solution to exhibitors, Dolby Voice equipment to cloud conferencing service providers, and lease or sublease real estate properties. The terms of these leases vary from 4 to 10 years. Lease components consist of fixed payments and/or variable lease payments based on contracted percentages of revenue. Generally, leases do not grant any right to the lessee to purchase the underlying asset at the end of the lease term, with the exception of certain leases of Dolby Voice equipment for which the customer has the option to purchase the equipment at fair value. Dolby Cinema lease arrangements have options to extend the lease term at expiration by increments ranging from 1 to 5 years.
Assets provided under an operating lease are carried at cost within property, plant and equipment, net on the condensed consolidated balance sheets, and depreciated over the useful life of the asset using the straight-line method. Fixed operating lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term to other income for our real estate property and to revenue for all other leases. Variable lease payments received under our Dolby Cinema operating leases are computed as shares of lessees' box office revenue and recognized to revenue in the period that box office sales occur. Lease incentive payments we make to lessees are amortized as a reduction in revenue over the lease term. The components of lease income were as follows (in millions):
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
March 26, 2021March 27, 2020March 26, 2021March 27, 2020
Operating Lease Income
Variable operating lease income$1.3 $3.8 $0.8 $11.1 
Fixed operating lease income1.1 0.8 2.2 1.5 
If a lease is classified as a sales-type lease, the carrying amount of the asset is derecognized from property, plant and equipment, net, and a net investment in the lease is recorded. The net investment in the lease is measured at commencement date as the sum of the lease receivable and the estimated residual value of the equipment. The unguaranteed residual value of the equipment was determined as the estimated carrying value of the asset at the end of the lease term had the asset been depreciated on a straight-line basis. The unguaranteed residual value of sales-type leases was $0.8 million and $0.7 million as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, respectively. Selling profit or loss arising from a sales-type lease is recorded at lease commencement and presented on a gross basis. Over the term of the lease, we recognize interest income on the net investment in the lease. We also recognize variable lease payments, if any, which are not material and not included in the net investment in the lease.
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The following table presents the maturity analysis of fixed lease payments due to Dolby (in thousands):
March 26, 2021
Operating LeasesSales-Type Leases
Remainder of Fiscal 2021$1,342 $1,610 
Fiscal 20222,690 1,624 
Fiscal 20232,611 1,623 
Fiscal 20241,049 810 
Fiscal 2025394 397 
Thereafter1,704 396 
Total undiscounted cash flows$9,790 6,460 
Less: present value of lease payments (recognized as lease receivables)(5,155)
Difference$1,305 

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8. Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill
The following table outlines changes to the carrying amount of goodwill (in thousands):
 Goodwill
Balance at September 25, 2020$336,945 
Translation adjustments1,290 
Balance at March 26, 2021$338,235 
Intangible Assets
Our intangible assets are stated at their original cost less accumulated amortization, and principally consist of acquired technology, patents, trademarks, customer relationships and contracts. Intangible assets subject to amortization consist of the following (in thousands):
 March 26, 2021September 25, 2020
Intangible AssetsCostAccumulated
Amortization
NetCostAccumulated
Amortization
Net
Acquired patents and technology$342,807 $(220,006)$122,801 $342,637 $(206,123)$136,514 
Customer relationships64,746 (50,807)13,939 64,740 (49,062)15,678 
Other intangibles22,976 (22,772)204 22,969 (22,730)239 
Total$430,529 $(293,585)$136,944 $430,346 $(277,915)$152,431 
During fiscal 2020, we purchased various patents for purchase consideration of $2.9 million, and upon acquisition, these intangible assets had a weighted-average useful life of 14.0 years. These intangible assets facilitate our R&D efforts, technologies, and potential product offerings.
Amortization expense for our intangible assets is included in cost of licensing, cost of products and services, R&D, S&M, and G&A expenses in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. Amortization expense was $7.3 million and $7.6 million in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $14.6 million and $14.8 million in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 26, 2021 and March 27, 2020, respectively. As of March 26, 2021, expected amortization expense of our intangible assets in future fiscal periods was as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal Year Amortization Expense
Remainder of 2021$15,448 
202228,291 
202323,923 
202421,894 
20256,840 
Thereafter40,548 
Total$136,944 

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9. Stockholders' Equity and Stock-Based Compensation
We provide stock-based awards as a form of compensation for employees, officers, and directors. We have issued stock-based awards in the form of stock options and RSUs under our equity incentive plans, as well as shares under our ESPP.
Common Stock - Class A and Class B
Our Board of Directors has authorized two classes of common stock, Class A and Class B. As of March 26, 2021, we had authorized 500,000,000 Class A shares and 500,000,000 Class B shares. As of March 26, 2021, we had 65,206,586 shares of Class A common stock and 36,107,779 shares of Class B common stock issued and outstanding. Holders of our Class A and Class B common stock have identical rights, except that holders of our Class A common stock are entitled to 1 vote per share and holders of our Class B common stock are entitled to 10 votes per share. Shares of Class B common stock can be converted to shares of Class A common stock at any time at the option of the stockholder and automatically convert upon sale or transfer, except for certain transfers specified in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
Stock Incentive Plans
Following shareholder approval in January 2005, our 2005 Stock Plan was adopted by our Board of Directors on February 16, 2005. In February 2020, our stockholders approved the name change of our 2005 Stock Plan to the 2020 Stock Plan and certain other changes described in our proxy statement for our 2020 annual meeting of stockholders. Our 2020 Stock Plan, as amended and restated, provides for the ability to grant incentive stock options, non-qualified stock options, restricted stock, RSUs, stock appreciation rights, deferred stock units, performance units, performance bonus awards, and performance shares. A total of 55.0 million shares of our Class A common stock have been authorized for issuance under the 2020 Stock Plan in total since inception of the plan. For awards granted prior to February 2011, any shares subject to an award with a per share price less than the fair market value of our Class A common stock on the date of grant and any shares subject to an outstanding RSU award will be counted against the authorized share reserve as 2 shares for every one share subject to the award, and if returned to the 2020 Stock Plan, such shares will be counted as 2 shares for every one share returned. For those awards granted from February 2011 onward, any shares subject to an award with a per share price less than the fair market value of our Class A common stock on the date of grant and any shares subject to an outstanding RSU award will be counted against the authorized share reserve as 1.6 shares for every one share subject to the award, and if returned to the 2020 Stock Plan, such shares will be counted as 1.6 shares for every one share returned.
Stock Options.    Stock options are granted at fair market value on the date of grant. Options granted to employees and officers prior to June 2008 generally vest over four years, with equal annual cliff vesting and expire on the earlier of ten years after the date of grant or three months after termination of service. Options granted to employees and officers from June 2008 onwards generally vest over four years, with 25% of the shares subject to the option becoming exercisable on the one-year anniversary of the date of grant and the balance of the shares vesting in equal monthly installments over the following 36 months. These options expire on the earlier of ten years after the date of grant or three months after termination of service. All options granted vest over the requisite service period and upon the exercise of stock options, we issue new shares of Class A common stock under the 2020 Stock Plan. Our 2020 Stock Plan also allows us to grant stock awards which vest based on the satisfaction of specific performance criteria.
Performance-Based Stock Options.    In fiscal 2016, we began granting PSOs to our executive officers with shares of our Class A common stock underlying such options. The contractual term for the PSOs is seven years, with vesting contingent upon market-based performance conditions, representing the achievement of specified Dolby annualized TSR targets at the end of a three-year measurement period following the date of grant. If the minimum conditions are met, the PSOs earned will cliff vest on the third anniversary of the grant date, upon certification of achievement of the performance conditions by our Compensation Committee. Anywhere from 0% to 125% of the shares subject to a PSO may vest based on achievement of the performance conditions at the end of the three-year performance period.
In valuing the PSOs which will be recognized as compensation cost, we used a Monte Carlo valuation model. Aside from the use of an expected term for the PSOs commensurate with their shorter contractual term, the nature of the valuation inputs used in the Monte Carlo valuation model were consistent with those used to value our non-performance based options granted under the 2020 Stock Plan. Compensation cost is being amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
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The following table summarizes information about PSOs granted to our executive officers that have vested:
Grant DateAggregate Shares Granted at Target Award
Aggregate Shares Exercisable at Vest Date (1)
Percentage Vested of Target AwardVested Date
December 15, 2015419,623 334,623 125 %December 2018
December 15, 2016276,199 240,539 95 %December 2019
December 15, 2017264,000 253,440 96 %December 2020
(1)Aggregate shares exercisable at vest date does not include any shares that were cancelled before the vest date after they were granted.
On December 15, 2018, we granted PSOs to our executive officers exercisable for an aggregate of 241,100 shares at the target award amount, which would be exercisable up to an aggregate of 301,375 shares at 125% of the target award amount. As of March 26, 2021, PSOs which would be exercisable for an aggregate of 755,687 shares at the target award amount (815,962 shares at up to 125% of the target award amount) were outstanding.
The following table summarizes information about stock options issued under our 2020 Stock Plan:
SharesWeighted-Average
Exercise Price
Weighted-Average
Remaining
Contractual Life
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value (1)
 (in thousands) (in years)(in thousands)
Options outstanding at September 25, 20206,599 $53.30 
Grants283 92.08 
Exercises(1,371)46.19 
Forfeitures and cancellations(9)62.36 
Options outstanding at March 26, 20215,502 57.05 6.12$225,563 
Options vested and expected to vest at March 26, 20215,313 56.51 6.04221,624 
Options exercisable at March 26, 20213,572 $50.31 5.12$171,130 
(1)Aggregate intrinsic value is based on the closing stock price of our Class A common stock on March 26, 2021 of $98.22 and excludes the impact of options that were not in-the-money.
Restricted Stock Units.    Beginning in fiscal 2008, we began granting RSUs to certain directors, officers and employees. Awards granted to employees and officers generally vest over four years, with equal annual cliff-vesting. Awards granted to directors prior to November 2010 generally vest over three years, with equal annual cliff-vesting. Awards granted after November 2010 and prior to fiscal 2014 to new directors vest over approximately two years, with 50% vesting per year, while awards granted from November 2010 onward to ongoing directors generally vest over approximately one year. Awards granted to new directors from fiscal 2014 onward vest on the earlier of the first anniversary of the award’s date of grant, or the day immediately preceding the date of the next annual meeting of stockholders that occurs after the award’s date of grant. Our 2020 Stock Plan also allows us to grant RSUs that vest based on the satisfaction of specific performance criteria. At each vesting date, the holder of the award is issued shares of our Class A common stock. Compensation expense from these awards is equal to the adjusted fair market value of our Class A common stock on the date of grant, discounted to account for dividend payments forgone during the vesting period, and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
Performance-Based Restricted Stock Units (PSUs).    In the first quarter of fiscal 2020, we began granting PSUs to our executive officers with shares of our Class A common stock underlying such awards. The terms of the PSU Agreement adopted in the first quarter fiscal 2020 provide for the grant of PSUs to our executive officers contingent on Dolby's achievement of annualized TSR targets measured against a comparator index over a three-year performance period following the date of grant. Anywhere from 0% to 200% of eligible restricted stock units may vest based on achievement of the performance conditions at the end of the three-year performance period.
In valuing the PSUs which will be recognized as compensation cost, we used a Monte Carlo valuation model. Compensation cost is being amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
On December 15, 2020, we granted PSUs to our executive officers vesting for an aggregate of 66,138 shares at the target amount, which would vest at 132,276 shares at 200% of the target award amount. On December 16, 2019, we granted PSUs to our executive officers vesting for an aggregate of 62,000 shares at the target amount, which would vest at 124,000 shares at 200% of the target award amount.
The following table summarizes information about RSUs issued under our 2020 Stock Plan:
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SharesWeighted-Average
Grant Date
Fair Value 
 (in thousands)
Non-vested at September 25, 20202,979 $62.70 
Granted1,383 89.75 
Vested(1,012)60.18 
Forfeitures(90)65.54 
Non-vested at March 26, 20213,260 $74.88 
Employee Stock Purchase Plan.    Our plan allows eligible employees to have up to 10 percent of their eligible compensation withheld and used to purchase Class A common stock, subject to a maximum of $25,000 worth of stock purchased in a calendar year or no more than 1,000 shares in an offering period, whichever is less. An offering period consists of successive six-month purchase periods, with a look back feature to our stock price at the commencement of a one-year offering period. The plan provides for a discount equal to 15 percent of the lower of the closing price of our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on the first and last day of the offering periods. The plan also includes an automatic reset feature that provides for an offering period to be reset and recommenced to a new lower-priced offering if the offering price of a new offering period is less than that of the immediately preceding offering period.
Stock Option Valuation Assumptions
We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the estimated fair value of employee stock options at the date of the grant. The Black-Scholes model includes inputs that require us to make certain estimates and assumptions regarding the expected term of the award, as well as the future risk-free interest rate, and the volatility of our stock price over the expected term of the award.
Expected Term.    The expected term of an award represents the estimated period of time that options granted will remain outstanding, and is measured from the grant date to the date at which the option is either exercised or canceled. Our determination of the expected term involves an evaluation of historical terms and other factors such as the exercise and termination patterns of our employees who hold options to acquire our Class A common stock, and is based on certain assumptions made regarding the future exercise and termination behavior.
Risk-Free Interest Rate.    The risk-free interest rate is based on the yield curve of United States Treasury instruments in effect on the date of grant. In determining an estimate for the risk-free interest rate, we use average interest rates based on these instruments’ constant maturities with a term that approximates and corresponds with the expected term of our awards.
Expected Stock Price Volatility.    The expected volatility represents the estimated volatility in the price of our Class A common stock over a time period that approximates the expected term of the awards, and is determined using a blended combination of historical and implied volatility. Historical volatility is representative of the historical trends in our stock price for periods preceding the measurement date for a period that is commensurate with the expected term. Implied volatility is based upon externally traded option contracts of our Class A common stock.
Dividend Yield.    The dividend yield is based on our anticipated dividend payout over the expected term of our option awards. Dividend declarations and the establishment of future record and payment dates are subject to the Board of Directors’ continuing determination that the dividend policy is in the best interests of our stockholders. The dividend policy may be changed or canceled at the discretion of the Board of Directors at any time.
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The weighted-average assumptions used in the determination of the fair value of our stock options were as follows:
 Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Expected term (in years)4.914.884.91
Risk-free interest rate0.6 %0.4 %1.7 %
Expected stock price volatility25.8 %28.7 %24.0 %
Dividend yield1.3 %1.1 %1.3 %
There were no stock options granted during the second quarter of fiscal 2021.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense for equity awards granted to employees is determined by estimating their fair value on the date of grant, and recognizing that value as an expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period in which our employees earn the awards. Compensation expense related to these equity awards is recognized net of estimated forfeitures, which reduce the expense recorded in the consolidated statements of operations. The selection of applicable estimated forfeiture rates is based on an evaluation of trends in our historical forfeiture data with consideration for other potential driving factors. If in subsequent periods actual forfeitures significantly differ from our initial estimates, we will revise such estimates accordingly.
The following two tables separately present stock-based compensation expense both by award type and classification in our condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
Expense - By Award Type
 Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Compensation expense
Stock options$3,224 $3,974 $7,710 $8,520 
Restricted stock units19,853 15,850 40,246 32,817 
Employee stock purchase plan1,336 1,127 2,770 2,228 
Total stock-based compensation24,413 20,951 50,726 43,565 
Benefit from income taxes(3,859)(3,521)(8,071)(7,115)
Total stock-based compensation, net of tax$20,554 $17,430 $42,655 $36,450 

Expense - By Income Statement Line Item Classification
 Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Compensation expense
Cost of products and services$489 $507 $1,123 $1,050 
Research and development7,190 6,179 15,123 13,166 
Sales and marketing9,110 7,702 $18,906 $15,876 
General and administrative7,624 6,563 15,574 13,473 
Total stock-based compensation expense24,413 20,951 50,726 43,565 
Benefit from income taxes(3,859)(3,521)(8,071)(7,115)
Total stock-based compensation, net of tax$20,554 $17,430 $42,655 $36,450 
The tax benefit that we recognize from shares issued under our ESPP is excluded from the tables above, and was not material for the periods presented.
0Unrecognized Compensation Expense.    As of March 26, 2021, total unrecognized compensation expense associated with employee stock options expected to vest was approximately $22.5 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.2 years. As of March 26, 2021, total unrecognized compensation expense associated with RSUs expected to vest was approximately $187.1 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.8 years.
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Common Stock Repurchase Program
In November 2009, we announced a stock repurchase program ("program"), providing for the repurchase of our Class A common stock. The following table summarizes the initial amount of authorized repurchases as well as additional repurchases approved by our Board of Directors as of March 26, 2021 (in thousands):
Authorization PeriodAuthorization Amount
Fiscal 2010: November 2009$250,000 
Fiscal 2010: July 2010300,000 
Fiscal 2011: July 2011250,000 
Fiscal 2012: February 2012100,000 
Fiscal 2015: October 2014200,000 
Fiscal 2017: January 2017200,000 
Fiscal 2018: July 2018350,000 
Fiscal 2019: July 2019350,000 
Total$2,000,000 
Stock repurchases under the program may be made through open market transactions, negotiated purchases, or otherwise, at times and in amounts that we consider appropriate. The timing of repurchases and the number of shares repurchased depend upon a variety of factors, including price, regulatory requirements, the rate of dilution from our equity compensation plans, and other market conditions. The program does not have a specified expiration date, and can be limited, suspended or terminated at our discretion at any time without prior notice. Shares repurchased under the program will be returned to the status of authorized but unissued shares of Class A common stock. As of March 26, 2021, the remaining authorization to purchase additional shares is approximately $76.4 million.
The following table provides information regarding share repurchase activity under the program during fiscal 2021:
Quarterly Repurchase ActivityShares
Repurchased
Cost in thousands (1)
Average Price Paid Per Share (2)
Q1 - Quarter ended December 25, 2020450,399 $39,985 $88.78 
Q2 - Quarter ended March 26, 2021757,019 70,790 93.51 
Total1,207,418 $110,775 
(1)Cost of share repurchases includes the price paid per share and applicable commissions.
(2)Average price paid per share excludes commission costs.
Dividend Program
The following table summarizes dividends declared under the program during fiscal 2021:
Fiscal PeriodAnnouncement DateRecord DatePayment DateCash Dividend Per Common Share
Estimated
Dividend Payment(1)
Fiscal 2021
Q1 - Quarter ended December 25, 2020January 28, 2021February 9, 2021February 19, 2021$0.22 $22.4 million
Q2 - Quarter ended March 26, 2021May 4, 2021May 17, 2021May 25, 2021$0.22 $22.3 million
(1)The dividend payment amount is estimated based on the number of shares of our Class A and Class B common stock that we estimate will be outstanding as of the Record Date.
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10. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Other comprehensive income consists of three components: unrealized gains or losses on our AFS marketable investment securities, gains and losses on derivatives in cash flow hedge relationships not yet recognized in earnings, and the gains and losses from the translation of assets and liabilities denominated in non-U.S. dollar functional currencies. Until realized and reported as a component of net income, these comprehensive income items accumulate and are included within accumulated other comprehensive loss, a subsection within stockholders’ equity in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. Unrealized gains and losses on our investment securities are reclassified from AOCI into earnings when realized upon sale and are determined based on specific identification of securities sold. Unrealized gains and losses on our cash flow hedges are reclassified from AOCI into earnings when the hedged operating expenses are recognized which is also when the gains and losses are realized.
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The following table summarizes the changes in the accumulated balances during the period, and includes information regarding the manner in which the reclassifications out of AOCI into earnings affect our condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
Fiscal Quarter Ended
March 26, 2021
Fiscal Year-To-Date Ended
March 26, 2021
Investment SecuritiesCash Flow HedgesCurrency Translation AdjustmentsTotalInvestment SecuritiesCash Flow HedgesCurrency Translation AdjustmentsTotal
Beginning Balance$653 $6,115 $(7,376)$(608)$818 $3,969 $(15,381)$(10,594)
Other comprehensive income/(loss) before reclassifications:
Unrealized losses(423)(4,974)— (5,397)(607)(3,910)— (4,517)
Foreign currency translation gains/(losses) (1)— — (837)(837)— — 7,640 7,640 
Income tax effect - benefit/(expense)52 116 (35)133 56 65 (507)(386)
Net of tax(371)(4,858)(872)(6,101)(551)(3,845)7,133 2,737 
Amounts reclassified from AOCI into earnings:
Realized gains (1)184 2,650 — 2,834 201 4,022 — 4,223 
Income tax effect - expense (2)(8)(156)— (164)(10)(395)— (405)
Net of tax176 2,494 — 2,670 191 3,627 — 3,818 
Net current-period other comprehensive income/(loss)(195)(2,364)(872)(3,431)(360)(218)7,133 6,555 
Ending Balance$458 $3,751 $(8,248)$(4,039)$458 $3,751 $(8,248)$(4,039)

Fiscal Quarter Ended
March 27, 2020
Fiscal Year-To-Date Ended
March 27, 2020
Investment SecuritiesCash Flow HedgesCurrency Translation AdjustmentsTotalInvestment SecuritiesCash Flow HedgesCurrency Translation AdjustmentsTotal
Beginning Balance$1,036 $284 $(19,380)$(18,060)$2,198 $0 $(22,823)$(20,625)
Other comprehensive income/(loss) before reclassifications:
Unrealized gains/(losses)135 (4,078)— (3,943)(2,074)(3,763)— (5,837)
Foreign currency translation losses (1)— — (9,780)(9,780)— — (6,377)(6,377)
Income tax effect - benefit/(expense)70 37 (40)67 70 70 
Net of tax205 (4,041)(9,820)(13,656)(2,004)(3,763)(6,377)(12,144)
Amounts reclassified from AOCI into earnings:
Realized gains (1)84 33 — 117 1,392 39 — 1,431 
Income tax effect - expense (2)(16)— (16)(277)— — (277)
Net of tax68 33 — 101 1,115 39 — 1,154 
Net current-period other comprehensive income/(loss)273 (4,008)(9,820)(13,555)(889)(3,724)(6,377)(10,990)
Ending Balance$1,309 $(3,724)$(29,200)$(31,615)$1,309 $(3,724)$(29,200)$(31,615)
(1)Realized gains or losses, if any, from the sale of our AFS investment securities or from foreign currency translation adjustments are included within other income/expense, net in our consolidated statements of operations. Realized gains or losses on foreign currency contracts designated as cash flow hedges are included in operating expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
(2)The income tax benefit or expense is included within provision for income taxes in our condensed consolidated statements of operations.


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11. Earnings Per Share
Basic EPS is computed by dividing net income attributable to Dolby Laboratories, Inc. by the number of weighted-average shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period. Through application of the treasury stock method, diluted EPS is computed in the same manner, except that the number of weighted-average shares outstanding is increased by the number of potentially dilutive shares from employee incentive plans during the period.
Basic and diluted EPS are computed independently for each fiscal quarter and year-to-date period, which involves the use of different weighted-average share count figures relating to quarterly and annual periods. As a result, and after factoring the effect of rounding to the nearest cent per share, the sum of all four quarter-to-date EPS figures may not equal year-to-date EPS.
Potentially dilutive shares represent the hypothetical number of incremental shares issuable under the assumed exercise of outstanding stock options (both vested and non-vested) and vesting of outstanding RSUs. The calculation of dilutive shares outstanding excludes out-of-the-money stock options.
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted EPS attributable to Dolby Laboratories, Inc. (in thousands, except per share amounts):
 Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Numerator:
Net income attributable to Dolby Laboratories, Inc.$76,217 $88,496 $211,415 $137,249 
Denominator:
Weighted-average shares outstanding—basic101,464 100,854 101,090 100,595 
Potential common shares from options to purchase common stock2,102 1,471 1,980 1,591 
Potential common shares from restricted stock units939 408 1,258 905 
Potential common shares from employee stock purchase plan76 40 86 42 
Weighted-average shares outstanding—diluted104,581 102,773 104,414 103,133 
Net income per share attributable to Dolby Laboratories, Inc.:
Basic$0.75 $0.88 $2.09 $1.36 
Diluted$0.73 $0.86 $2.02 $1.33 
Antidilutive awards excluded from calculation:
Stock options283 3,446 159 3,035 
Restricted stock units72 47 40 

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12. Income Taxes
Our income tax expense, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and unrecognized tax benefits reflect management's best assessment of estimated current and future taxes to be paid. We are subject to income taxes in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments and estimates are required in determining the consolidated income tax expense.
Unrecognized Tax Benefits
As of March 26, 2021, the total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits was $66.9 million, of which $44.6 million, if recognized, would reduce our effective tax rate. As of September 25, 2020, the total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits was $60.7 million, of which $42.0 million, if recognized, would reduce our effective tax rate. The second quarter fiscal 2021 increase was primarily due to current year reserve and interest accruals. Our liability for unrecognized tax benefits is classified within other non-current liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Effective Tax Rate
Each period, the combination of multiple different factors can impact our effective tax rate. These factors include both recurring items such as tax rates and the relative amount of income earned in foreign jurisdictions, as well as discrete items that may occur in, but are not necessarily consistent between periods.
Compared to the Federal statutory rate of 21%, our effective tax rate in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 was 10.6% or a tax expense of $9.0 million and our effective tax rate in the second quarter of fiscal 2020 was 20.0% or a tax expense of $22.1 million. The decrease in our effective tax rate was primarily due to a shift in the jurisdictional mix of revenue.
Our effective tax rate in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 year-to-date period was 13.2% or a tax expense of $33.3 million, compared to our Federal statutory rate of 21% and our effective tax rate in the second quarter of fiscal 2020 year-to-date period was 16.9% or a tax expense of $28.0 million. The decrease in our effective tax rate was primarily due to a shift in the jurisdictional mix of revenue and discrete benefit from stock-based compensation.
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13. Restructuring
Restructuring charges recorded in our condensed consolidated statements of operations represent costs associated with separate individual restructuring plans implemented in various fiscal periods. Costs arising from these actions, including fluctuations in related balances between fiscal periods, are based on the nature of activities under the various plans.
Fiscal 2021 Restructuring Events.    In October 2020, we implemented a plan to reduce certain activities, such as exiting our conferencing hardware business, in order to focus our efforts on higher priority investment areas, and reduce the cost structure of our manufacturing operations. As a result, we recorded $9.4 million in restructuring costs in the year-to-date period ended March 26, 2021, primarily representing severance and other related benefits offered to approximately 100 employees that were impacted by this action. Actions related to this plan are expected to be completed by the end of fiscal 2021. The table presented below summarizes the changes in our restructuring accruals (in thousands):
SeveranceLeased facility exit costs and other costsTotal
Balance at September 27, 2019$128 $15,723 $15,851 
Restructuring charges1,821 1,821 
Cash payments(75)(22,119)(22,194)
Non-cash and other adjustments(53)4,575 4,522 
Balance at September 25, 2020$0 $0 $0 
Restructuring charges9,437 1,327 10,764 
Cash payments and adjustments(7,708)(623)(8,331)
Balance at March 26, 2021$1,729 $704 $2,433 
The activities during fiscal 2020 reflects the impact of our early exit of a leased facility and related strategic reorganization of our marketing function as a part of the fiscal 2019 restructuring plan.
Accruals for restructuring charges incurred for the restructuring plan described above are included within accrued liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, while restructuring charges are included within restructuring charges in our condensed consolidated statements of operations.
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14. Legal Matters
We are involved in various legal proceedings that occasionally arise in the normal course of business. These can include claims of alleged infringement of IP rights, commercial, employment, and other matters. In our opinion, resolution of these proceedings is not expected to have a material adverse impact on our operating results or financial condition. Given the unpredictable nature of legal proceedings, it is possible that an unfavorable resolution of one or more such proceedings could materially affect our future operating results or financial condition in a particular period, including as a result of required changes to our licensing terms, monetary penalties, and other potential consequences. However, based on the information known by us as of the date of this filing, any such amounts are either immaterial, or it is not feasible to provide an estimate of any such potential loss.

15. Commitments and Contingencies
In the ordinary course of business, we enter into contractual agreements with third parties that include non-cancelable payment obligations, for which we are liable in future periods. These arrangements can include terms binding us to minimum payments and/or penalties if we terminate the agreement for any reason other than an event of default as described by the agreement. The following table presents a summary of our contractual obligations and commitments as of March 26, 2021 (in thousands):
 Payments Due By Fiscal Period
 Remainder of Fiscal 2021Fiscal
2022
Fiscal
2023
Fiscal
2024
Fiscal
2025
ThereafterTotal
Naming rights$1,979 $8,015 $8,116 $8,219 $8,322 $61,277 $95,928 
Purchase obligations8,838 5,169 1,566 979 16,552 
Donation commitments2,052 1,740 44 44 44 114 4,038 
Total$12,869 $14,924 $9,726 $9,242 $8,366 $61,391 $116,518 
Naming Rights.    We are party to an agreement for naming rights and related benefits with respect to the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, California, the location of the Academy Awards®. The term of the agreement is 20 years, over which we will make payments on a semi-annual basis until fiscal 2032. Our ongoing annual payment obligations are conditioned in part on the Academy Awards being held and broadcast from the Dolby Theatre. Our payment obligations may be suspended or reduced in certain circumstances, including protracted closure of the Dolby Theatre.
Purchase Obligations.    Purchase obligations primarily consist of our commitments made under agreements to purchase goods and services related to Dolby Cinema and for purposes that include information technology and telecommunications, marketing and professional services, and manufacturing and other R&D activities.
Donation Commitments.    Our donation commitments relate to non-cancelable obligations that consist of maintenance services and installation of imaging and audio products in exchange for various marketing, branding, and publicity benefits. These donation agreements either transfer title of our audio and imaging products to the donee or offer use of the products free of charge for a specified period of time via a leasing arrangement. The recipients of these donations participate in or promote the cinema and entertainment industry and our commitments vary in length, lasting up to 15 years.
Indemnification Clauses.    On a limited basis, our contractual agreements contain a clause under which we agree to provide indemnification to the counterparty, most commonly to licensees in connection with licensing arrangements that include our IP. We have also entered into indemnification agreements with our officers, directors, and certain employees, and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain similar indemnification obligations. Additionally, and although not a contractual requirement, we have at times elected to defend our licensees from third party IP infringement claims. Since the terms and conditions of our contractual indemnification clauses do not explicitly specify our obligations, we are unable to reasonably estimate the maximum potential exposure for which we could be liable. Furthermore, we have not historically made any payments in connection with any such obligation and believe there to be a remote likelihood that any potential exposure in future periods would be of a material amount. As a result, no amounts have been accrued in our consolidated financial statements with respect to the contingent aspect of these indemnities.
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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion contains forward-looking statements reflecting our current expectations that are subject to risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to statements regarding: operating results and underlying measures; demand and acceptance for our technologies and products; the effect of COVID-19 on our business; market growth opportunities and trends; our ability to maintain key partnership relationships; our plans, strategies and expected opportunities; future competition; our stock repurchase plan; and our dividend policy. Use of words such as "may," "will," "should," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "potential," "continue" or similar expressions indicates a forward-looking statement. Actual results may differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including the risks set forth in Part II, Item 1A, "Risk Factors." Such forward-looking statements are based on management's reasonable current assumptions and expectations. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We disclaim any duty to update any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to conform our prior statements to actual results.
Investors and others should note that we disseminate information to the public about our company, our products, services and other matters through various channels, including our website (www.dolby.com), our investor relations website (http://investor.dolby.com), SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls, and webcasts, in order to achieve broad, non-exclusionary distribution of information to the public. We encourage investors and others to review the information we make public through these channels, as such information could be deemed to be material information.
OVERVIEW
Dolby Laboratories creates audio and imaging technologies that transform entertainment and communications at the cinema, at home, at work, and on mobile devices. Founded in 1965, our strengths stem from expertise in analog and digital signal processing and digital compression technologies that have transformed the ability of artists to convey entertainment experiences to their audiences through recorded media. Such technologies led to the development of our noise-reduction systems for analog tape recordings, and have since evolved into multiple offerings that enable more immersive sound for cinema, digital television transmissions and devices, mobile devices, OTT video and music services, and home entertainment devices. Today, we derive the majority of our revenue from licensing our audio technologies. We also derive revenue from licensing our consumer imaging and communication technologies, as well as audio and imaging technologies for premium cinema offerings in collaboration with exhibitors. Finally, we provide products and services for a variety of applications in the cinema, broadcast, communications, and home entertainment markets.
COVID-19
Please refer to the Executive Summary section of Part I, Item 2 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for information concerning the continuing effect of COVID-19 on our business.
OUR STRATEGY
Key elements of our strategy include:
Advancing the Science of Sight and Sound. We apply our understanding of the human senses, audio, and imaging engineering to develop technologies aimed at improving how people experience and interact with their entertainment and communications content.
Providing Creative Solutions. We promote the use of our solutions as creative tools, and provide our products, services, and technologies to filmmakers, musical artists, sound mixers, and other content creators and providers. Our tools help showcase the quality and impact of their efforts and intent, which in turn may generate market demand.
Delivering Superior Experiences. Our technologies and solutions optimize playback and communications so that users may enjoy richer, clearer, and more immersive sound and sight experiences.
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REVENUE GENERATION
We have active licensing arrangements with over 500 electronics product OEMs and software developers. As of March 26, 2021, we had approximately 14,500 issued patents relating to technologies from which we derive a significant portion of our licensing revenue. We have approximately 1,300 trademark registrations throughout the world for a variety of wordmarks, logos, and slogans. These trademarks are an integral part of our technology licensing program as licensees typically place them on their products which incorporate our technologies to inform consumers that they have met our quality specifications.
Licensing
We license our technologies to a range of customers who incorporate them into their products for enhanced audio and imaging functionality whether it be at home, at work, on mobile devices, or at the cinema. Our key technologies are summarized in the table below. As it relates to AAC, HE-AAC, AVC, and HEVC, we jointly participate in patent licensing programs with other patent owners.
TechnologyDescription
AAC & HE-AACAn advanced digital audio codec solution with higher bandwidth efficiency used for a wide range of media applications.
AVCA digital video codec with high bandwidth efficiency used in a wide range of media devices.
Dolby® AC-4A next-generation digital audio coding technology that increases transmission efficiency while delivering new audio experiences, including Dolby Atmos, to a wide range of playback devices.
Dolby Atmos®An object-oriented audio technology for cinema and a wide range of media devices that allows sound to be precisely placed and moved anywhere in the listening environment including the overhead dimension. Dolby Atmos is an immersive experience that can be provided via multiple Dolby audio coding technologies.
Dolby Digital®A digital audio coding technology that provides multichannel sound to a variety of media applications.
Dolby Digital Plus™An advanced digital audio coding technology that offers more efficient audio transmission for a wide range of media applications and devices.
Dolby® TrueHDA digital audio coding technology providing lossless encoding for premium quality media applications.
Dolby Vision®An imaging technology combining high dynamic range and dynamic metadata to deliver higher color contrast, brighter contrast, and improved details for cinema and a wide range of media devices.
Dolby Voice®An audio communications technology with superior spatial perception, voice clarity, and background noise reduction that emulates the in-person meeting experience.
HEVCA next-generation digital video codec with high bandwidth efficiency to support ultra-high definition experiences for a wide range of media devices.
The following table presents the composition of our licensing business and revenue for all periods presented:
Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
MarketMarch 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Main Offerings Incorporating Our Technologies
Broadcast35%39%36%39%Televisions and STBs
Mobile22%23%25%19%Smartphones and Tablets
CE16%15%15%17%DMAs, Blu-ray Disc devices, AVRs, Soundbars, DVDs, and HTIBs
PC17%14%12%13%Windows and macOS operating systems
Other10%9%12%12%Gaming consoles, Auto DVD, Dolby Cinema, and Dolby Voice
Total100%100%100%100%
We have various licensing models: a two-tier model, an integrated licensing model, a patent licensing model, and collaboration arrangements.
Two-Tier Licensing Model.   Most of our consumer entertainment licensing business consists of a two-tier licensing model whereby our decoding technologies, included in reference software and firmware code, are first provided under license to semiconductor manufacturers whom we refer to as “implementation licensees.” Implementation licensees incorporate our technologies in ICs which they sell to OEMs of consumer entertainment products, whom we refer to as “system licensees.” System licensees separately obtain licenses from us that allow them to make and sell end-user products using ICs that incorporate our technologies.
Implementation licensees incorporate our technologies into their chipsets that, once approved by Dolby, are available for purchase from implementation licensees by OEMs for use in end-user products. Implementation licensees only pay us a nominal initial fee on contract execution as consideration for the ongoing services that we provide to assist in their implementation process. Revenue from these initial fees is recognized ratably over the contractual term as a component of licensing revenue.
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System licensees provide us with prototypes of products, or self-test results of products that incorporate our technologies. Upon our confirmation that our technologies are optimally and consistently incorporated, the system licensee may buy ICs under a license for the same Dolby technology from our network of implementation licensees, and may further sell approved products to retailers, distributors, and consumers. For the use of our technologies, our system licensees pay an initial licensing fee as well as royalties, which represent the majority of the revenue recognized from these arrangements. The amount of royalties we collect on a particular product depends on several factors including the nature of the implementations, the mix of Dolby technologies used, and the volume of products using our technologies that are shipped by the system licensee.
Integrated Licensing Model.    We also license our technologies to software operating system vendors and to certain other OEMs that act as combined implementation and system licensees. These licensees incorporate our technologies in their software used on PCs, in mobile applications, or in ICs they manufacture and incorporate into their products. As with the two-tier licensing model, the combined implementation and system licensee pays us an initial licensing fee in addition to royalties as determined by the mix of Dolby technologies used, the nature of the implementations, and the volume of products using our technologies that are shipped, and is subject to the same quality control evaluation process.
Patent Licensing Model.    We license our patents through patent pools which are arrangements between multiple patent owners to jointly offer and license pooled patents to licensees. We also license our patents directly to manufacturers that use our IP in their products. Finally, we generate service fees for managing patent pools on behalf of third party patent owners through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Via Licensing Corporation. By aggregating and offering pooled IP, patent pools deliver efficiencies that reduce transactional costs for both IP owners and licensees. The Via Licensing patent pools enable product manufacturers to efficiently and transparently secure patent licenses for audio coding, interactive television, digital radio, and wireless technologies. We offer our patents related to AAC, AVC, HE-AAC, HEVC, and other IP through a combination of patent pools and licensing directly to OEMs.
Recoveries.    Licensing revenue recognized in any given period may include revenue from licensees and/or settlements with third parties where the use of our technology occurred in previous periods. Within the Results of Operations section of Part I, Item 2 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," revenue attributable to previous periods' usage including settlements are collectively referred to as "recoveries." Such recoveries have become a recurring element of our business and are particularly subject to fluctuation and unpredictability.
Collaboration Arrangements.    
Dolby Cinema: We partner with exhibitors to deliver a premium cinema offering with Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos at new and pre-existing venues. We receive revenue at Dolby Cinema sites through a share of box office receipts, which is recognized as licensing revenue.
Dolby Voice: Historically, we have entered into arrangements with audio and video conferencing providers where, in return for licensing our IP and know-how, we earned revenue based on access to our technology and services. During the first quarter of fiscal 2021, we decided to exit our conferencing hardware business and shifted our focus towards expanding the availability of Dolby Voice technology through software solutions and services.
Products and Services
We design and manufacture audio and imaging products for the cinema, television, broadcast, and entertainment industries. Distributed in approximately 90 countries, these products are used in content creation, distribution, and playback to enhance image and sound quality, and improve transmission and playback. Additionally, some of our Dolby Cinema arrangements involve fixed or minimum amounts, which are typically included in products sales. We also sell and lease hardware that facilitate the Dolby conferencing experience, though at reduced levels since we decided to exit our conferencing hardware business in the first quarter of fiscal 2021.
Recently, we launched a developer platform, Dolby.io, that enables developers to access our technologies through APIs. These offerings currently include media processing APIs for analyzing and improving the sound of recorded audio files, and interactivity APIs for enabling developers to embed enhanced communications experiences within their applications. Over time, Dolby.io is intended to significantly expand the amount and types of content that can be enhanced through our technologies and capabilities.
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Key products from which we generate products revenue are summarized in the table below:
ProductDescription
CinemaCinema Imaging ProductsDigital Cinema Servers used to load, store, decrypt, decode, watermark, and playback digital film files for presentation on digital cinema projectors and software used to encrypt, encode, and package digital media files for distribution.
Cinema Audio ProductsCinema Processors, amplifiers, and loudspeakers used to decode, render, and optimally playback digital cinema soundtracks including those using Dolby Atmos.
OtherDolby Conference PhoneAn integral hardware component of the Dolby Voice conferencing solution that enhances full-room voice capture, spatial voice separation, and playback.
Dolby Voice RoomVideo conferencing solution for huddle rooms and conference rooms that combines a camera product with the Dolby Conference Phone and Dolby Voice technology.
Other Products3-D glasses and kits, broadcast hardware and software used to encode, transmit, and decode multiple channels of high quality audio for DTV and HDTV distribution, monitors, accessibility solutions for hearing and visually impaired consumers, and Dolby.io
In addition, we offer various services to support theatrical and television production for cinema exhibition, broadcast, and home entertainment, including equipment training and maintenance, mixing room alignment, equalization, as well as audio, color, and light image calibration. We also provide PCS for products sold and equipment installed at Dolby Cinema theaters operated by exhibitor partners and support the implementation of our technologies into products manufactured by our licensees.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
COVID-19
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease was first reported and in January 2020, the World Health Organization ("WHO") declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. On March 11, 2020, the WHO characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic.
COVID-19 has triggered worldwide shutdowns, job losses, and other disruptions which in turn have negatively affected the global economy, including consumer purchasing activity. Because Dolby technologies are featured in a wide array of electronic products that are primarily purchased by consumers, our revenue for certain consumer products has been negatively affected by COVID-19, although we have experienced heightened demand for certain consumer products that feature our technologies, including TVs and PCs, during the pandemic. It is unclear how demand for these consumer products may change relative to demand levels experienced during the pandemic. The issues and circumstances relating to COVID-19 continue to change rapidly and are difficult to predict. We continue to monitor the evolving situation and the impact on our business.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has also affected many of our partners, resulting in the disruption of consumer products' supply chains, shortages of certain semiconductor components, and delays in shipments, product development, and product launches. Consumer demand for products that include our technologies may continue to be negatively impacted due to economic uncertainty resulting from COVID-19. These factors have resulted in decreased revenue pertaining to royalties on consumer devices and may cause delays in the adoption of our technologies by partners.
The overall cinema market has been adversely impacted by COVID-19 shelter-in-place and social distancing mandates. Our exhibition partners and customers have had to either partially or fully discontinue operations. This has resulted in a significant reduction in box office receipts at Dolby Cinema sites and lower demand for our cinema products and services. It remains uncertain when and where the cinemas will be able to operate at full capacity. Most cinema locations have been permitted to resume operations, but many such locations are operating under restricted capacity.
At Dolby, we implemented work-from-home policies within all our offices in locations with ongoing outbreaks and put in place additional safety measures and global travel restrictions to ensure the well-being of our employees. We have enabled our employees with the tools and infrastructure they need to carry on our critical operations and progress the business forward in this remote working environment. Select Dolby offices in certain locations have resumed in-office work at less than full capacity, dependent on local progress against COVID-19 and applicable rules and regulations in those jurisdictions, as well as the readiness of our facilities to accommodate appropriate safety measures for our employees.
We expect COVID-19 will continue to have an impact for the foreseeable future, and has continued to negatively impact certain parts of the world, such as India. Our business operations and revenues have not been significantly impacted by the recent surge in COVID-19 infections in India. The degree of impact on our business will depend on several factors, such as the full duration and the extent of the pandemic, the actions taken by governments, businesses and consumers in response to the pandemic, and the rate and extent of vaccine distributions to the general population, all of which continue to evolve and remain uncertain at this time.
Further discussion of the potential impacts of COVID-19 on our business can be found in Part II, Item 1A "Risk Factors."
EXPANDING OUR LEADERSHIP IN AUDIO AND IMAGING EXPERIENCES
We are focused on expanding our leadership in audio and imaging solutions for premium entertainment content by increasing the number of Dolby experiences that people can enjoy, which will drive revenue growth across the markets we serve. We can also increase our value proposition and create opportunities by broadening Dolby technologies into new types of content, such as music and gaming. We are beginning to leverage our audio and imaging expertise to expand the reach of our technologies to address content beyond premium entertainment that can create new revenue generating opportunities. Following is a discussion of the key markets that we address and the various Dolby technologies and solutions that serve these markets.
LICENSING
The majority of our licensing revenue is derived from the licensing of audio and imaging technologies for premium entertainment playback. Our audio technologies are primarily comprised of DD+, Dolby Atmos, AC-4, and our AAC
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and HE-AAC technologies. Our imaging technologies are primarily comprised of Dolby Vision and our AVC and HEVC technologies. The following are certain highlights from our second quarter of fiscal 2021 and key challenges related to audio and imaging licensing, by market.
Broadcast
Highlights: We have an established global presence with respect to our DD+ and HE-AAC audio technologies in broadcast services and devices. In recent years, we have expanded our offerings in the broadcast market through the introduction of newer technologies, including our Dolby Atmos and AC-4 audio technologies, Dolby Vision, as well as AVC and HEVC imaging technologies which we license through patent pools.
We partner with many TV OEMs to enable Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos experiences within their TV lineups. Many such partners have continued to expand their support of the combined Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos experience. We continue to expand our offerings within international markets, such as China and India. For example, in the second quarter of fiscal 2021, Hisense, Changhong, and Xiaomi in China, and India-based TCL, launched TVs that support Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos. Hisense also recently launched its adoption of Dolby Vision IQ in their TVs. Dolby Vision IQ automatically adjusts the TV picture according to the surrounding light and the type of content being viewed, creating an enhanced viewing experience.
Key Challenges: Our pursuit of growth and further adoption of our technologies may be impacted by a number of factors. In certain countries, such as China, we face difficulties enforcing our contractual and IP rights, including instances in which our licensees fail to accurately report the shipment of products using our technologies. We must continue to present compelling reasons for consumers to demand our audio and imaging technologies, including ensuring that there is a breadth of available content in our formats and such content is being widely distributed. To the extent that OEMs do not incorporate our technologies in current and future products, our revenue could be impacted.
Additionally, in the broadcast market, as well as other markets, we face geopolitical challenges including changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, trade protection measures, and import or export licensing requirements. Further, COVID-19 continues to cause uncertainty about consumer demand for devices and services in the broadcast market, the ability of our partners to manufacture such devices due to supply chain disruption, timing of the adoption of our technologies into new products by partners and licensees, and the timing of launches for new products.
Mobile
Highlights: We continue to focus on adoption of our technologies across major mobile ecosystems, including Apple and Android. HE-AAC and HEVC are widely adopted audio and video technologies across mobile devices, and we offer these technologies through our patent licensing programs. We also continue to focus on expanding adoption of our DD+, AC-4, Dolby Atmos, and Dolby Vision technologies in the mobile market.
The breadth of mobile devices supporting Dolby technologies continues to increase globally. In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, Xiaomi launched its first smartphones supporting Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos. Additionally, Samsung launched the latest Samsung Galaxy and OPPO launched its latest mobile phone model, both of which support Dolby Atmos. Also in the second quarter of fiscal 2021, Earshot became the first podcast platform to support Dolby Atmos.
Key Challenges: Growth in this market is dependent on several factors. Due to short product life cycles, mobile device OEMs can readily add or remove certain of our technologies from their devices. Our success depends on our ability to address the rapid pace of change in mobile devices, and we must continuously collaborate with mobile device OEMs to incorporate our technologies. We rely on a small number of partnerships with key participants in the mobile market. If we are unable to maintain these key relationships, we may experience a decline in mobile devices incorporating our technologies. To the extent that OEMs do not incorporate our technologies in current and future products, our revenue could be impacted. Additionally, we must continue to support the development and distribution of Dolby-enabled content via various ecosystems. Further, COVID-19 continues to cause uncertainty about consumer demand for devices in the mobile market, the ability of our partners to manufacture such devices due to supply chain disruption, timing of the adoption of our technologies into new products by partners and licensees, and the timing of launches for new products.
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Consumer Electronics
Highlights: We have an established presence in the home entertainment market across devices such as AVRs, soundbars, smart speakers, DMAs, and Blu-Ray players, through the inclusion of our DD+ technology, and increasingly through the inclusion of our Dolby Atmos technology. AAC and HE-AAC technologies also have broad adoption through our patent licensing programs.
In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, the breadth of devices in the home entertainment market supporting Dolby Atmos continued to expand, including soundbars such as the recently launched Samsung Q Series. In addition, content available in Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos continued to grow in the second quarter of fiscal 2021, as many major streaming partners and services like Netflix, Disney+, Apple TV+, Amazon, and HBO Max continued to enable more content in Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos, which increases our value proposition for adoption in more devices.
We continue to focus on expanding the availability of Dolby technologies to new devices and new forms of content such as music. In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, Hungama Music, one of India’s leading music streaming services, began supporting Dolby Atmos. In addition, Indian music label Saga Music recently announced that it plans to release new music using Dolby Atmos in the near future.
Key Challenges: We must continue to present compelling reasons for consumers to demand our technologies wherever they enjoy entertainment content, while promoting creation and broad availability of content in our formats. To the extent that OEMs do not incorporate our technologies in current and future products, our revenue could be impacted. Further, COVID-19 continues to cause uncertainty about consumer demand for devices in the home entertainment market, the ability of our partners to manufacture such devices due to supply chain disruption, timing of the adoption of our technologies into new products by partners and licensees, and the timing of launches for new products.
Personal Computers
Highlights: DD+ continues to enhance playback in both Mac and Windows operating systems, including native support in their respective Safari and Microsoft Edge browsers. Dolby's presence in these browsers enables us to reach more users through various types of content, including streaming video entertainment. A number of PCs from partners such as Apple, Lenovo, Dell, and ASUS also support Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos, with continued expansion of applications through music, streaming, and gaming, and through international markets.
Key Challenges: PC revenue from core audio technologies such as DD+ has been impacted by a decline in the portion of PCs that have optical disc functionality in recent years, which has resulted in a decline in our ASPs, and we expect this decline in ASPs to continue. We must continuously collaborate and maintain our key partnership relationships with PC manufacturers to incorporate our technologies, and we must continue to support the development and distribution of Dolby content via various ecosystems. Demand in the PC market has been positively impacted in recent quarters by work-from-remote policies due to COVID-19. It is unclear whether this heightened demand will be sustained. COVID-19 continues to cause uncertainty about the ability of our partners to manufacture such devices due to supply chain disruption, timing of the adoption of our technologies into new products by partners and licensees, and the timing of launches for new products.
Other Markets
Highlights: DD+ is incorporated in the Xbox and PlayStation gaming consoles and streaming platforms for movie and television content. The most recent Xbox gaming console will support Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos for streaming and gaming content. In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, Microsoft launched its new Xbox wireless headsets, which support Dolby Atmos.
We also generate revenue from the automotive industry primarily through disc playback devices as well as other elements of the entertainment system. In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, Lucid Motors announced that their upcoming Lucid Air model will be the first vehicle that features Dolby Atmos in its entertainment system.
Key Challenges: Consumer demand for devices in the gaming industry is impacted by anticipation of console refresh cycles. In addition, the gaming console market has competition from mobile devices and gaming PCs, which have faster refresh cycles and appeal to a broader consumer base. These factors may impact our future revenue. If OEMs do not incorporate our technologies in current and future products, our revenue will face
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downward pressure. Further, COVID-19 continues to cause uncertainty about consumer demand for devices in the gaming industry, the ability of our partners to manufacture such devices due to supply chain disruption, timing of the adoption of our technologies into new products by partners and licensees, and the timing of launches for new products.
In addition to licensing revenue derived from the licensing of audio and imaging technologies into the markets discussed above, we offer our audio and imaging technologies to create Dolby experiences through Dolby Cinema.
Dolby Cinema
Highlights: We continue to expand our global presence for Dolby Cinema. As of the end of the second quarter of fiscal 2021, we have over 260 Dolby Cinema locations established across 14 countries. The breadth of motion pictures for Dolby Cinema continues to grow with over 300 theatrical titles in Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos having been announced or released from all of the major studios.
Key Challenges: Although the premium large format market for the cinema industry has been growing, Dolby Cinema competes with other existing offerings. Our success depends on our partners and their success, and our ability to differentiate our offering, deploy new sites in accordance with plans, and attract and retain a global viewing audience. In addition, the success of our Dolby Cinema offering will be tied to global box office performance generally. COVID-19 has had, and is likely to continue to have, a significant effect on theatrical exhibition, which could impact the financial viability of our key partners. The response to COVID-19 including the closure of cinemas, shelter-in-place mandates and government-imposed social-distancing restrictions has had, and is likely to continue to have, a negative impact on our cinema-related revenue and consumer demand. Further, certain studios have delayed the release of a number of new movie titles and/or are shifting towards a direct-to-streaming model, which as a result, has negatively impacted the rate of new Dolby Cinema content. It is uncertain whether consumer demand for the cinema and other forms of indoor recreation will return to previous levels. In addition, as cinemas have begun reopening at limited capacity, exhibitor partners may decide to operate fewer screens in response to decreased attendance.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
A majority of our products and services revenue is derived from the sale of audio and imaging products for the cinema, television, broadcast, communication, and entertainment industries. Revenue from the sale of Dolby Conference Phones and Dolby Voice Room, a business which we are exiting, is included in products and services. Revenue from our recently launched developer platform, Dolby.io, is also included in products and services.
Cinema Products and Services
Highlights: To help enable the playback of content in Dolby formats, we offer a range of servers and audio processors to cinema exhibitors globally. Dolby Atmos has been adopted broadly across studios, content creators, post-production facilities, and exhibitors. As of the second quarter of fiscal 2021, there are over 6,000 Dolby Atmos screens installed or committed and over 1,850 Dolby Atmos theatrical titles have been announced or released.
We also offer a variety of other cinema products, which include the IMS3000, an integrated imaging and audio server with Dolby Atmos, the Dolby Multichannel Amplifier, and our high-power flexible line of speakers. These products allow us to offer exhibitors a more complete Dolby Atmos solution that is often more cost effective than what was previously available to them.
Key Challenges: Demand for our cinema products is dependent upon our partners and their success in the market, industry and economic cycles, box office performance, and our ability to develop and introduce new technologies, further our relationships with content creators, and promote new cinematic audio and imaging experiences. A significant portion of our growth opportunity lies in international markets, such as China, which are subject to economic risks as well as geo-political risks. We may also be faced with pricing pressures or competing technologies, which would affect our revenue.
Additionally, the effects of COVID-19 such as the closure of cinemas, social distancing requirements, and shelter-in-place mandates have had, and are likely to continue to have, a negative impact on demand for cinema products and services. COVID-19 has also negatively impacted the financial health of our cinema customers and partners. If cinemas permanently close, our equipment may be available for resale on the secondary market, and
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erode the demand for new products. These conditions are likely to continue as government-imposed restrictions lift in certain locations.
Dolby Voice
Highlights: Historically, we sold hardware products such as the Dolby Conference Phone and the Dolby Voice Room, that included our Dolby Voice technology. However, in the first quarter of fiscal 2021, we decided to exit our conference hardware business and focus instead on expanding the availability of Dolby Voice technology through software solutions and services.
Key Challenges: As we shift away from hardware solutions, we may face challenges in how we expand our technologies to new offerings and solutions. Our success will depend on our ability to attract a robust developer community and new industry relationships as we to bring our services and technologies to market.
Developer Platform Services
Highlights: We are focused on bringing our expertise in media and communications to a broader range of content and digital experiences. For example, we are increasing our engagement with new customers across different industries through our developer platform, Dolby.io, which enables developers to access our technologies through APIs. The initial offerings include media processing APIs for analyzing and improving the sound of recorded audio files, for example, and interactivity APIs for enabling developers to embed enhanced communications experiences within their applications.
Following the initial launch of Dolby.io, we have seen growing developer engagement with our media and interactivity APIs for use cases such as entertainment, online education and collaboration tools. For example, we have partnered with SoundCloud to incorporate our music mastering APIs within their online music distribution platform. Also, subsequent to the second quarter of fiscal 2021, we completed an integration with Box that embeds Dolby media APIs, that allows Box customers to enable their users to easily enhance the quality of their audio files.
Key Challenges: Our success in this market will depend on the number of developers we are able to attract, the volume of usage of the service, and our ability to monetize our services. Although the market for online experiences has been growing, Dolby's interactivity API technologies compete with other offerings. In addition, our pursuit of growth and further adoption depends on our ability to continue to innovate and add additional value to our services.
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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
There have been no material changes to the critical accounting policies from those included in our fiscal 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC, as per Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates included therein.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
For each line item included on our interim condensed consolidated statements of operations described and analyzed below, the significant factors identified as the leading drivers contributing to the overall fluctuation are presented in descending order of their impact on the overall change (from an absolute value perspective). This discussion and analysis highlights comparisons of material changes in the condensed consolidated financial statements for the quarters ended March 26, 2021 and March 27, 2020. Note that adjustments related to previously under-reported sales-based royalties as well as unlicensed settlement activity, are collectively referred to as "recoveries." Amounts displayed, except percentages, are in thousands.
Revenue and Gross Margin
Licensing
Licensing revenue consists of fees earned from licensing our technologies to customers who incorporate them into their products and services to enable and enhance audio and imaging capabilities. The technologies that we license are either internally developed, acquired, or licensed from third parties. A significant portion of our licensing revenue pertains to customer-shipment royalties that we recognize based on estimates of our licensees’ shipments. To the extent that shipment data reported by licensees differs from estimates we made and recorded, we recognize an adjustment to revenue for such difference in the period we receive the reported shipment data.
Our cost of licensing consists mainly of amortization of certain purchased intangible assets and intangible assets acquired in business combinations, depreciation, third party royalty obligations, and patent pool fees.
 Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
LicensingMarch 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Revenue$303,585$328,865$(25,280)(8)%$676,590$586,548$90,04215%
Percentage of total revenue95%93%95%91%
Cost of licensing16,06013,2432,81721%29,00625,5853,42113%
Gross margin287,525315,622(28,097)(9)%647,584560,96386,62115%
Gross margin percentage95%96%96%96%

Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
MarketMarch 26, 2021March 27, 2020March 26, 2021March 27, 2020
Broadcast$104,813 35 %$128,677 39 %$244,113 36 %$230,810 39 %
Mobile65,673 22 %75,697 23 %171,296 25 %110,178 19 %
CE48,284 16 %49,199 15 %100,205 15 %98,044 17 %
PC51,104 17 %45,791 14 %83,839 12 %77,634 13 %
Other33,711 10 %29,501 %77,137 12 %69,882 12 %
Total licensing revenue$303,585 100 %$328,865 100 %$676,590 100 %$586,548 100 %
Current Quarter: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
FactorRevenueGross Margin
BroadcastâLower revenue due to large recoveries in the prior year, partially offset by higher TV unit shipments especially in North America and Europe, and higher adoption of our technologiesßàNo significant fluctuations
MobileâLower revenue from our patent licensing technologies, due to timing of contracts, partially offset by higher revenue from higher unit shipments
PCáHigher revenue from higher unit shipments due to demand from working from home conditions of COVID-19, as well as higher revenue from our patent licensing technologies, partially offset by recoveries that were higher in the prior year
OtheráHigher gaming revenue primarily from gaming consoles and gaming headsets, and higher patent administration fees from Via Licensing
CEßàNo significant fluctuations
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Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
FactorRevenueGross Margin
MobileáHigher revenue from our patent licensing technologies, as well as higher revenue from recoveries and higher unit shipmentsßàNo significant fluctuations
BroadcastáHigher revenue from increased adoption of our technologies, especially in Europe, and higher revenue from our patent licensing technologies, partially offset by lower recoveries
OtheráHigher gaming revenue primarily from gaming consoles and higher patent administration fees from Via Licensing, partially offset by lower automotive recoveries
PCáHigher revenue from higher unit shipments due to demand from working from home conditions of COVID-19, partially offset by lower recoveries due to large settlements in the prior year
CEßàNo significant fluctuations
Products and Services
    Products revenue is generated from the sale of audio, imaging, and voice products for the cinema, television broadcast, communications, and consumer products industries. Also included in products revenue are amounts relating to certain Dolby Cinema arrangements that are considered sales-type leases that involve fixed or minimum fees. Cost of products includes materials, labor, manufacturing overhead, amortization of certain intangible assets, and certain third party royalty obligations.
    Services revenue consists of fees charged to support theatrical and television production for cinema exhibition, broadcast, and home entertainment, including equipment training and maintenance, mixing room alignment, equalization, as well as audio, color, and light image calibration. Services revenue also includes PCS for products sold and equipment installed at Dolby Cinema theaters operated by exhibitor partners and support for the implementation of our technologies into products manufactured by our licensees. Also included in services revenue are amounts generated through our Dolby.io developer platform. Cost of services consists of personnel and personnel-related costs for providing our professional services, software maintenance and support, external consultants, and other direct expenses incurred on behalf of customers.
 Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
Products and ServicesMarch 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Revenue$15,973$22,950$(6,977)(30)%$32,842$57,144$(24,302)(43)%
Percentage of total revenue5%7%5%9%
Cost of products and services16,31823,587(7,269)(31)%38,67648,560(9,884)(20)%
Gross margin(345)(637)292(46)%(5,834)8,584(14,418)(168)%
Gross margin percentage(2)%(3)%(18)%15%
Current Quarter: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
FactorRevenueGross Margin
ProductsâLower sales of cinema equipment attributable to COVID-19, and lower units of conferencing hardware products as a result of winding down that businessâLower revenue from Dolby Cinema and Dolby Voice product sales, partially offset by lower excess and obsolescence charges and lower COGS due to lower product sales
ServicesßàNo significant fluctuationsßàNo significant fluctuations
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
FactorRevenueGross Margin
ProductsâLower sales of cinema equipment attributable to COVID-19, and lower units of conferencing hardware products as a result of winding down that businessâLower revenue from Dolby Cinema and Dolby Voice product sales and lower absorption of manufacturing overhead partially offset by lower COGS due to lower product sales
ServicesßàNo significant fluctuationsâHigher depreciation expense, and higher systems expenses to support increased efforts on interactivity APIs
Operating Expenses
Research and Development
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R&D expenses consist primarily of employee compensation and benefits expenses, stock-based compensation, consulting and contract labor costs, depreciation and amortization, facilities costs, costs for outside materials, and information technology expenses.
 Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Research and development$65,808$60,086$5,72210%$129,580$117,736$11,84410%
Percentage of total revenue21%17%18%18%
Current Quarter: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Compensation & BenefitsáHigher costs of $4.0 million due to higher incentive compensation in the current year
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Compensation & BenefitsáHigher costs of $5.8 million due to higher incentive compensation, as well as increased headcount, in the current year
Fringe benefitsáHigher costs of $2.3 million primarily due to increased employee compensation
TravelâLower costs of $2.3 million for company travel due to COVID-19 travel restrictions
Taxes and InsuranceáHigher costs of $2.2 million due to a property tax credit recorded in the prior year that did not repeat in the current period
Sales and Marketing
    S&M expenses consist primarily of employee compensation and benefits expenses, stock-based compensation, marketing and promotional expenses for events such as trade shows and conferences, marketing campaigns, travel-related expenses, consulting fees, facilities costs, depreciation and amortization, information technology expenses, and legal costs associated with the protection of our IP.
 Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Sales and marketing$78,046$88,485$(10,439)(12)%$153,491$183,603$(30,112)(16)%
Percentage of total revenue24%25%22%29%
Current Quarter: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Marketing ProgramsâLower costs of $9.5 million related to fewer marketing programs due to timing of marketing campaign activities in the prior year that did not reoccur, and due to COVID-19
TravelâLower costs of $5.1 million for company travel and tradeshows due to COVID-19 travel restrictions
Compensation & BenefitsáHigher costs of $3.4 million due to higher incentive compensation in the current year
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Marketing ProgramsâLower costs of $28.8 million related to fewer marketing programs due to timing of marketing campaign activities in the prior year that did not reoccur, and due to COVID-19
TravelâLower costs of $9.8 million for company travel and tradeshows due to COVID-19 travel restrictions
Compensation & BenefitsáHigher costs of $5.0 million due to higher incentive compensation in the current year
Legal, Professional, & ConsultingâLower costs of $3.6 million due to lower legal enforcement activity
General and Administrative
G&A expenses consist primarily of employee compensation and benefits expenses, stock-based compensation, depreciation, facilities and information technology costs, as well as professional fees and other costs associated with external consulting and contract labor.
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 Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
General and administrative$59,398$60,800$(1,402)(2)%$113,852$113,329$523—%
Percentage of total revenue19%17%16%18%
Current Quarter: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Compensation & BenefitsáHigher costs of $2.6 million due to higher incentive compensation in the current year
Fringe benefitsâLower costs of $1.8 million primarily due to a lower fringe benefit expenses, and due to changes in nature of local business taxes
Legal, Professional, & ConsultingâLower costs of $1.7 million due to lower legal expenses
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Taxes and InsuranceáHigher costs of $4.1 million due to a property tax credit recorded in the prior year that did not repeat in the current period
Compensation & BenefitsáHigher costs of $3.8 million due to higher incentive compensation in the current year
Fringe benefitsâLower costs of $3.8 million primarily due to changes in nature of local business taxes, and lower fringe benefits
Bad Debt ExpenseâLower costs of $3.0 million primarily due to net increase in collections in the current year
Gain on Sale of Assets
 Fiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Gain on sale of assets$(13,871)$—$(13,871)(100)%
Percentage of total revenue(2)%—%
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
In fiscal year 2019, management committed to a plan to sell a property, which included land and a building, after the lease on the property expired and we re-assessed the real estate needs of our business. This property had a carrying value of $2.2 million as of September 25, 2020. In the first quarter of fiscal 2021, we finalized the sale of this property, and as a result, we realized a gain of $13.9 million, which was recorded to gain on sale of assets on the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Refer to "Net Income Attributable to Controlling Interest" section below for more information.
Restructuring Charges/(Credits)
Restructuring charges recorded as operating expenses in our condensed consolidated statement of operations represent costs associated with separate individual restructuring plans implemented in various fiscal periods. The extent of our costs arising as a result of these actions, including fluctuations in related balances between fiscal periods, is based on the nature of activities under the various plans.
Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Restructuring charges/(credits)$741$(331)$1,072(324)%$10,764$344$10,4203,029%
Percentage of total revenue—%—%2%—%
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
Restructuring charges recorded in the year-to-date period ended March 26, 2021 of $9.4 million were incurred in relation to our fiscal 2021 plan to reduce certain activities, such as exiting our conferencing hardware business, in order to focus our efforts on higher priority investment areas, and reduce the cost structure of our manufacturing operations. These costs represented severance and related benefits that were offered to approximately 100 employees that were impacted by this action. For additional information on our Restructuring programs, see Note 13 "Restructuring" to our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Other Income/Expense
Other income/expense primarily consists of interest income earned on cash and investments and the net gains or losses from foreign currency transactions, derivative instruments, and sales of marketable securities from our investment portfolio.
 Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Other income$2,180$4,834$(2,654)(55)%$4,395$10,698$(6,303)(59)%
Percentage of total revenue1%1%1%2%
Current Quarter: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Interest IncomeâLower yields of $3.8 million on current year investment balances due to decreased interest rates
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
CategoryKey Drivers
Interest IncomeâLower yields of $7.7 million on current year investment balances due to decreased interest rates
Income Taxes
Our effective tax rate is based on our annual fiscal year results and is affected each period-end by several factors. These factors include changes in our projected fiscal year results, recurring items such as tax rates and relative income earned in foreign jurisdictions, as well as discrete items such as changes to our uncertain tax positions that may occur in, but are not necessarily consistent between, periods. For additional information related to effective tax rates, see Note 12 “Income Taxes” to our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
 Fiscal Quarter EndedFiscal Year-To-Date Ended
 March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Provision for income taxes$(9,022)$(22,105)$(33,294)$(27,968)
Effective tax rate10.6%20.0%13.2%16.9%
Current Quarter: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
FactorImpact On Effective Tax Rate
Foreign OperationsâHigher benefit of (8.0%) from foreign earned income
Stock-based CompensationâHigher benefit of (1.5%) related to the settlement of stock-based awards
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
FactorImpact On Effective Tax Rate
Stock-based CompensationâHigher benefit of (1.3%) related to the settlement of stock-based awards
Foreign OperationsâHigher benefit of (1.3%) from foreign earned income
Uncertain Tax BenefitsâLower expense of (1.0%) in the current period due to lower accrued interest on uncertain tax positions
Net Income Attributable to Controlling Interest
 Fiscal Quarter EndedChangeFiscal Year-To-Date EndedChange
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
$%
Net income attributable to controlling interest$(128)$(178)$50(28)%$(7,620)$(16)$(7,604)47,525%
Percentage of total revenue—%—%(1)%—%
Year-To-Date: Q2 2021 vs. Q2 2020
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In the first quarter of fiscal 2021, we finalized the sale of a property, which included land and building, and as a result, we recognized a gain of $13.9 million from this transaction, which was recorded to gain on sale of assets on the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The property was 51% owned by the controlling interest, and therefore 51% of the gain on sale of assets has been attributed to the controlling interest.
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LIQUIDITY, CAPITAL RESOURCES, AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
Our principal sources of liquidity are cash, cash equivalents, and investments, as well as cash flows from operations. We believe that these sources will be sufficient to satisfy our currently anticipated cash requirements through at least the next twelve months.
As of March 26, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of $1,104.6 million, which mainly consisted of cash and highly-liquid money market funds. In addition, we had short and long-term investments of $100.8 million, which consisted primarily of municipal debt securities, certificates of deposit, government bonds, commercial paper, corporate bonds, and U.S. agency securities.
The following table presents selected financial information as of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020 (in thousands):
March 26,
2021
September 25,
2020
Cash and cash equivalents$1,104,570 $1,071,876 
Short-term investments58,582 46,948 
Long-term investments42,188 52,149 
Accounts receivable, net283,505 180,340 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities262,548 232,591 
Working capital1,442,171 1,280,087 
Capital Expenditures and Uses of Capital
Our capital expenditures consist of purchases of land, building, building fixtures, laboratory equipment, office equipment, computer hardware and software, leasehold improvements, and production and test equipment. Included in capital expenditures are amounts associated with Dolby Cinema locations. We continue to invest in S&M and R&D to promote the overall growth of our business and technological innovation.
We retain sufficient cash holdings to support our operations and we also purchase investment grade securities diversified among security types, industries, and issuers. We have used cash generated from our operations to fund a variety of activities related to our business in addition to our ongoing operations, including business expansion and growth, acquisitions, and repurchases of our Class A common stock. We have historically generated significant cash from operations. However, these cash flows and the value of our investment portfolio could be affected by various risks and uncertainties, as described in Part II, Item 1A "Risk Factors."
Shareholder Return
We have returned cash to stockholders through both repurchases of Class A common stock under our repurchase program initiated in fiscal 2010 and our quarterly dividend program initiated in fiscal 2015. Refer to Note 9 "Stockholders' Equity and Stock-Based Compensation" to our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements for a summary of dividend payments made under the program during fiscal 2021 and additional information regarding our stock repurchase program.
Stock Repurchase Program. Our stock repurchase program was approved in fiscal 2010, and since then we have completed approximately $1.9 billion of stock repurchases under the program.
Quarterly Dividend Program. During fiscal 2015, we initiated a recurring quarterly cash dividend program for our stockholders. For fiscal 2021, quarterly dividends of $0.22 per share were paid on our Class A and Class B common stock to eligible stockholders of record.
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Cash Flows Analysis
For the following comparative analysis performed for each of the sections of the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows, the significant factors identified as the leading drivers contributing to the fluctuation are presented in descending order of their impact relative to the overall change (amounts displayed in thousands).
Operating Activities
Fiscal Year-to-Date Ended
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Net cash provided by operating activities$165,628 $96,899 
Net cash provided by operating activities increased $68.7 million in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 26, 2021 as compared to the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 27, 2020, primarily due to the following:
FactorImpact On Cash Flows
Net IncomeáHigher revenue and lower S&M expenses
Gain on Sale of AssetsâNon-cash adjustment for the gain recognized on the sale of property that was 51% owned by the controlling interest
Investing Activities
Fiscal Year-to-Date Ended
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Net cash used in investing activities$(15,757)$(47,208)
Net cash used in investing activities was $31.5 million lower in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 26, 2021 as compared to the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 27, 2020, primarily due to the following:
FactorImpact On Cash Flows
Purchase of InvestmentsáLower outflows for the purchase of marketable investment securities
Proceeds from InvestmentsâLower inflows from the sale and maturity of marketable investment securities
Sale of AssetsáHigher inflows for the sale of property that was 51% owned by the controlling interest
Capital ExpendituresáLower expenditures for PP&E due to less Dolby Cinema screens being added
Financing Activities
Fiscal Year-to-Date Ended
March 26,
2021
March 27,
2020
Net cash used in financing activities$(120,770)$(116,490)
Net cash used in financing activities was $4.3 million higher in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 26, 2021 as compared to the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 27, 2020, primarily due to the following:
FactorImpact On Cash Flows
Common Stock IssuanceáHigher inflows from employee stock option exercises
Share RepurchasesâHigher outflows for common stock repurchases as part of our stock repurchase program
Shares Repurchased for Tax WithholdingsâHigher outflows due to increased number of RSUs that vested, resulting in more shares withheld for taxes
Distribution to Controlling InterestâHigher outflows for distributions to controlling interest due to the sale of property that was 51% owned by the controlling interest
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Since the end of our most recent fiscal year ended September 25, 2020, there have been no material changes in either our off-balance sheet financing arrangements or contractual obligations outside the ordinary course of business. For additional details regarding our contractual obligations, see Note 7 "Leases" and Note 15 "Commitments and Contingencies" to our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
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In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, we did not enter into any off-balance sheet arrangements that are expected to have a material effect on Dolby's liquidity or the availability of capital resources.
Indemnification Clauses
We are party to certain contractual agreements under which we have agreed to provide indemnification of varying scope and duration to the other party relating to our licensed IP. Historically, we have not made any payments for these indemnification obligations and no amounts have been accrued in our condensed consolidated financial statements with respect to these obligations. Since the terms and conditions of the indemnification clauses do not explicitly specify our obligations, we are unable to reasonably estimate the maximum potential exposure for which we could be liable. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our officers, directors, and certain employees, and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain similar indemnification obligations. For additional details regarding indemnification clauses within our contractual agreements, see Note 15 “Commitments and Contingencies” to our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
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ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Interest Rate Sensitivity
As of March 26, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of $1,104.6 million, which consisted of cash and highly liquid money market funds. In addition, we had both short and long-term investments of $100.8 million, which consisted primarily of municipal debt securities, corporate bonds, government bonds, and U.S. agency securities. Our investment policy is focused on the preservation of capital and support for our liquidity requirements. Under the policy, we invest in highly rated securities with a minimum credit rating of A- while limiting the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer other than the U.S. government. At March 26, 2021, the weighted-average credit quality of our investment portfolio was AA, with a weighted-average maturity of approximately twelve months. We do not invest in financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes, nor do we use leveraged financial instruments. We utilize external investment managers who adhere to the guidelines of our investment policy.
The investments within our fixed-income portfolio are subject to fluctuations in interest rates, which could affect our financial position, and to a lesser extent, results of operations. Based on our investment portfolio balance as of March 26, 2021, hypothetical changes in interest rates of 1% and 0.5% would have an impact on the carrying value of our portfolio of approximately $0.9 million and $0.5 million, respectively.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
We maintain business operations in foreign countries, most significantly in Australia, China, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Additionally, a portion of our business is conducted outside of the U.S. through subsidiaries with functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar, most notably:
Australian Dollar
British Pound
Chinese Yuan
Euro
Polish Zloty
As a result, we face exposure to adverse movements in currency exchange rates as the financial results of our international operations are translated from local currency into U.S. dollars upon consolidation. The majority of our revenue generated from international markets is denominated in U.S. dollars, while the operating expenses of our foreign subsidiaries are predominantly denominated in local currencies. Therefore, our operating expenses will increase when the U.S. dollar weakens against the local currency and decrease when the U.S. dollar strengthens against the local currency. Additionally, foreign exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency result in gains or losses that are reflected in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. Our foreign operations are subject to the same risks present when conducting business internationally, including, but not limited to, changes in economic conditions and geopolitical climate, differing tax structures, foreign exchange rate volatility and other regulations and restrictions.
We also enter into forward currency contracts exclusively designated as cash flow hedges, which have a maturity of thirteen months or less, to reduce the impact of currency volatility on U.S. dollar operating expenses and margins. Our cash flow hedge program was entered into in fiscal 2019. The gains and losses from the effective portions of cash flow hedges are recorded at fair value as a component of AOCI, until the hedged item is subsequently reclassified into earnings in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects earnings, with the corresponding hedged item. Amounts reclassified are recorded to the same line item in the condensed consolidated statements of operations as the impact of the hedge transaction, concurrently with the hedged costs.
The pre-tax loss attributed to the effective portion of cash flow hedges recognized in AOCI was $5.0 million in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 and was $3.9 million in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 26, 2021. The pre-tax losses attributed to the effective portion of cash flow hedges recognized in AOCI were $4.1 million and $3.8 million in the second quarter of fiscal 2020 and in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 27, 2020, respectively.
The pre-tax effective portion of gains reclassified to the condensed consolidated statements of operations was $2.7 million in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 and was $4.0 million in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 26,
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2021. The pre-tax effective portion of gains reclassified was not material in the second quarter of fiscal 2020 and in the fiscal year-to-date period ended March 27, 2020.
We also enter into foreign currency forward contracts to hedge against assets and liabilities for which we have foreign currency exchange rate exposure and selected anticipated expenses. The contracts hedging receivables and payables are carried at fair value with changes in the fair value recorded to other income, net, in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. The contracts hedging foreign currency denominated operating expenses are carried at fair value with changes in the fair value recorded to other comprehensive income until the hedged expenses are reported in our condensed consolidated statements of operations.
As of March 26, 2021 and September 25, 2020, the outstanding derivative instruments had maturities of equal to or less than 10 months, and the total notional amounts of outstanding contracts were $94.4 million and $93.8 million, respectively.
A sensitivity analysis was performed on all of our foreign currency forward contracts as of March 26, 2021. This sensitivity analysis was based on a modeling technique that measures the hypothetical market value resulting from a 10% shift in the value of exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar. For these forward contracts, duration modeling was used where hypothetical changes were made to the spot rates of the currency. A 10% increase in the value of the U.S. dollar would lead to a decrease in the fair value of our financial instruments by $5.7 million. Conversely, a 10% decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar would result in an increase in the fair value of these financial instruments by $5.7 million.
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ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain "disclosure controls and procedures," as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ("Exchange Act"), that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow for timely decisions regarding required disclosure. In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the disclosure controls and procedures are met. Additionally, in designing disclosure controls and procedures, our management necessarily was required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible disclosure controls and procedures. The design of any disclosure controls and procedures also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions.
Subject to the limitations noted above, our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the fiscal period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Based on that evaluation, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to meet the objective for which they were designed and operate at the reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the fiscal quarter ending March 26, 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. We will continue to monitor the evolving COVID-19 pandemic to assess any impact it may have on the design and operating effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
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PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are involved in various legal proceedings from time to time arising from the normal course of business activities, including claims of alleged infringement of IP rights, commercial, employment, and other matters. In our opinion, resolution of these pending matters is not expected to have a material adverse impact on our operating results or financial condition. Given the unpredictable nature of legal proceedings, it is possible that an unfavorable resolution of one or more such proceedings could materially affect our future operating results or financial condition in a particular period; however, based on the information known by us as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements, any such amounts are either immaterial or it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any such potential losses.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The following risk factors and other information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be carefully considered. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem less significant may also affect our business operations or financial results. If any of the following risks actually occur, our stock price, business, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
REVENUE GENERATION    
COVID-19
COVID-19 has had and will continue to have an adverse impact on our operations and financial performance. To date, the pandemic, which has affected nearly all regions around the world, and preventative measures taken to contain or mitigate the pandemic, are causing business slowdown or shutdown in affected areas and significant disruption in the financial markets. We cannot predict with any certainty the degree to, or the time period over, which our revenues and operations will be affected by this pandemic and related preventative measures.
The spread of COVID-19 impacts several of our partners and has resulted in disruption of the supply chain of consumer products and delays in shipments, product development and product launches. In addition, consumer demand for certain products that include our technologies has been, and we expect to continue to be, negatively impacted due to economic uncertainty from COVID-19 and a decline in discretionary spending by consumers. These factors have resulted in decreased revenue pertaining to customer-shipment royalties. Further, these factors have and may continue to result in delays in the release of new products or services that contain our technologies by partners and licensees. These factors may also result in delays in royalty reporting by partners and licensees, and in cases where a partner or licensee’s financial condition has significantly worsened, we may have difficulty collecting or be unable to collect amounts owed to us. In addition, we have experienced heightened demand for certain consumer products that feature our technologies, including TVs and PCs, during the pandemic. It is unclear how demand for these products may change relative to demand levels during the pandemic.
The overall cinema market has been, and we expect to continue to be, adversely impacted by COVID-19 social distancing recommendations. Our exhibition partners and customers have had to either partially or fully discontinue operations. This has resulted, and we expect will continue to result, in a significant reduction in box office receipts at Dolby Cinema sites and lower demand for our cinema products and services. Though most cinema locations have been permitted to resume operations, many such locations are operating significantly below capacity. It remains uncertain when and where the cinemas will be able to operate at full capacity.
The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices (including temporary office closures, restricting employee travel, enabling and encouraging remote work, and cancellation of physical participation in meetings, events and conferences), and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, licensees, partners, and community. These actions may adversely impact our productivity and cause delays on new and existing projects. Such delays may negatively impact our revenues. Further, there is no certainty that the measures we have taken or will take will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus to the well-being and productivity of our workforce.
The degree to which COVID-19 impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with any certainty, including, but not limited to, the duration and extent of the pandemic, its severity, and the rate and extent of vaccine distributions to the general population and other actions to
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contain the virus or its impact, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume.
Even after COVID-19 has subsided, we may continue to experience an adverse impact to our business as a result of its global economic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur. Specifically, difficult macroeconomic conditions, such as decreases in per capita income and level of disposable income, increased and prolonged unemployment or a decline in consumer confidence as a result of COVID-19, could have a continuing adverse effect on demand for products and services that contain our technologies as well as limited or significantly reduced points of access to such products and services.
Markets We Target
Dependence on Sales by Licensees. Our licensing businesses depend on OEMs and other licensees to incorporate our technologies into their products. Our license agreements generally do not have minimum purchase commitments, are typically non-exclusive, and frequently do not require incorporation or use of our technologies. Our revenue will decline if our licensees choose not to incorporate our technologies into their products or if they sell fewer products incorporating our technologies.
Trends in Media Content Distribution. For many years, a large portion of media content distribution has been through optical disc media, such as DVD and Blu-ray Disc, and cable and satellite television providers. However, the rapid advancement of online and mobile content delivery has resulted in a trend toward downloading and streaming services, resulting in decreased royalty revenue in certain of our end device markets.
We expect the shift away from optical disc media to continue to result in a decline in revenue from the sale of devices that include DVD and Blu-ray Disc players. For example, the number of PCs that include optical disc drives has decreased significantly in recent years. Because PC OEMs are required to pay us a higher per-unit royalty for Windows PCs that include optical disc playback functionality than Windows PCs that do not include such functionality, the continued decreasing inclusion of optical disc drives in PCs will result in lower per-unit royalties.
Further, consumers in certain markets are shifting away from subscription-based cable and satellite television providers toward streaming services, commonly referred to as “cord-cutting.” While cable and satellite television often require a STB, today consumers can also access streaming media through smart TVs or DMA devices. As consumers trend toward canceling subscriptions to these traditional cable and satellite providers and turn to streaming media, we expect demand for STBs in certain regions to continue to decline. If we are unable to derive additional revenue from the smart TV and DMA markets to make up for decreases in our STB-related revenue, our financial results may be negatively impacted.
Mobile Industry Risks. Successful penetration of the mobile device market is important to our future growth. The mobile device market, particularly smartphones and tablets, is characterized by rapidly changing market conditions, frequent product introductions and intense competition based on features and price. Our technologies are not mandated as an industry standard for mobile devices. We must continually convince mobile device OEMs and end users of mobile devices of the value of our technologies. With shorter product lifecycles, it is easier for mobile device OEMs to add or remove our technologies from mobile devices than it is for TV OEMs and other hardware OEMs.
In order to increase the value of our technologies in the mobile market, we have worked with online and mobile media content service providers to encode their content with our technologies, which could affect OEM and software vendor demand for our decoding technologies. However, the online and mobile media content services markets are also characterized by intense competition, evolving industry standards and business and distribution models, disruptive software and hardware technology developments, frequent product and service introductions and short life cycles, and price sensitivity on the part of consumers, all of which may result in downward pressure on pricing or the removal of our technologies by these providers and may result in decreased revenue from our mobile market. Further, COVID-19 may adversely impact consumer demand for mobile devices, the ability of our partners to manufacture such devices, impacts to supply chain and distribution, timing of the adoption of our technologies into products by partners and licensees, and the timing of launches for new products.
PC Industry Risks. Revenue from our PC market depends on several factors, including underlying PC unit shipment growth, the extent to which our technologies are included on computers, including through operating systems, the inclusion of optical disc drives or otherwise, and the terms of any royalties or other payments we receive. Further, we rely on a small number of partnerships with key participants in the PC market. If we are unable to maintain these key relationships, we may experience a decline in PCs incorporating our technologies. COVID-19 may also
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adversely impact consumer demand for PCs, PC manufacturing, supply chain and distribution, timing of the adoption of our technologies into products by partners and licensees, and the timing of launches for new products.
Cinema Industry Risks. Revenue from Dolby Cinema and cinema product sales is subject to the pace of construction or upgrade of screens, the advent of new or competing technologies, the willingness of movie studios to produce films in our Dolby Atmos and Dolby Vision formats, consumer trends, box-office performance generally, and other events or conditions in the cinema industry. Although we have invested a substantial amount of time and resources developing Dolby Cinema, and expect to continue to invest and build partnerships in connection with the launch of Dolby Cinema locations, we may not continue to recognize a meaningful amount of revenue from these efforts in the near future. Additionally, we have collaborations with multiple exhibitors in foreign markets, including Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, and we may face a number of risks in expanding Dolby Cinema in these and other new international markets. The revenue we receive from Dolby Cinema exhibitors are based on a portion of box-office receipts from the installed theaters, and the timing of such theater installations is dependent upon a number of factors beyond our control. In addition, the success of our Dolby Cinema offering will be tied to the pipeline and success of motion pictures available at Dolby Cinema locations generally. The success of Dolby Cinema depends in large part on our ability to differentiate our offering, deploy new sites in accordance with plans, provide a compelling experience, and attract and retain a viewing audience. A decrease in our ability to develop and introduce new cinema products and services successfully could affect licensing of our consumer technologies, because the strength of our brand and our ability to use professional product developments to introduce new consumer technologies would be negatively impacted. These factors are subject to increased risk due to COVID-19 and related government actions, including the shutdown of cinemas and other non-essential businesses, social distancing restrictions, delays in cinematic releases, temporary suspensions of production of future releases, delay in royalty and other payments and solvency of our exhibitor partners. Further, though select cinema locations have been permitted to resume operations, many such locations are operating significantly below capacity. It remains uncertain when and where the cinemas will be able to operate at full capacity or how quickly moviegoers will return to theaters, which may depend on continued concerns over safety and continued social distancing and/or depressed consumer sentiment.
Our revenue and associated demand from cinema product sales is dependent upon industry and economic cycles, which are subject to risks including delays in cinematic releases and closure of cinema locations related to COVID-19, along with our ability to develop and introduce new technologies, further our relationships with content creators, and promote new cinematic audio and imaging experiences. A significant portion of our growth opportunity lies in the China market, which is subject to economic risks as well as geo-political risks. Furthermore, future growth of our cinema products business also depends upon new theater construction and entering into an equipment replacement cycle whereby previously purchased cinema products are upgraded or replaced. To the extent that we do not make progress in these areas, or are faced with pricing pressures, competing technologies, or other global macroeconomic challenges our revenue may be adversely impacted.
Customers and Distributors
Loss of Key Licensee or Customer. A small number of our licensees or customers may represent a significant percentage of our licensing, products, or services revenue. Although we generally have agreements with these licensees or customers, these agreements typically do not require any minimum purchases or minimum royalty fees and do not prohibit licensees from using competing technologies or customers from purchasing products and services from competitors. Customer demand for our technologies and products can shift quickly as many of our markets are rapidly evolving. As a result of our increased presence across consumer electronic device markets where our technologies are not mandated and are subject to significant competition, the risk that a large licensee may reduce or eliminate its use of our technologies has increased.
Reliance on Semiconductor Manufacturers. Our licensing revenue from system licensees depends in large part upon the availability of ICs that implement our technologies. IC manufacturers incorporate our technologies into these ICs, which are then incorporated in consumer entertainment products. We do not manufacture these ICs, but rather depend on IC manufacturers to develop, produce, and then sell them to system licensees in accordance with their agreements. We do not control the IC manufacturers’ decisions on whether or not to incorporate our technologies into their ICs, and we do not control their product development or commercialization efforts.
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Consumer Spending Weakness. Weakness in general economic conditions may suppress consumer demand in our markets. Many of the products in which our technologies are incorporated are discretionary goods, such as PCs, TVs, STBs, Blu-ray Disc players, video game consoles, AVRs, mobile devices, in-car entertainment systems, and home-theater systems. Weakness in general economic conditions may also lead to licensees and customers becoming delinquent on their obligations to us or being unable to pay, resulting in a higher level of write-offs. Economic conditions, including business slowdown caused by COVID-19, may increase underreporting and non-reporting of royalty-bearing revenue by our licensees as well as increase the unauthorized use of our technologies.
Reliance on Distributors. We rely significantly on a global network of independent, regional distributors to market and distribute our cinema, broadcast and voice products. Our distributor arrangements are non-exclusive and our distributors are not obligated to buy our products and can represent competing products, and they may be unwilling or unable to dedicate the resources necessary to promote our portfolio of products. Our distributors could retain product channel inventory levels that exceed future anticipated sales, which could affect our future sales to those distributors. In addition, failure of our distributors to adhere to our policies designed to promote compliance with global anticorruption laws, export controls, and local laws, could subject us to criminal or civil penalties and stockholder litigation.
Marketing and Branding
Importance of Brand Strength. Maintaining and strengthening the Dolby brand is critical to maintaining and expanding our licensing, products, and services business, as well as our ability to offer technologies for new markets, including Dolby Voice for the communications market, Dolby Cinema, Dolby Vision and other imaging offerings for the consumer market, and others. Our continued success depends on our reputation for providing high quality technologies, products, and services across a wide range of entertainment markets, including the consumer entertainment, PC, broadcast, and gaming markets. If we fail to promote and maintain the Dolby brand successfully in licensing, products or services, our business will suffer. Furthermore, we believe that the strength of our brand may affect the likelihood that our technologies are adopted as industry standards in various markets and for various applications. Our ability to maintain and strengthen our brand will depend heavily on our ability to develop innovative technologies for the entertainment industry, to enter into new markets successfully, and to provide high quality products and services in these new markets.

Industry Standards
The entertainment industry has historically depended upon industry standards to ensure compatibility across delivery platforms and a wide variety of consumer entertainment products. We make significant efforts to design our products and technologies to address capability, quality, and cost considerations so that they either meet, or more importantly, are adopted as industry standards across the broad range of entertainment industry markets in which we participate, as well as the markets in which we plan to compete in the future. To have our products and technologies adopted as industry standards, we must convince a broad spectrum of standards-setting organizations throughout the world, as well as our major customers and licensees who are members of such organizations, to adopt them as such. The market for broadcast technologies has traditionally been heavily based on industry standards, often mandated by governments choosing from among alternative standards, and we expect this to continue to be the case in the future. The continued advancement of OTT media delivery and consumption may alter the landscape for broadcast standards and impact the importance of inclusion in certain broadcast standards in the future, and we cannot predict if and to what extent this may impact our revenues.
Difficulty Becoming Incorporated in an Industry Standard. Standards-setting organizations establish technology standards for use in a wide range of consumer entertainment products. It can be difficult for companies to have their technologies adopted as an industry standard, as multiple companies, including ones that typically compete against one another, are involved in the development of new technology standards for use in entertainment-oriented products. Furthermore, some standards-setting organizations choose to adopt a set of optional standards or a combination of mandatory and optional standards; in such cases, our technologies may be adopted only as an optional standard and not a mandatory standard. Standards may also change in ways that are unfavorable to Dolby.
Participants May Choose Among Alternative Technologies within Standards. Even when a standards-setting organization incorporates our technologies in an industry standard for a particular market, our technologies may not be the sole technologies adopted for that market. Furthermore, different standards may be adopted for different markets. Our operating results depend upon participants in that market choosing to adopt our technologies instead of competitive technologies that also may be acceptable under such standard. For example, the continued growth of our revenue from the broadcast market will depend upon both the continued global adoption of digital television generally,
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including in emerging markets, and the choice to use our technologies where it is one of several accepted industry standards.
Being Part of a Standard May Limit Our Licensing Practices. When a standards-setting organization mandates our technologies, we generally must agree to license such technologies on a fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory basis, which could limit our control over the use of these technologies. In these situations, we must often limit the royalty rates we charge for these technologies, and we may be unable to limit to whom we license such technologies or to restrict many terms of the license. We have in the past, and may in the future, be subject to claims that our licensing of industry standard technologies may not conform to the requirements of the standards-setting organization. Allegations such as these could be asserted in private actions seeking monetary damages and injunctive relief, or in regulatory actions. Claimants in such cases could seek to restrict or change our licensing practices or our ability to license our technologies.

Royalty Reporting
Our operating results fluctuate based on the risks set forth in this section, as well as, among other factors, on:
Royalty reports including positive or negative corrective adjustments;
Retroactive royalties that cover extended periods of time; and
Timing of revenue recognition under licensing agreements and other contractual arrangements, including recognition of unusually large amounts of revenue in any given quarter.
Inaccurate Licensee Royalty Reporting. We generate licensing revenue primarily from OEMs who license our technologies and incorporate those technologies into their products. Our license agreements generally obligate our licensees to pay us a specified royalty for every product they ship that incorporates our technologies, and we rely on our licensees to report their shipments accurately. However, we have difficulty independently determining whether our licensees are reporting shipments accurately, particularly with respect to software incorporating our technologies because unauthorized copies of such software can be made relatively easily. A third party may disagree with our interpretation of the terms of a license agreement or, as a result of an audit, a third party could challenge the accuracy of our calculation. We are regularly involved in discussions with third party technology licensees regarding license terms. Most of our license agreements permit us to audit our licensees’ records, and we routinely exercise these rights, but audits are generally expensive, time-consuming, and potentially detrimental to our ongoing business relationships with our licensees. In the past, licensees have understated or failed to report the number of products incorporating our technologies that they shipped, and we have not been able to collect and recognize revenue to which we were entitled. We expect that we will continue to experience understatement and non-reporting of royalties by our licensees. We have been able to obtain certain recovery payments from licensees (either in the form of back payments or settlements), and such recoveries have become a recurring element of our business; however, we are unable to predict with certainty the revenue that we may recover in the future or our ability to continue to obtain such recoveries at all. Further, as COVID-19 continues to impact our licensees, it may result in delays in royalty reporting or payment by some of our licensees.
Royalties We Owe Others. In some cases, the products we sell and the technologies we license to our customers include IP that we have licensed from third parties. Our agreements with these third parties generally require us to pay them royalties for that use, and give the third parties the right to audit our calculation of those royalties. A third party may disagree with our interpretation of the terms of a license agreement or, as a result of an audit, a third party could challenge the accuracy of our calculation. We are regularly involved in discussions with third party technology licensors regarding license terms. A successful challenge by a third party could result in the termination of a license agreement or an increase in the amount of royalties we have to pay to the third party.
Estimation of sales-based royalties. Under ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606, we recognize a material portion of our licensing revenue based on our estimate of shipments to which we expect our licensees to submit royalty statements. Upon receipt of actual reporting of sales-based royalties that we estimated previously, we record a favorable or unfavorable adjustment based on the difference, if any, between estimated and actual sales. This may cause volatility in our quarterly figures because of the estimation process and the corresponding true-up adjustments, which we disclose.
Our reporting practices under ASC 606 could significantly affect our results of operations to the extent that actual revenues differ significantly from estimated revenues, or that we are required to accelerate recognition of revenue under certain arrangements, potentially causing the amount of revenue we recognize to vary materially from quarter to quarter. While our reporting practices do not change the cash flows or total revenues we receive from our contracts
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with customers, it could result in changes to the timing of our reported revenue and income, which in turn could cause volatility in the price of our Class A common stock.

TECHNOLOGY TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS
Technology Innovation. Our revenue growth will depend upon our success in new and existing markets for our technologies, such as digital broadcast, mobile devices, online and mobile media distribution, cinema, consumer imaging and communications. The markets for our technologies and products are defined by: 
Rapid technological change;
New and improved technology and frequent product introductions;
Changing consumer and licensee demands;
Evolving industry standards; and
Technology and product obsolescence.
Our future success depends on our ability to enhance our technologies and products and to develop new technologies and products that address the market needs in a timely manner. Technology development is a complex, uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation, highly-skilled engineering and development personnel, and the accurate anticipation of technological and market trends. We may not be able to identify, develop, acquire, market, or support new or enhanced technologies or products on a timely basis, if at all.
Experience with New Markets and Business Models. Our future growth will depend, in part, upon our continued expansion into areas beyond our audio licensing business. Over the past few years, we have introduced Dolby Cinema, our branded-theater experience, Dolby Vision for the home and cinema markets, Dolby Voice technology for the communications market, and more recently, Dolby.io, our developer platform. In connection with entering into these new markets, we face new sources of competition, new business models, and new customer relationships. In order to be successful in these markets, we will need to cultivate new industry relationships and strengthen existing relationships to bring our products, services, and technologies to market. Our limited experience to date in one or more of these markets could limit our ability to successfully execute on our growth strategy.
Incorporation of Dolby Formats into New Products and Availability of Content in Dolby Formats. The success of many of our newer initiatives, such as Dolby Atmos, Dolby Vision, and Dolby Cinema, is dependent upon the availability and success of (i) products that incorporate Dolby formats and (ii) content produced in Dolby formats. However, there is no guarantee that device makers will continue to incorporate Dolby formats into their products, that content creators will continue to release content in Dolby formats, or that either those products or that content will be commercially successful.
For instance, to broaden adoption of Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos, we will need to continue to expand the array of products and consumer devices that incorporate Dolby Atmos and Dolby Vision, expand the pipeline of Dolby Atmos and Dolby Vision content available from content creators, and encourage consumer adoption in the face of competing products and technologies. Similarly, the success of Dolby Cinema is dependent upon our ability to partner with movie theater exhibitors to launch new Dolby Cinema sites and deploy new sites in accordance with plans, as well as the continued release and box-office success of new films in the Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos formats released through Dolby Cinemas. These factors are subject to increased risk due to COVID-19 and related government actions, including the shutdown of cinemas and other non-essential businesses, delay in royalty and other payments and solvency of our exhibitor partners.
Further, the commercial success of products incorporating Dolby formats, content released in Dolby formats, and Dolby Cinemas generally, depends upon a number of factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to, consumer preferences, critical reception, timing of release, marketing efforts of third-parties, and general market conditions. Moreover, release and distribution of such products and content can be subject to delays in production or changes in release schedule, including delays in release and distribution related to COVID-19 and the global response to COVID-19, which can negatively impact the quantity, timing and quality of such products and content released in Dolby formats and available at Dolby Cinema theaters.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Our business is dependent upon protecting our patents, trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights, and other IP rights, the loss or expiration of which may significantly impact our results of operations and financial condition. Effective IP rights protection, however, may not be available under the laws of every country in which our products and services and those of our licensees are distributed. The efforts we have taken to protect our proprietary rights
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may not be sufficient or effective. We also seek to maintain select IP as trade secrets, and third parties or our employees could intentionally or accidentally compromise the IP that we maintain as trade secrets. In addition, protecting our IP rights is costly and time consuming. We have taken steps in the past to enforce our IP rights and expect to do so in the future. However, it may not be practicable or cost effective for us to enforce our IP rights fully, particularly in some countries or where the initiation of a claim might harm our business relationships.
We generally seek patent protection for our innovations. However, our patent program faces a number of challenges, including:
Possibility that innovations may not be protectable;
Failure to protect innovations that later turn out to be important;
Insufficient patent protection to prevent third parties from designing around our patent claims;
Our pending patent applications may not be approved; and
Possibility that an issued patent may later be found to be invalid or unenforceable.

Patent Royalties and Expiration. Many of the technologies that we license to our system licensees are covered by patents, and the licensing revenue that we receive from those licenses depends in large part upon the life of such patents. In general, our agreements with our licensees require them to pay us a full royalty with respect to a particular technology only until the last patent covering that technology expires in a particular country. As of March 26, 2021, we had approximately 14,500 issued patents in addition to approximately 4,100 pending patent applications in more than 100 jurisdictions throughout the world. Our currently issued patents expire at various times through September 2045. If we are unable to expand on our patent portfolio or refresh our technology with new patented inventions, our revenues could decline.
We seek to mitigate this risk in a variety of ways. We regularly look for opportunities to expand our patent portfolio through organic development and acquisitions. We develop proprietary technologies to replace licensing revenue from technologies covered by expiring patents with licensing revenue supported by patents with a longer remaining life. And, we develop and license our technologies in a manner designed to reduce the chance that a system licensee would develop competing technologies that do not include any Dolby IP.
In the case of our patent coverage related to DD, some of our relevant patents have expired, but others continue to apply. DD is our solution that includes technology necessary to implement AC-3 as it has been updated over time. We have continued to innovate and develop intellectual property to support the standard and its implementation. Our customers use our DD implementation for quality, reliability, and performance, even in locations where we have not had applicable patent coverage. While in the past, we derived a significant portion of our licensing revenue from our DD technologies, this is no longer the case as revenues attributed to DD technologies have declined and are expected to continue to decline.
Many of our partners have adopted newer generations of our offerings such as DD+, and the range of products incorporating DD solutions is now limited to DVD players (but not Blu-ray players) and some TVs, STBs and soundbars. To continue to be successful in our audio licensing business, we must keep transitioning our DD licensees to our newer technologies, including our DD+ and Dolby AC-4 technologies.
Unauthorized Use of Our Intellectual Property. We have often experienced, and expect to continue to experience, problems with non-licensee OEMs and software vendors, particularly in China and certain emerging economies, incorporating our technologies and trademarks into their products without our authorization and without paying us any licensing fees. Manufacturers of ICs containing our technologies occasionally sell these ICs to third parties who are not our system licensees. These sales, and the failure of such manufacturers to report the sales, facilitate the unauthorized use of our IP. As emerging economies transition from analog to digital content, such as the transition from analog to digital broadcast, we expect to experience an increase in problems with this form of piracy.
Intellectual Property Litigation. Companies in the technology and entertainment industries frequently engage in litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of IP rights. We have faced such claims in the past, and we expect to face similar claims in the future. Any IP claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, expensive to litigate or settle, and could divert management resources and attention. In the past, we have settled claims relating to infringement allegations and agreed to make payments in connection with such settlements. An adverse determination in any IP claim could require that we pay damages or stop using technologies found to be in violation of a third party’s rights and could prevent us from offering our products and services to others. In order to avoid these restrictions, we may have to seek a license for the technology, which may not be available on reasonable
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terms or at all. Licensors could also require us to pay significant royalties. As a result, we may be required to develop alternative non-infringing technologies, which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop technologies for any aspects of our business found to be infringing, we may be forced to limit our product and service offerings and may be unable to compete effectively.
In some instances, we have contractually agreed to provide indemnifications to licensees relating to our IP. Additionally, at times we have chosen to defend our licensees from third party IP infringement claims even where such defense was not contractually required, and we may choose to take on such defense in the future.
Licensee Disputes. At times, we are engaged in disputes regarding the licensing of our IP rights, including matters related to our royalty rates and other terms of our licensing arrangements. These types of disputes can be asserted by our customers or prospective customers or by other third parties as part of negotiations with us or in private actions seeking monetary damages or injunctive relief, or in regulatory actions. In the past, licensees have threatened to initiate litigation against us based on potential antitrust claims or regarding our licensing royalty rate practices. Damages and requests for injunctive relief asserted in claims like these could be significant, and could be disruptive to our business.
U.S. and Foreign Patent Rights. Our licensing business depends in part on the uniform and consistent treatment of patent rights in the U.S. and abroad. Changes to the patent laws and regulations in the U.S. and abroad may limit our ability to obtain, license, and enforce our rights. Additionally, court and administrative rulings may interpret existing patent laws and regulations in ways that hurt our ability to obtain, license, and enforce our patents. We face challenges protecting our IP in foreign jurisdictions, including:
Our ability to enforce our contractual and IP rights, especially in countries that do not recognize and enforce IP rights to the same extent as the U.S., Japan, Korea, and European countries do, which increases the risk of unauthorized use of our technologies;
Limited or no patent protection for our DD technologies in countries such as China, Taiwan, and India, which may require us to obtain patent rights for new and existing technologies in order to grow or maintain our revenue; and
Because of limitations in the legal systems in many countries, our ability to obtain and enforce patents in many countries is uncertain, and we must strengthen and develop relationships with entertainment industry participants worldwide to increase our ability to enforce our IP and contractual rights without relying solely on the legal systems in the countries in which we operate.
OPERATIONS
Reliance on Key Suppliers. Our reliance on suppliers for some of the key materials and components we use in manufacturing our products involves risks, including limited control over the price, timely delivery, and quality of such components, as well as the risk of delay caused by COVID-19 and related interruptions to the supply chain. We generally have no formal agreements in place with our suppliers for the continued supply of materials and components. Although we have identified alternate suppliers for most of our key materials and components, any required changes in our suppliers could cause delays in our operations and increase our production costs. In addition, our suppliers may not be able to meet our production demands as to volume, quality, or timeliness.
Moreover, we rely on sole source suppliers for some of the components that we use to manufacture our products, including specific charged coupled devices, light emitting diodes, and digital signal processors. These sole source suppliers may become unable or unwilling to deliver these components to us at an acceptable cost or at all, which could force us to redesign those specific products. Our inability to obtain timely delivery of key components of acceptable quality, any significant increases in the prices of components, or the redesign of our products could result in production delays, increased costs, and reductions in shipments of our products.
Product Quality. Our products, and products that incorporate our technologies, are complex and sometimes contain undetected software or hardware errors, particularly when first introduced or when new versions are released. In addition, we have limited control over manufacturing performed by contract manufacturers, which could result in quality problems. Furthermore, our products and technologies are sometimes combined with or incorporated into products from other vendors, sometimes making it difficult to identify the source of a problem or, in certain instances, making the quality of our implementation dependent in part upon the quality of such other vendors' products. Any negative publicity or impact relating to these product problems could affect the perception of our brand and market acceptance of our products or technologies. These errors could result in a loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products or cause delays in delivering them and meeting customer demands, any of which could reduce our revenue
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and raise significant customer relations issues. In addition, if our products or technologies contain errors, we could be required to replace or reengineer them or rely upon parties who have incorporated our technologies into their products to implement updates to address such issues, which could cause delays or increase our costs. Moreover, if any such errors cause unintended consequences, we could incur substantial costs in defending and settling product liability claims. Although we generally attempt to contractually limit our liability, if these contract provisions are not enforced, or are unenforceable for any reason, or if liabilities arise that are not effectively limited, we could incur substantial costs in defending and settling product liability claims.
Production Processes and Production. Production difficulties or inefficiencies can interrupt production, resulting in our inability to deliver products on time or in a cost effective manner, which could harm our competitive position. While we have three production facilities, we increasingly use contract manufacturers for a significant portion of our production capacity. Our reliance on contract manufacturers for the manufacture of our products involves risks, including limited control over timely delivery and quality of such products. If production of our products is interrupted, we may not be able to manufacture products on a timely basis. A shortage of manufacturing capacity for our products could negatively impact our operating results and damage our customer relationships. We may be unable to quickly adapt our manufacturing capacity to rapidly changing market conditions and a contract manufacturer may encounter similar difficulties. Likewise, we may be unable to quickly respond to fluctuations in customer demand or contract manufacturer interruptions. At times we underutilize our manufacturing facilities as a result of reduced demand for some of our products. Further, delays in production caused by business slowdown or shutdowns related to COVID-19 could harm our production capacity and the conduct of our business.
Data Security. We rely on information technology systems in the conduct of our business, including systems designed and managed by third parties. Many of these systems contain sensitive and confidential information, including our trade secrets and proprietary business information, and personal data, as well as content and information owned by or pertaining to our customers, suppliers and business partners. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Increasingly, companies are subject to a wide variety of attacks on their networks and systems on an ongoing basis. Our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers, malware, software bugs or other technical malfunctions, or other disruptions.  If we use a vendor that stores information as part of its service or product offerings, we assess the security of such services prior to using the service.  Nevertheless, our sensitive, confidential or proprietary information may be misappropriated by that vendor or others who may inappropriately access or exfiltrate that information from the vendor’s system.
While we have taken a number of steps to protect our information technology systems (including physical access controls, encryption, and authentication technologies), the number and sophistication of malicious attacks that companies have experienced has increased over the past few years. Measures we have undertaken to protect our information technology systems (including physical access controls, encryption, and authentication technologies) may be unsuccessful in deterring or repelling malicious actors. In addition, because techniques used by hackers (many of whom are highly sophisticated and well-funded) to access or sabotage networks and computer systems change frequently and often are not recognized until after they are used, we may be unable to anticipate or immediately detect these techniques. This could delay our response or the effectiveness of our response and impede our operations and ability to limit our exposure to third-party claims and other potential liability. Attacks on our systems are sometimes successful, and, in some instances, we might be unaware of an incident or its nature, magnitude and effects.
We also may suffer data security breaches and the unauthorized access to, misuse or acquisition of, personal data or other sensitive and confidential information as the result of intentional or inadvertent breaches or other compromises by our employees or service providers. Any data security breach or other incident, whether external or internal in origin, could compromise our networks and systems, creating system disruptions or slowdowns and exploiting security vulnerabilities of our products. Any such breach or other incident can result in the information stored on our networks and systems, or our vendors' networks and systems, being improperly accessed or acquired, publicly disclosed, lost, or stolen, which could subject us to liability to our customers, suppliers, business partners and others. We seek to detect and investigate such attempts and incidents and to prevent their recurrence where practicable through changes to our internal processes and tools, but in some cases preventive and remedial action might not be successful. In addition, despite the implementation of network security measures, our networks, or our vendors' networks, also may be vulnerable to computer viruses, malware, ransomware, cyber extortion, social engineering, denial of service, and other similar disruptions. Disruptions to our information technology systems, due to outages, security breaches or other causes, could also have severe consequences to our business, including financial loss and reputational damage.
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A variety of provincial, state, national, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal data. These laws and regulations are evolving and may result in ever-increasing regulatory and public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, required us (among other obligations) to modify certain of our information practices, provide new disclosures to California consumers, and afford such consumers various privacy rights. In the short period of time since its original enactment, the CCPA has been the subject of several subsequent amendments, modifications and administrative rulemakings. In addition, the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or CPRA, which was approved by California voters in November 2020, amends and expands the CCPA by creating additional privacy rights for California consumers, establishing the California Privacy Protection Agency to enforce the new law, and imposing additional obligations on businesses. These new obligations, which will take effect on January 1, 2023 (with certain provisions having retroactive effect to January 1, 2022), may require us to further modify certain of our information practices and could subject us to additional compliance costs and expenses. Our actual or perceived failure to adequately comply with applicable laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection (including regimes such as the CCPA and CPRA that are rapidly evolving) could result in regulatory fines, investigations and enforcement actions, penalties and other liabilities, claims for damages by affected individuals, and damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial performance and business. Our commercial and cybersecurity insurance policies may be insufficient to insure us against these risks, and future escalations in premiums and deductibles under these policies may render them uneconomical.
COMPETITION
The markets for our technologies are highly competitive, and we face competitive threats and pricing pressure in our markets. Consumers may perceive the quality of the visual and audio experiences produced by some of our competitors’ technologies to be equivalent or superior to the sight and sound experiences produced by our technologies. Some of our current or future competitors may have significantly greater financial, technical, marketing, and other resources than we do, or may have more experience or advantages in the markets in which they compete. These competitors may also be able to offer integrated systems in markets for entertainment technologies on a royalty-free basis or at a lower price than our technologies, including audio, imaging, and other technologies, which could make competing technologies that we develop less attractive.
Pricing Pressures. The markets for the consumer entertainment products in which our technologies are incorporated are intensely competitive and price sensitive. We expect to face increased royalty pricing pressure for our technologies as we seek to drive the adoption of our technologies into online content and portable devices, such as tablets and smartphones. Retail prices for consumer entertainment products that include our sound technologies, such as DVD and Blu-ray players and home theater systems, have decreased significantly, and we expect prices to decrease for the foreseeable future. In response, OEMs have sought to reduce their product costs, which can result in additional downward pressure on the licensing fees we charge.
Customers as Competitors. We face competitive risks in situations where our customers are also current or potential competitors. For example, Samsung and Technicolor are significant licensee customers, but are also competitors with respect to some of our consumer, broadcast, and cinema technologies. Our customers may choose to use competing technologies they have developed or in which they have an interest rather than use our technologies. The existence of important customer relationships may influence which strategic opportunities we pursue, as we may forgo some opportunities in the interests of preserving a critical customer relationship.
Competition from Other Audio Formats, Imaging Solutions, and Integrated System Offerings. We believe that the success we have had licensing our audio technologies is due, in part, to the perception that our technologies provide a high quality solution for multichannel audio and the strength of our brand. However, both free and proprietary sound technologies are becoming increasingly prevalent, and we expect competitors to continue to enter this field with other offerings. Furthermore, to the extent that customers perceive our competitors’ products as providing the same or similar advantages as our technologies at a lower or comparable price, there is a risk that these customers may treat sound encoding technologies as commodities, resulting in loss of status of our technologies, decline in their use, and significant pricing pressure. For example, we face competition with respect to our HDR imaging technology, Dolby Vision, and there can be no assurance that additional consumers will adopt Dolby Vision in the near future, or at all, or that we will maintain our existing customers.
In addition, some of our current or potential competitors may be able to offer integrated systems in certain markets for entertainment technologies, including audio and imaging, which could make competing technologies that we develop or acquire obsolete. By offering an integrated system solution, these potential competitors may also be
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able to offer competing technologies at lower prices than we can, which could adversely affect our operating results.
STRATEGIC ACTIVITIES
Importance of Industry Relationships. To be successful, we must maintain and grow our relationships with a broad range of industry participants, including:
Content creators, such as film directors, studios, mobile and online content producers, and music producers;
Content distributors, such as studios, film exhibitors, broadcasters, operators, and OTT video service providers and video game publishers;
Leading companies in the audio and video conferencing markets; and
Device manufacturers.
Industry relationships have historically played an important role in the markets that we serve, particularly in the entertainment market. For example, sales of our products and services are particularly dependent upon our relationships with major film studios and broadcasters, and licensing of our technologies is particularly dependent upon our relationships with system licensees and IC manufacturers. If we fail to maintain and strengthen these relationships, these entertainment industry participants may be less likely to purchase and use our technologies, products, and services, or create content incorporating our technologies. Industry relationships also play an important role in other markets we serve; for instance, our partner relationships in the audio and video conferencing markets are important to our communications business.
Consequences of M&A Activity. We evaluate a wide array of possible strategic transactions, including acquisitions. We consider these types of transactions in connection with, among other things, our efforts to strengthen our audio and cinema businesses and expand beyond sound technologies. Although we cannot predict whether or not we will complete any such acquisitions or other transactions in the future, any of these transactions could be significant in relation to our market capitalization, financial condition, or results of operations. The process of integrating an acquired company, business, or technology may create unforeseen difficulties and expenditures. Foreign acquisitions involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned above, including those related to integration of operations across different geographies, cultures, and languages; currency risks; and risks associated with the economic, political, and regulatory environment in specific countries, including delays related to COVID-19. Future acquisitions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses, and write-offs of goodwill. Future acquisitions may also require us to obtain additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all. Also, the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions may not materialize.
We face various risks in integrating acquired businesses, including: 
Diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to acquisition integration challenges;
Cultural and logistical challenges associated with integrating employees from acquired businesses into our organization;
Retaining employees, suppliers and customers from businesses we acquire;
The need to implement or improve internal controls, procedures, and policies appropriate for a public company at businesses that prior to the acquisition may have lacked effective controls, procedures, and policies;
Possible write-offs or impairment charges resulting from acquisitions;
Unanticipated or unknown liabilities relating to acquired businesses; and
The need to integrate acquired businesses’ accounting, management information, manufacturing, human resources, and other administrative systems to permit effective management.

LEGAL AND REGULATORY COMPLIANCE
International Business and Compliance. We are dependent on international sales for a substantial amount of our total revenue. Approximately 64% and 54% of our revenue was derived outside of the U.S. in the fiscal quarter ended March 26, 2021 and March 27, 2020, respectively. We are subject to a number of risks related to conducting business internationally, including: 

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U.S. and foreign government trade restrictions or sanctions, including those which may impose restrictions on the importation of programming, technology, or components to or from the U.S., and those which may put restrictions or prohibitions on the exportation, reexportation, sale, shipment or other transfer of programming, technology, components, and/or services to foreign persons;
Changes in trade relationships, including new tariffs, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, trade embargoes and other trade barriers;
Tariffs imposed by the U.S. on goods from other countries or tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods, including the tariffs imposed over the course of 2018 and 2019 by the U.S. government on various imports from China and by the Chinese government on certain U.S. goods, the scope and duration of which remain uncertain;
Compliance with applicable international laws and regulations, including antitrust and other competition laws, that may change unexpectedly, differ, or conflict with laws in other countries where we conduct business, or are otherwise not harmonized with one another;
Foreign government taxes, regulations, and permit requirements, including foreign taxes that we may not be able to offset against taxes imposed upon us in the U.S., and other laws limiting our ability to repatriate funds to the U.S.;
Potential adverse changes in the political and/or economic stability of the regions in which we operate or in diplomatic relations between governments;
Difficulty in establishing, staffing, and managing foreign operations, including but not limited to restrictions on the ability to obtain or retain licenses required for operation, relationships with local labor unions and works councils, investment restrictions and/or requirements, and restrictions on foreign ownership of subsidiaries;
Adverse fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, including risks related to any interest rate swap or other hedging activities we undertake;
Poor recognition of IP rights;
Difficulties in enforcing contractual rights;
Multi-jurisdictional data protection and privacy laws, including the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation and restrictions on transferring personally identifiable information outside of a jurisdiction;
Political or social instability in the U.K. and Europe (including but not limited to uncertainty resulting from the Brexit referendum in the U.K.) and in Russia, the Middle East, North Africa, Latin America and other emerging markets;
The global macroeconomic environment and potential slowing of key markets we serve; and
Changes in the regulatory and compliance landscape resulting from COVID-19.

Any or all of these factors may impact the demand for, and profitability of, our technologies and products, as well as our customers' products that incorporate our technologies.
Certain foreign governments, particularly in China, have advanced arguments under their competition laws that exert downward pressure on royalties for IP. The regulatory enforcement activities in such jurisdictions can be unpredictable, in some cases because these jurisdictions have only recently implemented competition laws. From time to time, we are the subject of requests for information, market conduct examinations, inquiries or investigations by industry groups and/or regulatory agencies in these jurisdictions. For instance, the Korean Fair Trade Commission has requested information relating to our business practices in South Korea on various occasions, and has made allegations regarding the audit of a single customer. We do not believe the allegations have merit and intend to defend the resolution of that audit. In the event that we are involved in significant disputes or are the subject of a formal action by a regulatory agency, our results could be negatively impacted and we could be exposed to costly and time-consuming legal proceedings.
In many foreign countries, particularly in those with developing economies, it is common to engage in business practices that are prohibited by U.S. regulations applicable to us such as the FCPA and U.S. export controls. Although we implement policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with the FCPA and U.S. export controls, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, distributors, dealers, and agents will not take actions in violation of our policies or these regulations.
Costs of Environmental Laws and Regulation. Our operations use substances regulated under federal, state,
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local, and international laws governing the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants into the air and water, the management, disposal, and labeling of hazardous substances and wastes, and the cleanup of contaminated sites. In addition, future environmental laws and regulations have the potential to affect our operations, increase our costs, decrease our revenue, or change the way we design or manufacture our products. We face increasing complexity in our product design as we adjust to requirements relating to the materials composition of our products. For some products, substituting particular components containing regulated hazardous substances is more difficult or costly, and additional redesign efforts could result in production delays. We could incur costs, fines, and civil or criminal sanctions, third party property damage or personal injury claims, or could be required to incur substantial investigation or remediation costs, if we were to violate or become liable under environmental laws.
Conflict Minerals. SEC rules require the disclosure of the use of tantalum, tin, tungsten, and gold (commonly referred to as "conflict minerals") that are sourced from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and surrounding countries. This requirement could affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of materials used in our products as well as the companies we use to manufacture our products. In circumstances where sources of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo or surrounding countries are not validated as conflict free, we may take actions to change materials, designs or manufacturers to reduce the possibility that our contracts to manufacture products that contain conflict minerals finance or benefit local armed groups in the region. The SEC disclosure requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in our products. As there may be only a limited number of suppliers that can certify to us that they are offering “conflict free” conflict minerals, we cannot be sure that we will be able to obtain necessary conflict minerals from such suppliers in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices. These actions could also add engineering and other costs in connection with the manufacturing of our products.
We may not be able to sufficiently verify the origins for the minerals used in our products. Our reputation may suffer if we determine that our products contain conflict minerals that are not determined to be conflict free or if we are unable to sufficiently verify the origins for all conflict minerals used in our products. In addition, some customers may require that all of our products are certified to be conflict free and if we cannot satisfy these customers, they may choose a competitor's products.
Tax Rates and Liabilities. We are a U.S. multi-national company that is subject to tax in multiple U.S. and foreign jurisdictions. We must use judgment to determine our worldwide tax provision. We receive significant tax benefits from a portion of our foreign sales, and realizability of these benefits are contingent upon existing current tax laws and regulations in the U.S. and countries where we operate. The following could materially affect our effective tax rate: 
Changes in geographic mix of earnings, where earnings are lower than anticipated in countries with lower tax rates and higher than anticipated in countries with higher tax rates;
Changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;
Changes in transfer pricing arrangements;
Outcomes of tax audits;
Changes in accounting principles; or
Changes in tax laws and regulations in the countries in which we operate, including an increase in tax rates, or an adverse change in the treatment of an item of income or expense.
The U.S. tax law changes enacted through the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Act") require us to exercise significant judgment in interpreting its provisions. As we evaluate the full impact of current and future guidance that is introduced, our results may materially differ from previous estimates, and those differences may materially affect our financial position. The application of the Tax Act, potential changes to existing tax laws under a Democratic-controlled Congress, and any changes that we make to our corporate trading structure could adversely affect our tax rate and cash flow in future years.
The Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”), an international association of many countries including the United States, has made changes to many long-standing transfer pricing and cross-border taxation rules. In addition, the European Union and its European Commission are proposing model legislation and investigating companies that might be in violation of European Union competition rules against unjustified state aid. Further, the OECD, European Union, European Commission, and individual countries have made and could make additional competing jurisdictional claims over the taxes owed on earnings of multinational companies in their respective countries or regions. To the extent these actions take place in the countries that we operate, such as the Netherlands, it is possible that in the future, these efforts may increase uncertainty and have an adverse impact on our effective tax rates or operations.
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We are subject to the periodic examination of our income tax returns by tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, but an adverse decision by tax authorities exceeding our reserves could significantly impact our financial results.

STOCK-RELATED ISSUES
Controlling Stockholder. At March 26, 2021, the Dolby family and their affiliates owned 528,928 shares of our Class A common stock and 36,033,733 shares of our Class B common stock. As of March 26, 2021, the Dolby family and their affiliates had voting power of 99.8% of our outstanding Class B common stock, which combined with their shares of our Class A common stock, represented 84.7% of the combined voting power of our outstanding Class A and Class B common stock. Under our certificate of incorporation, holders of Class B common stock are entitled to ten votes per share while holders of Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share. Generally, shares of Class B common stock automatically convert into shares of Class A common stock upon transfer of such Class B common stock, other than transfers to certain specified persons and entities, including the spouse and descendants of Ray Dolby and the spouses and domestic partners of such descendants.
As a result of this dual class structure, the Dolby family and their affiliates will, for the foreseeable future, have significant influence over our management and affairs, and will be able to control virtually all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions such as mergers or other sales of our company or assets, even if they come to own considerably less than 50% of the total number of outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock. Absent a transfer of Class B common stock that would trigger an automatic conversion as described above, there is no threshold or time deadline at which the shares of Class B common stock will automatically convert into shares of Class A common stock.
Moreover, the Dolby family and their affiliates may take actions in their own interests that our other stockholders do not view as beneficial.
Insider Sales of Common Stock. If our large shareholders, officers, directors or employees sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our Class A common stock in the public market, including shares of Class A common stock issuable upon conversion of shares of Class B common stock, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline.
Stock Repurchase Program. Our stock repurchase program may reduce the public float of shares available for trading on a daily basis. Such purchases may be limited, suspended, or terminated at any time without prior notice. There can be no assurance that we will buy additional shares of our Class A common stock under our stock repurchase program or that any future repurchases will have a positive impact on our stock price or EPS. Important factors that could cause us to discontinue or decrease our share repurchases include, among others, unfavorable market conditions, the market price of our Class A common stock, the nature of other investment or strategic opportunities presented to us, the rate of dilution of our equity compensation programs, our ability to make appropriate, timely, and beneficial decisions as to when, how, and whether to purchase shares under the stock repurchase program, and the availability of funds necessary to continue purchasing stock. If we curtail our repurchase program, our stock price may be negatively affected.
Dividend Program. We cannot provide assurance that we will continue to increase dividend payments and/or pay dividends. We are not obligated to pay dividends on our Class A and Class B common stock. In October 2014, we announced a quarterly cash dividend program for our stockholders that was initiated by our Board of Directors. Since the initial commencement of our dividend program, our Board of Directors has annually approved an increase to our cash dividend. Although we anticipate paying regular quarterly dividends for the foreseeable future, dividend declarations and the establishment of future record and payment dates are subject to the Board of Directors’ continuing determination that the dividend policy is in the best interests of our stockholders. The dividend policy may be changed or canceled at the discretion of the Board of Directors at any time. If we do not pay dividends, the market price of our Class A common stock must appreciate for investors to realize a gain on their investment. This appreciation may not occur and our Class A common stock may in fact depreciate in value.
GENERAL RISK FACTORS
Fluctuations in Foreign Currency Exchange Rates. We earn revenues, pay expenses, own assets and incur liabilities in foreign countries using several currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, we face exposure to adverse movements in currency exchange rates as the financial results of our international operations are translated
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from local currency into U.S. dollars upon consolidation. The majority of our revenue generated from international markets is denominated in U.S. dollars, while the operating expenses of our foreign subsidiaries are predominantly denominated in local currencies. Therefore, our operating expenses will increase when the U.S. dollar weakens against the local currency and decrease when the U.S. dollar strengthens against the local currency. Additionally, foreign exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency result in gains or losses that are reflected in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. Further, our hedging programs may not be effective to offset any, or more than a portion, of the adverse impact of currency exchange rate movements. Additional risks related to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates are described in the Foreign Currency Exchange Risk section of Part I, Item 3 "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk."
Business Interruptions by Natural Disasters and Other Events Beyond Our Control. Although we maintain crisis management plans, our business operations are subject to interruption by natural disasters and catastrophic events beyond our control, including, but not limited to, earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, tropical storms, floods, tsunamis, fires, droughts, tornadoes, public health issues and pandemics, severe changes in climate, war, terrorism, and geo-political unrest and uncertainties. Further, outbreaks of pandemic diseases, or the fear of such events, could provoke (and in the case of COVID-19 has provoked) responses, including government-imposed travel restrictions and limits on access to entertainment venues. These responses could negatively affect consumer demand and our business, particularly in international markets. Additionally, several of our offices, including our corporate headquarters in San Francisco, are located in seismically active regions. Because we do not carry earthquake insurance for earthquake–related losses and significant recovery time could be required to resume operations, our financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected in the event of a major earthquake or catastrophic event.
Competition for Employees. In order to be successful, we must attract, develop, and retain employees, including employees to work on our growth initiatives where our current employees may lack experience with the business models and markets we are pursuing. Competition for experienced employees in our markets can be intense. In order to attract and retain employees, we must provide a competitive compensation package, including cash and equity compensation. Our equity awards include stock options and restricted stock units. The future value of these awards is uncertain, and depends on our stock price performance over time. In order for our compensation packages to be viewed as competitive, prospective employees must perceive our equity awards to be a valuable benefit.

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ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Our Board of Directors announced a $250.0 million stock repurchase program on November 3, 2009. The program, which has no expiration date, approved the repurchase of shares of our Class A common stock, $0.001 par value per share. The authorized maximum was subsequently increased by $300.0 million, $250.0 million, $100.0 million, $200.0 million, $200.0 million, $350.0 million, and $350.0 million as announced on July 27, 2010, August 4, 2011, February 8, 2012, October 23, 2014, January 25, 2017, July 25, 2018, and July 31, 2019, respectively. Stock repurchases under this program may be made through open market transactions, negotiated purchases, or otherwise, at times and in such amounts as we consider appropriate.
The following table provides information regarding our share repurchases made under the program during the second quarter of fiscal 2021:
Repurchase ActivityTotal Shares Repurchased
Average Price
Paid Per Share (1)
Total Shares Purchased As Part Of Publicly Announced Programs
Remaining Authorized Share Repurchases (2)
December 26, 2020 - January 22, 2021$147.2 million
January 23, 2021 - February 19, 2021565,45492.56565,454$94.9 million
February 20, 2021 - March 26, 2021191,56596.31191,565$76.4 million
Total757,019757,019
(1)Average price paid per share excludes commission costs.
(2)Amounts represent the approximate dollar value of the maximum remaining number of shares that may yet be purchased under the stock repurchase program, and excludes commission costs.
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ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
Exhibit
Number
DescriptionIncorporated By Reference Herein
FormFile NumberDateProvided Herewith
31.1X
31.2X
32.1+
X
101.INSXBRL Instance DocumentX
101.SCHXBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema DocumentX
101.CALXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase DocumentX
101.DEFXBRL Extension DefinitionX
101.LABXBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase DocumentX
101.PREXBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase DocumentX
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101)X
+    Furnished herewith.


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SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
Date: May 4, 2021
 
DOLBY LABORATORIES, INC.
By:/S/   LEWIS CHEW
Lewis Chew
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer)

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