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DBO PowerShares DB Multi-Sector Commodity Trust

Filed: 25 Feb 21, 7:00pm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from             to             

Commission File Number: 001-33234

 

INVESCO DB SILVER FUND

(A Series of Invesco DB Multi-Sector Commodity Trust)

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 Delaware

 

87-0778072

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

c/o Invesco Capital Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700

Downers Grove, Illinois

 

60515

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800) 983-0903

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Units of Beneficial Interest

DBS

NYSE Arca, Inc.

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer

 

 

 

 

Non-Accelerated Filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

State the market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $15,990,000.

Number of Common Units of Beneficial Interest outstanding as of January 31, 2021: 700,000

 

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

  

Page

PART I

  

1

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1.

   

BUSINESS

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1A.

  

RISK FACTORS

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1B.

  

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 2.

  

PROPERTIES

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 3.

  

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 4.

  

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

18

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 5.

  

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

18

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 6.

  

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

18

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 7.

  

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 7A.

  

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

27

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 8.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9.

  

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9A.

  

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 9B.

  

OTHER INFORMATION

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

51

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 10.

  

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

51

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 11.

  

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

53

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 12.

  

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

 

53

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 13.

  

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

 

53

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 14.

  

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

 

54

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

54

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 15.

  

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

 

54

 


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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This Report includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. The matters discussed throughout this Report that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on the Fund’s and Invesco Capital Management LLC’s (the “Managing Owner”) current expectations, estimates and projections about the future results, performance, prospects and opportunities of the Fund and the Fund’s business and industry and their beliefs and assumptions about future events and speak only as of the date on which they are made. Words such as “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “seek,” “outlook” and “estimate,” as well as similar words and phrases, signify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future results. Conditions and important factors, risks and uncertainties in the markets for financial instruments that the Fund trades, in the markets for related physical commodities, in the legal and regulatory regimes applicable to the Managing Owner, the Fund, and the Fund’s service providers, and in the broader economy may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed by such forward-looking statements.  These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors including, but not limited to, those described in this Report, including in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation” (“MD&A”), and other Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings by the Fund that could cause the actual results, performance, prospects or opportunities of the Fund to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements.

You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Except as expressly required by the Federal securities laws, the Fund and Managing Owner undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements or the risks, uncertainties or other factors described in this Report, as a result of new information, future events or changed circumstances or for any other reason after the date of this Report.

 

 

ii


 

PART I

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

Introduction

Invesco DB Silver Fund (the “Fund”), a separate series of Invesco DB Multi-Sector Commodity Trust (the “Trust”), a Delaware statutory trust organized in seven separate series, was formed on August 3, 2006. The term of the Fund is perpetual (unless terminated earlier in certain circumstances) as provided for in the Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement of the Trust, as amended (the “Trust Agreement”). The Fund has an unlimited number of shares authorized for issuance.

Invesco Capital Management LLC (“Invesco”) has served as the managing owner (the “Managing Owner”), commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor of the Trust and the Fund, since February 23, 2015. The Managing Owner holds 40 general shares (the “General Shares”) of the Fund. The fiscal year end of the Fund is December 31st.

The Fund seeks to track changes, whether positive or negative, in the level of the DBIQ Optimum Yield Silver Index Excess Return™ (the “Index”) over time, plus the excess, if any, of the sum of the Fund’s interest income from its holdings of United States Treasury Obligations (“Treasury Income”), dividends from its holdings in money market mutual funds (affiliated or otherwise) (“Money Market Income”) and dividends or distributions of capital gains from its holdings of T-Bill ETFs (as defined below) (“T-Bill ETF Income”) over the expenses of the Fund. The Fund invests in futures contracts in an attempt to track its Index. The Index is intended to reflect the change in market value of the silver sector. Silver (the “Index Commodity”) is the single commodity comprising the Index.

The Fund may invest directly in United States Treasury Obligations. The Fund may also gain exposure to United States Treasury Obligations through investments in exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) (affiliated or otherwise) that track indexes that measure the performance of United States Treasury Obligations with a maximum remaining maturity of up to 12 months (“T-Bill ETFs”).  The Fund holds as collateral United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs (affiliated or otherwise), if any, for margin and/or cash management purposes. While the Fund’s performance will reflect the appreciation or depreciation of those holdings, the Fund’s performance, whether positive or negative, is driven primarily by its strategy of trading futures contracts with the aim of seeking to track the Index.

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) and certain futures exchanges impose position limits on futures contracts that reference the Index Commodity (the “Index Contracts”).  

The Managing Owner may determine to invest in other futures contracts if at any time it is impractical or inefficient to gain full or partial exposure to the Index Commodity through the use of Index Contracts.  These other futures contracts may or may not be based on the Index Commodity.  When they are not, the Managing Owner may seek to select futures contracts that it reasonably believes tend to exhibit trading prices that correlate with an Index Contract.

The Fund offers common units of beneficial interest (the “Shares”) only to certain eligible financial institutions (the “Authorized Participants”) in one or more blocks of 100,000 Shares (“Creation Units”). The Fund commenced investment operations on January 3, 2007. The Fund commenced trading on the American Stock Exchange (which became the NYSE Alternext US LLC) on January 5, 2007 and, since November 25, 2008, has been listed on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “NYSE Arca”).

Index Description

The Managing Owner pays Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. (the “Index Sponsor”) a licensing fee and an index services fee for performing its duties.

These fees constitute a portion of the routine operational, administrative and other ordinary expenses which are paid out of the management fee paid to the Managing Owner ("Management Fee") and are not charged to or reimbursed by the Fund.

Neither the Managing Owner nor any affiliate of the Managing Owner has any rights to influence the selection of the futures contracts underlying the Index. The Managing Owner has entered into a license agreement with the Index Sponsor to use the Index.

The Fund is not sponsored or endorsed by Deutsche Bank AG, Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. or any subsidiary or affiliate of Deutsche Bank AG or Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. (collectively, “Deutsche Bank”). The DBIQ Optimum Yield Silver Index Excess Return™ (the “Index”) is the exclusive property of Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. “DBIQ” and “Optimum Yield” are service marks of Deutsche Bank AG and have been licensed for use for certain purposes by Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index makes any representation or warranty, express or implied, concerning the Index, the Fund or the advisability of investing in securities generally. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index has any obligation to take the needs of the Managing Owner, or its clients into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index is responsible for or has participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at,

1


 

quantities or valuation of the Fund. Neither Deutsche Bank nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling the Index has any obligation or liability in connection with the administration or trading of the Fund.

NEITHER DEUTSCHE BANK NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX, WARRANTS OR GUARANTEES THE ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN AND SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR INTERRUPTIONS THEREIN. NEITHER DEUTSCHE BANK NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX, MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY INVESCO CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LLC FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NEITHER DEUTSCHE BANK NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX, MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL DEUTSCHE BANK OR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING THE INDEX HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY OTHER DAMAGES OR LOSSES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS), EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED TO THE CONTRARY, THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN DEUTSCHE BANK AND INVESCO CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LLC.

No purchaser, seller or holder of the Shares of this Fund, or any other person or entity, should use or refer to any Deutsche Bank trade name, trademark or service mark to sponsor, endorse, market or promote this Fund without first contacting Deutsche Bank to determine whether Deutsche Bank’s permission is required. Under no circumstances may any person or entity claim any affiliation with Deutsche Bank without the written permission of Deutsche Bank.

The Index Sponsor may from time-to-time subcontract the provision of the calculation and other services described below to one or more third parties.

The Index is composed of one underlying Index Commodity. The notional amount of the Index Commodity included in the Index is intended to reflect the changes in market value of the Index Commodity within the Index. The closing level of the Index is calculated on each business day by the Index Sponsor based on the closing price of the futures contracts for the underlying Index Commodity and the notional amount of such Index Commodity.

The composition of the Index may be adjusted in the event that the Index Sponsor is not able to calculate the closing price of the Index Commodity.

The Index includes provisions for the replacement of futures contracts as they approach maturity. This replacement takes place over a period of time in order to lessen the impact on the market for the futures contracts being replaced. With respect to the Index Commodity, the Fund employs a rule-based approach when it “rolls” from one futures contract to another.  The Index replaces the underlying futures contracts on an “optimum yield” basis. Rather than select a new futures contract based on a predetermined schedule (e.g., monthly), each Index Commodity rolls from one contract to another futures contract that is intended to generate the most favorable ‘implied roll yield’ under prevailing market conditions. Where there is an upward-sloping price curve for futures contracts, the implied roll yield is expected to be negative, which is a market condition called “contango”. Contango exists when contract prices are higher in distant delivery months than in nearer delivery months, typically due to costs associated with storing a given physical commodity for a longer period. Rolling in a contangoed market will tend to cause a drag on returns from futures trading. The Index’s selection of a new futures contract on an Index Commodity in such market conditions is designed to minimize the impact of negative roll yield.

Conversely, where there is a downward-sloping price curve for futures contracts, the implied roll yield is expected to be positive which is a market condition called backwardation. Backwardation exists when prices are higher for contracts with shorter-term expirations than those with longer-term expirations, a condition that is typically associated with commodities that are consumed quickly instead of being held in storage. Rolling in a backwardated market will tend to enhance returns from futures trading. The Index’s selection of a new futures contract on an Index Commodity in such market conditions is designed to maximize the impact of positive roll yield. The Index takes the impact of implied roll yield into consideration by selecting, as the replacement for an expiring futures contract, the futures contract with a delivery month within the next thirteen months that generates the most favorable implied roll yield under the current market conditions.

Returns from futures trading are called excess return, which is the combined return based on the spot prices of the Index Commodity and the roll yield from trading Index Contracts.

The Index is calculated in USD on an excess return (unfunded) basis, which means that the Index reflects only the return associated with spot prices for the Index Commodity and the roll yield associated with trading Index Contracts. Unlike the Index, the Fund also holds as collateral securities that are expected to generate income, including Treasury Securities, money market mutual funds, and T-Bill ETFs. These securities are held with the Custodian. In addition, Treasury Securities for deposit may be held with the Commodity Broker as margin for the Fund’s futures positions. The Index does not reflect any corresponding income characteristics.

2


 

The futures contract price for the Index Commodity will be the exchange closing price for the Index Commodity on a day on which the appropriate exchange is open for business (the “Index Business Days”). If a weekday is not an Exchange Business Day (as defined in the following sentence) but is an Index Business Day, the exchange closing price from the previous Index Business Day will be used for the Index Commodity. “Exchange Business Day” means, in respect of the Index Commodity, a day that is a trading day for the Index Commodity on the relevant exchange (unless either an Index disruption event or force majeure event has occurred).

On the first Index Business Day of each month (the “Verification Date”), the Index Commodity futures contract will be tested in order to determine whether to continue including it in the Index. If the Index Commodity futures contract requires delivery of the underlying commodity in the next month, known as the Delivery Month, a new Index Commodity futures contract will be selected for inclusion in the Index. For example, if the first Index Business Day is May 1 of the current year, and the Delivery Month of the Index Commodity futures contract currently in such Index is June of the current year, a new Index Commodity futures contract with a later Delivery Month will be selected.

For the underlying Index Commodity of the Index, the new Index Commodity futures contract selected will be the Index Commodity futures contract with the best possible “implied roll yield” based on the closing price for each eligible Index Commodity futures contract. Eligible Index Commodity futures contracts are any Index Commodity futures contracts having a Delivery Month (i) no sooner than the month after the Delivery Month of the Index Commodity futures contract currently in the Index, and (ii) no later than the thirteenth month after the Verification Date. For example, if the first Index Business Day is May 1 of the current year and the Delivery Month of an Index Commodity futures contract currently in the Index is June of the current year, the Delivery Month of an eligible new Index Contract must be between July of the current year and June of the following year. The implied roll yield is then calculated and the Index Contract with the best possible implied roll yield under the current market conditions is then selected. If two futures contracts have the same implied roll yield, the futures contract with the minimum number of months prior to the Delivery Month is selected.

After the futures contract selection, the monthly roll for the Index Commodity subject to a roll in that particular month unwinds the old futures contract and enters a position in the new futures contract. This takes place between the second and sixth Index Business Day of the month.

On each day during the roll period, new notional holdings are calculated. The calculations for the old futures contracts on the Index Commodity that are leaving the Index and the new futures contracts on the Index Commodity are then calculated.

On all days that are not monthly index roll days, the notional holdings of the Index Commodity future remains constant.

The Trustee

Under the Trust Agreement, Wilmington Trust Company, the trustee of the Trust and the Fund (the “Trustee”), has the power and authority to execute and file certificates as required by the Delaware Statutory Trust Act and to accept service of process on the Fund in the State of Delaware. The Managing Owner has the exclusive management and control of all aspects of the business of the Trust and the Fund. The Trustee will serve in that capacity until such time as the Managing Owner removes the Trustee or the Trustee resigns and a successor is appointed by the Managing Owner. The Trustee will have no duty or liability to supervise or monitor the performance of the Managing Owner, nor will the Trustee have any liability for the acts or omissions of the Managing Owner.

The Managing Owner

The Managing Owner was formed on February 7, 2003. The Managing Owner is an affiliate of Invesco Ltd. The Managing Owner was formed to be the managing owner of investment vehicles such as ETFs and has been managing non-commodity futures based ETFs since 2003 and a commodity futures based ETF since 2014. The Managing Owner serves as the commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor of the Trust and the Fund. The Managing Owner is registered as a commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor with the CFTC and is a member of, and approved as a swap firm by, the National Futures Association (the “NFA”). As a registered commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor, with respect to the Fund, the Managing Owner must comply with various regulatory requirements under the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, as amended (the “Commodity Exchange Act”) and the rules and regulations of the CFTC and the NFA, including investor protection requirements, antifraud prohibitions, disclosure requirements, and reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Managing Owner also is subject to periodic inspections and audits by the CFTC and NFA.

The Managing Owner’s main business offices are located at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515, and its telephone number is (800) 983-0903.

The Fund pays the Managing Owner the Management Fee, monthly in arrears, in an amount equal to 0.75% per annum of the daily net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund.

The Fund may, for margin and/or cash management purposes, invest in money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs that are managed by affiliates of the Managing Owner.  The indirect portion of the management fee that the Fund may incur through such investment is in addition to the Management Fee paid to the Managing Owner.  The Managing Owner has contractually agreed to

3


 

waive indefinitely the fees that it receives in an amount equal to the indirect management fees that the Fund incurs through its investments in affiliated money market mutual funds and/or affiliated T-Bill ETFs. The Managing Owner may terminate this fee waiver on 60 days notice.

Pursuant to the Trust Agreement, the Fund will indemnify the Managing Owner against any losses, judgments, liabilities, expenses and amounts paid in settlement of any claims sustained by it in connection with its activities on behalf of the Fund, except for any expenses resulting from gross negligence or willful misconduct.

The Commodity Broker

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, serves as the Fund’s futures clearing broker (the “Commodity Broker”). The Commodity Broker is registered with the CFTC as a futures commission merchant and is a member of the NFA in such capacity.

A variety of executing brokers execute futures transactions on behalf of the Fund. Such executing brokers give-up all such transactions to the Commodity Broker. In its capacity as clearing broker, the Commodity Broker may execute or receive transactions executed by others and clears all of the Fund’s futures transactions and performs certain administrative and custodial services for the Fund. The Commodity Broker is responsible, among other things, for providing periodic accountings of all dealings and actions taken by the Fund during the reporting period, together with an accounting of all securities, cash or other indebtedness or obligations held by it or its nominees for or on behalf of the Fund.

The Fund pays the Commodity Broker all brokerage commissions, including applicable exchange fees, NFA fees, give-up fees, pit brokerage fees and other transaction related fees and expenses charged in connection with trading activities. The Commodity Broker’s brokerage commissions and trading fees are determined on a contract-by-contract basis. Brokerage commissions and fees in any future fiscal year or any part of any future fiscal year may be greater than fees incurred in prior fiscal years. On average, total charges paid to the Commodity Broker were less than $6.00, $6.00 and $6.00 per round-turn trade1 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

 

1

A round-turn trade is a completed transaction involving both a purchase and a liquidating sale, or a sale followed by a covering purchase.

The Administrator, Custodian and Transfer Agent

The Bank of New York Mellon (the “Administrator”, “Custodian” and “Transfer Agent”) is the administrator, custodian and transfer agent of the Fund. The Fund and the Administrator have entered into separate administrative and accounting, custodian, transfer agency and service agreements (collectively referred to as the “Administration Agreement”).

The Bank of New York Mellon, a banking corporation organized under the laws of the State of New York with trust powers, has an office at 2 Hanson Place, Brooklyn, New York, 11217. The Bank of New York Mellon is subject to supervision by the New York State Department of Financial Services and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Pursuant to the Administration Agreement, the Administrator performs or supervises the performance of services necessary for the operation and administration of the Fund (other than making investment decisions), including receiving and processing orders from Authorized Participants to create and redeem Creation Units, NAV calculations, accounting and other fund administrative services. The Administrator maintains certain financial books and records, including: Creation Unit creation and redemption records; fund accounting records; ledgers with respect to assets, liabilities, capital, income and expenses; the registrar, transfer journals and related details; and trading and related documents received from the Commodity Broker. The Managing Owner pays the Administrator administrative services fees out of the Management Fee.

The Distributor

Invesco Distributors, Inc. is the Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”). Pursuant to the Distribution Services Agreement among the Managing Owner, the Fund and the Distributor, the Distributor assists the Managing Owner and the Administrator with certain functions and duties relating to distribution and marketing services to the Fund including reviewing and approving marketing materials.

The Distribution Services Agreement is terminable without penalty on sixty days written notice by the Managing Owner or by the Distributor. The Distribution Services Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment.

Pursuant to the Distribution Services Agreement, the Fund will indemnify and hold harmless the Distributor and each of its directors and officers and each person, if any, who controls the Distributor within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act, against any loss, liability, claim, damages or expenses (including the reasonable cost of investigating or defending any alleged loss, liability, claim, damages or expense and reasonable counsel fees incurred in connection therewith) arising by reason of any person acquiring any Shares, based upon the ground that the registration statement, prospectus, statement of additional information, shareholder reports or other information filed or made public by the Fund (as from time-to-time amended) included an untrue

4


 

statement of a material fact or omitted a material fact required to be stated or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading under the Securities Act or any other statute or the common law.

The Managing Owner pays the Distributor a distribution fee out of the Management Fee.

Index Sponsor

The Managing Owner, on behalf of the Trust and the Fund, has appointed Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. to serve as the index sponsor (the “Index Sponsor”). On February 1, 2021, the provision of index sponsor services transferred back to the Index Sponsor from DWS Investment Management Americas, Inc., to whom the Index Sponsor had previously assigned such responsibility. The Index Sponsor calculates and publishes the daily index levels and the indicative intraday index levels.  Additionally, the Index Sponsor also calculates the indicative value per Share of the Fund throughout each business day.

The Managing Owner pays the Index Sponsor a licensing fee and an index services fee out of the Management Fee for performing its duties.

Marketing Agent

Effective January 31, 2021, DWS Investment Management Americas, Inc. ceased serving as marketing agent to the Fund (“Marketing Agent”). Prior to January 31, 2021, the Marketing Agent assisted the Managing Owner by providing support to educate institutional investors about the DBIQ indices and completed governmental or institutional due diligence questionnaires or requests for proposals related to the DBIQ indices. The Managing Owner paid the Marketing Agent a marketing services fee out of the Management Fee.

Tax Reporting

The Fund has retained the services of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP to assist with certain tax reporting requirements of the Fund and its Shareholders.

Regulation

Futures exchanges in the United States are subject to regulation under the Commodity Exchange Act by the CFTC, the governmental agency having responsibility for regulation of futures exchanges and trading on those exchanges.

The Commodity Exchange Act and the CFTC also regulate the activities of “commodity trading advisors” and “commodity pool operators” and the CFTC has adopted regulations with respect to certain of such persons’ activities. Pursuant to its authority, the CFTC requires a commodity pool operator (such as the Managing Owner) to keep accurate, current and orderly records with respect to each pool it operates. The CFTC may suspend the registration of a commodity pool operator if the CFTC finds that the operator has violated the Commodity Exchange Act or regulations thereunder and in certain other circumstances. Suspension, restriction or termination of the Managing Owner’s registration as a commodity pool operator would prevent it, until such time (if any) as such registration were to be reinstated, from managing, and might result in the termination of the Fund. The Commodity Exchange Act gives the CFTC similar authority with respect to the activities of commodity trading advisors, such as the Managing Owner. If the registration of a managing owner as a commodity trading advisor were to be terminated, restricted or suspended, the managing owner would be unable, until such time (if any) as such registration were to be reinstated, to render trading advice to the Fund. The Fund is not registered with the CFTC in any capacity.

The Commodity Exchange Act requires all “futures commission merchants,” such as the Commodity Broker, to meet and maintain specified fitness and financial requirements, to segregate customer funds from proprietary funds and account separately for all customers’ funds and positions, and to maintain specified books and records open to inspection by the staff of the CFTC.

The Commodity Exchange Act also gives the states certain powers to enforce its provisions and the regulations of the CFTC.

Shareholders are afforded certain rights for reparations under the Commodity Exchange Act. Shareholders may also be able to maintain a private right of action for certain violations of the Commodity Exchange Act. The CFTC has adopted rules implementing the reparation provisions of the Commodity Exchange Act which provide that any person may file a complaint for a reparations award with the CFTC for violation of the Commodity Exchange Act against a floor broker, futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, and their respective associated persons.

Pursuant to authority in the Commodity Exchange Act, the NFA was formed and registered with the CFTC as a “registered futures association.” At the present time, the NFA is the only non-exchange self-regulatory organization for derivatives professionals. NFA members are subject to NFA standards relating to fair trade practices, market integrity, and consumer protection. As the self-regulatory body of the derivatives industry, the NFA promulgates rules governing the conduct of derivatives professionals and disciplines those professionals who do not comply with such standards. The CFTC has delegated to the NFA responsibility for the registration of commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, and swap

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dealers, among others, and their respective associated persons, as applicable, and floor brokers. The Commodity Broker and the Managing Owner are members of the NFA (the Fund is not required to become a member of the NFA).

The CFTC has no authority to regulate trading on foreign futures exchanges and markets but permits direct access to such markets from the United States with respect to foreign boards of trade that are registered as such with the CFTC.

Employees

The Fund has no employees.

Available Information

The Fund files with or submits to the SEC annual, quarterly and current reports and other information meeting the informational requirements of the Exchange Act. These reports are available on the Managing Owner’s website at http://www.invesco.com/ETFs. Information in the Managing Owner’s website shall not be deemed to be a part of this Report or incorporated by reference herein unless otherwise expressly stated.  The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information filed electronically by us with the SEC which are available on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov.

The Fund also posts monthly performance reports and its annual report, as required by the CFTC, on the Managing Owner’s website at the address listed above.

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

An investment in Shares involves a high degree of risk. Investors should consider carefully all of the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Report”) and the Fund’s Prospectus, before making a decision to invest in Shares. If any of the following risks occur, the business, financial condition and results of operations of the Fund may be adversely affected.

Market Risks

Risk that the COVID-19 Pandemic Will Cause Economic Turmoil.

          An outbreak of a novel and highly contagious form of coronavirus, COVID-19, has spread to many countries throughout the world including the United States. The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak to be a public health emergency of international concern, and the U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary has declared it a public health emergency in the United States.

          The impact of the outbreak of COVID-19 has been extensive in many aspects of society. The outbreak has resulted in a significant number of deaths, adversely impacted global commercial activity, and led to significant uncertainty and disruptions in the global financial markets and the economies of nations where the coronavirus disease has arisen. Many countries have reacted by instituting quarantines, prohibitions on travel and the closure of offices, businesses, schools, retail stores and other public venues. Businesses are also implementing similar precautionary measures. Such measures, as well as the general uncertainty surrounding the dangers and impact of COVID-19, as well as the effectiveness and timing of distribution of a vaccine, are creating significant disruption in supply chains and economic activity. Consumer, corporate and financial confidence is being materially adversely affected by this outbreak. Such erosion of confidence may lead to or extend to a localized or global economic downturn. Such health crisis could exacerbate political, social, and economic risks and result in significant breakdowns, delays, and other disruptions to the economy, with potential corresponding results on the performance of the Fund and its investments.

         This outbreak of COVID-19 (and any future outbreaks of any other epidemics or pandemics) has led (and may continue to lead) to significant uncertainty, breakdowns, delays and other disruptions in the global financial markets and the economies of nations where the COVID-19 has arisen and may in the future arise, and may result in adverse impacts on the global economy in general, with potential corresponding results on the performance of the Fund. The global impact of this outbreak continues to evolve, and it is impossible to predict the scope of this outbreak or the impact it may have on the global economy or the global financial markets. The COVID-19 outbreak has already led to certain governmental interventions that were implemented on an “emergency” basis, suddenly and substantially eliminating market participants’ ability to continue to implement certain strategies or manage the risk of their outstanding positions. No assurances can be made regarding the policies that may be adopted by the Federal Reserve, the federal government (including regulatory agencies), any state government, or any foreign government as a result of the outbreak or market volatility. In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, most of the Managing Owner’s personnel is working remotely and travel is restricted. Although the Managing Owner has implemented its business continuity plan to permit personnel to effectively work remotely, there is no assurance that this will work effectively at all times.

         This outbreak of COVID-19, or any future epidemic or pandemic similar to COVID-19, SARS, H1N1/09 flu or MERS, could have a significant adverse impact on the Fund and its investments, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to fulfill its investment objectives, and could result in significant losses to the Fund. The extent of the impact of any outbreak on the performance of the Fund and its investments depend on many factors, including the duration and scope of such outbreak, the development and distribution of treatments and vaccines for viruses such as COVID-19, the extent of its disruption to important global, regional and local supply

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chains and economic markets, and the impact of such outbreak on overall supply and demand, investor liquidity, consumer confidence and levels of economic activity, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.

An Unanticipated Number of Creation Requests During a Short Period of Time Could Result in a Shortage of Shares.

         The Managing Owner continuously evaluates whether the amount of Shares registered and available to meet Creation Unit orders remains adequate. However, if the Managing Owner receives a substantial number of requests for Creation Units during a relatively short period of time that substantially differ from typical creation volumes, as a result of market volatility or otherwise (including during a pandemic such as COVID-19), the Fund may not have sufficient Shares outstanding to satisfy demand and Authorized Participants may, therefore, be unable to purchase additional Creation Units. In such instances, demand for Shares on the Exchange may exceed the supply available, due to Authorized Participants being unable to meet such demand by purchasing new Shares from the Fund. As a result, Shares may trade at premium to the NAV per share of the Fund.

NAV May Not Always Correspond to Market Price and, as a Result, Creation Units May Be Created or Redeemed at a Value that Differs from the Market Price of the Shares.

Shares may trade at, above or below their NAV. The NAV fluctuates with changes in the market value of the Fund’s assets. The trading price of Shares fluctuates in accordance with changes in the NAV, intraday changes in the value of the futures contracts and market supply and demand. The amount of the discount or premium in the trading price of the Shares relative to their NAV may be influenced by non-concurrent trading hours between NYSE Arca (the exchange on which the Shares trade) and the exchanges on which Index Contracts trade. While the Shares are expected to trade on NYSE Arca until 4:00 p.m. (Eastern time), liquidity in the markets for the Index Contracts is expected to be reduced whenever the principal markets for those contracts are closed. As a result, trading spreads, and the resulting premium or discount on Shares, may widen during these gaps in market trading hours.

The NYSE Arca May Halt Trading in the Shares Which Would Adversely Impact Your Ability to Sell Shares.

The Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or in light of certain procedures and safeguards under NYSE Arca rules. In addition, trading is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to “circuit breaker” rules that require trading to be halted for a specified period based on a specified market decline. If the Fund were no longer to meet the requirements necessary to maintain the listing of its Shares, the Shares would be delisted. In such a scenario, the Fund would be terminated.

The Lack of an Active Trading Market for the Shares May Result in Losses on Your Investment at the Time of Disposition of Your Shares.

Although the Shares are listed and traded on the NYSE Arca, there can be no guarantee that an active trading market for the Shares will be maintained. If you need to sell your Shares at a time when no active market for them exists, the price you receive for your Shares, assuming that you are able to sell them, likely will be lower than the price you would receive if an active market did exist.

Volatility May Cause the Total Loss of Your Investment.

Futures contract prices have a high degree of volatility and are subject to rapid and substantial changes. Consequently, there is a risk that the value of your investment in the Fund could decrease significantly due to rapid and substantial changes in the prices of futures contracts held by the Fund. The Index’s average annual volatility since inception is 24.44%.  Average annual volatility is the average of the Index’s volatility each year since its inception. Yearly volatility is the relative rate at which the price of the Index moves up and down, found by calculating the annualized standard deviation of the daily change in price for each business day in the given year. However, annual volatility should not be interpreted as the most-likely outcome. As demonstrated during the unprecedented market conditions in 2020, volatility in certain futures contracts may spike significantly during periods of global economic and social stress. At such times, if the Fund holds a futures contract that experiences the full impact of such market stresses, the volatility of its investments could greatly surpass the Index’s annual volatility since inception.

In addition, the Fund enters sell orders with the Commodity Broker from time to time, to liquidate Index Contract positions in order to satisfy redemption requests or to pay expenses and liabilities. The Fund is subject to the risk that temporary aberrations or distortions will occur in the market for Index Contracts at the time those orders are executed. The prices received by the Fund from the liquidation of its positions could be adversely affected, which in turn could adversely affect the value of the Shares. Those aberrations or distortions may result from trading activities by other market participants or actions taken by the Commodity Broker, the CFTC, the exchanges or other regulatory authorities. If the Fund’s positions are liquidated at inopportune times or in a manner that temporarily distorts the market or otherwise causes a pricing aberration, the value of the Shares may be adversely affected.

Further, in periods of heightened volatility, the bid and ask “spread” for purchasing shares of the Fund typically widen. Accordingly, an investor’s return on investment may be negatively impacted when transacted in Shares.

The Fund’s Trading of Index Contracts May Adversely Affect the Price that the Fund Pays for Index Contracts.

The prices that the Fund pays for Index Contracts may be adversely affected by the trading of Index Contracts by other market participants. Transactions by other market participants may be based on their awareness of the Fund’s positions in Index Contracts. If

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other market participants are able to anticipate the timing of the Fund’s Index Contract transactions, for instance, they may be able to execute transactions in advance of the Fund.  If that were to occur, those market participants may receive more favorable pricing for their Index Contract transactions than the Fund does for its own, subsequent Index Contract transactions. If the Fund’s Index Contract positions represent a significant part of the open long interest in those Index Contracts, moreover, other market participants may take that fact into account and trade in a manner that adversely affects the prices that the Fund obtains when trading Index Contracts. The Fund may not be able to counteract adverse pricing effects of its own positions and transactions in Index Contracts.

Withdrawal from Participation by Authorized Participants May Affect the Liquidity of Shares.

If one or more Authorized Participants withdraws from participation, it may become more difficult to create or redeem Creation Units, which may reduce the liquidity of the Shares. Such circumstances may be more pronounced in market conditions of increased volatility. If it becomes more difficult to create or redeem Creation Units, the correlation between the price of the Shares and the NAV may be affected, which may affect the trading market for the Shares. Having fewer participants in the market for the Shares could also adversely affect the ability to arbitrage any price difference between futures contracts and the Shares, which may also affect the trading market and liquidity of the Shares.

Possible Illiquid Markets May Exacerbate Losses.

Futures positions cannot always be liquidated at the desired price. It is difficult to execute a trade at a specific price when there is a relatively small volume of buy and sell orders in a market. A market disruption, such as when foreign governments may take or be subject to political actions which disrupt the markets in their currencies or major commodities exports, can also make it difficult to liquidate a position.

Illiquidity may cause losses for the Fund. The large size of the positions which the Fund may acquire increases the risk of illiquidity by both making its positions more difficult to liquidate and increasing the losses incurred while trying to do so.

The Effect of Market Disruptions and Government Interventions Are Unpredictable and May Have an Adverse Effect on the Value of Your Shares.

The commodity futures markets may be subject to temporary distortions due to various factors, including lack of liquidity, congestion, disorderly closing periods, manipulation and disruptive conduct, limitations on deliverable supplies, excessive speculation, government regulation and intervention, technical and operational or system failures, nuclear accidents, terrorism, riots and acts of God.

Government intervention has in certain cases been implemented on an “emergency” basis, suddenly and substantially eliminating market participants’ ability to continue to implement certain strategies or manage the risk of their outstanding positions. These interventions have typically been unclear in scope and application, resulting in confusion and uncertainty which in itself has been materially detrimental to the efficient functioning of the markets as well as previously successful investment strategies.

The financial crisis of 2008-2009 and associated regulatory changes, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd Frank Act”) are generally considered to have contributed to less credit being available to financial market participants. This is particularly the case for credit extended by banks and other traditional lending sources. The Fund does not borrow from lenders for the purpose of pursuing its investment objective. Nonetheless, restrictions on the availability of credit may adversely affect investors who borrow to purchase Shares and participants in the markets for financial instruments in which the Fund trades, including futures markets. Limitations on the availability of credit, whether in stressed market conditions or otherwise, may have a material adverse effect on investors and financial market participants, which in turn could affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective. Among other things, fewer prospective investors may adversely affect the Fund’s asset levels, and fewer financial market participants may reduce liquidity and adversely affect pricing for the financial instruments that the Fund seeks to trade.  

The Fund may incur major losses in the event of disrupted markets and other extraordinary events in which historical pricing relationships become materially distorted. The risk of loss from pricing distortions is compounded by the fact that in disrupted markets many positions become illiquid, making it difficult or impossible to close out or liquidate positions against which the markets are moving. The large size of the positions which the Fund may acquire increases the risk of illiquidity by both making its positions more difficult to liquidate and increasing the losses incurred while trying to do so.

An Investment in the Shares May Be Adversely Affected by Competition from Other Methods of Investing in Commodities.

The Fund competes with other financial vehicles, including mutual funds, ETFs and other investment companies, other index tracking commodity pools, actively traded commodity pools, hedge funds, traditional debt and equity securities issued by companies in the commodities industry, other securities backed by or linked to commodities, and direct investments in the underlying commodities or commodity futures contracts. Market and financial conditions, and other conditions beyond the Managing Owner’s control, may make it more attractive to invest in other financial vehicles or to invest in such commodities directly, which could limit the market for the Shares and therefore reduce the liquidity of the Shares.

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The NAV Calculation of the Fund May Be Overstated or Understated Due to the Valuation Method Employed When a Settlement Price Is Not Available on the Date of NAV Calculation.

Calculating the NAV of the Fund includes, in part, any unrealized profits or losses on open commodity futures contracts. Under normal circumstances, the NAV of the Fund reflects the settlement price of open commodity futures contracts on the date when the NAV is being calculated. However, if a settlement price for a commodity futures contract could not be determined for any reason, the Managing Owner may value the futures contract pursuant to policies the Managing Owner has adopted. In such a situation, there is a risk that the resulting calculation of the Fund’s NAV could be understated or overstated, perhaps to a significant degree.

Futures Risks

Margin Requirements and Risk Limits for Futures Contracts may Limit the Fund’s Ability to Achieve Sufficient Exposure and Prevent the Fund from Achieving its Investment Objective.

          “Initial” or “original” margin is the minimum amount of funds that must be deposited by a futures trader with his commodity broker in order to initiate futures trading or to maintain an open position in futures contracts. “Maintenance” margin is the amount (generally less than initial margin) that a trader’s account may decline before he must deliver additional margin. A margin deposit is like a cash performance bond. It helps assure the futures trader’s performance of the futures contract that the trader purchases or sells. Futures contracts are customarily bought and sold on margin that represents a very small percentage (ranging upward from less than 2%) of the purchase price of the underlying commodity being traded. Because of such low margins, price fluctuations occurring in the futures markets may create profits and losses that are greater, in relation to the amount invested, than are customary in other forms of investments. The minimum amount of margin required in connection with a particular futures contract is set from time to time by the exchange on which such contract is traded, and may be modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the contract. With respect to the Managing Owner’s trading, only the Managing Owner, and not the Fund or its Shareholders personally, will be subject to margin calls.

          Brokerage firms carrying accounts for traders in futures contracts may not accept lower, and generally require higher, amounts of margin as a matter of policy in order to afford further protection for themselves.

          A futures commission merchant (“FCM”) may compute margin requirements multiple times per day and must do so at least once per day. When the Fund has an open futures contract position, it is subject to daily variation margin calls by an FCM that could be substantial in the event of adverse price movements. Because futures contracts require only a small initial investment in the form of a deposit or initial margin, they involve a high degree of leverage. A Fund with open positions is subject to maintenance or variation margin on its open positions. When the market value of a particular open futures contract position changes to a point where the margin on deposit does not satisfy maintenance margin requirements, a margin call is made by the FCM. If the margin call is not met within a reasonable time, the FCM may close out the Fund’s position, which may result in reduced returns to the Fund’s investors or impair the Fund from achieving its investment objective. If the Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements, it may need to sell assets at a time when doing so is disadvantageous. Futures markets are highly volatile in general, and may become more volatile during periods of market or economic volatility, and the use of or exposure to futures contracts may increase volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

          In addition, an FCM may impose margin requirements in addition to those imposed by the clearinghouse. Margin requirements are subject to change on any given day, and may be raised in the future on a single day or on multiple or successive days by either or both of the clearinghouse and the FCM. High margin requirements could prevent the Fund from obtaining sufficient exposure to futures contracts and may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. An FCM’s failure to return required margin to the Fund on a timely basis may cause the Fund to delay redemption settlement dates or restrict, postpone, or limit the right of redemption.

          Futures contracts are subject to liquidity risk. An FCM may impose risk limits on the Fund, which restrict the amount of exposure to futures contracts that the Fund can obtain through the FCM. If the risk limits imposed by an FCM do not provide sufficient exposure, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective.

Fluctuations in the Price of Assets Held by the Fund Could Have a Materially Adverse Effect on the Value of an Investment in Shares.

The Shares are designed to reflect as closely as possible the changes, positive or negative, in the level of the Index, over time, through the Fund’s portfolio of exchange-traded Index Contracts. The value of the Shares relates directly to the value of the portfolio, less the liabilities (including estimated accrued but unpaid expenses) of the Fund. The price of the Index Commodity may fluctuate widely. Several factors may affect the price of the Index Commodity, including, but not limited to:  

 

Global supply and demand of the Index Commodity, which may be influenced by such factors as forward selling by the various commodity’s producers, purchases made by the commodity’s producers to unwind their hedge positions and production and cost levels in the major markets of the Index Commodity;

 

Domestic and foreign interest rates and investors’ expectations concerning interest rates;

 

Domestic and foreign inflation rates and investors’ expectations concerning inflation rates;

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Investment and trading activities of mutual funds, ETFs, closed-end funds, hedge funds and commodity funds;

 

A significant change in investor interest, including as a result of online campaigns or other activities targeting investments in the Index Commodity;

 

Weather and other environmental conditions;

 

Acts of God; and

 

Global or regional political, economic or financial events and situations.

Investing in a Single Commodity May Result in Greater Volatility than an Investment in a Multi-Commodity Index Fund.

The Fund invests in Index Contracts that seek exposure to a single commodity. Other commodity indexes may contain a larger number of commodities than the Index. Accordingly, increased volatility in the Index Commodity is expected to have a greater impact on the Index’s overall volatility than would likely be the case with increased volatility in a single commodity within a broader index. Because the Fund tracks the performance of the Index, your investment in the Fund will be exposed to the relatively greater impact on the Index of volatility in a single Index Commodity.

Because the Index Contracts Have No Intrinsic Value, the Positive Performance of Your Investment Is Wholly Dependent Upon an Equal and Offsetting Loss.

Trading in futures contracts transfers the risk of future price movements from one market participant to another. For every gain in futures trading, there is an equal and offsetting loss. Accordingly, whether a futures trade is profitable for one party depends on whether the price paid, value received, or cost of delivery under the related futures contract is favorable to that party. The prices of stocks, bonds, and other assets could rise significantly and the economy as a whole could prosper while the Fund experiences losses as a result of pursuing its investment objective through trading Index Contracts.

The Fund May Not Provide a Diversification Benefit to Investments in Other Asset Classes and May Result in Additional Losses to Your Portfolio.

Historically, commodity futures returns have tended not to be correlated with the returns of other assets such as stocks and bonds. Commodity futures contracts therefore have the potential to help diversify investor portfolios consisting of stocks and bonds, to the extent there is low or negative correlation between commodity futures contracts and other assets held in those portfolios. However, the fact that the Index is not inversely correlated with other assets such as stocks and bonds means that, in seeking to replicate the performance of the Index, the Fund will not necessarily be profitable during unfavorable periods for the stock or bond markets. If the Shares perform in a manner that correlates with the stock or bond markets or otherwise do not perform successfully, the Shares may not provide any diversification from losses in those markets. In such a scenario, the Shares may produce no gains to offset losses from investments in stocks, bonds, or related assets and may result in additional investment losses.

The Fund’s Returns from Futures Trading Will Be Affected by Market Conditions When Replacing Expiring Futures Contracts With New Futures Contracts on the Index Commodity.

The Fund’s returns from futures trading are called excess return, which is the combined return based on the spot prices of the Index Commodity and the roll yield from trading Index Contracts. Market conditions at the time the Fund replaces expiring Index Contracts with new Index Contracts – i.e., when Index Contracts are “rolled” – will affect the Fund’s roll yield. Those market conditions are referred to as backwardation and contango, which will generally affect the Fund’s roll yield as set forth below:

 

Rolling in a backwardated market will tend to enhance returns from futures trading. Backwardation exists when prices are higher for contracts with shorter-term expirations than those with longer-term expirations, a condition that is typically associated with commodities that are consumed quickly instead of being put in storage.

 

 

Rolling in a contangoed market will tend to cause a drag on returns from futures trading. Contango exists when contract prices are higher in distant delivery months than in nearer delivery months, typically due to costs associated with storing a given physical commodity for a longer period.

In seeking to track the performance of the Index, therefore, the Fund will be exposed to the effects of backwardation and contango when it rolls its positions in Index Contracts. The Index uses the Optimum YieldTM rolling methodology, which seeks to maximize the roll benefits in backwardated markets and to minimize the losses from rolling in contangoed markets. There can be no assurance that these outcomes will be obtained. The impact of backwardation and contango may also cause the Fund’s performance to vary from the returns of other price references, including the spot prices of the Index Commodity.

Index Risks

The Fund’s Performance May Not Always Replicate the Changes in the Levels of Its Index.

Tracking the Index requires trading of the Fund's portfolio with a view to tracking the Index over time and is dependent upon the skills of the Managing Owner and its trading principals, among other factors.  It is possible that the Fund’s performance may not

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fully replicate the changes in levels of the Index due to disruptions in the markets for the Index Commodity, the imposition of position limits, or due to other extraordinary circumstances.

The Managing Owner may determine to invest in other futures contracts if at any time it is impractical or inefficient to gain full or partial exposure to the Index Commodity through the use of Index Contracts. These other futures contracts may or may not be based on the Index Commodity. When they are not, the Managing Owner may seek to select futures contracts that it reasonably believes tend to exhibit trading prices that correlate with an Index Contract.

In addition, the Fund may not be able to replicate the changes in levels of the Index because the total return generated by the Fund is reduced by expenses and transaction costs, including those incurred in connection with the Fund’s trading activities, and increased by, as applicable, Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income.

There can be no guarantee that the Index or the underlying methodology is free from error. It is also possible that third parties may seek to manipulate the value of the Index or the Index Commodity which, if successful, would be likely to have an adverse effect on the Fund’s performance.

The Fund Is Not Actively Managed and Tracks the Index During Periods in Which the Index Is Flat or Declining as well as When the Index Is Rising.

The Fund is not actively managed on the basis of judgments relating to economic, financial and market conditions with a view to obtaining positive results under all market conditions. Instead, the Managing Owner seeks to cause the NAV to track the performance of the Index during periods in which the Index is flat or declining as well as when the Index is rising. Therefore, if positions in the Index Commodity are declining in value, the Fund will not close out such positions, except in connection with a change in the composition or weighting of the Index.

Unusually Long Peak-to-Valley Drawdown Periods with Respect To the Index May Be Reflected in Equally Long Peak-to-Valley Drawdown Periods with Respect to the Performance of the Shares.

“Peak-to-valley drawdown” represents the cumulative percentage decline in month-end NAV per Share due to losses sustained during any period in which the initial month-end NAV per Share is not equaled or exceeded by a subsequent month-end NAV per Share.

Although past Index levels are not necessarily indicative of future Index levels, the peak-to-valley drawdown periods that the Index has experienced have been unusually long and have lasted for multi-year drawdown periods.

Because it is expected that the Fund’s performance will track the change of its underlying Index, the Fund would experience a continuous drawdown during the period that the Index experiences such a drawdown. The value of your Shares will also decrease during such a period.

Regulatory Risks

Position Limits and Other Potential Limitations on Futures Trading May Restrict the Creation of Creation Units and the Operation of the Fund.

Position Limits. CFTC and futures exchange rules impose position limits on market participants, including the Fund, trading in certain commodity futures contracts. These position limits prohibit any person from holding a position of more than a specific number of futures contracts. Generally, position limits in the physical delivery markets are set at a stricter level during the spot month, which is the month when the futures contract matures and becomes deliverable, versus the limits for any other month or for all months combined. Limits are generally applied on an aggregate basis to positions held in accounts that are subject to 10% or greater common ownership or control. In December 2016, the CFTC adopted rule amendments that provide exemptions from the general requirement to aggregate all positions that are held pursuant to 10% or greater common ownership or control.

The Index is composed of one Index Commodity, which is subject to position limits imposed by the CFTC and/or the rules of futures exchanges on which the Index Contracts are traded. The CFTC amended its position limits rules in October 2020. Pursuant to the amended rules, federal position limits will apply to 25 physical delivery commodity futures contracts and options thereon, as well as to swaps that are economically equivalent to such contracts and to futures and options thereon that are directly or indirectly linked to the price of such contracts or to the same commodity underlying such contracts (e.g., cash-settled look-a-like futures), subject to a phased-in compliance period.  Under the amended framework, position limits (i) for 25 core referenced futures contracts (including corn, oats, wheat, soybean, soybean meal, soybean oil, cotton, live cattle, rough rice, cocoa, coffee, frozen orange juice concentrate, sugar, gold, silver, copper, platinum, palladium, natural gas, crude oil, heating oil, and RBOB gasoline) are determined by the CFTC and (ii) for all other commodities are determined by the futures exchanges.

The resulting impact on the Fund of final regulations that impose new and revised position limits is unknown. It is expected that futures exchanges will amend their existing position limits rules or adopt new requirements. New or more restrictive position limits could reduce liquidity in the market, which would be likely to have adverse effects on the pricing of commodity futures contracts. Changes in CFTC and/or exchange-level position limits rules therefore could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective or achieve favorable performance.

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Position Aggregation. In general, a trader is required by CFTC or exchange rules, as applicable, to aggregate all positions in accounts as to which the trader has 10% or greater ownership or control. CFTC and exchange rules provide exemptions from this requirement. For example, a trader is not required to aggregate positions in multiple accounts that it owns or controls if that trader is able to satisfy the requirements of an exemption from aggregation of those accounts, including, where available, the independent account controller exemption.

Failure to comply with the independent account controller exemption or another exemption from the aggregation requirement could obligate the Managing Owner to aggregate positions in multiple accounts under its control, which could include the Fund and other commodity pools or accounts under the Managing Owner’s control. In such a scenario, the Fund may not be able to obtain exposure to one or more Index Contracts necessary to pursue its investment objective, or it may be required to liquidate existing Index Contract positions in order to comply with a limit. Such an outcome could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective or achieve favorable performance.

The CFTC amended its position aggregation rules in December 2016. The CFTC staff subsequently issued time-limited no-action relief from compliance with certain requirements under the amended aggregation rules, including the general requirement to aggregate positions in the same commodity futures contracts traded pursuant to substantially identical trading strategies. This no-action relief expires on August 12, 2022.

Accountability Levels. Exchanges may establish accountability levels applicable to futures contracts instead of position limits, provided that the futures contract is not subject to federal position limits. An exchange may order a person who holds or controls a position in excess of a position accountability level not to further increase its position, to comply with any prospective limit that exceeds the size of the position owned or controlled, or to reduce any open position that exceeds the position accountability level if the exchange determines that such action is necessary to maintain an orderly market. Position accountability levels could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to establish and maintain positions in commodity futures contracts to which such levels apply, if the Fund were to trade in such contracts. Such an outcome could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective.

Daily Limits. U.S. futures exchanges and some foreign exchanges have regulations that limit the amount of fluctuation in futures contract prices that may occur during a single business day. These limits are generally referred to as “daily price fluctuation limits” or “daily limits,” and the maximum or minimum price of a contract on any given day as a result of these limits is referred to as a “limit price”. Once a limit price has been reached in a particular contract, it is usually the case that no trades may be made at a different price than specified in the limit. The duration of limit prices generally varies. Limit prices may have the effect of precluding the Fund from trading in a particular contract or requiring the Fund to liquidate contracts at disadvantageous times or prices. Either of those outcomes could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective.

Potential Effects of Positions Limits, Accountability Levels, and Daily Limits. The Fund is currently subject to position limits and may be subject to new and more restrictive position limits in the future. If the Fund reached a position limit or accountability level or became subject to a daily limit, its ability to issue new Creation Units or reinvest income in additional commodity futures contracts may be limited to the extent these restrictions limit its ability to establish new futures positions, add to existing positions, or otherwise transact in futures. Limiting the size of the Fund, or restricting the Fund’s futures trading, under these requirements could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective.

Failure of Futures Commission Merchants or Commodity Brokers to Segregate Assets May Cause Losses for the Fund.

The Commodity Exchange Act requires a futures commission merchant to segregate all funds received from customers from such futures commission merchant’s proprietary assets. If the Commodity Broker fails to segregate customer assets as required, the assets of the Fund might not be fully protected in the event of the Commodity Broker’s bankruptcy. Furthermore, in the event of the Commodity Broker’s bankruptcy, the Fund could be limited to recovering either a pro rata share of all available funds segregated on behalf of the Commodity Broker’s combined customer accounts or the Fund may not recover any assets at all, even though certain property specifically traceable to the Fund was held by the Commodity Broker.

The Commodity Exchange Act requires an approved derivatives clearing organization to segregate all funds and other property received from a clearing member’s customers in connection with U.S. futures and options contracts from any funds held at the clearing organization to support the clearing member’s proprietary trading. Nevertheless, customer funds held at a clearing organization in connection with any futures or options contracts may be held in a commingled omnibus account, which may not identify the name of the clearing member’s individual customers. With respect to futures and options contracts, a clearing organization may use assets of a non-defaulting customer held in an omnibus account at the clearing organization to satisfy payment obligations of a defaulting customer of the clearing member to the clearing organization. In the event of a default of the clearing futures commission merchant’s other clients or the clearing futures commission merchant’s failure to extend its own funds in connection with any such default, a customer may not be able to recover the full amount of assets deposited by the clearing futures commission merchant with the clearing organization on the customer’s behalf.

In the event of a bankruptcy or insolvency of any exchange or a clearing house, the Fund could experience a loss of the funds deposited through the Commodity Broker as margin with the exchange or clearing house, a loss of any unrealized profits on its open positions on the exchange, and the loss of unrealized profits on its closed positions on the exchange.

The Fund’s Performance Could Be Adversely Affected if the Commodity Broker Reduces its Internal Risk Limits for the Fund.

12


 

The CFTC requires futures commission merchants, like the Commodity Broker, to implement and evaluate from time-to-time risk-based limits on futures position and order sizes. Under this regime, the Commodity Broker could determine to reduce its internal risk limits on the size of futures positions it will trade or clear for the Fund. Such a development would reduce the Fund’s capacity to transact in futures contracts. In this scenario, the Fund could seek to enter into clearing relationships with one or more other clearing brokers with the goal of increasing its overall capacity to trade and clear futures contracts. The introduction of one or more additional clearing broker relationships would be likely to increase the Fund’s trading costs and could make its overall trading less efficient or more prone to error. These consequences would be likely to detract from the Fund’s performance.

Regulatory Changes or Actions May Alter the Operations and Profitability of the Fund.

The regulation of commodity interest transactions and markets, including under the Dodd-Frank Act, is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to ongoing modification by governmental and judicial action. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act has expanded the regulation of markets, market participants and financial instruments. The regulatory regime under the Dodd-Frank Act has imposed additional compliance and legal burdens on participants in the markets for futures and other commodity interests. For example, under the Dodd-Frank Act new capital and risk requirements have been imposed on market intermediaries. Those requirements may cause the cost of trading to increase for market participants, like the Fund, that must interact with those intermediaries to carry out their trading activities. These increased costs can detract from the Fund’s performance.

The Fund and the Managing Owner Are Subject to Extensive Legal and Regulatory Requirements.

The Fund is subject to a comprehensive scheme of regulation under the federal commodity futures trading and securities laws, as well as futures market rules and the rules and listing standards for its Shares. The Fund and the Managing Owner could each be subject to sanctions for a failure to comply with those requirements, which could adversely affect the Fund’s financial performance and its ability to pursue its investment objective. In addition, the SEC, CFTC, and exchanges are empowered to intervene in their respective markets in response to extreme market conditions. Any such interventions could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective and could lead to losses for the Fund and its Shareholders.

In addition, the Fund is subject to significant disclosure, internal control, governance, and financial reporting requirements because the Shares are publicly traded.

For example, the Fund is responsible for establishing and maintaining internal controls over financial reporting. Under this requirement, the Fund must adopt, implement and maintain an internal control system designed to provide reasonable assurance to its management regarding the preparation and fair presentation of published financial statements. The Fund is also required to adopt, implement, and maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure information required to be disclosed by the Fund in reports that it files or submits to the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified by the SEC. There is a risk that the Fund’s internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures could fail to work properly or otherwise fail to satisfy SEC requirements. Such a failure could result in the reporting or disclosure of incorrect information or a failure to report information on a timely basis. Such a failure could be to the disadvantage of Shareholders and could expose the Fund to penalties or otherwise adversely affect the Fund’s status under the federal securities laws and SEC regulations.

All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective may provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation and other disclosure matters.

Tax Risks

Shareholders Will Be Subject to Taxation on Their Allocable Share of the Fund’s Taxable Income, Whether or Not They Receive Cash Distributions.

Shareholders will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation and, in some cases, state, local, or foreign income taxation on their allocable share of the Fund’s taxable income, whether or not they receive cash distributions from the Fund. Shareholders may not receive cash distributions equal to their share of the Fund’s taxable income or even the tax liability that results from such income.

Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction with Respect to Shares Could Be Reallocated if the IRS Does Not Accept the Assumptions or Conventions Used by the Fund in Allocating Such Items.

U.S. federal income tax rules applicable to partnerships are complex and often difficult to apply to publicly traded partnerships. The Fund will apply certain assumptions and conventions in an attempt to comply with applicable rules and to report items of income, gain, loss and deduction to Shareholders in a manner that reflects the Shareholders’ beneficial interest in such tax items, but these assumptions and conventions may not be in compliance with all aspects of the applicable tax requirements. It is possible that the United States Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) will successfully assert that the conventions and assumptions used by the Fund do not satisfy the technical requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and/or the Federal Tax Regulations codified under 26 C.F.R., referred to herein as the Treasury Regulations, and could require that items of income, gain, loss and deduction be adjusted or reallocated in a manner that adversely affects one or more Shareholders.

The Fund is a partnership, which is not subject to U.S. federal income taxes. Rather, the partnership's taxable income flows through to the owners, who are responsible for paying the applicable income taxes on the income allocated to them. The Fund is

13


 

subject to partnership audit rules enacted as part of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (the “Centralized Partnership Audit Regime”).  Under the Centralized Partnership Audit Regime, any IRS audit of the Fund would be conducted at the Fund level, and if the IRS determines an adjustment, the default rule is that the Fund would pay an “imputed underpayment” including interest and penalties, if applicable.  The Fund may instead elect to make a “push-out” election, in which case the shareholders for the year that is under audit would be required to take into account the adjustments on their own personal income tax returns.

No Deduction for Qualified Publicly Traded Partnership Income

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, there is a 20% deduction for “qualified publicly traded partnership income” within the meaning of Section 199A(e)(5) of the Code. In general, “qualified publicly traded partnership income” for this purpose is an item of income, gain, deduction or loss that is effectively connected with a United States trade or business and includable income for the year, but does not include certain investment income. It is currently not expected that the Fund’s income will be eligible for such deduction because, as discussed below, although the matter is not free from doubt, the Fund believes that the activities directly conducted by the Fund will not result in the Fund being engaged in a trade or business within the United States. Potential investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the availability of such deduction for their allocable share of the Fund’s items of income, gain, deduction and loss.

PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS ARE STRONGLY URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS AND COUNSEL WITH RESPECT TO THE POSSIBLE TAX CONSEQUENCES TO THEM OF AN INVESTMENT IN THE SHARES; SUCH TAX CONSEQUENCES MAY DIFFER WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT INVESTORS.

Other Risks

An Insolvency Resulting From Another Series in the Trust or the Trust Itself May Have a Material Adverse Effect On the Fund.

The Fund is a series of a Delaware statutory trust. Pursuant to Delaware law, the organization of the Trust provides that the assets and liabilities of the Fund are separate from the assets and liabilities of all other series of the Trust, as well as the larger Trust itself. Though such organization may, under state law, protect the assets of the Fund in an insolvency action brought by the creditors of another series of the Trust, this may be insufficient to protect the assets of the Fund from such creditors in an insolvency action in Federal court, or in a court in a foreign jurisdiction. Accordingly, an insolvency resulting from another series in the Trust or the Trust itself may have a material adverse effect on the Fund.

Disruptions in the Ability to Create and Redeem Creation Units May Adversely Affect Investors.

It is generally expected that the public trading price per Share will track the NAV per Share closely over time. The relationship between the public trading price per Share and the NAV per Share depends, to a considerable degree, on the ability of Authorized Participants or their clients or customers to purchase and redeem Creation Units in the ordinary course. If the process for creating or redeeming Shares is impaired for any reason, Authorized Participants and their clients or customers may not be able to purchase and redeem Creation Units or, even if possible, may choose not to do so. The inability to purchase and redeem Creation Units, or the partial impairment of the ability to purchase and redeem Creation Units, could result in Shares trading at a premium or discount to the NAV of the Fund. Such a premium or discount could be significant, depending upon the nature or duration of the impairment.

If the Fund were to issue all Shares that have been registered, it would not be able to create new Creation Units until it registered additional Shares and those additional Shares became available for sale. An inability to create new Creation Units could increase the possibility that the trading price per Share would not track closely the NAV per Share. In addition, the Fund may, in its discretion, suspend the creation of Creation Units. Suspension of creations may adversely affect how the Shares are traded and could cause Shares to trade at a premium or discount to the NAV of the Fund, perhaps to a significant degree.

The Shares Could Decrease in Value if Unanticipated Operational or Trading Problems Arise.

The mechanisms and procedures governing the creation, redemption and offering of the Shares have been developed specifically for the Fund. Consequently, there may be unanticipated problems with respect to the mechanics of the operations of the Fund and the trading of the Shares that could have a material adverse effect on an investment in the Shares. To the extent that unanticipated operational or trading problems arise, the Managing Owner’s past experience and qualifications may not be suitable for solving those problems.

Historical Performance of the Fund and the Index Is Not Indicative of Future Performance.

Past performance of the Fund or the Index is not necessarily indicative of future results. Therefore, past performance of the Fund or the Index should not be relied upon in deciding whether to buy Shares of the Fund.

Fees and Expenses May Deplete the Fund’s Assets if the Fund’s Investment Performance Is Not Favorable.

The Fund pays fees and expenses regardless of its investment performance. Such fees and expenses include asset-based fees of 0.75% per annum. Additional charges include brokerage fees of approximately 0.04% per annum in the aggregate and selling commissions. Selling commissions are not included in the Fund’s breakeven calculation. The sum of the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and/or T-Bill ETF Income may not exceed its fees and expenses. If such income does not exceed its fees and

14


 

expenses, in order to break even, the Fund’s futures trading activity will need to have a favorable performance that exceeds the difference between the sum of the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and/or T-Bill ETF Income and its fees and expenses. If the Fund’s futures trading performance is not sufficiently favorable, the Fund’s expenses could deplete its assets over time. In such a scenario, the value of your Shares will decrease.

There May Be Circumstances That Could Prevent the Fund from Being Operated in a Manner Consistent with its Investment Objective.

There may be circumstances outside the control of the Managing Owner and/or the Fund that make it, for all practical purposes, impossible to re-position the Fund and/or to process a purchase or redemption order. Examples of such circumstances include: natural disasters; public service disruptions or utility problems such as those caused by fires, floods, extreme weather conditions, and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy, and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the aforementioned parties, as well as DTC, or any other participant in the purchase process, and similar extraordinary events. While the Managing Owner has established and implemented a disaster recovery plan, circumstances such as those identified above may prevent the Fund from being operated in a manner consistent with its investment objective.

Additionally, natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis and other severe weather-related phenomena generally, and widespread disease, including pandemics and epidemics, have been and may be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of the Fund’s investments. Given the increasing interdependence among global economies and markets, conditions in one country, market, or region are increasingly likely to adversely affect markets, issuers, and/or foreign exchange rates in other countries, including the U.S. Any such events could have a significant adverse impact on the value of the Fund’s investments and could result in increased premiums or discounts to the Fund’s NAV. Additionally, the Fund rebalances its portfolio in accordance with the Index, and, therefore, any changes to the Index’s rebalance schedule will result in corresponding changes to the Fund’s rebalance schedule.

Redemption Orders for Creation Units May Be Subject to Postponement, Suspension or Rejection Under Certain Circumstances.

The Managing Owner may, in its discretion, suspend the right of redemption or postpone the redemption order settlement date with respect to Creation Units for (1) any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which the redemption distribution is not reasonably practicable, or (2) such other period as the Managing Owner determines to be necessary for the protection of the Shareholders. In addition, the Fund will reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form as described in the participant agreement with the Authorized Participant, or if the fulfillment of the order, in the opinion of the Fund’s counsel, might be unlawful. Any such postponement, suspension or rejection could adversely affect a redeeming Authorized Participant. For example, the resulting delay may adversely affect the value of the Authorized Participant’s redemption proceeds if the NAV of the Fund declines during the period of delay. The Fund disclaims any liability for any loss or damage that may result from any such suspension or postponement.

Shareholders Do Not Have the Protections Associated With Ownership of Shares in an Investment Company Registered Under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

The Fund is not registered as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. Consequently, Shareholders do not have the legal and regulatory protections provided to the investors in investment companies that are registered as such.

Shareholders Do Not Have the Rights Enjoyed by Investors in Certain Other Vehicles.

The Shares have none of the statutory rights normally associated with the ownership of shares of a corporation. However, under Delaware law, a beneficial owner of a business trust (such as a Shareholder) may, under certain circumstances, institute legal action on behalf of himself and all other similarly situated beneficial owners to recover damages from a third party where a managing owner has failed or refused to institute legal action on behalf of himself and all other similarly situated beneficial owners to recover damages from a managing owner for violations of fiduciary duties, or on behalf of a business trust to recover damages from a third party where a managing owner has failed or refused to institute proceedings to recover such damages. The Shares have limited voting and distribution rights (for example, Shareholders do not have the right to elect directors and the Fund is not required to pay regular distributions, although the Fund may pay distributions in the discretion of the Managing Owner).

Various Actual and Potential Conflicts of Interest May Be Detrimental to Shareholders.

The Fund is subject to actual and potential conflicts of interest involving the Managing Owner or any of its affiliates, the Commodity Broker, including its principals and its affiliates, the Index Sponsor and Invesco Distributors. The Managing Owner and its principals, all of whom are engaged in other investment activities, are not required to devote substantially all of their time to the business of the Fund, which also presents the potential for numerous conflicts of interest with the Fund. The Managing Owner and its principals and affiliates are engaged in a broad array of asset management and financial services activities and may engage in activities during the ordinary course of business that cause their interests or those of their other clients to conflict with those of the Fund and its Shareholders.

15


 

As a result of these and other relationships, parties involved with the Fund have a financial incentive to act in a manner other than in the best interests of the Fund and the Shareholders. For example, by investing in affiliated money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs for margin and/or cash management purposes, the Managing Owner may select affiliated money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs that may pay dividends that are lower than non-affiliated money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs. In addition, the Managing Owner would have a conflict of interest if it sought to redeem the Fund’s interest in an affiliated money market mutual fund or T-Bill ETF in circumstances when such a redemption would be unfavorable for the affiliated fund. The Managing Owner has not established any formal procedure to resolve conflicts of interest. Consequently, investors are dependent on the good faith of the respective parties subject to such conflicts to resolve them equitably. Although the Managing Owner attempts to monitor these conflicts, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, for the Managing Owner to ensure that these conflicts do not, in fact, result in adverse consequences to the Fund and the Shareholders.

The Fund may be subject to certain conflicts with respect to the Commodity Broker, including, but not limited to, conflicts that result from receiving greater amounts of compensation from other clients, or purchasing opposite or competing positions on behalf of third party accounts traded through the Commodity Broker.

Because the Managing Owner and Invesco Distributors are affiliates, the Managing Owner has a disincentive to replace Invesco Distributors. Furthermore, the Managing Owner did not conduct an arm’s length negotiation when it retained Invesco Distributors.

Lack of Independent Advisers Representing Investors.

The Managing Owner has consulted with counsel, accountants and other advisers regarding the operation of the Fund. No counsel has been appointed to represent you in connection with the Fund’s continuous offering of Shares. Accordingly, you should consult your own legal, tax and financial advisers about whether you should invest in the Fund.

Possibility of Termination of the Fund May Adversely Affect Your Portfolio.

It is ultimately within the discretion of the Managing Owner whether it will continue to operate and advise the Fund. The Managing Owner may withdraw from the Fund upon 120 days’ prior written notice to all Shareholders and the Trustee, which would cause the Fund to terminate unless a substitute managing owner was obtained. Shareholders owning 50% or more of the Shares have the power to terminate the Fund. If it is so exercised, investors who may wish to continue to invest in a vehicle that tracks the Fund’s Index will have to find another vehicle, and may not be able to find another vehicle that offers the same features as the Fund. See “Description of the Shares; Certain Material Terms of the Trust Agreement – Termination Events” in the Fund’s Prospectus for a summary of termination events. Such detrimental developments could cause you to liquidate your investments and upset the overall maturity and timing of your investment portfolio. In addition, Shareholders could receive less from the sale of the Fund’s assets in the event of its liquidation and termination than amounts that could be realized from sales of those assets other than in the case of a liquidation and termination. If the registrations with the CFTC or memberships in the NFA of the Managing Owner or the Commodity Broker were revoked or suspended, such entity would no longer be able to provide services to the Fund.

Competing Claims Over Ownership of Intellectual Property Rights Related to the Fund Could Adversely Affect the Fund and an Investment in the Shares.

While the Managing Owner believes that all intellectual property rights needed to operate the Fund in the manner described in the Fund’s Prospectus are either owned by or licensed to the Managing Owner or have been obtained, third parties may allege or assert ownership of intellectual property rights which may be related to the design, structure and operations of the Fund. To the extent any claims of such ownership are brought or any proceedings are instituted to assert such claims, the issuance of any restraining orders or injunctions, the negotiation, litigation or settlement of such claims, or the ultimate disposition of such claims in a court of law may adversely affect the Fund and an investment in the Shares. For example, such actions could result in expenses or damages payable by the Fund, suspension of activities or the termination of the Fund.

The Value of the Shares Will Be Adversely Affected if the Fund Is Required to Indemnify the Trustee or the Managing Owner.

Under the Trust Agreement, the Trustee and the Managing Owner have the right to be indemnified for any liability or expense they incur, except for any expenses resulting from gross negligence or willful misconduct. That means the Managing Owner may require the assets of the Fund to be sold in order to cover losses or liability suffered by it or by the Trustee. Any sale of that kind would reduce the NAV of the Fund and, consequently, the value of the Shares.

Although the Shares Are Limited Liability Investments, Certain Circumstances such as Bankruptcy of the Fund or Indemnification of the Fund by the Shareholders Will Increase a Shareholder’s Liability.

The Shares are limited liability investments; investors may not lose more than the amount that they invest including any appreciation in their investments. However, Shareholders could be required, as a matter of bankruptcy law, to return to the estate of the Fund any distribution they received at a time when the Fund was in fact insolvent or in violation of the Trust Agreement. In addition, Shareholders agree in the Trust Agreement that they will indemnify the Fund for any harm suffered by it as a result of:

 

Shareholders’ actions unrelated to the business of the Fund, or

 

taxes imposed on the Shares by the states or municipalities in which such investors reside.

16


 

The Fund May Lose Money on Its Holdings of Money Market Mutual Funds.

The Fund may invest in government money market funds that have chosen to not rely on the ability to impose fees on shareholder redemptions, or liquidity fees, or temporarily to suspend redemption privileges, or gates, if the government money market fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below a certain threshold. Although such government money market funds seek to preserve the value of an investment at $1.00 per share, there is no guarantee that they will be able to do so. As a result, the Fund may lose money by investing in a government money market fund. An investment in a government money market fund is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any other government agency. The share price of a government money market fund can fall below the $1.00 share price. The Fund cannot rely on or expect a government money market fund’s adviser or its affiliates to enter into support agreements or take other actions to maintain the government money market fund’s $1.00 share price. The credit quality of a government money market fund’s holdings can change rapidly in certain markets, and the default of a single holding could have an adverse impact on the government money market fund’s share price. Due to fluctuations in interest rates, the market value of securities held by a government money market fund may vary. A government money market fund’s share price can also be negatively affected during periods of high redemption pressures and/or illiquid markets.

Due to the Increased Use of Technologies, Intentional and Unintentional Cyber Attacks Pose Operational and Information Security Risks.

With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund is susceptible to operational and information security risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber attacks include, but are not limited to gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption.

Cyber attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites. Cyber security failures or breaches of the Fund’s third party service providers (including, but not limited to, the Index Sponsor, the Administrator and the Transfer Agent) or money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs in which the Fund invests, have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Shareholders or Authorized Participants to transact business in Shares and Creation Units, respectively, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future. The Fund and its Shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

While the Managing Owner has established business continuity plans and systems reasonably designed to detect and prevent such cyber attacks from being effective, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. For instance, it is possible that certain existing risks have not been identified or that new risks will emerge before countervailing measures can be implemented. Furthermore, the Fund cannot control, or even necessarily influence, the cyber security plans and systems put in place by the Fund’s third party service providers. Since the Fund is dependent upon third party service providers (including the Managing Owner) for substantially all of its operational needs, the Fund is subject to the risk that a cyber attack on a service provider will materially impair its normal operations even if the Fund itself is not subject to such an attack. In addition, a service provider that has experienced a cyber security incident may divert resources normally devoted to servicing the Fund to addressing the incident, which would be likely to have an adverse effect on the Fund’s operations. Cyber attacks may also cause disruptions to the futures exchanges and clearinghouses through which the Fund invests in futures contracts and to the exchanges on which the Fund buys and sells shares of T-Bill ETFs, which could result in disruptions to the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective, resulting in financial losses to the Fund and Shareholders.

 

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

The Fund does not own or use physical properties in the conduct of its business. Its assets consist of futures contracts, cash, United States Treasury Obligations and may consist of money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs. The Managing Owner’s headquarters are located at 3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515.

ITEM 3.

None.

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

 

 

 

 

17


 

PART II

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

The Shares have been trading on the NYSE Arca since November 25, 2008 under the symbol “DBS.”

Holders

As of January 31, 2021, the Fund had 60 holders of record of its Shares.

Sales of Unregistered Securities and Use of Proceeds of Registered Securities

(a) There have been no unregistered sales of the Shares. No Shares are authorized for issuance by the Fund under equity compensation plans.

(b) Not applicable.

(c) Although the Fund did not redeem Shares directly from its shareholders, the Fund redeemed Creation Units from Authorized Participants during the three months ended December 31, 2020 as follows:

 

Period of Redemption

 

Total Number of

Shares Redeemed

 

 

Average Price

Paid per Share

 

October 1, 2020 to October 31, 2020

 

 

 

$

 

November 1, 2020 to November 30, 2020

 

 

100,000

 

 

33.89

 

December 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

100,000

 

 

$

33.89

 

 ITEM 6.      SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following table summarizes the relevant 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016 financial data for the Fund and should be read in conjunction with the Fund’s financial statements, and the notes and schedules related thereto, which are included in this Report.

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Income

 

$

83,514

 

 

$

305,115

 

 

$

337,011

 

 

$

185,480

 

 

$

128,449

 

Net investment income (loss)

 

$

(53,322

)

 

$

199,990

 

 

$

194,277

 

 

$

12,493

 

 

$

(215,042

)

Net realized and net change in unrealized gains (losses) on United States Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and Commodity Futures Contracts

 

$

6,243,861

 

 

$

1,565,859

 

 

$

(2,877,936

)

 

$

981,031

 

 

$

(9,618,417

)

Net Income (Loss)

 

$

6,190,539

 

 

$

1,765,849

 

 

$

(2,683,659

)

 

$

993,524

 

 

$

(9,833,459

)

Net Income (Loss) per Share (a)

 

$

11.51

 

 

$

2.94

 

 

$

(2.86

)

 

$

1.31

 

 

$

3.04

 

Return of Capital Distributions per General Share

 

$

 

 

$

(0.33

)

 

$

(0.32

)

 

$

(0.02

)

 

$

 

Return of Capital Distributions per Share

 

$

 

 

$

(0.33

)

 

$

(0.32

)

 

$

(0.02

)

 

$

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash

 

$

302,055

 

 

$

49,590

 

 

$

(185,775

)

 

$

185,775

 

 

$

(285,679

)

 

(a)     Net Income (Loss) per Share may not correlate with the Fund's Net Income (Loss) due to timing of shareholder transactions in relation to the fluctuating market values of the Fund's investments.

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

Total Assets

 

$

26,189,835

 

 

$

15,471,832

 

 

$

13,923,000

 

 

$

20,998,203

 

 

$

27,845,076

 

General Shares NAV

 

$

37.17

 

 

$

25.66

 

 

$

23.05

 

 

$

26.23

 

 

$

24.94

 

Shares NAV

 

$

37.17

 

 

$

25.66

 

 

$

23.05

 

 

$

26.23

 

 

$

24.94

 

18


 

 

Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)

 

 

For the Three Months Ended

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2020

 

 

2020

 

 

2020

 

Income

 

$

3,573

 

 

$

3,968

 

 

$

22,209

 

 

$

53,764

 

Net investment income (loss)

 

$

(42,184

)

 

$

(36,799

)

 

$

(2,858

)

 

$

28,519

 

Net realized and net change in unrealized

   gains (losses) on United States Treasury

   Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

$

2,763,983

 

 

$

2,819,083

 

 

$

3,938,507

 

 

$

(3,277,712

)

Net Income (Loss)

 

$

2,721,799

 

 

$

2,782,284

 

 

$

3,935,649

 

 

$

(3,249,193

)

Increase (decrease) in NAV

 

$

(667,477

)

 

$

10,604,317

 

 

$

3,935,649

 

 

$

(3,249,193

)

Net Income (Loss) per Share

 

$

3.82

 

 

$

6.55

 

 

$

6.56

 

 

$

(5.42

)

Return of Capital Distributions per General Share

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Return of Capital Distributions per Share

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

For the Three Months Ended

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2019

 

 

2019

 

 

2019

 

Income

 

$

64,659

 

 

$

80,723

 

 

$

79,623

 

 

$

80,110

 

Net investment income (loss)

 

$

36,339

 

 

$

53,050

 

 

$

53,930

 

 

$

56,671

 

Net realized and net change in unrealized

   gains (losses) on United States Treasury

   Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

$

687,706

 

 

$

1,369,046

 

 

$

(33,853

)

 

$

(457,040

)

Net Income (Loss)

 

$

724,045

 

 

$

1,422,096

 

 

$

20,077

 

 

$

(400,369

)

Increase (decrease) in NAV

 

$

523,884

 

 

$

1,422,096

 

 

$

20,077

 

 

$

(400,369

)

Net Income (Loss) per Share (a)

 

$

1.21

 

 

$

2.37

 

 

$

0.03

 

 

$

(0.67

)

Return of Capital Distributions per

   General Share (a)

 

$

(0.33

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Return of Capital Distributions per Share (a)

 

$

(0.33

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

(a)     The amount shown for a share outstanding for quarterly statements may not correlate with year to date amounts due to timing of subscriptions and redemptions in relation to income earned or distributed.

 

 

 

19


 

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This information should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report. The discussion and analysis which follows may contain trend analysis and other forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Information” above.

You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Except as expressly required by the Federal securities laws, the Fund and the Managing Owner undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements or the risks, uncertainties or other factors described in this Report, as a result of new information, future events or changed circumstances or for any other reason after the date of this Report.

Overview/Introduction

Invesco Capital Management LLC (“Invesco”) has served as the managing owner (the “Managing Owner”), commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor of the Trust and the Fund since February 23, 2015. The Managing Owner is registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) as a commodity pool operator and a commodity trading advisor, and it is a member firm of the National Futures Association (“NFA”).

The Fund seeks to track changes, whether positive or negative, in the level of the DBIQ Optimum Yield Silver Index Excess Return™ (the “Index”) over time, plus the excess, if any, of the sum of the Fund’s interest income from its holdings of United States Treasury Obligations (“Treasury Income”), dividends from its holdings in money market mutual funds (affiliated or otherwise) (“Money Market Income”) and dividends or distributions of capital gains from its holdings of T-Bill ETFs (as defined below) (“T-Bill ETF Income”) over the expenses of the Fund. The Fund invests in futures contracts in an attempt to track its Index. The Index is intended to reflect the change in market value of the silver sector. Silver (the “Index Commodity”) is the single commodity comprising the Index.

The Fund may invest directly in United States Treasury Obligations. The Fund may also gain exposure to United States Treasury Obligations through investments in exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) (affiliated or otherwise) that track indexes that measure the performance of United States Treasury Obligations with a maximum remaining maturity of up to 12 months (“T-Bill ETFs”).  The Fund holds as collateral United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs (affiliated or otherwise), if any, for margin and/or cash management purposes. While the Fund's performance reflects the appreciation and depreciation of those holdings, the Fund's performance, whether positive or negative, is driven primarily by its strategy of trading futures contracts with the aim of seeking to track the Index.

The Fund pursues its investment objective by investing in a portfolio of exchange-traded commodity futures contracts that expire in a specific month and trade on a specific exchange (the “Index Contracts”). The Fund also holds United States Treasury Obligations and T-Bill ETFs, if any, for deposit with Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, the Fund’s commodity broker (the “Commodity Broker”) as margin, to the extent permissible under CFTC rules and United States Treasury Obligations, cash, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs (affiliated or otherwise), if any, on deposit with The Bank of New York Mellon (the “Custodian”), for cash management purposes. The aggregate notional value of the commodity futures contracts owned by the Fund is expected to approximate the aggregate net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund, as opposed to the aggregate Index value.

The CFTC and certain futures exchanges impose position limits on futures contracts, including on Index Contracts.  

The Managing Owner may determine to invest in other futures contracts if at any time it is impractical or inefficient to gain full or partial exposure to the Index Commodity through the use of Index Contracts. These other futures contracts may or may not be based on the Index Commodity. When they are not, the Managing Owner may seek to select futures contracts that it reasonably believes tend to exhibit trading prices that correlate with an Index Contract.

The Shares are intended to provide investment results that generally correspond to the changes, positive or negative, in the levels of the Index over time. The value of the Shares is expected to fluctuate in relation to changes in the value of the Fund’s portfolio. The market price of the Shares may not be identical to the NAV per Share, but these two valuations are expected to be very close.

Margin Calls

“Initial” or “original” margin is the minimum amount of funds that must be deposited by a futures trader with his commodity broker in order to initiate futures trading or to maintain an open position in futures contracts. “Maintenance” margin is the amount (generally less than initial margin) to which a trader’s account may decline before he must deliver additional margin. A margin deposit is like a cash performance bond. It helps assure the futures trader’s performance of the futures contract that the trader purchases or sells. Futures contracts are customarily bought and sold on margin that represents a very small percentage (ranging upward from less than 2%) of the purchase price of the underlying commodity being traded. Because of such low margins, price fluctuations occurring in the futures markets may create profits and losses that are greater, in relation to the amount invested, than are customary in other

20


 

forms of investments. The minimum amount of margin required in connection with a particular futures contract is set from time to time by the exchange on which such contract is traded, and may be modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the contract. “Variation margin” is assessed daily to reflect changes in the value of the position.

Brokerage firms carrying accounts for traders in futures contracts may not accept lower, and generally require higher, amounts of margin as a matter of policy in order to afford further protection for themselves.

Margin requirements are computed each day by a commodity broker. When the market value of a particular open futures contract position changes to a point where the margin on deposit does not satisfy maintenance margin requirements, a margin call is made by the commodity broker. If the margin call is not met within a reasonable time, the broker may close out the Fund’s position. With respect to the Managing Owner’s trading, only the Managing Owner, and not the Fund or its Shareholders personally, will be subject to margin calls.

Position Limits and/or Accountability Levels

The Fund has not reached position limits with respect to the 2020 and 2019 reporting periods.

Net Asset Value

NAV means the total assets of the Fund, including, but not limited to, all commodity futures contracts, cash and investments less total liabilities of the Fund, each determined on the basis of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”), consistently applied under the accrual method of accounting. All open commodity futures contracts will be calculated at their then current market value, which will be based upon the settlement price for that particular commodity futures contract traded on the applicable primary exchange on the date with respect to which NAV is being determined. Securities for which market quotations are not readily available or became unreliable are valued at fair value as determined in good faith following procedures approved by the Managing Owner. The amount of any distribution is a liability of the Fund from the day when the distribution is declared until it is paid.

NAV per Share is the NAV of the Fund divided by the number of outstanding Shares.

Market Risk

Trading in futures contracts involves the Fund entering into contractual commitments to purchase a particular commodity at a specified date and price. The market risk associated with the Fund’s commitments to purchase commodities is limited to the gross or face amount of the contracts held.

The Fund’s exposure to market risk is also influenced by a number of factors including the volatility of interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, the liquidity of the markets in which the contracts are traded and the relationships among the contracts held. The inherent uncertainty of the Fund’s trading as well as the development of drastic market occurrences could ultimately lead to a loss of all or substantially all of the investors’ capital.

Credit Risk

When the Fund enters into futures contracts, the Fund is exposed to credit risk that the counterparty to the contract will not meet its obligations. The counterparty for futures contracts traded on United States and on most foreign futures exchanges is the clearing house associated with the particular exchange. In general, clearing houses are backed by their corporate members who may be required to share in the financial burden resulting from the nonperformance by one of their members and, as such, is designed to disperse and mitigate the credit risk posed by any other one member. In cases where the clearing house is not backed by the clearing members (i.e., some foreign exchanges), it may be backed by a consortium of banks or other financial institutions. There can be no assurance that any counterparty, clearing member or clearinghouse will meet its obligations to the Fund.

The Commodity Broker, when acting as the Fund’s futures commission merchant in accepting orders for the purchase or sale of domestic futures contracts, is required by CFTC regulations to separately account for and segregate as belonging to the Fund all assets of the Fund relating to domestic futures trading. The Commodity Broker is not allowed to commingle such assets with other assets of the Commodity Broker. In addition, CFTC regulations also require the Commodity Broker to hold in a secure account assets of the Fund related to foreign futures trading. While these legal requirements are designed to protect the customers of futures commission merchants, a failure by the Commodity Broker to comply with those requirements would be likely to have a material adverse effect on the Fund in the event that the Commodity Broker became insolvent or suffered other financial distress.

Liquidity

The Fund’s entire source of capital is derived from the Fund’s offering of Shares to Authorized Participants. The Fund in turn allocates its net assets to commodity futures trading. A significant portion of the NAV is held in United States Treasury Obligations which may be used as margin for the Fund’s trading in commodity futures contracts and United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds, cash and T-Bill ETFs, if any, which may be used for cash management purposes. The percentage that United

21


 

States Treasury Obligations bear to the total net assets will vary from period to period as the market values of the Fund’s commodity interests change. A portion of the Fund’s United States Treasury Obligations is held for deposit with the Commodity Broker to meet margin requirements. All remaining cash, money market mutual funds, T-Bill ETFs, if any, and United States Treasury Obligations are on deposit with the Custodian. Interest earned on the Fund’s interest-bearing funds and dividends from the Fund’s holdings of money market mutual funds are paid to the Fund. Any dividends or distributions of capital gains received from the Fund’s holdings of T-Bill ETFs, if any, are paid to the Fund.

The Fund’s commodity futures contracts may be subject to periods of illiquidity because of market conditions, regulatory considerations or for other reasons. For example, U.S. futures exchanges and some foreign exchanges have regulations that limit the amount of fluctuation in futures contract prices that may occur during a single business day. These limits are generally referred to as “daily price fluctuation limits” or “daily limits,” and the maximum or minimum price of a contract on any given day as a result of these limits is referred to as a “limit price”. Once a limit price has been reached in a particular contract, it is usually the case that no trades may be made at a different price than specified in the limit. The duration of limit prices generally varies. Limit prices may have the effect of precluding the Fund from trading in a particular contract or requiring the Fund to liquidate contracts at disadvantageous times or prices. Either of those outcomes could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective.

Because the Fund trades futures contracts, its capital is at risk due to changes in the value of futures contracts (market risk) or the inability of counterparties (including the Commodity Broker and/or exchange clearinghouses) to perform under the terms of the contracts (credit risk).

On any business day, an Authorized Participant may place an order with the Transfer Agent to redeem one or more blocks of 100,000 Shares (“Creation Units”). Redemption orders must be placed by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time. The day on which the Managing Owner receives a valid redemption order is the redemption order date. The day on which a redemption order is settled is the redemption order settlement date. As provided below, the redemption order settlement date may occur up to two business days after the redemption order date. Redemption orders are irrevocable. The redemption procedures allow Authorized Participants to redeem Creation Units. Individual Shareholders may not redeem directly from the Fund. Instead, individual Shareholders may only redeem Shares in integral multiples of 100,000 and only through an Authorized Participant.

Unless otherwise agreed to by the Managing Owner and the Authorized Participant as provided in the next sentence, by placing a redemption order, an Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the Creation Units to be redeemed through DTC’s book-entry system to the Fund no later than the redemption order settlement date as of 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on the business day immediately following the redemption order date. Upon submission of a redemption order, the Authorized Participant may request the Managing Owner to agree to a redemption order settlement date up to two business days after the redemption order date. By placing a redemption order, and prior to receipt of the redemption proceeds, an Authorized Participant’s DTC account is charged the non-refundable transaction fee due for the redemption order.

Redemption orders may be placed either (i) through the Continuous Net Settlement (“CNS”) clearing processes of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (the “NSCC”) (the “CNS Clearing Process”) or (ii) if outside the CNS Clearing Process, only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC” or the “Depository”) (the “DTC Process”), or a successor depository, and only in exchange for cash. By placing a redemption order, and prior to receipt of the redemption proceeds, an Authorized Participant’s DTC account is charged the non-refundable transaction fee due for the redemption order and such fee is not borne by the Fund.

Capital Resources

The Fund does not have any material commitments for capital expenditures as of the end of the latest fiscal period.

The Fund is unaware of any (i) anticipated known demands, commitments or capital expenditures; (ii) material trends, favorable or unfavorable, in its capital resources; or (iii) trends or uncertainties that will have a material effect on operations.

Cash Flows

A primary cash flow activity of the Fund is to raise capital from Authorized Participants through the issuance of Shares. This cash is used to invest in United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs, if any, and to meet margin requirements as a result of the positions taken in futures contracts to match the fluctuations of the Index.

As of the date of this Report, each of Bank of America Merrill Lynch, BMO Capital Markets Corp., BNP Paribas Securities Corp, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Co., Goldman Sachs Execution & Clearing LP, Interactive Brokers LLC, Jefferies LLC, JP Morgan Securities Inc, Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Nomura Securities International Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, UBS Securities LLC, Virtu Americas LLC and Virtu Financial Capital Markets LLC has executed a Participant Agreement and are the only Authorized Participants.

22


 

Operating Activities

Net cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities was $(4.1) million and $0.3 million million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. These amounts primarily include net income (loss), net purchases and sales of money market mutual funds and net purchases and sales of United States Treasury Obligations and affiliated investments. The Fund invests in United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs (affiliated or otherwise), if any, for margin and/or cash management purposes. While the Fund's performance reflects the appreciation and depreciation of those holdings, the Fund's performance, whether positive or negative, is driven primarily by its strategy of trading futures contracts with the aim of seeking to track the Index.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, $43.0 million was paid to purchase United States Treasury Obligations and $42.0 million was received from sales and maturing United States Treasury Obligations. During the year ended December 31, 2019, $42.8 million was paid to purchase United States Treasury Obligations and $42.0 million was received from sales and maturing United States Treasury Obligations. $76.5 million was received from sales of affiliated investments and $85.9 million was paid to purchase affiliated investments during the year ended December 31, 2020. $50.7 million was received from sales of affiliated investments and $51.3 million was paid to purchase affiliated investments during the year ended December 31, 2019.    

Financing Activities

The Fund’s net cash flow provided by (used in) financing activities was $4.4 million and $(0.3) million during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. This included $7.8 million and $0.0 million from Shares purchased by Authorized Participants during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and $3.4 million and $0.0 million from Shares redeemed by Authorized Participants during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. There were no changes in amounts due to Custodian for the year ended December 31, 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2019 amounts due to the Custodian decreased by $0.1 million. No distributions were paid to shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2019 distributions paid to Shareholders were $0.2 million.

Results of Operations

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020 AND 2019

The following graphs illustrate the percentage changes in (i) the market price of the Shares (as reflected by the line “Market”), (ii) the Fund’s NAV (as reflected by the line “NAV”), and (iii) the closing levels of the Index (as reflected by the line “DBIQ Opt Yield Silver Index ER”). Whenever the Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income, if any, earned by the Fund exceeds Fund expenses, the price of the Shares generally exceeds the level of the Index primarily because the Share price reflects Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income, if any, from the Fund’s collateral holdings whereas the Index does not consider such income. There can be no assurance that the price of the Shares or the Fund’s NAV will exceed the Index levels.

No representation is being made that the Index will or is likely to achieve closing levels consistent with or similar to those set forth herein. Similarly, no representation is being made that the Fund will generate profits or losses similar to the Fund’s past performance or changes in the Index closing levels.

23


 

COMPARISON OF MARKET, NAV AND DBIQ OPT YIELD SILVER INDEX ER

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020 AND 2019

 

NEITHER THE PAST PERFORMANCE OF THE FUND NOR THE PRIOR INDEX LEVELS AND CHANGES,

POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE, SHOULD BE TAKEN AS AN INDICATION OF THE FUND’S FUTURE PERFORMANCE.

 

NEITHER THE PAST PERFORMANCE OF THE FUND NOR THE PRIOR INDEX LEVELS AND CHANGES,

POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE, SHOULD BE TAKEN AS AN INDICATION OF THE FUND’S FUTURE PERFORMANCE.

 

 

24


 

Performance Summary

This Report covers the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. For performance discussion related to the year ended December 31, 2018, see the annual report for the year ended December 31, 2018 available at http://www.invesco.com/ETFs.

Past performance of the Fund is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

The Index is intended to reflect the change in market value of the Index Commodity. In turn, the Index is intended to reflect the silver sector. The DBIQ Optimum Yield Silver Index Total Return™ (the “DBIQ-OY SI TR™”) consists of the Index plus 3-month United States Treasury Obligations returns. Past results of the Index and the DBIQ-OY SI TRTM are not necessarily indicative of future changes, positive or negative.

The section “Summary of the DBIQ-OY SI TR™ and Underlying Index Commodity Returns for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019” below provides an overview of the changes in the closing levels of DBIQ-OY SI TR™ by disclosing the change in market value of the underlying component Index Commodity through a “surrogate” (and analogous) index plus 3-month United States Treasury Obligations returns. Please note also that the Fund’s objective is to track the Index (not the DBIQ-OY SI TR™), and the Fund does not attempt to outperform or underperform the Index.  The Index employs the optimum yield roll method with the objective of mitigating the negative effects of contango, the condition in which distant delivery prices for futures exceed spot prices, and maximizing the positive effects of backwardation, a condition opposite of contango.

Summary of the DBIQ-OY SI TR™ and Underlying Index Commodity

Returns for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

Underlying Index

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

DB Silver Indices

 

 

45.49

%

 

 

13.65

%

          

          If the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income were to exceed the Fund’s fees and expenses, the aggregate return on an investment in the Fund would be expected to outperform the Index and underperform the DBIQ-OY SI TR™. The only difference between (i) the Index (the “Excess Return Index”) and (ii) the DBIQ-OY SI TR™ (the “Total Return Index”) is that the Excess Return Index does not include interest income from fixed income securities while the Total Return Index does include such a component. Thus, the difference between the Excess Return Index and the Total Return Index is attributable entirely to the interest income attributable to the fixed income securities reflected in the Total Return Index. The Total Return Index does not actually hold any fixed income securities. If the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income, if any, exceeds the Fund’s fees and expenses, then the amount of such excess is expected to be distributed periodically. The market price of the Shares is expected to closely track the Excess Return Index. The aggregate return on an investment in the Fund over any period is the sum of the capital appreciation or depreciation of the Shares over the period, plus the amount of any distributions during the period. Consequently, the Fund’s aggregate return is expected to outperform the Excess Return Index by the amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income over its fees and expenses. As a result of the Fund’s fees and expenses, however, the aggregate return on the Fund is expected to underperform the Total Return Index. If the Fund’s fees and expenses were to exceed the Fund’s Treasury Income, Money Market Income and T-Bill ETF Income, if any, the aggregate return on an investment in the Fund is expected to underperform the Excess Return Index.

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020 AND 2019

Fund Share Price Performance

For the year ended December 31, 2020, the NYSE Arca market value of each Share increased from $25.63 per Share to $37.38 per Share. The Share price high and low for the year ended December 31, 2020 and related change from the Share price on December 31, 2019 was as follows: Shares traded at a high of $41.82 per Share (+63.20%) on August 6, 2020 and a low of $17.21 per Share (-32.84%) on March 18, 2020. No distributions were paid to Shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2020. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a market value basis was +45.85%.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, the NYSE Arca market value of each Share increased from $23.03 per Share to $25.63 per Share. The Share price high and low for the year ended December 31, 2019 and related change from the Share price on December 31, 2018 was as follows: Shares traded at a high of $28.60 per Share (+24.19%) on September 4, 2019 and a low of $21.03 per Share (-8.69%) on May 28, 2019. On December 31, 2019, the Fund paid a distribution of $0.33358 for each General Share and Share to holders of record as of December 24, 2019. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a market value basis was +12.77%.

Fund Share Net Asset Performance

For the year ended December 31, 2020, the NAV of each Share increased from $25.66 per Share to $37.16 per Share. Rising prices of silver futures contracts during the year ended December 31, 2020 contributed to an overall 44.95% increase in the level of the Index and to a 45.49% increase in the level of the DBIQ-OY SI TR™. No distributions were paid to Shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2020. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a NAV basis was +44.82%.

25


 

Net income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $6.2 million, resulting from income of $0.1 million, net realized gain (loss) of $0.7 million, net change in unrealized gain (loss) of $5.5 million and net operating expenses of $0.1 million.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, the NAV of each Share increased from $23.05 per Share to $25.66 per Share. Rising prices of silver futures contracts during the year ended December 31, 2019 contributed to an overall 11.29% increase in the level of the Index and to a 13.65% increase in the level of the DBIQ-OY SI TR™. On December 31, 2019, the Fund paid a distribution of $0.33358 for each General Share and Share to holders of record as of December 24, 2019. Therefore, the total return for the Fund on a NAV basis was +12.81%.

Net income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $1.8 million, resulting from income of $0.3 million, net realized gain (loss) of $0.3 million, net change in unrealized gain (loss) of $1.2 million and net operating expenses of $0.1 million.

Critical Accounting Policies

The Fund’s critical accounting policies are as follows:

Preparation of the financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the application of appropriate accounting rules and guidance, as well as the use of estimates, and requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenue and expense and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities during the reporting period of the financial statements and accompanying notes. The Fund’s application of these policies involves judgments and actual results may differ from the estimates used. There were no significant estimates used in the preparation of these financial statements.

Commodity futures contracts, United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual funds are recorded on a trade date basis and at fair value in the financial statements, with changes in fair value, if any, reported in the Statements of Income and Expenses.

The use of fair value to measure financial instruments, with related unrealized gains or losses recognized in earnings in each period, is fundamental to the Fund’s financial statements. The fair value of a financial instrument is the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (the exit price).

United States Treasury Obligations are fair valued using an evaluated quote provided by an independent pricing service. Futures contracts are valued at the final settlement price set by an exchange on which they are principally traded. Investments in open-end and closed-end registered investment companies that do not trade on an exchange are valued at the end of day NAV per share. Investments in open-end and closed-end registered investment companies that trade on an exchange are valued at the last sales price or official closing price as of the close of the customary trading session on the exchange where the security is principally traded. Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification for fair value measurement and disclosure guidance requires a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The objective of a fair value measurement is to determine the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (an exit price). The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). Assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. See Note 6 within the financial statements in Item 8 for further information.

Securities for which market quotations are not readily available or became unreliable are valued at fair value as determined in good faith following procedures approved by the Managing Owner. Issuer-specific events, market trends, bid/asked quotes of brokers and information providers and other data may be reviewed in the course of making a good faith determination of a security's fair value.

Realized gains (losses) from the sale or disposition of securities or derivatives are determined on a specific identification basis and recognized in the Statements of Income and Expenses in the period in which the contract is closed or the sale or disposition occurs, respectively.

Interest income on United States Treasury Obligations is recognized on an accrual basis when earned. Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted over the life of the United States Treasury Obligations. Dividend income (net of withholding tax, if any) is recorded on the ex-dividend date.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Contractual Obligations

In the normal course of its business, the Fund is a party to financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk. The term “off-balance sheet risk” refers to an unrecorded potential liability that, even though it does not appear on the balance sheet, may result in a future obligation or loss. The financial instruments used by the Fund are commodity futures, the values of which are based upon an underlying asset and generally represent future commitments which have a reasonable possibility to be settled in cash or through physical delivery. The financial instruments are traded on an exchange and are standardized contracts.

26


 

The Fund has not utilized, nor does it expect to utilize in the future, special purpose entities to facilitate off-balance sheet financing arrangements and has no loan guarantee arrangements or off-balance sheet arrangements of any kind, other than agreements entered into in the normal course of business noted above, which may include indemnification provisions related to certain risks service providers undertake in providing services to the Fund. While the Fund’s exposure under such indemnification provisions cannot be estimated, these general business indemnifications are not expected to have a material impact on the Fund’s financial position. The Managing Owner expects the risk of loss relating to indemnification to be remote.

The Fund has financial obligations to the Managing Owner and the Commodity Broker under the Trust Agreement and its agreement with the Commodity Broker (the “Commodity Broker Agreement”), respectively. Management Fee payments made to the Managing Owner, pursuant to the Trust Agreement, are calculated as a fixed percentage of the Fund’s NAV. Commission payments to the Commodity Broker, pursuant to the Commodity Broker Agreement, are on a contract-by-contract, or round-turn, basis. As such, the Managing Owner cannot anticipate the amount of payments that will be required under these arrangements for future periods as NAVs and trading activity will not be known until a future date.  The Fund’s agreement with the Commodity Broker may be terminated by either party for various reasons. All Management Fees and commission payments are paid to the Managing Owner and the Commodity Broker, respectively.

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

INTRODUCTION

The Fund is designed to track the performance of the Index. The market sensitive instruments held by it are subject to the risk of trading loss. Unlike an operating company, the risk of market sensitive instruments is integral, not incidental, to the Fund’s main line of business.

Market movements can produce frequent changes in the fair market value of the Fund’s open positions and, consequently, in its earnings and cash flow. The Fund’s market risk is primarily influenced by changes in the prices of commodities.

Standard of Materiality

Materiality as used in this section, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” is based on an assessment of reasonably possible market movements and the potential losses caused by such movements, taking into account the effects of margin and any other multiplier features, as applicable, of the Fund’s market sensitive instruments.

QUANTIFYING THE FUND’S TRADING VALUE AT RISK

Quantitative Forward-Looking Statements

The following quantitative disclosures regarding the Fund’s market risk exposures contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor from civil liability provided for such statements by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act). All quantitative disclosures in this section are deemed to be forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor, except for statements of historical fact (such as the dollar amount of maintenance margin required for market risk sensitive instruments held at the end of the reporting period).

Value at Risk (“VaR”) is a statistical measure of the value of losses that would not be expected to be exceeded over a given time horizon and at a given probability level arising from movement of underlying risk factors. Loss is measured as a decline in the fair value of the portfolio as a result of changes in any of the material variables by which fair values are determined. VaR is measured over a specified holding period (one day) and to a specified level of statistical confidence (99th percentile). However, the inherent uncertainty in the markets in which the Fund trades and the recurrence in the markets traded by the Fund of market movements far exceeding expectations could result in actual trading or non-trading losses far beyond the indicated VaR or the Fund’s experience to date (i.e., “risk of ruin”). In light of these considerations, as well as the risks and uncertainties intrinsic to all future projections, the following VaR presentation does not constitute any assurance or representation that the Fund’s losses in any market sector will be limited to VaR.

THE FUND’S TRADING VALUE AT RISK

The Fund calculates VaR using the actual historical market movements of the Fund’s net assets.

The following table indicates the trading VaR associated with the Fund’s net assets as of December 31, 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2020

 

Description

 

Net Assets

 

 

Daily Volatility

 

 

VaR*

(99 Percentile)

 

 

Number of times

VaR Exceeded

 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

 

$

26,017,590

 

 

 

2.41

%

 

$

1,458,840

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

27


 

The following table indicates the trading VaR associated with the Fund’s net assets as of December 31, 2019.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

Description

 

Net Assets

 

 

Daily Volatility

 

 

VaR*

(99 Percentile)

 

 

Number of times

VaR Exceeded

 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

 

$

15,394,294

 

 

 

1.01

%

 

$

362,480

 

 

 

13

 

  

*

The VaR represents the one day downside risk, under normal market conditions, with a 99% confidence level. It is calculated using historical market moves of the Fund’s net assets and uses a one year look-back.

THE FUND’S NON-TRADING MARKET RISK

The Fund has non-trading market risk as a result of investing in short-term United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual funds. The market risk represented by these investments is not expected to be material.  Although the Fund purchases and sells shares of T-Bill ETFs on an exchange, it does not establish or liquidate those positions for trading purposes.

QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES REGARDING PRIMARY TRADING MARKET RISK EXPOSURES

The following qualitative disclosures regarding the Fund’s market risk exposures—except for those disclosures that are statements of historical fact—constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. The Fund’s primary market risk exposures are subject to numerous uncertainties, contingencies and risks. Government interventions, defaults and expropriations, illiquid markets, the emergence of dominant fundamental factors, political upheavals, changes in historical price relationships, an influx of new market participants, increased regulation and many other factors could result in material losses as well as in material changes to the risk exposures of the Fund. The Fund’s current market exposure may change materially. Investors may lose all or substantially all of their investment in the Fund.

The following were the primary trading risk exposures of the Fund as of December 31, 2020:

Silver

The price of silver is volatile and is affected by numerous factors. The largest industrial users of silver (e.g., photographic, jewelry, and electronic industries) may influence its price. A change in economic conditions, such as a recession, can adversely affect industries which are significant users of silver. In turn, such a negative economic impact may decrease demand for silver, and, consequently, its price. Worldwide speculation and hedging activity by silver producers may also impact its price.

QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES REGARDING NON-TRADING MARKET RISK EXPOSURE

As noted above, the Fund has non-trading market risk as a result of investing in short-term United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual funds. The market risk represented by these investments is not expected to be material.

QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES REGARDING MEANS OF MANAGING RISK EXPOSURE

Under ordinary circumstances, the Managing Owner’s exercise of discretionary power is limited to determining whether the Fund will make a distribution. Under emergency or extraordinary circumstances, the Managing Owner’s use of its discretionary powers may increase. These special circumstances, for example, include the unavailability of the Index or certain natural or manmade disasters. The Managing Owner does not actively manage the Fund to avoid losses. The Fund only takes long positions in investments and does not employ “stop-loss” techniques.

28


 

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Index to Financial Statements

 

 

29


 

REPORT OF MANAGEMENT ON INTERNAL CONTROL

OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

Management of Invesco Capital Management LLC, as managing owner (the “Managing Owner”) of Invesco DB Silver Fund (the “Fund”), is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

We, Anna Paglia, Principal Executive Officer, and Kelli Gallegos, Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, Investment Pools, of the Managing Owner, assessed the effectiveness of the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. In making this assessment, we used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013). Based on our assessment and those criteria, we have concluded that the Fund maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020.

The Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, has audited the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, as stated in their report on page 31 of the Fund’s Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

By:

 

               /S/      ANNA PAGLIA

Name:

 

Anna Paglia

Title:

 

Principal Executive Officer  

 

 

By:

 

/S/   KELLI GALLEGOS        

Name:

 

Kelli Gallegos

Title:

 

Principal Financial and Accounting

Officer, Investment Pools

 

 

February 25, 2021

30


 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To the Board of Managers of Invesco Capital Management LLC (as Managing Owner of Invesco DB Multi-Sector Commodity Trust) and Shareholders of Invesco DB Silver Fund

 

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

We have audited the accompanying statements of financial condition, including the schedules of investments, of Invesco DB Silver Fund (one of the funds constituting Invesco DB Multi-Sector Commodity Trust, hereafter referred to as the “Fund”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related statements of income and expenses, of changes in shareholders’ equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). We also have audited the Fund's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  

 

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Fund as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Fund maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

 

Basis for Opinions

 

The Fund's management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Fund’s financial statements and on the Fund's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Fund in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  

 

Our audits of the financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

 

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

 

31


 

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

 

Critical Audit Matters

 

Critical audit matters are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. We determined there are no critical audit matters.

 

 

 

 

 

/s/PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Chicago, Illinois

February 25, 2021

 

We have served as the Fund’s auditor since 2013.

 

 

32


 

 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Statements of Financial Condition

December 31, 2020 and 2019

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States Treasury Obligations, at value (cost $11,997,570 and $10,982,424, respectively)

 

$

11,998,090

 

 

$

10,984,118

 

Affiliated investments, at value and cost

 

 

13,839,876

 

 

 

4,434,970

 

Cash held by custodian

 

 

351,645

 

 

 

49,590

 

Receivable for:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividends from affiliates

 

 

224

 

 

 

3,148

 

Brokerage commissions and fees

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

Total assets

 

$

26,189,835

 

 

$

15,471,832

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variation margin payable- Commodity Futures Contracts

 

$

157,600

 

 

$

68,400

 

Payable for:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management fees

 

 

14,645

 

 

 

9,138

 

Total liabilities

 

 

172,245

 

 

 

77,538

 

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shareholder's equity—General Shares

 

 

1,487

 

 

 

1,026

 

Shareholders' equity—Shares

 

 

26,016,103

 

 

 

15,393,268

 

Total shareholders' equity

 

 

26,017,590

 

 

 

15,394,294

 

Total liabilities and equity

 

$

26,189,835

 

 

$

15,471,832

 

General Shares outstanding

 

 

40

 

 

 

40

 

Shares outstanding

 

 

700,000

 

 

 

600,000

 

Net asset value per share

 

$

37.17

 

 

$

25.66

 

Market value per share

 

$

37.38

 

 

$

25.63

 

 

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

 

33


 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Schedule of Investments

December 31, 2020

 

Description

 

Percentage  of

Shareholders'

Equity

 

 

Value

 

 

Principal Value

 

United States Treasury Obligations (a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. Treasury Bills, 0.090% due March 25, 2021 (b)

 

 

19.22

%

 

$

4,999,278

 

 

$

5,000,000

 

U.S. Treasury Bills, 0.090% due April 8, 2021 (b)

 

 

26.90

 

 

 

6,998,812

 

 

 

7,000,000

 

Total United States Treasury Obligations (cost $11,997,570)

 

 

46.12

%

 

$

11,998,090

 

 

 

 

 

Affiliated Investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money Market Mutual Fund

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

Invesco Government & Agency Portfolio,

  Institutional Class, 0.03% (cost $13,839,876)(c)(d)

 

 

53.19

%

 

$

13,839,876

 

 

 

13,839,876

 

Total Investments in Securities (cost $25,837,446)

 

 

99.31

%

 

$

25,837,966

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a)

Security may be traded on a discount basis. The interest rate shown represents the discount rate at the most recent auction date of the security prior to period end.

(b)

United States Treasury Obligations of $8,997,800 are on deposit with the Commodity Broker and held as maintenance margin for open futures contracts.

(c)           Affiliated issuer. The issuer and/or the Fund is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Invesco Ltd., or is affiliated by having an investment adviser that is under common control of Invesco Ltd. See Note 8.

(d)

The rate shown is the 7-day SEC standardized yield as of December 31, 2020.

 

Open Commodity Futures Contracts

 

Number of Contracts

 

 

Expiration Date

 

Notional

Value

 

 

Value(e)

 

 

Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)(e)

 

Long Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMEX Silver

 

 

197

 

 

May-2021

 

$

26,075,905

 

 

$

7,522,894

 

 

$

7,522,894

 

 

(e)

Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation) and Value are presented above, net by contract.

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

34


 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Schedule of Investments

December 31, 2019

 

Description

 

Percentage  of

Shareholders'

Equity

 

 

Value

 

 

Principal Value

 

United States Treasury Obligations (a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. Treasury Bills, 1.520% due February 6, 2020 (b)

 

 

71.35

%

 

$

10,984,118

 

 

$

11,000,000

 

Total United States Treasury Obligations (cost $10,982,424)

 

 

71.35

%

 

$

10,984,118

 

 

 

 

 

Affiliated Investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money Market Mutual Fund

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

Invesco Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio,

  Institutional Class, 1.47% (cost $4,434,970)(c)(d)

 

 

28.81

%

 

$

4,434,970

 

 

 

4,434,970

 

Total Investments in Securities (cost $15,417,394)

 

 

100.16

%

 

$

15,419,088

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a)

Security may be traded on a discount basis. The interest rate shown represents the discount rate at the most recent auction date of the security prior to period end.

(b)

United States Treasury Obligations of $2,995,500 are on deposit with the Commodity Broker and held as maintenance margin for open futures contracts.

(c)       Affiliated issuer. The issuer and/or the Fund is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Invesco Ltd., or is affiliated by having an investment adviser that is under common control of Invesco Ltd. See Note 8.

(d)

The rate shown is the 7-day SEC standardized yield as of December 31, 2019.

 

Open Commodity Futures Contracts

 

Number of Contracts

 

Expiration Date

 

Notional

Value

 

 

Value(e)

 

 

Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)(e)

 

Long Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMEX Silver

 

171

 

May-2020

 

$

15,397,695

 

 

$

2,004,462

 

 

$

2,004,462

 

 

(e)

Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation) and Value are presented above, net by contract.

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

 

35


 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Statements of Income and Expenses

For the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest Income

 

$

62,429

 

 

$

256,071

 

 

$

314,568

 

Dividends from Affiliates

 

 

21,085

 

 

 

49,044

 

 

 

22,443

 

Total Income

 

 

83,514

 

 

 

305,115

 

 

 

337,011

 

Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management Fees

 

 

148,000

 

 

 

107,025

 

 

 

141,167

 

Brokerage Commissions and Fees

 

 

1,230

 

 

 

1,008

 

 

 

1,567

 

Interest Expense

 

 

1,167

 

 

 

1,417

 

 

 

2,348

 

Total Expenses

 

 

150,397

 

 

 

109,450

 

 

 

145,082

 

Less: Waivers

 

 

(13,561

)

 

 

(4,325

)

 

 

(2,348

)

Net Expenses

 

 

136,836

 

 

 

105,125

 

 

 

142,734

 

Net Investment Income (Loss)

 

 

(53,322

)

 

 

199,990

 

 

 

194,277

 

Net Realized and Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss) on United States Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Realized Gain (Loss) on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States Treasury Obligations

 

 

579

 

 

 

673

 

 

 

(241

)

Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

726,024

 

 

 

340,449

 

 

 

(3,613,896

)

Net Realized Gain (Loss)

 

 

726,603

 

 

 

341,122

 

 

 

(3,614,137

)

Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss) on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States Treasury Obligations

 

 

(1,174

)

 

 

1,385

 

 

 

460

 

Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

5,518,432

 

 

 

1,223,352

 

 

 

735,741

 

Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss)

 

 

5,517,258

 

 

 

1,224,737

 

 

 

736,201

 

Net Realized and Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss) on United States Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

6,243,861

 

 

 

1,565,859

 

 

 

(2,877,936

)

Net Income (Loss)

 

$

6,190,539

 

 

$

1,765,849

 

 

$

(2,683,659

)

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


36


 

 

 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity

For the Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

 

 

General Shares

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

Equity

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

Equity

 

 

Shareholders'

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2019

 

 

40

 

 

$

1,026

 

 

 

600,000

 

 

$

15,393,268

 

 

$

15,394,294

 

Purchases of Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

200,000

 

 

 

7,822,033

 

 

 

7,822,033

 

Redemption of Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(100,000

)

 

 

(3,389,276

)

 

 

(3,389,276

)

Net Increase (Decrease) due to Share Transactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100,000

 

 

 

4,432,757

 

 

 

4,432,757

 

Net Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Investment Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(53,318

)

 

 

(53,322

)

Net Realized Gain (Loss) on United States Treasury

   Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

726,549

 

 

 

726,603

 

Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss) on United States

   Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

411

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,516,847

 

 

 

5,517,258

 

Net Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

461

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,190,078

 

 

 

6,190,539

 

Net Change in Shareholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

461

 

 

 

100,000

 

 

 

10,622,835

 

 

 

10,623,296

 

Balance at December 31, 2020

 

 

40

 

 

$

1,487

 

 

 

700,000

 

 

$

26,016,103

 

 

$

26,017,590

 

 

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.


37


 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity

For the Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

 

 

General Shares

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

Equity

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

Equity

 

 

Shareholders'

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2018

 

 

40

 

 

$

922

 

 

 

600,000

 

 

$

13,827,684

 

 

$

13,828,606

 

Purchases of Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Redemption of Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Increase (Decrease) due to Share Transactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Return of Capital Distributions

 

 

 

 

 

(13

)

 

 

 

 

 

(200,148

)

 

 

(200,161

)

Net Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Investment Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

199,977

 

 

 

199,990

 

Net Realized Gain (Loss) on United States Treasury

   Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

341,099

 

 

 

341,122

 

Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss) on United States

   Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

81

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,224,656

 

 

 

1,224,737

 

Net Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

117

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,765,732

 

 

 

1,765,849

 

Net Change in Shareholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

104

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,565,584

 

 

 

1,565,688

 

Balance at December 31, 2019

 

 

40

 

 

$

1,026

 

 

 

600,000

 

 

$

15,393,268

 

 

$

15,394,294

 

 

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.


38


 

 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity

For the Year Ended December 31, 2018

 

 

 

General Shares

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

Equity

 

 

Shares

 

 

Total

Equity

 

 

Shareholders'

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2017

 

 

40

 

 

$

1,049

 

 

 

800,000

 

 

$

20,984,698

 

 

$

20,985,747

 

Redemption of Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(200,000

)

 

 

(4,279,159

)

 

 

(4,279,159

)

Net Increase (Decrease) due to Share Transactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(200,000

)

 

 

(4,279,159

)

 

 

(4,279,159

)

Return of Capital Distributions

 

 

 

 

 

 

(13

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(194,310

)

 

 

(194,323

)

Net Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Investment Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

194,264

 

 

 

194,277

 

Net Realized Gain (Loss) on United States Treasury

   Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

(171

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3,613,966

)

 

 

(3,614,137

)

Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss) on United States

   Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

 

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

736,157

 

 

 

736,201

 

Net Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(114

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2,683,545

)

 

 

(2,683,659

)

Net Change in Shareholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

(127

)

 

 

(200,000

)

 

 

(7,157,014

)

 

 

(7,157,141

)

Balance at December 31, 2018

 

 

40

 

 

$

922

 

 

 

600,000

 

 

$

13,827,684

 

 

$

13,828,606

 

 

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

 

 


39


 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Statements of Cash Flows

For the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Income (Loss)

 

$

6,190,539

 

 

$

1,765,849

 

 

$

(2,683,659

)

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by

   (used in) operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of securities purchased

 

 

(42,951,997

)

 

 

(42,776,519

)

 

 

(43,690,426

)

Proceeds from securities sold and matured

 

 

41,999,510

 

 

 

42,043,811

 

 

 

51,989,031

 

Cost of affiliated investments purchased

 

 

(85,861,938

)

 

 

(51,266,245

)

 

 

(29,744,691

)

Proceeds from affiliated investments sold

 

 

76,457,032

 

 

 

50,660,726

 

 

 

28,476,400

 

Net accretion of discount on United States Treasury Obligations

 

 

(62,080

)

 

 

(253,675

)

 

 

(312,928

)

Net realized (gain) loss on United States Treasury Obligations and

   Affiliated Investments

 

 

(579

)

 

 

(673

)

 

 

241

 

Net change in unrealized (gain) loss on United States Treasury

   Obligations and Affiliated Investments

 

 

1,174

 

 

 

(1,385

)

 

 

(460

)

Change in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variation margin - Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

89,200

 

 

 

160,800

 

 

 

176,400

 

Dividends from affiliates

 

 

2,924

 

 

 

2,324

 

 

 

(4,139

)

Management fees

 

 

5,507

 

 

 

827

 

 

 

(4,145

)

Brokerage commissions and fees

 

 

6

 

 

 

(6

)

 

 

 

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

 

 

(4,130,702

)

 

 

335,834

 

 

 

4,201,624

 

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Distributions paid to shareholders

 

 

 

 

 

(200,161

)

 

 

(194,323

)

Proceeds from purchases of Shares

 

 

7,822,033

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Redemption of Shares

 

 

(3,389,276

)

 

 

 

 

 

(4,279,159

)

Increase (decrease) in payable for amount due to custodian

 

 

 

 

 

(86,083

)

 

 

86,083

 

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

 

 

4,432,757

 

 

 

(286,244

)

 

 

(4,387,399

)

Net change in cash

 

 

302,055

 

 

 

49,590

 

 

 

(185,775

)

Cash at beginning of period

 

 

49,590

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

185,775

 

Cash at end of period

 

$

351,645

 

 

$

49,590

 

 

$

0

 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for interest

 

$

1,167

 

 

$

1,417

 

 

$

2,348

 

 

 

See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements which are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

 


40


 

Invesco DB Silver Fund

Notes to Financial Statements

December 31, 2020

Note 1 - Organization

Invesco DB Silver Fund (the “Fund”), a separate series of Invesco DB Multi-Sector Commodity Trust (the “Trust”), a Delaware statutory trust organized in 7 separate series, was formed on August 3, 2006. The term of the Fund is perpetual (unless terminated earlier in certain circumstances) as provided for in the Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement of the Trust, as amended (the “Trust Agreement”). The Fund has an unlimited number of shares authorized for issuance.

Invesco Capital Management LLC (“Invesco”) has served as the managing owner (the “Managing Owner”), commodity pool operator and commodity trading advisor of the Trust and the Fund, since February 23, 2015. The Managing Owner holds 40 general shares (the “General Shares”) of the Fund. The fiscal year end of the Fund is December 31st.  

The Fund seeks to track changes, whether positive or negative, in the level of the DBIQ Optimum Yield Silver Index Excess Return™ (the “Index”) over time, plus the excess, if any, of the sum of the Fund’s interest income from its holdings of United States Treasury Obligations (“Treasury Income”), dividends from its holdings in money market mutual funds (affiliated or otherwise) (“Money Market Income”) and dividends or distributions of capital gains from its holdings of T-Bill ETFs (as defined below) (“T-Bill ETF Income”) over the expenses of the Fund. The Fund invests in futures contracts in an attempt to track its Index. The Index is intended to reflect the change in market value of the silver sector. Silver (the “Index Commodity”) is the single commodity comprising the Index.

The Fund may invest directly in United States Treasury Obligations. The Fund may also gain exposure to United States Treasury Obligations through investments in exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) (affiliated or otherwise) that track indexes that measure the performance of United States Treasury Obligations with a maximum remaining maturity of up to 12 months (“T-Bill ETFs”) The Fund holds as collateral United States Treasury Obligations, money market mutual funds and T-Bill ETFs (affiliated or otherwise), if any, for margin and/or cash management purposes. While the Fund's performance reflects the appreciation and depreciation of those holdings, the Fund's performance, whether positive or negative, is driven primarily by its strategy of trading futures contracts with the aim of seeking to track the Index.

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) and certain futures exchanges impose position limits on futures contracts that reference the Index Commodity (the “Index Contracts”).  

The Managing Owner may determine to invest in other futures contracts if at any time it is impractical or inefficient to gain full or partial exposure to the Index Commodity through the use of Index Contracts.  These other futures contracts may or may not be based on the Index Commodity.  When they are not, the Managing Owner may seek to select futures contracts that it reasonably believes tend to exhibit trading prices that correlate with an Index Contract.

The Fund offers common units of beneficial interest (the “Shares”) only to certain eligible financial institutions (the “Authorized Participants”) in 1 or more blocks of 100,000 Shares (“Creation Units”). The Fund commenced investment operations on January 3, 2007. The Fund commenced trading on the American Stock Exchange (which became the NYSE Alternext US LLC) on January 5, 2007 and, since November 25, 2008, has been listed on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “NYSE Arca”).

This Annual Report (the “Annual Report”) covers the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. Past performance of the Fund is not necessarily indicative of future performance. 

Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

A.  Basis of Presentation

The financial statements of the Fund have been prepared using accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).

The Fund has determined that it meets the definition of an investment company and has prepared the financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP for investment companies in conformity with accounting and reporting guidance of the Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 946, Financial ServicesInvestment Companies.

B.  Accounting Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates by a significant amount. In addition, the Fund monitors for material events or transactions that may occur or become known after the period-end date and before the date the financial statements are issued.

41


 

C.  Investment Valuations

Investments in open-end and closed-end registered investment companies that do not trade on an exchange are valued at the end-of-day net asset value (“NAV”) per share. Investments in open-end and closed-end registered investment companies that trade on an exchange are valued at the last sales price or official closing price as of the close of the customary trading session on the exchange where the security is principally traded.

United States Treasury Obligations are fair valued using an evaluated quote provided by an independent pricing service. Evaluated quotes provided by the pricing service may be determined without exclusive reliance on quoted prices, and may reflect appropriate factors such as developments related to specific securities, yield, quality, type of issue, coupon rate, maturity, individual trading characteristics and other market data. All debt obligations involve some risk of default with respect to interest and/or principal payments.

Futures contracts are valued at the final settlement price set by an exchange on which they are principally traded.

Securities for which market quotations are not readily available or became unreliable are valued at fair value as determined in good faith following procedures approved by the Managing Owner.  Issuer-specific events, market trends, bid/asked quotes of brokers and information providers and other data may be reviewed in the course of making a good faith determination of a security’s fair value.

          Valuations change in response to many factors including the historical and prospective earnings of the issuer, the value of the

issuer’s assets, general market conditions which are not specifically related to the particular issuer, such as real or perceived adverse

economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for revenues, changes in interest or currency rates, regional or global instability,

natural or environmental disasters, widespread disease or other public health issues, war, acts of terrorism or adverse investor

sentiment generally and market liquidity. Because of the inherent uncertainties of valuation, the values reflected in the financial statements may materially differ from the value received upon actual sale of those investments.

D.  Investment Transactions and Investment Income

Investment transactions are accounted for on a trade date basis. Realized gains or losses from the sale or disposition of securities or derivatives are determined on a specific identification basis and recognized in the Statements of Income and Expenses in the period in which the contract is closed or the sale or disposition occurs, respectively. Interest income on United States Treasury Obligations is recognized on an accrual basis when earned. Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted over the life of the United States Treasury Obligations. Dividend income (net of withholding tax, if any) is recorded on the ex-dividend date.

E.  Profit and Loss Allocations and Distributions

Pursuant to the Trust Agreement, income and expenses are allocated pro rata to the Managing Owner as holder of the General Shares and to the Shareholders monthly based on their respective percentage interests as of the close of the last trading day of the preceding month. Distributions (other than redemption of units) may be made at the sole discretion of the Managing Owner on a pro rata basis in accordance with the respective capital balances of the shareholders.

 

          The Managing Owner has sole discretion in determining what distributions, if any, the Fund will make to Shareholders. NaN distributions were paid for the year ended December 31, 2020.       

The table below shows distributions per General Share and Share and in total for the years presented:

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Distributions per General Share

 

$

 

 

$

0.33358

 

 

$

0.32385

 

Distributions per Share

 

$

 

 

$

0.33358

 

 

$

0.32385

 

Distributions paid to General Shares

 

$

 

 

$

13

 

 

$

13

 

Distributions paid to Shares

 

$

 

 

$

200,148

 

 

$

194,310

 

 

F.  Routine Operational, Administrative and Other Ordinary Expenses

The Managing Owner is responsible for all routine operational, administrative and other ordinary expenses of the Fund, including, but not limited to, computer services, the fees and expenses of the Trustee, legal and accounting fees and expenses, tax preparation expenses, filing fees and printing, mailing and duplication costs. The Fund does not reimburse the Managing Owner for the routine operational, administrative and other ordinary expenses of the Fund. Accordingly, such expenses are not reflected in the Statements of Income and Expenses of the Fund.

G.  Non-Recurring Fees and Expenses

The Fund pays all non-recurring and unusual fees and expenses, if any, of itself, as determined by the Managing Owner. Non-recurring and unusual fees and expenses include fees and expenses, such as legal claims and liabilities, litigation costs,

42


 

indemnification expenses or other non-routine expenses. Non-recurring and unusual fees and expenses, by their nature, are unpredictable in terms of timing and amount. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Fund did not incur such expenses.

H.  Brokerage Commissions and Fees

The Fund incurs all brokerage commissions, including applicable exchange fees, National Futures Association (“NFA”) fees, give-up fees, pit brokerage fees and other transaction related fees and expenses charged in connection with trading activities by the Commodity Broker (as defined below). These costs are recorded as Brokerage Commissions and Fees in the Statements of Income and Expenses. The Commodity Broker’s brokerage commissions and trading fees are determined on a contract-by-contract basis. On average, total charges paid to the Commodity Broker, as applicable were less than $6.00, $6.00 and $6.00 per round-turn trade during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

I.   Income Taxes

The Fund is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, the Fund will generally not incur U.S. federal income taxes. No provision for federal, state, and local income taxes has been made in the accompanying financial statements, as investors are individually liable for income taxes, if any, on their allocable share of the Fund’s income, gain, loss, deductions and other items.

The Managing Owner has reviewed all of the Fund’s open tax years and major jurisdictions and concluded that there is no tax liability resulting from unrecognized tax benefits relating to uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in future tax returns. The Fund is also not aware of any tax positions for which it is reasonably possible that the total amounts of unrecognized tax benefits will significantly change in the next twelve months. The major tax jurisdiction for the Fund and the earliest tax year subject to examination: United States, 2017.

J.  Commodity Futures Contracts

The Fund utilizes derivative instruments to achieve its investment objective. A commodity futures contract is an agreement between counterparties to purchase or sell a specified underlying commodity for a specified price, or to pay or receive a cash amount based on the value of an index or other reference instrument, at a future date. Initial margin deposits required upon entering into futures contracts are satisfied by the segregation of specific securities or cash as collateral with the Commodity Broker. During the period that the commodity futures contracts are open, changes in the value of the contracts are recognized as unrealized gains or losses by recalculating the value of the contracts on a daily basis. Subsequent or variation margin payments are received or made depending upon whether unrealized gains or losses are incurred. These amounts are reflected as a receivable or payable on the Statements of Financial Condition. When the contracts are closed or expire, the Fund recognizes a realized gain or loss equal to the difference between the proceeds from, or cost of, the closing transaction and the Fund’s basis in the contract. Realized gains (losses) and changes in unrealized appreciation (depreciation) on open positions are determined on a specific identification basis and recognized in the Statements of Income and Expenses in the period in which the contract is closed or the changes occur, respectively.

Note 3 - Financial Instrument Risk

In the normal course of its business, the Fund is a party to financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk. The term “off-balance sheet risk” refers to an unrecorded potential liability that, even though it does not appear on the balance sheet, may result in a future obligation or loss in excess of the amounts shown on the Statements of Financial Condition. The financial instruments used by the Fund are commodity futures contracts, the values of which are based upon an underlying asset and generally represent future commitments that have a reasonable possibility of being settled in cash or through physical delivery. The financial instruments are traded on an exchange and are standardized contracts.

Market risk is the potential for changes in the value of the financial instruments traded by the Fund due to market changes, including fluctuations in commodity prices. In entering into these futures contracts, there exists a market risk that such futures contracts may be significantly influenced by adverse market conditions, resulting in such futures contracts being less valuable. If the markets should move against all of the futures contracts at the same time, the Fund could experience substantial losses.

Credit risk is the possibility that a loss may occur due to the failure of the Commodity Broker and/or clearing house to perform according to the terms of a futures contract. Credit risk with respect to exchange-traded instruments is reduced to the extent that an exchange or clearing organization acts as a counterparty to the transactions. The Commodity Broker, when acting as the Fund’s futures commission merchant in accepting orders for the purchase or sale of domestic futures contracts, is required by CFTC regulations to separately account for and segregate as belonging to the Fund all assets of the Fund relating to domestic futures trading. The Commodity Broker is not allowed to commingle such assets with other assets of the Commodity Broker. In addition, CFTC regulations also require the Commodity Broker to hold in a secure account assets of the Fund related to foreign futures trading. The Fund’s risk of loss in the event of counterparty default is typically limited to the amounts recognized in the Statements of Financial Condition and not represented by the futures contract or notional amounts of the instruments.

43


 

The Fund has not utilized, nor does it expect to utilize in the future, special purpose entities to facilitate off-balance sheet financing arrangements and has no loan guarantee arrangements or off-balance sheet arrangements of any kind, other than agreements entered into in the normal course of business noted above.

Note 4 – Service Providers and Related Party Agreements

The Trustee

Under the Trust Agreement, Wilmington Trust Company, the trustee of the Trust and the Fund (the “Trustee”), has the power and authority to execute and file certificates as required by the Delaware Statutory Trust Act and to accept service of process on the Fund in the State of Delaware. The Managing Owner has the exclusive management and control of all aspects of the business of the Trust and the Fund. The Trustee will serve in that capacity until such time as the Managing Owner removes the Trustee or the Trustee resigns and a successor is appointed by the Managing Owner. The Trustee will have no duty or liability to supervise or monitor the performance of the Managing Owner, nor will the Trustee have any liability for the acts or omissions of the Managing Owner.

The Managing Owner

The Managing Owner serves as the Fund’s commodity pool operator, commodity trading advisor and managing owner. The Fund pays the Managing Owner a management fee, monthly in arrears, in an amount equal to 0.75% per annum of the daily NAV of the Fund (the “Management Fee”). The Fund, for cash management purposes, invests in money market mutual funds and/or T-Bill ETFs that are managed by affiliates of the Managing Owner. The indirect portion of the management fee that the Fund incurs through such investments is in addition to the Management Fee paid to the Managing Owner. The Managing Owner has contractually agreed to waive indefinitely the fees that it receives in an amount equal to the indirect management fees that the Fund incurs through its investments in affiliated money market mutual funds and/or affiliated T-Bill ETFs. The Managing Owner may terminate this fee waiver on 60 days notice.

The Managing Owner waived fees of $13,561, $4,325 and $2,348 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

The Distributor

Invesco Distributors, Inc. (the “Distributor”) provides certain distribution services to the Fund. Pursuant to the Distribution Services Agreement among the Managing Owner, the Fund and the Distributor, the Distributor assists the Managing Owner and the Fund’s administrator, The Bank of New York Mellon, with certain functions and duties relating to distribution and marketing services to the Fund including reviewing and approving marketing materials.

The Managing Owner pays the Distributor a distribution fee out of the Management Fee.

The Commodity Broker

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, serves as the Fund’s futures clearing broker (the “Commodity Broker”). The Commodity Broker is registered with the CFTC as a futures commission merchant and is a member of the NFA in such capacity.  

A variety of executing brokers execute futures transactions on behalf of the Fund. Such executing brokers give-up all such transactions to the Commodity Broker. In its capacity as clearing broker, the Commodity Broker may execute or receive transactions executed by others and clears all of the Fund’s futures transactions and performs certain administrative and custodial services for the Fund. The Commodity Broker is responsible, among other things, for providing periodic accountings of all dealings and actions taken by the Trust on behalf of the Fund during the reporting period, together with an accounting of all securities, cash or other indebtedness or obligations held by it or its nominees for or on behalf of the Fund.

The Administrator, Custodian and Transfer Agent

The Bank of New York Mellon (the “Administrator”, “Custodian” and “Transfer Agent”) is the administrator, custodian and transfer agent of the Fund. The Fund and the Administrator have entered into separate administrative and accounting, custodian, transfer agency and service agreements (collectively referred to as the “Administration Agreement”).

Pursuant to the Administration Agreement, the Administrator performs or supervises the performance of services necessary for the operation and administration of the Fund (other than making investment decisions), including receiving and processing orders from Authorized Participants to create and redeem Creation Units, NAV calculations, accounting and other fund administrative services. The Administrator maintains certain financial books and records, including: Creation Unit creation and redemption records; fund accounting records; ledgers with respect to assets, liabilities, capital, income and expenses; the registrar, transfer journals and related details; and trading and related documents received from the Commodity Broker. The Managing Owner pays the Administrator for its services out of the Management Fee.

44


 

Index Sponsor

The Managing Owner, on behalf of the Fund, appointed DWS Investment Management Americas, Inc. (“DIMA”) to serve as the index sponsor (the “Index Sponsor”) for periods prior to January 31, 2021. On February 1, 2021, the provision of index sponsor services transferred back to Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. from DIMA, to whom Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. had previously assigned such responsibility. The Index Sponsor calculates and publishes the daily index levels and the indicative intraday index levels. Additionally, the Index Sponsor also calculates the indicative value per Share of the Fund throughout each business day.

The Managing Owner pays the Index Sponsor a licensing fee and an index services fee out of the Management Fee for performing its duties.

Note 5 - Deposits with Commodity Broker and Custodian

The Fund defines cash as cash held by the Custodian.  There were 0 cash equivalents held by the Fund as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.

The Fund may deposit cash, United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual funds with the Commodity Broker as margin, to the extent permissible under CFTC rules. The combination of the Fund’s deposits with its Commodity Broker of cash and United States Treasury Obligations and the unrealized profit or loss on open futures contracts represents the Fund’s overall equity in its broker trading account. To meet the Fund’s maintenance margin requirements, the Fund holds United States Treasury Obligations with the Commodity Broker. The Fund transfers cash to the Commodity Broker to satisfy variation margin requirements. The Fund earns interest on any excess cash deposited with the Commodity Broker and incurs interest expense on any deficit balance with the Commodity Broker.

The brokerage agreement with the Commodity Broker provides for the net settlement of all financial instruments covered by the agreement in the event of default or termination of any one contract. The Managing Owner will utilize any excess cash held at the Commodity Broker to offset any realized losses incurred in the commodity futures contracts, if available. To the extent that any excess cash held at the Commodity Broker is not adequate to cover any realized losses, a portion of the United States Treasury Obligations and T-Bill ETFs, if any, on deposit with the Commodity Broker will be sold to make additional cash available. For financial reporting purposes, the Fund offsets financial assets and financial liabilities that are subject to legally enforceable netting arrangements.

The Fund’s remaining cash, United States Treasury Obligations, T-Bill ETFs and money market mutual fund holdings are on deposit with the Custodian. The Fund is permitted to temporarily carry a negative or overdrawn balance in its account with the Custodian. The Fund incurs interest expense on any overdraft balance with the Custodian. Such balances, if any at period-end, are shown on the Statements of Financial Condition under the payable caption Due to custodian.

Note 6 - Additional Valuation Information

U.S. GAAP defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, under current market conditions.  U.S. GAAP establishes a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation methods, giving the highest priority to readily available unadjusted quoted prices in an active market for identical assets (Level 1) and the lowest priority to significant unobservable inputs (Level 3), generally when market prices are not readily available or are unreliable. Based on the valuation inputs, the securities or other investments are tiered into one of three levels. Changes in valuation methods or market conditions may result in transfers in or out of an investment’s assigned level:

Level 1: Prices are determined using quoted prices in an active market for identical assets.

Level 2: Prices are determined using other significant observable inputs. Observable inputs are inputs that other market participants may use in pricing a security. These may include quoted prices for similar securities, interest rates, prepayment speeds, credit risk, yield curves, loss severities, default rates, discount rates, volatilities and others.

Level 3: Prices are determined using significant unobservable inputs. In situations where quoted prices or observable inputs are unavailable (for example, when there is little or no market activity for an investment at the end of the period), unobservable inputs may be used. Unobservable inputs reflect the Fund’s own assumptions about the factors market participants would use in determining fair value of the securities or instruments and would be based on the best available information.

The levels assigned to the securities valuations may not be an indication of the risk or liquidity associated with investing in those securities. Because of the inherent uncertainties of valuation, the values reflected in the financial statements may materially differ from the value received upon actual sale of those investments.

45


 

The following is a summary of the tiered valuation input levels as of December 31, 2020:

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Investments in Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States Treasury Obligations

 

$

 

 

$

11,998,090

 

 

$

 

 

$

11,998,090

 

Money Market Mutual Fund

 

 

13,839,876

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,839,876

 

Total Investments in Securities

 

 

13,839,876

 

 

 

11,998,090

 

 

 

 

 

 

25,837,966

 

Other Investments - Assets(a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

7,522,894

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7,522,894

 

Total Investments

 

$

21,362,770

 

 

$

11,998,090

 

 

$

 

 

$

33,360,860

 

 

(a)          Unrealized appreciation (depreciation).

The following is a summary of the tiered valuation input levels as of December 31, 2019:

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Investments in Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States Treasury Obligations

 

$

 

 

$

10,984,118

 

 

$

 

 

$

10,984,118

 

Money Market Mutual Fund

 

 

4,434,970

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,434,970

 

Total Investments in Securities

 

 

4,434,970

 

 

 

10,984,118

 

 

 

 

 

 

15,419,088

 

Other Investments - Assets(a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commodity Futures Contracts

 

 

2,004,462

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,004,462

 

Total Investments

 

$

6,439,432

 

 

$

10,984,118

 

 

$

 

 

$

17,423,550

 

 

(a)

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation).

Note 7 – Derivative Instruments

The Fair Value of Derivative Instruments is as follows:

 

 

 

December 31, 2020

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

Risk Exposure/Derivative Type (a)

 

Assets

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

Assets

 

 

Liabilities

 

Commodity risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commodity Futures Contracts

 

$

7,522,894

 

 

$

 

 

$

2,004,462

 

 

$

 

 

(a)

Includes cumulative appreciation (depreciation) of commodity futures contracts. Only the current day’s variation margin receivable (payable) is reported in the December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 Statements of Financial Condition.

The Effect of Derivative Instruments on the Statements of Income and Expenses is as follows:

 

Location of Gain or (Loss) on Derivatives

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

Risk Exposure/Derivative Type

Recognized in Income

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Commodity risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commodity Futures Contracts

Net Realized Gain (Loss)

 

$

726,024

 

 

$

340,449

 

 

$

(3,613,896

)

 

Net Change in Unrealized Gain (Loss)

 

 

5,518,432

 

 

 

1,223,352

 

 

 

735,741

 

Total

 

 

$

6,244,456

 

 

$

1,563,801

 

 

$

(2,878,155

)

 

The table below summarizes the average monthly notional value of futures contracts outstanding during the period:

 

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Average Notional Value

 

$

19,798,579

 

 

$

14,307,342

 

 

$

18,758,960

 

 

46


 

Note 8 – Investments in Affiliates

          Invesco Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio, Invesco Government & Agency Portfolio and the Fund are advised by investment advisers under common control of Invesco Ltd., and therefore Invesco Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio and Invesco Government & Agency Portfolio are considered to be affiliated with the Fund.

          The following is a summary of the transactions in, and earnings from, investments in affiliates for the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

 

Value 12/31/2019

 

 

Purchases at Cost

 

 

Proceeds from Sales

 

 

Change in Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)

 

 

Realized Gain (Loss)

 

 

Value 12/31/2020

 

 

Dividend Income

 

Investments in Affiliated Money

   Market Funds:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Invesco Government & Agency Portfolio,

   Institutional Class

 

$

 

 

$

39,478,084

 

 

$

(25,638,208

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

13,839,876

 

 

$

486

 

Invesco Premier U.S. Government Money

   Portfolio, Institutional Class

 

 

4,434,970

 

 

 

46,383,854

 

 

 

(50,818,824

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20,599

 

Total

 

$

4,434,970

 

 

$

85,861,938

 

 

$

(76,457,032

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

13,839,876

 

 

$

21,085

 

          The following is a summary of the transactions in, and earnings from, investments in affiliates for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

 

Value 12/31/2018

 

 

Purchases at Cost

 

 

Proceeds from Sales

 

 

Change in Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)

 

 

Realized Gain (Loss)

 

 

Value 12/31/2019

 

 

Dividend Income

 

Investments in Affiliated Money

   Market Funds:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Invesco Premier U.S. Government Money

   Portfolio, Institutional Class

 

$

3,829,452

 

 

$

51,266,244

 

 

$

(50,660,726

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

4,434,970

 

 

$

49,044

 

          The following is a summary of the transactions in, and earnings from, investments in affiliates for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

 

Value 12/31/2017

 

 

Purchases at Cost

 

 

Proceeds from Sales

 

 

Change in Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)

 

 

Realized Gain (Loss)

 

 

Value 12/31/2018

 

 

Dividend Income

 

Investments in Affiliated Money

   Market Funds:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Invesco Premier U.S. Government Money

   Portfolio, Institutional Class

 

$

2,561,161

 

 

$

29,744,691

 

 

$

(28,476,400

)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

3,829,452

 

 

$

22,443

 

Note 9 - Share Purchases and Redemptions

(a) Purchases

On any business day, an Authorized Participant may place an order with the Transfer Agent to create 1 or more Creation Units. Each Creation Unit consists of a block of 100,000 Shares. For purposes of processing both creation and redemption orders, a “business day” means any day other than a day when banks in New York City are required or permitted to be closed. Creation orders must be placed by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time. The day on which the Transfer Agent receives a valid creation order is the creation order date. The day on which a creation order is settled is the creation order settlement date. Cash settlement occurs at the creation order settlement date. As provided below, the creation order settlement date may occur up to two business days after the creation order date. By placing a creation order, and prior to delivery of such Creation Units, an Authorized Participant’s Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) account is charged the non-refundable transaction fee due for the creation order.  

Unless otherwise agreed to by the Managing Owner and the Authorized Participant as provided in the next sentence, Creation Units are issued on the creation order settlement date as of 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on the business day immediately following the creation order date at the applicable NAV per Share as of the closing time of the NYSE Arca or the last to close of the exchanges on which its futures contracts are traded, whichever is later, on the creation order date, but only if the required payment has been timely received. Upon submission of a creation order, the Authorized Participant may request the Managing Owner to agree to a creation order settlement date up to two business days after the creation order date.

47


 

(b) Redemptions

On any business day, an Authorized Participant may place an order with the Transfer Agent to redeem 1 or more Creation Units. Redemption orders must be placed by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time. The day on which the Managing Owner receives a valid redemption order is the redemption order date. The day on which a redemption order is settled is the redemption order settlement date. Cash settlement occurs at the redemption order settlement date. As provided below, the redemption order settlement date may occur up to two business days after the redemption order date. The redemption procedures allow Authorized Participants to redeem Creation Units. Individual Shareholders may not redeem directly from the Fund. Instead, individual Shareholders may only redeem Shares in integral multiples of 100,000 and only through an Authorized Participant.

Unless otherwise agreed to by the Managing Owner and the Authorized Participant as provided in the next sentence, by placing a redemption order, an Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the Creation Units to be redeemed through DTC’s book-entry system to the Fund no later than the redemption order settlement date as of 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on the business day immediately following the redemption order date. Upon submission of a redemption order, the Authorized Participant may request the Managing Owner to agree to a redemption order settlement date up to two business days after the redemption order date. By placing a redemption order, and prior to receipt of the redemption proceeds, an Authorized Participant’s DTC account is charged the non-refundable transaction fee due for the redemption order.

The redemption proceeds from the Fund consist of the cash redemption amount. The cash redemption amount is equal to the NAV of the number of Creation Unit(s) requested in the Authorized Participant’s redemption order as of the closing time of the NYSE Arca or the last to close of the exchanges on which the Fund’s futures contracts are traded, whichever is later, on the redemption order date. The Managing Owner will distribute the cash redemption amount at the redemption order settlement date as of 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on the redemption order settlement date through DTC to the account of the Authorized Participant as recorded on DTC’s book-entry system.

The redemption proceeds due from the Fund are delivered to the Authorized Participant at 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on the redemption order settlement date if, by such time, the Fund’s DTC account has been credited with the Creation Units to be redeemed. If the Fund’s DTC account has not been credited with all of the Creation Units to be redeemed by such time, the redemption distribution is delivered to the extent of whole Creation Units received. Any remainder of the redemption distribution is delivered on the next business day to the extent of remaining whole Creation Units received if the Transfer Agent receives the fee applicable to the extension of the redemption distribution date which the Managing Owner may, from time-to-time, determine and the remaining Creation Units to be redeemed are credited to the Fund’s DTC account by 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on such next business day. Any further outstanding amount of the redemption order will be cancelled. The Managing Owner is also authorized to deliver the redemption distribution notwithstanding that the Creation Units to be redeemed are not credited to the Fund’s DTC account by 2:45 p.m., Eastern Time, on the redemption order settlement date if the Authorized Participant has collateralized its obligation to deliver the Creation Units through DTC’s book-entry system on such terms as the Managing Owner may determine from time-to-time.

 

Note 10 - Commitments and Contingencies

The Managing Owner, either in its own capacity or in its capacity as the Managing Owner and on behalf of the Fund, has entered into various service agreements that contain a variety of representations, or provide indemnification provisions related to certain risks service providers undertake in performing services for the Fund. The Trust Agreement provides for the Fund to indemnify the Managing Owner and any affiliate of the Managing Owner that provides services to the Fund to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, subject to certain exceptions for disqualifying conduct by the Managing Owner or such an affiliate. The Fund's maximum exposure under these arrangements is unknown as this would involve future claims that may be made against the Fund that have not yet occurred. Further, the Fund has not had prior claims or losses pursuant to these contracts. Accordingly, the Managing Owner expects the risk of loss to be remote.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48


 

Note 11 - Financial Highlights

The Fund is presenting the following NAV and financial highlights related to investment performance for a Share outstanding for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. An individual investor’s return and ratios may vary based on the timing of capital transactions.

NAV per Share is the NAV of the Fund divided by the number of outstanding Shares at the date of each respective period presented.

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

Net Asset Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net asset value per Share, beginning of period

 

$

25.66

 

 

$

23.05

 

 

$

26.23

 

Net realized and change in unrealized gain (loss) on

   United States Treasury Obligations,

   Affiliated Investments and

   Commodity Futures Contracts (a)

 

 

11.59

 

 

 

2.61

 

 

 

(3.11

)

Net investment income (loss) (b)

 

 

(0.08

)

 

 

0.33

 

 

 

0.25

 

Net income (loss)

 

 

11.51

 

 

 

2.94

 

 

 

(2.86

)

Less:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Return of capital distributions

 

 

 

 

 

(0.33

)

 

 

(0.32

)

Net asset value per Share, end of period

 

$

37.17

 

 

$

25.66

 

 

$

23.05

 

Market value per Share, beginning of period (c)

 

$

25.63

 

 

$

23.03

 

 

$

25.99

 

Market value per Share, end of period (c)

 

$

37.38

 

 

$

25.63

 

 

$

23.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ratio to average Net Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net investment income (loss)

 

 

(0.27

)%

 

 

1.40

%

 

 

1.03

%

Expenses, after waivers

 

 

0.69

%

 

 

0.74

%

 

 

0.76

%

Expenses, prior to waivers

 

 

0.76

%

 

 

0.77

%

 

 

0.77

%

Total Return, at net asset value (d)

 

 

44.86

%

 

 

12.81

%

 

 

(10.83

)%

Total Return, at market value (d)

 

 

45.85

%

 

 

12.77

%

 

 

(10.08

)%

 

(a)          Net realized and change in unrealized gain (loss) on United States Treasury Obligations, Affiliated Investments and Commodity Futures Contracts per share may not correlate with the Fund's net realized and unrealized gain (loss) due to timing of shareholder transactions in relation to the fluctuating market values of the Fund's investments.

(b)

Based on average shares outstanding.

(c)

The mean between the last bid and ask prices.

(d)

Total Return, at NAV is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the NAV at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at NAV during the period, and redemption of Shares at NAV on the last day of the period. Total Return, at NAV includes adjustments in accordance with U.S. GAAP and as such, the NAV for financial reporting purposes and the returns based upon those NAVs may differ from the NAVs and returns for shareholder transactions. Total Return, at market value is calculated assuming an initial investment made at the market value at the beginning of the period, reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at market value during the period, and redemption of Shares at the market value on the last day of the period. Not annualized for periods less than one year, if applicable.

 

49


 

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

None.

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

For purposes of this Item 9A, all references to the “Fund” shall be read to specifically include the Fund and the Trust. Please note that the disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting of the Trust are the aggregate disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting of the Fund and that of Invesco DB Agriculture Fund, Invesco DB Base Metals Fund, Invesco DB Energy Fund, Invesco DB Gold Fund, Invesco DB Oil Fund and Invesco DB Precious Metals Fund, each a series of the Trust.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Under the supervision and with the participation of the management of the Managing Owner, including Anna Paglia, its Principal Executive Officer, and Kelli Gallegos, its Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, Investment Pools, the Fund carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of its disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) or 15d-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended  (the “Exchange Act”)) as of December 31, 2020, the end of the period covered by this Annual Report, and, based upon that evaluation, Anna Paglia, the Principal Executive Officer of the Managing Owner, and Kelli Gallegos, the Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, Investment Pools, of the Managing Owner, concluded that the Fund’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information the Fund is required to disclose in the reports that it files or submits with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by the Fund in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management of the Managing Owner, including its Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There has been no change in internal control over financial reporting (as defined in the Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2020 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting.

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Management of the Managing Owner is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined under Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act, for the Fund. Anna Paglia, the Principal Executive Officer of the Managing Owner, and Kelli Gallegos, the Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, Investment Pools, of the Managing Owner, assessed the effectiveness of the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. Their report in connection with their assessment may be found in the “Report of Management on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting” on page 30 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, has audited the Fund’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, as stated in their report on page 31 of this Form 10-K.

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

None.

50


 

PART III

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Board of Directors and Principal Officers

The Fund has no directors or principal officers and also does not have any employees. It is managed by the Managing Owner.

As of December 31, 2020, the board of managers and principal officers of the Managing Owner are as follows:

Name

    

Capacity

Anna Paglia

  

Chief Executive Officer, Board of Managers

Peter Hubbard

  

Vice President and Director of Portfolio Management

Jordan Krugman

  

Board of Managers

Annette Lege

  

Principal

Kelli Gallegos

  

Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, Investment Pools

Melanie Zimdars

  

Chief Compliance Officer

John Zerr

  

Board of Managers

Brian Hartigan

 

Global Head of ETF Investments

Invesco Group Services Inc. is also a principal of the Managing Owner.

The Managing Owner is managed by a Board of Managers. The Board of Managers is composed of Ms. Paglia, Mr. Krugman and Mr. Zerr.

The Board of Managers has established an Audit Committee with the following members: Ms. Paglia, Mr. Krugman and Mr. Zerr.  The overall purpose of the Audit Committee is to assist the Board of Managers with overseeing the Fund's financial statements, the Fund's compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, the qualifications and independence of the Fund's independent registered public accounting firm (the “independent auditor”), the performance of the internal audit function for the Fund, and the performance of the independent auditor.

The Managing Owner has designated Mr. Hubbard as the trading principal of the Fund.

Anna Paglia (46) has been Chief Executive Officer of the Managing Owner since June 2020. In this role, she has general oversight responsibilities for all of the Managing Owner’s business. Ms. Paglia has been a Member of the Board of Managers of the Managing Owner since June 2020. Additionally, Ms. Paglia is a Managing Director and Global Head of ETFs and Indexed Strategies of Invesco Ltd., a position in which she first began serving in June 2020. In these roles she is responsible for the management of the Managing Owner’s exchange traded fund business with direct functional reporting responsibilities for the Managing Owner’s portfolio management, products, marketing and capital markets teams. In such capacity, Ms. Paglia also is responsible for managing the operations of the Invesco Funds. Previously, Ms. Paglia was Head of Legal, US ETFs at Invesco, beginning in September 2010. In that role, she was responsible for the registration and listing of ETFs, as well as providing support to the US ETF Board, serving as a global ETF expert and resource to the US ETF Board and personnel of the Managing Owner and providing day-to-day support to the Managing Owner. In addition, she was a team leader for, and provided legal support to, Invesco’s unit investment trusts. Ms. Paglia earned a JD from L.U.I.S.S. Law School in Rome, a law school certificate from Kingston University School of Law in London and a master’s degree from Northwestern University School of Law in Chicago. She is admitted to practice law in Illinois and New York. Ms. Paglia was listed as a principal of the Managing Owner on June 11, 2020.

Peter Hubbard (40) joined the Managing Owner in May 2005 as a portfolio manager and has been Vice President, Director of Portfolio Management since September 2012. In his role, Mr. Hubbard manages a team of eight portfolio managers. His responsibilities include facilitating all portfolio management processes associated with more than 200 equity and fixed income Invesco Funds listed in the United States, Canada and Europe. He is a graduate of Wheaton College with a B.A. degree in Business & Economics. Mr. Hubbard was listed as a principal and registered as an associated person of the Managing Owner on November 15, 2012 and January 1, 2013, respectively. Mr. Hubbard was registered as a swap associated person of the Managing Owner effective as of September 8, 2015.

Jordan Krugman (43) is Chief Financial Officer of the Americas for Invesco Ltd., a global investment management company affiliated with the Managing Owner. He was appointed to this position in October 2020. In this capacity, Mr. Krugman is responsible for general management support, in addition to executing on various strategic initiatives and overseeing the financial framework for the business units operating within the Americas division of Invesco Ltd. He has also served as a Member of the Board of Managers of the Managing Owner since October 2020. From March 2019 to October 2020, Mr. Krugman served as the Global Head of Financial Planning and Analysis at Invesco Ltd. In this role, he was responsible for overseeing Invesco's forecasting, budgeting strategic planning and financial target setting processes, including analytics and decision support for Invesco Ltd's executive team. From March 2017 to March 2019, Mr. Krugman served as Invesco Ltd.'s Head of Finance & Corporate Strategy, North America. In this role, Mr. Krugman was responsible for strategic and financial planning for Invesco Ltd.'s global investments organization including global real estate, private equity and global fixed income. Prior to that, Mr. Krugman was Invesco Ltd.'s Treasurer and Head of Investor Relations from May 2011 to March 2017. In this role, he was responsible for management of Invesco Ltd.'s liquidity and capital management

51


 

programs. Additionally, Mr. Krugman managed the communication with Invesco Ltd.'s external stakeholders including equity shareholders, debt investors, rating agencies, and research analysts. Mr. Krugman earned a BA degree in American civilizations, with a US history concentration, from Middlebury College in Vermont in 1999, and earned an MBA from Santa Clara University in California in 2007. He is a Certified Treasury Professional (CTP). Mr. Krugman was listed as a principal of the Managing Owner on November 12, 2020.

Annette Lege (51) has been a Chief Accounting Officer and Head of Finance and Corporate Services (“FCS”) Business Services for Invesco Ltd. since March 2017. In this role, she is responsible for all aspects of Corporate Accounting including group financial reporting, internal controls and group accounting policies. Ms. Lege also manages Invesco’s Finance operations and shared service centers and has held this role since September 2015. Previously, Ms. Lege was Head of FCS Transformation Office from October 2013 through September 2015, with responsibility for business transformation initiatives taking place across FCS at Invesco. Before assuming that role in October 2013, Ms. Lege held the position of North American Corporate Controller at Invesco from March 2007 to October 2013. Ms. Lege is also a CPA, is licensed by FINRA as a Financial Operations Principal, and is a member of the Texas State Board of Public Accountants. Ms. Lege earned a BBA in accounting from the University of Houston. Ms. Lege was listed as a principal of the Managing Owner on March 30, 2017 and was listed as a principal of Invesco Advisers, Inc., a registered investment adviser affiliated with the Managing Owner on March 22, 2017.

Kelli Gallegos (50) has been Principal Financial and Accounting Officer – Investment Pools for the Managing Owner since September 2018. Additionally, since September 2018, Ms. Gallegos has been Principal Financial and Accounting Officer – Investment Pools of Invesco Specialized Products, LLC (sponsor to a suite of currency exchange-traded funds, “ISP”), Head of North America Fund Reporting of Invesco, Ltd. (“Invesco”, a global investment management company), and Vice President and Treasurer of Invesco Exchange Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust, and Invesco Exchange-Traded Self-Indexed Fund Trusts (each a registered investment company offering series of exchange-traded funds, the “Invesco ETFs”). She also serves as Vice President (since March 2016), Principal Financial Officer (since March 2016) and Assistant Treasurer (since December 2008) for a suite of mutual funds advised by Invesco Advisers, Inc., a registered investment adviser (the “Invesco Funds”). In her roles with the Managing Owner, ISP, Invesco, the Invesco ETFs and the Invesco Funds, Ms. Gallegos has financial and administrative oversight responsibilities for, and serves as Principal Financial Officer of the Invesco ETFs, the Trust, the Funds and the exchange-traded funds for which ISP serves as sponsor (the “CurrencyShares Trusts”). Previously, she was Director of Fund Financial Services from December 2008 to September 2018, Assistant Treasurer for the Managing Owner from January 2013 to September 2018, Assistant Treasurer of ISP from April 2018 to September 2018, Assistant Treasurer for the Invesco ETFs from September 2014 to September 2018 and Assistant Vice President for the Invesco Funds from December 2008 to March 2016. In such roles, Ms. Gallegos managed the group of personnel responsible for the preparation of fund financial statements and other information necessary for shareholder reports, fund prospectuses, regulatory filings, and for the coordination and oversight of third-party service providers of the Fund, the Invesco ETFs, the Invesco Funds, and the CurrencyShares Trusts. Ms. Gallegos earned a BBA in accounting from Harding University in Searcy, AR. Ms. Gallegos was listed as a principal of the Managing Owner on September 25, 2018.

Melanie H. Zimdars (44) has been Chief Compliance Officer of the Managing Owner since November 2017. In this role she is responsible for all aspects of regulatory compliance for the Managing Owner. Ms. Zimdars has also served as Chief Compliance Officer of Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, Invesco India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and Invesco Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Commodity Fund Trust since November 2017. From September 2009 to October 2017, she served as Vice President and Deputy Chief Compliance Officer at ALPS Holdings, Inc. where she was Chief Compliance Officer for six different mutual fund complexes, including active and passive ETFs and open-end and closed-end funds. Through its subsidiary companies, ALPS Holdings, Inc. is a provider of investment products and customized servicing solutions to the financial services industry. Ms. Zimdars received a BS degree from the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. Ms. Zimdars was listed as a principal of the Managing Owner on February 1, 2018.

John Zerr (58) has been a Member of the Board of Managers of the Managing Owner since September 2006. Mr. Zerr has also served as Chief Operating Officer of the Americas for Invesco Ltd. since February 2018.  Prior to his current position, Mr. Zerr served as Managing Director and General Counsel – U.S. Retail of Invesco Management Group, Inc., a registered investment adviser affiliated with the Managing Owner, from March 2006 until February 2018, where he was responsible for overseeing the U.S. Retail Legal Department for Invesco Ltd. and its affiliated companies. Mr. Zerr has also been a Senior Vice President and Secretary of IDI since March 2006 and June 2006, respectively. He also served as a Director of that entity until February 2010. Mr. Zerr has served as Senior Vice President of Invesco Advisers, Inc., a registered investment adviser affiliated with the Managing Owner, since December 2009. Mr. Zerr serves as a Director, Vice President and Secretary of Invesco Investment Services, Inc., a registered transfer agency since May 2007. Mr. Zerr has served as Director, Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of a number of other Invesco Ltd. wholly-owned subsidiaries which service or serviced portions of Invesco Ltd.’s U.S. Retail business since May 2007 and since June 2010 with respect to certain Van Kampen entities engaged in the asset management business that were acquired by Invesco Ltd. from Morgan Stanley. In each of the foregoing positions Mr. Zerr is responsible for overseeing legal operations. In such capacity, Mr. Zerr also is responsible for overseeing the legal activities of the Invesco Funds. Mr. Zerr earned a BA degree in economics from

52


 

Ursinus College. He graduated cum laude with a J.D. from Temple University School of Law. Mr. Zerr was listed as a principal of the Managing Owner on December 6, 2012.

Brian Hartigan (42) joined the Managing Owner in May 2015 as Global Head of ETF Investments. In his role, Mr. Hartigan manages the portfolio management function at the Managing Owner, with the Director of Portfolio Management reporting to him. Previously from June 2010 until May of 2015, Mr. Hartigan was the Head of Portfolio Management and Research for Invesco Capital Markets, Inc., the sponsor of unit investment trusts.  In that role, he oversaw portfolio management of Invesco unit trusts. He earned his B.A. from the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota and an MBA in finance from DePaul University.  He is a CFA charterholder and a member of the CFA Society of Chicago. Mr. Hartigan was listed as a principal and registered as an associated person of the Managing Owner on February 21, 2018 and May 29, 2018, respectively.

Invesco Group Services Inc., which is a wholly owned, indirect subsidiary of Invesco Ltd., has been a principal of the Managing Owner since September 27, 2018 and has periodically been listed with NFA as a principal of other NFA members since May 17, 1990.

Code of Ethics

The Fund has no officers or employees and is managed by Invesco Capital Management LLC. Invesco Capital Management LLC has adopted a code of ethics which applies to all of its employees and is available on request, free of charge, by calling 1-800-983-0903 Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Central Time.

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

The Fund has no employees, officers or directors. The Managing Owner receives a monthly Management Fee of 1/12th of 0.75% per annum of the daily NAV of the Fund at the end of each month.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Fund incurred Management Fees of $148,000 of which $133,355 had been paid at December 31, 2020. Management Fees of $14,645 were unpaid at December 31, 2020 and are reported as a liability on the Statements of Financial Condition.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Fund incurred brokerage commissions of $1,230. There were no unpaid brokerage commissions as of December 31, 2020.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Fund incurred Management Fees of $107,025 of which $97,887 had been paid at December 31, 2019. Management Fees of $9,138 were unpaid at December 31, 2019 and are reported as a liability on the Statements of Financial Condition.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Fund incurred brokerage commissions of $1,008. There were no unpaid brokerage commissions as of December 31, 2019.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Fund incurred Management Fees of $141,167 of which $132,856 had been paid at December 31, 2018. Management Fees of $8,311 were unpaid at December 31, 2018 and are reported as a liability on the Statements of Financial Condition.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Fund incurred brokerage commissions of $1,567. There were no unpaid brokerage commissions at December 31, 2018.

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

The Fund has no officers or directors. The following table sets forth certain information regarding beneficial ownership of the Fund’s General Shares and Shares as of January 31, 2021 as known by management. No person is known by the Managing Owner to own beneficially more than 5% of the outstanding Shares of such class.

 Title of Class

 

Name and Address of Beneficial Owner

 

Amount and Nature of

Beneficial Ownership

 

 

Percent

of Class

 

General Shares

 

Invesco Capital Management LLC

3500 Lacey Road, Suite 700

Downers Grove, Illinois 60515

 

 

40

 

 

 

100%

 

Shares

 

Directors and Officers of Invesco Capital

Management LLC as a group

 

 

 

 

Less than 0.1%

 

 The Fund has no securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans.

ITEM 13.

See Item 11.

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ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

Audit and Non-Audit Fees

The following table sets forth the fees for professional services rendered by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.

 

 

Fiscal Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Audit Fees

 

$

78,660

 

 

$

78,660

 

Audit-Related Fees(1)

 

 

 

 

 

5,000

 

Tax Fees(2)

 

 

10,656

 

 

 

7,679

 

All Other Fees

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

$

89,316

 

 

$

91,339

 

 

(1)

Audit-Related Fees for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 include fees billed for reviewing regulatory filings.

(2)

Tax Fees for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 include fees billed for preparing tax forms.

Approval of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm Services and Fees

The Managing Owner approved all of the services provided by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP to the Fund described above.  The Managing Owner pre-approved all audit and allowed non-audit services of the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, including all engagement fees and terms.

PART IV

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

(a)(1) Financial Statements

See financial statements commencing on page 29 hereof.

(a)(2) Financial Statement Schedules

No financial statement schedules are filed herewith because (i) such schedules are not required or (ii) the information required has been presented in the aforementioned financial statements.

(a)(3) Exhibits

The following documents (unless otherwise indicated) are filed herewith and made a part of this Annual Report:

EXHIBIT NO

 

DESCRIPTION

 

 

    4.1

 

Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement of the Registrant 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

    4.1.1

 

Amendment No. 1 to the Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement of the Registrant 2

 

 

    4.1.2

 

Amendment No. 2 to the Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement of the Registrant 3

 

 

    4.2

 

Form of Participant Agreement 4

 

 

 

    4.2.1

 

Amendment to Form of Participant Agreement 4

 

 

 

4.3

 

 

Description of Common Units of Beneficial Interest 5

 

 

  10.1

 

Form of Customer Agreement 6

 

 

  10.2

 

Form of Administration Agreement 7

 

 

  10.3

 

Form of Global Custody Agreement 7  

 

 

  10.4

 

Form of Transfer Agency and Service Agreement 8

 

 

  10.5

 

Distribution Services Agreement 9

 

 

  23.1

 

Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

 

 

  31.1

 

Certification required under Exchange Act Rules 13a-14 and 15d-14 (filed herewith)

 

 

  31.2

 

Certification required under Exchange Act Rules 13a-14 and 15d-14 (filed herewith)

 

 

  32.1

 

Certification of Principal Executive Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350 as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (furnished herewith)

 

 

54


 

  32.2

 

Certification of Principal Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350 as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (furnished herewith)

 

 

101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interactive data file pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T: (i) the Statements of Financial Condition of Invesco DB Silver Fund— December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, (ii) the Schedule of Investments of Invesco DB Silver Fund— December 31, 2020, (iii) the Schedule of Investments of Invesco DB Silver Fund— December 31, 2019, (iv) the Statements of Income and Expenses of Invesco DB Silver Fund—Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, (v) the Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity of Invesco DB Silver Fund—Year Ended December 31, 2020, (vi) the Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity of Invesco DB Silver Fund—Year Ended December 31, 2019, (vii) the Statement of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity of Invesco DB Silver Fund—Year Ended December 31, 2018, (viii) the Statements of Cash Flows of Invesco DB Silver Fund—Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, and (ix) Notes to Financial Statements of Invesco DB Silver Fund.

101.INS

  

Inline XBRL Instance Document – The instance document does not appear in the interactive data file because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document

 

 

 

101.SCH

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document

 

 

 

101.CAL

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document

 

 

 

101.LAB

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document

 

 

 

101.PRE

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document

 

 

 

101.DEF  

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document

 

 

 

104    

 

The cover page of the Fund's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, formatted in Inline XBRL

 

1.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 8-K on February 25, 2015 and incorporated herein by reference.

2.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 8-K on June 20, 2016 and incorporated herein by reference.

3.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 8-K on June 4, 2018 and incorporated herein by reference.

4.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 10-Q on November 6, 2020 and incorporated herein by reference.

5.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 10-K on February 28, 2020 and incorporated herein by reference.

6.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 8-K on February 26, 2015 and incorporated herein by reference.

7.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 8-K on October 1, 2019 and incorporated herein by reference.

8.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 2 to a Registration Statement on Form S-1 on December 14, 2006 and incorporated herein by reference.

9.

Previously filed as an exhibit to Form 8-K on May 19, 2020 and incorporated herein by reference.

55


 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

Invesco DB Multi-Sector Commodity Trust on its own behalf and with respect to Invesco DB Silver Fund

 

 

 

By:

Invesco Capital Management LLC,

 

 

its Managing Owner

 

 

 

Dated: February 25, 2021

 

By:

/S/    ANNA PAGLIA        

 

 

Name:

Anna Paglia

 

 

Title:

Principal Executive Officer

 

 

 

 

Dated: February 25, 2021

 

By:

/S/    KELLI GALLEGOS        

 

 

Name:

Kelli Gallegos

 

 

Title:

Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, Investment Pools

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on

behalf of the registrant and in the capacities* and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Capacity*

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ JORDAN KRUGMAN

 

Jordan Krugman

Manager

February 25, 2021

 

 

 

/s/ JOHN ZERR

 

John Zerr

Manager

February 25, 2021

*

The registrant is a trust and the persons are signing in their capacities as officers or directors of Invesco Capital Management LLC, the Managing Owner of the registrant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

56