Docoh
Loading...

CLDT Chatham Lodging Trust

Filed: 24 Feb 21, 3:44pm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission File Number: 001-34693
CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Maryland 27-1200777
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
222 Lakeview Avenue, Suite 200 
West Palm Beach, Florida 33401
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(561) 802-4477
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest, par value $0.01 per shareCLDTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes      No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer☒ 
Non-accelerated filer
¨  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).      Yes      No

The aggregate market value of the 45,989,163 common shares of beneficial interest held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $281,453,678 based on the closing sale price on the New York Stock Exchange for such common shares of beneficial interest as of June 30, 2020.

The number of common shares of beneficial interest outstanding as of February 24, 2021 was 47,014,403
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before April 30, 2021) are incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K in response to Part III hereof.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
Item 1.Business
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
PART II.
Item 5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.Selected Financial Data
Item 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Item 8.Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9AControls and Procedures
Item 9B.Other Information
PART III.
Item 10.Trustees, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.Executive Compensation
Item 12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Trustee Independence
Item 14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
PART IV
Item 15.Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

2


CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act") and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as amended (the "Exchange Act"), and as such may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, which are based on certain assumptions and describe our future plans, strategies and expectations, are generally identified by our use of words, such as "intend," "plan," "may," "should," "will," "project," "estimate," "anticipate," "believe," "expect," "continue," "potential," "opportunity," or similar expressions, whether in the negative or affirmative. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, are forward-looking by their nature:

our business and investment strategy;
our forecasted operating results;
completion of hotel acquisitions and dispositions;
completion of hotel developments;
our ability to obtain future financing arrangements;
our expected leverage levels;
our understanding of our competition;
market and lodging industry trends and expectations;
our investment in joint ventures;
anticipated capital expenditures; and
our ability to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust ("REIT") for U.S. federal income tax purposes.


The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information available to us at the time the forward-looking statements are made. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, prospects, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. You should carefully consider these risks when you make an investment decision concerning our common shares. Additionally, the following factors could cause actual results to vary from our forward-looking statements:
the factors included in this report, including those set forth under the sections titled “Business,” Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in other reports that we file with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), or in other documents that we publicly disseminate;
general volatility of the financial markets and the market price of our securities;
performance of the lodging industry in general;
business interruptions due to cyber-attacks;
impacts on our business of a prolonged government shutdown;
decreased international travel because of geopolitical events, including terrorism, outbreaks of disease like the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") and current U.S. government policies;
the ultimate geographic spread, severity and duration of pandemics such as the recent outbreak of COVID-19 actions that may be taken by governmental authorities to contain or address the impact of such pandemics, and the potential negative impacts of such pandemics on the global economy and our financial condition and results of operations;
changes in our business or investment strategy;
availability, terms and deployment of capital;
availability of and our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;
our leverage levels;
our capital expenditures;
3


changes in our industry and the markets in which we operate, interest rates or the general U.S. or international economy;
our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
the degree and nature of our competition.
All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report or, in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are qualified by the cautionary statements in this section. New risks and uncertainties arise over time and it is not possible to predict those events or how they may affect us. We undertake no obligation to update or publicly release any revisions to forward-looking statements to reflect events, circumstances or changes in expectations after the date of this report, except as required by law. Such forward-looking statements should be read in light of the risk factors identified in the "Risk Factors" section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
4


PART I
Item 1. Business

Dollar amounts presented in this Item 1 are in thousands, except per share data.

Overview

 
Chatham Lodging Trust (“we,” “us” or the “Company”) was formed as a Maryland real estate investment trust ("REIT") on October 26, 2009. We elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our 2010 taxable year. The Company is internally-managed and invests primarily in upscale extended-stay and premium-branded select-service hotels.
We had no operations prior to the consummation of our initial public offering ("IPO") in April 2010. The net proceeds from our share offerings are contributed to Chatham Lodging, L.P., our operating partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), in exchange for partnership interests. Substantially all of the Company’s assets are held by, and all of its operations are conducted through, the Operating Partnership. Chatham Lodging Trust is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and owns 100% of the common units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership ("common units"). Certain of the Company's executive officers hold vested and unvested long-term incentive plan units in the Operating Partnership ("LTIP Units"), which are presented as non-controlling interests on our consolidated balance sheets.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company owned 39 hotels with an aggregate of 5,900 rooms located in 15 states and the District of Columbia. As of December 31, 2020, the Company also (i) held a 10.3% noncontrolling interest in a joint venture (the “NewINK JV”) with affiliates of Colony Capital, Inc. ("CLNY"), which owns 46 hotels acquired from a joint venture (the "Innkeepers JV") between the Company and Cerberus Capital Management (“Cerberus”), comprising an aggregate of 5,948 rooms and (ii) held a 10.0% noncontrolling interest in a separate joint venture (the "Inland JV") with CLNY, which owns 48 hotels acquired from Inland American Real Estate Trust, Inc. ("Inland"), comprising an aggregate of 6,402 rooms. As of December 31, 2020, the Inland JV was in receivership. We sometimes use the term "JVs", which refers collectively to the NewINK JV and the Inland JV.
To qualify as a REIT, the Company cannot operate its hotels. Therefore, the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries lease our wholly owned hotels to taxable REIT subsidiary lessees (“TRS Lessees”), which are wholly owned by the Company’s taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) holding company. The Company indirectly (i) owns its 10.3% interest in the 46 NewINK JV hotels and (ii) owns its 10.0% interest in the 48 Inland JV hotels through the Operating Partnership. All of the NewINK JV hotels and Inland JV hotels are leased to TRS Lessees, in which the Company indirectly owns noncontrolling interests through its TRS holding company. Each hotel is leased to a TRS Lessee under a percentage lease that provides for rental payments equal to the greater of (i) a fixed base rent amount or (ii) a percentage rent based on hotel room revenue. The initial term of each of the TRS leases is 5 years. Lease revenue from each TRS Lessee is eliminated in consolidation.
The TRS Lessees have entered into management agreements with third-party management companies that provide day-to-day management for the hotels. As of December 31, 2020, Island Hospitality Management Inc. (“IHM”), which is 52.5% owned by Jeffrey H. Fisher, the Company's Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, managed all 39 of the Company’s wholly owned hotels. As of December 31, 2020, all of the NewINK JV hotels were managed by IHM. As of December 31, 2020, none of the Inland JV hotels were managed by IHM.

As of December 31, 2020, our wholly owned hotels include upscale extended-stay hotels that operate under the Residence Inn by Marriott® brand (sixteen hotels) and Homewood Suites by Hilton® brand (seven hotels), as well as premium-branded select-service hotels that operate under the Courtyard by Marriott® brand (five hotels), the Hampton Inn or Hampton Inn and Suites by Hilton® brand (three hotels), the Hilton Garden Inn by Hilton® brand (four hotels), the SpringHill Suites by Marriott® brand (one hotel), the Hyatt Place® brand (two hotels) and all-suite hotels that operate under the upper scale Embassy Suites brand® (one hotel).
 
We primarily invest in upscale extended-stay hotels such as Homewood Suites by Hilton® and Residence Inn by Marriott®. We also invest in upscale or upper upscale all-suite hotels such as SpringHill Suites by Marriott® or Embassy Suites.® Extended-stay and all-suite hotels typically have the following characteristics:
5


 •principal customer base includes business travelers, whether short-term transient travelers or those on extended assignments and corporate relocations;
 •services and amenities include complimentary breakfast and evening hospitality hour, high-speed internet access, in-room movie channels, limited meeting space, daily linen and room cleaning service, 24-hour front desk, guest grocery services, and an on-site maintenance staff; and
 •physical facilities include large suites, quality construction, full separate kitchens in each guest suite or suites that include a wet bar, refrigerator and microwave, quality room furnishings, pool, and exercise facilities.
 
Additionally, we invest in premium-branded select-service hotels such as Courtyard by Marriott®, Hampton Inn®, Hampton Inn and Suites by Hilton®, Hyatt Place® and Hilton Garden Inn by Hilton®. The service and amenity offerings of these hotels typically include complimentary breakfast or a smaller for pay breakfast or evening dining option, high-speed internet access, local calls, in-room movie channels, and daily linen and room cleaning service.

 Financial Information About Industry Segments
We evaluate all of our hotels as a single industry segment because all of our hotels have similar economic characteristics and provide similar services to similar types of customers. Accordingly, we do not report segment information.
  Business Strategy
 
Our primary objective is to generate attractive returns for our shareholders through investing in hotel properties (whether wholly owned or through a joint venture) at prices that provide strong returns on invested capital, paying dividends and generating long-term value appreciation. We believe we can create long-term value by pursuing the following strategies:
 
 •
Disciplined acquisition of hotel properties:  We invest primarily in premium-branded upscale extended-stay and select-service hotels with a focus on the 25 largest metropolitan markets in the United States. We focus on acquiring hotel properties at prices below replacement cost in markets that have strong demand generators and where we expect demand growth will outpace new supply. We also seek to acquire properties that we believe are undermanaged or undercapitalized.
 
 •
Opportunistic hotel repositioning:  We employ value-added strategies, such as re-branding, renovating, expanding or changing management, when we believe such strategies will increase the operating results and values of the hotels we acquire.
 
 •
Aggressive asset management:  Although as a REIT we cannot operate our hotels, we proactively manage our third-party hotel managers in seeking to maximize hotel operating performance. Our asset management activities seek to ensure that our third-party hotel managers effectively utilize franchise brands' marketing programs, develop effective sales management policies and plans, operate properties efficiently, control costs, and develop operational initiatives for our hotels that increase guest satisfaction. As part of our asset management activities, we regularly review opportunities to reinvest in our hotels to maintain quality, increase long-term value and generate attractive returns on invested capital.
 •
Selective hotel development: We may consider developing a limited number of hotels in cases where we believe newly developed hotels will generate attractive returns and enhance the quality of our hotel portfolio.
 •
Flexible selection of hotel management companies: We are flexible in our selection of hotel management companies and select managers that we believe will maximize the performance of our hotels. We utilize independent management companies, including IHM, a hotel management company 52.5% owned by Mr. Fisher that as of December 31, 2020, managed all 39 of our wholly owned hotels, all of the hotels owned by the NewINK JV and none of the hotels owned by the Inland JV. We believe this strategy increases the universe of potential acquisition opportunities we can consider because many hotel properties are encumbered by long-term management contracts.
 •
Selective investment in hotel debt:  We may consider selectively investing in debt collateralized by hotel property if we believe we can foreclose on or acquire ownership of the underlying hotel property in the relative near term. We do not intend to invest in any debt where we do not expect to gain ownership of the underlying property or to originate any debt financing.
 
 
We plan to maintain a prudent capital structure and intend to maintain our leverage over the long term at a ratio of net debt to investment in hotels at cost (defined as our initial acquisition price plus the gross amount of any subsequent capital investment and excluding any impairment charges) at a level that will be similar to the levels at which we have operated in the past. Over the past several years, we have maintained a leverage ratio between the mid-30s and the low 50s. A subsequent decrease in hotel property values will not necessarily cause us to repay debt to comply with this target. At December 31, 2020,
6


our leverage ratio was approximately 35.8 percent, which increased from 34.1 percent at December 31, 2019. Over time, we intend to finance our growth with free cash flow, debt and issuances of common shares and/or preferred shares. Our debt may include mortgage debt collateralized by our hotel properties and unsecured debt.
 
When purchasing hotel properties, we may issue common units in our Operating Partnership as full or partial consideration to sellers who may desire to take advantage of tax deferral on the sale of a hotel or participate in the potential appreciation in value of our common shares.

Competition
 
We face competition for investments in hotel properties from institutional pension funds, private equity investors, REITs, hotel companies and others who are engaged in hotel investments. Some of these entities have substantially greater financial and operational resources than we have or may be willing to use higher leverage. This competition may increase the bargaining power of property owners seeking to sell, reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities available to us and increase the cost of acquiring our targeted hotel properties.
 
The lodging industry is highly competitive. Our hotels compete with other hotels, and alternative lodging marketplaces, for guests in each market in which they operate. Competitive advantage is based on a number of factors, including location, convenience, brand affiliation, room rates, range of services and guest amenities or accommodations offered and quality of customer service. Competition is often specific to the individual markets in which our hotels are located and includes competition from existing and new hotels and alternative lodging market places. Furthermore, we have experienced, and continue to experience, heightened competition due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic due to, among other factors: (i) increased fears regarding travel and lodging, which has lowered the number of domestic and international travelers, and (ii) governmental responses to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which has restricted lodging capacity and operations. Competition could adversely affect our occupancy rates, our average daily rates ("ADR") and revenue per available room (“RevPAR”), and may require us to provide additional amenities or make capital improvements that we otherwise would not have to make, which may reduce our profitability.
Seasonality
 
Demand for our hotels is affected by recurring seasonal patterns. Generally, we expect that we will have lower revenue, operating income and cash flow in the first and fourth quarters and higher revenue, operating income and cash flow in the second and third quarters. These general trends are, however, influenced by overall economic cycles and the geographic locations of our hotels. To the extent that cash flow from operations is insufficient during any quarter, due to temporary or seasonal fluctuations in revenue, we expect to utilize cash on hand or borrowings under our credit facility to pay expenses, debt service or to make distributions to our equity holders.
Regulation
Our properties are subject to various covenants, laws, ordinances and regulations, including regulations relating to common areas and fire and safety requirements. We believe each of our hotels has the necessary permits and approvals to operate its business, and each is adequately covered by insurance.

Americans with Disabilities Act

Our properties must comply with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 ("ADA") to the extent that such properties are "public accommodations" as defined by the ADA. Under the ADA, all public accommodations must meet federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The ADA may require removal of structural barriers to access by persons with disabilities in certain public areas of our properties where such removal is readily achievable. Although we believe that the properties in which we own interests (including the properties owned by the JVs) substantially comply with present requirements of the ADA, we have not conducted a comprehensive audit or investigation of all of these properties to determine compliance, and one or more properties may not be fully compliant with the ADA.

If we or any of our joint ventures are required to make substantial modifications to our wholly owned or joint venture hotel properties, whether to comply with the ADA or other changes in governmental rules and regulations, our financial condition, results of operations, the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be adversely affected. The obligation to make readily achievable accommodations is ongoing, and we will continue to assess our properties and to make alterations as appropriate.

Environmental Regulations
 
7


Under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, an owner of real property may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances on or in such property. Such laws often impose such liability without regard to whether the owner knew of or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. The cost of any required remediation and the owner's liability therefore as to any property are generally not limited under such laws and could exceed the value of the property and/or the aggregate assets of the owner. The presence of such substances, or the failure to properly remediate contamination from such substances, may adversely affect the owner's ability to sell the real estate or to borrow funds using such property as collateral, which could have an adverse effect on our return from such investment.

Furthermore, various court decisions have established that third parties may recover damages for injury caused by release of hazardous substances and for property contamination. For instance, a person exposed to asbestos while working at or staying in a hotel may seek to recover damages if he or she suffers injury from the asbestos. Lastly, some of these environmental issues restrict the use of a property or place conditions on various activities. One example is laws that require a business using chemicals to manage them carefully and to notify local officials if regulated spills occur.
 
Although it is our policy to require an acceptable Phase I environmental survey for all real property in which we invest prior to our investment, such surveys are limited in scope. As a result, there can be no assurance that a Phase I environmental survey will uncover any or all hazardous or toxic substances on a property prior to our investment in that property. We cannot assure you that:
 
there are not existing environmental liabilities related to our properties of which we are not aware;
future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose material environmental liability; or
the current environmental condition of a hotel will not be affected by the condition of properties in the vicinity of the hotel (such as the presence of leaking underground storage tanks) or by third parties unrelated to us.
 

Tax Status
 
We elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our short taxable year ended December 31, 2010 under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). Our qualification as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual investment and operating results, various complex requirements under the Code relating to, among other things, the sources of our gross income, the composition and values of our assets, our distribution levels and the diversity of ownership of our shares of beneficial interest. We believe that we are organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a REIT under the Code and that our current and intended manner of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.
 
As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on our REIT taxable income that we distribute to our shareholders. Under the Code, REITs are subject to numerous organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that they distribute each year at least 90% of their REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gains. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, our income for that year will be taxed at regular corporate rates, and we will be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify as a REIT. Even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we may still be subject to state and local taxes on our income and assets and to federal income and excise taxes on our undistributed income. Additionally, any income earned by our TRS Lessees will be fully subject to federal, state and local corporate income tax.

During the third quarter of 2018, we were notified that the tax return of our TRS was going to be examined by the Internal Revenue Service for the tax year ended December 31, 2016. The examination remains open. We believe we do not need to record a liability related to matters contained in the tax period open to examination. However, should we experience an unfavorable outcome in the matter, such outcome could have a material impact on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.


8


Hotel Management Agreements
The management agreements with IHM have an initial term of five years and will automatically renew for two successive five-year periods unless IHM provides written notice no later than 90 days prior to the then current term's expiration date of their intent not to renew. The IHM management agreements provide for early termination at the Company’s option upon sale of any IHM-managed hotel for no termination fee, with six months advance notice. The IHM management agreements may be terminated for cause, including the failure of the managed hotel to meet specified performance levels. Base management fees are calculated as a percentage of the hotel's gross room revenue. If certain financial thresholds are met or exceeded, an incentive management fee is calculated as 10% of the hotel's net operating income less fixed costs, base management fees and a specified return threshold. The incentive management fee is capped at 1% of gross hotel revenues for the applicable calculation.
As of December 31, 2020, terms of our management agreements for our 39 wholly owned hotels were as follows (dollars are not in thousands):
9


PropertyManagement CompanyBase Management FeeMonthly Accounting FeeMonthly Revenue Management FeeIncentive Management Fee Cap
Homewood Suites by Hilton Boston-Billerica/ Bedford/ BurlingtonIHM3.0 %$1,200 $1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Minneapolis-Mall of AmericaIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Nashville-BrentwoodIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Dallas-Market CenterIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Hartford-FarmingtonIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Orlando-MaitlandIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hampton Inn & Suites Houston-Medical CenterIHM3.0 %1,000 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Long Island HoltsvilleIHM3.0 %1,000 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn White PlainsIHM3.0 %1,000 750 1.0 %
Residence Inn New RochelleIHM3.0 %1,000 750 1.0 %
Residence Inn Garden GroveIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton San Antonio River WalkIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Washington DCIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Tysons CornerIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hampton Inn Portland DowntownIHM3.0 %1,000 550 1.0 %
Courtyard HoustonIHM3.0 %1,000 550 1.0 %
Hyatt Place Pittsburgh North ShoreIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Hampton Inn ExeterIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hilton Garden Inn Denver TechIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn BellevueIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Springhill Suites SavannahIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Silicon Valley IIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Silicon Valley IIIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn San MateoIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Mountain ViewIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hyatt Place Cherry CreekIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Courtyard AddisonIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Courtyard West University HoustonIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn West University HoustonIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hilton Garden Inn BurlingtonIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn San Diego GaslampIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Hilton Garden Inn Marina del ReyIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn DedhamIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Il LuganoIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Hilton Garden Inn PortsmouthIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Courtyard SummervilleIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Embassy Suites SpringfieldIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn SummervilleIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Courtyard DallasIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %

Management fees totaled approximately $5.3 million, $10.8 million and $10.8 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
10


Hotel Franchise Agreements
The fees associated with the franchise agreements are calculated as a specified percentage of the hotel's gross room revenue. Terms of our franchise agreements for its 39 wholly owned hotels as of December 31, 2020 were as follows:
PropertyFranchise CompanyFranchise/Royalty FeeMarketing/Program FeeExpiration
Homewood Suites by Hilton Boston-Billerica/ Bedford/ BurlingtonPromus Hotels, Inc.4.0 %4.0 %2025
Homewood Suites by Hilton Minneapolis-Mall of AmericaPromus Hotels, Inc.4.0 %4.0 %2025
Homewood Suites by Hilton Nashville-BrentwoodPromus Hotels, Inc.4.0 %4.0 %2025
Homewood Suites by Hilton Dallas-Market CenterPromus Hotels, Inc.4.0 %4.0 %2025
Homewood Suites by Hilton Hartford-FarmingtonPromus Hotels, Inc4.0 %4.0 %2025
Homewood Suites by Hilton Orlando-MaitlandPromus Hotels, Inc.4.0 %4.0 %2025
Hampton Inn & Suites Houston-Medical CenterHampton Inns Franchise LLC6.0 %4.0 %2035
Residence Inn Long Island HoltsvilleMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2025
Residence Inn White PlainsMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2030
Residence Inn New RochelleMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2030
Residence Inn Garden GroveMarriott International, Inc.5.0 %2.5 %2031
Homewood Suites by Hilton San Antonio River WalkPromus Hotels, Inc.4.0 %4.0 %2026
Residence Inn Washington DCMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2033
Residence Inn Tysons CornerMarriott International, Inc.5.0 %2.5 %2031
Hampton Inn Portland DowntownHampton Inns Franchise LLC6.0 %4.0 %2032
Courtyard HoustonMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.0 %2030
Hyatt Place Pittsburgh North ShoreHyatt Hotels, LLC5.0 %3.5 %2030
Hampton Inn ExeterHampton Inns Franchise LLC6.0 %4.0 %2031
Hilton Garden Inn Denver TechHilton Garden Inns Franchise LLC5.5 %4.3 %2028
Residence Inn BellevueMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2033
Springhill Suites SavannahMarriott International, Inc.5.0 %2.5 %2033
Residence Inn Silicon Valley IMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2029
Residence Inn Silicon Valley IIMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2029
Residence Inn San MateoMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2029
Residence Inn Mountain ViewMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.5 %2029
Hyatt Place Cherry CreekHyatt Hotels, LLC3% to 5%3.5 %2034
Courtyard AddisonMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.0 %2029
Courtyard West University HoustonMarriott International, Inc.5.5 %2.0 %2029
Residence Inn West University HoustonMarriott International, Inc.6.0 %2.5 %2024
Hilton Garden Inn BurlingtonHilton Garden Inns Franchise LLC5.5 %4.3 %2029
Residence Inn San Diego GaslampMarriott International, Inc.6.0 %2.5 %2035
Hilton Garden Inn Marina del ReyHilton Franchise Holding LLC3% to 5.5%4.3 %2030
Residence Inn DedhamMarriott International, Inc.6.0 %2.5 %2030
Residence Inn Il LuganoMarriott International, Inc.3% to 6%2.5 %2045
Hilton Garden Inn PortsmouthHilton Garden Inns Franchise LLC5.5 %4.0 %2037
Courtyard SummervilleMarriott International, Inc.6.0 %2.5 %2037
Embassy Suites SpringfieldHilton Franchise Holding LLC5.5 %4.0 %2037
Residence Inn SummervilleMarriott International, Inc.6.0 %2.5 %2038
Courtyard DallasMarriott International, Inc.4% to 6%2.0 %2038
Franchise and marketing/program fees totaled approximately $11.6 million, $25.9 million and $24.9 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
11


Operating Leases
The Courtyard Altoona hotel was sold on May 7, 2019. The Courtyard Altoona hotel was subject to a ground lease with an expiration date of April 30, 2029 and we had an extension option of up to 12 additional terms of five years each. Monthly payments were determined by the quarterly average room occupancy of the hotel. Rent was equal to approximately $8,400 per month when monthly occupancy was less than 85% and could increase up to approximately $20,000 per month if occupancy was 100%, with minimum rent increased by two and one-half percent (2.5%) on an annual basis.
The Residence Inn San Diego Gaslamp hotel is subject to a ground lease with an expiration of January 31, 2065 and we have an extension option of up to three additional terms of ten years each. Monthly payments are currently approximately $44,400 per month and increase 10% every five years. The hotel is subject to supplemental rent payments annually calculated as 5% of gross revenues during the applicable lease year, minus 12 times the monthly base rent scheduled for the lease year.
The Residence Inn New Rochelle hotel is subject to an air rights lease and a garage lease, each of which expires on December 1, 2104. The lease agreements with the City of New Rochelle cover the space above the parking garage that is occupied by the hotel as well as 128 parking spaces in a parking garage that is attached to the hotel. The annual base rent for the garage lease is the hotel’s proportionate share of the city’s adopted budget for the operations, management and maintenance of the garage and established reserves to fund for the cost of capital repairs. Aggregate rent for 2020 under these leases amounted to approximately $31,000 per quarter.
The Hilton Garden Inn Marina del Rey hotel is subject to a ground lease with an expiration of December 31, 2067. Minimum monthly payments are currently approximately $47,500 per month and a percentage rent payment equal to 5% to 25% of gross income based on the type of income less the minimum rent is due in arrears.
The Company entered into a corporate office lease in September 2015. The lease is for a term of 11 years and includes a 12-month rent abatement period and certain tenant improvement allowances. The Company has a renewal option of up to two successive terms of five years each. The Company shares the space with related parties and is reimbursed for the pro-rata share of rentable space occupied by the related parties.
The Company is the lessee under ground, air rights, garage and office lease agreements for certain of its properties, all of which qualify as operating leases as of December 31, 2020. The leases typically provide multi-year renewal options to extend the term as lessee at the Company's option. Option periods are included in the calculation of the lease obligation liability only when options are reasonably certain to be exercised.
In calculating the Company's lease obligations under the various leases, the Company uses discount rates estimated to be equal to what the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term, for an amount equal to the lease payments, in a similar economic environment.
The following table includes information regarding the Company's leases for which it is the lessee, as of December 31, 2020, for each of the next five calendar years and thereafter (in thousands):

Total Future Lease Payments
Amount
 
2021$2,051 
20222,071 
20232,093 
20242,115 
20252,186 
Thereafter66,720 
Total lease payments$77,236 
12



Human Capital

As of February 24, 2021, we had 23 employees, 17 of which are shared with or allocated to the NewINK JV and Castleblack Owner Holding, LLC ("Castleblack"), an entity which is 2.5% owned by Mr. Fisher. All persons employed in the day-to-day operations of our hotels are employees of the management companies engaged by our TRS Lessees to operate such hotels. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement, however, certain hotel level employees of IHM are represented under a collective bargaining agreement.

Our key human capital management objectives are to attract, recruit, hire, develop and promote a deep and diverse set of talent that translates into a strong and successful workforce. To support these objectives, our human resource programs are designed to develop talent to prepare employees for critical roles and leadership positions for the future; reward and support employees through competitive pay and benefit programs; enhance our culture through efforts to foster, promote and preserve a culture of diversity and inclusion; and invest in technology, tools, and resources to enable employees at work.

Available Information
 
Our Internet website is www.chathamlodgingtrust.com. We make available free of charge through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, Section 16 reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5 and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after such documents are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. All reports that we have filed with the SEC, including this annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K, can also be obtained free of charge from the SEC's website www.sec.gov. In addition, our website includes corporate governance information, including the charters for committees of our Board of Trustees, our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Conflict of Interest Policy and our Code of Business Conduct. This information is available in print to any shareholder who requests it by writing to Investor Relations, Chatham Lodging Trust, 222 Lakeview Avenue, Suite 200, West Palm Beach, FL 33401. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this report or incorporated into any other filings that we make with the SEC.

13


Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our business faces many risks. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face. Additional risks that we do not yet know of or that we currently believe are immaterial may also impair our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risk factors actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer, our ability to make cash distributions to our shareholders could be impaired and the trading price of our common shares could decline. You should know that many of the risks described may apply to more than just the subsection in which we grouped them for the purpose of this presentation.
SUMMARY

Risks Related to Our Business
The current COVID-19 pandemic has had, and may continue to have, or a future pandemic could have, adverse effects on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance.
Our investment policies are subject to revision from time to time at our Board of Trustees' discretion.
We depend on the efforts and expertise of our key executive officers whose continued service is not guaranteed.
Our future growth depends on obtaining new financing.
We must rely on third party management companies to operate our hotels in order to qualify as a REIT.
The management of the hotels in our portfolio is currently concentrated in one hotel management company.
Our franchisors could cause us to expend additional funds on upgraded operating standards.
Our franchisors may cancel or fail to renew our existing franchise licenses.
Fluctuations in our financial performance, capital expenditure requirements and excess cash flow could adversely affect our ability to make distributions.
Future debt service obligations could adversely affect our overall operating results or cash flow and may require us to liquidate our properties.
If we are unable to repay our debt obligations in the future, we may be forced to refinance debt or dispose of or encumber our assets, which could adversely affect distributions to shareholders.
Interest expense on our debt may limit our cash available to fund growth strategies and shareholder distributions.
Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect us.
Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR rates are determined and phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may affect our financial results.
Joint venture investments that we make could be adversely affected by our lack of decision-making authority, our reliance on joint venture partners' financial condition and disputes between us and our joint venture partners.
It may be difficult for us to exit a joint venture after an impasse with our co-venturer.    
Our Operating Partnership acts as guarantor under certain debt obligations of the JVs.
We may from time to time make distributions to our shareholders in the form of our common shares, which could result in shareholders incurring tax liability without receiving sufficient cash to pay such tax.
Our conflict of interest policy may not be successful in eliminating the influence of future conflicts of interest that may arise between us and our trustees, officers and employees.
There may be conflicts of interest between us and affiliates owned by our Chief Executive Officer.
Hotel development is subject to timing, cost, and other risks.
Risks Related to the Lodging Industry
The lodging industry has experienced significant declines in the past and failure of the lodging industry to exhibit improvement may adversely affect our ability to execute our business strategy.
Our ability to make distributions to our shareholders may be affected by operating risks in the lodging industry.
Competition for acquisitions may reduce the number of properties we can acquire.
Competition for guests may lower our hotels' revenues and profitability.    
The cyclical nature of the lodging industry may adversely affect the return on our investments.
Due to our concentration therein, a downturn in the lodging industry would adversely affect our business.
The ongoing need for capital expenditures at our hotel properties may adversely affect our business.

14


The increasing use by consumers of Internet travel intermediaries and alternative lodging market places may adversely affect our profitability.
The need for business-related travel may be adversely affected by the use of business-related technology.
We and our hotel managers rely on information technology in our operations, and any material failure, inadequacy, interruption or security failure of that technology could harm our business.
Future terrorist attacks or changes in terror alert levels could adversely affect travel and hotel demand.
We may assume liabilities in connection with the acquisition of hotel properties, including unknown liabilities.
Uninsured and underinsured losses could adversely affect our operating results.
Noncompliance with environmental laws and governmental regulations could adversely affect our business.
Compliance with the ADA and other changes in governmental rules and regulations could substantially increase our cost of doing business.
The outbreak of widespread contagious disease, such as COVID-19, could reduce travel.
General Risks Related to Real Estate Industry
Illiquidity of real estate investments could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our hotel properties.
Increases in our property taxes would adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
Our hotel properties may contain or develop harmful mold, which could lead to liabilities and remediation costs.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
Our rights and the rights of our shareholders to take action against our trustees and officers are limited.
Provisions of Maryland law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our Company.
Provisions of our declaration of trust may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our Company.
Failure to make required distributions would subject us to tax.
Failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT would subject us to federal income tax and potentially other taxes.
Our TRS Lessee structure subjects us to the risk of increased hotel operating expenses.
Our TRS structure increases our overall tax liability.
Our transactions with our TRS will cause us to be subject to a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if those transactions are not conducted on arm's-length terms.
If our leases with our TRS Lessees are not respected as true leases for federal income tax purposes, we would fail to qualify as a REIT.
Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.
If our hotel managers do not qualify as "eligible independent contractors," we would fail to qualify as a REIT.
Our ownership limitations may restrict or prevent you from engaging in certain transfers of our common shares.
The ability of our Board of Trustees to revoke our REIT qualification without shareholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our shareholders.
The ability of our Board of Trustees to change our major policies may not be in our shareholders’ interest.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately determine our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, our investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could harm our business and the value of our shares.
Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forego otherwise attractive opportunities or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.
We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes.
We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations to make distributions to our shareholders at any time in the future.
Our revolving credit facility may limit our ability to pay dividends on common shares.
The market price of our equity securities may vary substantially.
The number of shares available for future sale could adversely affect the market price of our common shares.
Future offerings of debt or equity securities or incurrence of debt may adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

15


Risks Related to Our Business
 
The current COVID-19 pandemic has had, and may continue to have, or a future pandemic could have, adverse effects on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance.

The global pandemic caused by the coronavirus known as COVID-19 has had a severe and negative impact on both the U.S. economy and the global economy. Financial markets have experienced significant volatility in 2020, which is expected to continue over the upcoming quarters. Globally and throughout the United States, federal and local governments have instituted quarantines, restrictions on travel, school closings, "shelter in place" orders, and restrictions on types of businesses that may continue operations. Although certain of these restrictions have begun, and may continue, to ease in some places, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including large outbreaks of COVID-19 in various regions, has resulted, and may continue to result, in their reinstitution. These restrictions have had a severe impact on the U.S. lodging industry and some of our hotels continue to operate at a significantly reduced occupancy.

While the rapid development and fluidity of the COVID-19 pandemic precludes any prediction as to the ultimate adverse impact of COVID-19, the spread of COVID-19 has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant disruption of the global financial market and an increase in unemployment in the U.S. Although the FDA has approved certain therapies and two vaccines for emergency use and distribution to certain groups of individuals, (i) the initial rollout of vaccine distribution has encountered significant delays, and (ii) there remain uncertainties as to the amount of vaccine available for distribution, the logistics of implementing a national vaccine program, and the overall efficacy of the vaccines once widely administered, especially as new strains of COVID-19 have been discovered, and the level of resistance these new strains have to the existing vaccines, if any, remains unknown. Until such therapies and vaccines are widely available and effective, the pandemic and public and private responses to the pandemic may lead to deterioration of economic conditions, an economic downturn, and/or a recession, at a global scale, which could materially affect our performance, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

In response to the supply and distribution issues surrounding the vaccine, in January 2021, President Biden outlined a plan to create additional vaccination sites, increase the supply and distribution of vaccines, and increase the number of vaccinations administered to Americans. The Biden administration plans to utilize the Defense Production Act to maximize the manufacturing and distribution of vaccines in order to administer 100 million vaccination shots within the first 100 days of holding office.

In addition to the currently approved vaccines, as of January 2021, there were over 60 other potential vaccines in clinical development that may contribute to increasing the supply of vaccines in 2021. The current vaccines in development use a myriad of different scientific approaches to attempt to provoke an immune response, including:

Genetic vaccines that use part of the coronavirus’s genetic code;
Viral vector vaccines that use a virus to deliver coronavirus genes into cells;
Protein-based vaccines that use a coronavirus protein or protein fragment to stimulate the immune system; and
Whole-virus vaccines that use a weakened or inactivated version of the coronavirus.

Over 60 potential vaccines are currently in human clinical trials, with nearly a third of these in later stages of clinical development. Phase I trials typically include a small number of participants to test safety and dosage as well as to confirm that the vaccine stimulates the immune system. Phase II trials involve hundreds of participants split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to determine whether the vaccine acts differently in each subpopulation. Phase III trials involve delivering the vaccine to tens of thousands of people, observing how many subsequently become infected, and determining the severity of symptoms when compared with volunteer subjects who received a placebo. Regulators in each country will review the trial results to make a determination as to whether the drug or vaccine should be approved. As of January 2021, there were 20 potential vaccines in Phase III trials, including a number that require only a single dose, rather than two doses for the currently approved vaccines and that are potentially easier to distribute.

The following factors should be considered since the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly adversely affected the ability of our hotel managers to successfully operate our hotels and has, or the continued and prolonged effects of the COVID-19 may have, a significant adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows due to, among other factors:

16


Significant reduction of operations at some of our properties;
a variety of factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic have caused, and are expected to continue to cause, a sharp decline in group, business and leisure travel, including but not limited to (i) restrictions on travel mandated by governmental entities or voluntarily imposed by employers, (ii) the postponement or cancellation of conventions and conferences, music and arts festivals, sporting events and other large public gatherings, (iii) the closure of amusement parks, museums and other tourist attractions, (iv) the closure of colleges and universities, and (v) negative public perceptions of travel and public gatherings in light of the perceived risks associated with COVID-19;
travelers are, and may continue to be, wary to travel where, or because, they may view the risk of contagion as increased and contagion or virus-related deaths linked or alleged to be linked to travel to our properties, whether accurate or not, may injure our reputation;
travelers may be dissuaded from traveling due to possible enhanced COVID-19-related screening measures which are being implemented across multiple markets we serve;
travelers may be dissuaded from traveling due to the concern that additional travel restrictions implemented between their departure and return may affect their ability to return to their homes;
commercial airline service has been reduced or suspended to many of the areas in which our hotels are located, and if scheduled airline service does not increase or return to normal levels once our resorts are re-opened it could negatively affect our revenues;
there remain uncertainties as to the amount of vaccine available for distribution, the logistics of implementing a national vaccine program, and the overall efficacy of the vaccines once widely administered, especially as new strains of COVID-19 have been discovered, and the level of resistance of these new strains;
the reduced economic activity could also result in an economic recession, and increased unemployment, which could negatively impact future ability or desire to travel lodging demand and, therefore, our revenues, even after the temporary restrictions are lifted;
a decrease in the ancillary revenue from amenities at our properties;
the financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively impact our future compliance with the financial covenants of our credit facility or other debt obligations, and result in a default and potentially an acceleration of indebtedness which would adversely affect our financial condition and liquidity;
difficulty in accessing debt and equity capital on attractive terms, or at all, and a severe disruption and instability in the global financial markets or deteriorations in credit and financing conditions may affect our access to capital;
the general decline in business activity and demand for real estate transactions adversely affecting our ability to acquire additional properties;
the potential negative impact on the health of our personnel, particularly if a significant number of them are impacted, could result in a deterioration in our ability to ensure business continuity during and after this disruption;
the increase in number of our employees working remotely has increased certain risks to our business, including increased demand on our information technology resources and systems, greater potential for phishing and other cybersecurity attacks, and an increase in the number of points of potential attack;
we may be subject to increased risks related to employee matters, including increased employment litigation and claims for severance or other benefits tied to termination or furloughs as a result of reduced operations prompted by the effects of the pandemic; and
the reduction in our cash flows caused the suspension of dividends during the first quarter of 2020, and continued suspension through the remainder of 2020, and could impact our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders at expected levels in the future.

The rapid development and fluidity of the COVID-19 pandemic makes it extremely difficult to assess its full adverse economic impact, and future impact, on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance. In addition, an outbreak of another disease or similar public health threat, or fear of such an event, that affects travel demand, travel behavior or travel restrictions could have a material adverse impact on the Company's business, financial condition and operating results. Outbreaks of other diseases could also result in increased government restrictions and regulation, such as those actions described above or otherwise, which could adversely affect our operations.

The potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic also could intensify or otherwise affect many of our other risk factors that are included in Part 1-Item 1A. Because the COVID-19 situation is unprecedented and continuously evolving, the other potential impacts to our risk factors that are further described in our Annual Report are uncertain.

17


Our investment policies are subject to revision from time to time at our Board of Trustees' discretion, which could diminish shareholder returns below expectations.
 
Our investment policies may be amended or revised from time to time at the discretion of our Board of Trustees, without a vote of our shareholders. Such discretion could result in investments that may not yield returns consistent with investors' expectations.
 
We depend on the efforts and expertise of our key executive officers whose continued service is not guaranteed.
 
We depend on the efforts and expertise of our chief executive officer, as well as our other senior executives, to execute our business strategy. The loss of their services, and our inability to find suitable replacements, could have an adverse effect on our business.
 
Our future growth depends on obtaining new financing and if we cannot secure financing in the future, our growth will be limited.
 
The success of our growth strategy depends on access to capital through use of excess cash flow, borrowings or subsequent issuances of common shares or other securities. Acquisitions of new hotel properties will require significant additional capital and existing hotels (including those owned through joint ventures) require periodic capital improvement initiatives to remain competitive. We may not be able to fund acquisitions or capital improvements solely from cash provided from our operating activities because we must distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gains) each year to satisfy the requirements for qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. As a result, our ability to fund capital expenditures for acquisitions through retained earnings is very limited. Our ability to grow through acquisitions of hotels will be limited if we cannot obtain satisfactory debt or equity financing, which will depend on capital markets conditions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain additional equity or debt financing or that we will be able to obtain such financing on favorable terms.
 
We must rely on third party management companies to operate our hotels in order to qualify as a REIT under the Code and, as a result, we have less control than if we were operating the hotels directly.
 
To maintain our qualification as a REIT under the Code, third parties must operate our hotels. We lease each of our hotels to our TRS Lessees. Our TRS Lessees, in turn, have entered into management agreements with third party management companies to operate our hotels. While we expect to have some input on operating decisions for those hotels leased by our TRS Lessees and operated under management agreements, we have less control than if we were managing the hotels ourselves. Even if we believe that our hotels are not being operated efficiently, we may not be able to require an operator to change the way it operates our hotels. If this is the case, we may decide to terminate the management agreement and potentially incur costs associated with the termination. Additionally, Mr. Fisher, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, controls IHM, a hotel management company that, as of December 31, 2020, managed 39 of our hotels and all of the 46 hotels owned by the NewINK JV, and may manage additional hotels that we acquire in the future. See "There may be conflicts of interest between us and affiliates owned by our Chief Executive Officer" below.
 
The management of the hotels in our portfolio is currently concentrated in one hotel management company.
As of December 31, 2020, IHM managed all 39 of our wholly owned hotels as well as all of the 46 hotels owned by the NewINK JV. As a result, a substantial portion of our revenues is generated by hotels managed by IHM. This significant concentration of operational risk in one hotel management company makes us more vulnerable economically than if our hotel management was more diversified among several hotel management companies. Any adverse developments in IHM's business and affairs, financial strength or ability to operate our hotels efficiently and effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders. We cannot provide assurance that IHM will satisfy its obligations to us or effectively and efficiently operate out hotel properties.
 
18


Our franchisors could cause us to expend additional funds on upgraded operating standards, which may reduce cash available for distribution to shareholders.
 
Our hotels operate under franchise agreements, and we may become subject to the risks that are found in concentrating our hotel properties in one or several franchise brands. Our hotel operators must comply with operating standards and terms and conditions imposed by the franchisors of the hotel brands under which our hotels operate. Pursuant to certain of the franchise agreements, certain upgrades are required approximately every six years, and the franchisors may also impose upgraded or new brand standards, such as substantially upgrading the bedding, enhancing the complimentary breakfast or increasing the value of guest awards under its ‘frequent guest' program, which can add substantial expense for the hotel. The franchisors also may require us to make certain capital improvements to maintain the hotel in accordance with system standards, the cost of which can be substantial and may reduce cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
 
Our franchisors may cancel or fail to renew our existing franchise licenses, which could adversely affect our operating results and our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
 
Our franchisors periodically inspect our hotels to confirm adherence to the franchisors' operating standards. The failure of a hotel to maintain standards could result in the loss or cancellation of a franchise license. We rely on our hotel managers to conform to operational standards. In addition, when the term of a franchise license expires, the franchisor has no obligation to issue a new franchise license. The loss of a franchise license could have a material adverse effect on the operations or the underlying value of the affected hotel because of the loss of associated name recognition, marketing support and centralized reservation systems provided by the franchisor. The loss of a franchise license or adverse developments with respect to a franchise brand under which our hotels operate could also have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to shareholders.
Fluctuations in our financial performance, capital expenditure requirements and excess cash flow could adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
As a REIT, we are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income each year to our shareholders (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gains). In the event of downturns in our operating results and financial performance or unanticipated capital improvements to our hotels (including capital improvements that may be required by franchisors or joint venture partners), we may be unable to declare or pay distributions to our shareholders, or maintain our then-current dividend rate. The timing and amount of distributions are in the sole discretion of our Board of Trustees, which considers, among other factors, our financial performance, debt service obligations and applicable debt covenants (if any), and capital expenditure requirements. We cannot assure you we will generate sufficient cash in order to continue to fund distributions.
 
Among the factors which could adversely affect our results of operations and distributions to shareholders are reductions in hotel revenues; increases in operating expenses at the hotels leased to our TRS Lessees; increased debt service requirements, including those resulting from higher interest rates on our indebtedness; cash demands from the joint ventures and capital expenditures at our hotels, including capital expenditures required by the franchisors of our hotels, and unknown liabilities, such as environmental claims. Hotel revenue can decrease for a number of reasons, including increased competition from new hotels and decreased demand for hotel rooms. These factors can reduce both occupancy and room rates at hotels and could directly affect us negatively by: 
 •reducing the hotel revenue that we recognize with respect to hotels leased to our TRS Lessees; and
 
 •correspondingly reducing the profits (or increasing the loss) of hotels leased to our TRS Lessees. We may be unable to reduce many of our expenses in tandem with revenue declines, (or we may choose not to reduce them for competitive reasons), and certain expenses may increase while our revenue declines.

19


Future debt service obligations could adversely affect our overall operating results or cash flow and may require us to liquidate our properties, which could adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our shareholders and our share price.
 
We plan to maintain a prudent capital structure and intend to maintain our leverage over the long term at a ratio of net debt to investment in hotels (at cost) (defined as our initial acquisition price plus the gross amount of any subsequent capital investment and excluding any impairment charges) at a level that will be similar to the levels at which we have operated in the past. A subsequent decrease in hotel property values will not necessarily cause us to repay debt to comply with this limitation. We may be able to incur substantial additional debt, including secured debt, in the future. Incurring additional debt could subject us to many risks, including the risks that:
 
 •operating cash flow will be insufficient to make required payments of expenses, principal and interest;
 
 •our leverage may increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
 
 •we may be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing cash available for distribution to our shareholders, funds available for operations and capital expenditures, future business opportunities or other purposes;
 
 •the terms of any refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of the debt being refinanced; and
 
 •the terms of our debt may limit our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
If we violate covenants in our debt agreements, we could be required to repay all or a portion of our indebtedness before maturity at a time when we might be unable to arrange financing for such repayment on attractive terms, if at all.

If we are unable to repay our debt obligations in the future, we may be forced to refinance debt or dispose of or encumber our assets, which could adversely affect distributions to shareholders.
 
If we do not have sufficient funds to repay our outstanding debt at maturity or before maturity in the event we breach our debt agreements and our lenders exercise their right to accelerate repayment, we may be required to refinance the debt through additional debt or additional equity financings. Covenants applicable to our existing and future debt could impair our planned investment strategy and, if violated, result in a default. If we are unable to refinance our debt on acceptable terms, we may be forced to dispose of hotel properties on disadvantageous terms, potentially resulting in losses. We have placed mortgages on certain of our hotel properties, have assumed mortgages on other hotels we acquired and may place additional mortgages on certain of our hotels to secure other debt. To the extent we cannot meet any future debt service obligations, we will risk losing some or all of our hotel properties that are pledged to secure our obligations to foreclosure.

Interest expense on our debt may limit our cash available to fund our growth strategies and shareholder distributions.
 
Higher interest rates could increase debt service requirements on debt under our credit facility and any floating rate debt that we incur in the future, as well as any amounts we seek to refinance, and could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our shareholders, as well as reduce funds available for our operations, future business opportunities, or other purposes. Interest expense on our credit facility is based on floating interest rates.
 
Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our results of operations and our ability to make shareholder distributions.
 
We may obtain in the future one or more forms of interest rate protection, such as swap agreements, interest rate cap contracts or similar agreements, to hedge against the possible negative effects of interest rate fluctuations. However, such hedging implies costs and we cannot assure you that any hedging will adequately relieve the adverse effects of interest rate increases or that counterparties under these agreements will honor their obligations thereunder. Furthermore, any such hedging agreements would subject us to the risk of incurring significant non-cash losses on our hedges due to declines in interest rates if our hedges were not considered effective under applicable accounting standards.

20


Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR rates are determined and phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may affect our financial results.

The chief executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority ("FCA"), which regulates LIBOR, has recently announced (the "FCA Announcement") that the FCA intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms or the establishment of alternative reference rates in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Furthermore, in the United States, efforts to identify a set of alternative U.S. dollar reference interest rates include proposals by the Alternative Reference Rates Committee of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large US financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), a new index calculated based on short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing SOFR rates in April 2018. The market transition away from LIBOR and towards SOFR is expected to be gradual and complicated. There are significant differences between LIBOR and SOFR, such as LIBOR being an unsecured lending rate and SOFR a secured lending rate, and SOFR is an overnight rate and LIBOR reflects term rates at different maturities. These and other differences create the potential for basis risk between the two rates. The impact of any basis risk between LIBOR and SOFR may negatively affect our operating results. Any of these alternative methods may result in interest rates that are higher than if LIBOR were available in its current form, which could have a material adverse effect on results.

Any changes announced by the FCA, including the FCA Announcement, other regulators or any other successor governance or oversight body, or future changes adopted by such body, in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR rates are determined may result in a sudden or prolonged increase or decrease in the reported LIBOR rates. If that were to occur, the level of interest payments we incur may change. In addition, although certain of our LIBOR based obligations provide for alternative methods of calculating the interest rate payable on certain of our obligations if LIBOR is not reported, uncertainty as to the extent and manner of future changes may result in interest rates and/or payments that are higher than, lower than or that do not otherwise correlate over time with the interest rates and/or payments that would have been made on our obligations if LIBOR rate was available in its current form.
 
Joint venture investments that we make could be adversely affected by our lack of decision-making authority, our reliance on joint venture partners' financial condition and disputes between us and our joint venture partners.
 
We are co-investors with CLNY in each of the NewINK JV and Inland JV, which own 46 and 48 hotels, respectively, and we may invest in additional joint ventures in the future. We may not be in a position to exercise decision-making authority regarding the properties owned through the JVs or other joint ventures that we may invest in. Our joint venture partners may be able to make certain important decisions about our joint venture and the joint venture properties without our approval or consent. Investments in joint ventures may, under certain circumstances, involve risks not present when a third party is not involved, including reliance on our joint venture partners and the possibility that joint venture partners might become bankrupt or fail to fund their share of required capital contributions, thus exposing us to liabilities in excess of our share of the investment. Joint venture partners may have business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our business interests or goals, and may be in a position to take actions contrary to our policies or objectives. Such investments may also have the potential risk of impasses on decisions, such as a sale, because neither we nor the partner would have full control over the partnership or joint venture. Any disputes that may arise between us and our joint venture partners may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and/or trustees from focusing their time and effort on our business. Consequently, actions by, or disputes with, our joint venture partners might result in subjecting properties owned by the partnership or joint venture to additional risk. In addition, we may in certain circumstances be liable for the actions of our third-party partners.

 It may be difficult for us to exit a joint venture after an impasse with our co-venturer.
In our joint ventures, there may be a potential risk of impasse in some joint venture decisions because our approval and the approval of each co-venturer will be required for some decisions. The types of decisions that would require the approval of each co-venturer would be determined under the joint venture agreement between the parties, but those types of decisions are likely to include borrowing above a certain level or disposing of assets. In some instances, the co-venturer partner may be able to effect the sale of joint venture properties or borrow funds without our approval or consent. In any joint venture, we may have the right to buy our co-venturer’s interest or to sell our own interest on specified terms and conditions in the event of an impasse regarding a sale. However, it is possible that neither party will have the funds necessary to complete such a buy-out. In addition, we may experience difficulty in locating a third-party purchaser for our joint venture interest and in obtaining a favorable sale price for the interest. As a result, it is possible that we may not be able to exit the relationship if an impasse develops. In addition, there is no limitation under our declaration of trust and bylaws as to the amount of funds that we may invest in joint ventures. Accordingly, we may invest a substantial amount of our funds in joint ventures, which ultimately may
21


not be profitable as a result of disagreements with or among our co-venturers.

Our Operating Partnership acts as guarantor under certain debt obligations of the JVs.
In connection with (i) the non-recourse mortgage loan secured by the NewINK JV properties and the related non-recourse mezzanine loan secured by the membership interests in the owners of the NewINK JV properties  and (ii)  the non-recourse mortgage loan secured by the Inland JV properties, the Operating Partnership provided the applicable lenders with customary environmental indemnities, as well as guarantees of certain customary non-recourse carveout provisions such as fraud, material and intentional misrepresentations and misapplication of funds.  In some circumstances, such as the bankruptcy of the applicable borrowers, the  guarantees are for the full amount of the outstanding debt, but in most circumstances,  the guarantees are capped at 15% of the debt outstanding at the time in question (in the case of the NewINK JV loans) or 20% of the debt outstanding at the time in question (in the case of the Inland JV loans).  In connection with each of the NewINK JV and Inland JV loans, the Operating Partnership has entered into a contribution agreement with its JV partner whereby the JV partner is, in most cases, responsible to cover such JV partner’s pro rata share of  any amounts due by the Operating Partnership under the applicable guarantees and environmental indemnities.

We may from time to time make distributions to our shareholders in the form of our common shares, which could result in shareholders incurring tax liability without receiving sufficient cash to pay such tax.
 
Although we have no current intention to do so, we may in the future distribute taxable dividends that are payable in cash or common shares. Taxable shareholders receiving such dividends will be required to include the full amount of the dividend as ordinary income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for federal income tax purposes. As a result, shareholders may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. If a U.S. shareholder sells the common shares that it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our shares at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to certain non-U.S. shareholders, we may be required to withhold federal income tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in common shares. In addition, if a significant number of our shareholders sell common shares in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price of our common shares. 

Our conflict of interest policy may not be successful in eliminating the influence of future conflicts of interest that may arise between us and our trustees, officers and employees.
 
We have adopted a policy that any transaction, agreement or relationship in which any of our trustees, officers or employees has a direct or indirect pecuniary interest must be approved by a majority of our disinterested trustees. Other than this policy, however, we have not adopted and may not adopt additional formal procedures for the review and approval of conflict of interest transactions generally. As such, our policies and procedures may not be successful in eliminating the influence of conflicts of interest.
 
There may be conflicts of interest between us and affiliates owned by our Chief Executive Officer.
 
Our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Fisher, owned 52.5% of IHM, a hotel management company that, as of December 31, 2020, managed 39 of our wholly owned hotels, all of the 46 hotels owned by the NewINK JV and none of the hotels owned by the Inland JV, and may manage additional hotels that we acquire or own (wholly or through a joint venture) in the future. Because Mr. Fisher is our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and controls IHM, conflicts of interest may arise between us and Mr. Fisher as to whether and on what terms new management contracts will be awarded to IHM, whether and on what terms management agreements will be renewed upon expiration of their terms, enforcement of the terms of the management agreements and whether hotels managed by IHM will be sold.

22


Hotel development is subject to timing, cost, and other risks.

As of December 31, 2020, we were in the process of developing a hotel in Los Angeles, California. Hotel development involves a number of risks, including the following:

possible environmental problems;
construction delays or cost overruns that may increase project costs;
receipt of and expense related to zoning, occupancy and other required governmental permits and authorizations;
development costs incurred for projects that are not pursued to completion;
acts of God such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods or fires that could adversely affect a project;
inability to raise capital; and
governmental restrictions on the nature or size of a project.

We cannot provide assurance that any development project will be completed on time or within budget. Our inability to complete a project on time or within budget could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows or the market price of our stock.

Risks Related to the Lodging Industry
 
The lodging industry has experienced significant declines in the past and failure of the lodging industry to exhibit improvement may adversely affect our ability to execute our business strategy.
 
The performance of the lodging industry has historically been closely linked to the performance of the general economy and, specifically, growth in U.S. gross domestic product, or GDP. It is also sensitive to business and personal discretionary spending levels. Declines in corporate budgets and consumer demand due to adverse general economic conditions, risks affecting or reducing travel patterns, lower consumer confidence or adverse political conditions can lower the revenues and profitability of our future hotel properties and therefore the net operating profits of our TRS.
 
A substantial part of our business strategy is based on the belief that the lodging markets in which we invest will experience improving economic fundamentals in the future. We cannot predict the extent to which lodging industry fundamentals will improve. In the event conditions in the industry do not improve, or deteriorate, our ability to execute our business strategy would be adversely affected, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
23


Our ability to make distributions to our shareholders may be affected by various operating risks common in the lodging industry.
 
Hotel properties are subject to various operating risks common to the hotel industry, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 •competition from other hotel properties and alternative lodging market places in the markets in which we and our joint ventures operate, some of which may have greater marketing and financial resources;
 •an over-supply or over-building of hotel properties in the markets in which we and our joint ventures operate, which could adversely affect occupancy rates and revenues;
 •dependence on business and commercial travelers and tourism;
 •increases in energy costs and other expenses and factors affecting travel, which may affect travel patterns and reduce the number of business and commercial travelers and tourists;
 •increases in operating costs due to inflation and other factors that may not be offset by increased room rates;
 •necessity for periodic capital reinvestment to repair and upgrade hotel properties;
 •changes in interest rates and in the availability, cost and terms of debt financing;
 •changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance with laws and regulations, fiscal policies and ordinances;
 •unforeseen events beyond our control, such as terrorist attacks, travel related health concerns including pandemics and epidemics such as COVID-19, H1N1 influenza (swine flu), avian bird flu, SARS and Zika virus, political instability, regional hostilities, imposition of taxes or surcharges by regulatory authorities, travel related accidents and unusual weather patterns, including natural disasters such as hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, wildfires and flooding;
 •disruptions to the operations of our hotels caused by organized labor activities, including strikes, work stoppages or slowdowns;
 •adverse effects of a downturn in the economy or in the hotel industry; and
 •risk generally associated with the ownership of hotel properties and real estate, as we discuss in detail below.
 
These factors could reduce the net operating profits of our TRS and the rental income we receive from our TRS Lessees, which in turn could adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
Competition for acquisitions may reduce the number of properties we can acquire.

We compete for hotel investment opportunities with competitors that may have a different tolerance for risk or have substantially greater financial resources than are available to us. This competition may generally limit the number of hotel properties that we are able to acquire and may also increase the bargaining power of hotel owners seeking to sell, making it more difficult for us to acquire hotel properties on attractive terms, or at all.
 
Competition for guests may lower our hotels' revenues and profitability.
 
The upscale extended-stay and mid-price segments of the hotel business are highly competitive. Our hotels and those of our JVs compete on the basis of location, room rates and quality, service levels, reputation, and reservation systems, among many other factors. Competitors may have substantially greater marketing and financial resources than our operators or us. New hotels create new competitors, in some cases without corresponding increases in demand for hotel rooms. The result in some cases may be lower revenue, which would result in lower cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
 
The cyclical nature of the lodging industry may cause the return on our investments to be substantially less than we expect.
 
The lodging industry is cyclical in nature. Fluctuations in lodging demand and, therefore, operating performance, are caused largely by general economic and local market conditions, which subsequently affects levels of business and leisure travel. In addition to general economic conditions, new hotel room supply is an important factor that can affect the lodging industry's performance and overbuilding has the potential to further exacerbate the negative impact of an economic recession.
24


Room rates and occupancy, and thus RevPAR, tend to increase when demand growth exceeds supply growth. Decline in lodging demand, or a continued growth in lodging supply, could result in returns that are substantially below expectations or result in losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
Due to our concentration in hotel investments, a downturn in the lodging industry would adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
 
Our entire business is related to the hotel industry. Therefore, a downturn in the hotel industry, in general, will have a material adverse effect on our revenues, net operating profits and cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
 
The ongoing need for capital expenditures at our hotel properties may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and limit our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
Hotel properties have an ongoing need for renovations and other capital improvements, including replacements, from time to time, of furniture, fixtures and equipment. The franchisors of our hotels and those of our JVs also require periodic capital improvements as a condition of keeping the franchise licenses. In addition, our lenders require us to set aside amounts for capital improvements to our hotel properties. These capital improvements may give rise to the following risks:
 •possible environmental problems;
 •construction cost overruns and delays;
 •possibility that revenues will be reduced temporarily while rooms or restaurants offered are out of service due to capital improvement projects;
 •a possible shortage of available cash to fund capital improvements and the related possibility that financing for these capital improvements may not be available on affordable terms;
 •uncertainties as to market demand or a loss of market demand after capital improvements have begun; and
 •disputes with franchisors/managers regarding compliance with relevant management/franchise agreements.
 
The costs of all these capital improvements could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
 
The increasing use by consumers of Internet travel intermediaries and alternative lodging market places may adversely affect our profitability.
 
Some of our hotel rooms are booked through Internet travel intermediaries. As Internet bookings increase, these intermediaries may be able to obtain higher commissions, reduced room rates or other significant contract concessions from us and our management companies. Moreover, some of these Internet travel intermediaries are attempting to offer hotel rooms as a commodity, by increasing the importance of price and general indicators of quality (such as "three-star downtown hotel") at the expense of brand identification. These agencies hope that consumers will eventually develop brand loyalties to their reservations system rather than to the brands under which our properties are franchised. Additional sources of competition, including alternative lodging marketplaces, such as HomeAway and Airbnb, which operate websites that market available furnished, privately-owned residential properties, including homes and condominiums, that can be rented on a nightly, weekly or monthly basis, may, as they become more accepted, lead to a reduced demand for conventional hotel guest rooms and to an increased supply of lodging alternatives. Although most of the business for our hotels is expected to be derived from traditional channels, if the amount of bookings made through Internet intermediaries or the use of alternative lodging marketplaces increases significantly, room revenues may flatten or decrease and our profitability may be adversely affected.

The need for business-related travel and, thus, demand for rooms in our hotels may be materially and adversely affected by the increased use of business-related technology.

The increased use of teleconference and video-conference technology by businesses could result in decreased business travel as companies increase the use of technologies that allow multiple parties from different locations to participate at meetings without traveling to a centralized meeting location, such as our hotels. To the extent that such technologies play an increased role in day-to-day business and the necessity for business-related travel decreases, demand for our hotel rooms may decrease and we could be materially and adversely affected.

25


 We and our hotel managers rely on information technology in our operations, and any material failure, inadequacy, interruption or security failure of that technology could harm our business.

We and our hotel managers rely on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes, including financial transactions and records, personal identifying information, reservations, billing and operating data. We purchase some of our information technology from vendors, on whom our systems depend. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmission and storage of confidential customer information, such as individually identifiable information, including information relating to financial accounts. Although we have taken steps to protect the security of our information systems and the data maintained in those systems, it is possible that our safety and security measures will not be able to prevent the systems’ improper functioning or damage, or the improper access or disclosure of personally identifiable information such as in the event of cyber-attacks. Security breaches, including physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, attacks by hackers and similar breaches, can create system disruptions, shutdowns or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. Any failure to maintain proper function, security and availability of our information systems could interrupt our operations, damage our reputation, subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Future terrorist attacks or changes in terror alert levels could adversely affect travel and hotel demand.
 
Previous terrorist attacks and subsequent terrorist alerts have adversely affected the U.S. travel and hospitality industries, often disproportionately to the effect on the overall economy. The impact that terrorist attacks in the U.S. or elsewhere could have on domestic and international travel and our business in particular cannot be determined but any such attacks or the threat of such attacks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to finance our business, to insure our properties and to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
We may assume liabilities in connection with the acquisition of hotel properties, including unknown liabilities, which, if significant, could adversely affect our business.
We may assume existing liabilities in connection with the acquisition of hotel properties, some of which may be unknown or unquantifiable. Unknown liabilities might include liabilities for cleanup or remediation of undisclosed environmental conditions, claims of hotel guests, vendors or other persons dealing with the seller of a particular hotel property, tax liabilities, employment-related issues and accrued but unpaid liabilities whether incurred in the ordinary course of business or otherwise. If the magnitude of such unknown liabilities is high, they could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Uninsured and underinsured losses could adversely affect our operating results and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
We maintain comprehensive insurance on each of our hotel properties, including liability, terrorism, fire and extended coverage, of the type and amount customarily obtained for or by hotel property owners. There can be no assurance that such coverage will continue to be available at reasonable rates. Various types of catastrophic losses, like earthquakes and floods and losses from foreign terrorist activities such as those on September 11, 2001 or losses from domestic terrorist activities such as the Oklahoma City bombing, may not be insurable or may not be insurable on reasonable economic terms. Lenders may require such insurance and failure to obtain such insurance could constitute a default under loan agreements. Depending on our access to capital, liquidity and the value of the properties securing the affected loan in relation to the balance of the loan, a default could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and ability to obtain future financing.
 
In the event of a substantial loss, insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover the full current market value or replacement cost of the lost investment. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we invested in a hotel property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from that particular hotel. In that event, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations related to the property. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations and other factors might also keep us from using insurance proceeds to replace or renovate a hotel after it has been damaged or destroyed. Under those circumstances, the insurance proceeds we receive might be inadequate to restore our economic position on the damaged or destroyed property.
 
26


Noncompliance with environmental laws and governmental regulations could adversely affect our operating results and our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
 
Under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, an owner of real property may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances on or in such property. Such laws often impose such liability without regard to whether the owner knew of or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. The cost of any required remediation and the owner's liability therefore as to any property are generally not limited under such laws and could exceed the value of the property and/or the aggregate assets of the owner. The presence of such substances, or the failure to properly remediate contamination from such substances, may adversely affect our or our joint ventures' ability to sell the real estate or to borrow funds using such property as collateral, which could have an adverse effect on our return from such investment. Moreover, the presence of such substance or the failure to properly mediate such substances could adversely affect our operating results and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
Furthermore, various court decisions have established that third parties may recover damages for injury caused by release of hazardous substances and for property contamination. For instance, a person exposed to asbestos while working at or staying in a hotel may seek to recover damages if he or she suffers injury from the asbestos. Lastly, some of these environmental issues restrict the use of a property or place conditions on various activities. One example is laws that require a business using chemicals to manage them carefully and to notify local officials if regulated spills occur.
 
Although it is our policy to require an acceptable Phase I environmental survey for all real property in which we invest prior to our investment, such surveys are limited in scope. As a result, there can be no assurance that a Phase I environmental survey will uncover any or all hazardous or toxic substances on a property prior to our investment in that property. We cannot assure you:
 
that there are no existing liabilities related to our properties of which we are not aware;
that future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose material environmental liability; or
 
that the current environmental condition of a hotel will not be affected by the condition of properties in the vicinity of the hotel (such as the presence of leaking underground storage tanks) or by third parties unrelated to us.
 
Compliance with the ADA and other changes in governmental rules and regulations could substantially increase our cost of doing business.
 
Our hotel properties are subject to the ADA. Under the ADA, all places of public accommodation are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Although we intend to continue to acquire assets that are substantially in compliance with the ADA, we may incur additional costs of complying with the ADA at the time of acquisition and from time-to-time in the future to stay in compliance with any changes in the ADA. A number of additional federal, state and local laws exist that also may require modifications to our investments, or restrict certain further renovations thereof, with respect to access thereto by disabled persons. Additional legislation may impose further burdens or restrictions on owners with respect to access by disabled persons.

If we are required to make substantial modifications to our hotel properties, whether to comply with the ADA or other changes in governmental rules and regulations, our financial condition, results of operations, the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be adversely affected. The obligation to make readily achievable accommodations is an ongoing one, and we will continue to assess our properties and to make alterations as appropriate.

The outbreak of widespread contagious disease, such as the COVID-19, could reduce travel and adversely affect hotel demand.

The widespread outbreak of infectious or contagious disease, such as COVID-19 H1N1 influenza (swine flu), avian bird flu, SARS and Zika virus, has reduced travel into and from the affected areas, including travel from the affected areas to the U.S. Further outbreaks, especially in the U.S., could reduce travel and adversely affect the U.S. hotel industry generally and our business in particular.

27


General Risks Related to Real Estate Industry
 
Illiquidity of real estate investments could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our hotel properties.
 
Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, our ability to promptly sell one or more hotel properties in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions may be limited. The real estate market is affected by many factors that are beyond our control, including:
 
adverse changes in international, national, regional and local economic and market conditions;
changes in interest rates and in the availability, cost and terms of debt financing;
changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance with laws and regulations, fiscal policies and ordinances;
the ongoing need for capital improvements, particularly in older structures;
changes in operating expenses; and
civil unrest, acts of God, including earthquakes, wildfires, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods and other natural disasters, which may result in uninsured losses, and acts of war or terrorism.
 
We may seek to sell hotel properties owned by us or any of the JVs in the future. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any hotel property on acceptable terms.
 
If financing for hotel properties is not available or is not available on attractive terms, it will adversely impact the ability of third parties to buy our hotels. As a result, we or our JVs may hold hotel properties for a longer period than we would otherwise desire and may sell hotels at a loss.

We may be required to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements before a hotel property can be sold. We cannot assure you that we will have funds available to correct those defects or to make those improvements. In acquiring a hotel property, we may agree to lock-out provisions that materially restrict us from selling that property for a period of time or impose other restrictions, such as a limitation on the amount of debt that can be placed or repaid on that property. These factors and any others that would impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our properties could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition, as well as our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
Increases in our property taxes would adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
Hotel properties are subject to real and personal property taxes. These taxes may increase as tax rates change and as the properties are assessed or reassessed by taxing authorities. In particular, our property taxes could increase following our hotel purchases as the acquired hotels are reassessed. If property taxes increase, our financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be materially and adversely affected.
 
Our hotel properties may contain or develop harmful mold, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects and costs of remediating the problem.
 
When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Concern about indoor exposure to mold has been increasing, as exposure to mold may cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of mold to which hotel guests or employees could be exposed at any of the properties in which we own an interest could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold from the affected property. In addition, exposure to mold by guests or employees, management company employees or others could expose us to liability if property damage or health concerns arise.
 
28


Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
 
Our rights and the rights of our shareholders to take action against our trustees and officers are limited, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interests.
 
Under Maryland law generally, a trustee is required to perform his or her duties in good faith, in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in our best interests and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances. Under Maryland law, trustees are presumed to have acted with this standard of care. In addition, our declaration of trust limits the liability of our trustees and officers to us and our shareholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from:

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or
 
active and deliberate dishonesty by the trustee or officer that was established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action adjudicated.
 
Our bylaws obligate us to indemnify our trustees and officers for actions taken by them in those capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. Our bylaws require us to indemnify each trustee or officer, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service to us. In addition, we may be obligated to advance the defense costs incurred by our trustees and officers. As a result, we and our shareholders may have more limited rights against our trustees and officers than might otherwise exist absent the current provisions in our declaration of trust and bylaws or that might exist with other companies.
 
Provisions of Maryland law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our Company and may result in entrenchment of management and diminish the value of our common shares.
 
Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law ("MGCL") applicable to Maryland real estate investment trusts may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change of control under circumstances that otherwise could provide our common shareholders with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-prevailing market price of such shares, including:
 
"Business combination" provisions that, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between us and an "interested shareholder" (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our shares) or an affiliate of any interested shareholder for five years after the most recent date on which the shareholder becomes an interested shareholder, and thereafter imposes special appraisal rights and special shareholder voting requirements on these combinations; and
 
"Control share" provisions that provide that our "control shares" (defined as shares which, when aggregated with other shares controlled by the shareholder, entitle the shareholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing trustees) acquired in a "control share acquisition" (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of "control shares") have no voting rights except to the extent approved by our shareholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all interested shares.
 
Additionally, Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits our Board of Trustees, without shareholder approval and regardless of what is currently provided in our declaration of trust or bylaws, to implement certain takeover defenses, including, but not limited to, the adoption of a classified board. In November 2013, our Board of Trustees opted in to Subtitle 8 and adopted a classified board structure in order to protect shareholder value in the wake of what our Board considered to be an unsolicited and inadequate proposal to acquire us. Although our Board subsequently took action in April 2015 to opt back out of the provisions of Subtitle 8 and declassified our Board of Trustees, our Board may elect to opt back in to Subtitle 8 again in the future. These provisions may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making an acquisition proposal for our company or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company under the circumstances that otherwise could provide our common shareholders with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then current market price.
 
29


Provisions of our declaration of trust may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our Company and may result in entrenchment of management and diminish the value of our common shares.
 
Our declaration of trust authorizes our Board of Trustees to issue up to 500,000,000 common shares and up to 100,000,000 preferred shares. In addition, our Board of Trustees may, without shareholder approval, amend our declaration of trust to increase the aggregate number of our shares or the number of shares of any class or series that we have the authority to issue and to classify or reclassify any unissued common shares or preferred shares and to set the preferences, rights and other terms of the classified or reclassified shares. As a result, our Board of Trustees may authorize the issuance of additional shares or establish a series of common or preferred shares that may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company, including transactions at a premium over the market price of our shares, even if shareholders believe that a change of control is in their interest.
Failure to make required distributions would subject us to tax.
 
To maintain our qualifications as a REIT, each year we must distribute to our shareholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deductions for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our taxable income, we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on our undistributed REIT taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we pay out to our shareholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under the Code. Our only source of funds to make these distributions comes from distributions that we will receive from our Operating Partnership. Accordingly, we may be required to borrow or raise capital on terms, or sell assets at prices or at times we regard unfavorable or make taxable distributions of our capital shares or debt securities, to enable us to pay out enough of our REIT taxable income to satisfy the distribution requirement and to avoid federal corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax in a particular year.
 
Failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT would subject us to federal income tax and potentially to state and local taxes.
 
We elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. However, qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Code, for which only a limited number of judicial and administrative interpretations exist. Even an inadvertent or technical mistake could jeopardize our REIT qualification. Our qualification as a REIT depends on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis.
 
Moreover, new tax legislation, administrative guidance or court decisions, in each instance potentially applicable with retroactive effect, could make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. If we were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we would be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates and distributions to shareholders would not be deductible by us in computing our taxable income. We may also be subject to state and local taxes if we fail to qualify as a REIT. Any such corporate tax liability could be substantial and would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our shareholders, which in turn could have an adverse impact on the value of our shares of beneficial interest. If, for any reason, we failed to qualify as a REIT and we were not entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, we would be unable to elect REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to so qualify, which would negatively impact the value of our common shares.
 
Our TRS Lessee structure subjects us to the risk of increased hotel operating expenses that could adversely affect our operating results and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
Our leases with our TRS Lessees require our TRS Lessees to pay rent based in part on revenues from our hotels. Our operating risks include decreases in hotel revenues and increases in hotel operating expenses, which would adversely affect our TRS Lessees' ability to pay rent due under the leases, including but not limited to the increases in wage and benefit costs, repair and maintenance expenses, energy costs, property taxes, insurance costs and other operating expenses.
 
Increases in these operating expenses can have a significant adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
30


Our TRS structure increases our overall tax liability.
 
Our TRS holding company is subject to applicable federal, state and local income tax on its taxable income, which consists of the revenues from the hotel properties leased by our TRS Lessees, net of the operating expenses for such hotel properties and rent payments to us. In certain circumstances, the ability of our TRS Lessees to deduct net interest expense could be limited. Accordingly, although our ownership of our TRS Lessees allows us to participate in the operating income from our hotel properties in addition to receiving rent, that operating income is fully subject to income tax. The after-tax net income of our TRS holding company is available for distribution to us.
 
Our transactions with our TRS will cause us to be subject to a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if those transactions are not conducted on arm's-length terms.
 
A REIT may own up to 100% of the stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS may hold assets and earn income that would not be qualifying assets or income if held or earned directly by a REIT, including gross operating income from hotels that are operated by eligible independent contractors pursuant to hotel management agreements. Both the subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a TRS. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT's gross assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. In addition, the TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. The rules also impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm's-length basis.
 
Our TRS holding company is subject to federal, foreign, state and local income tax on its taxable income, and its after-tax net income is available for distribution to us but is not required to be distributed to us. We believe that the aggregate value of the stock and securities of our TRS is and will continue to be less 20% of the value of our total gross assets (including our TRS stock and securities). Furthermore, we will monitor the value of our respective investments in our TRS holding company for the purpose of ensuring compliance with TRS ownership limitations. In addition, we will scrutinize all of our transactions with our TRS holding company and our TRS Lessees to ensure that they are entered into on arm's-length terms to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with the 20% limitation discussed above or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax discussed above.
 
If our leases with our TRS Lessees are not respected as true leases for federal income tax purposes, we would fail to qualify as a REIT.
 
To qualify as a REIT, we are required to satisfy two gross income tests, pursuant to which specified percentages of our gross income must be passive income, such as rent. For the rent paid pursuant to the hotel leases with our TRS Lessees, which should constitute substantially all of our gross income, to qualify for purposes of the gross income tests, the leases must be respected as true leases for federal income tax purposes and must not be treated as service contracts, joint ventures or some other type of arrangement. We have structured our leases, and intend to structure any future leases, so that the leases will be respected as true leases for federal income tax purposes, but there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") will agree with this characterization, not challenge this treatment or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the leases were not respected as true leases for federal income tax purposes, we would not be able to satisfy either of the two gross income tests applicable to REITs and likely would fail to qualify for REIT status.
 
Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.
 
The maximum U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income payable to certain non-corporate U.S. shareholders is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the reduced qualified dividend rates. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, non-corporate taxpayers may deduct up to 20% of certain pass-through business income, including “qualified REIT dividends” (generally, dividends received by a REIT shareholder that are not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income), subject to certain limitations, resulting in an effective maximum U.S. federal income tax rate of 29.6% on such income. Although the reduced U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to qualified dividend income does not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends payable by REITs, the more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends and the reduced corporate tax rate could cause certain non-corporate investors to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our shares.
31


If our hotel managers do not qualify as "eligible independent contractors," we would fail to qualify as a REIT.
 
Rent paid by a lessee that is a "related party tenant" of ours will not be qualifying income for purposes of the two gross income tests applicable to REITs. We lease all of our hotels to our TRS Lessees. A TRS Lessee will not be treated as a "related party tenant," and will not be treated as directly operating a lodging facility to the extent the TRS Lessee leases properties from us that are managed by an "eligible independent contractor." In addition, our TRS holding company will fail to qualify as a “taxable REIT subsidiary” if it or any of our TRS Lessees lease or own a lodging facility that is not managed by an “eligible independent contractor.”
  
If our hotel managers do not qualify as "eligible independent contractors," we would fail to qualify as a REIT. Each of the hotel management companies that enters into a management contract with a TRS Lessee must qualify as an "eligible independent contractor" under the REIT rules in order for the rent paid to us by the TRS Lessee to be qualifying income for our REIT income test requirements and for our TRS holding company to qualify as a “taxable REIT subsidiary”. Among other requirements, in order to qualify as an eligible independent contractor, a manager must not own more than 35% of our outstanding shares (by value) and no person or group of persons can own more than 35% of our outstanding shares and the ownership interests of the manager, taking into account only owners of more than 5% of our shares and, with respect to ownership interests in such managers that are publicly traded, only holders of more than 5% of such ownership interests. Complex ownership attribution rules apply for purposes of these 35% thresholds. Although we intend to monitor ownership of our shares by our property managers and their owners, there can be no assurance that these ownership levels will not be exceeded.

Our ownership limitations may restrict or prevent you from engaging in certain transfers of our common shares.
     In order to satisfy the requirements for REIT qualification, no more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) at any time during the last half of each taxable year. To assist us in satisfying the requirements for our REIT qualification, our declaration of trust contains an ownership limit on each class and series of our shares. Under applicable constructive ownership rules, any common shares owned by certain affiliated owners generally will be added together for purposes of the common share ownership limit, and any shares of a given class or series of preferred shares owned by certain affiliated owners generally will be added together for purposes of the ownership limit on such class or series.
 
If anyone transfers shares in a way that would violate the ownership limit, or prevent us from qualifying as a REIT under the federal income tax laws, those shares instead will be transferred to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary and will be either redeemed by us or sold to a person whose ownership of the shares will not violate the ownership limit. If this transfer to a trust fails to prevent such a violation or our continued qualification as a REIT, then the initial intended transfer shall be null and void from the outset. The intended transferee of those shares will be deemed never to have owned the shares. Anyone who acquires shares in violation of the ownership limit or the other restrictions on transfer in our declaration of trust bears the risk of suffering a financial loss when the shares are redeemed or sold if the market price of our shares falls between the date of purchase and the date of redemption or sale.

The ability of our Board of Trustees to revoke our REIT qualification without shareholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our shareholders.
 
Our declaration of trust provides that our Board of Trustees may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our shareholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT. If we cease to qualify as a REIT, we would become subject to federal income tax on our taxable income and would no longer be required to distribute most of our taxable income to our shareholders, which may have adverse consequences on our total return to our shareholders.
 
The ability of our Board of Trustees to change our major policies may not be in our shareholders’ interest.
 
Our Board of Trustees determines our major policies, including policies and guidelines relating to our acquisitions, leverage, financing, growth, operations and distributions to shareholders and our continued qualification as a REIT. Our board may amend or revise these and other policies and guidelines from time to time without the vote or consent of our shareholders. Accordingly, our shareholders will have limited control over changes in our policies and those changes could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
 
32


If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately determine our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, our investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could harm our business and the value of our shares.
 
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud. We may in the future discover areas of our internal controls that need improvement. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to evaluate and report on our internal controls over financial reporting and have our independent auditors annually issue their opinion on our internal control over financial reporting. As we grow our business and acquire new hotel properties, directly or through joint ventures, with existing internal controls that may not be consistent with our own, our internal controls will become more complex, and we will require significantly more resources to ensure our internal controls remain effective. If we or our independent auditors discover a material weakness, the disclosure of that fact, even if quickly remedied, could reduce the market value of our common shares. In particular, we will need to establish, or cause our third party hotel managers to establish, controls and procedures to ensure that hotel revenues and expenses are properly recorded at our hotels. The existence of any material weakness or significant deficiency would require management to devote significant time and incur significant expense to remediate any such material weaknesses or significant deficiencies and management may not be able to remediate any such material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in a timely manner. Any such failure could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and adversely affect the market value of our common shares or limit our access to the capital markets and other sources of liquidity.
 
Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forego otherwise attractive opportunities or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.
 
To qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our shareholders and the ownership of our shares of beneficial interest. In order to meet these tests, we may be required to forego investments we might otherwise make. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our performance.
 
In particular, we must ensure that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our gross assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified real estate assets. The remainder of our investment in securities (other than government securities, securities that constitute qualified real estate assets and securities of our TRS) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our gross assets (other than government securities, securities that constitute qualified real estate assets and securities of our TRS) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, no more than 25% of the value of our assets can consist of debt of "publicly offered REITs" that is not secured by real property, and no more than 20% of the value of our total gross assets can be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to liquidate otherwise attractive investments. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for distribution to our shareholders.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could reduce the market price of our shares.

At any time, the federal income tax laws governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended. We cannot predict when or if any new federal income tax law, regulation, or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and any such law, regulation, or interpretation may take effect retroactively. We cannot predict the long-term effect of any recent changes or any future law changes on REITs and their shareholders.  We and our shareholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation.

33


We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations to make distributions to our shareholders at any time in the future.
 
We are generally required to distribute to our shareholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gains) each year for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, which requirement we currently intend to satisfy. To the extent we satisfy the 90% distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on our undistributed taxable income. We have not established a minimum distribution payment level, and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders may be adversely affected by the risk factors described in this Form 10-K. Subject to satisfying the requirements for REIT qualification, we intend over time to make regular distributions to our shareholders. Our Board of Trustees has the sole discretion to determine the timing, form and amount of any distributions to our shareholders. Our Board of Trustees makes determinations regarding distributions based upon, among other factors, our historical and projected results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and liquidity, satisfaction of the requirements for REIT qualification and other tax considerations, capital expenditure and other expense obligations, debt covenants, contractual prohibitions or other limitations and applicable law and such other matters as our Board of Trustees may deem relevant from time to time. Among the factors that could impair our ability to make distributions to our shareholders are:
 
 •our inability to realize attractive returns on our investments;
 •unanticipated expenses that reduce our cash flow or non-cash earnings;
 •decreases in the value of the underlying assets; and
 •the fact that anticipated operating expense levels may not prove accurate, as actual results may vary from estimates.

As a result, no assurance can be given that we will be able to make distributions to our shareholders or that the level of any distributions we do make to our shareholders will achieve a market yield or increase or even be maintained over time, any of which could materially and adversely affect the market price of our common shares. Distributions could be dilutive to our financial results and may constitute a return of capital to our investors, which would have the effect of reducing each shareholder's basis in its common shares. We also could use borrowed funds or proceeds from the sale of assets to fund distributions.
 
In addition, distributions that we make to our shareholders are generally taxable to our shareholders as ordinary income. However, a portion of our distributions may be designated by us as long-term capital gains to the extent that they are attributable to capital gain income recognized by us or may constitute a return of capital to the extent that they exceed our earnings and profits as determined for tax purposes. A return of capital is not taxable, but has the effect of reducing the basis of a shareholder's investment in our common shares.

Our revolving credit facility may limit our ability to pay dividends on common shares.

Under our revolving credit facility, our distributions may not exceed the greater of (i) 95% of adjusted funds from operations (as defined in our senior unsecured revolving credit facility) for the preceding four-quarter period or (ii) the amount required for us to maintain our status as a REIT. As a result, if we do not generate sufficient adjusted funds from operations during the four quarters preceding any common share dividend payment date, we would not be able to pay dividends to our common shareholders consistent with our past practice without causing a default under our revolving credit facility. In the event of a default under our revolving credit facility, we would be unable to borrow under our revolving credit facility and any amounts we have borrowed thereunder could become due and payable.

The market price of our equity securities may vary substantially, which may limit your ability to liquidate your investment.
 
The trading prices of equity securities issued by REITs have historically been affected by changes in market interest rates and other factors. One of the factors that may influence the price of our shares in public trading markets is the annual yield from distributions on our common or preferred shares as compared to yields on other financial instruments. An increase in market interest rates, or a decrease in our distributions to shareholders, may lead prospective purchasers of our shares to demand a higher annual yield, which could reduce the market price of our equity securities.
 
34


Other factors that could affect the market price of our equity securities include the following:
 •actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly results of operations;
 •changes in market valuations of companies in the hotel or real estate industries;
 •changes in expectations of future financial performance or changes in estimates of securities analysts;
 •fluctuations in stock market prices and volumes;
 •issuances of common shares or other securities in the future;
 •the addition or departure of key personnel; and
 •announcements by us or our competitors of acquisitions, investments or strategic alliances or changes thereto.
 
Because we have a smaller equity market capitalization compared to some other hotel REITs and our common shares may trade in low volumes, the stock market price of our common shares may be susceptible to fluctuation to a greater extent than companies with larger market capitalizations. As a result, your ability to liquidate your investment in our company may be limited.
 
The number of shares available for future sale could adversely affect the market price of our common shares.
 
We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future sales of common shares, or the availability of common shares for future sale, on the market price of our common shares. Sales of substantial amounts of common shares (including shares issued to our trustees and officers), or the perception that these sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our common shares.
 
We also may issue from time to time additional common shares or common units in our Operating Partnership in connection with the acquisition of properties and we may grant demand or piggyback registration rights in connection with these issuances. Sales of substantial amounts of our common shares or the perception that these sales could occur may adversely affect the prevailing market price for our common shares or may impair our ability to raise capital through a sale of additional equity securities. Our Equity Incentive Plan provides for grants of equity based awards up to an aggregate of 3,000,000 common shares and we may seek to increase shares available under our Equity Incentive Plan in the future. Our Current DRSPP (defined below) permits the purchase of up to $50 million of our common shares through purchases and reinvestment of dividends on our common shares.
 
Future offerings of debt or equity securities or incurrence of debt may adversely affect the market price of our common shares.
 
If we decide to issue debt or equity securities in the future ranking senior to our common shares or otherwise incur indebtedness (including under our credit facility), it is possible that these securities or indebtedness will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility and limiting our ability to make distributions to our shareholders. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges, including with respect to distributions, more favorable than those of our common shares and may result in dilution to owners of our common shares. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering or otherwise incur indebtedness will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings or financings, any of which could reduce the market price of our common shares and dilute the value of our common shares.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.
35


Item 2. Properties

The following table sets forth certain operating information for our 39 wholly owned hotels as of December 31, 2020:

PropertyLocationDate of AcquisitionYear OpenedNumber of RoomsPurchase PricePurchase Price per RoomMortgage Debt Balance
Homewood Suites by Hilton Boston-Billerica/ Bedford/ BurlingtonBillerica, Massachusetts4/23/20101999147 $12.5  million$85,714 $15.4  million
Homewood Suites by Hilton Minneapolis-Mall of AmericaBloomington, Minnesota4/23/20101998144 $18.0  million$125,000 — 
Homewood Suites by Hilton Nashville-BrentwoodBrentwood, Tennessee4/23/20101998121 $11.3  million$93,388 — 
Homewood Suites by Hilton Dallas-Market CenterDallas, Texas4/23/20101998137 $10.7  million$78,102 — 
Homewood Suites by Hilton Hartford-FarmingtonFarmington, Connecticut4/23/20101999121 $11.5  million$95,041 — 
Homewood Suites by Hilton Orlando-MaitlandMaitland, Florida4/23/20102000143 $9.5  million$66,433 — 
Hampton Inn & Suites Houston-Medical CenterHouston, Texas7/2/20101997120 $16.5  million$137,500 $17.4  million
Residence Inn Long Island HoltsvilleHoltsville, New York8/3/20102004124 $21.3  million$171,774 — 
Residence Inn White PlainsWhite Plains, New York9/23/20101982135 $21.2  million$159,398 — 
Residence Inn New RochelleNew Rochelle, New York10/5/20102000127 $21.0  million$169,355 $12.6  million
Residence Inn Garden GroveGarden Grove, California7/14/20112003200 $43.6  million$218,000 $31.5  million
Homewood Suites by Hilton San Antonio River WalkSan Antonio, Texas7/14/20111996146 $32.5  million$222,603 $15.2  million
Residence Inn Washington DCWashington, DC7/14/20111974103 $29.4  million$280,000 — 
Residence Inn Tysons CornerVienna, Virginia7/14/20112001121 $37.0  million$305,785 $20.8  million
Hampton Inn Portland DowntownPortland, Maine12/27/20122011125 $28.0  million$229,508 — 
Courtyard HoustonHouston, Texas2/5/20132010197 $34.8  million$176,395 $17.1  million
Hyatt Place Pittsburgh North ShorePittsburgh, Pennsylvania6/17/20132010178 $40.0  million$224,719 $21.0  million
Hampton Inn ExeterExeter, New Hampshire8/9/20132010111 $15.2  million$136,937 — 
Hilton Garden Inn Denver TechDenver, Colorado9/26/20131999180 $27.9  million$155,000 — 
Residence Inn BellevueBellevue, Washington10/31/20132008231 $71.8  million$316,883 $43.0  million
Springhill Suites SavannahSavannah, Georgia12/5/20132009160 $39.8  million$248,438 $29.4 million
Residence Inn Silicon Valley ISunnyvale, CA6/9/20141983231 $92.8 million$401,776 $63.4 million
Residence Inn Silicon Valley IISunnyvale, CA6/9/20141985248 $102.0 million$411,103 $69.2 million
Residence Inn San MateoSan Mateo, CA6/9/20141985160 $72.7 million$454,097 $47.6 million
Residence Inn Mountain ViewMountain View, CA6/9/20141985144 $56.4 million$503,869 $37.1 million
Hyatt Place Cherry CreekGlendale, CO8/29/20141987199 $32.0 million$164,948 — 
Courtyard AddisonAddison, TX11/17/20142000176 $24.1 million$137,178 — 
Courtyard West University HoustonHouston, TX11/17/20142004100 $20.1 million$201,481 — 
Residence Inn West University HoustonHouston, TX11/17/20142004120 $29.4 million$245,363 — 
Hilton Garden Inn BurlingtonBurlington, MA11/17/20141975180 $33.0 million$184,392 — 
Residence Inn San Diego GaslampSan Diego, CA2/25/20152009240 $90.0 million$375,000 — 
Residence Inn DedhamDedham, MA7/17/2015200881 $22.0 million$271,605 — 
Residence Inn Il LuganoFort Lauderdale, FL8/17/20152013105 $33.5 million$319,048 — 
Hilton Garden Inn Marina del ReyMarina del Rey, CA9/17/20151998136 $45.1 million$336,194 $20.5 million
Hilton Garden Inn PortsmouthPortsmouth, NH9/20/20172006131 $43.5 million$332,061 — 
Summerville CourtyardSummerville, SC11/15/2017201496 $20.2 million$210,417 — 
Embassy Suites SpringfieldSpringfield, VA12/6/20172013219 $68.0 million$310,502 — 
Summerville Residence InnSummerville, SC8/27/2018201896 $20.8 million$216,667 — 
Dallas DT CourtyardDallas, TX12/5/20182018167 $49.0 million$293,413 — 
Total5,900 $1,408.1 million$238,661 $461.2 million

We lease our headquarters at 222 Lakeview Avenue, Suite 200, West Palm Beach, FL 33401. The lease for our headquarters has an initial term that expires in 2026 and the Company has an option to renew the lease for up to two successive terms of five years each. The Residence Inn New Rochelle hotel is subject to an air rights lease and garage lease that each expire on December 1, 2104. The Residence Inn San Diego Gaslamp hotel is subject to a ground lease with an expiration of
36


January 31, 2065. The Hilton Garden Inn Marina del Rey hotel is subject to a ground lease with an expiration of December 31, 2067. For more information on the leases to which we or our hotels are subject, see "Item 1. Business - Operating Leases".

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The nature of the operations of the Company's hotels exposes those hotels, the Company and the Operating Partnership to the risk of claims and litigation in the normal course of their business. IHM is currently a defendant in several class action lawsuits pending in the state of California.

Refer to Note 14 “Commitments and Contingencies” of the notes to consolidated financial statements for discussion of all litigation matters, which is incorporated by reference herein and is considered an integral part of Part I, Item 3 “Legal Proceedings”.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.
37


Part II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common shares began trading on the NYSE, on April 16, 2010 under the symbol "CLDT".

Shareholder Information
 
On December 31, 2020, there were 340 registered holders of record of our common shares. This figure does not include beneficial owners who hold shares in nominee name. However, because many of our common shares are held by brokers and other institutions, we believe that there are many more beneficial holders of our common shares than record holders. In order to comply with certain requirements related to our qualification as a REIT, our charter, subject to certain exceptions, limits the number of common shares that may be owned by any single person or affiliated group to 9.8% of our outstanding common shares.

The below graph provides a comparison of the five-year cumulative total return on our common shares from December 31, 2015 to the NYSE closing price per share on December 31, 2020 with the cumulative total return on the Russell 2000 Index (the “Russell 2000”), the FTSE NAREIT All Equity REIT Index (the “NAREIT All Equity”) and the NAREIT Lodging/Resorts Index (the “NAREIT Lodging”). The total return values were calculated assuming a $100 investment on December 31, 2015 with reinvestment of all dividends in (i) our common shares, (ii) the Russell 2000 Index, (iii) the NAREIT All Equity REIT Index and (iv) the NAREIT Lodging/Resorts Index. The total return values include any dividends paid during the period.

Value of initial investment at December 31, 2015Value of initial investment at December 31, 2016Value of initial investment at December 31, 2017Value of initial investment at December 31, 2018Value of initial investment at December 31, 2019Value of initial investment at December 31, 2020
Chatham Lodging Trust$100.00 $107.37 $126.74 $105.13 $116.99 $69.88 
Russell 2000 Index$100.00 $121.31 $139.08 $123.76 $155.35 $186.36 
FTSE NAREIT All Equity REIT Index$100.00 $109.28 $119.41 $114.51 $146.66 $138.06 
FTSE NAREIT Lodging/Resorts Index$100.00 $124.34 $133.25 $116.17 $134.35 $102.65 


38


cldt-20201231_g1.jpg


Distribution Information

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must make distributions to our shareholders each year in an amount equal to at least:

90% of our REIT taxable income determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains; plus
90% of the excess of our net income from foreclosure property over the tax imposed on such income by the Code; minus
any excess non-cash income (as defined in the Code).

Future distributions will be at the discretion of our board of trustees and will depend on our financial performance, debt service obligations, applicable debt covenants (if any), capital expenditure requirements, maintenance of our REIT qualification and other factors as our board of trustees deems relevant.

The following table sets forth information regarding the income tax characterization of regular distributions by the Company on its common shares for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively:

20202019
Common shares:
Ordinary income$— — %$1.0164 77.0 %
Return of capital0.2200 100.0 %0.3036 23.0 %
Total0.2200 100.0 %$1.3200 100.0 %


39


Equity Compensation Plan Information

     The following table provides information, as of December 31, 2020, relating to our Equity Incentive Plan pursuant to which grants of common share options, share awards, share appreciation rights, performance units, LTIP units and other equity-based awards options may be granted from time to time. See Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our Equity Incentive Plan.

Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and RightsWeighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and RightsNumber of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders¹— — 944,048 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total— — 944,048 
¹ Our Equity Incentive Plan was approved by our company's sole trustee and our company's sole shareholder prior to completion of our IPO. The plan was amended and restated as of May 17, 2013 by our Board of Trustees to increase the maximum number of shares available under the plan to 3,000,000 shares. The amended and restated plan was approved by our
shareholders at our 2013 annual meeting of shareholders.

Sale of Unregistered Securities

None.
 Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
We do not currently have a repurchase plan or program in place. However, we do provide employees, who have been issued restricted common shares, the option of forfeiting shares to us to satisfy the minimum statutory tax withholding requirements on the date their shares vest. Once shares are forfeited, they are not eligible to be reissued. There were no common shares forfeited in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, related to such repurchases.

40


Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The consolidated financial data included in the following table has been derived from the financial statements for the last five years and includes the information required by Item 301 of Regulation S-K. The selected historical financial data should be read in conjunction with "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and the financial statements and notes thereto, both included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Year EndedYear EndedYear EndedYear EndedYear Ended
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019December 31, 2018December 31, 2017December 31, 2016
(In thousands, except share and per-share data)
Statement of Operations Data:
Total revenue$144,916 $328,328 $324,230 $301,844 $295,871 
Hotel operating expenses95,498 174,251 170,562 155,679 148,777 
Depreciation and amortization53,871 51,505 48,169 46,292 48,775 
Impairment loss— — — 6,663 — 
Impairment loss on investment in unconsolidated real estate entities15,282 — — — — 
Property taxes, ground rent and insurance23,040 24,717 23,678 20,916 21,564 
General and administrative11,564 14,077 14,120 12,825 11,119 
Other charges4,385 1,441 3,806 523 510 
Reimbursed costs from unconsolidated real estate entities4,045 5,670 5,743 5,908 6,190 
Total operating expenses207,685 271,661 266,078 248,806 236,935 
Operating (loss) income before gain (loss) on sale of hotel property(62,769)56,667 58,152 53,038 58,936 
Interest and other income179 190 462 30 51 
Interest expense net of amounts capitalized, including amortization of deferred fees(28,122)(28,247)(26,878)(27,901)(28,297)
Loss on early extinguishment of debt— — — — (4)
Gain (loss) on sale of hotel property21,116 (3,282)(18)3,327 — 
Loss from unconsolidated real estate entities(7,424)(6,448)(876)1,582 718 
Net gain (loss) from remeasurement and sales of investment in unconsolidated real estate entities— — — — (10)
(Loss) income before income tax expense(77,020)18,880 30,842 30,076 31,394 
Income tax expense— — 28 (396)301 
Net (loss) income$(77,020)$18,880 $30,870 $29,680 $31,695 
Net (loss) income attributable to non-controlling interest997 (177)(229)(202)(212)
Net (loss) income attributable to common shareholders$(76,023)$18,703 $30,641 $29,478 $31,483 
(Loss) income per Common Share - Basic:
Net (loss) income attributable to common shareholders$(1.62)$0.39 $0.66 $0.73 $0.82 
(Loss) income per Common Share - Diluted:
Net (loss) income attributable to common shareholders$(1.62)$0.39 $0.66 $0.73 $0.81 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic46,961,039 46,788,784 46,073,515 39,859,143 38,299,067 
Diluted46,961,039 47,023,280 46,243,660 40,112,266 38,482,875 
Other Data:
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(19,961)86,234 86,215 86,689 87,669 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities26,806 (44,575)(96,401)(158,411)(15,268)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities4,426 (53,814)6,024 71,171 (75,509)
Cash dividends declared per common share.22 1.32 1.32 1.30 1.30 


41


As ofAs ofAs ofAs ofAs of
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019December 31, 2018December 31, 2017December 31, 2016
(In thousands)
Balance Sheet Data:
Investment in hotel properties, net$1,265,174 $1,347,116 $1,373,773 $1,320,082 $1,233,094 
Investment in hotel properties under development43,651 20,496 — 
Cash and cash equivalents21,124 6,620 7,192 9,333 12,118 
Restricted cash10,329 13,562 25,145 27,166 25,083 
Investment in unconsolidated real estate entities— 17,969 21,545 24,389 20,424 
Right of use asset20,641 21,270 — — — 
Hotel receivables (net of allowance for doubtful accounts)1,688 4,626 4,495 4,047 4,389 
Deferred costs, net5,384 4,271 5,070 4,646 4,642 
Prepaid expenses and other assets2,266 2,615 2,431 2,523 2,778 
Deferred tax asset, net— 29 58 30 426 
Total assets$1,370,257 $1,438,574 $1,439,709 $1,392,216 $1,302,954 
Mortgage debt, net$460,145 $495,465 $501,782 $506,316 $530,323 
Revolving credit facility135,300 90,000 81,500 32,000 52,500 
Construction loan13,325 — — — — 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses25,374 33,012 33,692 31,692 27,782 
Distributions in excess of investments of unconsolidated real estate entities19,951 15,214 9,650 6,582 6,017 
Lease liability23,233 23,717 — — — 
Distributions payable469 6,142 5,667 5,846 4,742 
Total liabilities677,797 663,550 632,291 582,436 621,364 
Total shareholders’ equity677,752 762,377 797,466 803,162 676,742 
Noncontrolling Interest in Operating Partnership14,708 12,647 9,952 6,618 4,848 
Total liabilities and equity$1,370,257 $1,438,574 $1,439,709 $1,392,216 $1,302,954 

42


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


COVID-19 Pandemic

The lodging industry has been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Steps have been taken to restrict inbound international travel and there has been a significant decline in domestic travel. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lodging industry continues to evolve and will depend on future developments including the duration and spread of the outbreak, the existence of governmental stay-at-home orders, deployment of vaccines, peoples' willingness to travel and the strength and timing of an economic recovery. All of these factors are uncertain, and the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lodging industry and the Company cannot be predicted at this time. The full magnitude of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s financial condition, liquidity, and future results of operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain. The Company has taken actions to mitigate the operating and financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic including suspending monthly dividends, reducing 2020 capital expenditures, borrowing under its credit facility, obtaining credit facility covenant waivers, and temporarily reducing executive compensation.

Overview

Chatham Lodging Trust (“we,” “us” or the “Company”) was formed as a Maryland real estate investment trust on October 26, 2009. The Company is internally-managed and was organized to invest primarily in upscale extended-stay and premium-branded select-service hotels in geographically diverse markets with high barriers to entry near strong demand generators. The Company has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust for federal income tax purposes ("REIT").
The Company had no operations prior to the consummation of its IPO. The net proceeds from our share offerings are contributed to Chatham Lodging, L.P., our operating partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), in exchange for partnership interests. Substantially all of the Company’s assets are held by, and all operations are conducted through, the Operating Partnership. The Company is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and owns 100% of the common units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership ("common units"). Certain of the Company’s employees hold vested and unvested long-term incentive plan units in the Operating Partnership ("LTIP units"), which are presented as non-controlling interests on our consolidated balance sheets.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company owned 39 hotels with an aggregate of 5,900 rooms located in 15 states and the District of Columbia. The Company also (i) held a 10.3% noncontrolling interest in a joint venture (the “NewINK JV”) with affiliates of Colony Capital, Inc. ("CLNY"), which was formed in the second quarter of 2014 to acquire 46 hotels from a joint venture (the "Innkeepers JV") between the Company and Cerberus Capital Management (“Cerberus”), comprising an aggregate of 5,948 rooms and (ii) held a 10.0% noncontrolling interest in a separate joint venture (the "Inland JV") with CLNY, which was formed in the fourth quarter of 2014 to acquire 48 hotels from Inland American Real Estate Trust, Inc. ("Inland"), comprising an aggregate of 6,402 rooms. As of December 31, 2020, the Inland JV hotels are in receivership. We sometimes use the term "JVs" which refers collectively to the NewINK JV and the Inland JV.
To qualify as a REIT, the Company cannot operate its hotels. Therefore, the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries lease each of the Company's wholly owned hotels to a taxable REIT subsidiary lessee (“TRS Lessee”), which is wholly owned by the Company’s taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) holding company. The Company indirectly (i) owns its 10.3% interest in the 46 NewINK JV hotels and (ii) 10.0% interest in the 48 Inland JV hotels through the Operating Partnership. All of the NewINK JV hotels and Inland JV hotels are leased to TRS Lessees, in which the Company indirectly owns or owned as applicable, noncontrolling interests through its TRS holding company. Each hotel is leased to a TRS Lessee under a percentage lease that provides for rental payments equal to the greater of (i) a fixed base rent amount or (ii) a percentage rent based on hotel room revenue. The initial term of each of the TRS leases is 5 years. Lease revenue from each TRS Lessee is eliminated in consolidation.
The TRS Lessees have entered into management agreements with third-party management companies that provide day-to-day management for the hotels. As of December 31, 2020, Island Hospitality Management Inc. (“IHM”), which is 52.5% owned by Mr. Fisher, managed all 39 of the Company’s wholly owned hotels. As of December 31, 2020, all of the NewINK JV hotels were managed by IHM. As of December 31, 2020, none of the Inland JV hotels were managed by IHM.
43


Key Indicators of Operating Performance and Financial Condition
We measure financial condition and hotel operating performance by evaluating non-financial and financial metrics and measures such as:

Average Daily Rate (“ADR”), which is the quotient of room revenue divided by total rooms sold,
Occupancy, which is the quotient of total rooms sold divided by total rooms available,
Revenue Per Available Room (“RevPAR”), which is the product of occupancy and ADR, and does not include food and beverage revenue, or other operating revenue,
Funds From Operations (“FFO”),
Adjusted FFO,
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”),
EBITDAre,
Adjusted EBITDA, and
Adjusted Hotel EBITDA.
We evaluate the hotels in our portfolio and potential acquisitions using these metrics to determine each hotel’s contribution toward providing income to our shareholders through increases in distributable cash flow and increasing long-term total returns through appreciation in the value of our common shares. RevPAR, ADR and Occupancy are hotel industry measures commonly used to evaluate operating performance.

See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for further discussion of FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA.
Results of Operations
Industry outlook

The lodging industry has been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and there has been a significant decline in travel. Smith Travel Research reported that U.S. lodging industry RevPAR declined 47.5% for the year ended December 31, 2020, with RevPAR down 19.3% in the first quarter of 2020, down 45.5% in the second quarter of 2020, down 48.5% in the third quarter of 2020 and down 50.6% in the fourth quarter of 2020. We expect the current trend of depressed RevPAR levels to continue until there is widespread deployment of effective COVID-19 vaccines. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lodging industry continues to evolve and will depend on future developments including the duration and spread of the outbreak, the existence of governmental stay-at-home orders, deployment of vaccines, peoples' willingness to travel, and the strength and timing of an economic recovery. All of these factors are uncertain, and the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lodging industry cannot be predicted at this time.
Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2020 (“2020”) to the year ended December 31, 2019 (“2019”)

The section below provides a comparative discussion of our consolidated results of operations between fiscal 2020 and 2019. See Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 for comparative a discussion of our consolidated results of operations between fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018.

Results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 include the operating activities of our 39 wholly owned hotels that were owned for the entire period, partial period results for one hotel which was sold during the period and our investments in the NewINK JV and Inland JV. We sold one hotel in San Diego, CA on November 24, 2020, one hotel in Altoona, PA on May 7, 2019 and one hotel in Washington, PA on May 15, 2019. Accordingly, the comparisons below are influenced by these dispositions.

44


Revenue

Revenue, which consists primarily of room, food and beverage and other operating revenues from our wholly owned hotels, was as follows for the periods indicated (dollars in thousands):
Year ended
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019% Change
Room$130,564 $296,267 (55.9)%
Food and beverage2,718 9,824 (72.3)%
Other7,589 16,567 (54.2)%
Cost reimbursements from unconsolidated real estate entities4,045 5,670 (28.7)%
Total revenue$144,916 $328,328 (55.9)%

Total revenue decreased $183.4 million to $144.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to total revenue of $328.3 million for the 2019 period. The decrease in total revenue primarily was related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The decrease in total revenue related to the two hotels sold in 2019 was $1.6 million and $0.5 million related to the hotel sold in 2020. Since all of our hotels are primarily select service or limited service hotels, room revenue is the primary revenue source as these hotels do not have significant food and beverage revenue or large group conference facilities. Room revenue comprised 90.1% and 90.2%, respectively, of total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019. Room revenue was $130.6 million and $296.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, with the decrease in room revenue primarily related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The decrease in room revenue related to the two hotels sold in 2019 was $1.5 million with $0.4 million related to the hotel sold in 2020.
Food and beverage revenue was $2.7 million and $9.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. The decrease in food and beverage revenue primarily was related to a decline in occupancies at our hotels due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Other revenue comprised of parking, meeting room, gift shop, in-room movie and other ancillary amenities revenue, was down $9.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease in other operating revenue primarily was related to a decline in occupancies at our hotels due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Reimbursed costs from unconsolidated real estate entities, comprised of payroll costs at the JVs and Castleblack, which is 97.5% owned by affiliates of CLNY and 2.5% by Mr. Fisher, where the Company is the employer, were $4.0 million and $5.7 million respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. The cost reimbursements were offset by the reimbursed costs from unconsolidated real estate entities included in operating expenses.
As reported by Smith Travel Research, U.S. lodging industry RevPAR for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 decreased 47.5% and increased 0.9%, respectively, as compared to the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Smith Travel Research reported that U.S. lodging industry RevPAR declined 19.3% in the first quarter, 45.5% in the second quarter, 48.5% in third quarter and 50.6% in the fourth quarter of 2020. We expect the current trend of depressed RevPAR levels to continue until there is widespread deployment of effective COVID-19 vaccines.
45


In the table below, we present both actual and same property room revenue metrics. Actual Occupancy, ADR and RevPAR metrics reflect the performance of the hotels for the actual days such hotels were owned by the Company during the periods presented. Same property Occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR results for the 39 hotels wholly owned by the Company as of December 31, 2020 and that have been in operation for a full year regardless of ownership during the period presented, which is a non-GAAP financial measure. Results for the hotels for the periods prior to our ownership were provided to us by prior owners and have not been adjusted by us.

For the years ended December 31,
20202019Percentage Change
Same Property (39 hotels)Actual (40 hotels)Same Property (39 hotels)Actual (42 hotels)Same Property (39 hotels)Actual (40/42 hotels)
Occupancy48.2 %48.6 %80.0 %80.1 %(39.8)%(39.3)%
ADR$119.89 $120.84 $165.45 $165.01 (27.5)%(26.8)%
RevPAR$57.74 $58.76 $132.00 $131.77 (56.3)%(55.4)%
Same property RevPAR decreased 56.3% due to a decrease in occupancy of 39.8% and a decrease in ADR of 27.5%.
Hotel Operating Expenses
Hotel operating expenses consisted of the following for the periods indicated (dollars in thousands):
Year ended
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019% Change
Hotel operating expenses:
Room$31,883 $65,270 (51.2)%
Food and beverage expense2,456 8,396 (70.7)%
Telephone expense1,451 1,638 (11.4)%
Other expense1,629 4,039 (59.7)%
General and administrative16,733 25,641 (34.7)%
Franchise and marketing fees11,608 25,850 (55.1)%
Advertising and promotions3,983 6,043 (34.1)%
Utilities9,229 10,867 (15.1)%
Repairs and maintenance9,799 14,321 (31.6)%
Management fees5,289 10,822 (51.1)%
Insurance1,438 1,364 5.4 %
Total hotel operating expenses$95,498 $174,251 (45.2)%

Hotel operating expenses decreased $78.8 million, or 45.2% to $95.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 from $174.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in total hotel operating expenses attributable to the two hotels sold in 2019 was $1.3 million with $0.3 million related to the one hotel sold in 2020. The primary cause of the decrease in hotel operating expenses was related to the decrease in revenues and occupancy caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our hotel managers have taken significant steps to reduce operating costs in light of the reduction in demand caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Room expenses, which are the most significant component of hotel operating expenses, decreased $33.4 million from $65.3 million in 2019 to $31.9 million in 2020. The decrease in room expenses attributable to the two hotels sold in 2019 was $0.4 million with $0.1 million related to the one hotel sold in 2020. The decrease in room expenses primarily was related to a decline in occupancies and revenues at our hotels due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
46


The remaining hotel operating expenses decreased $45.4 million, or 41.6%, from $109.0 million in 2019 to $63.6 million in 2020. The decrease in remaining hotel operating expenses attributable to the two hotels sold in 2019 was $0.9 million and $0.2 million related to the one hotel sold in 2020. The decrease in remaining hotel expenses primarily was related to a decline in occupancies and revenues at our hotels due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Depreciation and Amortization

Depreciation and amortization expense increased $2.4 million from $51.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $53.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to renovations. The decrease attributable to the two hotels sold in 2019 was $0.2 million with $0.1 million related to the one hotel sold in 2020. Depreciation is generally recorded on our assets over 40 years for buildings, 20 years for land improvements, 15 years for building improvements and one to ten years for hotel furniture, fixtures and equipment from the date of acquisition on a straight-line basis. Depreciable lives of hotel furniture, fixtures and equipment are generally assumed to be the difference between the date of acquisition and the date that the furniture, fixtures and equipment will be replaced. Amortization of franchise fees is recorded on a straight-line basis over the term of the respective franchise agreement.

Impairment Loss on Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Entities

Impairment loss on investment in unconsolidated real estate entities increased $15.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company recorded an impairment of the entire carrying value of $15.3 million on our investment in the Inland JV during the year ended December 31, 2020 related to a decline in operating performance caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Property Taxes, Ground Rent and Insurance

Total property taxes, ground rent and insurance expenses decreased $1.7 million from $24.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $23.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease attributable to the two hotels sold in 2019 was $0.1 million with $0.1 million related to the one hotel sold in 2020. The decrease was primarily related to decreased ground rent at our hotels due to lower revenues.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses principally consist of employee-related costs, including base payroll, bonuses and amortization of restricted stock and awards of LTIP units. These expenses also include corporate operating costs, professional fees and trustees’ fees. Total general and administrative expenses (excluding amortization of stock based compensation of $4.6 million and $4.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively) decreased $2.4 million, or 25.5%, to $7.0 million in 2020 from $9.4 million in 2019, with the decrease primarily due to a reduction in compensation.

Other Charges

Other charges increased from $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Other charges primarily includes severance costs related to the departure of our former Chief Investment Officer and deductibles for insurance claims.

Reimbursed Costs from Unconsolidated Real Estate Entities

Reimbursable costs from unconsolidated real estate entities, comprised of corporate payroll and office rent costs of the NewINK JV and Inland JV and Castleblack which is 2.5% owned by Mr. Fisher, where the Company is the employer, were $4.0 million and $5.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. These reimbursed costs were offset by the cost reimbursements from unconsolidated real estate entities included in revenues.

Gain (loss) on Sale of Hotel Property

Gain (loss) on the sale of hotel property increased $24.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 due to the sales of the Courtyard Altoona, PA on May 7, 2019 and the SpringHill Suites Washington, PA on May 15, 2019, which resulted in a loss of $3.3 million and the sale of the Residence Inn San Diego, CA on November 24, 2020, which resulted in a gain of $21.1 million.
47


Interest and Other Income

Interest on cash and cash equivalents and other income was $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Interest Expense, Including Amortization of Deferred Fees

Interest expense decreased $0.1 million, or 0.3%, from $28.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $28.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Interest expense is comprised of the following (dollars in thousands):
Year ended
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019% Change
Mortgage debt interest$23,227 $23,652 (1.8)%
Credit facility interest and unused fees$5,001 $4,120 21.4 %
Interest rate cap$25 $— — %
Construction loan interest$202 $— — %
Capitalized interest$(1,473)$(445)231.0 %
Amortization of deferred financing costs$1,140 $920 23.9 %
Total$28,122 $28,247 (.4)%



Loss from Unconsolidated Real Estate Entities

Loss from unconsolidated real estate entities increased $1.0 million from a loss of $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to a loss of $7.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is due primarily to a decline in operating performance due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Income Tax expense

Income tax expense remained unchanged at zero for the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2020. We are subject to income taxes based on the taxable income of our TRS Lessees at a combined federal and state tax rate of approximately 25%. The Company's TRS is expecting taxable losses in 2021 and recognizes a full valuation allowance equal to 100% of the net deferred tax assets, with the exception of the AMT tax credit, due to the uncertainty of the TRS's ability to utilize these net deferred tax assets.

Net loss

Net loss was $77.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to net income of $18.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in our net income was due to the factors discussed above.

Material Trends or Uncertainties
We are not aware of any material trends or uncertainties, favorable or unfavorable, that may be reasonably anticipated to have a material impact on either the capital resources or the revenues or income to be derived from the acquisition and operation of properties, loans and other permitted investments, other than those referred to in this section and the risk factors identified in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on this Form 10-K.
48


Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We consider the following non-GAAP financial measures useful to investors as key supplemental measures of our operating performance: (1) FFO, (2) Adjusted FFO, (3) EBITDA, (4) EBITDAre, (5) Adjusted EBITDA and (6) Adjusted Hotel EBITDA. These non-GAAP financial measures should be considered along with, but not as alternatives to, net income or loss as prescribed by GAAP as a measure of our operating performance.
FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not represent cash generated from operating activities under GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or loss, cash flows from operations or any other operating performance measure prescribed by GAAP. FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA are not measures of our liquidity, nor are FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA or Adjusted Hotel EBITDA indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs, including our ability to make cash distributions. These measurements do not reflect cash expenditures for long-term assets and other items that have been and will be incurred. FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA may include funds that may not be available for management’s discretionary use due to functional requirements to conserve funds for capital expenditures, property acquisitions, and other commitments and uncertainties.
We calculate FFO in accordance with standards established by the National Association of Real Estate Investment
Trusts ("NAREIT"), which defines FFO as net income or loss (calculated in accordance with GAAP), excluding gains or losses from sales of real estate, impairment write-downs, the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles, plus depreciation and amortization (excluding amortization of deferred financing costs), and after adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures following the same approach. We believe that the presentation of FFO provides useful information to investors regarding our operating performance because it measures our performance without regard to specified non-cash items such as real estate depreciation and amortization, gain or loss on sale of real estate assets and certain other items that we believe are not indicative of the property level performance of our hotel properties. We believe that these items reflect historical cost of our asset base and our acquisition and disposition activities and are less reflective of our ongoing operations, and that by adjusting to exclude the effects of the items, FFO is useful to investors in comparing our operating performance between periods and between REITs that report FFO using the NAREIT definition.
We calculate Adjusted FFO by further adjusting FFO for certain additional items that are not addressed in NAREIT’s definition of FFO, including other charges, costs associated with the departure of our former Chief Investment Officer, losses on the early extinguishment of debt and similar items related to our unconsolidated real estate entities that we believe do not represent costs related to hotel operations. We believe that Adjusted FFO provides investors with another financial measure that may facilitate comparisons of operating performance between periods and between REITs that make similar adjustments to FFO.
The following is a reconciliation of net income to FFO and Adjusted FFO for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands, except share data):
 
For the year ended
December 31,
 202020192018
Funds From Operations (“FFO”):
Net (loss) income$(77,020)$18,880 $30,870 
(Gain) loss on sale of hotel property(21,116)3,282 18 
Loss on the sale of assets within unconsolidated real estate entities219 — 
Depreciation53,627 51,258 47,932 
Impairment loss on investment in unconsolidated real estate entities15,282 — — 
Impairment loss from unconsolidated real estate entities1,388 4,197 — 
Adjustments for unconsolidated real estate entity items4,434 7,493 6,992 
FFO attributed to common share and unit holders(23,403)85,329 85,812 
Other charges4,385 1,441 3,806 
Adjustments for unconsolidated real estate entity items1,028 1,078 
Adjusted FFO attributed to common share and unit holders$(19,009)$87,798 90,696 
Weighted average number of common shares and units
Basic47,635,600 47,238,309 46,428,387 
Diluted47,635,600 47,472,805 46,598,532 
49



Diluted weighted average common share count used for calculation of adjusted FFO per share may differ from diluted weighted average common share count used for calculation of GAAP Net Income per share by LTIP units, which may be converted to common shares of beneficial interest and if Net Income per share is negative and Adjusted FFO is positive. Unvested restricted shares and unvested LTIP units that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future would not be included in the computation of diluted loss per share for the periods where a loss has been recorded because they would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented.
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization ("EBITDA") is defined as net income or loss excluding: (1) interest expense; (2) provision for income taxes, including income taxes applicable to sale of assets; (3) depreciation and amortization; and (4) unconsolidated real estate entity items including interest, depreciation and amortization excluding gains and losses from sales of real estate. We consider EBITDA useful to an investor in evaluating and facilitating comparisons of our operating performance between periods and between REITs by removing the impact of our capital structure (primarily interest expense) and asset base (primarily depreciation and amortization) from our operating results. In addition, EBITDA is used as one measure in determining the value of hotel acquisitions and dispositions.
In addition to EBITDA, we present EBITDAre in accordance with NAREIT guidelines, which defines EBITDAre as net income or loss excluding interest expense, income tax expense, depreciation and amortization expense, gains or losses from sales of real estate, impairment, and adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures. We believe that the presentation of EBITDAre provides useful information to investors regarding the Company's operating performance and can facilitate comparison of operating performance between periods and between REITs.
We also present Adjusted EBITDA which includes additional adjustments for items such as other charges, gains or losses on extinguishment of indebtedness, costs associated with the departure of our former Chief Investment Officer, amortization of share-based compensation and certain other expenses that we consider outside the normal course of operations. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA provides useful supplemental information to investors regarding our ongoing operating performance that, when considered with net income, EBITDA and EBITDAre, is beneficial to an investor's understanding of our performance.
The following is a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA, EBITDAre and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands):
For the year ended
December 31,
 202020192018
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (“EBITDA”):
Net (loss) income$(77,020)$18,880 $30,870 
Interest expense28,122 28,247 26,878 
Income tax expense— — (28)
Depreciation and amortization53,871 51,505 48,169 
Adjustments for unconsolidated real estate entity items8,965 18,214 16,495 
EBITDA13,938 116,846 122,384 
Impairment loss on investment in unconsolidated real estate entities15,282 — — 
Impairment loss from unconsolidated real estate entities1,388 4,197 — 
(Gain) loss on sale of hotel property(21,116)3,282 18 
Loss on the sale of assets within unconsolidated real estate entities219 — 
EBITDAre
9,494 124,544 122,402 
Other charges4,385 1,441 3,806 
Adjustments for unconsolidated real estate entity items293 1,081 
Share based compensation4,597 4,719 4,210 
Adjusted EBITDA$18,485 $130,997 $131,499 

50


Adjusted Hotel EBITDA is defined as net income before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, corporate general and administrative, impairment loss, loss on early extinguishment of debt, other charges, interest and other income, losses on sales of hotel properties and income or loss from unconsolidated real estate entities. We present Adjusted Hotel EBITDA because we believe it is useful to investors in comparing our hotel operating performance between periods and comparing our Adjusted Hotel EBITDA margins to those of our peer companies. Adjusted Hotel EBITDA represents the results of operations for our wholly owned hotels only.
The following is a presentation of Adjusted Hotel EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands):
For the year ended
December 31,
202020192018
Net (loss) income(77,020)18,880 30,870 
Add:Interest expense28,122 28,247 26,878 
Depreciation and amortization53,871 51,505 48,169 
Corporate general and administrative11,564 14,077 14,120 
Other charges4,385 1,441 3,806 
Loss from unconsolidated real estate entities7,424 6,448 876 
Impairment loss on investment in unconsolidated real estate entities15,282 — — 
Loss on sale of hotel property— 3,282 18 
Less:Interest and other income(179)(190)(462)
Income tax benefit— — (28)
Gain on sale of hotel property(21,116)— — 
Adjusted Hotel EBITDA$22,333 $123,690 $124,247 

Although we present FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA because we believe they are useful to investors in comparing our operating performance between periods and between REITs that report similar measures, these measures have limitations as analytical tools. Some of these limitations are:

FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not reflect our cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not reflect funds available to make cash distributions;
EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not reflect the significant interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments, on our debts;
Although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized may need to be replaced in the future, and FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements;
Non-cash compensation is and will remain a key element of our overall long-term incentive compensation package, although we exclude it as an expense when evaluating our ongoing operating performance for a particular period using Adjusted EBITDA;
Adjusted FFO, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not reflect the impact of certain cash charges (including acquisition transaction costs) that result from matters we consider not to be indicative of the underlying performance of our hotel properties; and
Other companies in our industry may calculate FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA differently than we do, limiting their usefulness as a comparative measure.
51


In addition, FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA do not represent cash generated from operating activities as determined by GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or loss, cash flows from operations or any other operating performance measure prescribed by GAAP. FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA are not measures of our liquidity. Because of these limitations, FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using FFO, Adjusted FFO, EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Hotel EBITDA only supplementally. Our consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements included elsewhere are prepared in accordance with GAAP.
Sources and Uses of Cash
Our principal sources of cash include net cash from operations and proceeds from debt and equity issuances. Our principal uses of cash include acquisitions, capital expenditures, operating costs, corporate expenditures, interest costs, debt repayments and distributions to equity holders.
As of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash of approximately $31.5 million and $20.2 million, respectively. Additionally, we had $114.7 million available under our $250.0 million revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2020.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, net cash flows used in operations were $19.9 million, driven by net loss of $77.0 million and by $61.7 million of non-cash items, including $55.2 million of depreciation and amortization and $4.6 million of share-based compensation expense, $0.3 million of accelerated LTIP compensation, losses of $7.4 million from unconsolidated real estate entities and $15.3 million related to the impairment of our interest in the Inland JV, offset by $21.1 million from the gain on the sale of a hotel. In addition, changes in operating assets and liabilities due to the timing of cash receipts, payment for real estate taxes, payments of corporate compensation and payments from our hotels resulted in net cash inflow of $4.6 million. Net cash flows provided by investing activities were $26.8 million, primarily related to capital improvements on our 39 wholly owned hotels of $14.4 million, $23.2 million related to the development of a new hotel, offset by proceeds from the sale of the San Diego, CA hotel of $64.4 million. Net cash flows provided by financing activities were $4.4 million, comprised of $0.2 million of common equity proceeds raised through sales under our Prior DRSPP (as defined below), net borrowings on our credit facility of $45.3 million, net borrowing on our construction loan of $13.2 million, offset by principal payments on mortgage debt of $35.7 million, payments of deferred financing and offering costs of $2.4 million, and distributions to shareholders and LTIP unit holders of $16.2 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, net cash flows provided by operations were $86.2 million, driven by net income of $18.9 million and by $66.8 million of non-cash items, including $52.4 million of depreciation and amortization and $4.7 million of share-based compensation expense, $3.3 million of loss on the sale of hotels and losses of $6.4 million from unconsolidated real estate entities. In addition, changes in operating assets and liabilities due to the timing of cash receipts, payment for real estate taxes, payments of corporate compensation and payments from our hotels resulted in net cash inflow of $0.5 million. Net cash flows used in investing activities were $44.6 million, primarily related to capital improvements on our 40 wholly owned hotels of $35.9 million, $12.2 million related to the development of a new hotel and the purchase of a parcel of land for $8.2 million, offset by proceeds from the sale of the Altoona and Washington, PA hotels of $9.0 million and distributions of $2.7 million received from unconsolidated real estate entities. Net cash flows used in financing activities were $53.8 million, comprised of $7.3 million of common equity proceeds raised through sales under our Prior ATM Plan (as defined below) and Prior DRSPP, net borrowings on our unsecured credit facility of $8.5 million, offset by principal payments or payoffs on mortgage debt of $6.7 million, payments of deferred financing and offering costs of $0.2 million, and distributions to shareholders and LTIP unit holders of $62.7 million.

52


For the year ended December 31, 2018, net cash flows provided by operations were $86.2 million, driven by net income of $30.9 million and by $54.1 million of non-cash items, including $49.1 million of depreciation and amortization and $4.2 million of share-based compensation expense and losses of $0.8 million from unconsolidated real estate entities. In addition, changes in operating assets and liabilities due to the timing of cash receipts, payment for real estate taxes, payments of corporate compensation and payments from our hotels resulted in net cash inflow of $1.2 million. Net cash flows used in investing activities were $96.4 million, primarily related the purchase of the Residence Inn Summerville for $21.0 million and the Dallas Downtown Courtyard for $49.0 million, capital improvements on our 42 wholly owned hotels of $31.4 million, reduced by distributions of $5.0 million received from unconsolidated real estate entities. Net cash flows provided by financing activities were $6.0 million, comprised of $24.5 million of common equity proceeds raised through sales under our Prior ATM Plan and Prior DRSPP, net borrowings on our unsecured credit facility of $49.5 million, principal payments or payoffs on mortgage debt of $4.9 million, payments of deferred financing and offering costs of $1.5 million, and distributions to shareholders and LTIP unit holders of $61.6 million.
We declared total dividends of $0.22 and $0.22 per common share and LTIP unit for the year ended December 31, 2020 and $1.32 and $1.32 per common share and LTIP unit for the year ended December 31, 2019, respectively.
Liquidity and Capital Resources

We plan to maintain a prudent capital structure and intend to maintain our leverage over the long term at a ratio of net debt to investment in hotels (at cost) (defined as our initial acquisition price plus the gross amount of any subsequent capital investment and excluding any impairment charges) at a level that will be similar to the levels at which we have operated in the past. A subsequent decrease in hotel property values will not necessarily cause us to repay debt to comply with this limitation. At December 31, 2020, our leverage ratio was approximately 35.8 percent, which increased from 34.1 percent at December 31, 2019 based on the ratio of our net debt (total debt outstanding before deferred financing costs less unrestricted cash and cash equivalents) to hotel investments at cost. At December 31, 2020, we had total debt of $609.7 million at an average rate of approximately 4.4%. We intend to continue to fund our investments with a prudent balance of debt and equity. Our debt may include mortgage debt collateralized by our hotel properties and unsecured debt.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had $135.3 million and $90.0 million, respectively, in outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit facility. We had $13.3 million and zero, respectively, in outstanding borrowings under our construction loan for the Warner Center hotel development at December 31, 2020 and 2019. At December 31, 2020, the maximum borrowing availability under our revolving credit facility was $250.0 million. We also had mortgage debt on individual hotels aggregating $461.1 million and $496.9 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Our revolving credit facility contains representations, warranties, covenants, terms and conditions customary for credit facilities of this type, including a maximum leverage ratio, a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio and minimum net worth financial covenants, limitations on (i) liens, (ii) incurrence of debt, (iii) investments, (iv) distributions, and (v) mergers and asset dispositions, covenants to preserve corporate existence and comply with laws, covenants on the use of proceeds of the revolving credit facility and default provisions, including defaults for non-payment, breach of representations and warranties, insolvency, non-performance of covenants, cross-defaults and guarantor defaults. We were in compliance with all financial covenants at December 31, 2020.
On December 16, 2020, the Company entered into a Third Amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of March 8, 2018 (as amended by the Credit Agreement Amendment, and as previously amended by that certain First Amendment to the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of May 6, 2020, and as further amended by that certain Second Amendment to Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of July 23, 2020), with certain lenders for whom Barclays Bank PLC is acting as the administrative agent. The amendment provides for the waiver of certain financial covenants through December 31, 2021 and allows the Company to borrow up to the entire $250 million facility size during this period. During this covenant waiver period, the Company will be required to maintain a minimum liquidity of $25 million which will include both unrestricted cash and credit facility availability. In connection with the amendment, the Company added six hotels to the credit facility’s borrowing base which now has a total of 24 properties. The amendment provided the Company’s credit facility lenders with pledges of the equity in the 24 borrowing base hotels. The amendment places additional limits on the Company’s ability to incur debt, pay dividends, and make capital expenditures during the covenant waiver period. During the covenant waiver period interest will be calculated as LIBOR (subject to a 0.5% floor) plus a spread of 2.50% if borrowings remain at or below $200 million and a spread of 3.0% if borrowings exceed $200 million. As of December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with all of its modified financial covenants.
53


Our mortgage debt agreements contain “cash trap” provisions that are triggered when the hotel’s operating results
fall below a certain debt service coverage ratio or debt yield. When these provisions are triggered, all of the excess cash flow generated by the hotel is deposited directly into cash management accounts for the benefit of our lenders until a specified debt service coverage ratio or debt yield is reached. Such provisions do not allow the lender the right to accelerate repayment of the underlying debt. As of December 31, 2020, the debt service coverage ratios or debt yields for all of our mortgage loans were below the minimum thresholds such that the cash trap provision of each respective loan could be enforced. As of December 31, 2020, none of our mortgage debt lenders has enforced cash trap provisions. We do not expect that such cash traps will affect our ability to satisfy our short-term liquidity requirements.

In December 2017, we established a $50 million dividend reinvestment and stock purchase plan (the "Prior DRSPP"). We filed a new $50 million shelf registration statement for the dividend reinvestment and stock purchase plan (the "Current DRSPP") and together with the Prior DRSPP, the "DRSPP") on December 22, 2020 to replace the prior program. Under the DRSPPs, shareholders may purchase additional common shares by reinvesting some or all of the cash dividends received on the Company's common shares. Shareholders may also make optional cash purchases of the Company's common shares subject to certain limitations detailed in the prospectuses for the DRSPPs. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we issued 20,512 shares under the Prior DRSPP at a weighted average price of $8.89, which generated $0.2 million of proceeds. As of December 31, 2020, there were common shares having a maximum aggregate sales price of approximately $50.0 million available for issuance under the Current DRSPP.
In December 2017, we established an "At-the-Market-Plan" program (the "Prior ATM Plan") whereby, from time to time, we may publicly offer and sell our common shares having an aggregate maximum offering price up to $100 million by means of ordinary brokers transactions on the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE"), in negotiated transactions or in transactions that are deemed to be "at-the-market" offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. We filed a $100 million registration statement for a new ATM program (the "ATM Plan") on January 5, 2021 to replace the prior program. At the same time, the Company entered into a sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., Barclays Capital Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., BTIG, LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Regions Securities LLC, Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated and Wells Fargo Securities as sales agents.. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we issued no shares under the Prior ATM Plan. As of December 31, 2020, there were common shares having a maximum aggregate sales price of approximately $100.0 million available for issuance under the ATM Plan.
We expect to meet our short-term liquidity requirements generally through existing cash balances and availability under our credit facility. We believe that our existing cash balances and availability under our credit facility will be adequate to fund operating obligations, pay interest on any borrowings and fund dividends in accordance with the requirements for qualification as a REIT under the Code. We expect to meet our long-term liquidity requirements, such as hotel property acquisitions and debt maturities or repayments through additional long-term secured and unsecured borrowings, the issuance of additional equity or debt securities or the possible sale of existing assets.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused, and is continuing to cause, significant disruption in the financial markets both globally and in the United States, and will continue to impact, possibly materially, our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot predict the degree, or duration, to which our operations will be affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, and the effects could be material. While we believe the liquidity provided by our unrestricted cash and credit facility availability, valuable unencumbered assets and aggressive cost reduction initiatives will enable us to fund our current obligations for the foreseeable future, COVID-19 has resulted in significant disruption of global financial markets, which could have a negative impact on our ability to access capital in the future. Because the situation is ongoing, and because the duration and severity remain unclear, it is difficult to forecast any impacts on our future results.
We intend to continue to invest in hotel properties as suitable opportunities arise. We intend to finance our future investments with free cash flow, the net proceeds from additional issuances of common and preferred shares, issuances of common units in our Operating Partnership or other securities, borrowings or asset sales. The success of our acquisition strategy depends, in part, on our ability to access additional capital through other sources. There can be no assurance that we will continue to make investments in properties that meet our investment criteria. Additionally, we may choose to dispose of certain hotels as a means to provide liquidity.
54


Capital Expenditures
We intend to maintain each hotel property in good repair and condition and in conformity with applicable laws and regulations and in accordance with the franchisor’s standards and any agreed-upon requirements in our management and loan agreements. After we acquire a hotel property, we may be required to complete a property improvement plan (“PIP”) in order to be granted a new franchise license for that particular hotel property. PIPs are intended to bring the hotel property up to the franchisor’s standards. Certain of our loans require that we escrow for property improvement purposes, at the hotels collateralizing these loans, amounts up to 5% of gross revenue from such hotels. We intend to spend amounts necessary to comply with any reasonable loan or franchisor requirement and otherwise to the extent that such expenditures are in the best interest of the hotel. To the extent that we spend more on capital expenditures than is available from our operations, we intend to fund those capital expenditures with available cash and borrowings under our senior unsecured revolving credit facility.
For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we invested approximately $14.5 million and $35.9 million, respectively, on capital projects in our hotels. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we reduced our planned 2020 capital expenditures by approximately $10 million. We expect to invest approximately $6.3 million on renovations, discretionary and emergency expenditures on our existing hotels in 2021, including improvements required under any brand PIP.
We are developing a hotel in Los Angeles, CA on a parcel of land owned by us. We expect the total development costs for construction of the hotel to be approximately $70.0 million, which includes the cost of the land. We have incurred $43.7 million of costs to date, which included $6.6 million of the land acquisition costs and $37.1 million of other development costs. We reclassified the $6.6 million of land acquisition costs from Land to Hotel Properties Under Development during the year ended December 31, 2019 in conjunction with our development activities.


Related Party Transactions

We have entered into transactions and arrangements with related parties that could result in potential conflicts of interest. See “Risks Related to Our Business” and Note 15, “Related Party Transactions”, to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See also Item 13 of this Form 10-K.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We had no material off-balance sheet arrangements at December 31, 2020 other than non-recourse debt associated with the NewINK JV and Inland JV as discussed below.

Contractual Obligations

The following table sets forth our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020, and the effect these obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flow in future periods (in thousands).
  
Payments Due by Period
Contractual ObligationsTotalLess Than
One Year
One to Three
Years
Three to Five
Years
More Than Five
Years
Corporate office lease (1)$4,994 $832 $1,726 $1,814 $622 
Revolving credit facility, including interest (2)140,488 4,383 136,105 — — 
Construction loan (2)17,032 1,033 2,065 13,934 — 
Ground leases72,241 1,219 2,438 2,486 66,098 
Property loans, including interest (2)511,507 43,920 147,374 320,213 — 
Total$746,262 $51,387 $289,708 $338,447 $66,720 
1.The Company entered into a corporate office lease in 2015. The lease is for eleven years and includes a 12-month rent abatement period and certain tenant improvement allowances. The Company will share the space with related parties and will be reimbursed for the pro-rata share of rentable space occupied by related parties.

2.Does not reflect paydowns or additional borrowings under the revolving credit facility, construction loan or properties loans after December 31, 2020. Interest payments are based on the interest rate in effect as of December 31, 2020. See Note 7, “Debt” to our consolidated financial statements for additional information relating to our property loans.
55


In addition to the above listed obligations, we pay management and franchise fees to our hotel management companies and franchisors based on the revenues of our hotels. The table above also does not include $6.3 million that we expect to invest on renovations, discretionary and emergency capital expenditures on our existing hotels in 2021, or $26.3 million of estimated remaining costs associated with our Los Angeles hotel development. Our contracts associated with these planned capital expenditures contain clauses that allow us to cancel all or some portion of the work. If cancellation of a contract occurred, our commitment would be any costs incurred up to the cancellation date, in addition to any costs associated with the discharge of the contract.
The Company’s ownership interests in the NewINK JV and Inland JV are subject to change in the event that either we or CLNY calls for additional capital contributions to the respective JVs necessary for the conduct of that JV's business, including contributions to fund costs and expenses related to capital expenditures. CLNY may also approve certain actions related to the JVs without the Company’s consent, including certain property dispositions conducted at arm’s length, certain actions related to the restructuring of the JVs and removal of the Company as managing member in the event the Company fails to fulfill its material obligations under the respective joint venture agreements. On September 24, 2020, CLNY announced that it had entered into an agreement to sell 6 of its hospitality portfolios, including the NewINK JV, in a transaction with a gross equity sale price of $67.5 million. The Inland JV is not included in this proposed transaction. CLNY has not disclosed a proposed allocation of the sale price among the 6 portfolios. On December 23, 2020, the Company entered into an agreement with CLNY to sell the Company's interest in the NewINK JV for $2.8 million concurrent with the closing of the portfolio sales. The transaction is subject to closing conditions, including the assumption of debt by the purchaser.
In connection with certain non-recourse mortgage loans in either the NewINK JV or Inland JV, our Operating Partnership could require us to repay our pro rata share of portions of each respective JV's indebtedness in connection with certain customary non-recourse carve-out provisions such as environmental conditions, misuse of funds and material misrepresentations.

Inflation

Operators of hotels, in general, possess the ability to adjust room rates daily to reflect the effects of inflation. However, competitive pressures may limit the ability of our management companies to raise room rates.

Critical Accounting Policies

We consider the following policies critical because they require estimates about matters that are inherently uncertain, involve various assumptions and require management judgment. The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions.

Investment in Hotel Properties

We allocate the purchase prices of hotel properties acquired based on the fair value of the acquired real estate, furniture, fixtures and equipment, identifiable intangible assets and assumed liabilities. In making estimates of fair value for purposes of allocating the purchase price, we utilize a number of sources of information that are obtained in connection with the acquisition of a hotel property, including valuations performed by independent third parties and information obtained about each hotel property resulting from pre-acquisition due diligence.
Our hotel properties are carried at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally 40 years for buildings, 20 years for land improvements, 5 to 20 years for building improvements and one to ten years for furniture, fixtures and equipment. Renovations and/or replacements at the hotel properties that improve or extend the life of the assets are capitalized and depreciated over their useful lives, while repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Upon the sale or retirement of property and equipment, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the Company’s accounts and any resulting gain or loss is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations.
56


Our hotel properties are periodically reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the hotel properties may not be recoverable. Events or circumstances that may cause a review include, but are not limited to, adverse changes in the demand for lodging at the properties due to declining national or local economic conditions and/or new hotel construction in markets where the hotels are located. When such conditions exist, management will perform an analysis to determine if the estimated undiscounted future cash flows, without interest charges, from operations and the proceeds from the ultimate disposition of a hotel property exceed its carrying value. If the estimated undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount, an adjustment to reduce the carrying amount to the related hotel property's estimated fair market value is recorded and an impairment loss recognized. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no impairment losses.
For properties the Company considers held for sale, depreciation and amortization are no longer recorded and the value the properties is recorded at the lower of depreciated cost or fair value, less costs to sell. If circumstances arise that were previously considered unlikely, and, as a result, the Company decides not to sell a property previously classified as held for sale, the Company will reclassify such property as held and used. Such property is measured at the lower of its carrying amount (adjusted for any depreciation and amortization expense that would have been recognized had the property been continuously classified as held and used) or fair value at the date of the subsequent decision not to sell. The Company classifies properties as held for sale when all criteria within the Financial Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") guidance on the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets are met. As of December 31, 2020, we had no hotel properties held for sale.

Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Entities    
If it is determined that the Company does not have a controlling interest in a joint venture, either through its financial interest in a variable investment entity ("VIE") or in a voting interest entity, the equity method of accounting is used if the company has the ability to exercise significant influence. Under this method, the investment, originally recorded at cost, is adjusted to recognize the Company’s share of net earnings or losses of the affiliates as they occur rather than as dividends or other distributions are received, advances to and commitments for the investee.

Investment in unconsolidated real estate entities are accounted for under the equity method of accounting and the Company records its equity in earnings or losses under the hypothetical liquidation of book value (“HLBV”) method of accounting due to the structures and the preferences we receive on the distributions from the joint ventures pursuant to the joint venture agreements. Under this method, the Company recognizes income and loss in each period based on the change in liquidation proceeds we would receive from a hypothetical liquidation of our investment based on depreciated book value. Therefore, income or loss may be allocated disproportionately as compared to the ownership percentages due to specified preferred return rate thresholds and may be more or less than actual cash distributions received and more or less than what the Company may receive in the event of an actual liquidation. In the event a basis difference is created between the carrying amount of the Company's share of partner's capital, the resulting amount is allocated based on the assets of the investee and, if assigned to depreciable or amortizable assets, then amortized as a component of income (loss) from unconsolidated real estate entities.

The Company periodically reviews the carrying value of its investment in unconsolidated joint ventures to determine if circumstances indicate impairment to the carrying value of the investment that is other than temporary. When an impairment indicator is present, the Company will estimate the fair value of the investment. The Company’s estimate of fair value takes into consideration factors such as expected future operating income, trends and prospects, as well as other factors. This determination requires significant estimates by management, including the expected cash flows to be generated by the assets owned and operated by the joint venture. To the extent impairment has occurred and is other than temporary, the loss will be measured as the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the Company’s investment in the unconsolidated joint venture. As of December 31, 2020, the Company recorded an impairment of the entire carrying value of $15.3 million on our investment in the Inland JV related to a decline in operating performance caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (See Note 6).

Revenue Recognition

Revenue from hotel operations is recognized when rooms are occupied and when services are provided. Revenue consists of amounts derived from hotel operations, including sales from room, meeting room, gift shop, in-room movie and other ancillary amenities. Sales, use, occupancy, and similar taxes are collected and presented on a net basis (excluded from revenues) in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
57



On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted accounting guidance under Accounting Standards Update (ASU) Topic 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" on a modified retrospective basis. Our current revenue streams are not affected under the new model and we did not recognize a cumulative effect adjustment as part of the modified retrospective method of adoption. Furthermore, the new accounting guidance will not materially impact the recognition of or the accounting for disposition of hotels since we primarily dispose of hotels to third parties in exchange for cash with few contingencies. As it relates to capitalization of costs to acquire customer contracts, the Company has elected to use the Financial Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") practical expedient which allows us to expense costs to acquire customer contracts as they are incurred due to their short-term nature for a specified number of nights that never exceed one year. This guidance applies to all contracts as of the adoption date. The Company has applied all relevant disclosures of this standard.
Share-Based Compensation

We measure compensation expense for the restricted share awards based upon the fair market value of our common shares at the date of grant. The Company measures compensation expense for the LTIP and Class A Performance units based upon the Monte Carlo approach using volatility, dividend yield and a risk free interest rate in the valuation. Compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period and is included in general and administrative expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. We pay dividends on vested and non-vested restricted shares, except for performance-based shares for which dividends on unvested shares are not paid until these shares are vested. The Company has also issued Class A Performance LTIP units from time to time as part of its compensation plan. Prior to vesting, holders of Class A Performance LTIP Units will not be entitled to vote their Class A Performance LTIP units. In addition, under the terms of the Class A Performance LTIP units, a holder of a Class A Performance LTIP unit will generally (i) be entitled to receive 10% of the distributions made on a common unit of the Operating Partnership during the period prior to vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit (the “Pre-Vesting Distributions”), (ii) be entitled, upon the vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit, to receive a special one-time “catch-up” distribution equal to the aggregate amount of distributions that were paid on a common unit during the period prior to vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit minus the aggregate amount of Pre-Vesting Distributions paid on such Class A Performance LTIP unit, and (iii) be entitled, following the vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit, to receive the same amount of distributions paid on a common unit of the Operating Partnership.
Income Taxes
 
We elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our 2010 taxable year. In order to qualify as a REIT under the Code, we must meet certain organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement to distribute at least 90% of our annual REIT taxable income to our shareholders (which is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction or net capital gain and which does not necessarily equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP). As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax to the extent we currently distribute our taxable income to our shareholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we will be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates and generally will not be permitted to qualify for treatment as a REIT for federal income tax purposes for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification is lost unless the IRS grants us relief under certain statutory provisions. Such an event could materially adversely affect our net income and net cash available for distribution to shareholders. However, we believe we have been organized and that we operate in such a manner as to qualify for treatment as a REIT.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted accounting guidance under Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-02 (“ASU 2016-02”), Leases, which relates to the accounting for leasing transactions.  On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued updated accounting guidance which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e., lessees and lessors). The accounting guidance requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. The classification of the lease will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases. We adopted the accounting guidance on January 1, 2019 and applied it based on the optional transition method provided for, which allows entities to recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet on the adoption date. Upon adoption, we applied the package of practical expedients made available under the new accounting guidance and also make an accounting policy election to not recognize right-of-use assets or lease liabilities for leases with terms of 12 months or less. For our ground lease agreements and corporate office lease agreement, all of which are currently accounted for as operating leases, we recognized lease liabilities of $25.7 million with corresponding right-of use assets of $23.1 million on our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019.

58


On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted accounting guidance under Accounting Standards Update (ASU) Topic 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" on a modified retrospective basis. Our current revenue streams are not affected under the new model and we did not recognize a cumulative effect adjustment as part of the modified retrospective method of adoption. Furthermore, the new accounting guidance will not materially impact the recognition of or the accounting for disposition of hotels since we primarily dispose of hotels to third parties in exchange for cash with few contingencies. As it relates to capitalization of costs to acquire customer contracts, the Company has elected to use the Financial Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") practical expedient which allows us to expense costs to acquire customer contracts as they are incurred due to their short-term nature for a specified number of nights that never exceed one year. This guidance applies to all contracts as of the adoption date. The Company has applied all relevant disclosures of this standard.

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted accounting guidance under 2016-15 ("ASU 2016-15"), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which clarifies and provides specific guidance on eight cash flow classification issues with an objective to reduce the current diversity in practice. The Company has certain cash payments and receipts related to debt extinguishment that are affected by the new standard. The Company has historically classified distributions received from equity method investments under the cumulative earnings approach. As such, there was no impact due to application of the new guidance. The Company applied the new guidance on a retrospective basis.

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted accounting guidance under ASU 2016-18 ("ASU 2016-18"), Restricted Cash, which requires that the statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. This standard addresses presentation of restricted cash in the consolidated statements of cash flows only. Restricted cash represents purchase price deposits held in escrow for potential hotel acquisitions under contract and escrow reserves such as reserves for capital expenditures, property taxes or insurance that are required pursuant to the Company's loans. The Company applied the new guidance on a retrospective basis.



59


Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.

We may be exposed to interest rate changes primarily as a result of our assumption of long-term debt in connection with our acquisitions and upon refinancing of existing debt. Our interest rate risk management objectives are to limit the impact of interest rate changes on earnings and cash flows and to lower overall borrowing costs. To achieve these objectives, we seek to borrow primarily at fixed rates or variable rates with the lowest margins available and, in some cases, with the ability to convert variable rates to fixed rates. With respect to variable rate financing, we will assess interest rate risk by identifying and monitoring changes in interest rate exposures that may adversely impact expected future cash flows and by evaluating hedging opportunities.
The Company estimates the fair value of its fixed rate debt by discounting the future cash flows of each instrument at estimated market rates. Rates take into consideration general market conditions, maturity and fair value of the underlying collateral. The estimated fair value of the Company’s fixed rate debt at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 was $462.6 million and $501.5 million, respectively.
At December 31, 2020, our consolidated debt was comprised of floating and fixed interest rate debt. The fair value of our fixed rate debt indicates the estimated principal amount of debt having the same debt service requirements that could have been borrowed at the date presented, at then current market interest rates. The following table provides information about the maturities of our financial instruments as of December 31, 2020 that are sensitive to changes in interest rates (dollars in thousands):
20212022202320242025ThereafterTotalFair Value
Floating rate:
Debt— $135,300 — $13,325 — $148,625 $148,625 
Average interest rate— 3.07%— 7.75%— 3.49%
Fixed rate:
Debt$21,441$9,249$117,875$296,616 $15,935 $461,116 $462,593 
Average interest rate5.29 %4.63%4.66 %4.64%4.25%4.66%

Our credit facility is currently subject to a 0.5% LIBOR floor and our construction loan is subject to a 0.25% LIBOR floor. At December 31, 2020 1-month LIBOR was 0.14%. We estimate that a hypothetical 100 basis points increase in LIBOR would result in additional interest of approximately $1.0 million annually. This assumes that the amount of floating rate debt outstanding on our revolving credit facility remains $135.3 million and the amount outstanding on our construction loan remains $13.3 million, the balance as of December 31, 2020.
60


Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

See our Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto beginning at page F-1 included in Item 15, which are incorporated herein by reference.

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.

None.

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we have evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(b) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that these disclosure controls and procedures are effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC's rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the last fiscal quarter of 2020 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Management Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

Our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020.  In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in “Internal Control-Integrated Framework” (2013 framework).  Based on this assessment, management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2020, our internal control over financial reporting is effective, based on those criteria.

The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which appears on page F-2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 9B. Other Information

None.
61


Part III

Item 10. Trustees, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 11, 2021.

Item 11. Executive Compensation

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 11, 2021.

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters    

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2021
Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 11, 2021.

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Trustee Independence

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2021
Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 11, 2021.

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2021
Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 11, 2021.

62


PART IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

1.    Financial Statements
 
See the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements at pages F-1
 
2.     Financial Statement Schedules

The following financial statement schedule is included herein at page F-40:

Schedule III - Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation as of December 31, 2020

 
All other schedules for which provision is made in Regulation S-X are either not required to be included herein under the related instructions or are inapplicable or the related information is included in the footnotes to the applicable financial statement and, therefore, have been omitted.

3. Exhibits
 
A list of exhibits required to be filed as part of this report on Form 10-K is set forth in the Exhibit Index, which immediately follows this item and is incorporated by reference herein.



63


EXHIBIT INDEX
 
Exhibit
Number
Description of Exhibit
Articles of Amendment and Restatement of Chatham Lodging Trust(12)
Second Amended and Restated Bylaws of Chatham Lodging Trust(1)
Description of the Company's Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Chatham Lodging Trust Equity Incentive Plan, Amended and Restated as of May 17, 2013 (2)
Employment Agreement between Chatham Lodging Trust and Jeffrey H. Fisher(12)
Employment Agreement between Chatham Lodging Trust and Peter Willis(12)
Employment Agreement between Chatham Lodging Trust and Dennis M. Craven(12)
Employment Agreement between Chatham Lodging Trust and Jeremy Wegner(3)
First Amendment to Employment Agreement of Peter Willis dated January 30, 2015(4)
First Amendment to Employment Agreement of Dennis Craven dated January 30, 2015(4)
Form of Indemnification Agreement between Chatham Lodging Trust and its officers and trustees(5)
Form of LTIP Unit Vesting Agreement(5)
Form of Share Award Agreement for Trustees(5)
Form of Share Award Agreement for Officers(6)
Share Award Agreement, dated as of June 1, 2015, between Chatham Lodging Trust and Jeremy Wegner(7)
LTIP Unit Award Agreement, dated as of June 1, 2015, between Chatham Lodging Trust, Chatham Lodging, L.P. and Jeffrey Fisher (Outperformance Plan) (8)
LTIP Unit Award Agreement, dated as of June 1, 2015, between Chatham Lodging Trust, Chatham Lodging, L.P. and Dennis Craven (Outperformance Plan) (8)
LTIP Unit Award Agreement, dated as of June 1, 2015, between Chatham Lodging Trust, Chatham Lodging, L.P. and Peter Willis (Outperformance Plan) (8)
Agreement of Limited Partnership of Chatham Lodging, L.P.(5)
First Amendment to the Agreement of Limited Partnership of Chatham Lodging, L.P.(7)
Form of IHM Hotel Management Agreement(5)
Third Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of INK Acquisition LLC, dated as of June 9, 2014, by and between Platform Member-T, LLC and Chatham Lodging, L.P.(9)
Second Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of INK Acquisition III, LLC, dated as of June 9, 2014, by and between Platform Member Holdings-T Cam2, LLC and Chatham TRS Holding, Inc.(9)
Loan Agreement, dated as of June 9, 2014, between Grand Prix Sili II, LLC, as borrower, and JP Morgan Chase Bank, National Association, as lender.(9)
Limited Liability Company Agreement of IHP I Owner JV, LLC, dated as of November 17, 2014, by and between Platform Member II-T, LLC and Chatham IHP, LLC.(10)
Limited Liability Company Agreement of IHP I OPs JV, LLC, dated as of November 17, 2014, by and between Platform Member Holdings II-T Cam2, LLC and Chatham TRS Holding, Inc.(10)
Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of March 8, 2018, among Chatham Lodging Trust, Chatham Lodging, L.P., the lenders party thereto and Barclays Bank PLC, as administrative agent.(14)
Form of 2016 Time-Based LTIP Unit Award Agreement(12)
Form of 2016 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Award Agreement(12)
64


Form of 2017 Time-Based LTIP Unit Award Agreement(13)
Form of 2017 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Award Agreement(13)
Separation Agreement and General Release, dated as of March 5, 2020, by and between Chatham Lodging Trust and Peter Willis(15)
First Amendment to Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of May 6, 2020, among Chatham Lodging Trust, as parent guarantee, Chatham Lodging L.P., as borrower, the several banks and other financial institutions or entities that are parties thereto, as lenders and Barclays Bank PLC, as administrative agent(16)
Third Amendment to Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of December 16, 2020, among Chatham Lodging Trust, as parent guarantee, Chatham Lodging L.P., as borrower, the several banks and other financial institutions or entities that are parties thereto, as lenders and Barclays Bank PLC, as administrative agent(17)
Sales Agreement, dated January 4, 2021, by and among Chatham Lodging Trust, Chatham Lodging, L.P. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., Barclays Capital Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., BTIG, LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Regions Securities LLC, Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC(18)
List of Subsidiaries of Chatham Lodging Trust
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Certification of Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
101.INS**The instance document does not appear in the interactive data file because its inline XBRL tags are embedded within the inline XBRL document.
101.SCH**Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
101.CAL**Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.DEF**Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
101.LAB**Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
101.PRE**Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
104Cover Page Interactive Data File - the cover page interactive data file does not appear in the interactive date file because its XBRL tags are embedded within the inline XBRL document
 
*    Denotes management contract or compensation plan or arrangement in which trustees or officers are eligible to participate.

**    Submitted electronically herewith. Attached as Exhibit 101 to this report are the following documents formatted in XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language): (i) Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2020 and 2019; (ii) Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018; (iii) Consolidated Statements of Equity for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018; (iv) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018; and (v) Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

65


(1)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 21, 2015 (File No. 001-34693).
(2)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 15, 2013 (File No. 001-34693).
(3)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 5, 2015 (File No. 001-34693).
(4)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 5, 2015 (File No. 001-34693).
(5)Incorporated by reference to Amendment No. 4 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 filed with the SEC on February 12, 2010 (File No. 333-162889).
(6)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 13, 2010 (File No. 001-34693).
(7)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 6, 2015 (File No. 001-34693).
(8)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 6, 2015 (File No. 001-34693).
(9)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 11, 2014 (File No. 001-34693).
(10)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 30, 2014 (File No. 001-34693).
(11)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 30, 2015 (File No. 001-34693).
(12)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 29, 2016 (File No. 001-34693).
(13)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 9, 2017 (File No. 001-34693).
(14)Incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 25, 2019 (File No. 001-34693).
(15)Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 6, 2020 (File No. 001-34693).
(16)Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 6, 2020 (File No. 001-34693).
(17)Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 17, 2020 (File No. 001-34693).
(18)Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.1 to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 5, 2021 (File No. 001-34693).


66


SIGNATURE

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
  CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
Dated:February 24, 2021 /s/ JEFFREY H. FISHER
 Jeffrey H. Fisher
 Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer
 (Principal Executive Officer)
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SIGNATURETITLEDATE
/s/ JEFFREY H. FISHERChairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)February 24, 2021
Jeffrey H. Fisher
/s/ JEREMY B. WEGNERSenior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)February 24, 2021
Jeremy B. Wegner
/s/ EDWIN B. BREWER, JR.TrusteeFebruary 24, 2021
Edwin B. Brewer, Jr.
/s/ THOMAS J. CROCKERTrusteeFebruary 24, 2021
Thomas J. Crocker
/s/ JACK P. DEBOERTrusteeFebruary 24, 2021
Jack P. DeBoer
/s/ MARY ELIZABETH HIGGINSTrusteeFebruary 24, 2021
Mary Elizabeth Higgins
/s/ ROBERT PERLMUTTERTrusteeFebruary 24, 2021
Robert Perlmutter
/s/ ROLF E. RUHFUSTrusteeFebruary 24, 2021
Rolf E. Ruhfus

67


CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
   
  
  Page No.
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 
F-2
Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2020 and 2019 
F-4
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 
F-5
Consolidated Statements of Equity for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 
F-6
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 
F-7
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements 
F-8
Financial Statement Schedule
Schedule III - Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation at December 31, 2020
F-37

F-1





Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Trustees and Shareholders of Chatham Lodging Trust

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Chatham Lodging Trust and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related consolidated statements of operations, of equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Change in Accounting Principle

As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for leases in 2019.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the Management Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures
F-2


that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Impairment Evaluation of Investments in Hotel Properties

As described in Notes 2 and 5 to the consolidated financial statements, as of December 31, 2020, the Company had an investment in hotel properties, net of $1.3 billion and for the year ended December 31, 2020, there were no impairment losses recorded. Management periodically reviews its hotel properties for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the hotel properties may not be recoverable over management’s estimated holding period. This estimated holding period incorporates management’s intent and ability to hold the hotel properties over the estimated holding period. Events or circumstances that may cause a review include, but are not limited to, adverse changes in the demand for lodging at the properties due to declining national or local economic conditions and/or new hotel construction in markets where the hotels are located. When such conditions exist and management has identified uncertainty surrounding the recoverability of the hotel property carrying value, management will perform an analysis to determine if the estimated undiscounted future cash flows, without interest charges, from operations and the estimated proceeds from the ultimate disposition of a hotel property exceed its carrying value. If the estimated undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount, an adjustment to reduce the carrying amount to the related hotel property's estimated fair market value is recorded and an impairment loss recognized.

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the impairment evaluation of investments in hotel properties is a critical audit matter are the significant judgments by management when evaluating whether events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the hotel properties may not be recoverable over management’s estimated holding period. This in turn led to a high degree of auditor judgment and subjectivity in performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence relating to management’s intent and ability to hold its hotel properties and management’s assessment of economic conditions of the Company’s hotels.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the impairment evaluation of the Company’s investments in hotel properties, including controls over management’s evaluation of whether events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of hotel properties may not be recoverable. These procedures also included, among others, testing management’s process for evaluating whether events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Testing management’s process included evaluating management’s intent and ability to hold its hotel properties over the estimated holding period, evaluating management’s assessment of economic conditions, and considering whether the assessment of economic conditions of the Company’s hotels were consistent with external industry data and evidence obtained in other areas of the audit.


/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Miami, Florida    
February 24, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2009.
F-3


CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
December 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
  
Assets:
Investment in hotel properties, net$1,265,174 $1,347,116 
Investment in hotel properties under development43,651 20,496 
Cash and cash equivalents21,124 6,620 
Restricted cash10,329 13,562 
Investment in unconsolidated real estate entities17,969 
Right of use asset, net20,641 21,270 
Hotel receivables (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $248 and $451, respectively)1,688 4,626 
Deferred costs, net5,384 4,271 
Prepaid expenses and other assets2,266 2,615 
Deferred tax asset, net29 
Total assets$1,370,257 $1,438,574 
Liabilities and Equity:
Mortgage debt, net$460,145 $495,465 
Revolving credit facility135,300 90,000 
Construction loan13,325 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses25,374 33,012 
Distributions and losses in excess of investments of unconsolidated real estate entities19,951 15,214 
Lease liability, net23,233 23,717 
Distributions payable469 6,142 
Total liabilities677,797 663,550 
Commitments and contingencies (see note 14)00
Equity:
Shareholders’ Equity:
Preferred shares, $0.01 par value, 100,000,000 shares authorized and unissued at December 31, 2020 and 2019
Common shares, $0.01 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized; 46,973,473 and 46,928,445 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively470 469 
Additional paid-in capital906,000 904,273 
Accumulated deficit(228,718)(142,365)
Total shareholders’ equity677,752 762,377 
Noncontrolling Interests:
Noncontrolling interest in operating partnership14,708 12,647 
Total equity692,460 775,024 
Total liabilities and equity$1,370,257 $1,438,574 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-4



CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
For the year ended
December 31,
202020192018
Revenue:
Room$130,564 $296,267 $295,897 
Food and beverage2,718 9,824 8,880 
Other7,589 16,567 13,710 
Reimbursable costs from unconsolidated real estate entities4,045 5,670 5,743 
Total revenue144,916 328,328 324,230 
Expenses:
Hotel operating expenses:
Room31,883 65,270 63,877 
Food and beverage2,456 8,396 7,312 
Telephone1,451 1,638 1,766 
Other hotel operating1,629 4,039 3,296 
General and administrative16,733 25,641 25,567 
Franchise and marketing fees11,608 25,850 24,864 
Advertising and promotions3,983 6,043 6,227 
Utilities9,229 10,867 10,835 
Repairs and maintenance9,799 14,321 14,710 
Management fees5,289 10,822 10,754 
Insurance1,438 1,364 1,354 
Total hotel operating expenses95,498 174,251 170,562 
Depreciation and amortization53,871 51,505 48,169 
Impairment loss on investment in unconsolidated real estate entities15,282 
Property taxes, ground rent and insurance23,040 24,717 23,678 
General and administrative11,564 14,077 14,120 
Other charges4,385 1,441 3,806 
Reimbursable costs from unconsolidated real estate entities4,045 5,670 5,743 
Total operating expenses207,685 271,661 266,078 
Operating (loss) income before gain (loss) on sale of hotel property(62,769)56,667 58,152 
Gain (loss) on sale of hotel property21,116 (3,282)(18)
Operating (loss) income(41,653)53,385 58,134 
Interest and other income179 190 462 
Interest expense net of amounts capitalized, including amortization of deferred fees(28,122)(28,247)(26,878)
Loss from unconsolidated real estate entities(7,424)(6,448)(876)
(Loss ) income before income tax expense(77,020)18,880 30,842 
Income tax expense28 
Net (loss) income(77,020)18,880 30,870 
Net (loss) income attributable to non-controlling interest997 (177)(229)
Net (loss) income attributable to common shareholders$(76,023)$18,703 $30,641 
(Loss) income per Common Share - Basic:
Net (loss) income attributable to common shareholders (Note 11)$(1.62)$0.39 $0.66 
(Loss) income per Common Share - Diluted:
Net (loss) income attributable to common shareholders (Note 11)$(1.62)$0.39 $0.66 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic46,961,039 46,788,784 46,073,515 
Diluted46,961,039 47,023,280 46,243,660 
Distributions per common share:$0.22 $1.32 $1.32 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-5


CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
Consolidated Statements of Equity
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 Common Shares
Additional
Paid - In
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Noncontrolling
Interest in
Operating
Partnership
Total
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance January 1, 201845,375,266 450 871,730 (69,018)803,162 6,618 809,780 
Issuance of shares pursuant to Equity Incentive Plan21,670 — 500 — 500 — 500 
Issuance of shares, net of offering costs of $5181,135,095 15 23,953 — 23,968 — 23,968 
Issuance of restricted time-based shares5,000 — — — — — 
Amortization of share based compensation— — 103 — 103 3,607 3,710 
Dividends declared on common shares ($1.32 per share)— — — (60,908)(60,908)— (60,908)
Distributions declared on LTIP units ($1.32 per unit)— — — — — (1,154)(1,154)
Forfeited distributions on LTIP units— — — — — 652 652 
Net income— — — 30,641 30,641 229 30,870 
Balance, December 31, 201846,537,031 465 896,286 (99,285)797,466 9,952 807,418 
Issuance of shares pursuant to Equity Incentive Plan27,870 — 500 — 500 — 500 
Issuance of shares, net of offering costs of $209363,544 7,087 — 7,091 — 7,091 
Issuance of restricted time-based shares— — — — — 
Amortization of share based compensation— — 63 — 63 4,206 4,269 
Dividends declared on common shares ($1.32 per share)— — — (61,783)(61,783)— (61,783)
Distributions declared on LTIP units ($1.32 per unit)— — — — — (1,351)(1,351)
Reallocation of noncontrolling interest— — 337 — 337 (337)
Net income— — — 18,703 18,703 177 18,880 
Balance, December 31, 201946,928,445 $469 $904,273 $(142,365)$762,377 $12,647 $775,024 
Issuance of shares pursuant to Equity Incentive Plan24,516 — 450 — 450 — 450 
Issuance of shares, net of offering costs of $4920,512 133 — 134 — 134 
Amortization of share based compensation— — 30 — 30 4,406 4,436 
Dividends declared on common shares ($0.22 per share)— — — (10,330)(10,330)— (10,330)
Distributions declared on LTIP units ($0.22 per unit)— — — — — (234)(234)
Reallocation of noncontrolling interest— — 1,114 — 1,114 (1,114)
Net loss— — — (76,023)(76,023)(997)(77,020)
Balance, December 31, 202046,973,473 $470 $906,000 $(228,718)$677,752 $14,708 $692,460 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-6


CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
For the year ended
 December 31,
 202020192018
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net (loss) income$(77,020)$18,880 $30,870 
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation53,627 51,258 47,932 
Amortization of deferred franchise fees244 247 237 
Amortization of deferred financing fees included in interest expense1,275 912 902 
(Gain) loss on sale of hotel property(21,116)3,282 18 
Impairment loss on investment in unconsolidated real estate entities15,282 
Deferred tax expense (benefit)29 29 (28)
Share based compensation4,597 4,719 4,210 
Accelerated share based compensation for employee severance288 
Loss from unconsolidated real estate entities7,424 6,448 876 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Right of use asset629 613 — 
Hotel receivables2,940 (102)(437)
Deferred costs(6)(17)(243)
Prepaid expenses and other assets292 (308)64 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(7,962)664 1,814 
Lease liability(484)(391)— 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(19,961)86,234 86,215 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Improvements and additions to hotel properties(14,487)(35,859)(31,417)
Investment in hotel properties under development(23,155)(12,224)
Acquisition of hotel properties, net of cash acquired(8,171)(70,020)
Proceeds from sale of hotel properties, net64,448 8,987 
Distributions from unconsolidated entities2,692 5,036 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities26,806 (44,575)(96,401)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Borrowings on revolving credit facility86,000 74,500 149,000 
Repayments on revolving credit facility(40,700)(66,000)(99,500)
Borrowings on construction loan13,325 
Payments on mortgage debt(35,744)(6,695)(4,899)
Payments of financing costs(2,351)(48)(955)
Payment of offering costs(49)(209)(518)
Proceeds from issuance of common shares182 7,298 24,486 
Distributions - common shares/units(16,237)(62,660)(61,590)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities4,426 (53,814)6,024 
Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash11,271 (12,155)(4,162)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period20,182 32,337 36,499 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period$31,453 $20,182 $32,337 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest$28,119 $27,274 $25,328 
Capitalized interest$1,473 $445 $
Cash paid for income taxes$328 $748 $887 
-continued-
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing information:
On January 15, 2021, the Company issued 40,203 shares to its independent trustees pursuant to the Company’s Equity Incentive Plan as compensation for services performed in 2020. On January 15, 2020, the Company issued 24,516 shares to its independent trustees pursuant to the Company’s Equity Incentive Plan as compensation for services performed in 2019. On January 16, 2019, the Company issued 27,870 shares to its independent trustees pursuant to the Company's Equity Incentive Plan as compensation for services performed in 2018.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had accrued distributions payable of $0.5 million. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had accrued distributions payable of $6.1 million. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had accrued distributions payable of $5.7 million.
Accrued share based compensation of $0.5 million, $0.5 million and $0.5 million is included in accounts payable and accrued expenses as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Accrued capital improvements of $4.5 million, $3.8 million and $2.4 million are included in accounts payable and accrued expenses as of December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 respectively.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-7


CHATHAM LODGING TRUST
Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
1.    Organization
Chatham Lodging Trust (“we,” “us” or the “Company”) was formed as a Maryland real estate investment trust on October 26, 2009. The Company is internally-managed and was organized to invest primarily in upscale extended-stay and premium-branded select-service hotels. The Company has elected to be treated as a real estate investment trust for federal income tax purposes ("REIT").

The Company had no operations prior to the consummation of its initial public offering ("IPO") in April 2010. The net proceeds from our share offerings are contributed to Chatham Lodging, L.P., our operating partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), in exchange for partnership interests. Substantially all of the Company’s assets are held by, and all operations are conducted through, the Operating Partnership. The Company is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and owns 100% of the common units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership ("common units"). Certain of the Company’s executive officers hold vested and unvested long-term incentive plan units in the Operating Partnership ("LTIP units"), which are presented as non-controlling interests on our consolidated balance sheets.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company owned 39 hotels with an aggregate of 5,900 (unaudited) rooms located in 15 states and the District of Columbia (unaudited). As of December 31, 2020, the Company also (i) held a 10.3% noncontrolling interest in a joint venture (the “NewINK JV”) with affiliates of Colony Capital, Inc. ("CLNY"), which was formed in the second quarter of 2014 and currently owns 46 hotels acquired from a joint venture (the "Innkeepers JV") between the Company and Cerberus Capital Management (“Cerberus”), comprising an aggregate of 5,948 (unaudited) rooms, (ii) held a 10.0% noncontrolling interest in a separate joint venture (the "Inland JV") with CLNY, which was formed in the fourth quarter of 2014 which owns 48 hotels acquired from Inland American Real Estate Trust, Inc. ("Inland"), comprising an aggregate of 6,402 (unaudited) rooms. As of December 31, 2020, the Inland JV hotels are in receivership. We sometimes use the term, "JVs", which refers collectively to the NewINK JV and Inland JV.
To qualify as a REIT, the Company cannot operate its hotels. Therefore, the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries lease the Company's wholly owned hotels to taxable REIT subsidiary lessees (“TRS Lessees”), which are wholly owned by the Company’s taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) holding company. The Company indirectly (i) owns its 10.3% interest in the 46 NewINK JV hotels and (ii) owns its 10.0% interest in the 48 of the Inland JV hotels through the Operating Partnership. All of the NewINK JV hotels and Inland JV hotels are leased to TRS Lessees, in which the Company indirectly owns noncontrolling interests through its TRS holding company. Each hotel is leased to a TRS Lessee under a percentage lease that provides for rental payments equal to the greater of (i) a fixed base rent amount or (ii) a percentage rent based on hotel room revenue. The initial term of each of the TRS leases is 5 years. Lease revenue from each TRS Lessee is eliminated in consolidation.
The TRS Lessees have entered into management agreements with third-party management companies that provide day-to-day management for the hotels. As of December 31, 2020, Island Hospitality Management Inc. (“IHM”), which is 52.5% owned by Jeffrey H. Fisher, the Company's Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, managed all 39 of the Company’s wholly owned hotels. As of December 31, 2020, all of the NewINK JV hotels were managed by IHM. As of December 31, 2020, all of the Inland JV hotels were managed by other management companies.

2.    Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and in conformity with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These consolidated financial statements, in the opinion of management, include all adjustments consisting of normal, recurring adjustments which are considered necessary for a fair statement of the consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of operations, consolidated statements of equity, and consolidated statements of cash flows for the periods presented.
The consolidated financial statements include all of the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
F-8


Reclassifications

In accordance with the SEC’s Disclosure Update and Simplification release, dated August 18, 2018, the Company presented the Gain (loss) on sale of hotel property line on the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations within Operating income for all periods presented.

Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company’s financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, hotel receivables, accounts payable and accrued expenses, distributions payable, mortgage debt and revolving credit facility. Due to their relatively short maturities, the carrying values reported in the consolidated balance sheets for these financial instruments approximate fair value except for mortgage debt and the revolving credit facility the fair value of which is separately disclosed in Note 7.

Investment in Hotel Properties

The Company allocates the purchase prices of hotel properties acquired based on the fair value of the acquired real estate, furniture, fixtures and equipment, identifiable intangible assets and assumed liabilities. In making estimates of fair value for purposes of allocating the purchase price, the Company utilizes a number of sources of information that are obtained in connection with the acquisition of a hotel property, including valuations performed by independent third parties and information obtained about each hotel property resulting from pre-acquisition due diligence.

The Company’s investments in hotel properties are carried at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally 40 years for buildings, 20 years for land improvements, 5 to 20 years for building improvements and one to ten years for furniture, fixtures and equipment. Renovations and/or replacements at the hotel properties that improve or extend the life of the assets are capitalized and depreciated over their useful lives, while repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Upon the sale or retirement of property and equipment, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the Company’s accounts and any resulting gain or loss is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations.
Management periodically reviews its hotel properties for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the hotel properties may not be recoverable over management's estimated holding period. This estimated holding period incorporates management’s intent and ability to hold the hotel properties over the estimated holding period. Events or circumstances that may cause a review include, but are not limited to, adverse changes in the demand for lodging at the properties due to declining national or local economic conditions and/or new hotel construction in markets where the hotels are located. When such conditions exist and management has identified uncertainty surrounding the recoverability of the hotel property carrying value, management will perform an analysis to determine if the estimated undiscounted future cash flows, without interest charges, from operations and the estimated proceeds from the ultimate disposition of a hotel property exceed its carrying value. If the estimated undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying amount, an adjustment to reduce the carrying amount to the related hotel property's estimated fair market value is recorded and an impairment loss recognized. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were 0 impairment losses.

For properties the Company considers held for sale, depreciation and amortization are no longer recorded and the value the properties is recorded at the lower of depreciated cost or fair value, less costs to sell. If circumstances arise that were previously considered unlikely, and, as a result, the Company decides not to sell a property previously classified as held for sale, the Company will reclassify such property as held and used. Such property is measured at the lower of its carrying amount (adjusted for any depreciation and amortization expense that would have been recognized had the property been continuously classified as held and used) or fair value at the date of the subsequent decision not to sell. The Company classifies properties as held for sale when all criteria within the Financial Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") guidance on disposal of long-lived assets are met. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019 the Company had 0 hotel properties held for sale.
F-9


Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Entities
If it is determined that the Company does not have a controlling interest in a joint venture, either through its financial interest in a variable interest entity ("VIE") or in a voting interest entity, but does have the ability to exercise significant influence, the equity method of accounting is used. Under this method, the investment, originally recorded at cost, is adjusted to recognize the Company’s share of net earnings or losses of the affiliates as they occur rather than as dividends or other distributions are received, advances to and commitments for the investee.

Investments in unconsolidated real estate entities are accounted for under the equity method of accounting and the Company records its equity in earnings or losses under the hypothetical liquidation of book value (“HLBV”) method of accounting due to the structures and the preferences we receive on the distributions from our joint ventures pursuant to the respective joint venture agreements for those joint ventures. Under this method, the Company recognizes income and loss in each period based on the change in liquidation proceeds it would receive from a hypothetical liquidation of its investment based on depreciated book value. Therefore, income or loss may be allocated disproportionately as compared to the ownership percentages due to specified preferred return rate thresholds and may be more or less than actual cash distributions received and more or less than what the Company may receive in the event of an actual liquidation. In the event a basis difference is created between the carrying amount of the Company's share of partner's capital, the resulting amount is allocated based on the assets of the investee and, if assigned to depreciable or amortizable assets, then amortized as a component of income (loss) from unconsolidated real estate entities.

The Company periodically reviews the carrying value of its investment in unconsolidated joint ventures to determine if circumstances indicate impairment to the carrying value of the investment that is other than temporary. When an impairment indicator is present, the Company will estimate the fair value of the investment. The Company’s estimate of fair value takes into consideration factors such as expected future operating income, trends and prospects, as well as other factors. This determination requires significant estimates by management, including the expected cash flows to be generated by the assets owned and operated by the joint venture. To the extent impairment has occurred and is other than temporary, the loss will be measured as the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the Company’s investment in the unconsolidated joint venture. As of December 31, 2020, the Company recorded an impairment of the entire carrying value of $15.3 million on our investment in the Inland JV related to a decline in operating performance caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (See Note 6).

The Company evaluates the nature of the distributions from each of its unconsolidated joint ventures in order to classify the distributions as either operating activities or investing activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows. Any cash distribution that is considered to be a distribution of the earnings of the unconsolidated joint venture is presented as an operating activity in the consolidated statements of cash flows. Any cash distribution that is considered to be a return of capital from the unconsolidated joint venture is presented as an investing activity in the consolidated statements of cash flows.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, demand deposits with financial institutions and short term liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less. Cash balances in individual banks may exceed federally insurable limits.
Restricted Cash

Restricted cash represents purchase price deposits held in escrow for potential hotel acquisitions under contract and escrows for reserves such as reserves for capital expenditures, property taxes or insurance that are required pursuant to the Company’s loans or hotel management agreements. Restricted cash on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2020 and 2019 is $10.3 million and $13.6 million, respectively.

Hotel Receivables
Hotel receivables consist of amounts owed by guests staying in the hotels and amounts due from business and group customers. An allowance for doubtful accounts is provided and maintained at a level believed to be adequate to absorb estimated probable losses. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.2 million and $0.5 million, respectively.

F-10


Deferred Costs
Deferred costs consist of franchise agreement application fees for the Company’s hotels, costs associated with potential future acquisitions and loan costs related to the Company’s senior unsecured revolving credit facility. Deferred costs consisted of the following at December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Loan costs$4,455 $2,104 
Franchise fees4,311 4,409 
Other75 129 
8,841 6,642 
Less accumulated amortization(3,457)(2,371)
Deferred costs, net$5,384 $4,271 

Franchise fees are recorded at cost and amortized over a straight-line basis over the term of the franchise agreements. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, amortization expense related to franchise fees of $0.2 million, $0.2 million and $0.2 million, respectively, is included in depreciation and amortization in the consolidated statements of operations. Amortization expense related to loan costs of $0.9 million, $0.5 million and $0.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, is included in interest expense in the consolidated statements of operations.

Mortgage Debt, net

Mortgage debt, net consists of mortgage loans on certain hotel properties less the costs associated with acquiring those loans. Mortgage debt consisted of the following at December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Mortgage debt$461,116 $496,860 
Deferred financing costs(971)(1,395)
Mortgage debt, net$460,145 $495,465 

Deferred financing loan costs are recorded at cost and amortized over the term of the loan applying the effective interest rate method. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, amortization expense related to mortgage loan costs of $0.4 million, $0.4 million, $0.4 million, respectively, is included in interest expense in the consolidated statement of operations.

Prepaid Expenses and Other Assets

The Company’s prepaid expenses and other assets consist of prepaid insurance, prepaid property taxes, deposits and hotel supplies inventory.

Distributions and Losses in Excess of Investments in Unconsolidated Real Estate Entities

At times, certain of the Company’s investments in unconsolidated entities' share of cumulative allocated losses and cash distributions received exceeds its cumulative allocated share of income and equity contributions. Although the Company typically does not make any guarantees of its investments in unconsolidated real estate entities other than certain customary non-recourse carve-out provisions, due to potential penalties along with potential upside from future financial returns, the Company generally intends to make any required capital contributions to maintain its ownership percentage and as such will record its share of cumulative allocated losses and cash distributions below zero.  As a result, the carrying value of certain investments in unconsolidated entities is negative. Unconsolidated entities with negative carrying values are included in cash distributions and losses in excess of investments in unconsolidated entities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.

F-11


Revenue Recognition

Revenue from hotel operations is recognized when rooms are occupied and when services are provided. Revenue consists of amounts derived from hotel operations, including sales from room, meeting room, gift shop, in-room movie and other ancillary amenities. Sales, use, occupancy, and similar taxes are collected and presented on a net basis (excluded from revenue) in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Cash received prior to customer arrival is recorded as an advanced deposit from the customer and is recognized as revenue at the time of occupancy.
Room revenue is generate through short-term contracts with customers whereby customers agree to pay a daily rate for the right to occupy hotel rooms for one or more nights. Our performance obligations are fulfilled at the end of each night that the customers have the right to occupy the rooms. Room revenues are recognized daily at the contracted room rate in effect for each room night.
Food and beverage revenues are generated when customers purchase food and beverage at a hotel's restaurant, bar or other facilities. Our performance obligations are fulfilled at the time that food and beverage is purchased and provided to our customers.
Other revenues such as for parking, cancellation fees, meeting space or telephone services are recognized at the point in time or over the time period that the associated good or service is provided.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company measures compensation expense for the restricted share awards based upon the fair market value of its common shares at the date of grant. The Company measures compensation expense for the LTIP and Class A Performance units based upon the Monte Carlo approach using volatility, dividend yield and a risk free interest rate in the valuation. Compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period and is included in general and administrative expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. The Company pays dividends on vested and non-vested restricted shares, except for performance-based shares, for which dividends on unvested shares are not paid until those shares are vested. The Company has also issued Class A Performance LTIP units from time to time as part of its compensation practices. Prior to vesting, holders of Class A Performance LTIP Units will not be entitled to vote their Class A Performance LTIP units. In addition, under the terms of the Class A Performance LTIP units, a holder of a Class A Performance LTIP unit will generally (i) be entitled to receive 10% of the distributions made on a common unit of the Operating Partnership during the period prior to vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit (the “Pre-Vesting Distributions”), (ii) be entitled, upon the vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit, to receive a special one-time “catch-up” distribution equal to the aggregate amount of distributions that were paid on a common unit during the period prior to vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit minus the aggregate amount of Pre-Vesting Distributions paid on such Class A Performance LTIP unit, and (iii) be entitled, following the vesting of such Class A Performance LTIP unit, to receive the same amount of distributions paid on a common unit of the Operating Partnership.
Earnings Per Share
A two class method is used to determine earnings per share. Basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing net income (loss) available for common shareholders, adjusted for dividends on unvested share grants, by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) available for common shareholders, adjusted for dividends or distributions, on unvested share grants and LTIP units, by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus potentially dilutive securities such as share grants or shares issuable in the event of conversion of common units. No adjustment is made for shares that are anti-dilutive during the period. The Company’s restricted share awards and LTIP units that are subject solely to time-based vesting conditions are entitled to receive dividends or distributions on the Company's common shares or the Operating Partnership's common units, respectively, if declared. In addition, dividends on the Class A Performance LTIP units are paid the equivalent of 10% of the declared dividends on the Company's common shares. The rights to these dividends or distributions declared are non-forfeitable. As a result, the unvested restricted shares and LTIP units that are subject solely to time-based vesting conditions, as well as 10% of the unvested Class A Performance LTIP units, qualify as participating securities requiring the allocation of earnings under the two-class method to calculate EPS. The percentage of earnings allocated to these participating securities is based on the proportion of the weighted average of these outstanding participating securities to the sum of the basic weighted average common shares outstanding and the weighted average of these outstanding participating securities. Basic EPS is then computed by dividing income less earnings allocable to these participating securities by the basic weighted average number of shares outstanding. Diluted EPS is computed similar to basic EPS, except the weighted average number of shares outstanding is increased to include the effect of potentially dilutive securities.
F-12


Income Taxes

The Company elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. In order to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, the Company must meet certain organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement to distribute at least 90% of its annual REIT taxable income to its shareholders (which is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction or net capital gain and which does not necessarily equal net income as calculated in accordance with GAAP). As a REIT, the Company generally will not be subject to federal income tax to the extent the Company distributes its REIT taxable income to its shareholders. If the Company fails to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, the Company will be subject to federal income tax on its REIT taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates and generally will not be permitted to qualify for treatment as a REIT for federal income tax purposes for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification is lost unless the IRS grants the Company relief under certain statutory provisions.

The Company leases its wholly owned hotels to TRS Lessees, which are wholly owned by the Company’s taxable REIT subsidiary (a “TRS”) which, in turn is wholly owned by the Operating Partnership. Additionally, the Company indirectly owns its interest in the hotels owned by the NewINK JV (46 hotels) and the Inland JV (48 hotels) through the Operating Partnership. All of the NewINK JV hotels and Inland JV hotels are leased to TRS Lessees in which the Company indirectly owns a noncontrolling interests through its TRS holding company. The TRS is subject to federal and state income taxes and the Company accounts for taxes, where applicable, in accordance with the provisions of FASB Accounting Standards Codification 740 using the asset and liability method which recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for future tax consequences arising from differences between financial statement carrying amounts and income tax bases.

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases, and for net operating loss, capital loss and tax credit carryforwards. The deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted income tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be realized or settled. The effect on the deferred tax assets and liabilities from a change in tax rates is recognized in earnings in the period when the new rate is enacted. However, deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is more likely than not that they will be realized based on consideration of all available evidence, including the future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future projected taxable income and tax planning strategies. Valuation allowances are provided if, based upon the weight of the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company performs an annual review for any uncertain tax positions and, if necessary, will record the expected future tax consequences of uncertain tax positions in the consolidated financial statements.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company is no longer subject to U.S federal income tax examinations for years before 2017 and with few exceptions to state examinations before 2017.  The Company evaluates whether a tax position of the Company is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. For tax positions meeting the more likely than not threshold, the tax amount recognized in the financial statements is reduced by the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant taxing authority. The Company has reviewed its tax positions for open tax years and has concluded no provision for income taxes is required in the Company's consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax benefits, if any, in the future will be recognized as operating expense.
During the third quarter of 2018, management was notified that the Company's TRS was going to be examined by the Internal Revenue Service for the tax year ended December 31, 2016. The examination remains open. The Company believes it does not need to record a liability related to matters contained in the tax period open to examination. However, should the Company experience an unfavorable outcome in the matter, such outcome could have a material impact on its results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
F-13


Leases
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted accounting guidance under Accounting Standards Codification (ASU) 2016-02 (“ASU 2016-02”), Leases, which relates to the accounting for leasing transactions.  On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued updated accounting guidance which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e., lessees and lessors). The new accounting guidance requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. The classification of the lease will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases. The Company adopted the new accounting guidance on January 1, 2019 and applied it based on the optional transition method provided for, which allows entities to recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet on the adoption date. Upon adoption, the Company applied the package of practical expedients made available under the new accounting guidance and also make an accounting policy election to not recognize right-of-use assets or lease liabilities for leases with terms of 12 months or less. For the ground lease agreements and corporate office lease agreement, all of which are currently accounted for as operating leases, the Company recognized lease liabilities of $25.7 million with corresponding right-of use assets of $23.1 million on our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019.

Segment Information

Management evaluates the Company's hotels as a single industry segment because all of the hotels have similar economic characteristics and provide similar services to similar types of customers.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted accounting guidance under Accounting Standards Codification (ASU) Topic 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" on a modified retrospective basis. Our current revenue streams are not affected under the new model and we did not recognize a cumulative effect adjustment as part of the modified retrospective method of adoption. Furthermore, the new accounting guidance will not materially impact the recognition of or the accounting for disposition of hotels since we primarily dispose of hotels to third parties in exchange for cash with few contingencies. As it relates to capitalization of costs to acquire customer contracts, the Company has elected to use the Financial Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") practical expedient which allows us to expense costs to acquire customer contracts as they are incurred due to their short-term nature for a specified number of nights that never exceed one year. This guidance applies to all contracts as of the adoption date. The Company has applied all relevant disclosures of this standard.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted accounting guidance under 2016-15 ("ASU 2016-15"), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which clarifies and provides specific guidance on eight cash flow classification issues with an objective to reduce the current diversity in practice. The Company has certain cash payments and receipts related to debt extinguishment that are affected by the new standard. The Company has historically classified distributions received from equity method investments under the cumulative earnings approach. As such, there was no impact due to application of the new guidance. The Company applied the new guidance on a retrospective basis.

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted accounting guidance under ASU 2016-18 ("ASU 2016-18"), Restricted Cash, which requires that the statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. This standard addresses presentation of restricted cash in the consolidated statements of cash flows only. Restricted cash represents purchase price deposits held in escrow for potential hotel acquisitions under contract and escrow reserves such as reserves for capital expenditures, property taxes or insurance that are required pursuant to the Company's loans. The Company applied the new guidance on a retrospective basis.

In August 2018, the SEC issued SEC Final Rule 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification. The amendments simplify or eliminate duplicative, overlapping, or outdated disclosure requirements. The amendments also add certain disclosure requirements, such as requiring entities to disclose the current and comparative quarter and year-to-date changes in shareholders' equity for interim periods. The amended rules are effective for reports filed on or after November 5, 2018. However, the SEC issued Compliance & Disclosure Interpretation 105.09 that allows entities to defer the adoption of the new disclosure requirement relating to changes in shareholders' equity for interim periods until the Form 10-Q for the quarterly period that begins after November 5, 2018. The Company adopted the new disclosure requirement relating to changes in shareholders' equity for interim periods on January 1, 2019. Based on the Company's assessment, the adoption of the new disclosures did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

F-14


In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The guidance modifies the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements by removing or modifying some of the disclosures, while also adding new disclosures. The guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and the interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. The Company has adopted this new standard on January 1, 2020. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

3.    Acquisition of Hotel Properties
Hotel Purchase Price Allocation
We acquired the Residence Inn Summerville ("RI Summerville") hotel in Summerville, SC for $20.8 million on August 27, 2018 and the Dallas Downtown Courtyard ("Dallas DT") hotel in Dallas, TX for $49.0 million on December 5, 2018. The allocation of the purchase price of each of the hotels acquired by the Company, based on the fair value on the date of its acquisition, dollars (in thousands):
 
 RI SummervilleDallas DTTotal
Acquisition date8/27/201812/5/2018
Number of rooms (unaudited)96167263 
Land$2,300 $2,900 $5,200 
Building and improvements17,060 42,760 59,820 
Furniture, fixtures and equipment1,234 3,340 4,574 
Cash
Accounts receivable
Prepaid expenses and other assets68 68 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(9)(33)(42)
Net assets acquired, net of cash$20,585 $49,043 $69,628 


The value of the assets acquired was primarily based on a sales comparison approach (for land) and a depreciated replacement cost approach (for building and improvements and furniture, fixtures and equipment). The sales comparison approach uses inputs of recent land sales in the respective hotel markets.  The depreciated replacement cost approach uses inputs of both direct and indirect replacement costs using a nationally recognized authority on replacement cost information as well as the age, square footage and number of rooms of the respective assets. Property acquisition costs of $0.1 million were capitalized in 2019.
    
The amount of revenue and operating income from the hotels acquired in 2018 from their respective date of acquisition through December 31, 2020 is as follows (in thousands):
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
Acquisition DateRevenueOperating IncomeRevenueOperating Income
Residence Inn Summerville, SC8/27/18$2,968 $903 $3,645 $1,250 
Courtyard Dallas Downtown, TX12/05/183,574 838 7,833 2,479 
Total$6,542 $1,741 $11,478 $3,729 

On July 2, 2019, the Company purchased a parcel of land in Silicon Valley, California for $8.1 million.

F-15


4.    Disposition of Hotel Properties
On November 24, 2020, the Company sold the Residence Inn Mission Valley hotel in San Diego, CA for $67.0 million and recognized a gain on the sale of the hotel property of $21.1 million. The balance of the mortgage loan of $26.7 million was repaid with proceeds from the sale. Additional proceeds were used to repay amounts outstanding on the Company's revolving credit facility.
On May 7, 2019, the Company sold the Courtyard by Marriott hotel in Altoona, PA for $4.6 million and recognized a loss on the sale of the hotel property of $4.4 million. On May 15, 2019, the Company sold the SpringHill Suites by Marriott hotel in Washington, PA for $5.1 million and recognized a gain on the sale of the hotel property of $1.1 million. Proceeds from the sales were used to repay amounts outstanding on the Company's revolving credit facility.
During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company's consolidated statements of operations included operating income related to the disposed hotels as follows: (in thousands):
Operating Income
For the years ended December 31,
202020192018
Residence Inn Mission Valley, CA$2,013 $4,782 $4,608 
Courtyard Altoona, PA24 517 
SpringHill Suites Washington, PA198 718 
Total$2,013 $5,004 $5,843 


5.    Investment in Hotel Properties
Investment in hotel properties, net
Investment in hotel properties, net as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Land and improvements$287,049 $296,884 
Building and improvements1,195,276 1,216,849 
Furniture, fixtures and equipment84,381 81,707 
Renovations in progress11,225 31,589 
1,577,931 1,627,029 
Less: accumulated depreciation(312,757)(279,913)
Investment in hotel properties, net$1,265,174 $1,347,116 


Investment in hotel properties under development
We are developing a hotel in Los Angeles, CA on a parcel of land owned by us. We have incurred $43.7 million of costs to date, which included $6.6 million of the land acquisition costs and $37.1 million of other development costs. We expect the total development costs for construction of the hotel to be approximately $70.0 million, which includes the cost of the land.
F-16


6.    Investment in Unconsolidated Entities

On June 9, 2014, the Company acquired a 10.3% interest in the NewINK JV, a joint venture between affiliates of NorthStar Realty Finance Corp. ("NorthStar") and the operating partnership. The Company accounts for this investment under the equity method. NorthStar merged with Colony Capital, Inc. ("Colony") on January 10, 2017 to form a new company, CLNY, which owns a 89.7% interest and the Company owns a 10.3% interest in the NewINK JV. The value of NewINK JV assets and liabilities were adjusted to reflect estimated fair market value at the time Colony merged with NorthStar. As of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company's share of partners' capital in the NewINK JV is approximately $2.7 million and $40.6 million, respectively, and the total difference between the carrying amount of the investment and the Company's share of partners' capital is approximately $22.7 million and $55.8 million (for which the basis difference related to amortizing assets is being recognized over the life of the related assets as a basis difference adjustment). The Company offset approximately $32.2 million of its share of the NewINK JV's impairment loss in the current year by its remaining basis difference in the NewINK JV. The Company serves as managing member of the NewINK JV. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company received cash distributions from the NewINK JV as follows (in thousands):

For the year ended
 December 31,
 20202019
Cash generated from other activities and excess cash$$1,542 
Total$0 $1,542 

On November 17, 2014, the Company acquired a 10.0% interest in Inland JV, a joint venture between affiliates of NorthStar and the Operating Partnership. The Company accounts for this investment under the equity method. NorthStar merged with Colony Capital, Inc. ("Colony") on January 10, 2017 to form a new company, CLNY, which owns a 90.0% interest in the Inland JV. The values of Inland JV assets and liabilities were adjusted to reflect estimated fair market values at the time Colony merged with NorthStar. The Company serves as managing member of the Inland JV. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company received cash distributions from the Inland JV as follows (in thousands):

For the year ended
 December 31,
 20202019
Cash generated from other activities and excess cash$$1,150 
Total$0 $1,150 

On May 9, 2017, the NewINK JV refinanced the $840.0 million loan collateralized by the 47 hotels with a new $850.0 million loan with an interest rate of LIBOR plus a spread of 2.79% and had an initial maturity of June 7, 2019 and 3 one-year extension options. The NewINK JV exercised the first extension and the maturity was extended to June 7, 2020. On November 7, 2019, the NewINK JV refinanced the $850.0 million loan with a new $855.0 million, non-recourse loan from Morgan Stanley Bank, N.A. JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, and Bank of America, N.A. (collectively the "Lender"), collateralized by the then owned 46 hotels. The new loan bears interest at a rate of LIBOR plus a spread of 2.82%, has an initial maturity of November 7, 2021 and 5 one-year extension options.

On April 7, 2020 and May 7, 2020, the NewINK JV failed to make debt service payments related to its $855.0 million loan. The servicer and lender subsequently agreed to fund the April 7, 2020 and May 7, 2020 interest payments for the senior portion of the loan from restricted cash balances that were originally escrowed to fund future capital expenditures. During the three months ended December 31, 2020, CLNY advanced $15.2 million to the NewINK JV. The NewINK JV used these funds, along with existing cash, to fund operating expenses, stay current on senior interest payments and make all late payments on its mezzanine debt. The NewINK JV is now current on all senior and mezzanine debt payments. The NewINK JV debt is non-recourse to the Company with the exception of customary non-recourse carve-out provisions such as fraud, material and intentional misrepresentations and misapplication of funds. A default under the NewINK loan agreement does not trigger a cross-default under any of the Company’s debt agreements.

F-17


On June 9, 2017, the Inland JV refinanced the $817.0 million loan collateralized by the 48 hotels with a new $780.0 million non-recourse loan with Column Financial, Inc. On June 9, 2017, the Company contributed an additional $5.0 million of capital related to its share in the Inland JV to reduce the debt collateralized by the 48 hotels. The new loan bears interest at a rate of LIBOR plus a spread of 3.3%, has an initial maturity of July 9, 2019 and 3 one-year extension options. The Inland JV exercised the first extension and the maturity was extended to July 9, 2020.

On April 9, 2020 the Inland JV failed to make a debt service payment related to its $780.0 million loan and has not made any of its subsequent monthly debt service payments. The failure to make the required debt service payments is an event of default under the Inland JV loan agreement. The Inland JV has not been successful in negotiating a forbearance agreement with its lenders. The Inland JV debt is non-recourse to the Company with the exception of customary non-recourse carve-out provisions such as fraud, material and intentional misrepresentations and misapplication of funds. A default under the Inland JV loan agreement does not trigger a cross-default under any of the Company’s debt agreements. At the direction of the special servicer for the Inland JV loan, control of Inland JV properties has transitioned to a court appointed receiver. The receiver, LW Hospitality Advisors, has replaced IHM with new hotel management companies.

The Company’s ownership interests in the JVs are subject to change in the event that either the Company or CLNY calls for additional capital contributions to the respective JVs necessary for the conduct of business, including contributions to fund costs and expenses related to capital expenditures. In connection with (i) the non-recourse mortgage loan secured by the NewINK JV properties and the related non-recourse mezzanine loans secured by the membership interests in the owners of the NewINK JV properties and (ii)  the non-recourse mortgage loan secured by the Inland JV properties, the Operating Partnership provided the applicable lenders with customary environmental indemnities, as well as guarantees of certain customary non-recourse carveout provisions such as fraud, material and intentional misrepresentations and misapplication of funds.  In some circumstances, such as the bankruptcy of the applicable borrowers, the guarantees are for the full amount of the outstanding debt, but in most circumstances,  the guarantees are capped at 15% of the debt outstanding at the time in question (in the case of the NewINK JV loans) or 20% of the debt outstanding at the time in question (in the case of the Inland JV loans).  In connection with each of the NewINK JV and Inland JV loans, the Operating Partnership has entered into a contribution agreement with its JV partner whereby the JV partner is, in most cases, responsible to cover such JV partner’s pro rata share of any amounts due by the Operating Partnership under the applicable guarantees and environmental indemnities. The Company manages the JVs and will receive a promote interest in each applicable JV if it meets certain return thresholds for such JV. CLNY may also approve certain actions by the JVs without the Company’s consent, including certain property dispositions conducted at arm’s length, certain actions related to the restructuring of the applicable JV and removal of the Company as managing member in the event the Company fails to fulfill its material obligations under the applicable joint venture agreement.

On September 24, 2020, CLNY announced that it had entered into an agreement to sell 6 of its hospitality portfolios, including the NewINK JV, in a transaction with a gross equity sale price of $67.5 million. The Inland JV is not included in this proposed transaction. CLNY has not disclosed a proposed allocation of the sale price among the 6 portfolios. On December 23, 2020, the Company entered in to an agreement with CLNY to sell the Company's interest in the NewINK JV for $2.8 million concurrent with the closing of the portfolio sales. The transaction is subject to closing conditions, including the assumption of debt by the purchaser.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company determined that an other than temporary decline in the value of its equity investment in the Inland JV had occurred. The Inland JV’s operating performance has been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Inland JV has high leverage, limited liquidity and limited ability to fund the current level of operating losses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic for a sustained period of time. Based on these factors, we have assessed that the fair market value of our equity investment in the Inland JV is 0 and the Company did not consider the investment recoverable and therefore recorded an impairment of $15.3 million on the investment. Since the Company’s basis in the Inland JV is now 0 and we expect that ongoing losses are not sustainable, we stopped recording any equity income or losses from the Inland JV as of March 31, 2020.

F-18


The Company's investments in the NewInk JV and the Inland JV are $(20.0) million and $0.0 million, respectively, at December 31, 2020. The following tables sets forth the total assets, liabilities and equity and components of net income (loss), including the Company's share, related to all JVs for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands):
Balance Sheet
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019December 31, 2018
Assets
Investment in hotel properties, net$1,604,501 $2,221,718 $2,309,396 
Other assets79,136 104,560 118,600 
Total Assets$1,683,637 $2,326,278 $2,427,996 
Liabilities
Mortgages and notes payable, net$1,622,305 $1,612,217 $1,606,334 
Other Liabilities80,423 34,948 37,051 
Total Liabilities1,702,728 1,647,165 1,643,385 
Equity
Chatham Lodging Trust(1,835)69,008 79,744 
Joint Venture Partner(17,256)610,105 704,867 
Total Equity(19,091)679,113 784,611 
Total Liabilities and Equity$1,683,637 $2,326,278 $2,427,996 


For the year ended
December 31,
202020192018
Revenue$246,694 $496,485 $498,507 
Total hotel operating expenses216,846 329,879 329,756 
Impairment loss578,217 41,132 
Hotel operating income$29,848 $166,606 $168,751 
Net loss from continuing operations$(701,880)$(76,869)$(24,400)
Loss on sale of hotels$(15)$(2,129)$
Net loss$(701,895)$(78,998)$(24,400)
Loss allocable to the Company$(8,420)$(8,044)$(2,472)
Basis difference adjustment$996 $1,596 $1,596 
Total loss from unconsolidated real estate entities attributable to Chatham$(7,424)$(6,448)$(876)







F-19


7.    Debt

The Company's mortgage loans are collateralized by first-mortgage liens on certain of the Company's properties. The mortgages are non-recourse except for instances of fraud or misapplication of funds. The Company's credit facility is secured by pledges of its equity interests in certain properties. Debt consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
Loan/Collateral
Interest
Rate
Maturity Date12/31/20 Property
Carrying
Value
Balance Outstanding as of
December 31, 2020December 31,
2019
Revolving Credit Facility (1)3.07 %March 8, 2022$608,319 $135,300 $90,000 
Construction loan (2)7.75 %August 4, 202443,651 13,325 
Residence Inn by Marriott New Rochelle, NY5.75 %September 1, 202121,883 12,602 12,936 
Residence Inn by Marriott San Diego, CA4.66 %February 6, 202327,272 
Homewood Suites by Hilton San Antonio, TX4.59 %February 6, 202328,622 15,195 15,563 
Residence Inn by Marriott Vienna, VA4.49 %February 6, 202330,996 20,780 21,291 
Courtyard by Marriott Houston, TX4.19 %May 6, 202330,152 17,126 17,559 
Hyatt Place Pittsburgh, PA4.65 %July 6, 202333,760 21,031 21,520 
Residence Inn by Marriott Bellevue, WA4.97 %December 6, 202362,419 42,998 43,857 
Residence Inn by Marriott Garden Grove, CA4.79 %April 6, 202441,246 31,463 32,053 
Residence Inn by Marriott Silicon Valley I, CA4.64 %July 1, 202475,680 63,418 64,406 
Residence Inn by Marriott Silicon Valley II, CA4.64 %July 1, 202483,931 69,192 70,270 
Residence Inn by Marriott San Mateo, CA4.64 %July 1, 202462,652 47,564 48,305 
Residence Inn by Marriott Mountain View, CA4.64 %July 1, 202448,563 37,092 37,670 
SpringHill Suites by Marriott Savannah, GA4.62 %July 6, 202433,349 29,358 29,817 
Hilton Garden Inn Marina del Rey, CA4.68 %July 6, 202438,044 20,490 20,931 
Homewood Suites by Hilton Billerica, MA4.32 %December 6, 202413,014 15,411 15,693 
Hampton Inn & Suites Houston Medical Cntr., TX4.25 %January 6, 202515,769 17,396 17,717 
Total debt before unamortized debt issue costs$1,272,050 $609,741 $586,860 
Unamortized mortgage debt issue costs(971)(1,395)
Total debt outstanding608,770 585,465 
 
1.The interest rate for the revolving credit facility is variable and based on LIBOR (subject to a 0.5% floor) plus a spread of 2.50% if borrowings remain at or below $200 million and a spread of 3.0% if borrowings exceed $200 million. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had $135.3 million and $90.0 million, respectively, of outstanding borrowings under its $250.0 million revolving credit facility. The credit facility provides 2 six-month extension options that would extend the final maturity to March 8, 2023 if exercised. The Company can exercise the extension options as long as there is no default.
2.On August 4, 2020, a subsidiary of the Company entered into an agreement with affiliates of Mack Real Estate Credit Strategies to obtain a loan with a total commitment of up to $40 million to fund the remaining construction costs of the Warner Center hotel development. The loan has an initial term of 4 years and there are 2 six-month extension options. The rate on the loan is LIBOR, subject to a 0.25% floor, plus a spread of 7.5%.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had $135.3 million and $90.0 million, respectively, of outstanding borrowings under its revolving credit facility. At December 31, 2020, the maximum borrowing availability under the revolving credit facility was $250.0 million.
The Company estimates the fair value of its fixed rate debt by discounting the future cash flows of each instrument at estimated market rates. All of the Company's mortgage loans are fixed-rate. Rates take into consideration general market conditions, quality and estimated value of collateral and maturity of debt with similar credit terms and are classified within level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. The estimated fair value of the Company’s fixed rate debt as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $462.6 million and $501.5 million, respectively.
The Company estimates the fair value of its variable rate debt by taking into account general market conditions and the estimated credit terms it could obtain for debt with a similar maturity and that is classified within level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s variable rate debt consists of its revolving credit facility and its construction loan. The estimated fair value of the Company’s variable rate debt as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $148.6 million and $90.0 million, respectively.
F-20


On December 16, 2020, the Company, entered into a Third Amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of March 8, 2018 (as amended by the Credit Agreement Amendment, and as previously amended by that certain First Amendment to the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of May 6, 2020, and as further amended by that certain Second Amendment to Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of July 23, 2020), with certain lenders for whom Barclays Bank PLC is acting as the administrative agent. The amendment provides for the waiver of certain financial covenants through December 31, 2021 and allows the Company to borrow up to the entire $250 million facility size during this period. During this covenant waiver period, the Company will be required to maintain a minimum liquidity of $25 million which will include both unrestricted cash and credit facility availability. In connection with the amendment, the Company added 6 hotels to the credit facility’s borrowing base which now has a total of 24 properties. The amendment provided the Company’s credit facility lenders with pledges of the equity in the 24 borrowing base hotels. The amendment places additional limits on the Company’s ability to incur debt, pay dividends, and make capital expenditures during the covenant waiver period. During the covenant waiver period interest will be calculated as LIBOR (subject to a 0.5% floor) plus a spread of 2.50% if borrowings remain at or below $200 million and a spread of 3.0% if borrowings exceed $200 million. As of December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with all of its modified financial covenants.
Our mortgage debt agreements contain “cash trap” provisions that are triggered when the hotel’s operating results
fall below a certain debt service coverage ratio or debt yield. When these provisions are triggered, all of the excess cash flow generated by the hotel is deposited directly into cash management accounts for the benefit of our lenders until a specified debt service coverage ratio or debt yield is reached. Such provisions do not allow the lender the right to accelerate repayment of the underlying debt. As of December 31, 2020, the debt service coverage ratios or debt yields for all of our mortgage loans were below the minimum thresholds such that the cash trap provision of each respective loan could be enforced. As of December 31, 2020, none of our mortgage debt lenders has enforced cash trap provisions. We do not expect that such cash traps will affect our ability to satisfy our short-term liquidity requirements.

Future scheduled principal payments of debt obligations as of December 31, 2020, for each of the next five calendar years and thereafter are as follows (in thousands):
 Amount
2021$21,441 
2022144,549 
2023117,875 
2024309,941 
202515,935 
Thereafter
Total debt before unamortized debt issue costs$609,741 
Unamortized mortgage debt issue costs(971)
Total debt outstanding$608,770 

Accounting for Derivative Instruments
The Company has entered into interest rate cap agreements to hedge against interest rate fluctuations related to the construction loan for the Warner Center hotel. The Company records its derivative instruments on the balance sheet at their estimated fair values. Changes in the fair value of the derivatives are recorded each period in current earnings or in other comprehensive income, depending on whether a derivative is designated as part of a hedging relationship and, if it is, depending on the type of hedging relationship. The Company's interest rate caps are not designated as a hedge but to eliminate the incremental cost to the Company if the one-month LIBOR were to exceed 3.5%. Accordingly, the interest rate caps are recorded on the balance sheet under prepaid expenses and other assets at the estimated fair value and realized and unrealized changes in the fair value are reported in the consolidated statements of operations. As of December 31, 2020, the fair value of the interest rate caps were $9.1 thousand.

F-21


8.    Income Taxes
The components of income tax expense for the following periods are as follows (in thousands):
 
For the year ended
 December 31,
 202020192018
Current:
Federal$(29)$(29)$
State
Current tax expense (benefit)$(29)$(29)$
Deferred:
Federal29 29 (28)
State
Deferred tax expense (benefit)29 29 (28)
Total income tax expense (benefit)$$$(28)

The difference between income tax expense and the amount computed by applying the statutory federal income tax rate to the combined income of the Company's TRS before taxes were as follows (in thousands):

For the year ended
December 31,
202020192018
Book loss before income taxes of the TRS$(4,838)$(8,167)$(6,040)
Statutory rate of 21% for 2018 and after$(1,016)$(1,715)$(1,268)
Effect of state and local income taxes, net of federal tax benefit(253)(347)(200)
Permanent adjustments12 
Change in valuation allowance1,445 2,100 1,456 
Valuation allowance release(28)
Other(180)(46)
   Total income tax (benefit) expense$$$(28)
   Effective tax rate%%0.46 %

F-22


At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had valuation allowances against certain deferred tax assets totaling $7.1 million and $5.6 million, respectively. The increase in valuation allowance was primarily from the increase in the net operating losses incurred during the year. The tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carry forward that gives rise to the deferred tax asset as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows (in thousands):
For the year ended
December 31,
20202019
Gross Deferred Tax Assets:
Allowance for doubtful accounts$133 $117 
Accrued compensation547 870 
Net operating loss6,541 4,741 
AMT credit29 
Gross Deferred Tax Assets$7,221 $5,757 
Less: Valuation Allowance$(7,070)$(5,625)
Total Deferred Tax Assets Net of Valuation Allowance151 132 
Gross Deferred Tax Liabilities:
Total Book/tax difference in partnership(151)(103)
Gross Deferred Tax Liabilities:(151)(103)
Net, Deferred Tax Assets:— 29 
As of each reporting date, the Company's management considers new evidence, both positive and negative, that could impact management's view with regard to future realization of net deferred tax assets. The Company's TRS is expecting continued taxable losses in 2020. As of December 31, 2020, the TRS continues to recognize a full valuation allowance equal to 100% of the net deferred tax assets. Management will continue to monitor the need for a valuation allowance.
The TRS has income tax NOL carryforwards for Federal and various states of approximately $24.2 million and $30.0 million, respectively. The loss carryforwards begin to expire starting in 2038 for Federal purposes and in 2031 and thereafter for state purposes.

9.    Dividends Declared and Paid
The Company declared regular common share dividends of $0.22 per share and distributions on LTIP units of $0.22 per unit for the year ended December 31, 2020. The dividends and distributions and their tax characterization were as follows:
Record
Date
Payment
Date
Common
share
distribution
amount
LTIP
unit
distribution
amount
Taxable Ordinary IncomeReturn of CapitalSection 199A Dividends
January1/31/20202/28/2020$0.11 $0.11 $$0.1100 $
February2/28/20203/27/20200.11 0.11 0.1100 
Total 2020$0.22 $0.22 $0 $0.2200 $0 

F-23


Record
Date
Payment
Date
Common
share
distribution
amount
LTIP
unit
distribution
amount
Taxable Ordinary IncomeReturn of CapitalSection 199A Dividends
January1/31/20192/22/2019$0.11 $0.11 $0.0847 $0.0253 $0.0847 
February2/28/20193/29/20190.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
March3/29/20194/26/20190.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
1st Quarter 2019$0.33 $0.33 $0.2541 $0.0759 $0.2541 
April4/30/20195/31/2019$0.11 $0.11 $0.0847 $0.0253 $0.0847 
May5/31/20196/28/20190.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
June6/28/20197/26/20190.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
2nd Quarter 2019$0.33 $0.33 $0.2541 $0.0759 $0.2541 
July7/31/20198/30/2019$0.11 $0.11 $0.0847 $0.0253 $0.0847 
August8/30/20199/27/20190.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
September9/30/201910/25/20190.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
3rd Quarter 2019$0.33 $0.33 $0.2541 $0.0759 $0.2541 
October10/31/201911/29/2019$0.11 $0.11 $0.0847 $0.0253 $0.0847 
November11/29/201912/27/20190.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
December12/31/20191/31/20200.11 0.11 0.0847 0.0253 0.0847 
4th Quarter 2019$0.33 $0.33 $0.2541 $0.0759 $0.2541 
Total 2019$1.32 $1.32 $1.0164 $0.3036 $1.0164 

For the year ended December 31, 2020, 100.0% of the distributions paid to stockholders were considered return of capital. For the year ended December 31, 2019, approximately 77.0% of the distributions paid to stockholders were considered ordinary income and approximately 23.0% were considered return of capital.

F-24


10.    Shareholders' Equity

Common Shares
The Company is authorized to issue up to 500,000,000 common shares of beneficial interest, $0.01 par value per share ("common shares"). Each outstanding common share entitles the holder to 1 vote on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders. Holders of the Company’s common shares are entitled to receive dividends when authorized by the Company's Board of Trustees. As of December 31, 2020, 46,973,473 common shares were outstanding.
In December 2017, we established a $50 million dividend reinvestment and stock purchase plan (the "Prior DRSPP"). We filed a new $50 million shelf registration statement for the dividend reinvestment and stock purchase plan (the "Current DRSPP" and together with the Prior DRSPP, the "DRSPPs") on December 22, 2020 to replace the prior program. Under the DRSPPs, shareholders may purchase additional common shares by reinvesting some or all of the cash dividends received on the Company's common shares. Shareholders may also make optional cash purchases of the Company's common shares subject to certain limitations detailed in the prospectuses for the DRSPPs. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we issued 20,512 shares under the Prior DRSPP at a weighted average price of $8.89, which generated $0.2 million of proceeds. As of December 31, 2020, there were common shares having a maximum aggregate sales price of approximately $50.0 million available for issuance under the Current DRSPP.
In December 2017, we established an "At-the-Market-Equity" program (the "Prior ATM Plan") whereby, from time to time, we may publicly offer and sell our common shares having an aggregate offering price up to $100 million by means of ordinary brokers transactions on the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE"), in negotiated transactions or in transactions that are deemed to be "at-the-market" offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. We filed a $100 million registration statement for a new ATM program (the "ATM Plan") on January 5, 2021 to replace the prior program. At the same time, the Company entered into a sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., Barclays Capital Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., BTIG, LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Regions Securities LLC, Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated and Wells Fargo Securities as sales agents. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, the Company may from time to time offer, and sell shares of its common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100 million. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we issued 0 shares under the Prior ATM Plan. As of December 31, 2020, there were common shares having a maximum aggregate sales price of approximately $100.0 million available for issuance under the ATM Plan.
Preferred Shares
The Company is authorized to issue up to 100,000,000 preferred shares, $0.01 par value per share. NaN preferred shares were outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Operating Partnership Units
Holders of common units in the Operating Partnership, if and when issued, will have certain redemption rights, which will enable the unit holders to cause the Operating Partnership to redeem their units in exchange for, at the Company’s option, cash per unit equal to the market price of the Company’s common shares at the time of redemption or for the Company’s common shares on a one-for-one basis. The number of shares issuable upon exercise of the redemption rights will be adjusted upon the occurrence of share splits, mergers, consolidations or similar pro-rata share transactions, which otherwise would have the effect of diluting the ownership interests of limited partners or shareholders. As of December 31, 2020, there were 654,603 vested Operating Partnership LTIP units held by employees and 102,048 Operating Partnership LTIP units held by a former employee.

F-25


11.    Earnings Per Share
The two class method is used to determine earnings per share because unvested restricted shares and unvested LTIP units are considered to be participating shares. The LTIP units held by the non-controlling interest holders, which may be converted to common shares of beneficial interest, have been excluded from the denominator of the diluted earnings per share calculation as there would be no effect on the amounts since limited partners' share of income or loss would also be added back to net income or loss. Unvested restricted shares, unvested long-term incentive plan units and unvested Class A Performance LTIP units that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future would not be included in the computation of diluted loss per share for the periods where a loss has been recorded, because they would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented. The following is a reconciliation of the amounts used in calculating basic and diluted net income per share (in thousands, except share and per share data):
For the year ended
 December 31,
 202020192018
Numerator:
Net income$(76,023)$18,703 $30,641 
Dividends paid on unvested shares and LTIP units(50)(297)(310)
Net income attributable to common shareholders$(76,073)$18,406 $30,331 
Denominator:
Weighted average number of common shares - basic46,961,039 46,788,784 46,073,515 
Effect of dilutive securities:
Unvested shares— 234,496 170,145 
Weighted average number of common shares - diluted46,961,039 47,023,280 46,243,660 
Basic income per Common Share:
Net income attributable to common shareholders per weighted average common share$(1.62)$0.39 $0.66 
Diluted income per Common Share:
Net income attributable to common shareholders per weighted average common share$(1.62)$0.39 $0.66 

F-26


12.    Equity Incentive Plan
The Company maintains its Equity Incentive Plan to attract and retain independent trustees, executive officers and other key employees and service providers. The plan provides for the grant of options to purchase common shares, share awards, share appreciation rights, performance units, and other equity-based awards. The plan was amended and restated as of May 17, 2013 to increase the maximum number of shares available under the plan to 3,000,000 shares. Share awards under this plan generally vest over three to five years, though compensation for the Company’s independent trustees includes shares granted that vest immediately. The Company pays dividends on unvested shares and units, except for performance-based shares and outperformance based units, for which dividends on unvested performance-based shares and units are accrued and not paid until those shares or units vest. Certain awards may provide for accelerated vesting if there is a change in control. As of December 31, 2020, there were 944,048 common shares available for issuance under the Equity Incentive Plan.
Restricted Share Awards
From time to time, the Company may award restricted shares under the Equity Incentive Plan as compensation to officers, employees and non-employee trustees. The Company recognizes compensation expense for the restricted shares on a straight-line basis over the vesting period based on the fair market value of the shares on the date of issuance.
A summary of the Company’s restricted share awards for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is as follows:
 December 31, 2020December 31, 2019December 31, 2018
 
Number of
Shares
Weighted -
Average  Grant
Date Fair
Value
Number of
Shares
Weighted -
Average  Grant
Date Fair
Value
Number of
Shares
Weighted -
Average  Grant
Date Fair
Value
Non-vested at beginning of the period5,001 $18.33 8,334 $18.52 57,514 $23.78 
Granted5,000 17.40 
Vested(3,334)18.80 (3,333)18.80 (30,084)26.24 
Forfeited(24,096)21.21 
Unvested at end of the period1,667 $17.40 5,001 $18.33 8,334 $18.52 

As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were $0.0 million and $0.1 million, respectively, of unrecognized compensation costs related to restricted share awards. As of December 31, 2020, these costs were expected to be recognized over a weighted–average period of approximately 1.0 years. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company recognized approximately $0.0 million, $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively, of expense related to the restricted share awards. This expense is included in general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Long-Term Incentive Plan Awards
LTIP units are a special class of partnership interests in the Operating Partnership which may be issued to eligible participants for the performance of services to or for the benefit of the Company. Under the Equity Incentive Plan, each LTIP unit issued is deemed equivalent to an award of one common share thereby reducing the number of shares available for other equity awards on a 1-for-one basis.

F-27


A summary of the Company's LTIP unit awards for the years ended years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is as follows:

December 31, 2020December 31, 2019December 31, 2018
Number of
Shares
Weighted -
Average  Grant
Date Fair
Value
Number of
Shares
Weighted -
Average  Grant
Date Fair
Value
Number of
Shares
Weighted -
Average  Grant
Date Fair
Value
Non-vested at beginning of the period598,320 $18.30 476,398 $17.73 482,056 $16.58 
Granted325,507 13.42 221,853 $18.73 244,917 $16.94 
Vested(254,218)18.82 (99,931)$16.55 (67,275)$16.42 
Forfeited$(183,300)$14.13 
Non-vested at end of period669,609 $15.73 598,320 $18.30 476,398 $17.73 

Outperformance Plan LTIP Awards

On June 1, 2015, the Company's Operating Partnership granted 183,300 Class A Performance LTIP units, as recommended by the Compensation Committee of the Board (the "Compensation Committee"), pursuant to long-term, multi-year performance plan (the "Outperformance Plan"). As of June 1, 2018, the Class A Performance LTIP units did not meet the required market based Total Shareholder Return ("TSR") measurements and therefore, the accrued dividends and units have been forfeited.

Time-Based LTIP Awards

On March 1, 2020, the Company’s Operating Partnership, upon the recommendation of the Compensation Committee, granted 130,206 time-based awards (the “2020 Time-Based LTIP Unit Award”). The grants were made pursuant to award agreements that provide for time-based vesting (the "LTIP Unit Time-Based Vesting Agreement").

Time-Based LTIP Unit Awards will vest ratably provided that the recipient remains employed by the Company through the applicable vesting date, subject to acceleration of vesting in the event of the recipient’s death, disability, termination without cause or resignation with good reason, or in the event of a change of control of the Company). Prior to vesting, a holder is entitled to receive distributions on the LTIP Units that comprise the 2020 Time-Based LTIP Unit Awards and the prior year LTIP unit Awards set forth in the table above.

Performance-Based LTIP Awards

On March 1, 2020, the Company’s Operating Partnership, upon the recommendation of the Compensation Committee, also granted 195,301 performance-based awards (the "2020 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards"). The grants were made pursuant to award agreements that have market based vesting conditions. The Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards are comprised of Class A Performance LTIP units that will vest only if and to the extent that (i) the Company achieves certain long-term market based TSR criteria established by the Compensation Committee and (ii) the recipient remains employed by the Company through the applicable vesting date, subject to acceleration of vesting in the event of the recipient’s death, disability, termination without cause or resignation with good reason, or in the event of a change of control of the Company. Compensation expense is based on an estimated value of $13.66 per 2020 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Award, which takes into account that some or all of the awards may not vest if long-term market based TSR criteria are not met during the vesting period.

The 2020 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards may be earned based on the Company's relative TSR performance for the three-year period beginning on March 1, 2020 and ending on February 28, 2023. The 2020 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards, if earned, will be paid out between 50% and 150% of target value as follows:

Relative TSR Hurdles (Percentile)Payout Percentage
Threshold25th50%
Target50th100%
Maximum75th150%

F-28


Payouts at performance levels in between the hurdles will be calculated by straight-line interpolation.

The Company estimated the aggregate compensation cost to be recognized over the service period determined as of the grant date under ASC 718, excluding the effect of estimated forfeitures, using the Monte Carlo Approach. In determining the discounted value of the LTIP units, the Company considered the inherent uncertainty that the LTIP units would never reach parity with the other common units of the Operating Partnership and thus have an economic value of zero to the grantee. Additional factors considered in estimating the value of the LTIP units included discounts for illiquidity; expectations for future dividends; risk free interest rates; stock volatility; and economic environment and market conditions.

The grant date fair value of the LTIPs and the assumptions used to estimate the values are as follows:

Grant DateNumber of Units GrantedEstimated Value per UnitVolatilityDividend YieldRisk Free Interest Rate
Outperformance Plan6/1/2015183,300$14.1326%4.5%0.95%
2016 Time-Based LTIP Unit Awards1/28/201672,966$16.6928%0%0.79%
2016 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards1/28/201639,285$11.0930%5.8%1.13%
2017 Time-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/201789,574$18.5324%0%0.92%
2017 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/2017134,348$19.6525%5.8%1.47%
2018 Time-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/201897,968$16.8326%0%2.07%
2018 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/2018146,949$17.0226%6.2%2.37%
2019 Time-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/201988,746$18.4521%0%2.57%
2019 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/2019133,107$18.9121%6.2%2.55%
2020 Time-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/2020130,206$13.0520%0%1.06%
2020 Performance-Based LTIP Unit Awards3/1/2020195,301$13.6620%8.1%0.90%

The Company recorded $4.4 million, $4.2 million and $3.6 million in compensation expense related to the LTIP units for years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, there was $4.9 million and $4.9 million, respectively, of total unrecognized compensation cost related to LTIP units. This cost is expected to be recognized over approximately 1.8 years, which represents the weighted average remaining vesting period of the LTIP units.
Board of Trustee Share Compensation
For 2020, 2019 and 2018, each independent trustee was compensated $0.1 million for their services. Each trustee may elect to receive up to 100% of their compensation in the form of shares, but must receive at least 50% in the form of shares. In January 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company issued 24,516, 27,870 and 21,670 common shares, respectively, to its independent trustees as compensation for services performed in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The quantity of shares was calculated based on the average of the closing price for the Company’s common shares on the NYSE for the last ten trading days preceding the reporting date. On January 15, 2021, the Company distributed 40,203 common shares to its independent trustees for services performed in 2020.

13.    Leases

The Courtyard Altoona hotel was subject to a ground lease with an expiration date of April 30, 2029 and we had an extension option by the Company of up to 12 additional terms of five years each. Monthly payments were determined by the quarterly average room occupancy of the hotel. Rent was equal to approximately $8,400 per month when monthly occupancy was less than 85% and could increase up to approximately $20,000 per month if occupancy was 100%, with minimum rent increased by two and one-half percent (2.5%) on an annual basis. The Courtyard Altoona hotel was sold on May 7, 2019.
The Residence Inn San Diego Gaslamp hotel is subject to a ground lease with an expiration of January 31, 2065 with an extension option by the Company of up to 3 additional terms of ten years each. Monthly payments are currently approximately $44,400 per month and increase 10% every 5 years. The hotel is subject to supplemental rent payments annually calculated as 5% of gross revenues during the applicable lease year, minus 12 times the monthly base rent scheduled for the lease year.
F-29


The Residence Inn New Rochelle hotel is subject to an air rights lease and garage lease that each expires on December 1, 2104. The lease agreements with the City of New Rochelle cover the space above the parking garage that is occupied by the hotel as well as 128 parking spaces in a parking garage that is attached to the hotel. The annual base rent for the garage lease is the hotel’s proportionate share of the city’s adopted budget for the operations, management and maintenance of the garage and established reserves to fund the cost of capital repairs. Aggregate rent for 2020 under these leases amounted to approximately $31,000 per quarter.
The Hilton Garden Inn Marina del Rey hotel is subject to a ground lease with an expiration of December 31, 2067. Minimum monthly payments are currently approximately $47,500 per month and a percentage rent payment less the minimum rent is due in arrears equal to 5% to 25% of gross income based on the type of income.
The Company entered into a corporate office lease in September 2015. The lease is for a term of 11 years and includes a 12-month rent abatement period and certain tenant improvement allowances. The Company has a renewal option of up to 2 successive terms of five years each. The Company shares the space with related parties and is reimbursed for the pro-rata share of rentable space occupied by the related parties.
The Company is the lessee under ground, air rights, garage and office lease agreements for certain of its properties, all of which qualify as operating leases as of December 31, 2020. The leases typically provide multi-year renewal options to extend term as lessee at the Company's option. Option periods are included in the calculation of the lease obligation liability only when options are reasonably certain to be exercised.
In calculating the Company's lease obligations under the various leases, the Company uses discount rates estimated to be equal to what the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term, for an amount equal to the lease payments, in a similar economic environment.
The following table includes information regarding the Company's total minimum lease payments for which it is the lessee, as of December 31, 2020, for each of the next five calendar years and thereafter (in thousands):
 
Total Future Lease Payments
Amount
2021$2,051 
20222,071 
20232,093 
20242,115 
20252,186 
Thereafter66,720 
Total lease payments$77,236 
Less: Imputed interest(54,003)
Present value of lease liabilities$23,233 

F-30


The following table includes information regarding the Company's total minimum lease payments for which it is the lessee, as of December 31, 2019, for each of the next five calendar years and thereafter (in thousands):
Total Future Lease Payments
Amount
2020$2,027 
20212,051 
20222,071 
20232,093 
20242,115 
Thereafter68,906 
Total lease payments$79,263 
Less: Imputed interest(55,546)
Present value of lease liabilities$23,717 


For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company made $1.2 million of fixed lease payments and $33.0 thousand of variable lease payments related to hotel ground leases, which are included in property taxes, ground rent and insurance in our consolidated statement of operations. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company made $0.8 million of fixed lease payments related to its corporate office lease, which are included in general and administrative expense in our consolidated statement of operations.

The following tables include information regarding the right of use assets and lease liabilities of the Company as of December 31, 2020:


Right of Use AssetLease Liability
Balance as of January 1, 2020$21,270 $23,717 
Amortization(629)(484)
Balance as of December 31, 2020$20,641 $23,233 



Lease Term and Discount RateDecember 31, 2020
Weighted-average remaining lease term (years)40.62
Weighted-average discount rate6.57%


14.    Commitments and Contingencies

Litigation

The nature of the operations of the Company's hotels exposes those hotels, the Company and the Operating Partnership to the risk of claims and litigation in the normal course of their business. IHM is currently a defendant in several class action lawsuits pending in the state of California.

The first class action lawsuit was filed in the Santa Clara County Superior Court on October 21, 2016 under the title Ruffy, et al, v. Island Hospitality Management, LLC, et al. Case No. 16-CV-301473 (“Ruffy”) and the second class action lawsuit was filed on March 21, 2018 under the title Doonan, et al, v. Island Hospitality Management, LLC, et al. Case No 18-CV-325187 (“Doonan”). The class actions relate to hotels operated by IHM in the state of California and owned by affiliates of
F-31


the Company and the NewINK JV, and/or certain third parties. The complaint alleged various wage and hour law violations based on alleged misclassification of certain hotel managerial staff and violation of certain California statutes regarding incorrect information contained on employee paystubs. The plaintiffs seek injunctive relief, money damages, penalties, and interest. A settlement agreement has been negotiated and approved by the applicable courts for Ruffy and Doonan. In August 2020, a payment of $0.1 million, which represents the Company’s total exposure to the Ruffy and Doonan litigations based on standard indemnification obligations under hotel management agreements with IHM, was paid related to this lawsuit settlement.

In addition, IHM is a defendant in the following series of interrelated class action lawsuits: Perez et al. v. Island Hospitality Management III LLC et al. (United States District Court for the Central District of California, Case No. 2:18-cv-04903-DMG-JPR) filed on March 15, 2018, Cruz v. Island Hospitality Management III LLC (Santa Clara County Superior Court Case No. 19CV353655) filed on August 19, 2019, Leon et al. v. Island Hospitality Management III LLC (Orange County Superior Court Case No. 30-2019-01050719-CU-OE-CXC) filed on April 2, 2019, and Vela v. Island Hospitality Management LLC et al. (San Diego County Superior Court, Case No. 37-2019-0003525) filed on July 9, 2019 (collectively the “Perez class actions”). The Perez class actions also relate to hotels operated by IHM in the state of California and owned by affiliates of the Company and the NewINK JV, and/or certain third parties. The complaints alleged various wage and hour law violations based on alleged violation of certain California statutes regarding rest and meal breaks and wage statements. The plaintiffs seek injunctive relief, money damages, penalties, and interest. In September 2020, a payment of $0.6 million, which represents the Company’s total exposure to the Perez class actions based on standard indemnification obligations under hotel management agreements with IHM, was paid related to this lawsuit settlement.

Management Agreements
The management agreements with IHM have an initial term of five years and automatically renew for 2 five-year periods unless IHM provides written notice to us no later than 90 days prior to the then current term's expiration date of their intent not to renew. The IHM management agreements provide for early termination at the Company’s option upon sale of any IHM-managed hotel for no termination fee, with six months advance notice. The IHM management agreements may be terminated for cause, including the failure of the managed hotel to meet specified performance levels. Base management fees are calculated as a percentage of the hotel's gross room revenue. If certain financial thresholds are met or exceeded, an incentive management fee is calculated as 10% of the hotel's net operating income less fixed costs, base management fees and a specified return threshold. The incentive management fee is capped at 1% of gross hotel revenues for the applicable calculation.

F-32


As of December 31, 2020, terms of the Company's management agreements are (dollars are not in thousands):
PropertyManagement CompanyBase Management FeeMonthly Accounting FeeMonthly Revenue Management FeeIncentive Management Fee Cap
Homewood Suites by Hilton Boston-Billerica/ Bedford/ BurlingtonIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Minneapolis-Mall of AmericaIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Nashville-BrentwoodIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Dallas-Market CenterIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Hartford-FarmingtonIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton Orlando-MaitlandIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hampton Inn & Suites Houston-Medical CenterIHM3.0 %1,000 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Long Island HoltsvilleIHM3.0 %1,000 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn White PlainsIHM3.0 %1,000 750 1.0 %
Residence Inn New RochelleIHM3.0 %1,000 750 1.0 %
Residence Inn Garden GroveIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Homewood Suites by Hilton San Antonio River WalkIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Washington DCIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn Tysons CornerIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hampton Inn Portland DowntownIHM3.0 %1,000 550 1.0 %
Courtyard HoustonIHM3.0 %1,000 550 1.0 %
Hyatt Place Pittsburgh North ShoreIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Hampton Inn ExeterIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Hilton Garden Inn Denver TechIHM3.0 %1,500 1,000 1.0 %
Residence Inn BellevueIHM3.0 %1,200 1,000 1.0 %
Springhill Suites SavannahIHM