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CHMA Chiasma

Filed: 4 Mar 21, 4:22pm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from         to         

Commission File Number: 001-37500

 

Chiasma, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Delaware

76-0722250

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

140 Kendrick Street, Building C East

Needham, MA

02494

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

 

(617)-928-5300

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

 

CHMA

 

NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates (without admitting that any person whose shares are not included in such calculation is an affiliate) as of June 30, 2020, was $195,166,166, based on the closing price of $5.38 of the registrant as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on such date. As of February 26, 2021, there were 57,843,577 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The registrant intends to file a definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. Portions of such definitive proxy statement are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

 

 

CHIASMA, INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

For the Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I.

 

 

5

Item 1.

Business

 

5

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

38

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

82

Item 2.

Properties

 

82

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

 

82

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

82

 

 

 

 

PART II.

 

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

83

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

 

85

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

86

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

96

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

96

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

96

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

 

96

Item 9B.

Other Information

 

97

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

98

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

98

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

 

98

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

98

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

 

98

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

98

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

98

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

98

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

 

100

 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

 

101

 

 

 

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SUMMARY OF MATERIAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OUR BUSINESS

 

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should be aware of in evaluating our business, including those highlighted in the section entitled "Risk Factors." These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

Risks Related to the Development and Potential Regulatory Approval and Commercialization of Octreotide Capsules and any Future Product Candidates

 

We are substantially dependent on the successful commercialization of MYCAPSSA and, if we are unable to successfully commercialize MYCAPSSA in the United States and obtain regulatory approval and successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the European Union, or if we are substantially delayed in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

 

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, or other similar health crises in the future, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including our commercialization efforts of MYCAPSSA in the United States.

 

If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval and successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the European Union, or if we are substantially delayed in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

 

Even though we received FDA approval of our new drug application, or NDA, for octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly and our “changes being effected in 30 days” supplement, CBE-30 supplement, we may still face additional future development and regulatory challenges, each of which could inhibit or preclude our ability to commercialize MYCAPSSA for any indication.

 

We face substantial competition from larger companies with considerable resources that already have somatostatin analogs available in the market, and they or others may also discover, develop or commercialize additional products before or more successfully than we do.

 

The number of patients suffering from acromegaly is small and has not been established with precision. Our assumptions and estimates regarding prevalence may be wrong. If the actual number of patients in a market where our MYCAPSSA is available for sale is smaller than we estimate, our revenue could be adversely affected, possibly materially.

 

MYCAPSSA may not achieve or maintain an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, patients and third-party payors and government payors, and we may not generate sufficient revenue or be able to achieve or sustain profitability.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

 

We are, and expect to be for the foreseeable future, dependent on a limited number of third parties to manufacture octreotide capsules.

 

If our third-party manufacturers use hazardous and biological materials in a manner that causes injury or violates applicable law, we may be liable for damages.

 

An important part of our strategy may be to enter into licensing or collaboration agreements with respect to octreotide capsules and future product candidates, if any, in certain territories. We may not be able to identify suitable collaborators and, even if we do, our dependence on such relationships may adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Capital Resources

 

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will incur continued losses for the next several years and thus may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

Our Revenue Interest Financing Agreement with Healthcare Royalty Partners IV, L.P. could restrict our ability to commercialize MYCAPSSA, limit cash flow available for our operations and expose us to risks that could adversely

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affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We have not generated substantial revenue from any commercial products and may never be profitable.

 

We have a limited operating history and no history of successfully commercializing drugs, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

 

We will need additional capital to support our operations, which may be difficult to obtain and restrict our operations and would result in additional dilution to our stockholders.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

 

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights or if our intellectual property rights are inadequate to protect our technology and product candidates, our competitors could develop and commercialize technology and drugs similar to ours, and our competitive position could be harmed.

 

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our licensors, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

 

Pandemics, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, could have an adverse impact on our business and our financial condition.

 

We depend on the knowledge and skill of our senior management and other key employees, and if we are unable to retain or if we fail to recruit additional highly skilled personnel, our business will be harmed.

 

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of computer system failures, cyber-attacks on our systems or deficiency in our cyber security.

Risks Related to Our Operations in Israel

 

The tax benefits available to us under Israeli law require us to meet several conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future, which would increase our costs and taxes.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

 

The trading price of our common stock may be volatile, and your investment in our common stock could decline in value and incur substantial losses,

 

We may not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss carryforwards, which could negatively impact our profitability.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or this Annual Report, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and is subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. Some of the forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terms such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seek,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “projects,” “anticipates,” or other comparable terms.

Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

our commercialization efforts of MYCAPSSA in the United States, including our launch, plans with respect our customer-facing team, the nature and success of our ongoing and planned commercialization activities and strategy, our pricing of MYCAPSSA, and related assumptions;

 

our views as to potential future results of our commercialization efforts in the United States with respect to MYCAPSSA, including our expectations with respect to the scope, level and availability of reimbursement by private and government payors;

 

our development of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly;

 

our efforts to potentially obtain regulatory approval of octreotide capsules in the European Union based on the results of the MPOWERED Phase 3 clinical trial;

 

our expectations regarding the FDA’s ongoing review of the manufacturing supplement we submitted for an additional commercial supplier of active pharmaceutical ingredient for MYCAPSSA;

 

our ability to obtain supply of sufficient amounts of octreotide capsules to support our commercialization efforts in the United States and clinical trials;

 

the therapeutic benefits, effectiveness and safety of octreotide capsules;

 

our estimates of the size and characteristics of the markets that may be addressed by octreotide capsules;

 

the commercial success and market acceptance of MYCAPSSA or any future product candidates that are approved for marketing in the United States or other countries;

 

our ability to generate revenue;

 

the safety and efficacy of therapeutics marketed by our competitors that are targeted to indications which octreotide capsules have been developed to treat;

 

our ability to leverage our Transient Permeability Enhancer, or TPE, platform to develop and commercialize novel oral product candidates incorporating peptides that are currently only available in injectable or other non-absorbable forms;

 

the possibility that competing products or technologies may make MYCAPSSA, other product candidates we may develop and commercialize or our TPE technology obsolete;

 

our ability to secure collaborators to license, manufacture, market and sell octreotide capsules or any products for which we receive regulatory approval in the future;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property and operate our business without infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others;

 

our product development and operational plans generally;

 

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our commercialization efforts of MYCAPSSA, regulatory submissions and potential approvals, and our business generally; and

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our estimates and expectations regarding our capital requirements, cash and expense levels and liquidity sources.

These forward-looking statements are not exhaustive. These forward-looking statements involve risk and uncertainties. We cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those set forth in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report. Except as may be required by law, we have no plans to update our forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report. We caution readers not to place undue reliance upon any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance.

You should read this Annual Report and the documents that we reference herein and have filed as exhibits hereto as a part completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report represent our views as of the date of this Annual Report. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this Annual Report.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this Annual Report to “Chiasma,” “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Chiasma, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

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PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

We are a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on improving the lives of patients who face challenges associated with their existing treatments for rare and serious chronic disease. Employing our proprietary Transient Permeability Enhancer, or TPE®, technology platform, we seek to develop oral medications that are currently available only as injections. In June 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, approved MYCAPSSA® (octreotide capsules) for long-term maintenance treatment in acromegaly patients who have responded to and tolerated treatment with octreotide or lanreotide. We commenced our U.S. commercial launch of MYCAPSSA in September 2020. MYCAPSSA is the first and only oral somatostatin analog, or SSA, approved by the FDA and the first product approved by the FDA utilizing our TPE technology. The FDA approval of MYCAPSSA was based on the positive results of our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, nine-month Phase 3 CHIASMA OPTIMAL clinical trial of octreotide capsules, which met the primary endpoint and all four secondary endpoints, as well as safety data from all of our Phase 3 clinical trials of MYCAPSSA. We are focused on the commercialization of MYCAPSSA for the treatment of patients with acromegaly in the United States and continuing our development and seeking regulatory approval of MYCAPSSA in the European Union.

Acromegaly and Treatment Burden

Acromegaly is a rare and debilitating condition that results in the body’s production of excess growth hormone, or GH, which in turn elevates insulin-like growth factor 1, or IGF-1. These elevated hormone levels result in a number of painful and disfiguring signs and symptoms, including some acute, such as headaches, joint pain and fatigue, and some long-term, such as enlarged hands, feet and internal organs, as well as altered facial features. If not treated promptly, acromegaly can lead to serious illness and is associated with premature death, primarily due to cardiovascular disease. According to data published by the Mayo Clinic in 2013, the mortality rate of people afflicted by acromegaly who go untreated is two to three times higher than that of the general population. Data from a published study presented at the Endocrine Society’s Annual Meeting in 2015 suggest that the global prevalence of acromegaly may be between 85 and 118 cases per million people.

Octreotide is an analog of somatostatin, a natural inhibitor of growth hormone secretion. The current standard of care for patients diagnosed with acromegaly and not otherwise cured by surgical removal of the pituitary tumor consists of lifelong, once-monthly injections of an extended release somatostatin analog, primarily octreotide or lanreotide. These products contain a viscous formulation and are typically administered by a healthcare professional with large-gauge needles into the muscle or deep subcutaneously, that is, deeply under the skin. While injectable somatostatin analogs are generally effective at reducing GH and IGF-1 levels and, therefore, providing disease control, the injections are associated with signification limitations and patient burdens, including suboptimal symptom control, especially as the treatment effects begin to wane near the end of the monthly cycle prior to the next injection, inconvenience, pain and other injection-related side effects. With the FDA approval of MYCAPSSA in June 2020, MYCAPSSA became the first somatostatin analog available for oral administration. Octreotide capsules (MYCAPSSA) have been granted orphan designation in the United States and the European Union for the treatment of acromegaly. The worldwide market for injectable somatostatin analogs is approximately $2.8 billion annually, of which we estimate approximately $800 million represents annual sales for the treatment of acromegaly. We retain worldwide rights to develop and commercialize octreotide capsules.

FDA Approval of MYCAPSSA®

In July 2019, we announced positive top-line results from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL (Octreotide capsules vs. Placebo Treatment In MultinationAL centers), a Phase 3 clinical trial of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly conducted under a special protocol assessment, or SPA, agreement with the FDA and designed to support regulatory approval in the United States. Based on the positive results from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial, we resubmitted our new drug application, or NDA, to the FDA in December 2019, seeking marketing approval of MYCAPSSA capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly. In January 2020, the FDA accepted for review the resubmission of our NDA as a complete response to deficiencies identified in the FDA’s April 2016 complete response letter, or CRL, to our original NDA submission. On June 26, 2020, the decision date assigned by the FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, the FDA approved MYCAPSSA for the long-term maintenance treatment in acromegaly patients who have responded to and tolerated treatment with octreotide or lanreotide.

Commercialization of MYCAPSSA in the United States

We believe that approximately 8,000 adult acromegaly patients are chronically treated with somatostatin analogs in the United States, and that approximately 90% of these patients are managed by fewer than 1,000 patient care centers. Patients with acromegaly undergoing treatment in the United States are generally treated by endocrinologists at a small number of academic institutions with pituitary experts (pituitary centers), regional academic centers or hospital systems (regional referral centers) and some community

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endocrinologists. Accordingly, our commercial strategy is to address the U.S. market for MYCAPSSA capsules with a small orphan drug customer-facing team of approximately 45 professionals in our sales, market access and patient services functions.

We have implemented a phased commercial launch strategy designed to adapt to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the U.S. treatment landscape. In September 2020, MYCAPSSA became commercially available to patients in the United States and we commenced the initial phase of the MYCAPSSA U.S. commercial launch with a 22-person customer-facing team, including ten sales representatives calling on approximately one-third of key prescribing accounts. We progressed to the second phase of the launch at the beginning of 2021 with a 36-person customer-facing team, including an expanded salesforce with 12 new sales representatives and managers hired during the fourth quarter of 2020. We plan to progress to the third and final phase of the launch with a customer-facing team comprised of approximately 45 employees, including approximately 30 sales employees, if the market conditions warrant and once the market challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic recede.

 

COVID-19 Impact

 

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel strain of coronavirus, or COVID-19, a global pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has and will continue to affect economies and businesses around the world, including ours. We continue to closely monitor the impact of COVID-19 on our business and have implemented steps to ensure the well-being of our employees as well as the patients and health care professionals involved in the disease state registry for acromegaly that we have sponsored. We have not observed any significant disruptions to our manufacturing supply chain to date due to the pandemic. However, the pandemic has caused us to modify our business practices, including taking steps to protect our employees and the broader community, such as curtailing or modifying employee travel, reducing access to our offices, moving employees to remote work where appropriate, and cancelling in-person participation in meetings. In addition, the intensification of the pandemic throughout the United States beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020 has impacted physician outreach efforts across the biopharmaceutical industry. As with other commercial companies, we are experiencing the effects in our business, as the pandemic continues to force office closures, reduce in-person physician and patient interactions as well as in-person sales call opportunities. Additionally, prescriptions received for MYCAPSSA take longer than anticipated to convert to commercial patients on therapy due to physician office shutdowns and their staffs’ remote working conditions. We are monitoring developments carefully and leveraging available technologies at our disposal to adjust to the pandemic challenges that we currently face, including increasing our digital promotion and engagement efforts and equipping and training our salesforce to conduct remote interactions.

 

CHIASMA OPTIMAL

The CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, nine-month clinical trial of octreotide capsules and enrolled 56 adult acromegaly patients whose disease was biochemically controlled by injectable somatostatin analogs based upon levels of IGF-1, which is altered due to increased GH levels caused by acromegaly (average IGF-1 ≤ 1.0 × upper limit of normal, or ULN). The trial was conducted under a SPA agreement with the FDA. The patients also had confirmed active acromegaly following their last surgical intervention based upon an elevated IGF-1 of ≥ 1.3 × ULN. Patients were randomized on a 1:1 basis, to octreotide capsules or placebo. Patients were dose titrated from 40 mg per day (equaling one capsule in the morning and one capsule in the evening) to up to a maximum of 80 mg per day (equaling two capsules in the morning and two capsules in the evening). Patients who met the predefined withdrawal criteria, or discontinued from oral treatment for any reason, in either treatment arm during the course of the trial were considered treatment failures, reverted to their original treatment of injections and monitored for the remainder of the trial. The primary endpoint of the trial was the proportion of patients who maintained their biochemical response at the end of the nine-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled period as measured using the average of the last two IGF-1 levels ≤ 1.0 × ULN (assessed at weeks 34 and 36). Hierarchical secondary endpoints include: proportion of patients who maintain growth hormone, or GH, response at week 36 compared to screening; time to loss of response: IGF-1 of 2 consecutive visits is > 1.0 × ULN; time to loss of response: IGF-1 of two consecutive visits is ≥ 1.3 × ULN; and proportion of patients requiring rescue treatment.

 

In the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial:

 

 

The primary endpoint was met: 58% of the patients on octreotide capsules maintained their IGF-1 response compared to 19% of the patients on placebo (p = 0.008).

 

 

All secondary endpoints were met.

 

o

78% of patients treated with octreotide capsules maintained their GH levels below 2.5 ng/mL at the end of the core study compared to 30% of patients treated with placebo (p = 0.001).

 

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Median time to loss of response (IGF-1 >1.0 × ULN) was not reached (>36 weeks) for patients treated with octreotide capsules compared to 16 weeks for patients treated with placebo (p <0.001).

 

o

Median time to loss of response (IGF-1  1.3 × ULN) was not reached (>36 weeks) for patients treated with octreotide capsules compared to 16 weeks for patients treated with placebo (p <0.001).

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25% of patients treated with octreotide capsules required rescue medication with injectable somatostatin analogs (octreotide LAR or lanreotide depot) anytime throughout the study compared to 68% of patients treated with placebo (p = 0.003).

Additionally, 75% of patients randomized to the octreotide capsules treatment arm completed the 36-week trial of which 90% elected to continue into the open label extension. Further, in a pre-specified exploratory endpoint, mean IGF-1 values across all 28 patients treated with octreotide capsules (including primary endpoint non-responders per protocol), remained within normal limits with a 0.97 x ULN at the end of oral treatment versus 1.69 x ULN at the end of treatment for the patients on placebo. For purposes of this analysis, the end of oral treatment value was the average of week 34 and week 36 values for all patients who completed the study on octreotide capsules or placebo and for those patients that required rescue medication, it was their last observed value prior to the use of rescue medication.

In the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial, octreotide capsules appeared safe and well tolerated. No new or unexpected safety signals were observed. The overall number of treatment emergent adverse events, or TEAEs, was comparable between the octreotide capsules and placebo treatment groups, 64% versus 54%, respectively. Two patients on octreotide capsules and one patient on placebo discontinued treatment due to TEAEs. Two patients on octreotide capsules and one patient on placebo had serious adverse events, or SAEs, assessed as not related to study drug. Severe TEAEs as well as TEAEs of special interest (acromegaly symptoms) were more common in placebo treated patients than in patients treated with octreotide capsules.

 

CHIASMA OPTIMAL Open Label Extension

In July 2020, we announced 48-week, open-label efficacy and safety data from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL open-label extension study of MYCAPSSA. The key findings from the study included:

 

The mean of the IGF-1 levels for the population of all MYCAPSSA treated patients that completed the 36-week, double-blind placebo controlled (DPC) CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial and continued into the open label extension (n=19) was maintained within normal limits at the end of the 48-week open label extension period.

 

90% of patients enrolled into the open label extension that were treated with MYCAPSSA during the DPC phase of the study (n=20) completed the 48-week open label extension period.

 

All patients that enrolled into the open label extension as responders to MYCAPSSA (IGF-1 within normal limits, n=14) completed the 48-week open label extension period and 93% maintained their response within the normal limits at the end of this period.

 

The safety profile observed during open label extension was generally consistent with the safety of MYCAPSSA noted in the 36-week CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial with no new patterns noted with the increased duration of exposure.

MPOWERED

We also conducted an international Phase 3 clinical trial, referred to as MPOWERED (Maintenance of Acromegaly Patients with Octreotide Capsules Compared With Injections -Evaluation of REsponse Durability), of oral octreotide capsules for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with acromegaly, which was designed to support an application for marketing approval in the European Union. The MPOWERED non-inferiority trial was designed to compare long-term maintenance treatment with MYCAPSSA to the long-acting injectables, octreotide long-acting release and lanreotide autogel, in patients previously responding to those therapies. Initiated in March 2016, the MPOWERED trial was a randomized, open-label and active-controlled 15-month trial initially designed to enroll up to 150 patients. The European Medicines Agency, or EMA, requested that a minimum of at least 80 patients who are responders to MYCAPSSA following the six-month run-in phase be randomized to either remain on MYCAPSSA or return to injectable somatostatin receptor ligands (octreotide or lanreotide), and then followed for an additional nine months. Of the 146 patients that entered the six-month run-in phase of the trial, 92 of these patients (or 63%) completed the run-in phase and were deemed to be responders to octreotide capsules per protocol (IGF-1 <1.3 x ULN and GH<2.5 ng/mL). Responders to MYCAPSSA were randomized (2:3) per protocol to either go back to their original long-acting injectable somatostatin analog or remain on octreotide capsules at the dose identified during the run-in phase and then followed for an additional nine months.

The primary endpoint of the MPOWERED trial was the proportion of patients who are biochemically controlled throughout the randomized, controlled phase of the study, defined as a time weighted average of IGF-I < 1.3 ULN. In November 2020, we announced positive topline results from the MPOWERED trial, including that the study met its primary non-inferiority endpoint. Ninety-one

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percent (91%) of patients on MYCAPSSA maintained IGF-1 response (95% CI = 80%, 97%) compared to 100% on injectable SSAs (95% CI = 91%, 100%). Response was defined as the time-weighted average of IGF-1 <1.3 x ULN during the nine-month randomized, controlled treatment (RCT) phase. In addition, MYCAPSSA maintained mean IGF-1 within normal limits and was comparable to injectable therapy. The mean IGF-1 in the MYCAPSSA cohort at the beginning and end of the RCT phase was 0.9 × ULN and 0.9 × ULN, respectively, compared to 0.8 × ULN and 0.8 × ULN, respectively, in the injectable SSA cohort.

The safety data from the administration of MYCAPSSA capsules in the MPOWERED trial were consistent with the known safety profile of octreotide but without adverse injection site reactions. No new or unexpected safety signals were detected during the study among MYCAPSSA subjects.

Based on the positive data from the MPOWERED trial, we expect to submit a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, in mid-2021 seeking marketing approval of MYCAPSSA capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly in the European Union.

The MPOWERED trial is also expected to provide data on the impact of treatment on acromegaly symptoms and patients’ quality of life through multiple validated instruments. Secondary and exploratory endpoints were designed to explore overall health assessments and whether more patients experience maintenance or improvement of acromegaly symptoms between treatments, both individually and as an overall composite score. The trial was also designed to generate data on when patients experience their acromegaly symptoms and any interference with work productivity and the ability to perform regular activities of daily living. The impact of octreotide capsules versus injectable treatment was also measured from a standpoint of gastrointestinal adverse events and the burden of receiving injections in a healthcare setting versus the fasting requirements of MYCAPSSA capsules. The analyses of the trial results are ongoing and we plan to present additional data sets at upcoming medical conferences in 2021.

Commercial Manufacturing Supply

 

We depend on third-party suppliers and contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for all of our required raw materials and drug substance and to manufacture and package drug product for clinical use and commercial use, if we obtain marketing approval for MYCAPSSA capsules in the United States.

 

We began implementing launch readiness plans in 2019 in preparation for a commercial launch of MYCAPSSA capsules in the United States, pending the FDA’s approval of our NDA. Following FDA approval of our NDA and to secure commercial supply of MYCAPSSA, we submitted our “changes being effected in 30 days” supplement, CBE-30 supplement, to our NDA in June 2020 to provide for the approval of our primary commercial manufacturer of generic active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, octreotide acetate and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. Following the FDA’s acceptance of our CBE-30 supplement for review, in September 2020, we began to distribute commercial product as part of our U.S. commercial launch while the FDA’s review of the supplement was pending. The FDA approved the CBE-30 supplement in December 2020. At this time, we expect to continue to have sufficient commercial supply of MYCAPSSA to support our commercial launch.

 

In order to secure an additional commercial source of API, we submitted a prior approval supplement to include in our NDA another commercial manufacturer of API and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. This manufacturing supplement was accepted for review by the FDA in January 2021 and the FDA set a PDUFA target date in the second quarter of 2021 for the completion of its review.

All excipients, or substances formulated together with the API, used in manufacture of octreotide capsules are obtained by our CMOs from third-party suppliers. The octreotide API is formulated with our TPE technology by a lyophilization service provider and filled into capsules and enteric-coated by another third-party CMO.

MYCAPSSA is currently available for distribution in the United States through one specialty pharmacy and we expect to engage only a limited number of specialty pharmacies as we further develop our distribution network.

Intellectual Property

Octreotide capsules are currently protected by issued patents lasting until at least 2029 in the United States, the European Union, United Kingdom, Japan and several other jurisdictions, and by pending patent applications in additional jurisdictions that will last until 2029, if granted. In March 2019 and June 2020, two United States patents directed to specific methods of using octreotide capsules were granted. These patents will expire in 2036. We are also pursuing additional patent applications relating to particular uses, dosages and packaging for octreotide capsules.

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Strategy

Our goal is to become a successful patient-focused biopharmaceutical company by developing and commercializing, ourselves or through others, octreotide capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly. Our strategy to pursue this goal includes the following elements:

 

Maximize the Commercial Value of MYCAPSSA in the United States. We are utilizing our U.S. commercial capabilities to support the ongoing launch of MYCAPSSA in the United States. We believe that the U.S. market for MYCAPSSA capsules is addressable with a relatively small, specialty orphan drug sales force and are increasing our commercial sale capabilities through a phased-launch strategy. We have built a focused in-house sales and marketing organization to promote MYCAPSSA to pituitary specialists and community endocrinologists who comprise the top prescribers of therapies for acromegaly. We have also established in-house market access and patient service functions. We plan to further expand our customer-facing team to a total of approximately 45 employees, including approximately 30 sales employees, once the market challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic recede.

 

Obtain European Union regulatory approval of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly. To support an application for marketing approval in the European Union, we initiated the Phase 3 MPOWERED clinical trial in March 2016, with a protocol that was accepted by the EMA, to evaluate the comparative safety and efficacy of MYCAPSSA in adult acromegaly patients. In November 2020, we reported positive topline results from the MPOWERED trial. We plan to submit our MAA to the EMA in mid-2021 to potentially secure approval in the European Union for MYCAPSSA as a treatment for adult patients with acromegaly.

 

Explore collaboration opportunities in the European Union and the rest of the world for octreotide capsules in acromegaly. At the appropriate time, we plan to explore one or more collaborations to commercialize MYCAPSSA in acromegaly outside of the United States. However, depending on our evaluation of the strategic merits of these collaboration opportunities, we may decide to retain commercial rights in key markets and undertake commercialization preparation and activities ourselves, if required regulatory approvals are obtained.

 

Generate real-world data on acromegaly treatments. In 2020, we began enrolling patients in the first industry-sponsored disease state registry for acromegaly in the United States known as the Management of Acromegaly, or MACRO, Registry, and enrollment is ongoing. The MACRO Registry is designed to enroll patients from over 40 planned clinical sites in the United States and collect real-world data on treatment burden and effectiveness of various acromegaly treatments.

MYCAPSSA® in Acromegaly

Product Overview

MYCAPSSA (octreotide capsules) is a novel oral formulation of octreotide developed utilizing our TPE platform. MYCAPSSA is a liquid-filled solid gelatin capsule formulation which is intended to be taken twice a day. Acromegaly patients who are prescribed MYCAPSSA receive a 28-day supply of capsules, which may be stored at room temperature by the patient for up to one month. Based on the aggregate data from our completed clinical trials, we believe octreotide capsules have the potential to induce biochemical response (inhibition of GH and IGF-1) while also potentially improving symptoms and reducing the burden of disease and treatment in patients afflicted with acromegaly.

Overview of Acromegaly

 

Acromegaly results from the overproduction of GH, most often due to the growth of a benign tumor in the pituitary gland in middle-aged adults. GH, in turn, stimulates the production of IGF-1 in the liver which stimulates the growth of bones and other tissues. Progression of acromegaly can result in significant health problems such as hypertension, enlargement of the heart, or cardiomyopathy, sleep apnea, type-2 diabetes, and abnormal growths in the colon and uterus. Acromegaly is associated with a number of signs and symptoms, some acute, such as headaches, joint pain and fatigue, and some long-term, such as enlarged hands, feet and internal organs, as well as altered facial features. Because acromegaly is uncommon and physical changes occur gradually, the condition is often not recognized for years. If not treated promptly, acromegaly can lead to serious illness and is associated with premature death, primarily due to cardiovascular disease. However, both surgical and drug treatments are available for acromegaly that can reduce the risk of complications and premature death and significantly improve symptom control.

Surgery is often the first line of therapy for acromegaly and, in most cases, surgical removal of the pituitary tumor can result in normalization of GH and IGF-1 levels. In many other cases, however, the levels of GH remain elevated even after surgery due to residual tumor and many patients therefore also require a therapeutic intervention. The body’s natural inhibitor of excess GH secretion is somatostatin, a peptide hormone. Octreotide and lanreotide, analogs of somatostatin with a significantly longer half-life in the blood than natural somatostatin, have achieved widespread adoption by physicians treating patients afflicted with acromegaly. These somatostatin analogs are routinely administered by injection by a healthcare professional. If not administered with proper technique,

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the injection may not effectively deliver the medication. Prior to the approval of MYCAPSSA in June 2020, there was no oral formulation of a somatostatin analog on the market.

Incidence and Prevalence of Acromegaly and Current Treatment Landscape

We believe there are an estimated 69,000 individuals with acromegaly in the major markets (United States, European Union, Japan, Australia and Canada). The U.S. National Institutes of Health, or NIH, estimates that there are roughly 20,000 individuals with acromegaly in the United States, based on its published prevalence of an estimated 60 cases per million. In 13 studies of acromegaly prevalence since 1980, an average of approximately 75 cases per million was determined, suggesting roughly 24,000 individuals with acromegaly in the United States. However, data presented at the Endocrine Society’s Annual Meeting in 2015 suggest that pituitary tumors may be more prevalent than previously thought, and that the global prevalence of acromegaly may be higher, between 85 and 118 cases per million people. NIH also cites an annual incidence of three to four new cases per million each year. Data from a 2017 study by Lavrentaki et. al. suggest that the global prevalence of acromegaly may be between 28 and 137 cases per million people.

According to publicly available financial reports, injectable forms of octreotide and lanreotide generated worldwide sales of approximately $2.8 billion annually in 2019 for the treatment of acromegaly, neuroendocrine tumors and some other smaller indications. We believe approximately $800 million of this total represents the annual sales for the treatment of acromegaly. The great majority of these sales come from once-monthly long acting formulations that must be administered by intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injections with large-gauge needles. Although MYCAPSSA is only indicated for treatment of acromegaly, we believe it has the potential to become a standard of care in other indications currently treated with injectable somatostatin analogs.

Competing Therapeutic Options

For acromegaly patients not cured by surgery, the standard of care therapies have been injectable somatostatin analogs. However, these therapies are associated with significant patient limitations and burdens. These therapeutic treatment options include octreotide LAR, which is marketed by Novartis AG, or Novartis, and is administered monthly and intramuscularly using a large gauge needle, and lanreotide depot, another long-acting analog of somatostatin marketed by Ipsen SA, or Ipsen, which is administered monthly using a deep subcutaneous injection. Immediate release octreotide, while available, is more rarely used. For patients not controlled on these somatostatin analogs, the typical second line of treatment options (which may also be acceptably used as first line therapy) includes pegvisomant daily injections, marketed by Pfizer, Inc., or Pfizer, and pasireotide LAR, which is another somatostatin analog marketed by Recordati S.p.A., or Recordait, which is administered monthly via intramuscular injection.

 

Current Injectable Treatment Options for Acromegaly

Product

Company

Route

Needle

(length/gauge)

Status

Octreotide LAR

Novartis

Intramuscular

1.5”/19 or 20 G

Marketed

Lanreotide Depot

Ipsen

Deep

Subcutaneous

0.79”/18 or 19 G

Marketed

Pasireotide LAR

Recordati

Intramuscular

1.5”/20 G

Marketed

Pegvisomant

Pfizer

Subcutaneous

1”/21-27 G

Marketed

 

Injections of these somatostatin analogs present several issues related to patient comfort and convenience as well as breakthrough, or returning, symptoms of the disease near the end of the dosing cycle prior to the next scheduled injection. These issues include:

 

Suboptimal control. In a published patient-reported outcomes survey that we conducted in 195 acromegaly patients receiving injected somatostatin analogs, or our patient survey, 52% of patients reported that the treatment effects begin to wane near the end of the monthly cycle prior to the next injection, and 32% of controlled patients still experienced some symptoms.

 

Pain. Injections with somatostatin analogs require a large-gauge needle to slowly inject a viscous solution into the muscle or deep into subcutaneous tissue. Patients report these injections to be very painful. Often, this pain persists for several days after the injection. In our patient survey, 70% of patients said they experienced pain during the injection and approximately half of these patients experienced continuing pain days later.

 

Injection-site reactions. Patients frequently experience hardness, nodules and swelling at the site of the injection as well as bruising and inflammation.

 

Lack of convenience. The treatment effectiveness is dependent on proper delivery technique and thus the injections are typically administered by a healthcare professional. The monthly injection schedule for injectable somatostatin analogs and the associated travel to the healthcare provider is inconvenient for many patients.

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Emotional impact. In our patient survey, 36% of patients said that they felt a loss of independence due to the requirement for chronic injections that typically require them to visit a healthcare professional.

 

Lost work days. In our patient survey, 16% of patients said that the treatment burden associated with the injectable therapies caused them to regularly miss work for injections. These patients missed an average of 11 days a year.

 

Utilizing the Acromegaly Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire, or Acro-TSQ, a patient-reported symptom assessment tool developed and copyrighted by us, screening data from 70 eligible patients in the MPOWERED trial who treated their acromegaly with octreotide LAR or lanreotide depot were collected and analyzed in 2018. The findings include:

 

 

Ongoing symptoms. 66% of patients reported ongoing acromegaly symptoms, of which 83% reported some symptoms “all the time.”

 

Worsening symptoms. 50% indicated some symptoms worsen towards the end of the monthly injection interval.

 

Interference with life. Symptoms interfered with daily life (91%) and leisure activities (86%).

 

GI side effects. More than 50% reported gastrointestinal, or GI, side effects (median duration five days following each injection) that interfered with daily life.

 

Worsening GI effects. GI side effects were worse in patients with more active symptoms but did not correlate with IGF-1 levels or treatment dose.

A cross-sectional online study was conducted to understand the experience of acromegaly patients treated with somatostatin analog injections in the United States with stable disease (no change to SSA-based treatment in the past 12 months) and to compare patients’ perception with those of their healthcare provider, or HCP. Patients completed an online survey focusing on disease characteristics and management; symptoms; adverse reactions; general health; and the Acro-TSQ. Patients were also asked to provide contact information for their treating HCP who were contacted and asked to participate in a telephone interview about their patient and complete applicable portions of the Acro-TSQ. A total of 105 patients completed the online survey and 47 HCPs completed the interview.

Preliminary data from 65 acromegaly patients enrolled in this study were analyzed to understand the disease and treatment burden. The findings included:

 

 

Symptoms. 78% reported headaches, 80% reported fatigue/weakness, 69% had excessive sweating, 85% had joint pain, 83% had soft tissues swelling, 63% had carpal tunnel symptoms, 54% had vision problems, 66% reported snoring, and 86% reported forgetfulness, and short-term memory loss or feeling in a daze (referred to as “acro-fog”);

 

 

Injection Site Reactions. A significant number of patients (>30%; range: 31% to 41%) reported that the severity of their injection site reactions was moderate to severe;

 

 

GI Side Effects. 66% experienced GI side effects, lasting on average 11 days. 91% reported GI side effects affected daily life, 93% said they interfered with leisure activities, and 91% reported they interfered with work; and

 

 

Bother. Patients were bothered by the amount of time they experienced symptoms (100%), bothered by injection site reactions during the first few days (74%), the need to schedule injections (65%), and having to travel for injections (85%).

 

Data from this study were also utilized to understand how HCPs perceive their acromegaly patients’ treatment outcomes. A total of 30 HCPs (of the total of 47), who treated patients who were biochemically controlled (of the total of 105 patients), were interviewed. The key findings included:

 

 

Symptom Control. HCPs reported 27% of their patients were symptomatically well-controlled and 73% were partially controlled;

 

 

Symptoms. HCPs reported that a majority of their patients experienced fatigue/weakness/feeling tired (87%), joint pain (70%), and headaches (60%). 43% of their patients reported soft tissue swelling and 47% reported acro-fog; and

 

 

General Health. HCPs gave patients a mean general health rating of 73 (out of 100, where 100 is the best health possible).

 

Additional data on this study for all 47 acromegaly patients and their designated HCP included:

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Symptoms reported by patients. 81% reported acro-fog, 81% reported joint pain, 79% reported soft tissue swelling, 77% reported fatigue/weakness, and 72% reported headaches;

 

 

Symptoms reported by HCPs. 92% of their patients report fatigue/weakness/tired, 75% report joint pain, and 62% report headaches; and

 

 

Concordance between patients and HCPs: There was poor agreement between patients and HCPs on the frequency, severity, and pattern of symptoms, as well as on the severity of injection site reactions and on multiple portions of the Acro-TSQ. In general, patients reported symptoms and injection site reactions more often and with higher frequency than HCPs.

Since injectable somatostatin analogs are used in other diseases beyond acromegaly, these limitations and burdens are also associated with the treatment of the other indications. Consequently, we believe MYCAPSSA has the potential to become a standard of care in these other indications.

Clinical Trials of MYCAPSSA in Acromegaly

CHIASMA OPTIMAL Phase 3 Clinical Trial

 

The CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial, which we initiated in September 2017, was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, nine-month clinical trial conducted under the SPA. We activated 60 clinical sites dedicated to the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial. It enrolled 56 adult acromegaly patients (38% of whom were from the United States).

CHIASMA OPTIMAL Phase 3 Clinical Trial Design

 

In July 2019, we announced positive top-line results from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial. In the trial:

 

 

The primary endpoint was met: 58% of the patients on octreotide capsules maintained their IGF-1 response compared to 19% of the patients on placebo (p = 0.008). P-value is a conventional statistical method for measuring the statistical significance of clinical results. A p-value of 0.05 or less is generally considered to represent statistical significance, meaning that there is a less than 1-in-20 likelihood that the observed results occurred by chance.

 

 

All secondary endpoints were met.

 

o

78% of patients treated with octreotide capsules maintained their GH levels below 2.5 ng/mL at the end of the core study compared to 30% of patients treated with placebo (p = 0.001).

 

o

Median time to loss of response (IGF-1 >1.0 × ULN) was not reached (>36 weeks) for patients treated with octreotide capsules compared to 16 weeks for patients treated with placebo (p <0.001).

 

o

Median time to loss of response (IGF-1  1.3 × ULN) was not reached (>36 weeks) for patients treated with octreotide capsules compared to 16 weeks for patients treated with placebo (p <0.001).

 

o

25% of patients treated with octreotide capsules required rescue medication with injectable somatostatin analogs (octreotide LAR or lanreotide depot) anytime throughout the study compared to 68% of patients treated with placebo (p = 0.003).

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Additionally, 75% of patients on octreotide capsules completed the trial of which 90% elected to continue into the open label extension. However, the results of the extension phase are not required as the basis for an efficacy claim. In addition, in a pre-specified exploratory endpoint, mean IGF-1 values across all 28 patients treated with octreotide capsules (including primary endpoint non-responders per protocol), remained within normal limits with a 0.97 x ULN at the end of oral treatment versus 1.69 x ULN at the end of treatment for the patients on placebo.

In the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial, octreotide capsules appeared safe and well tolerated in the trial patient population. No new or unexpected safety signals were observed. The overall number of treatment emergent adverse events, or TEAEs, was comparable between the octreotide capsules and placebo treatment groups, 64% versus 54%, respectively. Two patients on octreotide capsules and one patient on placebo discontinued treatment due to TEAEs. Two patients on octreotide capsules and one patient on placebo had serious adverse events, or SAEs, assessed as not related to study drug. Severe TEAEs as well as TEAEs of special interest (acromegaly symptoms) were more common in placebo treated patients than in patients treated with octreotide capsules. The following table summarizes the safety data observed in the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial:

 

 

Octreotide Capsules

Placebo

Subjects with:

n

%

n

%

At least one TEAE

28

100.0

27

96.4

Treatment-Related TEAE

18

64.3

15

53.6

SAEs

2

7.1

1

3.6

Treatment-Related SAEs

0

0.0

0

0.0

Severe TEAEs

3

10.7

7

25.0

TEAE Leading to Study Drug Discontinuation

2

7.1

1

3.6

TEAEs of Special Interest

(acromegaly symptoms)

15

53.6

26

92.9

CHIASMA OPTIMAL Open Label Extension

In July 2020, we announced 48-week, open-label efficacy and safety data from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL open-label extension study of MYCAPSSA. The key findings from the study included:

 

The mean of the IGF-1 levels for the population of all MYCAPSSA treated patients that completed the 36-week, double-blind placebo controlled (DPC) CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial and continued into the open label extension (n=19) was maintained within normal limits at the end of the 48-week open label extension period.

 

90% of patients enrolled into the open label extension that were treated with MYCAPSSA during the DPC phase of the study (n=20) completed the 48-week open label extension period.

 

All patients that enrolled into the open label extension as responders to MYCAPSSA (IGF-1 within normal limits, n=14) completed the 48-week open label extension period and 93% maintained their response within the normal limits at the end of this period.

 

The safety profile observed during open label extension was generally consistent with the safety of MYCAPSSA noted in the 36-week CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial with no new patterns noted with the increased duration of exposure.

MPOWERED Phase 3 Clinical Trial

Comparative effectiveness is an important regulatory consideration in the European Union. After agreeing to the clinical trial protocol with the EMA, we initiated an international Phase 3 clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly in March 2016 to show parallel comparative safety and effectiveness.

This trial was called MPOWERED, Maintenance of Acromegaly Patients with Octreotide Capsules Compared With Injections -Evaluation of REsponse Durability. This trial was an open-label, randomized, active-controlled study of octreotide capsules in patients who had been classified in the study as responders to a once-a-month injectable somatostatin analog based on criteria comparable to the criteria utilized in our first Phase 3 clinical trial. This trial was intended to demonstrate non-inferiority, comparing efficacy responses between two randomized groups of patients who demonstrated response to octreotide capsules and was initially to enroll up to 150 patients. In July 2018, we completed the enrollment of 135 adult acromegaly patients into the run-in phase of the

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MPOWERED trial. The EMA requested that a minimum of at least 80 patients who are responders to octreotide capsules following the six-month run-in phase be randomized to either remain on octreotide capsules or return to injectable somatostatin receptor ligands (octreotide or lanreotide), and then followed for an additional nine months. In October 2018, 80 patients were randomized following the six-month run-in phase in the MPOWERED trial. Further, in October 2018, we elected to resume enrollment in the trial in an effort to enroll up to 15 additional patients exclusively located in the United States in order to gain further U.S. investigator and patient experience with octreotide capsules. In June 2019, we completed enrollment of 146 total patients in the trial in the United States, Europe, Russia and other foreign countries. Each patient initially received a daily dose of 40 mg of octreotide capsules, which was increased up to a maximum of 80 mg daily dose if lower doses were not effective. Similar to the requirements of our first completed Phase 3 clinical trial and the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial, patients were required to take octreotide capsules at least one hour prior to a meal or two hours after a meal.

The primary efficacy endpoint for this trial was the proportion of patients who were biochemically controlled throughout the nine-month randomized-controlled phase measuring IGF-1 with responders defined as patients who achieved an IGF-1 level less than 1.3 times the ULN adjusted for age, the same IGF-1 efficacy criteria utilized in our first, completed Phase 3 clinical trial. Measurements of IGF-1 were taken throughout the randomized phase of the trial and a time weighted average of these biochemical measures was calculated. In addition, the trial was also designed to provide data regarding the assessment of symptom control and patient reported outcomes. The primary endpoint of the MPOWERED trial was the proportion of patients who were biochemically controlled throughout the randomized, controlled phase of the study, defined as a time weighted average of IGF-I < 1.3 ULN. In addition to measures of biochemical control, the MPOWERED trial was designed to provide data on the impact of treatment on acromegaly symptoms and patients’ quality of life through multiple validated instruments. Secondary and exploratory endpoints were designed to explore overall health assessments and whether more patients experience maintenance or improvement of acromegaly symptoms between treatments, both individually and as an overall composite score. The trial was also designed to generate data on when patients experience their acromegaly symptoms and any interference with work productivity and the ability to perform regular activities of daily living. Lastly, the trial was also designed to measure the impact of octreotide capsules versus injectable treatment from a standpoint of gastrointestinal adverse events and the burden of receiving injections in a healthcare setting versus the fasting requirements of MYCAPSSA capsules.

In January 2020, the randomization of patients was completed. Of the 146 patients that entered the six-month run-in phase of the trial, 92 of these patients (or 63%) completed the run-in phase and were deemed to be responders to octreotide capsules per protocol (IGF-1 <1.3 x ULN and GH<2.5 ng/mL). Responders to octreotide capsules were randomized (2:3) per protocol to either go back to their original long-acting injectable somatostatin analog or remain on octreotide capsules at the appropriate dose identified during the run-in phase and then followed for an additional nine months. After completing the randomized controlled phase, patients were offered the opportunity to participate in a withdrawal phase sub-study to assess evidence of active disease and the requirement for long term treatment. All eligible patients had the option of entering an extension phase during which they would receive octreotide capsules at the dose identified during the run-in phase.

MPOWERED Phase 3 Clinical Trial Design

 

 

In November 2020, we announced positive topline results from the MPOWERED trial, including that the study met its primary non-inferiority endpoint. Ninety-one percent (91%) of patients on MYCAPSSA maintained IGF-1 response (95% CI = 80%, 97%) compared to 100% on injectable SSAs (95% CI = 91%, 100%). Response was defined as the time-weighted average of IGF-1 <1.3 x ULN during the nine-month randomized, controlled treatment (RCT) phase. In addition, MYCAPSSA maintained mean IGF-1 within

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normal limits and was comparable to injectable therapy. The mean IGF-1 in the MYCAPSSA cohort at the beginning and end of the RCT phase was 0.9 × ULN and 0.9 × ULN, respectively, compared to 0.8 × ULN and 0.8 × ULN, respectively, in the injectable SSA cohort.

The safety data from the administration of MYCAPSSA capsules in the MPOWERED trial were consistent with the known safety profile of octreotide but without adverse injection site reactions. No new or unexpected safety signals were detected during the study among MYCAPSSA subjects.

The analyses of the trial results are ongoing and we plan to present additional data sets at upcoming medical conferences in 2021. Based on the positive results from the MPOWERED trial, we plan to submit an MAA to the EMA in mid-2021 seeking marketing approval of MYCAPSSA capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly in the European Union. We also anticipate that the EMA will expect to review the safety and efficacy data from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial in any MAA we may file.

 

First Completed Phase 3 Clinical Trial

In March 2012, we initiated a Phase 3 multi-center, open-label, baseline-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of octreotide capsules in patients with acromegaly who responded to and tolerated treatment with somatostatin analogs. We completed this trial in November 2014 and the results were published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism in February 2015 and presented at the Endocrine Society’s Annual Meeting in March 2015. In addition, the results were submitted with our original NDA for octreotide capsules in June 2015. In the CRL to our NDA, the FDA expressed concerns regarding certain aspects of the company’s single-arm, open-label Phase 3 clinical trial and strongly recommended that we conduct a randomized, double-blind and controlled trial that enrolls patients from the United States and is of sufficiently long duration to ensure that control of disease activity is stable at the time point selected for the primary efficacy assessment. In the minutes from our End of Review Meeting, the FDA indicated that some of its concerns could potentially be addressed through a placebo-controlled study design, which we have sought to address with the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial.

Trial Design

A total of 155 patients with acromegaly, each of whom was classified according to the study parameters as a responder to a long-acting injectable somatostatin analog, were enrolled in the trial. On average, two weeks after their last monthly injection of the long-acting injectable somatostatin analog, patients were reassessed to obtain baseline IGF-1 and GH levels. Both the screening and baseline measurements were performed while patients were still on active injection therapy. The 155 patients enrolled in the trial are referred to as the intent to treat, or ITT, group.

After baseline levels were obtained, a core treatment period with octreotide capsules was initiated. This core treatment period consisted of a dose-escalation phase of at least two months in duration, designed to find an appropriate dose of octreotide capsules for each individual patient, and a fixed-dose phase of up to five months in duration, during which period the appropriate therapeutic dose identified in the dose-escalation phase was maintained. Since data from the prior clinical trials we conducted before this initial Phase 3 trial demonstrated a significant reduction in bioavailability when octreotide capsules were administered with a high-fat meal, patients in this Phase 3 clinical trial were required to fast for at least one hour before and at least one to two hours after each dose.

Patients who entered the core treatment phase of the trial initially received a 40 mg daily dose (administered in two pills a day), which was increased to daily doses of 60 mg or 80 mg on an as-required basis to maintain biochemical response and/or symptom control, at the discretion of the investigator. For each patient, the core treatment phase lasted for seven months after his or her first dose of octreotide capsules. Patients could then opt to continue treatment with octreotide capsules during an extension period of up to an additional six months, with a two-week period for final follow-up. Four patients dropped out of the trial after receiving at least one dose of octreotide capsules but before a biochemical response could be measured, resulting in a modified intent to treat, or mITT, group of 151 patients.

The primary objective of the trial was to determine the efficacy of octreotide capsules in patients with acromegaly, as measured by effect on IGF-1 and GH levels, with responders defined as patients who achieve an IGF-1 level less than 1.3 times the ULN, adjusted

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for age and an integrated GH level over two hours less than 2.5 ng/mL. Secondary objectives included assessment of safety and tolerability of octreotide capsules, and comparison of efficacy of octreotide capsules versus long-acting injectable somatostatin analog.

Completed Phase 3 Clinical Trial Design

Trial Results

Of the 155 patients enrolled, four were not evaluable and of the 151 in the mITT group, 49 patients discontinued, the majority during the dose-escalation phase. Of the 151 patients in the mITT group, patients discontinued for a variety of reasons, including treatment failures because the patient could not be controlled in the study on 80 mg, the highest dose available (24); withdrawals due to adverse events (18); or patient choice, sponsor request and lost to follow up (7). Of the 110 patients who completed the dose-escalation phase, 52 patients, or 47%, were receiving the 40 mg daily dose, 25 patients, or 23%, were receiving the 60 mg dose, and 33 patients, or 30%, were receiving the 80 mg dose.

After completion of the dose-escalation phase, the remaining 110 patients entered the fixed dose phase of the core treatment period and continued on octreotide capsules at their respective doses until seven months after first dosing. A total of 102 patients completed the fixed dose phase of the trial, 88 of whom, or 86%, voluntarily chose to remain on octreotide capsules during the six-month extension phase, for a total of 13 months of treatment after first dosing. A total of 82 patients completed the six-month extension phase of the trial.

Applying a last-observation carried forward, or LOCF, methodology, 65% of patients in the mITT group were classified as responders at the end of the seven-month core treatment phase, which was the primary endpoint for the trial. Applying a worst-case imputation method, whereby all patients who withdrew from the study prematurely (regardless of reason) are treated as non-responders, 53% of patients were classified as responders at the end of the seven-month core treatment phase. By the end of the six-month extension phase, or 13 months after first dosing, utilizing LOCF the responder rate was 62% in the mITT group. Of the 110 patients who completed the dose-escalation phase, and therefore received an optimized dose of octreotide capsules, 75% were classified as responders. For all 151 patients included in the mITT group, the responder rate on long-acting injectable somatostatin analogs was 89% at baseline, prior to initiation of octreotide capsules. Endocrinologists indicated to us that effectiveness in at least 50% of patients treated would be sufficient for an oral treatment to generally be prescribed by physicians.

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Overall Phase 3 Response in mITT Group vs. Baseline

We further assessed the quality of the responses to octreotide capsules in the patients studied. The quality of the patient responses on octreotide capsules was comparable to the quality of the responses on injectable therapies. In the mITT group, mean GH levels for patients on octreotide capsules were below the baseline values on injectable therapies at all time points assessed through the end of the extension phase. The median GH level in the mITT group at baseline was 0.77 ng/mL, which dropped to 0.40 ng/mL within two hours of the first dose of octreotide capsules and 0.49 ng/mL by the end of the extension phase, 13 months later. IGF-1 levels were stably maintained below 1.3 times the ULN for up to 13 months in the mITT group.

GH and IGF-1 Response in mITT Group Throughout the Duration of the Phase 3 Trial

We also assessed control of acromegaly symptoms, the incidence of symptoms, and the severity and number of symptoms in patients using octreotide capsules in a retrospective analysis performed after completion of the trial. At baseline, 81% of patients in the mITT group, the majority of whom were classified as responders, still had acromegaly symptoms, such as headaches, excessive perspiration, muscle weakness and/or joint pain and swelling. Patients who completed 13 months of treatment reported significantly fewer acromegaly symptoms at the conclusion of the trial than at the time of their baseline screening, and this result was statistically significant, with p-values of less than 0.020. There was also a reduction in the severity of symptoms reported. In addition, a questionnaire conducted in a subset of the patients in the clinical trial reported that breakthrough symptoms of acromegaly were experienced by 36% of patients receiving injections at baseline compared to 22% at 13 months on octreotide capsules.

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Reduced Number of Acromegaly Symptoms at Conclusion of Phase 3 Trial

(Fixed Dose Population (n = 110))

The safety profile of octreotide capsules in the trial was consistent with the known safety profile of octreotide and the disease burden of acromegaly, with the most common adverse events observed in the gastrointestinal system, such as nausea and diarrhea, the nervous system, such as headaches, and the musculoskeletal system, such as joint pain, but without adverse injection-site reactions. No new or unexpected safety signals were observed in the study. While the FDA did not note any safety concerns related to octreotide capsules in the CRL, it subsequently indicated in the End of Review meeting minutes that the size, duration, dropout rate and absence of a control group in this Phase 3 clinical trial were factors limiting an overall safety assessment.

We only performed statistical analysis on the symptom reductions for this Phase 3 trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly and did not perform statistical analysis related to the biochemistry, specifically the reduction in GH and IGF-1 levels.

Completed Phase 1 Clinical Trials of Octreotide Capsules

Together with a group of academic collaborators, we conducted a series of Phase 1 clinical trials to demonstrate that the bioavailability of octreotide capsules, developed utilizing our TPE technology, is comparable to the bioavailability of octreotide administered in the short-acting subcutaneous, or sc, formulation. These trials demonstrated similar pharmacokinetics for octreotide capsules and octreotide 0.1 mg sc injection and that a 20 mg oral dose of octreotide capsules produced systemic exposure comparable to octreotide 0.1 mg sc injection in healthy volunteers. There was no effect of route of administration on octreotide elimination, and the mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was comparable with the two treatments. However, these studies also demonstrated that the bioavailability of octreotide capsules is approximately 90% lower when it is taken with a high-fat meal rather than in the fasted state.

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Accordingly, our CHIASMA OPTIMAL and MPOWERED clinical trials require patients to take octreotide capsules at least one hour prior to a meal or two hours after a meal.

Pharmacokinetics of Octreotide capsules vs. SC Octreotide in Phase 1 Trial

In addition, to demonstrate the bioactivity of octreotide capsules, as measured by reduction in GH levels, we conducted a Phase 1 clinical trial in 16 healthy volunteers. In this crossover study, a single 20 mg dose of octreotide capsules was shown to suppress mean GH levels below 0.25 ng/mL (p < 0.05). This is similar to the effect seen in published results using octreotide injections.

Suppression of GH Levels in Healthy Volunteers

Also in this trial, we evaluated the ability of octreotide capsules to suppress GH levels in healthy subjects whose production of GH had been transiently stimulated by dosing with growth hormone-releasing hormone, or GHRH, and arginine. GHRH and arginine are used in routine clinical testing for deficiencies in GH production. In a healthy person, their administration leads to a large increase in GH levels, which is what was observed in this trial. A single 20 mg dose of octreotide capsules lowered the levels of GH by 80% (p < 0.001) following dosing with GHRH and arginine.

Data from our Phase 1 bioavailability and bioactivity clinical trials were published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism in July 2012.

A total of 11 clinical pharmacology studies have evaluated the safety of octreotide capsules. In all of these studies, the safety profile of octreotide capsules was consistent with the known safety profile of the short-acting octreotide 0.1 mg sc injection. No new or unexpected safety issues were detected during any of the clinical pharmacology studies. In particular, no new safety issues related to the novel formulation or route of administration were observed.

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Other Potential Indications for MYCAPSSA

While our primary focus is the commercial launch of MYCAPSSA in the United States, we plan to pursue the development of MYCAPSSA in at least one other indication.

Our Proprietary Transient Permeability Enhancer Technology Platform

Our Transient Permeability Enhancer, or TPE®, technology is a proprietary platform, developed internally by us, that enhances the absorption through the intestinal wall of drugs that otherwise would not be absorbed efficiently by that route. Using our TPE technology, we can transiently and reversibly open the so-called tight junctions between the cells lining the inner intestinal wall, enabling drug molecules to be absorbed intact. Our TPE formulation is a suspension of water-soluble particles containing a precise combination of medium-chain fatty acid salts and drug substance in a fat-soluble medium. In creating a TPE formulation, we make no chemical modifications to the drug substance.

Oral delivery of peptides and nucleic acids is limited due to their inherent vulnerability to digestive processes and their poor intestinal absorption. The same intestinal absorption limitation applies to certain small molecules that have poor bioavailability. The cells at the surface of the intestine, columnar epithelial cells, are connected by tight junctions that form a barrier preventing permeation by water-soluble molecules as well as by viruses and bacteria. Our TPE technology induces the transient opening of these tight junctions, allowing peptides and other macromolecules up to a certain size, but not toxins, viruses and bacteria, to cross the intestinal barrier and enabling access to the blood.

The permeability of intestinal tight junctions is known to be altered by a number of dietary factors such as fatty acids, polysaccharides and flavonoids. Transient, reversible opening of the tight junctions and an increase in epithelial permeability are a normal part of intestinal physiology. These permeability adjustments allow the gut to balance two opposing functions: creating a barrier to the passage of microorganisms while facilitating the absorption of nutrients following a meal. In developing the TPE platform, our goal was to establish the ability to reproducibly induce transient increases in the permeability of tight junctions, allowing absorption of specifically formulated drug molecules.

We have conducted extensive nonclinical studies to demonstrate the ability of our TPE technology to increase the permeability of the intestinal epithelial layer and therefore absorb molecules of different shapes, sizes and doses. As a result of these studies, we believe that our TPE technology can be applied to multiple additional peptide drug products as well as small molecules with poor bioavailability.

Our TPE Platform

Although not sufficiently staffed or financed to do so at this time, we believe our TPE platform has the potential to develop other oral medications to help improve the lives of patients suffering from other debilitating diseases that are currently being treated with injectable therapies. If we pursue new peptide-based drugs to develop using our TPE platform, to potentially reduce the development time and expenses and overall level of investment required, where possible, we may focus our efforts on drugs for which we may utilize the FDA’s 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway in the United States and the hybrid application pathway in the European Union. In March 2017, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development reported that the FDA’s 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway for new drug applications in the United States has not led to shorter approval times. However, with octreotide capsules, we brought a TPE-based product candidate from concept to the first clinical trial within 18 months and then initiated our first Phase 3 clinical trial approximately two years later.

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Commercialization Strategy for MYCAPSSA in Acromegaly

We believe that approximately 8,000 adult acromegaly patients are chronically treated with somatostatin analogs in the United States, and that approximately 90% of these patients are managed by fewer than 1,000 accounts. Patients with acromegaly undergoing treatment in the United States are generally treated by endocrinologists at a small number of academic institutions with pituitary experts (pituitary centers), regional academic centers or hospital systems (regional referral centers) and some community endocrinologists. Accordingly, our commercial strategy is to address the U.S. market for MYCAPSSA capsules with a relatively small orphan drug customer-facing team of approximately 45 professionals in our sales, market access and patient services functions.

Beginning in 2019, in preparation for a potential commercial launch of MYCAPSSA capsules in the United States, we began implementing commercial launch readiness plans, including (i) expanding our organization with new key employees with expertise in marketing, sales, market access, patient services and product reimbursement and distribution in particular for rare diseases and (ii) developing our commercial capabilities, including commencing the establishment of internal systems and infrastructure to support a commercial sales organization and patient-focused programs and appropriate quality systems and compliance policies and procedures.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the restrictions on in-person meetings with potential MYCAPSSA prescribers, we implemented a phased commercial launch strategy designed to adapt to the impact of pandemic on the U.S. treatment landscape. In September 2020, MYCAPSSA became commercially available to patients in the United States and we commenced the initial phase of the MYCAPSSA U.S. commercial launch with a 22-person customer-facing team, including ten in our sales organization calling on approximately one-third of key prescribing accounts. We progressed to the second phase of the launch at the beginning of 2021 with a 36-person customer-facing team, including an expanded salesforce with 12 personnel in our sales group hired during the fourth quarter of 2020. We plan to evaluate the need for any further expansion, if the market conditions warrant and once the market challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic recede.

In surveys commissioned by us, more than 80% of patients with acromegaly expressed a preference for an oral treatment, and endocrinologists surveyed predicted that an oral treatment would ultimately become the preferred treatment option. Endocrinologists indicated that effectiveness in at least 50% of patients treated would be sufficient for an oral treatment to generally be prescribed by physicians. To assess the attitudes of commercial third-party payors toward reimbursement for octreotide capsules, in 2019 and 2020 we conducted two separate research projects with payers and pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, to determine likely coverage and access for octreotide capsules. The results indicated that oral octreotide would be reimbursed similarly to injectable somatostatin analog products assuming pricing and any contracting was in a range comparable to existing therapies.

We believe that the potential clinical benefits of MYCAPSSA and preferences of patients and healthcare professionals for an oral therapy together with our patient-centric approach could enable MYCAPSSA to change the standard of pharmacological care in the management of patients with acromegaly.

We plan to submit an MAA to the EMA in mid-2021 seeking authorization to commercialize MYCAPSSA in the European Union as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly based on the positive results of our Phase 3 MPOWERED trial. We plan to explore the strategic merits of collaboration opportunities for commercializing MYCAPSSA in the European Union and the rest of the world in order to maximize the availability of the product candidate, if approved by the appropriate regulatory authorities, to patients. However, depending on our evaluation of the strategic merits of these collaboration opportunities, we may decide to retain commercial rights in select markets.

Manufacturing

We depend on third-party suppliers and contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for all of our required raw materials and drug substance and to manufacture and package drug product for clinical use and commercial use. We have qualified Novetide Ltd., a subsidiary of Teva API Pharmaceuticals Industries (TAPI) Ltd., in Israel, and Bachem Americas Inc., in the United States, as suppliers of the generic active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, octreotide acetate. We expect to qualify a third API manufacturing facility in Switzerland in 2021.

 

We began implementing launch readiness plans in 2019 in preparation for a commercial launch of MYCAPSSA capsules in the United States, pending the FDA’s approval of our NDA. Following FDA approval of our NDA and to secure commercial supply of MYCAPSSA, we submitted our “changes being effected in 30 days” supplement, CBE-30 supplement, to our NDA in June 2020 to provide for the approval of our primary commercial manufacturer of generic active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, octreotide acetate and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. Following the FDA’s acceptance of our CBE-30 supplement for review, in September 2020, we began to distribute commercial product as part of our U.S. commercial launch while the FDA’s review of the supplement was pending. The FDA approved the CBE-30 supplement in December 2020. We expect to continue to have sufficient commercial supply of MYCAPSSA to support our commercial launch.

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In order to secure an additional commercial source of API, we submitted a prior approval supplement to include in our NDA another commercial manufacturer of API and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. This manufacturing supplement was accepted for review by the FDA in January 2021 and the FDA set a PDUFA target date in the second quarter of 2021 for the completion of its review.

All excipients, or substances formulated together with the API, used in manufacture of octreotide capsules are obtained by our CMOs from third-party suppliers. The octreotide API is formulated with our TPE technology by Lyophilization Services of New England Inc. and filled into capsules, enteric-coated and blister packed by Capsugel, a division of Lonza, in Scotland. Almac Pharma Services Limited in Northern Ireland provides finished packaging and release services. All manufacturers periodically undergo inspections by regulatory authorities.

MYCAPSSA capsules are intended to be refrigerated and our approved NDA includes stability information supporting 36 months under these storage conditions. We have also obtained data supporting additional one-month storage at room temperature.

MYCAPSSA is currently available for distribution in the United States through one specialty pharmacy and we expect to engage only a limited number of specialty pharmacies as we further develop our distribution network.

Competition

Our industry is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change as researchers learn more about diseases and develop new technologies and treatments. Our competitors include primarily large pharmaceutical, biotechnology and specialty pharmaceutical companies. Key competitive factors affecting the commercial success of MYCAPSSA and any other product candidates we may develop are likely to be efficacy, safety and tolerability profile, reliability, convenience of administration, price and reimbursement and effectiveness of our commercialization efforts and promotional activities.

The standards of care for patients suffering from acromegaly involve injectable therapies, other than cabergoline, an oral agent used for the treatment of mild acromegaly. Novartis markets octreotide LAR, which is administered monthly and intramuscularly using a large gauge needle. Ipsen markets lanreotide, another long-acting analog of somatostatin, like octreotide, which is administered monthly using a deep subcutaneous injection. Both therapies, which are most frequently the first drug treatment options for patients, involve side effects related to the injections and inconvenience due to the timing and requirements of the injections. Pfizer markets pegvisomant daily injections and Recordati markets pasireotide LAR, which is another somatostatin analog administered via intramuscular injection. Pegvisomant daily injections and pasireotide LAR are significantly more costly than injectable octreotide and lanreotide. The label for pasireotide LAR includes a warning about hyperglycemia and diabetes, which can sometimes be severe. The label advises healthcare professionals administering pasireotide LAR to monitor glucose levels periodically during therapy and to monitor glucose levels more frequently in the months that follow initiation or discontinuation of therapy and following dose adjustment. Generic versions of these drugs may also bring additional competition to the treatment landscape. For example, while octreotide LAR and lanreotide currently have no generic competitors in the United States, generic versions are available in some markets in the EU. The launch of generics may also create downward pressure on pricing of branded products and might result in additional controls imposed by payers.

In addition, we are aware of other companies involved in early-stage nonclinical and clinical studies of similar somatostatin analogs, but most involve administration via injection. Most notably, Camurus AB is developing CAM2029, a subcutaneous octreotide depot for the potential treatment of neuroendocrine tumors and acromegaly. Camurus AB received FDA approval of its IND in June 2019 and is currently recruiting two Phase 3 acromegaly trials. In 2020, Crinetics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the completion of a Phase 2 clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of paltusotine, CRN00808, in acromegaly patients and its intention to meet with the FDA in the first quarter of 2021 and initiate a Phase 3 clinical in the first half of 2021. Crinetics also announced the introduction of a new tablet formulation ready for Phase 3. Paltusotine, CRN00808, is a nonpeptide somatostatin agonist designed to be taken orally once per day. In 2018, Ionis Pharmaceuticals initiated a Phase 2 trial of IONIS-GHR-LRx, its growth hormone receptor antagonist to control growth hormone production in acromegaly patients. In January 2020, Rani Therapeutics (RaniPillTM capsule containing octreotide) announced the completion of a Phase 1 study in 58 healthy volunteers, indicating that the RaniPill performed as designed. Per published reports, Rani Therapeutics plans to conduct additional Phase 1 clinical trials in 2021, with later-stage studies beginning in 2022. We are also aware that Strongbridge Biopharma plc (valdoreotide, or COR-005) may also be actively developing products for the maintenance treatment of acromegaly. If any or a combination of the other product candidates in development for acromegaly receive regulatory approval or demonstrate superior clinical results to MYCAPSSA, we may encounter significant difficulties with the commercial prospects for MYCAPSSA.

Many of our existing or potential competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and human resources than we do and significantly greater experience in the discovery and development of product candidates, obtaining FDA and other regulatory

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approvals of products and the commercialization of those products. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a small number of our competitors. Accordingly, our competitors may be more successful than we may be in obtaining regulatory approval of drugs and achieving widespread market acceptance. Our competitors’ drugs, or drugs they may develop in the future, may be more effective, or more effectively marketed and sold, than any drug we may commercialize and may render MYCAPSSA or any future product candidates we may develop obsolete or non-competitive before we can recover the expenses of developing and commercializing octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop. Our competitors may also obtain regulatory approval of their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval of ours. We anticipate that we will face intense and increasing competition as new drugs enter the market and more advanced technologies become available. If we are unable to compete effectively, our opportunity to generate revenue from the sale of MYCAPSSA or any future product candidates we may develop, if approved, will be adversely affected.

Intellectual Property

We strive to protect the proprietary technology that we believe is important to our business, including seeking and maintaining patents intended to cover our product candidates and compositions, their methods of use and processes for their manufacture, and any other aspects of inventions that are commercially important to the development of our business. We also rely on trade secrets to protect aspects of our business that are not amenable to, or that we do not consider appropriate for, patent protection.

We plan to continue to expand our intellectual property estate by filing patent applications directed to compositions, methods of treatment, and dosage regimens identified in the course of our business. Our success will depend on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and other proprietary protection for commercially important technology, inventions and know-how related to our business, defend and enforce our patents, preserve the confidentiality of our trade secrets and operate without infringing the valid and enforceable patents and proprietary rights of third parties. We also rely on know-how, continuing technological innovation and in-licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our proprietary position. We seek to obtain domestic and international patent protection and endeavor to promptly file patent applications for new commercially valuable inventions.

The patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies like us are generally uncertain and involve complex legal, scientific and factual questions. In addition, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and patent scope can be reinterpreted by the courts after issuance. Moreover, many jurisdictions permit third parties to challenge issued patents in administrative proceedings, which may result in further narrowing or even cancellation of patent claims. We cannot predict whether the patent applications we are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any issued patents will provide sufficient protection from competitors.

Because patent applications in the United States and certain other jurisdictions are maintained in secrecy for 18 months or potentially even longer, and since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature often lags behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain of the priority of inventions covered by pending patent applications. Moreover, we may have to participate in interference proceedings or derivation proceedings declared by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or the USPTO, to determine priority of invention.

Patents

 

As of February 26, 2021, our patent portfolio includes a total of nine utility patents issued in the United States; patents issued in foreign jurisdictions; patent applications pending in the United States; and patent applications pending in various foreign jurisdictions. Some of these patents and patent applications include narrow and broad claims directed to polypeptide compositions including octreotide compositions formulated with our TPE technology; capsules containing such compositions; methods of treatment using such compositions; and methods of making various compositions with our TPE technology. This patent family includes three issued U.S. patents with claims directed to enteric-coated oral dosage form comprising octreotide compositions, capsules containing octreotide compositions, and methods of treating various conditions with related octreotide compositions. This patent family also includes an issued U.S. patent with claims relating to enteric-coated oral dosage form comprising polypeptide compositions. Other patents in this family have issued in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, Hong Kong, Israel, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, and the United Kingdom, and patent applications are pending in other jurisdictions, including Brazil, Canada, Europe, Hong Kong, Israel, Korea, Mexico, Russia, Australia, and Japan. Patents in this family are expected to expire in 2029, absent any adjustments or extensions.

We also own a family of patent applications directed to a dosage regimen for octreotide and also directed to methods of treating acromegaly with certain octreotide-containing compositions and dosage regimens. This patent family includes two issued U.S. patents directed to specific methods of using octreotide capsules and are due to expire in 2036, absent any adjustments or extensions. There are corresponding pending applications in the United States and abroad all of which are expected to expire in 2036, absent any

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adjustments or extensions. In addition, we own two U.S. patent applications directed to different methods of use for certain octreotide-containing compositions and dosage regimens. Any patents issuing from the two applications are expected to expire in 2040, absent any adjustments or extensions.

We also own a family of patent applications directed to oral octreotide combinations. This patent family includes an issued U.S. patent relating to a method of treating acromegaly with a certain oral octreotide combination. There are corresponding pending applications in the United States and abroad, all of which are expected to expire in 2035, absent any adjustments or extensions.

In addition, we own a family of patent application directed to other octreotide-containing dosage forms, which is pending in the U.S. as a provisional application. A patent issuing from this family will expire in 2041, absent any adjustments or extensions.

Additionally, we own two U.S. utility patents directed to proprietary packaging for distribution of octreotide capsules which are expected to expire in 2035, absent any adjustments or extensions. We also own two U.S. design patents, which have been granted in several other jurisdictions and are expected to expire in the U.S. in 2030 and 2033, absent any adjustments or extensions, and we have a pending US design patent application.

Finally, we own two families of patent applications directed to further uses of our TPE technology which are pending in the United States and abroad. Patents issuing from any U.S. nonprovisional and foreign-filed applications in the two families are expected to expire in 2037, absent any adjustments or extensions.

Patent Term

The base term of a U.S. utility patent is 20 years from the filing date of the earliest-filed non-provisional patent application from which the patent claims priority. The base term of a U.S. design patent is 14 years from issuance for designs filed before the Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 which took effect on May 13, 2015 and 15 years from issuance for designs filed after May 13, 2015. The term of a U.S. patent can be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates the owner of the patent for administrative delays at the USPTO. In some cases, the term of a U.S. patent is shortened by terminal disclaimer that reduces its term to that of an earlier-expiring patent.

Government Regulation

Government authorities in the United States at the federal, state and local level and in other countries extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, marketing and export and import of drug products such as our product candidate, octreotide capsules. Generally, before a new drug can be marketed, considerable data demonstrating its quality, safety and efficacy must be obtained, organized into a format specific to each regulatory authority, submitted for review and approved by the regulatory authority.

United States Drug Development

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and its implementing regulations. Drugs are also subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or after approval, may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, among other actions, the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, voluntary product recalls or withdrawals from the market, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement, or civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.

Octreotide capsules must be approved by the FDA through the NDA process before it may be legally marketed in the United States. The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

 

completion of extensive nonclinical, or preclinical, laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies in accordance with applicable regulations, including the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP, regulations;

 

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;

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performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND and other clinical study related regulations, sometimes referred to as good clinical practices, or GCPs, to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug for its proposed indication;

 

submission to the FDA of an NDA;

 

a determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to file the NDA for review;

 

satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities where the drug is produced to assess compliance with the FDA’s current good manufacturing practice, or cGMP, requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity;

 

potential FDA audit of the clinical trial sites that generated the data or the contract research organization that aggregated the data in support of the NDA; and

 

FDA review and approval of the NDA prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the drug in the United States.

The data required to support an NDA are generated in two distinct development stages: nonclinical and clinical. For new chemical entities, the nonclinical development stage generally involves synthesizing the active component, developing the formulation and determining the manufacturing process, as well as carrying out non-human toxicology, pharmacology and drug metabolism studies in the laboratory, which support subsequent clinical testing. The conduct of the nonclinical tests must comply with federal regulations and requirements including GLPs. The sponsor must submit the results of the nonclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or published literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to the FDA as part of the IND. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational drug product to humans. The central focus of an IND submission is on the general investigational plan and the protocol(s) for human studies. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions regarding the proposed clinical trials and places the IND on clinical hold within that 30-day time period. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. The FDA may also impose clinical holds on a drug candidate at any time before or during clinical trials due to safety concerns or non-compliance. Accordingly, we cannot be sure that submission of an IND will result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to begin, or that, once begun, issues will not arise that could cause the trial to be suspended or terminated.

The clinical stage of development involves the administration of the drug candidate to healthy volunteers and/or patients under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the trial sponsor’s control, in accordance with GCPs, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria, and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety and assess efficacy. Each protocol, and any subsequent amendments to the protocol, must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. Further, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by an independent institutional review board, or IRB, at or servicing each institution at which the clinical trial will be conducted. An IRB is charged with protecting the welfare and rights of trial participants and considers such items as whether the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the informed consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completion. There are also requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical trials and completed clinical trial results to public registries.

Clinical trials are generally conducted in three sequential phases, known as Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials, and may overlap. Phase 1 generally involves a small number of healthy volunteers who are initially exposed to a single dose and then multiple doses of the product candidate. The primary purpose of these studies is to assess the metabolism, pharmacological action, side effect tolerability and safety of the drug. Phase 2 trials typically involve studies in disease-affected patients to determine the dose required to produce the desired benefits. At the same time, safety and further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information is collected, as well as identification of possible adverse effects and safety risks and preliminary evaluation of efficacy. Phase 3 trials generally involve large numbers of patients at multiple sites and are designed to provide the data necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of the product for its intended use, its safety in use, and to establish the overall benefit/risk relationship of the product and provide an adequate basis for product approval. Phase 3 trials may include comparisons with placebo and/or other comparator treatments. The duration of treatment is often extended to mimic the actual use of a product during marketing. Generally, two adequate and well-controlled Phase 3 clinical trials are required by the FDA for approval of an NDA.

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These studies are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 trials.

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Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials, among other information, must be submitted at least annually to the FDA. Within 15 calendar days after the sponsor determines that the information qualifies for reporting, written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and the investigators for serious and unexpected adverse events, findings from other studies or animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk to humans exposed to the drug and any clinically important increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. The sponsor also must notify the FDA of any unexpected fatal or life-threatening suspected adverse reaction within seven calendar days after the sponsor’s initial receipt of the information. Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA or the clinical trial sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether or not a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the study. The clinical trial sponsor may also suspend or terminate a clinical trial based on evolving business objectives and/or competitive climate.

Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the drug candidate and, among other things, must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final drug product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the drug candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

A manufacturer of an investigational drug for a serious disease or condition is required to make available, such as by posting on its website, its policy on evaluating and responding to requests for individual patient access to such investigational drug. This requirement applies on the earlier of the first initiation of a Phase 2 or Phase 3 trial of the investigational drug or, as applicable, 15 days after the drug receives a designation as a breakthrough therapy, fast track product, or regenerative advanced therapy.

NDA and FDA Review Process

Following trial completion, trial data are analyzed to assess safety and efficacy. The results of nonclinical studies and clinical trials are then submitted to the FDA in an NDA along with proposed labeling for the product and information about the manufacturing process and facilities that will be used to ensure product quality, results of analytical testing conducted on the chemistry of the drug, and other relevant information. The NDA is a request for approval to market the drug and must contain proof of safety and efficacy, which is demonstrated by extensive nonclinical and clinical testing. The application includes both negative or ambiguous results of nonclinical studies and clinical trials as well as positive findings. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and effectiveness of a use of a product, or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety and effectiveness of the investigational drug product to the satisfaction of the FDA. The submission of an NDA is subject to the payment of substantial user fees; a waiver of such fees may be obtained under certain limited circumstances. FDA approval of an NDA must be obtained before marketing a drug in the United States.

In addition, under the Pediatric Research Equity Act, or PREA, as amended, an NDA or supplement to an NDA must contain data to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The FDA may grant deferrals for submission of data or full or partial waivers. An NDA applicant must submit to the FDA a pediatric study plan typically 60 days after an end-of-Phase 2 meeting with the FDA. Because octreotide capsules received orphan drug designation for the treatment of acromegaly, we do not need to comply with the requirements of PREA at this time. If, however, we seek other indications for octreotide capsules or pursue approval of any other product candidate that does not have orphan drug designation, we may need to comply with PREA or otherwise seek a waiver.

The FDA reviews all NDAs submitted before it accepts them for filing and may request additional information rather than accepting an NDA for filing. The FDA must make a decision on accepting an NDA for filing within 60 days of receipt and within 30 days of receipt for an NDA resubmission. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the NDA. The decision to accept the NDA for filing means that the FDA has made a threshold determination that the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under the PDUFA, the FDA has ten months from the receipt of an NDA for a non-new molecular entity in which to complete its initial review of a standard NDA and respond to the applicant, and six months from the receipt of an NDA resubmission in response to a CRL where new clinical data is

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required. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates for standard NDAs or NDA resubmissions, and the review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification.

After the NDA submission is accepted for filing (or an NDA resubmission is accepted as a complete response), the FDA reviews the NDA to determine, among other things, whether the proposed product is safe and effective for its intended use, and whether the product is being manufactured in accordance with cGMPs to assure and preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity. The FDA may refer applications for novel drug products or drug products which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions. The FDA will likely re-analyze the clinical trial data, which could result in extensive discussions between the FDA and us during the review process. The review and evaluation of an NDA by the FDA is extensive and time consuming and may take longer than originally planned to complete, and we may not receive a timely approval, if at all.

Before approving an NDA, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether they comply with cGMPs. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. In addition, before approving an NDA, the FDA may also audit data from clinical trials to ensure compliance with GCP requirements. After the FDA evaluates the application, manufacturing process and manufacturing facilities, it may issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application will not be approved in its present form. A Complete Response Letter usually describes all of the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by the FDA. The Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data and/or an additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s), and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, nonclinical studies or manufacturing. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, withdraw the application or request a hearing. Even if such data and information are submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data obtained from clinical trials are not always conclusive, and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data.

There is no assurance that the FDA will ultimately approve a drug product for marketing in the United States, and we may encounter significant difficulties or costs during the review process. If a product receives marketing approval, the approval may be significantly limited to specific diseases and dosages or the indications for use may otherwise be limited, which could restrict the commercial value of the product. Further, the FDA may require that certain contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling or may condition the approval of the NDA on other changes to the proposed labeling, development of adequate controls and specifications, or a commitment to conduct post-market testing or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the effects of approved products. For example, the FDA may require Phase 4 testing which involves clinical trials designed to further assess drug safety and effectiveness and may require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the safety of approved products that have been commercialized. The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, to assure the safe use of the drug. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the NDA must submit a proposed REMS; the FDA will not approve the NDA without an approved REMS, if required. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription or dispensing of products. Product approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory requirements or if problems occur following initial marketing.

FDA’s NDA Resubmission Policy Following a Complete Response Letter

Under the FDA’s policies and procedures, an NDA that is resubmitted following the issuance of a CRL will be evaluated by the FDA to determine whether the resubmission addresses all of the deficiencies raised in the CRL. If so, the FDA will classify the resubmission as either Class 1 or Class 2. The FDA will review and act on Class 1 resubmissions within two months of the NDA receipt date and on Class 2 resubmissions within six months of the NDA receipt date. Based on the positive results from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial, we resubmitted our NDA, seeking approval of MYCAPSSA capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly to the FDA. In January 2020, the FDA accepted for review the resubmission of the NDA as a complete response to deficiencies identified in the CRL to our original NDA and assigned an action date of June 26, 2020 under the PDUFA. If we obtain marketing approval of octreotide capsules from the FDA, we plan to submit two prior approval manufacturing supplements to qualify two large-scale API manufacturing sites from which we are currently procuring API for our planned commercial use. According to recent regulatory guidelines, prior approval manufacturing supplements are reviewed by FDA with four-month PDUFA review goals, which may be extended to six-months if FDA elects to inspect the manufacturing site. However, there can be no assurance that the FDA will review and approve these supplements in a timely manner or at all.

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505(b)(2) Approval Process

Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA provides an alternate regulatory pathway for the FDA to approve a new drug and permits reliance for such approval on published literature or an FDA finding of safety and effectiveness for a previously approved drug product. Specifically, section 505(b)(2) permits the filing of an NDA where one or more of the investigations relied upon by the applicant for approval were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. The applicant may rely upon published literature and/or the FDA’s findings of safety and effectiveness for a previously approved drug. Typically, 505(b)(2) applicants must perform additional trials to support the change from the previously approved drug and to further demonstrate the new drug’s safety and effectiveness. The FDA may then approve the new product candidate for all or some of the labeled indications for which the referenced product has been approved, as well as for any new indication sought by the section 505(b)(2) applicant.

Our product candidate, octreotide capsules, is based upon an already approved version of the same drug in an immediate-release formulation for subcutaneous injection, rather than a new chemical entity product candidate. Accordingly, we expect to be able to rely on information from previously conducted studies involving the immediate-release subcutaneous octreotide product in our clinical development plans and our NDA resubmission.

Post-Marketing Requirements

Following approval of a new product, a pharmaceutical company and the approved product are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, monitoring and recordkeeping activities, reporting to the applicable regulatory authorities of adverse events with the product, providing the regulatory authorities with updated safety and efficacy information, and product sampling and distribution requirements in accordance with the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, a part of the FDCA. Modifications or enhancements to the product or its labeling or changes of the site of manufacture are often subject to the approval of the FDA and other regulators, which may or may not be received or may result in a lengthy review process.

Prescription drug advertising is subject to federal, state and foreign regulations. In the United States, the FDA regulates prescription drug promotion and advertising, including direct-to-consumer advertising. Prescription drug promotional materials must be submitted to the FDA in conjunction with their first use. In addition, a pharmaceutical company must comply with restrictions on promoting drugs for uses or in patient populations that are not described in the drug’s approved labeling (known as “off-label use”), limitations on industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities, and requirements for promotional activities involving the internet. Although physicians may prescribe legally available drugs for off-label uses, manufacturers may not market or promote such off-label uses.

In the United States, once a product is approved, its manufacture is subject to comprehensive and continuing regulation by the FDA. The FDA regulations require that products be manufactured in specific approved facilities and in accordance with cGMPs. We rely on third parties for the production of clinical quantities of octreotide capsules and expect to rely on third parties for the production of commercial quantities of our octreotide capsules, in both cases in accordance with cGMP regulations. cGMP regulations require among other things, quality control and quality assurance as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation and the obligation to investigate and correct any deviations from cGMP. Drug manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMPs and other laws. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. These regulations also impose certain organizational, procedural and documentation requirements with respect to manufacturing and quality assurance activities. NDA holders using contract manufacturers, laboratories or packagers are responsible for the selection and monitoring of qualified firms, and, in certain circumstances, qualified suppliers to these firms. These firms and, where applicable, their suppliers are subject to inspections by the FDA at any time, and the discovery of violative conditions, including failure to conform to cGMPs, could result in enforcement actions that interrupt the operation of any such facilities or the ability to distribute products manufactured, processed or tested by them. Discovery of problems with a product after approval may result in restrictions on a product, manufacturer, or holder of an approved NDA, including, among other things, recall or withdrawal of the product from the market. In addition, changes in some of the conditions established in an approved NDA, including changes in manufacturers, manufacturing processes or manufacturing facilities, require submission and FDA review and approval of a supplement to the approved NDA before the changes can be implemented. For example, if we obtain marketing approval of octreotide capsules from the FDA, we plan to submit two prior approval manufacturing supplements to qualify two large-scale API manufacturing sites from which we are currently procuring API for our planned commercial use. The FDA review process of supplements for proposed changes in manufacturers, manufacturing processes or manufacturing facilities may require four to six months or longer to complete and may involve cGMP compliance inspections of manufacturing facilities. There can be no assurance that our two planned prior approval manufacturing supplements will be reviewed and approved in a timely manner or at all.

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The FDA also may require post-marketing testing, known as Phase 4 testing, REMS and surveillance to monitor the effects of an approved product or place conditions on an approval that could restrict the distribution or use of the product. Discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or the failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements can have negative consequences, including adverse publicity, judicial or administrative enforcement, untitled or warning letters from the FDA, mandated corrective advertising or communications with doctors, and civil or criminal penalties, among others. Newly discovered or developed safety or effectiveness data may require changes to a product’s approved labeling, including the addition of new warnings and contraindications, and also may require the implementation of other risk management measures. Also, new government requirements, including those resulting from new legislation, may be established, or the FDA’s policies may change, which could delay or prevent regulatory approval of our products under development and impact approved products already on the market.

Other Regulatory Matters

The distribution of pharmaceutical products is subject to additional requirements and regulations, including extensive record-keeping, licensing, storage and security requirements intended to prevent the unauthorized sale of pharmaceutical products. For example, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act, or DSCSA, was enacted in 2013 with the aim of building an electronic system to identify and trace certain prescription drugs distributed in the United States. The DSCSA mandates phased-in and resource-intensive obligations for pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesale distributors, and dispensers over a 10-year period that is expected to culminate in November 2023. The law’s requirements include the quarantine and prompt investigation of a suspect product, to determine if it is illegitimate, and notifying trading partners and FDA of any illegitimate product. Drug manufacturers and their collaborators are also required to place a unique product identifier on prescription drug packages. This identifier consists of the National Drug Code, serial number, lot number and expiration date, in the form of a two-dimensional data matrix barcode that can be read by humans and machines.

The failure to comply with regulatory requirements subjects firms to possible legal or regulatory action. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements can result in criminal prosecution, fines or other penalties, injunctions, voluntary recall, seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of product approvals, exclusion from federal healthcare programs, or refusal to allow a firm to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts. In addition, even if a firm complies with FDA and other requirements, new information regarding the safety or effectiveness of a product could lead the FDA to modify or withdraw product approval. Prohibitions or restrictions on sales or withdrawal of future products marketed by us could materially affect our business in an adverse way.

Changes in regulations, statutes or the interpretation of existing regulations could impact our business in the future by requiring, for example: (i) changes to our manufacturing arrangements; (ii) additions or modifications to product labeling; (iii) the voluntary recall or discontinuation of our products; or (iv) additional record-keeping requirements. If any such changes were to be imposed, they could adversely affect the operation of our business.

Orphan Designation and Exclusivity

The FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States. Alternatively, orphan drug designation may be available if the disease or the condition affects more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making the drug for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the United States. A company must request orphan product designation before submitting an NDA. If the request is granted, the FDA will disclose the identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential use. Orphan product designation does not convey any advantage in or shorten the duration of the regulatory review and approval process. MYCAPSSA has been granted orphan designation in the United States for the treatment of acromegaly.

Orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and user-fee waivers. In addition, if a product is the first to receive FDA approval of the indication for which it has orphan designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity, which means the FDA may not approve any other application to market the same drug for the same indication for a period of seven years, except in limited circumstances. Competitors may receive approval of different products for the indication for which the orphan product has exclusivity and may obtain approval for the same product but for a different indication. If a drug or drug product designated as an orphan product ultimately receives marketing approval for an indication broader than what was designated in its orphan product application, it may not be entitled to exclusivity.

Orphan drug exclusivity will not bar approval of another orphan drug under certain circumstances, including if a subsequent product with the same drug for the same indication is shown to be clinically superior over the approved product with orphan exclusivity on the basis of greater efficacy or safety, or providing a major contribution to patient care, or if the company with orphan drug exclusivity is not able to meet market demand.

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U.S. Marketing Exclusivity

Market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA can also delay the submission or the approval of certain marketing applications. The FDA provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, or supplement to an existing NDA, if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the modification for which the drug received approval on the basis of the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the active agent for the original indication or condition of use. Three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the nonclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness. Orphan drug exclusivity, as described above, may offer a seven-year period of marketing exclusivity, except in certain circumstances. Pediatric exclusivity is another type of regulatory market exclusivity in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity adds six months of exclusivity, which runs from the end of other exclusivity protection and patent term, and may be granted based on the voluntary completion of a pediatric trial in accordance with an FDA-issued “Written Request” for such a trial.

Other Regulations

We are also subject to numerous federal, state and local laws relating to such matters as safe working conditions, manufacturing practices, environmental protection and fire hazard control. We may incur significant costs to comply with such laws and regulations now or in the future.

European Orphan Designation and Exclusivity

In the European Economic Area, or EEA, the European Commission, after reviewing the opinion of the EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products, may grant orphan drug designation to promote the development of products that are intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of life-threatening or chronically debilitating conditions that either affect not more than five in 10,000 persons in the European Union Community, or when, without incentives, it is unlikely that sales of such products in the European Union would be sufficient to justify the necessary investment in developing the products. Additionally, orphan drug designation is only available where no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of the condition has been authorized (or, if another product has been authorized, the product in question would be a significant benefit to those affected by the condition).

In the EEA, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as reduction of fees or fee waivers and 10 years of market exclusivity is granted following grant of a marketing authorization for the product, during which time “no similar medicinal product” for the same indication may be placed on the market. A “similar medicinal product” is defined as a medicinal product containing a similar active substance or substances as contained in an authorized orphan medicinal product, and which is intended for the same therapeutic indication. This period may be reduced to six years if the orphan drug designation criteria are no longer met, including where it is shown that the product is sufficiently profitable not to justify maintenance of market exclusivity. Market exclusivity would not prevent the approval of a similar medicinal product that is shown to be safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior than the authorized medicinal product, or where the marketing authorization holder consents to the second medicinal product application or cannot supply enough of the authorized medicinal product.

Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an application for marketing approval. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process.

Coverage and Reimbursement

Sales of any products for which we receive regulatory approval for commercial sale will depend in part on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, including government healthcare program administrative authorities, managed care organizations, private health insurers, and other entities. Patients who are prescribed medications for the treatment of their conditions, and their prescribing physicians, generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescription drugs. Patients are unlikely to use our products unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our products. Therefore, MYCAPSSA or any other products we may develop, if approved, may not obtain market acceptance unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our products.

The process for determining whether a third-party payor will provide coverage for a drug product typically is separate from the process for setting the price of a drug product or for establishing the reimbursement rate that the payor will pay for the drug product once coverage is approved. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific drug products on an approved list, also known as a formulary, which might not include all of the FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. A decision by a third-party payor not to

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cover our product candidates could reduce physician utilization of our products once approved. Moreover, a third-party payor’s decision to provide coverage for a drug product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved or that any required patient cost-sharing amount will be acceptable to the patient. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in product development. Additionally, coverage and reimbursement for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor and among the insured lives of an individual payor depending upon the benefits applicable to the insured person. One third-party payor’s decision to cover a particular drug product or service does not ensure that other payors will also provide coverage for the medical product or service, or will provide coverage at an adequate reimbursement rate. As a result, the coverage determination process will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately and will be a time-consuming process.

The containment of healthcare costs has become a priority of federal, state and foreign governments, and the prices of drugs have been a focus in this effort. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular drug products and are increasingly challenging the prices charged for drug products and medical services, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost effectiveness of drug products and medical services, in addition to questioning safety and efficacy. If these third-party payors do not consider our products to be cost-effective compared to other available therapies, they may not cover our products after FDA approval or, if they do, the level of payment may not be sufficient to allow us to sell our products at a profit. In the United States, the principal decisions about reimbursement for new drug products are typically made by CMS, an agency within the HHS. CMS decides whether and to what extent a new drug product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private payors tend to follow CMS to a substantial degree. However, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors and coverage and reimbursement levels for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor. In many countries, the prices of drug products are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. In general, the prices of drug products under such systems are substantially lower than in the United States. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for drug products, but monitor and control company profits. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for drug products may be reduced compared with the United States.

 

The U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have also shown significant interest in implementing cost containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid health care costs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs. By way of example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, collectively, the Affordable Care Act, contains provisions that may reduce the profitability of drug products, including, for example, increased rebates for drugs sold to Medicaid programs, extension of Medicaid rebates to Medicaid managed care plans, mandatory discounts for certain Medicare Part D beneficiaries and annual fees based on pharmaceutical companies’ share of sales to federal health care programs. Some of the provisions of the Affordable Care Act have yet to be fully implemented, while certain provisions have been subject to judicial and Congressional challenges. For example, on January 20, 2017, President Trump signed an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the Affordable Care Act to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the Affordable Care Act that would impose a fiscal burden on states or a cost, fee, tax, penalty or regulatory burden on individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices.

Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, it has enacted laws that modify certain provisions of the ACA, including eliminating a tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year, which is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate”. Various portions of the ACA are currently undergoing legal and constitutional challenges in the Fifth Circuit Court and the United States Supreme Court. Thus, the full impact of the Affordable Care Act, or any law replacing elements of it, on our business remains unclear. Adoption of government controls and measures, and tightening of restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could limit payments for pharmaceuticals.

In addition, in some foreign countries, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. The requirements governing drug pricing vary widely from country to country. For example, the European Union provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. A member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of our products, if approved. Historically, products launched in the European Union do not follow price structures of the United States and generally tend to be significantly lower.

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Anti-Kickback and False Claims Laws and Other Regulatory Matters

In the United States, among other things, the research, manufacturing, distribution, sale and promotion of drug products are potentially subject to regulation and enforcement by various federal, state and local authorities in addition to the FDA, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, other divisions of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (e.g., the Office of Inspector General), the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, state attorneys general and other state and local government agencies. Our current and future business activities, including for example, sales, marketing and scientific/educational grant programs must comply with healthcare regulatory laws, including the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the Federal False Claims Act, as amended, the privacy regulations promulgated under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA, as amended, physician payment transparency laws, and similar state laws. Pricing and rebate programs must comply with the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, as amended, and the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992, as amended. If products are made available to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule of the General Services Administration, additional laws and requirements apply. The handling of any controlled substances must comply with the U.S. Controlled Substances Act and Controlled Substances Import and Export Act. Products must meet applicable child-resistant packaging requirements under the U.S. Poison Prevention Packaging Act. All of these activities are also potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws.

The Federal Anti-Kickback Statute makes it illegal for any person, including a prescription drug manufacturer (or a party acting on its behalf) to knowingly and willfully solicit, receive, offer, or pay any remuneration that is intended to induce the referral of business, including the purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for or recommending the purchase, lease or order of, any good, facility, item or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value. The Federal Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers and formulary managers on the other. Although there are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Practices that involve remuneration that may be alleged to be intended to induce prescribing, purchases or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or safe harbor. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular applicable statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute. Instead, the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on a cumulative review of all of its facts and circumstances. Additionally, the intent standard under the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute was amended by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively the ACA, to a stricter standard such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, the ACA codified case law that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the Federal False Claims Act. Violations of this law are punishable by up to five years in prison, criminal fines, administrative civil money penalties, and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. In addition, many states have adopted laws similar to the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute. Some of these state prohibitions apply to the referral of patients for healthcare services reimbursed by any insurer, not just federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. Due to the breadth of these federal and state anti-kickback laws, and the potential for additional legal or regulatory change in this area, it is possible that our future business activities, including our sales and marketing practices and/or our future relationships with endocrinologists and other healthcare providers might be challenged under anti-kickback laws, which could harm us.

The Federal False Claims Act prohibits anyone from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, for payment to federal programs (including Medicare and Medicaid) claims for items or services, including drugs, that are false or fraudulent. This statute has been interpreted to prohibit presenting claims for items or services not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services. Although we would not submit claims directly to payors, manufacturers can be held liable under these laws if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims by, for example, providing inaccurate billing or coding information to customers or promoting a product off-label. In addition, our future activities relating to the reporting of wholesaler or estimated retail prices for our products, the reporting of prices used to calculate Medicaid rebate information and other information affecting federal, state and third-party reimbursement for our products, and the sale and marketing of our products, are subject to scrutiny under this law. For example, pharmaceutical companies have been found liable under the Federal False Claims Act in connection with their off-label promotion of drugs. Penalties for a False Claims Act violation include three times the actual damages sustained by the government, plus mandatory civil penalties for each separate false claim, the potential for exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, and, although the Federal False Claims Act is a civil statute, conduct that results in a False Claims Act violation may also implicate various federal criminal statutes. If the government were to allege that we were, or convict us of, violating these false claims laws, we could be subject to a substantial fine and may suffer a decline in our stock price. In addition, private individuals have the ability to bring actions under the Federal False Claims Act and certain states have enacted laws modeled after the Federal False Claims Act.

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Similarly, the civil monetary penalties statute imposes penalties against any person or entity who, among other things, is determined to have presented or caused to be presented a claim to a federal health program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent.

Additionally, HIPAA created federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.

The ACA included a provision commonly referred to as the Sunshine Act, which requires certain pharmaceutical manufacturers to track and report annually certain financial arrangements with physicians (currently defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, including any “transfer of value” provided, as well as any ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Covered manufacturers are required to submit reports to CMS by the 90th day of each subsequent calendar year. The information reported is publicly available and searchable on the CMS website. Effective January 1, 2022, these reporting obligations will extend to include transfers of value made to certain non-physician providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners. There are also an increasing number of state and foreign laws that require manufacturers to make reports to states or foreign governments on pricing and marketing information. Many of these laws contain ambiguities as to what is required to comply with the laws. In addition, given the lack of clarity with respect to these laws and their implementation, our reporting actions could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state, federal or foreign authorities. These laws may affect our sales, marketing and other promotional activities by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us. We are engaging in significant efforts to establish systems and processes in order to comply with these laws and regulations. Failure to comply with the reporting requirements would result in significant civil monetary penalties.

In addition, we may be subject to data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, including the final omnibus rule published on January 25, 2013, imposes specified requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Among other things, HITECH makes certain of HIPAA’s privacy and security standards directly applicable to business associates, defined as an entity that performs certain functions that create, receive, maintain or transmit protected health information in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity. HITECH also created four new tiers of civil monetary penalties and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions.

In addition to HIPAA and HITECH, other federal and state laws, including state security breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection laws, govern the collection, use and disclosure of personal information. For example, in June 2018 California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act which took effect on January 1, 2020 and broadly defines personal information, gives California residents expanded privacy rights and protections, provides civil penalties for violations, and creates a private right of action and statutory damages for victims of data breaches. Other states, including the state of Washington, are considering similar laws or other laws that regulate specific types of personal information, including biometric data. Many state laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts. Various foreign countries also have, or are developing, laws governing the collection, use and transmission of personal information. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve, and there has been an increasing amount of focus on privacy and data protection issues with the potential to affect our business.

The failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements subjects us to possible legal or regulatory action. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements can result in significant criminal, civil and/or administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, injunctions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of product approvals, refusal to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens, diminished profits and future earnings, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. Even if we are not determined to have violated applicable regulatory or legal requirements, government investigations into alleged violations typically requires the expenditure of significant resources and could generate negative publicity, which could harm our business.

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Affordable Care Act and Other Reform Initiatives

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and likely will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system directed at broadening the availability of healthcare and containing or lowering the cost of healthcare.

In March 2010, the ACA was enacted. The ACA includes measures that have significantly changed, and are expected to continue to significantly change, the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among the provisions of the ACA of greatest importance to the pharmaceutical industry are the following:

 

The Medicaid Drug Rebate Program requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to enter into and have in effect a national rebate agreement with the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services in exchange for state Medicaid coverage of most of the manufacturer’s drugs. ACA made several changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, including increasing pharmaceutical manufacturers’ rebate liability by raising the minimum basic Medicaid rebate on most branded prescription drugs and biologic products to 23.1% of average manufacturer price, or AMP, and adding a new rebate calculation for “line extensions” (i.e., new formulations, such as extended release formulations) of solid oral dosage forms of branded products, as well as potentially impacting their rebate liability by modifying the statutory definition of AMP.

 

The ACA expanded the types of entities eligible to receive discounted 340B pricing, although, with the exception of children’s hospitals, these newly eligible entities will not be eligible to receive discounted 340B pricing on orphan drugs used in orphan indications. In addition, because 340B pricing is determined based on AMP and Medicaid drug rebate data, the revisions to the Medicaid rebate formula and AMP definition described above could cause the required 340B discounts to increase. The ACA imposed a requirement on manufacturers of branded drugs and biologic agents to provide a 50% discount off the negotiated price of branded drugs dispensed to Medicare Part D beneficiaries in the coverage gap (i.e., “donut hole”). The required discount was increased to 70% on January 1, 2019 pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018.

 

The ACA imposed an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports certain branded prescription drugs and biologic products, apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs, although this fee would not apply to sales of certain products approved exclusively for orphan indications.

 

The ACA included the Sunshine Act, which required certain pharmaceutical manufacturers to track and annually report to CMS certain financial arrangements with physicians and teaching hospitals, including any “transfer of value” provided, as well as any ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members.

 

The ACA established a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research. The research conducted by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute may affect the market for certain pharmaceutical products.

 

The ACA established the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation within CMS to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending. Funding has been allocated to support the mission of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation through 2019.

Some of the provisions of the ACA have yet to be fully implemented, while certain provisions have been subject to judicial and Congressional challenges. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, or TCJA, includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate.” Further, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, or the BBA, among other things, amends the ACA, effective January 1, 2019, to reduce the coverage gap in most Medicare drug plans, commonly referred to as the “donut hole.” Congress may consider other legislation to modify, repeal, or replace elements of the ACA. Thus, the full impact of the ACA, or any law replacing elements of it, on our business remains unclear.

Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers up to 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in April 2013 and will remain in effect through 2029 unless additional congressional action is taken. In January 2013, former President Barack Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to

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recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors, which may adversely affect our future profitability.

European Union Drug Development

In the European Union, octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop will also be subject to extensive regulatory requirements. As in the United States, medicinal products can only be marketed if marketing authorizations from the competent regulatory agencies have been obtained.

Similar to the United States, the various phases of nonclinical and clinical research in the European Union are subject to significant regulatory controls. Although the European Union Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC has sought to harmonize the EU clinical trials regulatory framework, setting out common rules for the control and authorization of clinical trials in the EU, the EU Member States have transposed and applied the provisions of the Directive differently. This has led to significant variations in the member state regimes. Under the current regime, before a clinical trial can be initiated it must be approved in each of the EU countries where the trial is to be conducted by two distinct bodies: the National Competent Authority, or NCA, and one or more Ethics Committees, or ECs. Under the current regime all suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions to the investigated drug that occur during the clinical trial have to be reported to the NCA and ECs of the Member State where they occurred.

On April 16, 2014, the European Commission adopted the new Clinical Trials Regulation EU No. 536/2014 in an effort to ensure that the rules for conducting clinical trials in the EU will be identical. The new Regulation, among other things, will implement a streamlined application procedure with a single entry point for review, harmonize the process for assessing applications for clinical trials, simplify reporting procedures, and increase transparency regarding clinical trials and their outcomes. It is expected that the new Regulation will come into effect following confirmation of full functionality of the Clinical Trials Information System, the centralized EU portal and database for clinical trials foreseen by the new Clinical Trials regulation, through an independent audit, which is currently expected to occur in December 2021.

European Union Drug Review and Approval

In the EEA, which is comprised of the 28 Member States of the European Union plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein, medicinal products can only be commercialized after obtaining a Marketing Authorization, or MA. There are two types of marketing authorizations:

The centralized MA is issued by the European Commission through the centralized procedure, based on the opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or the CHMP, of the EMA, and is valid throughout the entire territory of the EEA. The centralized procedure is mandatory for certain types of products, such as biotechnology medicinal products, advanced therapy medicinal products (somatic cell therapy or tissue-engineered products), orphan medicinal products, such as octreotide capsules, and medicinal products containing a new active substance indicated for the treatment of HIV or AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, autoimmune and other immune dysfunctions and viral diseases. The centralized procedure is optional for products containing a new active substance not yet authorized in the EEA, or for products that constitute a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation or which are in the interest of public health in the EU. Under the centralized procedure the maximum timeframe for the evaluation of a MA application by the EMA is 210 days, excluding clock stops, when additional written or oral information is to be provided by the applicant in response to questions asked by the CHMP. Clock stops may extend the timeframe of evaluation of a MA application considerably beyond 210 days. Where the CHMP gives a positive opinion, the EMA provides the opinion together with supporting documentation to the European Commission, who make the final decision to grant a marketing authorization, which is issued within 67 days of receipt of the EMA’s recommendation. Accelerated assessment might be granted by the CHMP in exceptional cases, when a medicinal product is expected to be of a major public health interest, particularly from the point of view of therapeutic innovation. The timeframe for the evaluation of a MA application under the accelerated assessment procedure is of 150 days, excluding stop-clocks, but it is possible that the CHMP may revert to the standard time limit for the centralized procedure if it determines that the application is no longer appropriate to conduct an accelerated assessment.

National MAs, which are issued by the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA and only cover their respective territory, are available for products not falling within the mandatory scope of the Centralized Procedure. Where a product has already been authorized for marketing in a Member State of the EEA, this National MA can be recognized in another Member States through the Mutual Recognition Procedure. If the product has not received a National MA in any Member State at the time of application, it can be approved simultaneously in various Member States through the Decentralized Procedure. Under the Decentralized Procedure an identical dossier is submitted to the competent authorities of each of the Member States in which the MA is sought, one of which is selected by the applicant as the Reference Member State, or RMS. The competent authority of the RMS prepares a draft assessment report, a draft summary of the product characteristics, or SmPC, and a draft of the labeling and package leaflet, which are sent to the other Member States (referred to as the Concerned Member States) for their approval. If the Concerned Member States raise no

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objections, based on a potential serious risk to public health, to the assessment, SmPC, labeling, or packaging proposed by the RMS, the product is subsequently granted a national MA in all the Member States (i.e. in the RMS and the Concerned Member States).

Under the above-described procedures, before granting the MA, the EMA or the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA make an assessment of the risk-benefit balance of the product on the basis of scientific criteria concerning its quality, safety and efficacy and whether the product has a positive benefit to risk profile.

Now that the United Kingdom (which comprises Great Britain and Northern Ireland) has left the EU, Great Britain will no longer be covered by centralized MAs (under the Northern Irish Protocol, centralized MAs will continue to be recognized in Northern Ireland). All medicinal products with a current centralized MA were automatically converted to Great Britain MAs on January 1, 2021. For a period of two years from January 1, 2021, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, or MHRA, the United Kingdom medicines regulator, may rely on a decision taken by the European Commission on the approval of a new marketing authorization in the centralized procedure, in order to more quickly grant a new Great Britain MA. A separate application will, however, still be required.

The approval process and requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, drug review and approval, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary greatly from place to place. FDA approval is no guarantee of approval of the same product in the EEA and other foreign territories, either at all or within the same timescale as approval may be granted within the United States.

Brexit and the Regulatory Framework in the United Kingdom

On June 23, 2016, the electorate in the United Kingdom voted in favor of leaving the European Union (commonly referred to as “Brexit”). Thereafter, on March 29, 2017, the country formally notified the European Union of its intention to withdraw pursuant to Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty. The United Kingdom formally left the European Union on January 31, 2020. A transition period began on February 1, 2020, during which European Union pharmaceutical law remained applicable to the United Kingdom, and which ended on December 31, 2020. Since the regulatory framework for pharmaceutical products in the United Kingdom covering quality, safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products, clinical trials, marketing authorization, commercial sales and distribution of pharmaceutical products is derived from European Union directives and regulations, Brexit could materially impact the future regulatory regime which applies to products and the approval of product candidates in the United Kingdom, now that United Kingdom legislation has the potential to diverge from European Union legislation. It remains to be seen how Brexit will impact regulatory requirements for product candidates and products in the United Kingdom in the long-term. The MHRA has recently published detailed guidance for industry and organizations to follow from January 1, 2021 now that the transition period is over, which will be updated as the United Kingdom’s regulatory position on medicinal products evolves over time.

Human Capital Management

As of February 26, 2021, we had 85 full-time employees located in the United States and in Israel. While none of our employees are represented by a labor union or party to any collective bargaining agreement, certain provisions of the collective bargaining agreements between the Histadrut (General Federation of Labor in Israel) and the Coordination Bureau of Economic Organizations (including the Industrialists’ Associations) are applicable to our employees in Israel by extension orders issued by the Israel Ministry of Economy (previously the Israeli Ministry of Trade, Industry and Labor).

Israeli labor laws principally govern the length of the workday, minimum wages for employees, procedures for hiring and dismissing employees, determination of severance pay, annual leave, sick days, advance notice of termination of employment, equal opportunity and anti-discrimination laws and other conditions of employment. Subject to certain exceptions, Israeli law generally requires severance pay upon the retirement, death or dismissal of an employee, and requires us and our employees to make payments to the National Insurance Institute, which is similar to the U.S. Social Security Administration. Our Israeli employees have defined-benefit pension plans that comply with applicable Israeli legal requirements, which also include the mandatory pension payments required by applicable law and allocations for severance pay.

Although we experienced two separate reductions in force in 2016 aggregating greater than 60% of our workforce following our receipt of the CRL, we have never experienced any employment-related work stoppages and believe our relationship with our current employees is good.

We believe that our future success largely depends upon our continued ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees. We provide our employees with competitive salaries and bonuses, opportunities for equity ownership, and employment benefits offerings that promote well-being across all aspects of their lives. With our organization’s recent expansion, we have begun to implement programs designed to support employee learning and development. In addition, with the remote working environment during the

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COVID-19 pandemic, we began conducting surveys to gauge employee engagement to identify areas of focus where our employees need support. We value our employees and continue to focus on maintaining an engaged and motivated workforce.

Research and Development

During the year ended December 31, 2020, our total research and development expense was $26.8 million compared to $22.5 million and $22.4 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase in 2020 was primarily due to an increase in manufacturing of octreotide capsules to support our U.S. commercial launch, which were expensed prior to FDA approval of MYCAPSSA, costs associated with our disease state registry, scientific literature publications and increased regulatory costs which were offset by a decrease in clinical trial costs. The increase in 2019 was primarily due to an increase in manufacturing, and regulatory costs offset by a decrease in clinical trial costs.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware and commenced business operations in 2001. Our principal executive offices are located at 140 Kendrick Street, Building C East, Needham, MA 02494 and our telephone number is (617) 928-5300. Our website address is www.chiasma.com. Through our website, we make available, free of charge, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, proxy statement, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material or furnish them to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website containing reports, proxy materials and information statements, among other information, at http://www.sec.gov. The information contained on our website, or that can be accessed through our website, is not a part of this annual report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

We own various U.S. federal and foreign trademark registrations and applications, as well as pending and unregistered trademarks and service marks, including “CHIASMA”, “TPE”, “MYCAPSSA”, “MYCAPSSA logo”, “ACROMEGALY.CARE plus logo”, “TPE logo”, “CAPS plus logo” and “CHIASMA logo” for our corporate logo. “CHIASMA”, “MYCAPSSA”, “TPE”, CHIASMA logo, ACROMEGALY.CARE plus logo and CAPS plus logo are U.S. federal trademarks registered to Chiasma, Inc. All trademarks or trade names referred to in this Form 10-K including those of third parties are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this Form 10-K may be referred to without the ® and symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies. During 2018 we obtained a copyright registration in the United States for our Acro-TSQ.

 

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Item 1A.

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. If any such risks or uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition or operating results could differ materially from the plans, projections and other forward-looking statements included in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this report and in our other public filings. The trading price of our common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to the Development and Potential Regulatory Approval and Commercialization of Octreotide Capsules and any Future Product Candidates

We are substantially dependent on the successful commercialization of MYCAPSSA and, if we are unable to successfully commercialize MYCAPSSA in the United States and obtain regulatory approval and successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the European Union, or if we are substantially delayed in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

On June 26, 2020, the FDA granted approval of oral octreotide capsules, MYCAPSSA®, for long-term maintenance treatment in acromegaly patients who have responded to and tolerated treatment with octreotide or lanreotide. MYCAPSSA is our only product that has been approved for sale by the FDA. Following FDA approval of our NDA and to secure commercial supply of MYCAPSSA, we submitted our “changes being effected in 30 days” supplement, CBE-30 supplement, to our NDA in June 2020 to provide for the approval of our primary commercial manufacturer of API octreotide acetate and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. Following the FDA’s acceptance of our CBE-30 supplement for review, in September 2020, we initiated our commercial launch of MYCAPSSA. We have invested a significant portion of our activities and resources toward the development of MYCAPSSA, and we believe our prospects are highly dependent on, and a significant portion of the value of our company relates to, our ability to successfully commercialize MYCAPSSA in the United States.

Successful commercialization of MYCAPSSA is subject to many risks. We have never, as an organization, launched or commercialized a product before, and there is no guarantee that we will be able to do so successfully with MYCAPSSA for its approved indication. There are numerous examples of other companies that have experienced unsuccessful product launches and failed to meet high expectations of execution and market potential, including pharmaceutical companies with significantly more experience and resources than us.

The future success of MYCAPSSA, including the rate and degree of market acceptance of MYCAPSSA in the United States, will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

the efficacy and safety of MYCAPSSA in a larger number of patients in a non-clinical setting than those demonstrated in our clinical trials;

 

the effectiveness of our sales, marketing and distribution efforts, particularly during the remote, COVID-19 environment;

 

the incidence and prevalence of acromegaly patients in the U.S. that respond to and tolerate treatment with octreotide or lanreotide;

 

the timing of market introduction of MYCAPSSA;

 

our ability to manufacture sufficient commercial supplies of MYCAPSSA in compliance with regulatory requirements;

 

the ability of MYCAPSSA to successfully compete against other products;

 

the acceptance by the medical community and patients of MYCAPSSA as a safe and effective product;

 

the potential and perceived advantages of MYCAPSSA over alternative products;

 

the ability to distinguish safety and efficacy from existing alternatives;

 

the willingness of medical professionals to prescribe and patients to use MYCAPSSA and continue to use MYCAPSSA instead of alternative products;

 

the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects;

 

the convenience of prescribing, administrating and initiating patients on MYCAPSSA;

 

the potential and perceived value and relative cost of MYCAPSSA over alternative products, including generic products or treatments;

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the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement and pricing by private and government payors;

 

the successful completion of any clinical trials, regulatory approval and commercialization of MYCAPSSA for one or more label expansion indications; and

 

our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights with respect to MYCAPSSA.

While we are executing our commercial launch plans, we will need to incur significant additional expenses and commit significant additional management time to further develop our commercialization capabilities and to continue hiring, developing and training our sales force in order to successfully coordinate the continued launch and commercialization of MYCAPSSA in the United States. We may not be able to successfully establish these capabilities on our expected timing or at all. Even if we are successful in building out our commercial team and sales force, there are many factors that could cause the launch and commercialization of MYCAPSSA to be unsuccessful and/or delayed, including a number of factors that are outside our control.

The commercial success of MYCAPSSA depends on the extent to which medical professionals and patients accept and adopt MYCAPSSA as a product for the for the treatment of acromegaly, and we do not know whether our or others’ revenue estimates in this regard will be accurate. For example, if the patient population suffering from acromegaly is smaller than we estimate or if medical professionals are unwilling to prescribe or patients are unwilling to try and then continue to use MYCAPSSA, the commercial potential of MYCAPSSA will be limited. We also do not know how medical professionals, patients and third-party payors will respond to the pricing of MYCAPSSA. Medical professionals may not prescribe MYCAPSSA and patients may be unwilling to use MYCAPSSA if coverage is not provided or reimbursement is inadequate to cover a significant portion of the cost, and we may find it necessary or desirable to provide rebates on MYCAPSSA to customers or third-party payors or to expand existing, or implement new or additional, patient assistance programs, including co-pay assistance programs, which could materially adversely affect our profitability.

While the FDA granted approval of MYCAPSSA based on the data included in the NDA, we do not know whether the results when a larger number of patients are exposed to MYCAPSSA, including results related to safety and efficacy, will be consistent with our clinical experience with MYCAPSSA, including the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial, whichserved as the basis of FDA approval of MYCAPSSA. New data relating to MYCAPSSA, including from any adverse event reports or clinical development for additional indications of oral octreotide capsules, may adversely impact the commercial results and potential of MYCAPSSA. Thus, significant uncertainty remains regarding the potential commercial success of MYCAPSSA. In addition, such new data or any serious or unexpected side effects caused by MYCAPSSA may result in a number of potentially significant negative consequences, including:

 

the FDA could withdraw its approval of MYCAPSSA, impose restrictions on its distribution or require the addition of labeling warnings or restrictions;

 

we could be required to change the way MYCAPSSA is promoted or administered or conduct additional clinical studies;

 

we could be sued and held liable for any harm caused to patients; or

 

our reputation may suffer.

If the commercialization of MYCAPSSA is delayed, unsuccessful or perceived as disappointing, our stock price could decline significantly and the long-term success of the product and our company could be materially harmed.

While the FDA granted approval of MYCAPSSA, such approval does not guarantee FDA approval for any future product candidates. FDA approval of MYCAPSSA also does not guarantee that MYCAPSSA will be approved by the FDA for additional indications or by regulatory entities in countries outside of the United States.

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, or other similar health crises in the future, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including our commercialization efforts in the United States.

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus and the COVID-19 disease that it causes has evolved into a global pandemic. To date, the pandemic has led to the implementation of various responses, including quarantines, travel restrictions and other public health safety measures. Certain jurisdictions that began to reopen have reinstated restrictions as the number of COVID-19 cases have increased. We expect that the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to impact our operations and those of our third-party contractors and the ultimate impact on our business and financial results will depend on many factors that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others.

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As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience disruptions that could severely impact our business and operations, including our ability to successfully commercialize MYCAPSSA in the United States. The pandemic has caused us to modify our business practices, including taking steps to protect our employees and the broader community, such as curtailing or modifying employee travel, reducing access to our offices, moving employees to remote work where appropriate, and cancelling in-person participation in meetings. The effects of quarantines and our work-from-home policies may negatively impact productivity, or disrupt, delay, or otherwise adversely impact our business. In addition, the intensification of the pandemic throughout the United States beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020 has made our physician outreach efforts more challenging than anticipated. Historically, the traditional model for commercial sales of medical products has involved in-person meetings with healthcare professionals. Currently, as a result of work and travel restrictions, physician office closures and limitations on access to medical facilities resulting from the pandemic, in-person sales call opportunities with physicians have been limited and many of our sales calls are conducted remotely. Further, demand for MYCAPSSA may also be negatively impacted by the pandemic to the extent patients and physicians decide to delay switching from their current injectable therapy to MYCAPSSA due to limitations on patient-physician interactions or health concerns related to COVID-19. Additionally, prescriptions received for MYCAPSSA currently take longer than anticipated to convert to commercial patients on therapy due to physician office shutdowns and their staffs’ remote working conditions.

With the continued development and fluidity of the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot predict its full impact on our business. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic may have a material adverse effect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval and successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the European Union, or if we are substantially delayed in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

In October 2015, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, accepted the design, enrollment criteria and required duration of our second Phase 3 trial to evaluate the non-inferiority of octreotide capsules to injectable somatostatin analogs in adult patients with acromegaly. This clinical trial, which is referred to as MPOWERED and was initiated in March 2016, was a global, randomized, open-label and active-controlled 15-month trial initially designed to enroll up to 150 patients in Europe, Russia, the United States and certain other countries. This clinical trial was designed to show comparative effectiveness as required by the EMA, to support submission of an MAA and potential approval. In November 2020, we announced positive topline results from the MPOWERED trial, including that the study met its primary non-inferiority endpoint. Based on the positive data from the MPOWERED trial, we expect to submit an MAA to the EMA in mid-2021 seeking marketing approval of MYCAPSSA capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly in the European Union. However, the results of the MPOWERED Phase 3 clinical trial may not be acceptable to the EMA to support regulatory approval in the European Union.

We expect the safety and efficacy data from all three of our Phase 3 clinical trials to be submitted in our planned MAA filing. While the MPOWERED trial design has been accepted by the EMA, our ultimate success in the regulatory review process of our planned application for marketing approval in the European Union could be negatively impacted by the results from any of our clinical trials.

If we submit an MAA to the EMA for the approval to commercialize MYCAPSSA in the European Union and the MAA is ultimately approved, we or our potential partners or distributors are likely to encounter significant challenges with commercializing in the European Union, including significantly lower prices for existing somatostatin analog injectables in countries in the European Union as well as the recent entry of generic somatostatin analog injectables into European markets. These and other factors could adversely affect the establishment and maintenance of MYCAPSSA pricing at a level sufficient to warrant market entry in many countries of the European Union if MYCAPSSA is approved by the EMA.

The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, approval, sale, marketing, advertising and promotion, export, import and distribution of drug products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and other countries, and these regulations differ from country to country and change over time. While we have obtained marketing approval for octreotide capsules in the United States, we are not permitted to market octreotide capsules in the European Union or any other countries outside the United States until we receive the requisite approvals in such countries. In the United States, the FDA generally requires the completion of nonclinical testing and clinical trials of each drug to establish its safety and efficacy and extensive pharmaceutical development to ensure its quality and other factors before an NDA is approved. Regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions impose similar requirements and may impose pricing restrictions. Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage result in the submission of an application for marketing authorization and even fewer are approved for commercialization.

Other than the June 2015 submission of our NDA for octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly to the FDA and the December 2019 resubmission of our NDA, we have not yet submitted comparable applications to other regulatory authorities. If our development efforts for octreotide capsules, including our ability to obtain EMA regulatory approval, are not successful for the acromegaly indication or are delayed or if adequate demand for octreotide capsules are not generated, our business and ability to generate revenues

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will be materially harmed. The success of octreotide capsules will depend on the receipt of additional regulatory approvals the issuance of such approvals is uncertain and subject to a number of risks, including the following:

 

foreign regulatory authorities, institutional review boards, or IRBs, or ethics committees may disagree with the design or conduct of our clinical trials;

 

the results of our clinical trials may not provide acceptable evidence of octreotide capsules’ safety and efficacy;

 

the results of our clinical trials may not be sufficiently robust or meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required by the EMA or other regulatory agencies for marketing approval;

 

the dosing of octreotide capsules in a particular clinical trial may not be at an optimal level;

 

patients in our clinical trials may suffer adverse effects for reasons that may or may not be related to octreotide capsules;

 

the data collected from our clinical trials may not be sufficient to obtain regulatory approval in the European Union or elsewhere; and

 

even if we obtain marketing approval in one or more countries, future safety or other issues could result in the suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approval in such countries.

In particular, we cannot guarantee that regulators will agree with our assessment of the results of the clinical trials we have conducted to date, as was the case with the FDA’s review of our completed first Phase 3 clinical trial contained in the original NDA, or that any current or future trials will be successful. The regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional clinical trials, or nonclinical or other studies, as the FDA strongly recommended in its Complete Response Letter to our NDA that we received in April 2016, or the CRL. We have only limited experience in filing the applications necessary to gain regulatory approvals and have relied before, and expect to continue to rely, on consultants and third-party contract research organizations, or CROs, with expertise in this area to assist us in this process.

The process of obtaining regulatory approvals is expensive, often takes many years, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon, among other things, the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved, the jurisdiction in which regulatory approval is sought and the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. Changes in the regulatory approval policy during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for a submitted product application may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application or may result in future withdrawal of approval. Regulatory approval obtained in one jurisdiction does not necessarily mean that a product candidate will receive regulatory approval in all jurisdictions in which we may seek approval, but the failure to obtain approval in one jurisdiction may negatively impact our ability to seek approval in a different jurisdiction.

Even though we received FDA approval of our NDA for octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly and our CBE-30 supplement, we may still face additional future development and regulatory challenges, each of which could inhibit or preclude our ability to commercialize MYCAPSSA for any indication.

Even though we obtained FDA approval of our NDA for octreotide capsules as a treatment of acromegaly and our CBE-30 supplement for commercial supply of octreotide capsules and even if we obtain additional regulatory approvals for octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly or for other indications we may pursue, or any other product candidates we may develop, they remain subject to ongoing requirements by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities governing manufacturing, quality control, further development, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, safety surveillance, import, export, advertising, promotion, recordkeeping and reporting of safety and other post-market information. The safety profile of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop will continue to be closely monitored by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities after approval. If new safety information becomes available after approval of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop, the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require labeling changes or establishment of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, or similar strategy, impose significant restrictions on our product candidates, indicated uses or marketing, or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post-approval studies or post-market surveillance. For example, the label ultimately approved by FDA for octreotide capsules, includes some restrictions on use, which could limit the marketability of octreotide capsules and impair our ability to have octreotide capsules gain market acceptance.

In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP and other regulations. The third-party contract manufacturers that we utilize or plan to utilize for commercial supply have been subject to ongoing regulatory inspections from time to time that resulted in inspectional observations. For example, in the CRL, the FDA advised that, during a site inspection, certain deficiencies were conveyed to the representative of one of our suppliers. In addition, in connection with the resubmission of our NDA, we did not reference in the NDA resubmission our planned primary commercial API manufacturer due to unresolved observations from a recent regulatory

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inspection. If we or a regulatory authority discover any new or previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with any facility where the product is manufactured, we may recall or withdraw the product from the market or a regulatory authority may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring suspension of manufacturing. If we, our potential products or the manufacturing facilities for our potential products fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory authority may, among other things:

 

issue warning letters or untitled letters;

 

mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;

 

require us to enter into a consent decree, which can include imposition of various fines, reimbursements for inspection costs, required due dates for specific actions and penalties for noncompliance;

 

seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;

 

suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;

 

suspend any ongoing clinical trials;

 

refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to applications filed by us;

 

suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements; or

 

seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of products, or request that we initiate a product recall.

The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit or preclude our ability to commercialize octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop and generate revenue.

We face substantial competition from larger companies with considerable resources that already have somatostatin analogs available in the market, and they or others may also discover, develop or commercialize additional products before or more successfully than we do.

Our industry is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change as researchers learn more about diseases and develop new technologies and treatments. Our potential competitors include primarily large pharmaceutical, biotechnology and specialty pharmaceutical companies. We expect octreotide capsules will face competition from established drugs and major brand names and also generic versions of these products. Key competitive factors affecting the commercial success of octreotide capsules and any other product candidates we may develop are likely to be efficacy, safety and tolerability profile, reliability, convenience of administration, price and reimbursement and effectiveness of our promotional activities. For example, physicians may choose not to prescribe octreotide capsules because a lower percentage of patients met the criteria for response in our first Phase 3 clinical trial after treatment with octreotide capsules compared to their baseline response rates on injectable therapy, similar data was produced in the CHIASMA OPTIMAL and the MPOWERED clinical trials. Competition could also force us to lower prices or could result in reduced sales.

The standards of care for patients suffering from acromegaly involve injectable therapies, other than cabergoline, an oral agent used for the treatment of mild acromegaly. Novartis markets octreotide LAR, which is administered monthly and intramuscularly using a large gauge needle. Ipsen markets lanreotide, another long-acting analog of somatostatin, like octreotide, which is administered monthly using a deep subcutaneous injection. Both therapies, which are most frequently the first drug treatment options for patients, involve side effects related to the injections and inconvenience due to the timing and requirements of the injections. Pfizer markets pegvisomant daily injections and Recordati markets pasireotide LAR, which is another somatostatin analog administered via intramuscular injection. Pegvisomant daily injections and pasireotide LAR are significantly more costly than injectable octreotide and lanreotide. The label for pasireotide LAR includes a warning about hyperglycemia and diabetes, which can sometimes be severe. The label advises healthcare professionals administering pasireotide LAR to monitor glucose levels periodically during therapy and to monitor glucose levels more frequently in the months that follow initiation or discontinuation of therapy and following dose adjustment. Generic versions of these drugs may also bring additional competition to the treatment landscape. For example, while octreotide LAR and lanreotide currently have no generic competitors in the United States, generic versions are available in some markets in the EU. The launch of generics may also create downward pressure on pricing of branded products and might result in additional controls imposed by payers. In addition, we are aware of other companies involved in early-stage nonclinical and clinical studies of similar somatostatin analogs, but most involve administration via injection. Most notably, Camurus AB is developing CAM2029, a subcutaneous octreotide depot for the potential treatment of neuroendocrine tumors and acromegaly. Camurus AB received FDA approval of its IND in June 2019 and is currently recruiting two Phase 3 acromegaly trials. In 2020, Crinetics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the completion of a Phase 2 clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of paltusotine, CRN00808, in acromegaly patients and its intention to meet with the FDA in the first quarter of 2021 and initiate a Phase 3 clinical in the first half of 2021. Crinetics also announced the introduction of a new tablet formulation ready for Phase 3. Paltusotine, CRN00808,

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is a nonpeptide somatostatin agonist designed to be taken orally once per day. In 2018, Ionis Pharmaceuticals initiated a Phase 2 trial of IONIS-GHR-LRx, its growth hormone receptor antagonist to control growth hormone production in acromegaly patients. In January 2020, Rani Therapeutics (RaniPillTM capsule containing octreotide) announced the completion of a Phase 1 study in 58 healthy volunteers, indicating that the RaniPill performed as designed. Per published reports, Rani Therapeutics plans to conduct additional Phase 1 clinical trials in 2021, with later-stage studies beginning in 2022. We are also aware that Strongbridge Biopharma plc (valdoreotide, or COR-005) may also be actively developing products for the maintenance treatment of acromegaly. If any or a combination of the other product candidates in development for acromegaly receive regulatory approval or demonstrate superior clinical results to MYCAPSSA, we may encounter significant difficulties with the commercial prospects for MYCAPSSA.

Many of our existing or potential competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and human resources than we do and significantly greater experience in the discovery and development of product candidates, obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals of products and the commercialization of those products. These companies also have long-established relationships within the medical and patient community, including patients, physicians, nurses and commercial third-party payors and government payors. Our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to:

 

develop our product candidate and demonstrate that it is competitive with or superior to other products on the market;

 

obtain required regulatory approvals;

 

adequately communicate the benefits of octreotide capsules;

 

attract and retain qualified personnel;

 

obtain and maintain patent and/or other proprietary protection for octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop; and

 

in certain geographies, obtain collaboration arrangements to develop and commercialize octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop.

Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a small number of our competitors. Accordingly, our competitors may be more successful than we may be in obtaining FDA approval of drugs and achieving widespread market acceptance. Our competitors’ drugs may be more effective, or more effectively marketed and sold, than any drug we may commercialize and may render octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop obsolete or non-competitive before we can recover the expenses of developing and commercializing octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop. Our competitors may also obtain FDA or other regulatory approval of their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval of ours. We anticipate that we will face intense and increasing competition as new drugs enter the market and more advanced technologies become available. For example, a competitor could develop another oral formulation of either a somatostatin analog or non-somatostatin analog or other technology that could make administration of peptide-based therapies more convenient. If we are unable to compete effectively, our opportunity to generate revenue from the sale of octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop, if approved, could be impaired.

The number of patients suffering from acromegaly is small and has not been established with precision. Our assumptions and estimates regarding prevalence may be wrong. If the actual number of patients in a market where MYCAPSSA is available for sale is smaller than we estimate, our revenue could be adversely affected, possibly materially.

We estimate that there are an estimated 69,000 individuals with acromegaly in the developed world. The U.S. National Institutes of Health, or NIH, estimates that there are roughly 20,000 individuals with acromegaly in the United States, based on its published prevalence of an estimated 60 cases per million. In thirteen studies of acromegaly prevalence since 1980, an average of approximately 75 cases per million was determined, suggesting roughly 24,000 individuals with acromegaly in the United States. However, data presented at the Endocrine Society’s Annual Meeting in 2015 suggest that pituitary tumors may be more prevalent than previously thought, and that the global prevalence of acromegaly may be higher, between 85 and 118 cases per million people. NIH also cites an annual incidence of three to four new cases per million each year. Data from a 2017 study by Lavrentaki et. al. suggest that the global prevalence of acromegaly may be between 28 and 137 cases per million people. Based upon our own market research, we believe that approximately 8,000 adult acromegaly patients are chronically treated with somatostatin analogs in the United States. However, there is no guarantee that these estimates are correct. The number of patients with acromegaly, in particular the number of patients for whom our octreotide capsules product is approved for use, could actually be significantly lower than these estimates.

We believe that the actual size of the total addressable acromegaly market in those markets in which our octreotide capsules product is approved, if at all, will be determined only after we have substantial history as a commercial company. If the total addressable market for our products is smaller than we expect, our revenue could be adversely affected, possibly materially.

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MYCAPSSA may not achieve or maintain an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, patients and third-party payors and government payors, and we may not generate sufficient revenue or be able to achieve or sustain profitability.

The commercial success of octreotide capsules will depend in large part on the willingness of physicians to prescribe them to their patients. Octreotide capsules compete against products that have achieved broad recognition and acceptance among medical professionals. In order to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of prescriptions for octreotide capsules, we must be able to meet the needs of both the medical community and patients with respect to cost, efficacy and other factors.

The degree of market acceptance of octreotide capsules will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

the clinical safety, efficacy, tolerability and other factors regarding octreotide capsules observed in our completed, and potential future clinical trials, including relative to injectable somatostatin analogs such as the relative topline data from our MPOWERED trial, and any other treatments available at the time;

 

the relative convenience, number of capsules that need to be taken, requirement to fast before and after each dose of octreotide capsules, and other factors affecting the ease of administration;

 

the prevalence and severity of any adverse effects;

 

the incidence and prevalence of acromegaly patients in the United States that respond to and tolerate treatment with octreotide or lanreotide;

 

the willingness of physicians to prescribe octreotide capsules and complete the necessary payor documentation and of the target patient population to try new therapies and adhere to them;

 

the introduction of any new products that may in the future become available to treat indications for which octreotide capsules may be approved;

 

changes in the clinical or economic profiles of alternative treatments;

 

new procedures or methods of treatment that may reduce the incidences of any of the indications in which octreotide capsules may show utility;

 

pricing and cost-effectiveness, particularly compared to alternative treatments;

 

the effectiveness of our or any future collaborators’ sales and marketing, as well as disease education and awareness programs;

 

the scope of the label approved by the FDA, which does not include efficacy data from our first Phase 3 clinical trial that demonstrated acromegaly symptom improvements in patients who completed the trial or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and any future labels approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities;

 

limitations or warnings contained in labeling approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities;

 

our ability to obtain and maintain sufficient third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement from government health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers and other third-party payors;

 

the willingness of patients to pay out-of-pocket in the absence of third-party coverage or reimbursement;

 

competitor activities, including clinical trials in the United States for participants that are eligible for treatment with MYCAPSSA; and

 

our ability to reliably manufacture and supply octreotide capsules.

In addition, even if we obtain the additional necessary regulatory approvals, the timing or scope of any approvals may prohibit or reduce our ability to commercialize octreotide capsules successfully. Any additional regulatory approval we ultimately obtain may be limited or be subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render octreotide capsules not commercially viable. For example, regulatory authorities may approve octreotide capsules for more limited indications than we request, may limit approved usage to narrower patient populations, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve octreotide capsules with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that indication. The data from our completed first Phase 3 clinical trial that demonstrated acromegaly symptom improvements in patients who completed the trial, was not included in the FDA-approved label, and the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial was not designed to, and did not, demonstrate validated symptom improvement data. While the MPOWERED trial employs a validated treatment satisfaction questionnaire for patient completion, the final symptom and treatment satisfaction data may be inconclusive or not supportive of oral octreotide capsules compared to the standard of care somatostatin analog injectables. Any of the foregoing could harm the commercial prospects for octreotide capsules.

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Even if octreotide capsules are approved and commercialized in one or more additional geographies in addition to the United States, they may not achieve and maintain an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, healthcare payors and patients, and we may not generate sufficient revenue or be able to achieve or sustain profitability. Any concerns about or negative perception of octreotide capsules or the clinical data of octreotide capsules within the patient or medical communities could significantly impact market adoption and commercial performance of octreotide capsules, even with the FDA approval to commercialize in the United States and if we are able obtain regulatory approval to commercialize in the European Union in the future. The perception of octreotide capsules within the patient and medical communities could be negatively impacted by clinical data from future clinical studies or by real-world data on acromegaly treatments, such as the data that we expect will be generated from our disease state registry for acromegaly. Our revenue and profitability may also be delayed during the potential period of time when commercial third-party payors and government payors are becoming familiar with octreotide capsules and patients are transitioning from injected alternatives to octreotide capsules. Our efforts to educate the medical community, patients and third-party payors on the benefits of octreotide capsules may require significant resources and may never be successful. Even if we are able to demonstrate and maintain a competitive advantage over our competitors, if the market for octreotide capsules decreases, we may not generate sufficient revenue.

Our relationships with customers and third-party payors will be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop for which we obtain marketing approval. Our arrangements with third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may affect the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we would market, sell and distribute our products. Even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our operations and expose us to areas of risk including the following:

 

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;

 

federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

 

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and also created federal criminal laws that prohibit knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services;

 

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, which also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of certain individually identifiable health information;

 

the ACA which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies that are reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;

 

the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics, and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the CMS information related to payments or transfers of value made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as information regarding ownership and investment interests held by the physicians described above and their immediate family members; and

 

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; some state laws which require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the

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pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state and foreign laws which govern the privacy and security of health information in specified circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by federal law, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties are compliant with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve the expenditure of appropriate, and possibly significant, resources. Nonetheless, it is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

We have only recently established sales, marketing and market access organizations and, as a company, have not commercialized any products. If we are unable to establish effective sales and marketing capabilities to commercialize octreotide capsules in the United States and access those capabilities in the European Union and other international markets if we secure necessary regulatory approvals, we may not succeed in commercializing octreotide capsules.

We have only recently hired U.S.-based sales, marketing and market access personnel and expect to hire additional personnel. We have not engaged a partner to commercialize octreotide capsules in the United States, and, therefore, we currently rely on our sales and marketing infrastructure to support commercial launch in the United States. Our sales, market access and marketing teams are limited in size and have worked together for only a limited period during our ongoing commercial launch of octreotide capsules. We cannot guarantee that we will be successful in gaining and maintaining coverage and or reimbursement with payers for MYCAPSSA, driving utilization of octreotide capsules in the United States or otherwise successfully commercializing MYCAPSSA. We may not be able to establish an effective direct sales force in a cost-effective manner or realize a positive return on this investment. In addition, we will have to compete with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to recruit, hire, train and retain sales, market access and marketing personnel. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the United States ourselves include:

 

 

our inability to effectively engage with key constituents in the acromegaly community, including physician, patients and payors, in part due to the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

 

 

our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales, market access and marketing personnel;

 

 

 

the inability of our relatively small sales force to obtain access to or inform adequate numbers of physicians, particularly the pituitary centers and the significantly larger number of community endocrinologists, about the potential benefits of octreotide capsules;

 

 

 

 

the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines;

 

 

 

the inability to compete with larger, more established pharmaceutical sales and marketing organizations;

 

 

 

the inability of market access personnel to obtain sufficient levels of pricing and reimbursement in each jurisdiction;

 

 

 

 

our inability to establish and maintain agreements and arrangements with third parties to effectively distribute MYCAPSSA to patients, including specialty pharmacies; and

 

 

 

 

 

 

unforeseen costs, expenses and delays associated with creating a commercial organization.

 

 

Even though we obtained regulatory approval for commercializing octreotide capsules in the United States, we cannot guarantee whether we will be successful in marketing octreotide capsules in the United States. We also cannot guarantee whether we will be successful in marketing octreotide capsules in any other jurisdiction if we obtain the necessary regulatory approvals. If we are not successful in recruiting of sales and other commercial personnel on a timely basis or establishing an adequate sales, market access and marketing infrastructure and adequate distribution capabilities, or if we do not successfully enter into appropriate collaboration

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arrangements, we will have difficulty commercializing octreotide capsules, if we obtain the necessary regulatory approvals, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

If pursued by us, expansion of our business into the European Union and other international markets will require significant management attention and additional financial resources. We may explore commercializing octreotide capsules in the European Union and other international markets by entering into collaboration agreements with other biopharmaceutical companies, and we may not be successful in entering into these collaboration agreements. In the event that we do enter into such agreements, we may have limited or no control over the sales, marketing and distribution activities of these third parties. Additional factors and risks that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize octreotide capsules in foreign markets include:

 

 

 

our inability to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the United States;

 

 

 

our inability to directly control commercial activities because we are relying on third parties, should we enter into third-party collaborations;

 

 

 

varying pricing in different foreign markets, including significantly lower prices for existing somatostatin analog injectables in European and other markets as well as the recent entry of generic somatostatin analog injectables into European markets, which could adversely affect our pricing in the European Union and other countries;

 

 

 

the burden of complying with complex and changing foreign regulatory, tax, accounting and legal requirements;

 

 

 

different medical practices and customs in foreign countries affecting acceptance in the marketplace;

 

 

 

import or export licensing requirements;

 

 

 

longer collection times for accounts receivable;

 

 

 

longer lead times for shipping;

 

 

 

language barriers for technical training;

 

 

 

reduced protection of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries, and related prevalence of generic alternatives;

 

 

 

foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

 

 

 

our ability to obtain adequate reimbursement for octreotide capsules in foreign markets, either at all or at prices that exceed our costs; and

 

 

 

the interpretation of contractual provisions governed by foreign laws in the event of a contract dispute.

 

 

Foreign sales of octreotide capsules could also be adversely affected by the imposition of governmental price controls, political and economic instability, trade restrictions and changes in tariffs.

We may not be able to establish a commercial operation in a cost-effective manner or realize a positive return on this investment, even with the assistance of one or more third-party collaborators, should we choose to enter into such an arrangement. In addition, we will have to compete with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to recruit, hire, train and retain sales and marketing personnel.

If we or third-party collaborators are not successful in recruiting sales and marketing personnel or in building a sales and marketing infrastructure, or if we do not successfully enter into additional collaboration arrangements with third parties, we may not be able to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop in foreign markets, which could impair our business, operating results and financial condition.

Even with the potential assistance of third-party collaborators, we may not be successful in establishing a commercial operation in foreign markets for numerous reasons, including, but not limited to, failing to attract, retain and motivate the necessary skilled personnel and failing to develop a successful marketing strategy. Failure to establish a commercial operation in foreign markets will have a negative outcome on our ability to commercialize octreotide capsules and generate revenue.

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Additionally, if approved for marketing in countries outside of the United States, we and/or our potential third-party collaborators may encounter unexpected or unforeseen delays in establishing our commercial operations that delay the commercial launch in these countries. These delays may increase the cost of and the resources required for successful commercialization of octreotide capsules both in the United States and internationally. We do not have any experience in a commercial launch in the United States, European Union or elsewhere.

We have only recently established a medical affairs organization and, as a company, have limited experience in operating a medical affairs organization. If we are unable to establish effective medical affairs capabilities in the United States and build or access them in the European Union and other international markets, our business may suffer.

We have only recently established our medical affairs organization. Medical affairs personnel are responsible for a number of key activities within biopharmaceutical companies, which include, but are not limited to, providing expert advice to other functions within the organization, advising on medical education activities, reviewing promotional and non-promotional communications, supporting medical and scientific publications, reviewing grants for third-party continuing medical education events, and providing an important scientific point of contact for physicians and scientists who seek to partner with us or better understand our science.

Failure to successfully execute these activities could harm our business in the following ways:

 

our reputation among key physicians and scientists in acromegaly and other disease areas of interest to us may suffer;

 

we may not be able to secure the advice and feedback of outside experts to help advance our knowledge and understanding of complex scientific and medical issues;

 

our commercial and corporate functions may not receive adequate medical and scientific information in the creation of their external communications, which could lead to inaccurate information being disseminated about us, our product candidates, our disease areas of interest, or our other scientific endeavors;

 

our promotional, non-promotional, grants, and medical events review processes may not provide an effective control to ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards; and

 

we may not successfully interact with European or other ex-U.S. healthcare professionals and scientists who could help us execute plans for expansion into the European Union or other international markets.

We may need to grow the size of our organization in order to further establish our sales and marketing infrastructure, which is vital to our ability to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules, and we may experience difficulties in achieving and managing this growth.

We anticipate that in the near term our ability to generate revenues will depend solely on our ability to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the United States. A commercial launch is a significant undertaking that requires substantial financial and managerial resources. As of February 26, 2021, we had 85 full-time employees. We have established sales and marketing infrastructure but as our development and commercialization plans and strategies evolve, we may need to expand the size of our employee base for managerial, operational, sales, marketing, financial and other resources. The recruitment and hiring of these personnel will take time and could delay the commercialization of octreotide capsules. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including the need to identify, recruit, maintain, motivate and integrate additional employees. Also, our management may have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from our day-to-day activities and devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize octreotide capsules and other product candidates we may develop and to compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth and related costs. We may not be able to effectively manage a rapid pace of growth and timely implement improvements to our management infrastructure and control systems.

We will need to maintain an effective healthcare compliance program to support the sales and marketing of an approved drug in a manner that is compliant with applicable laws and regulations.

Our marketing of pharmaceutical products is subject to extensive and complex laws and regulations. We have established and are administering a corporate compliance program designed to actively identify, prevent and mitigate risk through the implementation of compliance policies and systems, and through the establishment and communication of a culture of compliance. We expect to continue to devote resources to administer and grow this compliance program, but we may not be able to keep pace with the rapid growth and activity of the commercial organization. Among other laws, regulations and standards, we are subject to various U.S. federal and state laws, and comparable foreign laws pertaining to health care fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback and false claims statutes, laws prohibiting the promotion of drugs for unapproved or off-label uses, and laws requiring transparency regarding transfers of value to health care professionals and entities. Anti-kickback laws make it illegal for a prescription drug manufacturer to solicit, offer, receive or pay any remuneration to induce the referral of business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug; false claims

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laws prohibit anyone from presenting for payment to third-party payors, including Medicare and Medicaid, claims for reimbursed drugs or services that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services; and the Sunshine Act and other state and federal transparency laws require certain pharmaceutical manufacturers to track and report certain financial arrangements with physicians and teaching hospitals, including certain “transfers of value” provided to them, as well as certain ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Although effective compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, these risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Any action against us for an alleged or suspected violation could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and could divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business, even if our defense is successful. In addition, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable laws and regulations may be costly to us in terms of money, time and resources.

Even though we obtained marketing approval of MYCAPSSA in the United States and we may obtain additional marketing approvals of octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop, we will be subject to ongoing obligations and continued regulatory review, including with respect to the advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval.

Advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval in the United States will be heavily scrutinized by, among others, the FDA, the Department of Justice, or DOJ, the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, state attorneys general, members of Congress and the public, as well as by foreign regulatory authorities in the countries in which we commercialize octreotide capsules. The manufacture and marketing of octreotide capsules will be subject to ongoing regulation, including compliance with cGMPs, adverse event reporting requirements, guidance regarding the provision of reimbursement support and patient services, and general prohibitions against promoting products for unapproved or “off-label” uses. Violations of these ongoing regulations are subject to enforcement letters, inquiries and investigations, and civil and criminal sanctions by the FDA or other government agencies. Government investigation of these issues itself typically requires the expenditure of significant resources and can generate negative publicity, which could harm our business. Additionally, advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval outside of the United States will be heavily scrutinized by comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

In the United States, engaging in impermissible promotion of our drug products for “off-label” uses can also subject us to false claims litigation under federal and state statutes, and other litigation and/or investigation, which can lead to significant administrative civil and criminal penalties and fines and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which we promote or distribute our drug products. These false claims statutes include the federal False Claims Act, which allows any individual to bring a lawsuit against a pharmaceutical company on behalf of the federal government alleging submission of false or fraudulent claims, or causing to present such false or fraudulent claims, for payment by a federal program such as Medicare or Medicaid. If the government decides to intervene and prevails in the lawsuit, the individual will share in any fines or settlement funds. In recent years, these False Claims Act lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies have increased significantly in volume and breadth, leading to substantial civil and criminal settlements based on certain sales practices promoting “off-label” drug uses. This increasing focus and scrutiny has increased the risk that a pharmaceutical company will have to defend a false claim action, pay settlement fines or restitution, agree to comply with burdensome reporting and compliance obligations, and be excluded from the Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs, among other penalties. If we do not lawfully promote our approved products, we may become subject to such litigation and/or investigation and, if we are not successful in defending against such actions, those actions could compromise our ability to become profitable. In addition, any action against us for an alleged or suspected violation could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and could divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business, even if our defense is successful. For example, the marketing and promotion of authorized products, including industry-sponsored continuing medical education and advertising directed toward the prescribers of drugs, are strictly regulated in the European Union under Directive 2001/83EC, as amended. The advertising of prescription-only medicines to the general public is not permitted in the European Union.

The manufacture and packaging of pharmaceutical products such as octreotide capsules are subject to FDA requirements and those of similar foreign regulatory bodies. If we or our third-party manufacturers fail to satisfy these requirements, our product development and commercialization efforts may be harmed.

The manufacture and packaging of pharmaceutical products, such as octreotide capsules are regulated by the FDA and similar foreign regulatory bodies and must be conducted in accordance with the FDA’s cGMP and comparable requirements of foreign regulatory bodies. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under these cGMP regulations who are both capable of manufacturing octreotide capsules and willing to do so. Failure by us or our third-party manufacturers to comply with applicable regulations or requirements could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure of regulatory authorities to grant marketing approval of our products, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, seizures or voluntary recalls of product, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could harm our business. The same requirements and risks are applicable to the suppliers of the key raw material used to manufacture the API, for octreotide capsules. The third-party contract manufacturers that we utilize or plan to utilize for commercial supply have been subject to regulatory

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inspections from time to time that resulted in inspectional observations. For example, in the CRL, the FDA advised that, during a site inspection, certain deficiencies were conveyed to the representative of one of our suppliers. In addition, we did not reference in the resubmitted and recently approved NDA our planned primary commercial API manufacturer due to unresolved observations from a recent regulatory inspection at the time of NDA resubmission. Accordingly, in order to have supply of MYCAPSSA available for the commercial launch, we had to submit a CBE-30 manufacturing supplement to the FDA and obtain the FDA’s approval of the CBE-30, which we obtained in December 2020. In addition, in order to secure an additional commercial source of API, we submitted a prior approval supplement to include in our NDA another commercial manufacturer of API and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. This manufacturing supplement was accepted for review by the FDA in January 2021, and the FDA set a PDUFA target date in the second quarter of 2021 for the completion of its review. We expect that our suppliers will be subject to additional regulatory inspections in the future, including in connection with the FDA’s review of our prior approval supplement currently under review. Changes in the manufacturing process or procedure, including a change in the location where the product is manufactured or a change of a third-party manufacturer such as those we proposed in our prior approval supplement, may require prior FDA review and approval of the manufacturing process and procedures in accordance with the FDA’s cGMP requirements. Any new facility is subject to a pre-approval inspection by the FDA and would again require us to demonstrate product comparability to the FDA. There are comparable foreign requirements. This review may be costly and time consuming and could adversely affect the commercial launch of our product. In addition, the timing of the FDA’s review process related to our prior approval supplement and the outcome of such review are inherently uncertain, and we can provide no assurances that this will be approved in a timely manner or at all.

In addition, we expect our primary supplier for commercial API will require additional qualified capacity to meet future demand and each of our planned API suppliers may use a different method to manufacture API, which has the potential to increase the risk to us that our manufacturers will fail to meet our commercial demand for API or applicable regulatory requirements. If we obtain the necessary regulatory approvals to commercialize octreotide capsules, we will also need to complete required testing on the finished product in the packaging we propose for commercial sales. This includes testing of stability, measurement of impurities and testing of other product specifications by validated test methods.

The FDA and similar foreign regulatory bodies may also implement new requirements, or change their interpretation and enforcement of existing requirements, for manufacturing, packaging or testing of products at any time. If we are unable to comply, we may be subject to regulatory, civil actions or penalties which could harm our business.

If we do not achieve our projected development and commercialization goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, the commercialization of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop may be delayed, our business will be harmed and we may not have sufficient resources to continue as a standalone company.

We estimate for planning purposes the timing of the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory, product development and commercialization objectives. These milestones may include our expectations regarding the commencement or completion of clinical trials, the submission of regulatory filings, or initiation of commercialization. From time to time, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these milestones, such as the initiation or completion of an ongoing clinical trial, submission of a marketing application for approval, receipt of marketing approval, or a commercial launch of a product. The achievement of these milestones may be outside of our control. All of these milestones are based on a variety of assumptions which may cause the timing of achievement of the milestones to vary considerably from our estimates, including:

 

our available capital resources or capital constraints we experience;

 

the rate of progress, costs and results of our clinical trials and research and development activities, including the extent of scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and collaborators, and our ability to identify and enroll patients who meet clinical trial eligibility criteria;

 

our strategic decisions on the design and conduct of our clinical trials;

 

our receipt of approvals by the FDA and other regulatory agencies and the timing thereof;

 

other actions, decisions or rules issued by regulators;

 

our ability to access sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of compounds used in the manufacture of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop;

 

the efforts of our collaborators and the success of our own efforts with respect to the commercialization of our products; and

 

the securing of, costs related to, and timing issues associated with product manufacturing as well as sales and marketing activities.

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If we fail to achieve announced milestones, including regulatory approvals, in the timeframes we announce and expect, the commercialization of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop may be prevented or delayed and our business and results of operations may be harmed.

MYCAPSSA and other products we may develop may not be commercially viable if we fail to obtain coverage and an adequate level of reimbursement for these products from governmental payors, including Medicare and Medicaid programs, private insurers, and other third-party payors. The market for octreotide capsules and other products we may develop may also be limited by the indications for which their use may be reimbursed.

The availability of coverage and adequate levels of reimbursement by governmental and other third-party payors will affect the market for MYCAPSSA and subsequent products that we may develop, if any. These third-party payors continually attempt to contain or reduce the costs of health care, such as by challenging the prices charged for medical products and services and by applying value assessments to clinical outcomes using different safety and efficacy standards than used for marketing approval by the FDA and the EMA.

In the United States, we will seek to obtain reimbursement for MYCAPSSA from third-party payors. In recent years, through legislative and regulatory actions, the federal government has made substantial changes to various payment systems under the Medicare program. Comprehensive reforms to the U.S. healthcare system were enacted in 2010 with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, or the ACA. These reforms could significantly reduce payments from Medicare and Medicaid in the future. Reforms or other changes to these payment systems, including modifications to the conditions on qualification for payment, bundling of payments or the imposition of enrollment limitations on new providers, may change the availability, methods and rates of reimbursements from governmental payors, private insurers and other third-party payors for MYCAPSSA and any other potential products we may pursue. Some of these changes and proposed changes could result in reduced reimbursement rates for MYCAPSSA and any other potential products we may pursue, which would adversely affect our business strategy, operations and financial results.

In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors. As a result, obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval of a product from a governmental or other third-party payor is a time-consuming and costly process that could require us to provide to each payor supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for the use of our products on a payor-by-payor basis, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained. Even if we obtain coverage for a given product, the resulting reimbursement payment rates might not be adequate for us to achieve or sustain profitability or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high.

We have determined a wholesale acquisition cost, or WAC, for MYCAPSSA that increases linearly in accordance with the approved dosing levels of MYCAPSSA – 40mg, 60mg, or 80mg per day. Octreotide and lanreotide product pricing is also dose dependent, and have lower WAC prices at certain dose levels. We expect that private insurers will consider the efficacy, cost effectiveness and safety of MYCAPSSA as well as the relative pricing of competing injectable somatostatin analogs in determining whether to provide reimbursement for MYCAPSSA and at what level. Obtaining these additional approvals for reimbursement can be a time-consuming and expensive process. Even though we received regulatory approval to market MYCAPSSA in the United States, our business would be harmed if we do not receive approval of reimbursement of MYCAPSSA from third-party payors on a timely or satisfactory basis. Medicare does not cover particular drugs if it determines that they are not “reasonable and necessary” for its beneficiaries. Limitations on coverage could also be imposed at the local Medicare carrier level or by fiscal intermediaries. Our business could be harmed if Medicare, local Medicare carriers or fiscal intermediaries were to make such a determination and deny or limit the reimbursement of MYCAPSSA.

Our business could also be harmed if governments, private insurers, Medicare, Medicaid or other reimbursing bodies or payors limit the indications for which MYCAPSSA will be reimbursed to a smaller set than we believe it is safe and effective in treating, or establish a limitation on the frequency with which MYCAPSSA may be administered that is less often than we believe would be safe and effective, or establish a limitation on dose that is lower than we believe would be safe and effective. In addition, even if we receive additional regulatory approvals, regulatory authorities may introduce significant restrictions to the label for MYCAPSSA in an effort to address certain concerns about the product or product candidate, including concerns raised during any review of data from the MPOWERED trial. Any such restrictions or potential reservations about efficacy expressed by regulatory authorities or within the medical community could significantly impact reimbursement, market adoption and commercial performance of MYCAPSSA.

We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of MYCAPSSA and any future product candidates we may develop, if required regulatory approvals are obtained, due to healthcare reforms, as well as the trend toward programs aimed at reducing health care costs, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations, additional legislative proposals, competitive pricing pressures, including potential generic entrants, and the economic health of companies. If coverage and reimbursement for our products are unavailable, or are limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be harmed.

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In Europe and many other foreign countries, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control, and each country has a different reviewing body that evaluates reimbursement dossiers submitted by holders of marketing authorizations for new drugs. That governing body then makes recommendations as to whether or not the drug should be reimbursed and will often consider the reimbursement levels of competing marketed standards of care. For example, injectable somatostatin analogs currently marketed in the European Union are reimbursed at levels that are far less than in the United States on a per patient, per year basis. The pricing of MYCAPSSA in the European Union, if approved, will likely be determined by government payors following an assessment of the relative efficacy, safety and benefits of MYCAPSSA versus standard of care somatostatin analog injections. We believe the data from the MPOWERED trial will provide the information required to make these assessments. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take 12 months or longer after the receipt of regulatory approval. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate, such as MYCAPSSA, to other available therapies. Future U.S. pharmaceutical pricing regulations may require that the U.S. price for MYCAPSSA be referenced to the lower or lowest price levels of the product, or competing somatostatin analogs, as set in other ex-U.S. countries, which reference pricing impact could significantly harm our business.

We plan to rely on a limited number of specialty pharmacies for distribution of MYCAPSSA in the United States, and the loss of a specialty pharmacy or its failure to distribute MYCAPSSA effectively would materially harm our business.

MYCAPSSA is currently only available for distribution in the United States through one specialty pharmacy and we expect to engage only a limited number of specialty pharmacies as we further develop our distribution network. The use of a limited network may increase the challenge of obtaining payor reimbursement coverage. A specialty pharmacy is a pharmacy that specializes in the dispensing of medications for complex or chronic conditions, which often require a high level of patient education and ongoing management. The use of specialty pharmacies involves certain risks, including, but not limited to, risks that these organizations will:

 

not provide us accurate or timely information regarding their inventories, the number of patients who are using MYCAPSSA or serious adverse reactions, events and/or product complaints regarding MYCAPSSA;

 

reduce their efforts or discontinue to sell or support or otherwise not effectively sell or support MYCAPSSA;

 

not devote the resources necessary to sell MYCAPSSA in the volumes and within the time frames that we expect;

 

be unable to satisfy financial obligations or other contractual obligations to us or others; or

 

cease operations.

Any such events may result in decreased product sales and lower product revenue, which would harm our results of operations and business. We expect that it would take a significant amount of time if we were required to replace a specialty pharmacy.

Product liability lawsuits could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and limit potential commercialization of oral octreotide or other product candidates we may develop, and we may not be able to maintain our current product liability coverage, and, even if we do, our coverage may not be adequate to cover any or all liabilities that we may incur, which could decrease our cash and harm our business.

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of product candidates in human clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any drugs that we may develop. For example, we may be sued if any drug we develop allegedly causes injury or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during clinical testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our product candidates or drugs caused injuries, we will incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

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decreased demand for any product candidates or drugs that we may develop;

 

injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;

 

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

initiation of investigations by regulators;

 

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

 

significant costs to defend the related litigation;

 

substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

 

loss of revenue;

 

reduced resources of our management to pursue our business strategy;

 

potential disputes, including litigation, with our insurance provider regarding coverage and

 

the inability or significant limitations on the ability to commercialize any drugs that we may develop.

We currently have $10.0 million in product liability insurance coverage in the aggregate, which may not be adequate to cover any or all liabilities that we may incur. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise. We intend to expand our product liability insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products, including octreotide capsules, and if we obtain additional marketing approvals of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop, but we may be unable to obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance. Large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on drugs that had unanticipated side effects. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us, particularly if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could decrease our cash and harm our business. In addition, we may not be able to maintain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or otherwise to protect against potential product liability claims, which could prevent or inhibit the commercial production and sale of our products.

The longer-term growth of our business depends on our efforts to expand the approved uses of octreotide capsules beyond acromegaly and leverage our TPE platform to expand our portfolio of product candidates, which may require substantial financial resources and may ultimately be unsuccessful.

The longer-term growth of our business depends upon our ability to expand the approved uses of octreotide capsules beyond acromegaly and utilize our proprietary Transient Permeability Enhancer, or TPE, technology platform to potentially develop and commercialize other oral forms of therapies that are currently only available in injectable or other non-absorbable forms. In addition to the development and commercialization of octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly, we may pursue development of octreotide capsules for other indications or develop other product candidates alone or in collaboration with other parties. Because we eliminated substantially all of our research and discovery functions during the August 2016 reduction in workforce, we now have only limited internal capacity to develop any new product candidates. We also may never be able to identify other peptide drugs or poorly absorbed small-molecule drugs that can successfully be developed into product candidates utilizing our TPE platform, let alone receive regulatory approval of such product candidates, and we may never be able to engage in licensing transactions that enable a third party to utilize TPE in the development of future product candidates.

Research programs to identify new disease targets and product candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources whether or not we ultimately identify any product candidates, and we are not currently materially investing in such research programs. As a result, we may not be able to successfully identify any future product candidates or new indications for octreotide capsules.

There are a number of FDA, EMA and other health authority, as applicable, requirements that we must satisfy before we can commence a clinical trial. If we are able to identify additional potential product candidates, satisfaction of these regulatory requirements will entail substantial time, effort and financial resources. We may never satisfy these requirements. Any time, effort and financial resources we expend on development of other product candidates may impair our ability to continue development and commercialization of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly and other indications, if pursued, and we may never commence clinical trials of such development programs despite expending significant resources in pursuit of their development. If we do commence clinical trials of octreotide capsules in other indications besides acromegaly or other product candidates, these product candidates may never demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy to be approved by the FDA or other regulatory authorities.

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Our development, regulatory and commercialization strategy for octreotide capsules continues to depend, in part, on published scientific literature and prior findings regarding the safety and efficacy of approved products containing octreotide.

The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Act, added Section 505(b)(2) to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or Section 505(b)(2). Section 505(b)(2) permits the submission of an NDA where at least some of the information required for approval comes from investigations that were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person or entity by or for whom the investigations were conducted. The FDA interprets Section 505(b)(2) to permit the applicant to rely, in part, upon published literature or the FDA’s previous findings of safety and efficacy for an approved product. The FDA also requires companies to perform additional clinical trials or measurements to support any difference from the previously approved product. The FDA may then approve the new product candidate for all or some of the label indications for which the listed drug has been approved, as well as for any new indication(s) sought by the Section 505(b)(2) applicant as supported by additional data. The label, however, may require all or some of the limitations, contraindications, warnings or precautions included in the listed drug’s label, including a black box warning, or may require additional limitations, contraindications, warnings or precautions.

We designed our nonclinical and clinical programs to seek regulatory approval for octreotide capsules for registration filing in the United States using the FDA’s 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway and using the hybrid application pathway in the European Union. Our NDA for which we received FDA approval of octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly relied, and we intend that our planned MAA will rely, in part, on previous findings of safety and efficacy for an approved immediate-release injectable octreotide product and published scientific literature for which we have not received a right of reference. Even though we designed our development programs to take advantage of Section 505(b)(2) and the hybrid application pathway to support potential regulatory approval of octreotide capsules in the United States and the European Union and obtained FDA approval of our NDA for octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly, if we submit an MAA to the EMA based on the results of the MPOWRED trial, the EMA may require us to perform additional clinical trials or measurements to support approval over and above the clinical trials that we have already completed or initiated. The EMA also may determine that we have not provided sufficient data to justify reliance on prior investigations involving the approved immediate-release injectable octreotide product.

In addition, notwithstanding the approval of many products by the FDA pursuant to Section 505(b)(2), in the past some pharmaceutical companies and others have objected to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2). For example, parties have filed citizen petitions objecting to the FDA approving a Section 505(b)(2) NDA on scientific, legal and regulatory grounds. Scientific arguments have included the assertions that for the FDA to determine the similarity of the drug in the 505(b)(2) NDA to the listed drug, the FDA would need to reference proprietary manufacturing information or trade secrets in the listed drug’s NDA; that it would be scientifically inappropriate for the FDA to rely on public or nonpublic information about the listed drug because it differs in various ways from the drug in the 505(b)(2) NDA; or that differences between the listed drug and the drug in the 505(b)(2) NDA may impair the latter’s safety and effectiveness. Legal and regulatory arguments have included the assertion that Section 505(b)(2) NDAs must contain a full report of investigations conducted on the drug proposed for approval, and that approving a drug through the 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway would lower the approval standards. In addition, citizen petitions have made patent-based challenges against 505(b)(2) NDAs. For example, petitioners have asserted that the FDA should refuse to file a 505(b)(2) NDA unless it references a specific NDA as the listed drug, because it is “most similar” to the proposed drug, and provides appropriate patent certification to all patents listed for that NDA; or that when a 505(b)(2) NDA is pending before the FDA, but before it is approved, where the FDA approves an NDA for a drug that is pharmaceutically equivalent to the drug that is the subject of the 505(b)(2) NDA, then the FDA should require that the 505(b)(2) NDA be resubmitted referencing the approved NDA as the listed drug and certifying to the listed patents for that approved drug. However, if the FDA or EMA changes its interpretation of Section 505(b)(2) or the hybrid application pathway, or if the FDA’s or EMA’s interpretation is successfully challenged in court, this could delay or even prevent the FDA or EMA, as applicable, from approving any Section 505(b)(2) NDAs or hybrid application pathway MAAs that we submit. Such a result could require us to conduct additional testing and costly clinical trials, which could substantially delay or prevent the approval and launch of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly in the EMA or any future product candidates we may develop.

We may be unable to obtain and maintain orphan drug designation or exclusivity for oral octreotide or future product candidates we may develop. If our competitors are able to obtain orphan drug exclusivity for their products that are the same as our product candidates, we may not be able to have competing products approved by the applicable regulatory authority for a significant period of time.

Our octreotide capsules product candidate has been granted orphan designation in the United States and the European Union for the oral treatment of acromegaly. Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, as amended, the FDA may designate a product candidate as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as having a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals diagnosed annually in the United States, or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the United States where there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from

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sales in the United States. In the European Union, the European Commission, after reviewing the opinion of the EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products, or COMP, grants orphan drug designation to promote the development of products that are intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition affecting not more than five in 10,000 persons in the European Union. Additionally, designation is granted for products intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life-threatening, seriously debilitating or serious and chronic condition when, without incentives, it is unlikely that sales of the drug in the European Union would be sufficient to justify the necessary investment in developing the product candidate. Even if we request orphan drug designation for any future product candidates we may develop, there can be no assurances that the FDA or the European Commission will grant any of these product candidates such designation. Additionally, the designation by the FDA or the European Commission of any potential product candidates as an orphan drug does not guarantee that the FDA or the EMA will accelerate regulatory review of or ultimately approve that product candidate.

Generally, if a product candidate with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval of the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the EMA or the FDA from approving another marketing application for the same drug and indication for that time period, except in limited circumstances. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and 10 years in the European Union. The European exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a product no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the product is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA or EMA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition.

Even though we have obtained orphan drug designation for octreotide capsules in the United States, the orphan drug exclusivity determination is pending the FDA’s decision as a treatment for acromegaly and orphan drug designation for octreotide capsules in the European Union as a potential treatment for acromegaly and may obtain orphan drug designation for octreotide capsules in other indications or for future product candidates we may develop, we may not obtain orphan drug exclusivity and any such exclusivity that we do obtain may not effectively protect the product candidate from competition because different drugs can be approved for the same condition and the same drugs can be approved for different indications and might then be used off-label in our approved indication, if obtained. In the United States, even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve another drug for the same condition if the FDA concludes that such later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. In addition, if a potential future product candidate of ours receives an orphan drug designation and is approved for a particular indication or use within the rare disease or condition, the FDA may later approve the same drug for additional indications or uses within that rare disease or condition that are not protected by our exclusive approval. As a result, if our product is approved and receives orphan drug status, the FDA can still approve other drugs for use in treating the same indication or disease covered by our product, which could create a more competitive market for us. Similarly, the European Commission may grant a marketing authorization for a similar medicinal product in the same therapeutic indication if the second applicant can establish that although their product is similar to the orphan medicinal product already authorized, the second product is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior.

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and our current and future clinical trials may not be successful. Results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future trial results, and approval in one jurisdiction may not be predictive of approval in other jurisdictions.

Conducting clinical trials and developing drugs is a lengthy, time consuming and expensive process. For example, we incurred significant expenses in developing and obtaining the FDA’s approval of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly with no guarantees that doing so would result in such an approval and we expect to continue to incur significant expenses to seek a potential regulatory approval in the European Union and our planned MAA to the EMA based on the results of the MPOWERED trial. Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain, and we will continue to be subject to these risks. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process and results of past, current or future trials can adversely affect prospects of securing regulatory approval or regulatory approvals previously received.

The results of nonclinical studies and prior clinical trials may not be predictive of the results of future clinical trials. The results of our completed clinical trials for octreotide capsules in acromegaly, including the CHIASMA OPTIMAL Phase 3 trial, do not ensure that future clinical trials will also generate comparable results. Among other considerations, these trials may be designed in a way that is different from our completed clinical trials. For example, the EMA required that we use multiple time points in the Phase 3 clinical trial that we initiated in March 2016 rather than a single time point for the primary endpoint determination used for our initial Phase 3 clinical trial. While the EMA agreed that we use the same cut off as used in our first Phase 3 clinical trial of IGF-1 < 1.3 times the upper limit of normal as the threshold for response, the FDA agreed that we use IGF-1 ≤ 1.0 times the upper limit of normal in the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial. The fact that we have not used such endpoints previously for regulatory submissions outside the United States introduces an additional level of uncertainty in the ability for the data from the MPOWERED Phase 3 clinical trial to support regulatory approval from the EMA. We cannot provide assurance that the FDA or EMA will view the results as we do or that any of

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our future trials of octreotide capsules or any clinical trials we may conduct for other indications, if any, will achieve positive results. Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through nonclinical studies and prior clinical trials. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, notwithstanding promising results in prior trials.

Despite the results reported in earlier nonclinical studies and clinical trials for octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly, any current or future clinical trial results of octreotide capsules may not be successful in acromegaly, or any other indication, if studied. A number of factors could contribute to a lack of favorable safety and efficacy results for octreotide capsules for acromegaly or other indications. For example, such trials could result in increased variability due to varying site characteristics, such as local standards of care, differences in evaluation period, and varying patient characteristics, including demographic factors and health status. If later-stage clinical trials do not produce favorable results, it will raise substantial doubt about our ability to achieve regulatory approval of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly or other indications.

Any negative clinical results from, termination or suspension of, or delays in the commencement or completion of any ongoing or future trials of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly or for any additional indications, in the United States or other countries, or future clinical trials of product candidates we may develop could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue or achieve or sustain profitability, negatively impact our commercial prospects, cause our market value and stock price to fall and jeopardize our viability as a business.

Delays in the completion of any clinical trials of octreotide capsules for other indications we may pursue, if conducted, or any future clinical trials we may conduct for other product candidates we may develop, or negative findings in those trials, could significantly increase our product development costs and jeopardize our ability to commercialize octreotide capsules. The completion of any clinical trials we may conduct could be delayed for a number of other reasons, including delays related to:

 

the FDA, the EMA or any other relevant regulatory authority failing to grant permission to proceed and placing the clinical trial on hold;

 

patient enrollment and variability in the number and types of patients available for clinical trials, which is particularly challenging for orphan indications, including due to other ongoing clinical trials in the same or similar disease state;

 

a facility manufacturing octreotide acetate, octreotide capsules, placebo capsules or any other product candidate we may develop being found deficient in its processes, as the FDA noted in the CRL and as was observed in a recent regulatory inspection at the time of our NDA resubmission, or ordered by the FDA, EMA or other government or regulatory authorities to temporarily or permanently shut down due to violations of cGMP requirements or other applicable requirements, or cross-contaminations of product candidates in the manufacturing process;

 

any changes to our manufacturing process that may be necessary or desired or a failure to successfully manufacture qualifying clinical trial supplies of oral octreotide capsules or placebo;

 

patients choosing an alternative treatment for acromegaly or any of the indications for which we may develop octreotide capsules or potential product candidates, or participating in competing clinical trials;

 

difficulty in maintaining contact with patients after treatment, resulting in incomplete or missing data;

 

patients experiencing drug-related adverse effects;

 

reports from clinical testing on similar technologies and products raising safety and/or efficacy concerns;

 

third-party clinical investigators losing their licenses or permits necessary to perform our clinical trials, not performing our clinical trials on our anticipated schedule or employing methods that are inconsistent with the clinical trial protocol, good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements, or other third parties not performing data collection and analysis in a timely or accurate manner;

 

inspections of clinical trial sites by the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities finding regulatory violations that require us to undertake corrective action, result in suspension or termination of one or more sites or the imposition of a clinical hold on the entire trial, or that prohibit us from using some or all of the data in support of our marketing applications;

 

third-party contractors becoming debarred or suspended or otherwise penalized by the FDA or other government or regulatory authorities for violations of regulatory requirements, in which case we may need to find a substitute contractor, and we may not be able to use some or any of the data produced by such contractors in support of our marketing applications;

 

one or more IRBs or ethics committees refusing to approve, suspending or terminating the study at an investigational site, precluding enrollment of additional patients, or withdrawing its approval of the trial;

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reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

 

deviations of the clinical sites from trial protocols or dropping out of a trial;

 

delays in adding new clinical trial sites;

 

the inability of the CRO to execute any clinical trials for any reason;

 

the inability to enroll patients who participated in prior clinical trials in our current or planned clinical trials; or

 

government or regulatory delays or “clinical holds” requiring suspension or termination of a trial.

Product development costs for octreotide capsules in acromegaly or any other future indications we may pursue or for product candidates we may develop in the future will increase if we have delays in testing or approval, such as the delay in approval of octreotide capsules that we experienced due to the CRL, or if we need to perform more or larger clinical studies than planned. If we experience delays in the completion of, or if we, the FDA, other regulatory authorities, IRBs or other reviewing entities, or any of our clinical trial sites suspend or terminate any of our clinical trials of octreotide capsules for any indication or for product candidates we may develop in the future, its commercial prospects may be harmed and our ability to generate product revenues or achieve or sustain profitability will be delayed. Any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, termination or suspension of, or a delay in the commencement or completion of, clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial or even withdrawal of regulatory approval of octreotide capsules for any indication or for product candidates we may develop in the future. In addition, if one or more clinical trials are delayed, our competitors may be able to bring products to market before we do, and the commercial viability of octreotide capsules could be significantly reduced.

Changes in regulatory requirements and guidance may also occur, and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols submitted to applicable regulatory authorities to reflect these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit clinical trial protocols to IRBs or ethics committees for re-examination, which may impact the costs, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial.

The FDA’s and other regulatory authorities’ policies may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other studies with respect to octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop beyond those that we may propose to conduct, or if we are unable to successfully complete our clinical trials or other studies, we may be delayed in obtaining regulatory approval of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval at all or we may obtain approval of indications that are not as broad as intended. Our product development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or approvals, and we may not have sufficient funding to complete the testing and approval process for octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop. Significant clinical trial delays could allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to commercialize our products if and when approved. If any of this occurs, our business would be harmed.

Changes in funding for, or leadership at, or disruptions at the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies, including due to the novel coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic, could hinder their ability to hire and retain key personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed, approved or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products or take action with respect to other regulatory matters can be affected by a variety of factors, including prioritization of activities related to managing the novel coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic, government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the SEC, the FDA and other government agencies on which our business relies is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

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Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved, or for other actions to be taken, by relevant government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including for 35 days beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, have had to furlough critical FDA, SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. In addition, the FDA is experiencing disruptions related to the novel coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic, including postponing most foreign inspections and scaling back domestic inspections, and has also warned that it may be unable to sustain its current level of performance for its new drug program and other programs. If a prolonged government shutdown or other disruption occurs or if disruptions related to the outbreak of novel coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic continue or worsen, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Similarly, a prolonged government shutdown or other disruption could prevent the timely review of patent applications by the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, which could delay the issuance of any U.S. patents to which we might otherwise be entitled. Further, in our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials, in particular with respect to octreotide capsules and any other product candidates that we may pursue, which could delay or prevent clinical trials of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop and potentially harm our business.

Identifying and qualifying patients to participate in clinical trials of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop is critical to our success. The timing of our clinical trials depends on the speed at which we can recruit patients to participate in testing octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop as well as completion of required follow-up periods. If patients are unable or unwilling to participate in our clinical trials for any reason, including if patients choose to enroll in competitive clinical trials for similar patient populations or they are unwilling to enroll and stay in a clinical trial with a placebo-controlled design, the timeline for recruiting patients, conducting studies and obtaining regulatory approval of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop may be delayed. These delays could result in increased costs, and we may not have sufficient capital on hand or the ability to raise additional capital to cover such costs, delays in advancing octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop, delays in testing the effectiveness of future product candidates, if any, or termination of the clinical trials altogether.

We may not be able to identify, recruit and enroll a sufficient number of patients, or those with required or desired characteristics to achieve diversity in a trial, to complete our clinical trials in a timely manner. In particular, the conditions for which we may evaluate octreotide capsules are orphan diseases with limited patient pools from which to draw for clinical trials. The eligibility criteria of our clinical trials will further limit the pool of available trial participants. For example, while we were enrolling patients in the United States, Russia, Europe and other countries, we were not permitted to enroll patients from our prior clinical trials in our MPOWERED Phase 3 clinical trial to support MAA submission and approval in the European Union. The same limitation was true for our CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial. Further, in light of the FDA’s position that the MPOWERED clinical trial would not be sufficient to address the concerns in the CRL, we modified certain elements of the MPOWERED trial in an effort to preserve patients, sites and other resources necessary to conduct the CHIASMA OPTIMAL Phase 3 trial.

Patient enrollment is affected by factors including the:

 

severity of the disease under investigation;

 

design of the clinical trial protocol;

 

size and nature of the patient population;

 

perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under trial;

 

possibility of receiving placebo rather than active drug in certain controlled trials, such as was the case in the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial;

 

eligibility criteria for the trial in question;

 

possibility of being randomized back to current injectable therapies, such as was the case in the MPOWERED trial, or rescued back to current injectable therapies following a loss of biochemical and symptom control, such as was the case in the CHIASMA OPTIMAL trial;

 

proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients;

 

availability of competing therapies and clinical trials;

 

perceptions of patients and healthcare providers as to the potential advantages of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;

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efforts to facilitate timely enrollment of patients in clinical trials;

 

patient referral practices of physicians; and

 

ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment.

If we have difficulty enrolling a sufficient number of patients to conduct our clinical trials or our clinical trials produce incomplete data, we may be forced to delay, limit or terminate ongoing or planned clinical trials, any of which would have an adverse effect on our business. We could encounter delays if physicians encounter unresolved ethical issues associated with enrolling patients in clinical trials of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates that we may develop in lieu of prescribing existing treatments that have established safety and efficacy profiles. We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials if we cannot enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in the clinical trials required by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities. Our ability to successfully initiate, enroll and complete a clinical trial in any foreign country is subject to numerous risks unique to conducting business in foreign countries, including the:

 

difficulty in establishing or managing relationships with CROs and physicians;

 

different requirements and standards for conducting clinical trials;

 

inability to locate qualified local consultants, physicians and partners; and

 

potential burden of complying with a variety of foreign laws, medical standards and regulatory requirements, including the regulation of pharmaceutical and biotechnology products and treatments.

Our ability to develop a viable pipeline of potential future products may require us to enter into acquisition, license or similar agreements with third parties, and we may not be successful in negotiating the necessary agreements, or in achieving economic terms that will be sufficiently favorable to justify development of one or more such future products.

As a result of the elimination of substantially all of our research functions, we are currently unable to develop future potential products through internal research programs. Therefore, we may consider expanding the scope of future potential product candidates by acquiring or licensing product candidates, discovery programs or other technologies from third parties or licensing our TPE technology to third parties.

We may, however, be unable to license or acquire suitable product candidates from third parties for a number of reasons. In particular, the licensing and acquisition of pharmaceutical products is a competitive area. For example, several more established companies are also pursuing strategies to license or acquire products in the somatostatin analog or endocrinology field. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, cash resources and greater research, clinical development and commercialization capabilities. Other factors that may prevent us from licensing or otherwise acquiring suitable product candidates include the following:

 

we may be unable to license or acquire the relevant product candidate or technology on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return, or the financial terms required by the owners of those product candidates or technologies may be unfavorable enough to preclude successful development and commercialization for such products;

 

companies that perceive us to be their competitors may be unwilling to assign or license their product rights to us;

 

we do not currently have dedicated research or business development personnel on staff;

 

we may be unable to identify suitable products or product candidates within our areas of expertise; or

 

if we are unable to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the United States in a timely manner or at all third-party confidence in our TPE platform could be reduced and potentially make us a less attractive partner.

In addition, even if we are able to successfully license or acquire suitable technology from third parties, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully develop product candidates from such technology or receive necessary approvals to commercialize any such product candidates.

We only have limited human and financial resources to develop suitable potential product candidates through internal research programs, we may not have the resources to obtain rights to technologies or product candidates from third parties, and we may not be able to license our TPE technology to third parties for development of future product candidates, thereby limiting our ability to develop a diverse product portfolio. If we are unable to develop such a portfolio, our business may suffer.

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Legislative or regulatory reform of the health care system in the United States and foreign jurisdictions may adversely impact our business, operations or financial results.

Our industry is highly regulated and changes in law may adversely impact our business, operations or financial results. In particular, in March 2010, the ACA was signed into law. This legislation changes the current system of healthcare insurance and benefits intended to broaden coverage and control costs. The law also contains provisions that will affect companies in the pharmaceutical industry and other healthcare related industries by imposing additional costs and changes to business practices. Provisions affecting pharmaceutical companies include the following:

 

mandatory rebates for drugs sold into the Medicaid program have been increased, and the rebate requirement has been extended to drugs used in risk-based Medicaid managed care plans;

 

the definition of “average manufacturer price” was revised for reporting purposes, which could increase the amount of Medicaid drug rebates by state;

 

the 340B Drug Pricing Program under the Public Health Service Act has been extended to require mandatory discounts for drug products sold to certain critical access hospitals, cancer hospitals and other covered entities;

 

pharmaceutical companies are required to offer discounts on brand-name drugs to patients who fall within the Medicare Part D coverage gap, commonly referred to as the “donut hole”; and

 

pharmaceutical companies are required to pay an annual non-tax deductible fee to the federal government based on each company’s market share of prior year total sales of branded products to certain federal healthcare programs. We expect our branded pharmaceutical sales to continue to constitute a small portion of the total federal health program pharmaceutical market, and therefore do not expect this annual assessment to have a material impact on our financial condition.

Despite initiatives to invalidate the ACA, the U.S. Supreme Court has upheld certain key aspects of the legislation, including the requirement that all individuals maintain health insurance coverage or pay a penalty, referred to as the individual mandate, and a key provision of the ACA, which provides federal premium tax credits to individuals purchasing coverage through health insurance exchanges.

Some of the provisions of the ACA have yet to be fully implemented, while certain provisions have been subject to judicial and Congressional challenges. As a result of tax reform legislation passed in December 2017, the individual mandate has been eliminated effective January 1, 2019. Various portions of the ACA are currently undergoing legal and constitutional challenges in the Fifth Circuit Court and the United States Supreme Court; the Trump Administration has issued various Executive Orders which eliminated cost sharing subsidies and various provisions that would impose a fiscal burden on states or a cost, fee, tax, penalty or regulatory burden on individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices; and Congress has introduced several pieces of legislation aimed at significantly revising or repealing the ACA. It is unclear whether the ACA will be overturned, repealed, replaced, or further amended. We cannot predict what affect further changes to the ACA would have on our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011 among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, starting in 2013, which will remain in effect until 2029 unless additional congressional action is taken. On January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. We expect that additional federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, and in turn could significantly reduce the projected value of certain development projects and reduce our profitability.

In addition, in September 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 was enacted giving the FDA enhanced post-marketing authority including the authority to require post-marketing studies and clinical trials, labeling changes based on new safety information and compliance with risk evaluations and mitigation strategies approved by the FDA. The FDA’s exercise of this authority could result in delays or increased costs during product development, clinical trials and regulatory review, increased costs to ensure compliance with post-approval regulatory requirements and potential restrictions on the sale and/or distribution of approved products. Other legislative and regulatory initiatives have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. For example, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act of 2013 imposes new obligations on manufacturers of certain pharmaceutical products related to product tracking and tracing. We do not know whether

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additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance documents or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of octreotide capsules, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

Further, in some foreign jurisdictions, including the European Union and Canada, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take 12 months or longer after the receipt of regulatory approval and product launch. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of octreotide capsules and any future product candidate we may develop to other available therapies. Our business could be harmed if reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels.

Moreover, we cannot predict what healthcare reform initiatives may be adopted in the future. Further, federal and state legislative and regulatory developments are likely, and we expect ongoing initiatives in the United States to increase pressure on drug pricing. Such reforms could have an adverse effect on anticipated revenues from octreotide capsules and any other product candidates that we may successfully develop and for which we may obtain regulatory approval and may affect our overall financial condition and ability to develop product candidates.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We are, and expect to be for the foreseeable future, dependent on a limited number of third parties to manufacture octreotide capsules.

We do not currently have, nor do we plan to acquire, the capability or infrastructure to manufacture the API in octreotide capsules for use in our clinical trials or for commercial product. We have qualified Novetide Ltd., a subsidiary of Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd., in Israel and an affiliate of Teva API, Inc., and Bachem Americas Inc. in the United States as our suppliers of the generic API, octreotide acetate. The octreotide API is lyophilized, formulated with our TPE technology by Lyophilization Services of New England Inc., or LSNE, in Bedford, NH, and enteric-coated and blister packed by Capsugel, a division of Lonza, in Scotland. Almac Pharma Services Limited in Northern Ireland provides finished packaging and release services.

The facilities used by our contract manufacturers to manufacture octreotide capsules are evaluated by the FDA and other regulatory bodies. We are completely dependent on our contract manufacturing partners for compliance with cGMPs for manufacture of both API and finished drug products. These cGMP regulations cover all aspects of the manufacturing, testing, quality control and record keeping relating to octreotide capsules. If our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA or others, we will not be able to secure and/or maintain regulatory approval of our product candidate being manufactured at their manufacturing facilities. If the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority finds deficiencies at these facilities, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval of or market octreotide capsules. The third-party contract manufacturers that we utilize or plan to utilize for commercial supply have been subject to regulatory inspections from time to time that resulted in inspectional observations. For example, we did not reference in our approved NDA our planned primary commercial API manufacturer due to unresolved observations from a recent regulatory inspection at the time of NDA resubmission. We expect that our suppliers will be subject to additional regulatory inspections in the future, including in connection with the FDA’s ongoing review of our prior approval supplement to include in our NDA another commercial manufacturer of API and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. There can be no assurances that our suppliers will pass all necessary inspections, the failure of which could result in delays to our ability to receive regulatory approval for octreotide capsules. Any inspections may be delayed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since March 2020, foreign and domestic inspections by the FDA have largely been on hold with FDA announcing plans in July 2020 to resume prioritized domestic inspections. Should FDA determine that an inspection is necessary for approval of a marketing application and an inspection cannot be completed during the review cycle due to restrictions on travel, FDA has stated that it generally intends to issue a complete response letter. Further, if there is inadequate information to make a determination on the acceptability of a facility, FDA may defer action on the application until an inspection can be completed. In 2020, several companies announced receipt of complete response letters due to the FDA's inability to complete required inspections for their applications. Regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and may experience delays in their regulatory activities.

In addition, our contract manufacturers will be subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and corresponding state and foreign agencies for compliance with cGMPs and similar regulatory requirements. We do not have control over our contract manufacturers’ compliance with these regulations and requirements. Failure by any of our contract manufacturers to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure to grant

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approval to market octreotide capsules, delays, suspensions or withdrawals of approvals, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could harm our business. In addition, we have no control over the ability of our contract manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. Failure by our contract manufacturers to comply with or maintain any of these requirements could impair our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval of or market octreotide capsules.

If, for any reason, these third parties are unable or unwilling to perform, we may not be able to effectively terminate our agreements with them, and we may not be able to locate alternative manufacturers or formulators or enter into favorable agreements with them, and we cannot be certain that any such third parties will have the manufacturing capacity to meet future requirements. We may also be forced to manufacture the materials ourselves, for which we may not have the capabilities or resources. In either scenario, our clinical trials or commercial distribution could be delayed significantly as we establish alternative supply sources. In some cases, the technical skills required to manufacture our products or product candidates may be unique or proprietary to the original contract manufacturer and we may have difficulty, or there may be contractual restrictions prohibiting us from, transferring such skills to a back-up or alternate supplier, or we may be unable to transfer such skills at all. Furthermore, a contract manufacturer may possess technology related to the manufacture of our product candidate that such contract manufacturer owns independently. This would increase our reliance on such contract manufacturer or require us to obtain a license from such contract manufacturer in order to have another contract manufacturer manufacture our products or product candidates. In addition, in the case of the contract manufacturers that supply our product candidates, changes in manufacturers often involve changes in manufacturing procedures and processes, which could require that we conduct bridging studies between our prior clinical supply used in our clinical trials and that of any new manufacturer. We may be unsuccessful in demonstrating the comparability of clinical supplies which could require the conduct of additional clinical trials. If our current manufacturers, or any alternate manufacturer, of finished drug product experiences any significant difficulties in its respective manufacturing processes for our API or finished octreotide capsules product or should cease doing business with us, we could experience significant interruptions in the supply of octreotide capsules or may not be able to create a supply of octreotide capsules at all.

Were we to encounter manufacturing issues, our ability to produce a sufficient supply of octreotide capsules might be negatively affected. Our inability to coordinate the efforts of our third-party manufacturing partners, or their inability to increase and maintain their capacity to meet our commercial demand, could impair our ability to supply octreotide capsules at required levels. Because of the significant regulatory requirements that are necessary to qualify a new API or finished product manufacturer or to qualify a new or existing site for a current manufacturer, which we are pursuing with the prior approval supplement currently under review by the FDA for a planned additional source of commercial API, we could experience significant interruptions in the supply of octreotide capsules if such regulatory qualifications are withheld or delayed, especially if we decided to transfer the manufacture of API or finished octreotide capsules to one or more alternative manufacturers in an effort to deal with any manufacturing, qualification or other difficulties. In addition, if we are required to change contract manufacturers for any reason, we will be required to verify that the new contract manufacturer maintains facilities and procedures that comply with quality standards and with all applicable regulations. We will also need to verify, such as through a manufacturing comparability study, that any new manufacturing process will produce our product according to the specifications previously submitted to or approved by the FDA or another regulatory authority. The delays associated with the verification of a new contract manufacturer could negatively affect our ability to develop product candidates or commercialize our products in a timely manner or within budget.

Any manufacturing problem or the loss of a contract manufacturer or our failure to obtain FDA approval of our prior approval supplement could be disruptive to our operations and, if our products receive marketing approval, result in lost sales. Additionally, we rely on third parties to supply the raw materials needed to manufacture octreotide capsules. Any reliance on suppliers may involve several risks, including a potential inability to obtain critical materials and reduced control over production costs, delivery schedules, reliability and quality. Any unanticipated disruption to future contract manufacturers caused by problems at suppliers could delay shipment of octreotide capsules and increase our cost of goods sold and result in lost sales. Furthermore, on March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was signed into law in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the COVID-19 outbreak, there has been public concern over the availability and accessibility of critical medical products, and the CARES Act enhances FDA’s existing authority with respect to drug shortage measures. Under the CARES Act, we must have in place a risk management plan that identifies and evaluates the risks to the supply of approved drugs for certain serious diseases or conditions for each establishment where the drug or API is manufactured. The risk management plan will be subject to FDA review during an inspection. If we experience shortages in the supply of our marketed product, our results could be materially impacted.

We cannot guarantee that our current manufacturing and supply partners or any alternative service providers will be able to reduce the costs of commercial-scale manufacturing of octreotide capsules over time. If the manufacturing costs of octreotide capsules remain at current levels or increase, these costs may significantly impact our future operating results, including our ability to profitably commercialize octreotide capsules in the European Union and other countries, if approved. In order to reduce costs and improve efficiencies, we plan to develop and implement process improvements and produce octreotide capsules at a larger scale. However, in order to do so, we will need, from time to time, to notify or make submissions with regulatory authorities, and the improvements may

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be subject to approval by such regulatory authorities. We cannot be sure that we will receive these necessary approvals or that these approvals will be granted in a timely fashion. We also cannot guarantee that we will be able to enhance and optimize output in our commercial manufacturing process. If we cannot enhance and optimize output, we may not be able to produce sufficient quantities of octreotide capsules or reduce our costs over time, which could be detrimental to the profitability of octreotide capsules in any market, and particularly the EU market where substantially lower prices are expected if we are able to secure marketing approvals for octreotide capsules there.

We have previously established commercial manufacturing agreements with Teva API, Inc. for the API in octreotide capsules and with LSNE for certain testing and lyophilization services. Following our receipt of the CRL in 2016, we indefinitely suspended our commercial production commitments and only recently reinitiated commercial production planning and commitments with these suppliers. We have also more recently entered into commercial supply agreements with Lonza, Bachem and Almac. In the future we may not be able to reach or maintain agreements containing terms that are acceptable to us with our commercial manufacturers.

If our third-party manufacturers use hazardous and biological materials in a manner that causes injury or violates applicable law, we may be liable for damages.

Our development activities involve the controlled use of potentially hazardous substances, including chemical and biological materials by our third-party manufacturers. Our manufacturers are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations in the United States governing medical, radioactive and hazardous materials. Although we believe that our manufacturers’ procedures for using, handling, storing and disposing of these materials comply with legally prescribed requirements, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury resulting from such materials. As a result of any such contamination or injury we may incur liability or local, city, state or federal authorities may curtail the use of these materials, interrupting our business operations. In the event of an accident, we could be held liable for damages or penalized with fines, and the liability could exceed our resources. Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations is expensive, and current or future environmental regulations may impair our development and production efforts, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

An important part of our strategy may be to enter into licensing or collaboration agreements with respect to octreotide capsules and future product candidates, if any, in certain territories. We may not be able to identify suitable collaborators and, even if we do, our dependence on such relationships may adversely affect our business.

Because we have limited resources, we may seek to enter into collaboration agreements with other pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies. Our strategy for commercializing octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop may depend on our ability to enter into agreements with collaborators to obtain assistance and funding for the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates in the territories in which we may seek to partner. Despite our efforts, we may be unable to secure collaborative licensing or other arrangements that are necessary for us to further develop and commercialize our product candidates. Supporting diligence activities conducted by potential collaborators and negotiating the financial and other terms of a collaboration agreement are long and complex processes with uncertain results. Even if we are successful in entering into one or more collaboration agreements, collaborations may involve greater uncertainty for us, as we have less control over certain aspects of our collaborative programs than we do over our proprietary development and commercialization programs.

Any failure by our partners to perform their obligations or any decision by our partners to terminate these agreements could negatively impact our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approvals for and commercialize our product candidates. In the event we grant exclusive rights to such partners, we could be precluded from potential commercialization of our product candidate within the territories in which we have a partner. In addition, any termination of our collaboration agreements will terminate any funding we may receive under the relevant collaboration agreement and may impair our ability to fund further development efforts and our progress in our development programs.

Further, our potential future collaborators may develop alternative products or pursue alternative technologies either on their own or in collaboration with others, including our competitors, and the priorities or focus of our collaborators may shift such that our product candidates receive less attention or resources than we would like, or they may be terminated altogether. Any such actions by our potential future collaborators may harm our business prospects and ability to earn revenues. In addition, we could have disputes with our potential future collaborators, such as the interpretation of terms in our agreements. Any such disagreements could lead to delays in the development or commercialization of our product candidates or could result in time-consuming and expensive litigation or arbitration, which may not be resolved in our favor.

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We rely, and will rely in the future, on third parties to conduct our clinical trials. If these third parties do not appropriately carry out their contractual duties, fail to conduct high-quality studies or meet expected deadlines, regulatory approval and commercialization of octreotide capsules or any future candidates we may develop could be delayed or not obtained at all.

We do not have the ability to conduct our clinical trials independently. We will continue to rely on third parties, including clinical investigators, third-party CROs and consultants, to monitor, manage data for, and execute our ongoing clinical programs for octreotide capsules, and we control only some aspects of their activities. Because we rely on third parties, our internal capacity to perform these functions is limited. We currently have a small number of employees, which limits the internal resources we have available to identify and monitor our third-party providers. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials are conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and legal, regulatory and scientific requirements and standards, including, for example, Good Laboratory Practices and Good Clinical Practices, or GCPs. Our reliance on third parties does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. Regulatory authorities enforce GCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of these third parties fail to comply with applicable GCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the relevant regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials in support of our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with GCP requirements. Failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat nonclinical studies and clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

The third parties conducting our clinical trials are not our employees, and we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our ongoing clinical programs. To the extent we are unable to identify and successfully manage the performance of third-party service providers in the future, our business may be adversely affected. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain additional regulatory approvals of or successfully commercialize octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates could be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Capital Resources

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will incur continued losses for the next several years and thus may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We have funded our operations to date primarily through proceeds from sales of our common stock, redeemable convertible preferred stock, our revenue interest financing agreement and, to a lesser extent, the issuance of convertible notes. As of December 31, 2020, our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities were $135.4 million. Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our net loss was $74.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and $36.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $347.7 million.

We have one product approved for commercialization and have generated only limited product revenue to date. We expect to incur operating losses for at least the next several years. Past operating losses, combined with expected future operating losses, have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our cash resources, stockholders’ equity and working capital. We expect to incur significant additional costs to support our commercial launch efforts, to pursue regulatory approvals, and to manufacture and commercialize octreotide capsules. In addition, we will continue to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. As a result of these and other factors, we expect to continue to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing and commercializing pharmaceutical products, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses, when we will become profitable, if at all, or whether we will have the funds necessary to continue as a standalone business in the long term.

Even if we achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable could depress the value of our stock and impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our development efforts, obtain regulatory approvals, diversify our product pipeline or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

Our Revenue Interest Financing Agreement with Healthcare Royalty Partners IV, L.P. could restrict our ability to commercialize MYCAPSSA, limit cash flow available for our operations and expose us to risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On April 7, 2020, we entered into the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement with Healthcare Royalty Partners IV, L.P., or HCR. Under the terms of the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, we received $25.0 million in April 2020, received an additional $25.0

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million in July 2020 and an additional $15.0 million in September 2020, and are entitled to receive an additional $10.0 million in early 2022, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, in exchange for tiered quarterly royalty payments in the low double digits on worldwide net revenues of MYCAPSSA and any other future products, subject to step-downs upon the achievement of certain annual revenues. The Revenue Interest Financing Agreement expires upon the first to occur of April 7, 2030, or the Maturity Date, or when HCR has received aggregate payments equal to 195% of the total amount actually funded by HCR, or the Hard Cap. If HCR has not received the Hard Cap by the Maturity Date and no event of default has occurred or is ongoing, among other things, we must pay HCR a specified amount based on the total amount funded by HCR as of such date. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, including the withdrawal, suspension or other termination of the FDA approval of MYCAPSSA as a treatment for acromegaly that continues for sixty days that prevents us from marketing MYCAPSSA, HCR may accelerate payments due under the agreement up to the Hard Cap. Upon the occurrence of certain material adverse events or the material breach of certain representations and warranties, which will not be considered events of default, HCR may elect to terminate the agreement and require us to make payments to HCR equal to the funded portion of the investment under the agreement, minus payments received by HCR, plus a specified annual rate of return.

We must make gross up payments to HCR on September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2024, to the extent HCR has not received royalty payments totaling 60.0% and 100.0%, respectively, of the amount it has invested as of such dates. If a change of control occurs, we must immediately repay HCR the total amount actually funded plus a change of control premium, the amount of which is variable up to 95% based on timing and circumstances of such change of control and the amount funded and conditionally eligible to be funded by HCR as of the date of the change of control. Under the terms of the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, we have certain obligations, including the obligation to use commercially reasonable and diligent efforts to commercialize MYCAPSSA ourselves in the United States. If we are held to not have met these obligations, HCR would have the right to terminate the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement and demand payment equal to the funded portion of its investment amount, plus a specific annual rate of return per annum on HCR’s investment amount, less amounts paid by us. The Revenue Interest Financing Agreement also requires us to obtain the consent of HCR prior to incurring additional indebtedness, other than specified permitted indebtedness. Further, the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement requires us to maintain a minimum of $20.0 million in securitized cash and investment accounts during any quarter that the trailing four quarters of net revenue of MYCAPSSA is below a certain threshold.

Our indebtedness under the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement could have significant negative consequences for our security holders and our business, results of operations and financial condition by, among other things:

 

 

 

increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;

 

 

 

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing or enter into MYCAPSSA partnership agreements;

 

 

 

requiring the dedication of a portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, which will reduce the amount of cash available for other purposes;

 

 

 

limiting our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business;

 

 

 

placing us at a possible competitive disadvantage with competitors that are less leveraged than us or have better access to capital; and

 

 

 

if we fail to comply with the terms of the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, resulting in an event of default that is not cured or waived, HCR could seek to enforce its security interest in our cash and cash equivalents and all assets relating to MYCAPSSA that secures such indebtedness.

To the extent we incur additional debt (including without limitation the remaining amount under the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement), the risks described above could increase.

We have not generated substantial revenue from any commercial products and may never be profitable.

Our ability to become profitable depends upon our ability to generate revenue. We obtained FDA approval of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly in June 2020 and commenced our commercial launch in September 2020. We have no history of commercializing products and, to date, have only generated limited revenue from the sale of any commercial product. Unless and until the necessary regulatory approvals outside the U.S. or for any future product candidates we may develop are obtained, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to attain profitability. In addition, our ability to generate profits after the FDA approval of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly or other regulatory approvals of octreotide capsules or any product candidates we may develop is subject to our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our planned commercial contract manufacturers and manufacturing sites, to contract for the manufacture of commercial quantities of our product candidates at acceptable cost levels

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and establish sales, market access and marketing capabilities or identify and enter into one or more strategic collaborations to effectively market and sell any approved product candidate.

Even if we obtain additional regulatory approvals for octreotide capsules or any future product candidates and launch the commercial sale, any approved product may not gain market acceptance or achieve commercial success. In addition, we anticipate continuing to incur significant costs associated with commercializing octreotide capsules and would anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any other approved product. We may not achieve profitability soon after generating product sales, if ever. If we are unable to generate sufficient levels of product revenues, we will not become profitable and may be unable to continue operations without continued funding.

We have a limited operating history and no history of successfully commercializing drugs, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

Although we commenced operations in 2001, our operations to date have been largely focused on developing octreotide capsules, including undertaking nonclinical studies and conducting clinical trials, and preparing for the commercial launch of octreotide capsules in the United States. Our oral octreotide capsules product is our only product for which we have conducted clinical trials and obtained a regulatory approval. We have completed three Phase 3 clinical trials to date with octreotide capsules in acromegaly. In June 2020, we obtained FDA approval of octreotide capsules for the treatment of acromegaly. We have a limited history of obtaining regulatory approvals and have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully obtain regulatory approvals outside the United States, repeatedly manufacture a commercial-scale drug or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales, market access and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. Consequently, any predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing and commercializing drugs.

We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known or unknown factors in achieving our business objectives. We are transitioning from a company with a development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition in the United States or in the European Union or elsewhere.

As we continue to build our business, we expect our financial condition and operating results may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, stockholders should not rely upon the results of any particular quarterly or annual periods as indications of future operating performance.

We will need additional capital to support our operations, which may be difficult to obtain and restrict our operations and would result in additional dilution to our stockholders.

Our business will require additional capital that we have not yet secured. In the short term, we expect our manufacturing costs and selling, general and administrative expenses to increase as we to continue to establish the infrastructure and manufacture the commercial supply to support our ongoing commercial launch of octreotide capsules in the United States. We will also continue to incur research and development expenses as we continue the open-label extension portions of our CHIASMA OPTIMAL clinical trial and our MPOWERED clinical trial, undertake activities to support the planned submission of an MAA to the EMA for regulatory approval of octreotide capsules in the European Union for acromegaly, and pursue early clinical development of one or more potential pipeline candidates using our TPE platform technology. Because the outcome of any clinical trial, regulatory approval process and commercialization effort is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development, regulatory approval process and commercialization of oral octreotide capsules or any future product candidates we may develop. We may be unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, or to enter into collaboration agreements, which could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development efforts or our commercial launch of oral octreotide capsules.

The actual amount of funds that we will need will be determined by many factors, some of which are beyond our control, and we may need funds sooner than currently anticipated. These factors include but are not limited to:

 

our efforts to obtain FDA approval of our prior approval supplement for an additional commercial API manufacturing source;

 

the amount of our future operating losses;

 

the costs associated with establishing and maintaining the infrastructure to support our commercial launch of octreotide capsules;

 

the timing of approvals, if any, of octreotide capsules in additional jurisdictions;

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the need and cost of conducting one or more additional clinical trials for octreotide capsules and any future product candidates;

 

the amount of our research and development, marketing, selling and general and administrative expenses;

 

the extent to which we enter into, maintain, and derive revenues from licensing agreements, including potential agreements to out-license octreotide capsules, research and other collaborations, joint ventures and other business arrangements;

 

our success in integrating product candidates, technologies or companies that we may acquire; and

 

regulatory changes and technological developments in our markets.

General market conditions or the market price of our common stock may not support capital-raising transactions, such as an additional public or private offering of our common stock or other securities. In addition, our ability to raise additional capital may be dependent upon our stock being quoted on The NASDAQ Global Select Market or upon obtaining stockholder approval. There can be no assurance that we will be able to satisfy the criteria for continued listing on The NASDAQ Global Select Market or that we will be able to obtain stockholder approval if it is necessary. If we are unable to obtain additional funds on a timely basis or on terms favorable to us, we may be required to cease development or commercialization of octreotide capsules, to sell some or all of our technology or assets or to merge all or a portion of our business with another entity. In the event additional financing is needed or advisable, we may seek to fund our operations through the sale of equity securities, including pursuant to our ATM Agreement, convertible debt financing, license and collaboration agreements with potential partners. We cannot be sure that additional financing from any of these sources will be available when needed or that, if available, the additional financing will be obtained on terms favorable to us or our stockholders. If we raise additional funds by selling shares of our capital stock, the ownership interest of our current stockholders will be diluted. If we attempt to raise additional funds through strategic collaboration agreements, we may not be successful in obtaining collaboration agreements, or in receiving milestone or royalty payments under those agreements. The terms of any debt facility, if available, may involve significant cash payment obligations as well as covenants and specific financial ratios that may restrict our ability to develop and commercialize octreotide capsules or any future product candidates or operate our business. For example, during the term of the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement with HCR, we must obtain the consent of HCR prior to incurring additional indebtedness, other than specified permitted indebtedness, and we must maintain a minimum of $20.0 million in securitized cash and investment accounts during any quarter that the trailing four quarters of net revenue of MYCAPSSA is below a certain threshold. Any of these factors could raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a standalone business, materially impair our ability to remain in business and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in tax law could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The laws and rules dealing with U.S. federal, state and local income taxation are routinely being reviewed and modified by governmental bodies, officials and regulatory agencies, including the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department. Since we were founded, many such changes have been made and changes are likely to continue to occur in the future. It cannot be predicted whether, when, in what form, or with what effective dates, tax laws, regulations and rulings may be enacted, promulgated or issued, that could result in an increase in our or our stockholders’ tax liability. We urge investors to consult with their legal and tax advisers regarding the implications of potential changes in tax laws on an investment in our common stock.

Unstable market and economic conditions, including as a result of the novel coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic, may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and stock price.

As widely reported, global credit and financial markets have experienced recent volatility and disruptions, including diminished liquidity and credit availability, predicted declines in economic growth, and uncertainty about economic stability, including as a result of the economic impact due to the novel coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic. There can be no assurance that further deterioration in credit and financial markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturn, volatile business environment or continued unpredictable and unstable market conditions. For example, given the pandemic, if a substantial number of acromegaly patients become unemployed or lose health insurance coverage, they may not be able to pay all or a portion of their prescription cost of octreotide capsules. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate, it may make any necessary convertible debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly and more dilutive for us to achieve. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance and stock price and could require us to delay or abandon clinical development and commercialization plans. In addition, there is a risk that one or more of our current service providers, manufacturers and other partners may be negatively impacted or not survive an economic downturn, which could directly affect our ability to attain our operating goals.

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Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights.

We may seek additional capital through a combination of private and public equity offerings, convertible debt financings and collaboration, strategic and licensing transactions. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our existing stockholders will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our existing stockholders. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. For example, as described above, during the term of the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement with HCR, we are restricted from incurring certain additional indebtedness without HCR’s consent and must satisfy a minimum liquidity covenant except during periods when we have met certain MYCAPSSA revenue thresholds. If we raise additional funds through collaboration, strategic alliance and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to pay royalties to HCR on annual revenues and/or payments received by us, and may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights or if our intellectual property rights are inadequate to protect our technology and product candidates, our competitors could develop and commercialize technology and drugs similar to ours, and our competitive position could be harmed.

Our commercial success will depend in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our proprietary technology and products. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws, and confidentiality and other agreements with employees and third parties, all of which offer only limited protection. Our strategy is to seek patent protection for our product candidates and compositions, their methods of use and processes for their manufacture, and any other aspects of inventions that are commercially important to the development of our business.

The patent prosecution process is expensive and time-consuming, and we and any future licensors and licensees may not be able to apply for or prosecute patents on certain aspects of our product candidates or delivery technologies at a reasonable cost, in a timely fashion, or at all. We may not have the right to control the preparation, filing and prosecution of patent applications, or to maintain the rights to patents licensed to third parties. Therefore, these patents and applications may not be prosecuted and enforced in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. It is also possible that we or any future licensors or licensees, will fail to identify patentable aspects of inventions made in the course of development and commercialization activities before it is too late to obtain patent protection on them. Therefore, our patents and applications may not be prosecuted and enforced in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. It is possible that defects of form in the preparation or filing of our patents or patent applications may exist, or may arise in the future, such as with respect to proper priority claims, inventorship, claim scope or patent term adjustments. If any future licensors or licensees, are not fully cooperative or disagree with us as to the prosecution, maintenance, or enforcement of any patent rights, such patent rights could be compromised and we might not be able to prevent third parties from making, using, and selling competing products. If there are material defects in the form or preparation of our patents or patent applications, such patents or applications may be invalid or unenforceable. Moreover, our competitors may independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods, and know-how. Any of these outcomes could impair our ability to prevent competition from third parties, which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

The patent positions of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally are highly uncertain, involve complex legal and factual questions and have in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of any patents that issue, are highly uncertain. The steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to preclude misappropriation of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights, both inside and outside the United States. Further, the examination process may require us to narrow the claims of pending patent applications, which may limit the scope of patent protection that may be obtained if these applications issue. The rights that may be granted under future issued patents may not provide us with the proprietary protection or competitive advantages we are seeking. If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology and products, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficient, our competitors could develop and commercialize technology and products similar or superior to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology and products may be impaired.

With respect to patent rights, we do not know whether any of our patent applications will result in issued patents or, if any of our patent applications do issue, whether such patents will protect our technology and drugs, in whole or in part, or whether such patents will effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and products. There is no guarantee that any of our issued or granted patents will not later be found invalid or unenforceable. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until

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18 months after filing or in some cases not at all, until they are issued as a patent. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our pending patent applications, that we were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions, or that we have found all of the potentially relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications that could invalidate one or more of our patents or prevent one or more of our patent applications from issuing. Even if patents do successfully issue and even if such patents cover our product candidates, third parties may initiate oppositions, interferences, re-examinations, post-grant reviews, inter partes reviews, nullification or derivation actions in court or before patent offices or similar proceedings challenging the validity, enforceability, or scope of such patents, which may result in the patent claims being narrowed or invalidated. Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our intellectual property, provide exclusivity for our product candidates, or prevent others from designing around our claims. Any of these outcomes could impair our ability to prevent competition from third parties.

Furthermore, the issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, and our owned and licensed patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. Such challenges may result in loss of exclusivity or freedom to operate or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and drugs, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and drugs. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. For example, our patents covering our TPE platform technology expire in 2029. At least some of our patents covering MYCAPSSA also expire in 2029. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing drugs similar or identical to ours.

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our licensors, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our licensors. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time consuming. In a patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, for example, lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability during patent litigation is unpredictable. A court may decide that a patent of ours or our licensors is not valid or is unenforceable or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that no invalidating prior art exists. An adverse result in any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, found unenforceable, or interpreted narrowly, and it could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing. Defense of these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on one or more of our products or certain aspects of our platform technology. Such a loss of patent protection could have an adverse impact on our business.

Interference proceedings brought by the USPTO may be necessary to determine the priority of inventions with respect to our patents and patent applications or those of our collaborators or licensors. An unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party. Our business could be harmed if a prevailing party does not offer us a license on terms that are acceptable to us. Litigation or interference proceedings may fail and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distraction of our management and other employees. We may not be able to prevent, alone or with our licensors, misappropriation of our proprietary rights, particularly in countries where the laws may not protect those rights as fully as in the United States. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock.

Moreover, we may be subject to a third-party pre-issuance submission of prior art to the USPTO or other foreign patent offices, or become involved in opposition, derivation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or drugs and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize drugs without infringing third-party patent rights. In addition, if the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop, or commercialize current or future product candidates.

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We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on polypeptide containing capsules including octreotide capsules and our TPE platform throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States may be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws and practices of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights, especially those relating to life sciences, to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. For example, novel formulations of existing drugs and manufacturing processes may not be patentable in certain jurisdictions, and the requirements for patentability may differ in certain countries, particularly developing countries. Also, some foreign countries, including European Union countries, India, Japan and China, have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled under certain circumstances to grant licenses to third parties. Consequently, we may have limited remedies if patents are infringed or if we are compelled to grant a license to a third party, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions into or within the United States or other jurisdictions. This could limit our potential revenue opportunities. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but where enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products in jurisdictions where we do not have any issued patents and our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing with us in these jurisdictions. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from our intellectual property. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate in these foreign countries and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees and various other governmental fees on patents and applications are required to be paid to the USPTO and various governmental patent agencies outside of the United States in several stages over the lifetime of the patents and applications. The USPTO and various non-U.S. governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process and after a patent has issued. There are situations in which non-compliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which could be uncertain and could harm our business.

While our product candidate is in clinical trials, we believe that the use of our product candidate in these clinical trials falls within the scope of the exemptions provided by 35 U.S.C. Section 271(e) in the United States, which exempts from patent infringement liability activities reasonably related to the development and submission of information to the FDA. As our current and any future product candidates progress toward commercialization, the possibility of a patent infringement claim against us increases. There can be no assurance that our current and any future product candidates do not infringe other parties’ patents or other proprietary rights, however, and competitors or other parties may assert that we infringe their proprietary rights in any event. We may become party to, or threatened with, future adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our product candidates, including interference or derivation proceedings before the USPTO. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future. If we are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to continue commercializing our product candidates. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if a license can be obtained on acceptable terms, the rights may be non-exclusive, which could give our competitors access to the same technology or intellectual property rights licensed to us. If we fail to obtain a required license, we may be unable to effectively market product candidates based on our technology, which could limit our ability to generate revenue or achieve profitability and possibly prevent us from generating revenue sufficient to sustain our operations. Alternatively, we may need to redesign our infringing products, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure. Under certain circumstances, we could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing our product candidates. In addition, in any such proceeding or litigation, we could be found liable for substantial monetary damages, potentially including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our product candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could harm our business. Any claims by third parties that we have misappropriated their confidential information or trade secrets could have a similar negative impact on our business.

The cost to us in defending or initiating any litigation or other proceeding relating to patent or other proprietary rights, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial, and litigation would divert our management’s attention. Some of our competitors may be able to

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sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could delay our development efforts and limit our ability to continue our operations.

Octreotide capsules or any future products we may develop may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which could increase our costs and delay or prevent our development and commercialization efforts.

Our success depends in part on avoiding infringement of the proprietary technologies of others. The pharmaceutical industry has been characterized by frequent litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Identification of third-party patent rights that may be relevant to our proprietary technology is difficult because patent searching is imperfect due to differences in terminology among patents, incomplete databases and the difficulty in assessing the meaning of patent claims. Additionally, because patent applications are maintained in secrecy until the application is published, we may be unaware of third-party patents that may be infringed by commercialization of octreotide capsules or any future product candidate. There may be certain issued patents and patent applications claiming subject matter that we may be required to license in order to research, develop, or commercialize octreotide capsules, and we do not know if such patents and patent applications would be available to license on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any claims of patent infringement asserted by third parties would be time-consuming and may:

 

result in costly litigation;

 

divert the time and attention of our technical personnel and management;

 

cause product development or commercialization delays;

 

prevent us from commercializing a product until the asserted patent expires or is held finally invalid or not infringed in a court of law;

 

require us to cease or modify our use of the technology and/or develop non-infringing technology; or

 

require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements.

Although no third party has asserted a claim of infringement against us, others may hold proprietary rights that could prevent octreotide capsules or any future product candidates from being marketed. Any patent-related legal action against our collaborators or us claiming damages and seeking to enjoin commercial activities relating to octreotide capsules or our processes could subject us to potential liability for damages and require us to obtain a license to continue to manufacture or market octreotide capsules or any future product candidates. We cannot predict whether we would prevail in any such actions or that any license required under any of these patents would be made available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, we cannot be sure that we could redesign octreotide capsules or any future product candidates or processes to avoid infringement, if necessary. Accordingly, an adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding, or the failure to obtain necessary licenses, could prevent us from developing and commercializing octreotide capsules or a future product candidate, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

A number of companies, including several major pharmaceutical companies, have conducted research on pharmaceutical uses of somatostatin analogs, which resulted in the filing of many patent applications related to this research. If we were to challenge the validity of these or any issued U.S. patent in court, we would need to overcome a statutory presumption of validity that attaches to every U.S. patent. This means that, in order to prevail, we would have to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of the patent’s claims. If we were to challenge the validity of these or any issued U.S. patent in an administrative trial before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board in the USPTO, we would have to prove that the claims are unpatentable by a preponderance of the evidence. There is no assurance that a jury and/or court would find in our favor on questions of infringement, validity or enforceability.

Our competitors may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner.

Our competitors may seek to market generic versions of any approved products by submitting abbreviated NDAs to the FDA in which our competitors claim that our patents are invalid, unenforceable or not infringed. Alternatively, our competitors may seek approval to market their own products that are the same as, similar to or otherwise competitive with octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop. In these circumstances, we may need to defend or assert our patents, by means including filing lawsuits alleging patent infringement requiring us to engage in complex, lengthy and costly litigation or other proceedings. In any of these types of proceedings, a court or government agency with jurisdiction may find our patents invalid, unenforceable or not infringed. We may also fail to identify patentable aspects of our development activities before it is too late to obtain patent protection. Even if we have valid and enforceable patents, these patents still may not provide protection against competing products or processes sufficient to achieve our business objectives.

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Changes in either U.S. or foreign patent law or interpretation of such laws could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our products.

As is the case with other biotechnology companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biotechnology industry involve both technological and legal complexity, and it therefore is costly, time-consuming and inherently uncertain. In addition, on September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the AIA, was signed into law. The AIA includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law, including provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation.

An important change introduced by the AIA is that, as of March 16, 2013, the United States transitioned to a “first-to-file” system for deciding which party should be granted a patent when two or more patent applications are filed by different parties claiming the same invention. A third party that files a patent application in the USPTO after that date but before us could therefore be awarded a patent covering an invention of ours even if we had made the invention before it was made by the third party. This will require us to be cognizant going forward of the time from invention to filing of a patent application.

Among some of the other changes introduced by the AIA are changes that limit where a patentee may file a patent infringement suit and providing opportunities for third parties to challenge any issued patent in the USPTO. This applies to all of our U.S. patents, even those issued before March 16, 2013. Because of a lower evidentiary standard necessary to invalidate a patent claim in USPTO proceedings compared to the evidentiary standard in United States federal court, a third party could potentially provide evidence in a USPTO proceeding sufficient for the USPTO to hold a claim invalid even though the same evidence would be insufficient to invalidate the claim if first presented in a district court action. Accordingly, a third party may attempt to use the USPTO procedures to invalidate our patent claims that would not have been invalidated if first challenged by the third party as a defendant in a district court action.

Depending on decisions by the United States Congress, the federal courts, the USPTO, or similar authorities in foreign jurisdictions, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future.

If we are unable to protect our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to seeking patent protection for certain aspects of our product candidates and delivery technologies, we also consider trade secrets, including our confidential and unpatented know-how important to the maintenance of our competitive position. We protect our trade secrets and confidential and unpatented know-how, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to such knowledge, such as our employees, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants that obligate them to maintain confidentiality and assign their inventions to us. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or the subject matter independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or the subject matter independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position would be harmed.

If our trademarks are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

Our trademarks may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks or may be forced to stop using these names, which we need for name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. If we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks, we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected.

We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties.

We have received confidential and proprietary information from third parties. In addition, we employ individuals who were previously employed at other companies and universities. We may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed confidential information of these third parties or our employees’ former

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employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial cost and be a distraction to our management and employees.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

 

Pandemics, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, could have an adverse impact on our business and our financial condition.

 

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Any outbreak of contagious diseases, or other adverse public health developments, could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations. These could include disruption to our regulatory approval timelines due to diversion of government resources, delays in our commercialization efforts due to manufacturing delays, slowed hiring of commercial personnel, limitations on face to face interactions with potential customers or other issues, restrictions on our ability to travel, attend in-person meetings, participate in industry conferences, pursue partnerships and other business transactions, disruption of our clinical trials, as well as impacts from the temporary closure of the facilities of suppliers and clinical trial sites or an overburdened healthcare system. Any continued and future disruption of regulators, physicians, suppliers, shippers, third-party warehouses, clinical trial sites or access to physicians or patients could impact our regulatory approval timing, commercialization efforts as well as our ability to access capital through the financial markets. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others.

We depend on the knowledge and skill of our senior management and other key employees, and if we are unable to retain or if we fail to recruit additional highly skilled personnel, our business will be harmed.

Our ability to compete in the highly competitive pharmaceuticals industry depends in large part upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified managerial and development personnel. As of February 26, 2021, we have a total of 85 full-time employees. In order to induce valuable employees to remain with us, we have provided employees with stock options that vest over time. The value to employees of stock options that vest over time is significantly affected by movements in our stock price that we cannot control and, together with our other compensation programs and benefits, may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies.

We are highly dependent upon the principal members of our management team. These executives have significant commercial, research and development, regulatory, industry, operational, and/or corporate finance experience. The loss of any executive, other principal member of our management team, key employee or member of our board of directors could impair our ability to develop and commercialize octreotide capsules and identify, develop and market new products and conduct successful operations.

In addition, with the FDA approval and commercial launch of octreotide capsules, we may need to hire additional qualified technical, commercial, medical and administrative personnel. There is intense competition from other companies and research and academic institutions for qualified personnel in the areas of our activities. Other biopharmaceutical companies with which we compete for qualified personnel may have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles, and a longer history in the industry than we do. They also may provide more diverse opportunities and better chances for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates than what we have to offer. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high-quality personnel, the rate and success at which we can develop and commercialize octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop would be impaired and could adversely affect our growth and financial performance.

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of computer system failures, cyber-attacks on our systems or deficiency in our cyber security.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems, and those of third parties on which we rely, are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, malware, natural disasters, fire, terrorism, war and telecommunication, electrical failures, cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the internet, attachments to emails, persons inside our organization, or persons with access to systems inside our organization. Cyber-attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware and key loggers, ransomware, a denial-of-service attack, a malicious website, the use of social engineering and other means to affect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our technology systems and data. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. In addition, our systems and those of our clinical service providers safeguard important confidential personal data regarding patients enrolled in our clinical trials. If a disruption event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a disruption of our drug development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed, ongoing or clinical trials

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that we may consider could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability, our reputation or competitive position could be damaged and the further development and potential commercialization of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop could be delayed or halted. We may also be vulnerable to cyber-attacks by hackers, or other malfeasance. This type of breach of our cybersecurity may compromise our confidential information and/or our financial information and adversely affect our business and operations or result in financial, legal, business or reputational harm to us. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant. Moreover, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security measures. Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of an event associated with cyber-attacks.

We may acquire additional businesses or form strategic alliances in the future, and we may not realize the benefits of such acquisitions or alliances.

We may acquire additional businesses, products or technologies, form strategic alliances or create joint ventures with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. If we acquire businesses with promising markets or technologies, we may not be able to realize the benefit of acquiring such businesses if we are unable to successfully integrate them with our existing operations and company culture. We may have difficulty in developing, manufacturing and marketing the products of a newly acquired company that enhances the performance of our combined businesses or product lines to realize value from expected synergies. We cannot assure you that, following an acquisition, we will achieve the revenues or specific net income that justifies the acquisition.

Potential technological changes in our field of business create considerable uncertainty.

We are engaged in the biopharmaceutical field, which is characterized by extensive research efforts and rapid technological progress. New developments in research are expected to continue at a rapid pace in both industry and academia. We cannot assure you that research and discoveries by others will not render octreotide capsules or future product candidates we may develop uncompetitive or obsolete. The longer-term success of our business depends upon our ability to develop octreotide capsules for other approved indications and utilize our TPE platform to develop and commercialize oral forms of therapies that are currently only available in injectable or other non-absorbable forms, which strategy assumes we first obtain regulatory approval of octreotide capsules as a treatment for acromegaly. We cannot assure you that unforeseen problems will not develop with our TPE technology or applications thereof or that any commercially feasible products will ultimately be developed by us.

Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners, principal investigators, CROs and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could cause significant liability for us and harm our reputation.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners, principal investigators, CROs and vendors may engage in fraudulent conduct or other misconduct, including intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations or similar regulations of comparable foreign regulatory authorities, to provide accurate information to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, to comply with manufacturing standards we have established, to comply with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations and similar laws and regulations established and enforced by comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and to report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. The misconduct of our employees and contractors could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have a code of conduct and ethics for our directors, officers and employees, but it is not always possible to identify and deter such misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business and results of operations, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

Business disruptions could seriously harm our future revenues and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Our operations and those of our suppliers and other contractors could be subject to earthquakes, power shortages, telecommunications failures, water shortages, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, medical epidemics or pandemics, such as the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus COVID-19, military conflicts, acts of terrorism and other natural or man-made disasters or business interruptions. For example, if the current novel coronavirus outbreak continues and results in a prolonged period of travel, commercial and other similar restrictions, we could experience business disruptions. In addition, some of our operations and our

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primary commercial supplier of octreotide acetate API are in Israel, which has a history of certain conflicts. The occurrence of any business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. We rely on third-party manufacturers in multiple countries to produce octreotide capsules. Our ability to obtain supplies of octreotide capsules could be disrupted if the operations of these suppliers are affected by a man-made or natural disaster or other business interruption, and we do not carry insurance to cover such risks.

Laws and regulations governing conduct of international operations may negatively impact our development, manufacture and sale of products outside of the United States and require us to develop and implement costly compliance programs.

As we have operations in Israel and may seek to further expand our operations outside of the United States, we must comply with numerous laws and regulations in Israel and each other jurisdiction in which we plan to operate. The creation and implementation of international business practices compliance programs is costly and such programs are difficult to enforce, particularly where we must rely on third parties.

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, prohibits any U.S. individual or business from paying, offering, authorizing payment or offering of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, political party or candidate for the purpose of influencing any act or decision of the foreign entity in order to assist the individual or business in obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the United States to comply with certain accounting provisions requiring such companies to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the corporation, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations. The anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA are enforced primarily by the DOJ. The Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, is involved with enforcement of the books and records provisions of the FCPA.

Compliance with the FCPA is expensive and difficult, particularly in countries in which corruption is a recognized problem. In addition, the FCPA presents particular challenges in the pharmaceutical industry, because, in many countries, hospitals are operated by the government, and doctors and other hospital employees are considered foreign officials. Certain payments to hospitals in connection with clinical trials and other work have been deemed to be improper payments to government officials and have led to FCPA enforcement actions.

Various laws, regulations and executive orders also restrict the use and dissemination outside of the United States, or the sharing with certain foreign nationals, of information classified for national security purposes, as well as certain products and technical data relating to those products. An expanding presence outside of the United States will require us to dedicate additional resources to comply with these laws, and these laws may preclude us from developing, manufacturing, or selling octreotide capsules and any future product candidates we may develop outside of the United States, which could limit our growth potential and increase our development costs.

The failure to comply with laws governing international business practices may result in substantial penalties, including suspension or debarment from government contracting. Violation of the FCPA can result in significant civil and criminal penalties. Indictment alone under the FCPA can lead to suspension of the right to do business with the U.S. government until the pending claims are resolved. Conviction of a violation of the FCPA can result in long-term disqualification as a government contractor. The termination of a government contract or relationship as a result of our failure to satisfy any of our obligations under laws governing international business practices would have a negative impact on our operations and harm our reputation and ability to procure government contracts. Additionally, the SEC also may suspend or bar issuers from trading securities on U.S. exchanges for violations of the FCPA’s accounting provisions.

Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

We collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our manufacturers, business partners, healthcare professionals and patients. This includes, where required or permitted by applicable laws, personally identifiable information. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, disrupt our operations, and damage our reputation which could adversely affect our business.

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Compliance with changing European privacy laws could require us to incur significant costs or experience significant business disruption and failure to so comply could result in an adverse impact on our business.

In Europe, data protection regulation is an area of increased focus and changing requirements. On April 27, 2016 the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679, or GDPR, which took effect on May 25, 2018, replacing the data protection laws of each European Union member state. The GDPR applies to any company that collects and uses personal data in connection with offering goods or services to, or monitoring the behavior of, individuals in the European Union. The GDPR enhances data protection obligations with respect to European personal data, including, for example, by requiring expanded disclosures about how personal data is to be used, by placing limitations on retention of information, by imposing mandatory data breach notification requirements, and by creating expansive data subject rights. Non-compliance with the GDPR can trigger fines of up to €20 million, or 4% of total worldwide annual revenue, whichever is higher. Given the breadth and depth of changes in data protection obligations, complying with the GDPR’s requirements has caused us to expend significant resources and such expenditures are likely to continue into the near future as we respond to new interpretations and enforcement actions following the effective date.

The GDPR’s restriction on transfers of personal data outside of Europe to countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to personal data, such as the United States, poses particular compliance challenges. One of the transfer mechanisms that allows companies to transfer personal data from Europe to the United States is the EU-US Privacy Shield (see https://www.privacyshield.gov/welcome for more information). We conducted a self-assessment and subsequently self-certified under the Privacy Shield Framework in September 2016. We received a notice of acceptance of our self-certification in October 2016 and our registration became final on October 26, 2016. There continues to be concerns about whether the EU-US Privacy Shield will face successful legal challenges (as its predecessor the Safe Harbor framework did). If this does occur, we may need to identify and implement an alternative mechanism for legitimizing cross-border data transfers. This may entail additional cost and expense as well as changes to our business practices.

Separate European Union laws and regulations (and member states’ implementations thereof) govern the protection of consumers and of electronic communications and these are also evolving. We cannot yet determine the impact that such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on our business. Such laws and regulations are often subject to differing interpretations and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions. We expect that for the immediate future, we will continue to face uncertainty as to whether our efforts to comply with our obligations under European privacy laws will be sufficient. We may incur substantial expense in complying with the new obligations to be imposed by the GDPR and we may be required to make significant changes in our business operations and product development, all of which may adversely affect our revenues and our business overall. If we are investigated by a European data protection authority, we may face fines and other penalties. Any such investigation or charges by European data protection authorities could have a negative effect on our existing business.

Exchange rate fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and non-U.S. currencies may negatively affect our results of operations.

The U.S. dollar is our functional and reporting currency; however, a portion of our operations are currently conducted in Israel and most of the Israeli expenses are currently paid in New Israeli Shekels, or NIS. We also contract with CROs internationally, primarily for the execution of clinical trials and manufacturing activities. A portion of these transactions, including value added taxes, or VAT, are settled in Euros or Great British Pounds, or GBPs. As a result, we are exposed to the risk that the NIS, Euro or GBP may appreciate relative to the U.S. dollar, or, if the NIS, Euro or GBP instead devalue relative to the U.S. dollar, that the relative inflation rate may exceed such rate of devaluation, or that the timing of such devaluation may lag behind the relative inflation. In any such event, the U.S. dollar cost of our operations in Israel and transactions with certain CROs would increase and our U.S. dollar-denominated results of operations would be adversely affected. To date, we have not engaged in hedging transactions. In the future, we may enter into currency hedging transactions to decrease the risk of financial exposure from fluctuations in the exchange rates of our principal operating currencies. These measures, however, may not adequately protect us from the material adverse effects of such fluctuations. If the U.S. dollar cost of our operations increases, our U.S. dollar-measured results of operations will be adversely affected. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk.”

Risks Related to Our Operations in Israel

The tax benefits available to us under Israeli law require us to meet several conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future, which would increase our costs and taxes.

We are able to take advantage of tax exemptions and reductions resulting from the “beneficiary enterprise” status of our facilities in Israel. To remain eligible for these tax benefits, we must continue to meet certain conditions stipulated in the Israeli Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959 and its regulations. If we fail to meet these conditions in the future, the tax benefits

76


 

would be canceled, and we could be required to refund any tax benefits we might already have received. These tax benefits may not be continued in the future at their current levels or at any level. In recent years, the Israeli government has reduced the benefits available and has indicated that it may further reduce or eliminate some of these benefits in the future. The termination or reduction of these tax benefits may increase our income taxes in the future. Additionally, if we increase our activities outside of Israel, for example, by future acquisitions, our increased activities generally will not be eligible for inclusion in Israeli tax benefit programs. For example, we moved out of our Jerusalem location in 2016, which negatively impacted the local tax benefits we previously received by operating there.

We may become subject to claims for remuneration or royalties for assigned service invention rights by our employees, which could result in litigation and harm our business.

A significant portion of our intellectual property has been developed by our employees in the course of their employment for us. Under the Israeli Patent Law, 5727-1967 (the Patent Law), and recent decisions by the Israeli Supreme Court and the Israeli Compensation and Royalties Committee, a body constituted under the Patent Law, employees may be entitled to remuneration for intellectual property that they develop for us unless they waive any such rights. Although we enter into agreements with our employees pursuant to which they agree that any inventions created in the scope of their employment or engagement are owned exclusively by us, and our current separation agreements with Israeli employees who have left our company include a waiver of all claims, rights or payments under Israeli law, we may still face claims demanding remuneration. As a consequence of such claims, we could be required to pay additional remuneration or royalties to our current and former employees, or be forced to litigate such claims, which could negatively affect our business.

Our development and administrative facilities and one of our third-party octreotide acetate API manufacturers are located in Israel and, therefore, our business could be hurt by political and military instability affecting Israel.

Our development and certain administrative facilities and one of our octreotide acetate API manufacturer’s facilities are located in Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel and the surrounding region may directly affect our business. Any hostilities involving Israel or the interruption or curtailment of trade within Israel or between Israel and its trading partners could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and could make it more difficult for us to raise capital. Instability in the region may lead to deterioration of the political relationships that exist between Israel and these countries and has raised concerns regarding security in the region and the potential for armed conflict. Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of an event associated with the security situation in the Middle East. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have an adverse effect on our business. Any armed conflicts, terrorist activities or political instability in the region could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Under current Israeli law, we may not be able to enforce our Israeli employees’ covenants not to compete and therefore may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of some of our former employees.

We generally enter into non-competition agreements with our key employees, in most cases within the framework of their employment agreements. These agreements prohibit our key employees, if they cease working for us, from competing directly with us or working for our competitors for a limited period. Under applicable Israeli law, it is difficult (and may even be impossible) to enforce these agreements or any part thereof against our Israeli employees unless it can be shown that there are special circumstances in any particular case. If we cannot enforce our non-competition agreements against our Israeli employees, then we may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of these former employees, which could impair our business, results of operations and ability to capitalize on our proprietary information.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

The trading price of our common stock may be volatile, and your investment in our common stock could decline in value and incur substantial losses.

Since shares of our common stock were sold in our IPO in 2015, our stock price has reached a high of $30.52 per share and a low of $1.20 per share through February 26, 2021. Although our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market, an active public market for our common stock may not emerge or be sustained, and our stock price may continue to be volatile.

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In addition, the market price for our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, including:

 

our efforts to secure FDA approval of our prior approval supplement for an additional planned commercial manufacturer of API for octreotide capsules;

 

our efforts to secure marketing approval for octreotide capsules in the EU;

 

the timing and results of any future clinical trials we may conduct, or changes in the development status of octreotide capsules or any other product candidates we may develop;

 

any delay in our regulatory filings for octreotide capsules or any other future product candidate and any adverse development or perceived adverse development with respect to the applicable regulatory authority’s review of such filings;

 

adverse results or delays in clinical trials;

 

our decision to initiate a clinical trial, not to initiate a clinical trial or to terminate an existing clinical trial;

 

adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive additional regulatory approvals of octreotide capsules or failure to maintain our existing FDA approval of octreotide;

 

changes in laws or regulations applicable to octreotide capsules or any other future product candidates, including clinical trial requirements for approvals;

 

adverse developments concerning our manufacturers;

 

our inability to obtain adequate supply of clinical trial material or for any approved drug or inability to do so at acceptable prices;

 

our inability to acquire products or technologies or establish strategic collaborations, if needed;

 

failure to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules or any other future product candidates, if approved;

 

our ability to obtain market adoptions and coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors for octreotide capsules or any other future product candidates, if approved;

 

unanticipated serious safety concerns related to the use of octreotide capsules or any other future product candidates;

 

our ability to effectively manage our operations or changes in organizational structure;

 

the size and growth of our initial target markets;

 

actual or anticipated variations in our operating results;

 

changes in financial estimates by us or by any securities analysts who might cover our stock;

 

conditions or trends in our industry;

 

changes in the market valuations of similar companies;

 

stock market price and volume fluctuations of comparable companies and, in particular, those that operate in the biopharmaceutical industry;

 

publication of research reports about us or our industry or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;

 

business disruptions due to natural disasters, epidemics or pandemics, such as the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus COVID-19, military conflicts, acts of terrorism or other unanticipated catastrophes;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships or divestitures;

 

announcements of investigations or regulatory scrutiny of our operations or lawsuits filed against us;

 

capital commitments;

 

investors’ general perception of our company and our business;

 

recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

sales of our common stock in the future, including sales by our directors and officers or specific stockholders;

 

overall performance of the equity markets;

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trading volume of our common stock;

 

changes in accounting practices;

 

ineffectiveness of our internal controls;

 

disputes or other developments relating to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;

 

significant lawsuits, including patent or stockholder litigation, and developments related thereto;

 

general political and economic conditions; and

 

other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control.

 

We may not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss carryforwards, which could negatively impact our profitability.

At December 31, 2020, we had federal operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards of approximately $288.6 million. The federal NOL carryforwards generated in 2017 and prior expire at various dates through 2037. The Federal NOL carryforwards generated in 2018 and after have an unlimited carryforward period. At December 31, 2020, we had state NOLs of approximately $234.4 million which expire at various dates through 2039. At December 31, 2020, there were no NOL carryforwards in our Israeli subsidiary.

Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or Section 382, substantial changes in our ownership may limit the amount of federal NOL carryforwards that can be utilized annually in the future to offset our U.S. federal taxable income. Specifically, this limitation may arise in the event that the aggregate stock ownership of one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who owns at least 5% of a corporation’s stock increases its ownership by more than 50 percentage points over its lowest ownership percentage within a specified testing period. Our existing NOLs or credits may be subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, and if we undergo an ownership change, our ability to utilize NOLs or credits could be further limited by Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. In addition, future changes in our stock ownership, many of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. Our NOLs or credits may also be impaired under state law. Accordingly, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs or credits. For example, following a Section 382 ownership change identified in 2020, we expect that approximately $96.7 million of our Federal NOLs will expire unutilized. NOLs generated after December 31, 2017 are not subject to expiration, and generally may not be carried back to prior taxable years except that, under the CARES Act, NOLs generated in 2018, 2019, and 2020 may be carried back five taxable years. Additionally, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, the deductibility of such federal NOLs is limited to 80% of our taxable income in any future taxable year.

Provisions of Delaware law or our charter documents could delay or prevent an acquisition of our company, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, and could make it more difficult for you to change our current management.

Provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. These provisions may also prevent or delay attempts by stockholders to replace or remove our current management or members of our board of directors. These provisions include:

 

a classified board of directors;

 

limitations on the removal of directors;

 

advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and nominations;

 

the inability of stockholders to act by written consent or to call special meetings;

 

the ability of our board of directors to make, alter or repeal our amended and restated bylaws; and

 

the authority of our board of directors to issue preferred stock with such terms as our board of directors may determine.

The affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote, and not less than 75% of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, is necessary to amend or repeal the above provisions that are contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. In addition, absent approval of our board of directors, our amended

79


 

and restated bylaws may only be amended or repealed by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote.

In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits business combination transactions with stockholders of 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock that our board of directors has not approved. These provisions and other similar provisions make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to acquire us without negotiation. These provisions may apply even if some stockholders may consider the transaction beneficial to them.

As a result, these provisions could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. These provisions might also discourage a potential acquisition proposal or tender offer, even if the acquisition proposal or tender offer is at a premium over the then current market price for our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any state law claim for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employee to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine; provided, however, that this Delaware forum provision does not apply to any actions arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may impose additional litigation costs on stockholders in pursuing such claims, particularly if the stockholders do not reside in or near the State of Delaware. Additionally, the provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage the filing of such lawsuits. The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware may also reach different judgment or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than our stockholders. Furthermore, the enforceability of similar exclusive forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could rule that this provision in our certificate of incorporation is inapplicable or unenforceable. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions.

We have been, and could become, the subject of securities litigation, which is expensive and may divert our management’s attention.

Future litigation and any matters arising out of any allegations may result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business. We may not be successful in defending future claims and cannot provide assurance that insurance proceeds will be sufficient to cover any costs or liability under such claims.

In addition, the market price of our securities may be volatile, and in the past companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities, including our company, have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation again in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.

We have never paid cash dividends on our capital stock and we do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, any gains from an investment in our common stock will likely depend on whether the price of our common stock increases, which may not occur.

We have not paid cash dividends on any of our classes of capital stock to date and we currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future. Consequently, in the foreseeable future, you will likely only experience a gain from your investment in our common stock if the price of our common stock increases.

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We incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to compliance initiatives and other activities associated with being a public company.

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting, insurance and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and The NASDAQ Stock Market, has imposed various new requirements on public companies, including requiring establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel are required to devote a substantial amount of time to these new compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations have substantially increased our legal and financial compliance costs and have made some activities more time consuming and costly. These rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to maintain our existing director and officer liability insurance or to obtain similar coverage from an alternative provider.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal controls for financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we are required to perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Our testing, or the subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses. Our compliance with Section 404 will require us to continue to incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. We currently do not have an internal audit group, and we may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by The NASDAQ Stock Market, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.

If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations of the stock market on which our common stock is listed. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This requires that we incur substantial additional professional fees and that we expend significant management efforts. Prior to our IPO, we had never been required to test our internal control within a specified period, and, as a result, we may experience difficulty in meeting these reporting requirements in a timely manner.

We may discover weaknesses in our system of internal financial and accounting controls and procedures that could result in a material misstatement of our financial statements. Our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.

If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our common stock is listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

In addition, if we increase our reliance on contractors for important business functions, it may be more difficult to collect, analyze and report the information we are obligated to disclose as a public company and this could result in a material misstatement or omission in our disclosures.

A significant portion of our total outstanding shares are restricted from immediate resale but may be sold into the market in the near future, which could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is otherwise doing well.

If our existing stockholders sell, or indicate an intent to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline significantly. As of December 31, 2020, we had 57,815,596 outstanding shares of common stock, assuming no exercise of outstanding options or warrants. In addition, the 8,378,060 shares subject to outstanding

81


 

options awarded as incentive compensation, including under our stock option plans, the 1,033,460 shares reserved for future issuance under our stock option plans and the 8,156,373 shares subject to outstanding warrants will become eligible for sale in the public market in the future, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. If our existing stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or if the public perceives that such sales could occur, this could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock, even if there is no relationship between such sales and the performance of our business.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our trading price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our securities will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. Shortly following our IPO, four securities analysts initiated coverage on our company. Following the receipt of the CRL to our original NDA from the FDA, each of these analysts downgraded their ratings on and lowered their price targets for our stock, and all four of the analysts either since dropped coverage or discontinued coverage following their departure from their employer. As of February 26, 2021, five securities analysts, including one of the original four analysts, provide coverage on our company. In the event that one or more analysts who now, or in the future, cover us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our trading price would likely decline. If one or more analysts, now or in the future, cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our trading price and trading volume to decline.

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.

Properties

Our corporate headquarters, where our principal executive and administration functions are primarily located is, a subleased facility in Needham, Massachusetts. Our Needham sublease expires in October 2022. In addition, our international operations are headquartered in a leased facility located in Ness Ziona, Israel, where our development and supply chain operational functions are primarily based. Our Ness Ziona lease expires in December 2021. Based on our current operating plans, we believe our current facilities are adequate.

Item 3.

None.

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 


82


 

 

Part II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock began trading on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “CHMA” on July 16, 2015.

Holders of Record

On February 26, 2021, the closing price per share of our common stock was $3.89 as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market, and we had approximately 14 stockholders of record. In addition, we believe that a significant number of beneficial owners of our common stock hold their shares in street name.

Stock Price Performance Graph

Set forth below is a graph comparing the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the NASDAQ US Composite Index, the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index for the period covering from our IPO date of July 16, 2015, through the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. The graph assumes an investment of $100.00 made on July 16, 2015, in (i) our common stock, (ii) the stocks comprising the NASDAQ US Composite Index, and (iii) stocks comprising the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index. This graph is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed “filed” with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference into any filing by us under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing. The graph assumes our closing sale price on July 16, 2015 of $20.00 per share as the initial value of our common stock and not the initial offering price to the public of $16.00 per share.

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COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*

Among Chiasma, Inc., the NASDAQ Composite Index

and the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index

 

 

*$100 invested on December 31, 2015 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal year ending December 31.

 

 

 

 

12/31/2016

 

 

12/31/2017

 

 

12/31/2018

 

 

12/31/2019

 

 

12/31/2020

 

Chiasma, Inc.

 

 

9.96

 

 

 

8.69

 

 

 

15.89

 

 

 

25.34

 

 

 

22.23

 

NASDAQ Composite

 

 

108.87

 

 

 

141.13

 

 

 

137.12

 

 

 

187.44

 

 

 

271.64

 

NASDAQ Biotechnology

 

 

78.65

 

 

 

95.67

 

 

 

87.19

 

 

 

109.08

 

 

 

137.90

 

 

Our fiscal year ends on the last day of December each year; data in the above table reflects market values for our stock and NASDAQ and peer group indices as of the close of trading on the last trading day of the periods presented.

Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans

Information about our equity compensation plans is incorporated herein by reference to Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

There were no repurchases of shares of common stock made during the year ended December 31, 2020.

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Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

You should read the following selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have derived the consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report. We have derived the statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this Annual Report. Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future period.

 

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(in thousands except share and per share data)

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product revenue, net

 

$

1,106

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross profit

 

 

1,045

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

44,892

 

 

 

15,122

 

 

 

9,974

 

 

 

9,146

 

 

 

21,815

 

Research and development

 

 

26,802

 

 

 

22,457

 

 

 

22,362

 

 

 

17,948

 

 

 

31,317

 

Restructuring charges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,038

 

 

 

8,179

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

71,694

 

 

 

37,579

 

 

 

32,336

 

 

 

28,132

 

 

 

61,311

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(70,649

)

 

 

(37,579

)

 

 

(32,336

)

 

 

(28,132

)

 

 

(61,311

)

Interest and other income, net

 

 

1,826

 

 

 

1,543

 

 

 

1,044

 

 

 

716

 

 

 

547

 

Interest expense

 

 

(5,872

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(74,695

)

 

 

(36,036

)

 

 

(31,292

)

 

 

(27,416

)

 

 

(60,764

)

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

 

 

84

 

 

 

284

 

 

 

(31

)

 

 

(590

)

 

 

347

 

Net loss

 

$

(74,779

)

 

$

(36,320

)

 

$

(31,261

)

 

$

(26,826

)

 

$

(61,111

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings per share attributable to common stockholders

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

(1.43

)

 

$

(1.06

)

 

$

(1.28

)

 

$

(1.10

)

 

$

(2.51

)

Diluted

 

$

(1.43

)

 

$

(1.06

)

 

$

(1.28

)

 

$

(1.10

)

 

$

(2.51

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares outstanding:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

52,234,945

 

 

 

34,204,284

 

 

 

24,399,706

 

 

 

24,366,681

 

 

 

24,319,443

 

Diluted

 

 

52,234,945

 

 

 

34,204,284

 

 

 

24,399,706

 

 

 

24,366,681

 

 

 

24,319,443

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

15,462

 

 

$

27,855

 

 

$

13,060

 

 

$

14,603

 

 

$

37,013

 

Marketable securities

 

 

119,959

 

 

 

64,520

 

 

 

28,602

 

 

 

52,336

 

 

 

55,971

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

538

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inventory

 

 

10,955

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets

 

 

153,358

 

 

 

96,256

 

 

 

62,187

 

 

 

68,707

 

 

 

95,094

 

Total assets

 

 

176,338

 

 

 

98,826

 

 

 

63,256

 

 

 

69,883

 

 

 

96,756

 

Current liabilities

 

 

16,731

 

 

 

11,375

 

 

 

28,627

 

 

 

6,745

 

 

 

8,400

 

Deferred royalty obligation

 

 

63,548

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term liabilities

 

 

4,274

 

 

 

1,682

 

 

 

505

 

 

 

664

 

 

 

2,631

 

Total liabilities

 

 

84,553

 

 

 

13,057

 

 

 

29,132

 

 

 

7,409

 

 

 

11,031

 

Total stockholders' equity

 

 

91,785

 

 

 

85,769

 

 

 

34,124

 

 

 

62,474

 

 

 

85,725

 

 

85


 

 

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our actual results could differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Overview

We are a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on improving the lives of patients who face challenges associated with their existing treatments for rare and serious chronic disease. Employing our proprietary Transient Permeability Enhancer, or TPE®, technology platform, we seek to develop oral medications that are currently available only as injections. On June 26, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, approved MYCAPSSA® (octreotide) capsules for long-term maintenance treatment in acromegaly patients who have responded to and tolerated treatment with octreotide or lanreotide. We commenced our U.S. commercial launch of MYCAPSSA in September 2020. MYCAPSSA is the first and only oral somatostatin analog, or SSA, approved by the FDA and the first product approved by the FDA utilizing our TPE technology. The FDA approval of MYCAPSSA was based on the positive results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, nine-month Phase 3 CHIASMA OPTIMAL clinical trial of octreotide capsules, which met the primary endpoint and all four secondary endpoints, as well as safety data from all of our Phase 3 clinical trials of MYCAPSSA. We are focused on the commercialization of MYCAPSSA for the treatment of patients with acromegaly in the United States and developing and seeking regulatory approval of MYCAPSSA in the European Union.

Acromegaly is a rare and debilitating condition that results from the body’s production of excess growth hormone, which in turn elevates insulin-like growth factor 1, or IGF-1. These elevated hormone levels result in a number of painful and disfiguring symptoms, including some acute, such as headaches, joint pain and fatigue, and some long-term, such as enlarged hands, feet and internal organs, as well as altered facial features. If not treated promptly, acromegaly can lead to serious illness and is associated with premature death, primarily due to cardiovascular disease. Octreotide is an analog of somatostatin, a natural inhibitor of growth hormone secretion. The current standard of care for patients diagnosed with acromegaly and not otherwise cured by surgical removal of the pituitary tumor consists of lifelong, once-monthly injections of an extended release somatostatin analog. Octreotide capsules have been granted orphan designation in the United States and the European Union for the treatment of acromegaly. The worldwide market for injectable somatostatin analogs is approximately $2.8 billion annually. We estimate the global market for SSAs in the treatment of acromegaly at approximately $800 million of which we estimate the U.S. market at approximately $400 million. We retain worldwide rights to develop and commercialize octreotide capsules.

We conducted an international Phase 3 clinical trial, referred to as MPOWERED, of oral octreotide capsules for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with acromegaly to support regulatory approval in the European Union. The MPOWERED trial was a randomized, open-label and active-controlled 15-month trial initially designed to enroll up to 150 patients. The European Medicines Agency, or EMA, requested that a minimum of at least 80 patients who are responders to octreotide capsules following the six-month run-in phase be randomized to either remain on octreotide capsules or return to injectable somatostatin receptor ligands (octreotide or lanreotide), and then followed for an additional nine months. The primary endpoint of the MPOWERED trial was the proportion of patients who are biochemically controlled throughout the randomized, controlled phase of the study, defined as a time weighted average of IGF-I < 1.3 ULN. In November 2020, we announced positive topline results from the MPOWERED trial, including that the study met its primary non-inferiority endpoint. Based on the positive data from the MPOWERED trial, we expect to submit a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, in mid-2021 seeking marketing approval of MYCAPSSA capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly in the European Union.

In 2020, we commenced enrolling patients in the first industry-sponsored disease state registry for acromegaly in the United States known as the Management of Acromegaly Registry, or MACRO Registry. The MACRO Registry is designed to enroll patients from over 40 planned clinical sites in the United States and collect real-world data on treatment burden and effectiveness of various acromegaly treatments.

We were incorporated in 2001 and commenced active operations in the same year. Historically, our operations have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, developing our TPE technology, identifying potential drug candidates, undertaking nonclinical studies and, beginning in 2010, conducting clinical trials and preparing for regulatory submissions. Beginning in 2020, we have commenced commercial operations to support the U.S. commercial launch of MYCAPSSA. We have completed public offerings of common stock and pre-funded warrants in which we have raised an aggregate $266.5 million, including our initial public offering in July 2015. In April 2020, we entered into a Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, or the

86


 

Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, with Healthcare Royalty Partners IV, L.P., or HCR, for up to $75.0 million. As of December 31, 2020, our consolidated cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities were $135.4 million, of which $0.7 million was held by Chiasma (Israel) Ltd., our wholly owned Israeli subsidiary. In April 2020, we entered into an Open Market Sales Agreement, or ATM Agreement, for “at the market offerings” under which we may offer and sell from time to time shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $60.0 million through Jefferies, acting as our sales agent or principal. To date, we have not sold any common stock under the ATM Agreement.

We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception. Our net loss was $74.8 million and $36.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $347.7 million. We expect to incur significant operating losses over the next several years. These losses, combined with prior losses will continue to have an adverse effect on our cash resources, stockholders’ equity and working capital. We plan to invest in our U.S. commercial launch and the manufacturing of octreotide capsules for market consumption including manufacturing scale-up activities, and transitioning the open label extension portions of both our international Phase 3 CHIASMA OPTIMAL clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly and our international Phase 3 MPOWERED clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly for patients outside of the United States to an Expanded Access Program, where applicable, and MACRO Registry. In addition, we plan to prepare and submit an MAA to the EMA, seeking potential regulatory approval or oral octreotide as a treatment for acromegaly in the European Union in mid-2021.

Due of the numerous risks and uncertainties facing our company and associated with developing and commercializing pharmaceutical products generally, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when we will become profitable, if at all. We plan to continue to fund our losses from operations and capital funding needs from existing balances of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and potentially through equity financings. We may also opportunistically consider license and collaboration agreements with potential partners or convertible debt financing to the extent such sources are identified and available. If our anticipated U.S. revenues are insufficient to fund our operations to attaining and sustaining profitability, additional financing may be required. Such financing, if required, may not be available on a timely basis on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If we are not able to secure adequate additional funding when required, we may be forced to make reductions in spending, extend payment terms with suppliers, suspend or curtail our development opportunities, or it may negatively impact our ability to adequately fund or delay our potential commercial preparations or launch readiness outside the United States if MYCAPSSA is approved by the EMA. Any of these actions could materially harm our business, results of operations and future prospects. Failure to successfully commercialize MYCAPSSA in acromegaly will prevent us from achieving profitability and positive cash flows, which could raise significant concerns about our continued viability as a business.

COVID-19 Update

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel strain of coronavirus, or COVID-19, a global pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has and will continue to affect economies and businesses around the world. We continue to closely monitor the impact of COVID-19 on our business and have implemented steps to ensure the well-being of our employees as well as the patients and health care professionals involved in the disease state registry for acromegaly that we have sponsored. We have not observed any significant disruptions to our manufacturing supply chain to date due to the pandemic. However, the pandemic has caused us to modify our business practices, including taking steps to protect our employees and the broader community, such as curtailing or modifying employee travel, reducing access to our offices, moving employees to remote work where appropriate, and cancelling in-person participation in meetings. In addition, the intensification of the pandemic throughout the United States beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020 has impacted physician outreach efforts across the biopharmaceutical industry. As with other commercial companies, we are experiencing the effects in our business, as the pandemic continues to force office closures, reduce in-person physician and patient interactions as well as in-person sales call opportunities. Additionally, prescriptions received for MYCAPSSA take longer than anticipated to convert to commercial patients on therapy due to physician office shutdowns and their staffs’ remote working conditions. We are monitoring developments carefully and leveraging available technologies at our disposal to adjust to the pandemic challenges that we currently face, including increasing our digital promotion and engagement efforts and equipping and training our salesforce to conduct remote interactions.

Commercial Manufacturing Supply

We began implementing launch readiness plans in 2019 in preparation for a commercial launch of MYCAPSSA capsules in the United States, pending the FDA’s approval of our NDA. Following FDA approval of our NDA and to secure commercial supply of MYCAPSSA, we submitted our “changes being effected in 30 days” supplement, CBE-30 supplement, to our NDA in June 2020 to provide for the approval of our primary commercial manufacturer of generic active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, octreotide acetate and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. Following the FDA’s acceptance of our CBE-30 supplement for review, in September 2020, we began to distribute commercial product as part of our U.S. commercial launch while the FDA’s review of the

87


 

supplement was pending. The FDA approved the CBE-30 supplement in December 2020. At this time, we expect to continue to have sufficient commercial supply of MYCAPSSA to support our commercial launch.

In order to secure an additional commercial source of API, we submitted a prior approval supplement to include in our NDA another commercial manufacturer of API and one of its large-scale manufacturing sites. This manufacturing supplement was accepted for review by the FDA in January 2021 and the FDA set a PDUFA target date in the second quarter of 2021 for the completion of its review.

Financial Overview

Product Revenue, Net

We began to recognize product revenues net of discounts, fees and other incentives from the sale of MYCAPSSA in the United States in September 2020.

Cost of Goods Sold

Cost of goods sold includes direct and indirect costs related to the manufacturing and distribution of MYCAPSSA, including active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, and other raw materials, third party manufacturing costs and other overhead costs, associated with MYCAPSSA.

Selling, General and Administrative

Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related benefits, including stock-based compensation, related to our executive, finance, information technology, legal, marketing, patient services, sales, medical affairs and support functions. Other selling, general and administrative expenses include facility-related costs not otherwise allocated to research and development expenses, travel expenses for our selling, general and administrative personnel and professional fees for auditing, tax, and corporate, litigation, and intellectual property-related legal services.

Prior to the release of our positive top-line CHIASMA OPTIMAL Phase 3 data in July 2019, our marketing expenses were immaterial. Following the positive top-line data, we incurred pre-commercial marketing related expenses prior to FDA approval. Following the FDA approval in June 2020, we incurred increased commercial expenses as we began to commercialize MYCAPSSA in the United States. We anticipate future increases in selling expenses, as we continue with our commercialization of octreotide capsules and grow our operations.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in performing research and development activities, including compensation and benefits for full-time research and development employees, an allocation of facilities expenses, overhead expenses, nonclinical pharmacology studies, manufacturing process-development and scale-up activities, clinical trial and related clinical and pre-approval manufacturing expenses, fees paid to contract research organizations, or CROs, investigative sites, and other external expenses. In the early phases of development, our research and development costs included expanding our technology platform as well as early development of specific product candidates. The majority of our research and development expenses has been spent on the development of octreotide capsules, including pre-approval manufacturing expenses, manufacturing of clinical trial material, manufacturing process development and validation, regulatory and clinical activities, and our TPE platform. Now that MYCAPSSA has been approved by the FDA, manufacturing costs related to the production of commercial supplies of MYCAPSSA are no longer captured in research and development expense but are capitalized to inventory. We expense research and development costs as incurred.

We have limited research and discovery functions and are currently not materially investing in those areas. We have focused our resources on the clinical development of octreotide capsules, including our two international Phase 3 trials, CHIASMA OPTIMAL and MPOWERED. Product candidates in late stages of development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of late-stage clinical trials. We plan to transition the open label extension portions of both our international Phase 3 CHIASMA OPTIMAL clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly and our international Phase 3 MPOWERED clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly for patients outside of the United States to an Expanded Access Program, where applicable, as well as continue the MACRO Registry.

88


 

Interest and Other Income, Net

Interest and other income, net consists of changes in the fair value of the embedded derivative liabilities related to our Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, in addition to interest income earned on our investments.

Interest Expense

Interest expense consists primarily of interest expense associated with our Revenue Interest Financing Agreement.

Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes

We are subject to federal and state income taxes for earnings generated in the United States, and foreign taxes on earnings of our wholly-owned Israeli subsidiary. Our consolidated tax expense is primarily affected by the mix of our foreign subsidiary permanent items, discrete items, and unrecognized tax benefits and to a lesser extent our taxable income (loss) in the United States.

Results of Operations

Comparison for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

The following tables set forth, for the periods indicated, our results of operations and the change between the specified periods expressed as a percent increase or decrease:

Product Revenue, Net

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% change

 

 

($ in thousands)

Product revenue, net

 

$

1,106

 

 

$

 

 

$

1,106

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Not a meaningful percentage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product revenues, net represent U.S. sales from MYCAPSSA, which was approved by the FDA in June 2020 which we began selling in September 2020.

Cost of Goods Sold

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% change

 

 

($ in thousands)

Cost of goods sold

 

$

61

 

 

$

 

 

$

61

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Not a meaningful percentage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All product costs incurred prior to FDA approval of MYCAPSSA in June 2020 were expensed as research and development expenses. As a result, our cost of goods sold primarily consist of our costs associated with final packaging and manufacturing overhead. We expect our cost of goods sold will be significantly reduced during 2021, as we sell through certain inventory, including the API related costs, that was expensed prior to FDA approval in June 2020.

Selling, General and Administrative

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% change

 

 

 

($ in thousands)

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

$

44,892

 

 

$

15,122

 

 

$

29,770

 

 

 

197

%

 

For the year ended December 31, 2020, our general and administrative expenses increased by $29.8 million to $44.9 million. This increase was primarily due to our pre- and post-approval commercialization activities of $18.3 million, an increase in compensation-related expenses and increased other administrative costs to support the commercialization of MYCAPSSA in the United States.

89


 

Research and Development

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% change

 

 

 

($ in thousands)

 

Research and development

 

$

26,802

 

 

$

22,457

 

 

$

4,345

 

 

 

19

%

 

During the year ended December 31, 2020, our total research and development expenses increased by $4.3 million to $26.8 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in costs associated with manufacturing of octreotide capsules to support our planned U.S. commercial launch, which costs were expensed as research and development prior to FDA approval of MYCAPSSA, costs associated with our disease state registry and scientific literature publications and increased regulatory costs which were offset by a decrease in clinical trial costs.

Interest and Other Income, net

Interest and other income, net totaled $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of approximately $0.3 million. The increase was primarily driven by changes in fair value of the embedded derivative liabilities related to our Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, which was partially offset by decreased interest income over the prior year. Interest income declined due to a decrease in the interest rate yield on our cash equivalents and marketable securities which was only partially offset by the increase of our cash equivalents and marketable securities.

Interest Expense

Interest expense totaled $5.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily driven by interest expense related to our Revenue Interest Financing Arrangement which was entered into in April 2020.

Provision for Income Taxes

Our total tax provision was less than $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing an effective tax rate of (0.1%), as compared to a tax provision of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, representing an effective tax rate of (0.8%).

Our effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate each year mainly due to a full valuation allowance maintained against U.S. deferred tax assets and due to lower tax rates applied to income of our Israeli subsidiary.

Comparison for the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

The following tables set forth, for the periods indicated, our results of operations and the change between the specified periods expressed as a percent increase or decrease:

Selling, General and Administrative

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

$ Change

 

 

change

 

 

 

($ in thousands)

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

$

15,122

 

 

$

9,974

 

 

$

5,148

 

 

 

52

%

 

For the year ended December 31, 2019, our general and administrative expenses increased by $5.1 million to $15.1 million. This increase was primarily due to the initiation of pre-commercial activities and an increase in compensation-related expenses primarily in the second half of 2019, which were partially offset by a decrease in legal costs.

Research and Development

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

 

 

($ in thousands)

 

Research and development

 

$

22,457

 

 

$

22,362

 

 

$

95

 

 

 

0

%

 

During the year ended December 31, 2019, our total research and development expenses increased by $0.1 million to $22.5 million. This increase was primarily due to an increase in manufacturing and regulatory costs offset by a decrease in clinical trial costs.

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Interest and Other Income, net

Interest and other income totaled $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of approximately $0.5 million. The increase was driven by the increase of our cash equivalents and marketable securities and an increase in the interest yield on our cash equivalents and marketable securities.

Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes

Our total tax provision was $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, representing an effective tax rate of (0.8%), as compared to a tax benefit of $31,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018, representing an effective tax rate of 0.10%.

Our effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate each year mainly due to a full valuation allowance maintained against U.S. deferred tax assets and due to lower tax rates applied to income of our Israeli subsidiary.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

In July 2015, we completed our IPO in which we raised $106.5 million by selling shares of common stock. In April 2019, to fund our operations, we completed a follow-on public offering of common stock in which we raised $34.5 million in gross proceeds, or $32.2 million in net proceeds after underwriting fees and offering expenses. In August 2019, to fund our operations, we completed a follow-on public offering of common stock in which we raised $55.9 million in gross proceeds, or $52.3 million in net proceeds after underwriting fees and offering expenses. In July 2020, we completed a follow-on public offering, which consisted of common stock and pre-funded warrants in which we raised an additional $75.5 million in net proceeds to finance our operations. In April 2020, we entered into the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement with HCR for up to $75.0 million. We received $65.0 million, less certain transaction expenses, in 2020. The remaining $10.0 million of funding is not available until early 2022 and is contingent upon the achievement of a revenue milestone and customary closing conditions. Further, the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement requires us to maintain a minimum of $20.0 million in securitized cash and investment accounts during any quarter that the trailing four quarters of net revenue of MYCAPSSA is below a certain threshold. In April 2020, we also entered into the ATM Agreement with Jefferies, which allows us to offer and sell up to $60.0 million in gross proceeds of common stock from time to time, through Jefferies, acting as our sales agent or principal. To date, we have not sold any common stock under the ATM Agreement. As of December 31, 2020, our cash and cash equivalents were $15.5 million, of which $0.7 million was held by our Israeli subsidiary. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, we have $120.0 million invested in short-term marketable securities.

Plan of Operations and Future Funding Requirements

We expect that our primary uses of capital will be associated with the commercialization of MYCAPSSA in the United States and the manufacturing of octreotide capsules for market consumption, seeking regulatory approval of octreotide capsules in the European Union, including clinical trial costs (including our transition of the open label extension portions of both our international Phase 3 CHIASMA OPTIMAL clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly and our international Phase 3 MPOWERED clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly for patients outside of the United States to an Expanded Access Program, where applicable, and the continuation of our MACRO Registry), medical affairs activities, legal and regulatory expenses related to seeking regulatory approval of octreotide capsules in the European Union, compensation and related expenses, third-party clinical development services, and other general operating costs.

We currently expect our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our operations, as currently planned, through at least one year from the filing of this Annual Report. We cannot estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully commercialize MYCAPSSA in the United States and complete the development and successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in the European Union, if at all, or whether, or when, we may achieve profitability. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

 

the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, marketing, access and reimbursement, sales and distribution, for octreotide capsules and any other future product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

 

proceeds, if any, received from commercial sales of octreotide capsules and any future product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

 

the costs, timing and outcome of the development and regulatory review of octreotide capsules and our second manufacturing supplement;

 

the progress and results of our clinical trials of octreotide capsules or any future clinical trials or studies we may conduct;

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the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims; and

 

the extent to which we develop, acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies or explore or consummate other strategic transactions.

 

We filed a $200.0 million shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC in September 2019, which the SEC declared effective in September 2019. In April 2020, we entered into the ATM Agreement with Jefferies, under which we may offer and sell from time to time shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $60.0 million through Jefferies, acting as our sales agent or principal. To date, we have not sold any shares of common stock under the ATM Agreement. In July 2020, we completed a follow-on public offering which consisted of common stock and pre-funded warrants, in which we raised $80.5 million in gross proceeds, or $75.5 million net proceeds after deducting underwriting fees and offering expenses. Consequently, we have approximately $59.5 million available under such shelf registration statement on Form S-3.

To the extent that we raise additional capital through future issuance of equity or convertible debt, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our existing common stockholders. If we raise additional funds through collaboration or other financing arrangements, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our current or future product candidates, exploratory programs, technologies or future revenue streams on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or other financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts of octreotide capsules or grant rights to develop and market future potential product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

 

Revenue Interest Financing Agreement

 

In April 2020, we entered into a Revenue Interest Financing Agreement with HCR whereby HCR will receive payments from us at a tiered percentage, or the Applicable Tiered Percentage, of future net revenues of MYCAPSSA and any of our other future products, including worldwide net product sales and upfront payments, and milestones, collectively, the Revenue Interests. Under the terms of the agreement, we received $25.0 million, less certain transaction expenses, from HCR in April 2020, received an additional $25.0 million following the FDA approval of MYCAPSSA in July 2020, and received $15.0 million following delivery of commercial supplies of MYCAPSSA to our third party logistics provider and the first commercial sale of MYCAPSSA in September 2020. We are also entitled to receive an additional $10.0 million in early 2022 subject to the achievement of a revenue milestone and customary closing conditions. In exchange for the total investment amount, or Investment Amount, received, HCR will receive a tiered royalty in the low double digits on worldwide annual net revenues of MYCAPSSA and any other future products, subject to step-downs upon the achievement of certain annual revenues.

 

HCR’s rights to receive the Revenue Interests shall terminate on the date on which HCR has received payments equal to 195% of the funded portion of the Investment Amount including the aggregate of all payments made to HCR as of such date, unless the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement is earlier terminated. If HCR has not received payments equal to the 195% of the funded portion of the Investment Amount by the ten-year anniversary of the initial closing date and no event of default has occurred or is ongoing, among other things, we shall pay HCR an amount equal to the funded portion of the Investment Amount plus a specific annual rate of return in the low to mid-teens less payments previously received. If a change of control of the Company occurs, we must immediately repay HCR the total amount actually funded, including any amount conditionally eligible to be funded, plus a change of control premium, the amount of which is variable up to 95% based on timing and circumstances of such change of control and the amount funded and conditionally eligible to be funded by HCR as of the date of the change of control. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, including the withdrawal, suspension or other termination of the FDA approval of MYCAPSSA as a treatment for acromegaly that continues for sixty days that prevents us from marketing MYCAPSSA, HCR may accelerate payments due under the agreement to the 195% of the funded portion of the Investment Amount.

 

If HCR has not received 60% of the Investment Amount by September 30, 2023 or 100% of the Investment Amount by September 30, 2024, we must make cash payments sufficient to gross HCR up to such minimum amounts. Further, the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement requires us to maintain a minimum of $20.0 million in securitized cash and investment accounts during any quarter that the trailing four quarters of net revenue of MYCAPSSA is below a certain threshold. Our obligations under the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement are secured by a first priority perfected security interest in all of our cash and cash equivalents (as defined in the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement), all present and future net revenues of MYCAPSSA and all MYCAPSSA-related assets.

92


 

Cash Flows

The following is a summary of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

 

($ in thousands)

 

Cash flows provided by (used in):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

$

(75,326

)

 

$

(35,012

)

Investing activities

 

 

(55,842

)

 

 

(35,657

)

Financing activities

 

 

139,338

 

 

 

85,464

 

 

Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities was $75.3 million in 2020, and primarily consisted of $74.8 million in net loss, adjusted for non-cash items of $4.8 million (primarily stock-based compensation of $5.0 million and non-cash lease expense which was partially offset by the change in the fair value of the embedded derivative) and was offset by working capital decreases of $5.4 million (primarily due to the increase in inventory and prepaid expenses and other current assets which was partially offset by an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current and long term liabilities). Net cash used in operating activities was $35.0 million in 2019, and primarily consisted of $36.3 million in net loss, adjusted for non-cash items of $3.1 million (primarily stock-based compensation of $3.3 million and partially offset by amortization of premium on marketable securities) and was offset by working capital decreases of $1.8 million (primarily driven by the increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets which was partially offset by an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses). 

Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities was $55.8 million in 2020, primarily related to the net purchases of marketable securities driven by the net proceeds received from the net proceeds from the Revenue Interest Agreement with HCR and net proceeds received from our follow-on public offering that was completed in July 2020. Net cash used in investing activities was $35.7 million in 2019, primarily related to the net purchases of marketable securities driven by the net proceeds received from the follow-on offerings that were completed in April and August 2019.

Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was $139.3 million in 2020, primarily related to the net proceeds from the Revenue Interest Agreement with HCR and net proceeds received from our follow-on public offering that was completed in July 2020. Net cash provided by financing activities was $85.5 million in 2019, primarily related to the net proceeds received from the follow-on public offerings that were completed in April and August 2019 and the net proceeds from a short-term borrowing.

Contractual Obligations and Contingent Liabilities

The following summarizes our significant contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Less than

 

 

1 to 3

 

 

3 to 5

 

 

More than

 

Contractual Obligations

 

Total

 

 

1 Year

 

 

Years

 

 

Years

 

 

5 Years

 

 

 

($ in thousands)

 

Purchase obligations

 

$

20,300

 

 

$

17,800

 

 

$

2,500

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Operating leases

 

 

1,230

 

 

 

726

 

 

 

504

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total contractual obligations

 

$

21,530

 

 

$

18,526

 

 

$

3,004

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

Purchase Obligations. This amount represents manufacturing commitments, including the acquisition of API, under non-cancelable agreements.

Operating Leases. This amount represents future minimum lease payments under non-cancelable operating leases in effect as of December 31, 2020 for our current and future facilities in the U.S. and Israel. The minimum lease payments do not include common area maintenance charges or real estate taxes.

93


 

Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base these estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available, and on various factors that we believe to be reasonable under the specific circumstances. Significant estimates relied upon in preparing the accompanying consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, accounting for stock-based compensation and accounting for certain accruals. We assess these estimates on an ongoing basis; however, actual results could materially differ from those estimates.

While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we believe that the following accounting policies are critical to the process of making significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements and understanding and evaluating our reported financial results.

Revenue Recognition – Product Revenue, Net

In accordance with accounting guidance for revenue recognition, we recognize revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that we determine to be within the scope of such guidance, we perform the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. We only apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that we will collect the consideration we are entitled to in exchange for the goods or services that we transfer to the customer. For a further discussion of accounting for net product revenue see Note 3 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Revenue Reserves for Variable Consideration

Revenue from sales of MYCAPSSA are recorded at the net sales price, which is the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring the product to a customer, or transaction price. This transaction price for product sales includes variable consideration for which reserves are established and which may result from discounts, returns, chargebacks, rebates, co-pay or co-insurance assistance and other allowances that are offered within contracts with our customer and payors. We estimate the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price under the expected value method for all sales deductions other than trade discounts, which are estimated under the most likely amount method. These provisions represent our best estimate of the amount of consideration to which we are entitled. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from these estimates. If actual results in the future vary from our estimates, we will adjust these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such changes in estimates become known.

Trade Discounts and Specialty Pharmacy Fees: we provide customary discounts to our customer for prompt payment, the terms for which are explicitly stated in our contract with such customer. We record these discounts as a reduction of revenue with a corresponding reduction to accounts receivable. In addition, we also pay fees for data and distribution services from our specialty pharmacy. We have determined that such fees are not for a distinct good or service and, accordingly, are being recorded as a reduction of product revenue and a component of accrued expenses.

Government and Payor Rebates: We are subject to discount obligations under state Medicaid programs, Medicare, and other government programs. Additionally, in the future, we may contract with various private payor organizations, primarily insurance companies and pharmacy benefit managers, for the payment of rebates with respect to utilization of MYCAPSSA. Provisions for both government and payor rebates are based on the estimated amount of rebates and incentives to be claimed on the related sales from the period. These reserves are recorded in the same period in which the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability that is included in accrued expenses in our consolidated balance sheet. For Medicare, we must also estimate the number of patients in the prescription drug coverage gap for whom we will owe an additional liability under the Medicare Part D program. Our liability for these rebates currently consists of estimates of claims that we have not yet received associated with product that has been recognized as revenue.

Other Incentives/Patient Assistance Programs: We offer voluntary patient assistance programs such as co-pay and co-insurance assistance. These programs are intended to provide financial assistance to qualified commercially insured patients with prescription

94


 

drug co-payments and co-insurance required by payors. The calculation of the accrual for co-pay and co-insurance assistance is based on an estimate of claims and the cost per claim that we expect to receive associated with product that has been recognized as revenue.

Product Returns: Consistent with industry practice, we offer customers a limited right of return for unopened damaged or defective product, and, under certain circumstances, for unopened product for a limited time before its expiration date. We estimate the amount of product revenues that may be returned by customers and record this estimate as a reduction of revenue in the period in which the related product revenue is recognized. We currently estimate our provision for sales returns based on our expectations and adjust the transaction price with such estimate at the time of sale to our customer. Once sufficient history has been collected for product returns, we will utilize that history to inform our estimate assumption.

Clinical trial costs

Clinical trial costs are a component of research and development expenses. We accrue and expense clinical trial activities performed by third parties on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as hours spent in performance of services, patient enrollment, clinical site activation, and other information provided to us by our vendors. We make estimates of our clinical trial accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us. If timelines or contracts are modified based upon changes in the clinical trial protocol or scope of work to be performed, we assess our estimates of accrued expenses accordingly.

If we do not identify costs that we have begun to incur, or if we underestimate or overestimate the level of services performed or the costs of these services, our actual expenses could differ from our estimates. To date, there have not been any material adjustments to our prior estimates of accrued research and development expenses.

Stock-based Compensation

We account for all stock-based compensation to employees and nonemployees based on their fair values on the date of grant. For stock-based awards with only service conditions, we recognize compensation on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is usually the vesting period of the award, net of any actual forfeitures.

We determine the fair value of stock options by using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. This model requires the input of several assumptions such as the expected option term, the expected risk-free interest rate over the expected option term, the expected volatility of our stock price over the expected option term, and the expected dividend yield over the expected option term. The computation of expected volatility is based on an average historical share price volatility based on an analysis of reported data for a peer group of comparable publicly traded companies, which were selected based upon industry similarities. The interest rate for periods within the expected term of the award is based on the U.S. Treasury risk-free interest rate in effect at the time of grant. The expected lives of the options were estimated using the simplified method. 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC.

 

95


 

 

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

The market risk inherent in our financial instruments and in our financial position represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. As of December 31, 2020, we had $15.5 million in cash and cash equivalents, consisting of cash in checking accounts at U.S. and Israeli banking institutions as well as money market funds and short-term corporate notes. In addition, we had $120.0 million of marketable securities. Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. An immediate 100 basis point change in interest rates would cause a decrease in the value of short-term investments of $0.4 million. As of December 31, 2020, we did not have any outstanding variable interest rate nor long-term borrowings, and as a result we are not exposed to interest rate risk associated with credit facilities.

In addition, we are subject to currency risk for balances held, or denominated, in currencies other than U.S. dollars. We work to maintain all balances in U.S. dollars until payment in other currencies is required to minimize this currency risk. Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and each of the Euro, GBP and NIS over the past 24 months has been approximately 7%, 7% and 14%, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, we held $0.7 million in Israeli banks and petty cash funds to support our Israeli operations, the majority of which is denominated in U.S. dollars. We contract with CROs internationally, primarily for the execution of clinical trials and manufacturing activities. Transactions with these providers are settled in U.S. dollars, Euros or GBP and, therefore, we believe that we have only minimal exposure to foreign currency exchange risks. We do not hedge against foreign currency risks.

We do not believe that inflation and changing prices had a significant impact on our results of operations for any periods presented herein.

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

See the consolidated financial statements filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as listed under Item 15 below.

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

Not Applicable.

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) are designed only to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet their objectives. Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness, as of December 31, 2020, of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e). Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer have concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in our Exchange Act reports is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f). Our internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance to our management and board of directors regarding the preparation and fair presentation of published financial statements. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can only provide reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Because of these inherent limitations, management does not expect that our internal controls over financial reporting will prevent all error and all fraud. Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued in 2013 by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on our evaluation under the framework in Internal Control-Integrated Framework, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020.

96


 

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) or 15d-15(d)) during the quarter ended December 31, 2020 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Item 9B.

Other Information

Not Applicable.

97


 

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the close of the Company’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

We intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be disclosed pursuant to the rules of the SEC. Information contained on, or connected to, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this report or any other filing that we make with the SEC.

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the close of the Company’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the close of the Company’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

Item 13.

The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the close of the Company’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

The information required under this item is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the close of the Company’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

(a)

1. Consolidated Financial Statements.

For a list of the consolidated financial statements included herein, see Index on page F-1 of this report.

2. Financial Statement Schedules.

All required information is included in the financial statements or notes thereto.

3. List of Exhibits.

See the Exhibit Index in Item 15(b) below.

(b)

Exhibit Index.

98


 

 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
No.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 21, 2015.

 

 

 

3.2

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 21, 2015.

 

 

 

4.1

 

Form of Common Stock certificate of the Company, incorporated by reference from our Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement on Form S-1/A filed on July 6, 2015 (File No. 333-204949).

 

 

 

4.2

 

Form of Warrant to Purchase Shares of Common Stock (issued in connection with the Company’s Series D preferred stock financing), incorporated by reference from our Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on June 15, 2015 (File No. 333-204949).

 

 

 

4.3

 

Form of Warrant to Purchase Shares of Common Stock (issued in connection with the Company’s Series E preferred stock financing), incorporated by reference from our Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on June 15, 2015 (File No. 333-204949).

 

 

 

4.4

 

Form of Pre-Funded Warrant incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 2, 2020.

 

 

 

4.5

 

Description of Capital Stock incorporated by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on March 16, 2020.

 

 

 

10.1†

 

Israeli Stock Option Plan 2003 and forms of agreements thereunder, incorporated by reference from our Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on June 15, 2015 (File No. 333-204949).

 

 

 

10.2†

 

2015 Stock Option and Incentive Plan and forms of agreement thereunder, incorporated by reference from our Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement on Form S-1/A filed on July 6, 2015 (File No. 333-204949).

 

 

 

10.3†

 

2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, incorporated by reference from our Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement on Form S-1/A filed on July 6, 2015 (File No. 333-204949).

 

 

 

10.4†

 

Senior Executive Cash Incentive Bonus Plan, incorporated by reference from our Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on June 15, 2015 (File No. 333-204949).

 

 

 

10.5†

 

Employment Agreement dated as of May 31, 2019 by and between the Company and Raj Kannan, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 5, 2019, as amended on February 14, 2020, which amendment is incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 21, 2020.

 

 

 

10.6†

 

Amended and Restated Employment Agreement dated as of May 31, 2019 by and between the Company and Mark J. Fitzpatrick, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 5, 2019, as amended on February 14, 2020, which amendment is incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 21, 2020.

 

 

 

10.7†

 

Amended and Restated Employment Agreement dated as of February 23, 2018 by and between the Company and Drew Enamait, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 28, 2018, as amended on February 14, 2020, which amendment is incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 21, 2020.

 

 

 

10.8†

 

Amended and Restated Employment Agreement dated as of February 23, 2018 by and between the Company and William Ludlam, incorporated by reference from our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on May 10, 2018, as amended on February 14, 2020, which amendment is incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 21, 2020.

 

 

 

10.9†*

 

Amended and Restated Employment Agreement dated as of February 14, 2020 by and between the Company and Lee G. Giguere, incorporated by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on March 16, 2020.

 

 

 

10.10†

 

Employment Agreement dated as of April 8, 2020 by and between the Company and Anand Varadan, incorporated by reference from our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on May 7, 2020.

 

 

 

99


 

10.11

 

Form of Indemnification Agreement, to be entered into between the Company and its directors and officers, incorporated by reference from our Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement on Form S-1/A filed on July 6, 2015 (File No. 333-204949)

 

 

 

10.12†

 

Amended and Restated Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy, incorporated by reference from our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on May 5, 2017.

 

 

 

10.13

 

Sublease dated as of October 11, 2019 by and between the Company and PTC, Inc, incorporated by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on March 16, 2020.

 

 

 

10.14+

 

Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, dated April 7, 2020, by and between the Company and HealthCare Royalty Partners IV, L.P., incorporated by reference from our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on May 7, 2020.

 

 

 

10.15

 

Open Market Sales Agreement, dated April 7, 2020, by and between the Company and Jefferies LLC, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 8, 2020.

 

10.16†

 

Release of Claims, dated September 30, 2020, between the Company and Mark J. Fitzpatrick, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 1, 2020.

 

10.17†

 

Executive Employment Letter, effective as of January 19, 2021, between the Company and John Doyle, incorporated by reference from our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 19, 2021.

 

 

 

21.1*

 

Subsidiaries of the Company

 

 

 

23.1*

 

Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP

 

 

 

31.1*

 

Certification of the Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

31.2*

 

Certification of the Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

 

 

32.1**

 

Certification of the Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350 as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

 

 

101.INS

 

The instance document does not appear in the interactive data file because its XBRL tags are embedded within the inline XBRL document.

 

 

 

101.SCH

 

Inline XBRL Schema Document 

 

 

 

101.CAL

 

Inline XBRL Calculation Linkbase Document 

 

 

 

101.LAB

 

Inline XBRL Labels Linkbase Document 

 

 

 

101.PRE

 

Inline XBRL Presentation Linkbase Document 

 

 

 

101.DEF

 

Inline XBRL Definition Linkbase Document 

 

 

 

104

 

Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as inline XBRL with applicable taxonomy extension information contained in Exhibits 101)

 

 

 

 

Indicates a management contract or compensatory plan.

*

Filed herewith.

**

Furnished herewith.

+   Certain portions of this exhibit (indicated by “[***]”) have been omitted pursuant to Item 601(b)(10)(iv) of Regulation S-K

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

None.

100


 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

 

Chiasma, Inc.

 

 

By:

/s/ Raj Kannan 

 

 

 

Raj Kannan

 

 

 

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

By:

/s/ John Doyle 

 

 

 

John Doyle

 

 

 

Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial Officer)

 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Name 

 

Title 

 

Date 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Raj Kannan

 

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal

Executive Officer)

 

March 4, 2021

Raj Kannan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ John Doyle

 

Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)

 

March 4, 2021

John Doyle

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Drew Enamait

 

Vice President, Finance and Administration (Principal

Accounting Officer)

 

March 4, 2021

Drew Enamait

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ David Stack

 

Director

 

March 4, 2021

David Stack

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Todd Foley 

 

Director

 

March 4, 2021

Todd Foley

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Bard Geesaman, M.D., Ph.D. 

 

Director

 

March 4, 2021

Bard Geesaman, M.D., Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Roni Mamluk, Ph.D. 

 

Director

 

March 4, 2021

Roni Mamluk, Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Scott Minick 

 

Director

 

March 4, 2021

Scott Minick

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ John Scarlett, M.D. 

 

Director

 

March 4, 2021

John Scarlett, M.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ John F. Thero 

 

Director

 

March 4, 2021

John F. Thero

 

 

101


 

 

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of Chiasma, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Chiasma, Inc. (the "Company") as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Deferred Royalty Obligation – Refer to Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies, Note 5, Fair Value Measurements and Fair Value of Financial Instruments, and Note 9, Deferred Royalty Obligation, to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

During 2020, pursuant to a revenue interest financing agreement, the Company received $65.0 million from the counterparty, with the potential to receive an additional $10.0 million upon achievement of a revenue milestone prior to December 31, 2021. The Company is obligated to make payments to the counterparty based on a tiered percentage of net revenues generated by the Company’s product until such time as the counterparty has received payments equal to 195% of the amount received by the Company from the counterparty. The Company has accounted for the transaction as long-term debt and has identified the following embedded derivatives requiring bifurcation and fair value measurement at each reporting date:

The settlement of the obligation upon a change of control;

The settlement of the obligation upon an event of default.

At inception and as of December 31, 2020, the aggregate fair value of the embedded derivatives was $3.1 million and $1.9 million, respectively. The Company measures the fair value of these embedded derivatives using a Monte Carlo simulation model, which includes inputs that require significant management judgment including but not limited to (i) management’s estimate of the amount

F-2


 

and timing of future net revenues, (ii) the probability of change of control occurring, (iii) the probability of an event of default occurring, (iv) estimates of volatility and (v) the determination of appropriate discount rates. Changes in these assumptions could have a significant impact on the fair value of the embedded derivatives, and a significant change in the fair value could cause a significant adjustment to the carrying value of the deferred royalty obligation and other income or other expense in the period the adjustment is recognized.

We identified the measurement of the fair value of these embedded derivatives as a critical audit matter because of the significant estimates and judgments management makes when estimating fair value. This required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve fair value specialists when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of assumptions used in the valuation model.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures to test the revenue interest financing agreement included the following, among others:

 

With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the volatility and discount rate assumptions by:

 

o

Testing the source information underlying the determination of volatility and the discount rates and testing the mathematical accuracy of the calculations.

 

o

Developing a range of independent estimates and comparing those to the amounts selected by management.

 

Our audit procedures related to forecasts of future revenues included the following, among others:

 

o

Evaluating management’s ability to accurately forecast future revenues by comparing actual results to management’s historical forecasts.

 

o

Due to the limited historical experience for the Company’s product, we evaluated the reasonableness of management’s revenue forecasts by 1) comparing the forecasts to internal communications to management and the Board of Directors and 2) comparing forecast assumptions to supporting Company data, market data and other third-party information.

 

We evaluated management’s estimate of the probability of a change in control or an event of default by:

 

o

Performing a sensitivity analysis on the probabilities selected by management.

 

o

Discussing with management the basis for the Company’s estimate of the probability of a change in control or an event of default.

 

o

Reading minutes of the Board of Directors and making inquiries of individuals in the organization with knowledge of such potential events.

 

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Boston, Massachusetts
March 4, 2021

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2016.

 

F-3


 

 

CHIASMA, INC.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

 

(in thousands except share and per share data)

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

15,462

 

 

$

27,855

 

Marketable securities

 

 

119,959

 

 

 

64,520

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

538

 

 

 

 

Inventory

 

 

10,955

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

6,444

 

 

 

3,881

 

Total current assets

 

 

153,358

 

 

 

96,256

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

534

 

 

 

334

 

Other assets

 

 

1,883

 

 

 

2,236

 

Restricted cash

 

 

20,563

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

176,338

 

 

$

98,826

 

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

4,240

 

 

$

3,253

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

11,858

 

 

 

7,576

 

Other current liabilities

 

 

633

 

 

 

546

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

16,731

 

 

 

11,375

 

Deferred royalty obligation

 

 

63,548

 

 

 

 

Long-term liabilities

 

 

4,274

 

 

 

1,682

 

Total liabilities

 

 

84,553

 

 

 

13,057

 

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 15)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value; authorized 125,000,000 shares at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019; issued and outstanding 57,815,596 shares at December 31, 2020 and 42,078,416 shares at December 31, 2019

 

 

578

 

 

 

421

 

Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; authorized 5,000,000 shares; NaN

outstanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

438,920

 

 

 

358,245

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

37

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(347,713

)

 

 

(272,934

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

91,785

 

 

 

85,769

 

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

 

$

176,338

 

 

$

98,826

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

F-4


 

CHIASMA, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

 

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

 

(in thousands except share and per share data)

 

Product revenue, net

 

$

1,106

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross profit

 

 

1,045

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

44,892

 

 

 

15,122

 

 

 

9,974

 

Research and development

 

 

26,802

 

 

 

22,457

 

 

 

22,362

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

71,694

 

 

 

37,579

 

 

 

32,336

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(70,649

)

 

 

(37,579

)

 

 

(32,336

)

Interest and other income, net

 

 

1,826

 

 

 

1,543

 

 

 

1,044

 

Interest expense

 

 

(5,872

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(74,695

)

 

 

(36,036

)

 

 

(31,292

)

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

 

 

84

 

 

 

284

 

 

 

(31

)

Net loss

 

$

(74,779

)

 

$

(36,320

)

 

$

(31,261

)

Earnings per share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

(1.43

)

 

$

(1.06

)

 

$

(1.28

)

Diluted

 

$

(1.43

)

 

$

(1.06

)

 

$

(1.28

)

Weighted-average shares outstanding:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

52,234,945

 

 

 

34,204,284

 

 

 

24,399,706

 

Diluted

 

 

52,234,945

 

 

 

34,204,284

 

 

 

24,399,706

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

F-5


 

CHIASMA, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

 

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Net loss

 

$

(74,779

)

 

$

(36,320

)

 

$

(31,261

)

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized gain (loss) on available for sale securities, net

 

 

(37

)

 

 

53

 

 

 

43

 

Total other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

(37

)

 

 

53

 

 

 

43

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(74,816

)

 

$

(36,267

)

 

$

(31,218

)

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

F-6


 

 

CHIASMA, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional

 

 

Other

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Paid-in

 

 

Comprehensive

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Stockholders'

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Income (Loss)

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Equity

 

 

 

(in thousands except share data)

 

Balance, December 31, 2017

 

 

24,381,605

 

 

$

244

 

 

$

267,642

 

 

$

(59

)

 

$

(205,353

)

 

 

62,474

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,730

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,730

 

Exercise of stock options

 

 

74,515

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37

 

Additional paid-in capital on account of

vested portion of restricted stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101

 

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43

 

 

 

 

 

 

43

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(31,261

)

 

 

(31,261

)

Balance, December 31, 2018

 

 

24,456,120

 

 

 

245

 

 

 

270,509

 

 

 

(16

)

 

 

(236,614

)

 

 

34,124

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,270

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,270

 

Exercise of stock options

 

 

192,711

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

 

Issuance of common stock in follow-on

offerings, net

 

 

17,429,585

 

 

 

174

 

 

 

84,402

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84,576

 

Additional paid-in capital on account of

vested portion of restricted stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

 

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53

 

 

 

 

 

 

53

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(36,320

)

 

 

(36,320

)

Balance, December 31, 2019

 

 

42,078,416

 

 

 

421

 

 

 

358,245

 

 

 

37

 

 

 

(272,934

)

 

 

85,769

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,074

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,074

 

Exercise of stock options

 

 

207,416

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

277

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

279

 

Issuance of common stock and

pre-funded warrants in follow-on

offerings, net

 

 

15,125,000

 

 

 

151

 

 

 

75,328

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75,479

 

Issuance of common stock from cashless

warrant exercise

 

 

404,764

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

(4

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(37

)

 

 

 

 

 

(37

)

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(74,779

)

 

 

(74,779

)

Balance, December 31, 2020

 

 

57,815,596

 

 

$

578

 

 

$

438,920

 

 

$

 

 

$

(347,713

)

 

$

91,785

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-7


 

 

CHIASMA, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Operating Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(74,779

)

 

$

(36,320

)

 

$

(31,261

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in)

   operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation

 

 

172

 

 

 

55

 

 

 

88

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

5,020

 

 

 

3,270

 

 

 

2,730

 

Accretion on marketable securities, net

 

 

(6

)

 

 

(515

)

 

 

(440

)

Non-cash lease expense

 

 

509

 

 

 

319

 

 

 

 

Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs

 

 

330

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change in fair value of embedded derivative liability

 

 

(1,200

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Provision (benefit) for deferred income taxes

 

 

(4

)

 

 

(22

)

 

 

16

 

Non-cash interest expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

Loss on disposal of property and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

29

 

 

 

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

(538

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inventory

 

 

(10,901

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(2,364

)

 

 

(1,420

)

 

 

471

 

Insurance recovery (Note 15)

 

 

 

 

 

18,288

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

 

6,167

 

 

 

111

 

 

 

4,349

 

Settlement liability (Note 15)

 

 

 

 

 

(18,750

)

 

 

 

Other assets

 

 

(289

)

 

 

(107

)

 

 

9

 

Other current and long-term liabilities

 

 

2,557

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

(58

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(75,326

)

 

 

(35,012

)

 

 

(24,091

)

Investing Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase of marketable securities

 

 

(145,341

)

 

 

(99,726

)

 

 

(38,010

)

Maturities of marketable securities

 

 

89,871

 

 

 

64,376

 

 

 

62,227

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(372

)

 

 

(307

)

 

 

(6

)

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

 

(55,842

)

 

 

(35,657

)

 

 

24,211

 

Financing Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from the issuance of common stock and pre-

   funded warrants, net

 

 

75,479

 

 

 

84,576

 

 

 

 

Exercise of stock options

 

 

279

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

37

 

Payments under license termination agreement

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1,700

)

Proceeds from short-term borrowing

 

 

 

 

 

1,675

 

 

 

 

Payments of short-term borrowing

 

 

(838

)

 

 

(837

)

 

 

 

Proceeds from deferred royalty obligation, net

 

 

64,418

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

 

 

139,338

 

 

 

85,464

 

 

 

(1,663

)

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

8,170

 

 

 

14,795

 

 

 

(1,543

)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of year

 

 

27,855

 

 

 

13,060

 

 

 

14,603

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of year

 

$

36,025

 

 

$

27,855

 

 

$

13,060

 

Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported

   within the consolidated balance sheets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

15,462

 

 

$

27,855

 

 

$

13,060

 

Restricted cash

 

 

20,563

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

$

36,025

 

 

$

27,855

 

 

$

13,060

 

Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for interest on deferred royalty obligation

 

$

17

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Cash paid for income taxes

 

$

188

 

 

$

380

 

 

$

333

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

F-8


 

CHIASMA, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

1. Nature of Business

Chiasma, Inc. is a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company incorporated in 2001 under the laws of the State of Delaware. Chiasma, Inc. is headquartered in Massachusetts and has 2 wholly owned subsidiaries; Chiasma (Israel) Ltd., and Chiasma Securities Corp, collectively referred to as “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “Chiasma”. We are focused on developing and commercializing oral therapies to improve the lives of patients who face challenges associated with their existing treatments for rare and serious chronic disease. Employing our proprietary Transient Permeability Enhancer (“TPE”) technology platform, we seek to develop oral medications that are currently available only as injections. On June 26, 2020, we received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) of our oral octreotide capsules product candidate, MYCAPSSA, for long-term maintenance treatment in acromegaly patients who have responded to and tolerated treatment with octreotide or lanreotide. We commenced our U.S. commercial launch of MYCAPSSA in September 2020.

Acromegaly is a rare and debilitating condition that results in the body’s production of excess growth hormone. Octreotide is an analog of somatostatin, a natural inhibitor of growth hormone secretion. Octreotide capsules have been granted orphan designation in the United States and the European Union for the treatment of acromegaly. We retain worldwide rights to develop and commercialize octreotide capsules.

We conducted an international Phase 3 clinical trial, referred to as MPOWERED, of oral octreotide capsules for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with acromegaly to support regulatory approval in the European Union by the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”). The MPOWERED trial was a global, randomized, open-label and active-controlled 15-month trial initially designed to enroll up to 150 patients. The EMA requested that a minimum of 80 patients who are responders to octreotide capsules per the protocol following the six-month run-in phase be randomized to either remain on octreotide capsules or return to injectable somatostatin receptor ligands (octreotide or lanreotide), and then followed for an additional nine months. In November 2020, we announced positive topline results from the MPOWERED trial, including that the study met its primary non-inferiority endpoint. Based on the positive data from the MPOWERED trial, we expect to submit a marketing authorization application to the EMA, in mid-2021 seeking marketing approval of MYCAPSSA capsules as a maintenance therapy for adult patients with acromegaly in the European Union.

In April 2019, we completed an underwritten public offering of 7,263,158 shares of common stock at $4.75 per share for aggregate net proceeds of approximately $32.2 million after underwriting fees and offering expenses. In August 2019, we completed a follow-on public offering of common stock in which we sold 10,166,427 shares of common stock at $5.50 per share for aggregate net proceeds of approximately $52.3 million after underwriting fees and offering expenses.

In April 2020, we entered into an Open Market Sales Agreement (“ATM Agreement”) for “at the market offerings” with Jefferies LLC (“Jefferies”), under which we may offer and sell from time to time, shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $60.0 million through Jefferies, acting as our sales agent or principal. To date, we have not sold any common stock under the ATM Agreement.

In April 2020, we entered into a Revenue Interest Financing Agreement (the “Revenue Interest Financing Agreement”) with Healthcare Royalty Partners IV, L.P. (“HCR”) for up to $75.0 million. As of September 30, 2020, we have received aggregate proceeds of $65.0 million, less certain transaction expenses (see Note 9).

In July 2020, we completed an underwritten public offering of 15,125,000 shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants (the “Pre-Funded Warrants”) to purchase an aggregate of 5,000,000 shares of common stock. The public offering price was $4.00 per share of common stock. We received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $75.5 million after deducting underwriting fees and offering expenses. The Pre-Funded Warrants are immediately exercisable at an exercise price per share of $0.0001.

We have incurred substantial operating losses since inception, and we expect our operating losses and negative operating cash flows to continue for the foreseeable future. We are heavily dependent on the commercial success of MYCAPSSA in the United States and the regulatory approval and subsequent commercial success of MYCAPSSA in the European Union, both of which may never occur. We plan to invest in our U.S. commercial launch and the manufacturing of octreotide capsules for market consumption including manufacturing scale-up activities, and transitioning the open label extension portions of both our international Phase 3 CHIASMA OPTIMAL clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly and our international Phase 3 MPOWERED clinical trial of octreotide capsules in acromegaly for patients outside of the United States to an Expanded Access Program, where applicable, and MACRO Registry. In addition, we plan to prepare and submit a MAA to the EMA seeking potential regulatory approval of octreotide

F-9


 

capsules as a treatment for acromegaly in the European Union. We currently expect our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities to fund our operations for at least one year after the date these consolidated financial statements are issued.

Successful transition to attaining profitable operations is dependent upon achieving a level of revenues adequate to support our cost structure. We plan to continue to fund our losses from operations and capital funding needs from existing balances of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and potentially through additional equity financings. We may also opportunistically consider license and collaboration agreements with potential partners or convertible debt financing to the extent such sources are identified and available. If our anticipated U.S. revenues are insufficient to fund our operations to attaining and sustaining profitability, additional financing may be required. Such financing, if required, may not be available on a timely basis on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If we are not able to secure adequate additional funding when required, we may be forced to make reductions in spending, extend payment terms with suppliers, suspend or curtail our development opportunities, or it may negatively impact our ability to adequately fund or delay our potential commercial preparations or launch readiness outside the United States if the MPOWERED trial results are positive and MYCAPSSA is approved by the EMA. Any of these actions could materially harm our business, results of operations and future prospects. Failure to successfully commercialize octreotide capsules in acromegaly will prevent us from achieving profitability and positive cash flows, which could raise significant concerns about our continued viability as a business.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Chiasma, Inc. and its subsidiaries and are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and are stated in U.S. dollars. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the basis of continuity of operations, realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes during the reporting period. We base these estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available, and on various factors that we believe to be reasonable under the specific circumstances. Significant estimates relied upon in preparing the accompanying consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, recognition of product revenues, accounting for stock-based compensation, income taxes, the fair value of embedded derivative and our deferred royalty obligation and accounting for certain accruals. We assess the above estimates on an ongoing basis; however, actual results could materially differ from those estimates.

Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid instruments which mature within three months or less from the date of purchase.

Marketable Securities

Our investments primarily consist of commercial paper and corporate and government debt securities. These marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale, and as such, are reported at fair value on our consolidated balance sheets. Unrealized holding gains and losses are reported within accumulated other comprehensive income as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. The amortized cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization and accretion, together with interest on securities, are included in interest and other income, net, on our consolidated statements of operations.

If a decline in the fair value of a marketable security below our cost basis is determined to be other than temporary, such marketable security is written down to its estimated fair value as a new cost basis and the amount of the write-down is included in earnings as an impairment charge. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method.

Accounts Receivable

Our accounts receivable consist of amounts due from one specialty pharmacy (the “customer”) for sales of MYCAPSSA and which have standard payments terms. We extend credit to our customer based on our evaluation of the customer’s financial condition. Accounts receivable are stated at amounts due net of applicable prompt pay discounts and other adjustments. We assess the need for an allowance for doubtful accounts by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade accounts receivable are past

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due and the customer’s ability to pay its obligation. Based on a review of these factors, as of December 31, 2020, we determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts was not required.

Concentrations of credit risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, and accounts receivable. During the year ended December 31, 2020, one customer comprised 100% of our accounts receivable and product revenues.

We routinely maintain deposits in financial institutions in excess of government insured limits. Management believes that we are not exposed to significant credit risk as our deposits are held at financial institutions that management believes to be of high credit quality and we have not experienced any significant losses in these deposits. We regularly invest excess operating cash in deposits with major financial institutions and money market funds and in notes issued by the U.S. government, as well as in fixed income investments and bond funds, both of which can be readily purchased and sold using established markets. We believe that the market risk arising from our holdings of these financial instruments is mitigated based on the fact that many of these securities are either government backed or of high credit rating.

Inventory

Prior to FDA approval of MYCAPSSA, all costs related to the manufacturing of MYCAPSSA that could potentially be available to support the planned U.S. commercial launch were charged to research and development expense in the period incurred. Generally, inventory may be capitalized if it is probable that future revenues will be generated from the sale of the inventory and that these revenues will exceed the cost of the inventory. Through the FDA approval date of MYCAPSSA, we expensed all of our manufacturing costs due to the high risk inherent in drug development and uncertainty as to whether MYCAPSSA would be approved. We began to capitalize our manufacturing-related costs to inventory starting July 1, 2020.

We capitalize the costs to manufacture our products incurred after regulatory approval when, based on our judgment, future commercialization is considered probable and the future economic benefit is expected to be realized. In connection therewith, we value our inventories at the lower of cost or estimated net realizable value. We determine the cost of our inventories, which includes amounts related to active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”), and other raw materials, third party manufacturing costs and other overhead costs, on a first-in, first-out basis. Inventories that may be used for either research and development or commercial sale are classified as inventory until the material is consumed or otherwise allocated for research and development. If the material is intended to be used for research and development, it is expensed as research and development once that determination is made.

On a quarterly basis, we review inventory quantities on hand and analyze the provision for excess and obsolete inventory based primarily on remaining product shelf life and our estimated sales forecast which is based on anticipated future demand. We build demand forecasts by considering factors such as, but not limited to, overall market potential, market share, market acceptance, and patient usage. Our estimates of future product demand may prove to be imprecise and changes in estimates will result in a change to the provision required for excess and obsolete inventory. Accordingly, any significant unanticipated changes in demand could have a significant impact on the value of our inventory and results of operations.

Foreign currency translation

We use the U.S. dollar as our functional currency. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are re-measured at current rates and non-monetary assets denominated in foreign currency are recorded at historical exchange rates. Realized and unrealized exchange gains or losses from transactions and re-measurement adjustments are reflected in other income, net, in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

Comprehensive income (loss)

Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. Other than reported net income, comprehensive income (loss) includes unrealized gains and losses on available for sale securities, which are disclosed in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). There were 0 reclassifications out of comprehensive income (loss) for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 or 2018.

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Segment information

Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, our Chief Executive Officer, in making decisions regarding resource allocation and assessing performance. We view our operations and manage our business in 1 operating segment.

Other assets

Other assets consist of right of use assets, long-term restricted deposits, prepayments, and deferred tax assets.

 

Restricted cash

Restricted cash consists of $20.0 million that we are required to maintain in securitized cash and investment accounts under the Revenue Interest Financing Agreement, interest-bearing money market accounts held as security deposits against bank guarantees, and amounts related to our co-pay assistance program.

Property and equipment

Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and amortiza