Docoh
Loading...

NMTC NeuroOne Medical Technologies

Filed: 8 Dec 20, 7:00pm
 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

 

Form 10-K

 

(Mark One)

☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020

 

OR

 

☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from ______ to ______

 

Commission file number 000-54716

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware 27-0863354
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (IRS Employer
Identification No.)
   
7599 Anagram Dr.,
Eden Prairie, MN
 55344
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

 

952-426-1383

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934: None.

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value

(Title of class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
 Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Yes ☐ No ☒

 

As of March 31, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of shares of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant based upon the March 31, 2020 price at which the common equity was last sold was $17.1 million. The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock as of December 7, 2020 was 22,993,388.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Parts of the Proxy Statement for the Registrant’s 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed subsequently are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

 

FORM 10-K

 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I   
ITEM 1.BUSINESS 1
ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS 28
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 68
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES 68
ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS 68
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES 69
    
PART II   
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES 70
ITEM 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA 71
ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 71
ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK 85
ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA F-1
ITEM 9.CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE 86
ITEM 9A.CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 86
ITEM 9B.OTHER INFORMATION 86
    
PART III   
ITEM 10.DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 87
ITEM 11.EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION 87
ITEM 12.SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS 87
ITEM 13.CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE 87
ITEM 14.PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES 87
    
PART IV   
ITEM 15.EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES 88

 

i

 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report” or “Report”) to “we,” “us,” “the Company” and “our” refer to NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation (the “Company”).

 

This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business,” but are also contained elsewhere in this Annual Report. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “objective,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “target,” “seek,” “contemplate,” “continue” and “ongoing,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Annual Report, we caution you that these statements are based on a combination of facts and factors currently known by us and our expectations of the future, about which we cannot be certain. Forward-looking statements include statements about:

 

our plans to develop and commercialize our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology;

 

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology;

 

our expectations regarding international opportunities for commercializing our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology under development;

 

the clinical utility of our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology under development;

 

our ability to develop our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology with the benefits we hope to offer as compared to existing technology, or at all;

 

our ability to develop future generations of our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology;

 

our future development priorities;

  

 the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

our ability to obtain reimbursement coverage for our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology;

 

our expectations about the willingness of healthcare providers to recommend our cortical strip, grid and depth electrode technology to people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors, and other brain related disorders;

 

our future commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

ii

 

 

our ability to comply with applicable regulatory requirements;

 

our ability to maintain our intellectual property position;

 

The outcome of legal proceedings with PMT;

 

our estimates regarding the size of, and future growth in, the market for our technology under development; and

 

our estimates regarding our future expenses and needs for additional financing.

 

Forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate, and management’s beliefs and assumptions are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.

 

These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future. You should, however, review the factors and risks and other information we describe in the reports we will file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) after the date of this Annual Report.

 

iii

 

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

 

Overview

 

Corporate Overview of NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

 

We were originally incorporated as Original Source Entertainment, Inc. under the laws of the State of Nevada on August 20, 2009. Prior to the closing of the Acquisition, as defined below, we completed a series of steps contemplated by a Plan of Conversion pursuant to which we, among other things, changed our name to NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation, increased our authorized number of shares of Common Stock from 45,000,000 to 100,000,000, increased our authorized number of shares of preferred stock from 5,000,000 to 10,000,000 and reincorporated in Delaware. On July 20, 2017, we acquired NeuroOne, Inc. (the “Acquisition”). Immediately following the closing of the Acquisition, the business of NeuroOne, Inc. became our sole focus.

 

Corporate Overview and History of NeuroOne, Inc.

 

NeuroOne, Inc. was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on October 7, 2016. Its predecessor entity, NeuroOne LLC (the “LLC”), was formed on December 13, 2013 and operated as a limited liability company until it was merged with and into NeuroOne, Inc. on October 27, 2016 with NeuroOne, Inc. as the surviving entity (the “Merger”). As a result of the Merger, all of the properties, rights, privileges and powers of the LLC vested in NeuroOne, Inc., and all debts, liabilities and duties of the LLC became the debts, liabilities and duties of NeuroOne, Inc., except for the license agreement (the “WARF License”) with the WARF which was not legally transferred until May 2017. The purposes of the Merger were to: change the jurisdiction of incorporation from Minnesota to Delaware; change the ownership of the LLC’s underlying assets; and convert from a limited liability company to a corporation. In December 2019, NeuroOne, Inc. was merged with and into the Company, with the Company remaining as the surviving entity.

 

We are a medical technology company focused on the development and commercialization of thin film electrode technology for continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) and stereoelectrocencephalography (sEEG) recording, spinal cord stimulation, brain stimulation and ablation solutions for patients suffering from epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, essential tremors and other related brain related disorders. Additionally, we are investigating the potential applications of our technology associated with artificial intelligence. Members of our management team have held senior leadership positions at a number of medical technology and biopharmaceutical companies, including Boston Scientific, St. Jude Medical, Stryker Instruments, C.R. Bard, A-Med Systems, Sunshine Heart, Empi, Don-Joy and PMT Corporation (“PMT”).

 

1

 

 

We are developing our cortical, sheet and depth electrode technology to provide solutions for diagnosis through cEEG recording and sEEG recording and treatment through brain stimulation and ablation, all in one product. A cEEG is a continuous recording of the electrical activity of the brain that identifies the location of irregular brain activity, which information is required for proper treatment. cEEG recording involves an invasive surgical procedure, referred to as a craniotomy. sEEG involves a less invasive procedure whereby doctors place electrodes in targeted brain areas by drilling small holes through the skull. Both methods of seizure diagnosis are used to identify areas of the brain where epileptic seizures originate in order to precisely locate the seizure source for therapeutic treatment if possible.

 

Deep brain stimulation, or DBS, therapies involve activating or inhibiting the brain with electricity that can be given directly by electrodes on the surface or implanted deeper in the brain via depth electrodes. Introduced in 1987, this procedure involves implanting a power source referred to as a neurostimulator, which sends electrical impulses through implanted depth electrodes, to specific targets in the brain for the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and chronic pain. Alzheimer’s is another indication evaluating the effects of DBS. Unlike ablative technologies, the effects of DBS are reversible.

 

RF ablation is a procedure that uses radiofrequency under the electrode contacts that is directed to the site of the brain tissue that is targeted for removal. The process involves delivering energy to the contacts, thereby heating them and destroying the brain tissue. The ablation does not remove the tissue. Rather, it is left in place and typically scar tissue forms in the place where the ablation occurs. This procedure is also known as brain lesioning as it causes irreversible lesions.

 

Failed back surgery syndrome (“FBSS”) is a condition that produces chronic lower back/leg pain due to one or more failed back surgeries. Typically, it is related to patients that suffer with pain after surgery of the lumbar spine for degenerative disc disease. Re-operations are usually not recommended for these patients due to low success rates. These patients experience greater levels of pain, a lower quality of life, varying levels of disability and higher rate of unemployment. Spinal cord stimulation works by placing an electrodes(s) in a targeted area of the spine and then connected to an implantable pulse generator that sends electrical stimulation to the electrode to block the pain signals from reaching the brain.

 

Our cortical sheet electrode and depth electrode technology has been tested over the years by both WARF, the owners of our licensed patents, and Mayo Clinic located in Rochester, Minnesota, in both pre-clinical models as well as through an IRB approval at Mayo Clinic for clinical research. Regarding our ablation electrode, the Cleveland Clinic has performed testing in bench top models and pre-clinical (or animal testing) modes. These pre-clinical tests have demonstrated that the technology is capable of recording, ablation and acute stimulation, although our technology remains in product development (meaning that additional trials will be needed prior to it being approved for sale by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”)) for all of the recording (or diagnostic) and therapeutic modalities.

 

Prior to commercialization of our technology, we will have to obtain regulatory approval as discussed in “—Clinical Development and Regulatory Pathway” and “—Government Regulation” below.

 

2

 

 

Our Market Opportunity

 

Epilepsy Market

 

We expect to initially target the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy can be caused by a variety of conditions that affect a person’s brain, some of which are: stroke, brain tumor, traumatic brain injury and central nervous system infections. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the “CDC”) and Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (“CURE”), there are approximately 3,000,000 patients annually suffering with epilepsy in the United States, with an additional 200,000 diagnosed every year. They also estimate that epilepsy costs the United States $15.5 billion per year. We believe the European market is similar. Approximately 720,000 of these patients are not receptive to pharmaceutical treatment and therefore are appropriate for surgical treatment of this disorder. In addition to poor quality of life, epilepsy also is associated with fairly high mortality rates, especially in children. CURE reported that Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy accounts for 34% of all deaths in children. Such deaths have increased by close to 100% from 2005 to 2015 according to the CDC. Despite the large market opportunity, it is estimated that there are only 16,000 craniotomies performed for epilepsy cases each year in the United States with 18,000 performed in Europe.1 These numbers represent an underpenetrated market due to the invasiveness of a full craniotomy required just to perform the diagnostic procedure. After the diagnostic procedure, a second therapeutic procedure is required and at times even a third surgery if the seizures persist. We believe patients are unwilling to proceed due to the long diagnostic times (one-four weeks in the hospital with a craniotomy), infection rates and 50% rate of success in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. As detailed above, after the diagnosis is completed, if successful, the patient must undergo an additional procedure to have the affected area of brain tissue removed. The average cost for the diagnostic technology per procedure is $10,000, with ablation devices costing $15,000 and brain stimulation devices costing $25,000 to $30,000. We believe our technology, once developed, will offer an all in one solution with diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities.

 

We believe that many leading neurologists believe that the limits of today’s current technologies are the reason the exact affected area of the brain causing epileptic seizures is not well-determined. We expect our technology, which has been developed to date by physicians at WARF and Mayo Clinic, will provide a number of advantages over the current commercially available technologies, including the following:

 

Our proprietary thin film technology under development has a smaller footprint with many more electrodes.

 

We expect that our technology will eventually be able to be implanted using a minimally invasive procedure utilizing a dime sized burr hole rather than a full craniotomy which is typically required to implant the currently available technology.

 

Our technology may provide more accurate detection of irregular brain activity over currently available technology. In limited clinical testing, doctors at Mayo Clinic have documented pre-seizure activity (micro-seizures) during their clinical research with their patients using our cEEG technology.

 

We expect our technology can ablate through the electrodes as well as perform brain stimulation, allowing for diagnosis and treatment through the same product and in the same procedure.

 

Parkinson’s Disease

 

The Parkinson’s Disease Foundation estimates that as many as 1,000,000 patients in the United States live with Parkinson’s disease with an additional 60,000 patients diagnosed per year. Over 10,000,000 patients worldwide are living with Parkinson’s disease. There have not been any drugs introduced that have been effective at treating Parkinson’s disease. The average onset is over 60 years old but some people have been diagnosed as young as 40 years old. Parkinson’s is a disorder of the central nervous system caused by loss of brain cells throughout various regions of the brain. It is attributed to the loss of dopamine production in the brain, a messenger in the brain that allows for movement and coordination. There are no objective tests to diagnose Parkinson’s disease, and misdiagnosis rates are still very high. Doctors look to find two or more signs to make a diagnosis, including balance problems, rigidity and tremors that occur during rest. In 2011, the FDA approved the first imaging device called a DaTscan that can capture images of the dopamine system in the brain. By itself, these scans cannot diagnose Parkinson’s but can help confirm a doctor’s diagnosis. Parkinson’s disease is typically not fatal; however, complications caused by the symptoms of Parkinson’s, such as difficulty swallowing causing food to travel to the lungs resulting in pulmonary issues or falls related to loss of balance, can be fatal.

 

 

1American Association of Neurological Surgeons National Neurosurgical Procedural Statistics 2012.

 

3

 

 

Today’s primary treatment for Parkinson’s disease involves medications that have not proven to resolve symptoms but rather ease symptoms. Years ago, surgical procedures such as thalamotomy and pallidotomy targeted certain parts of the brain and involved destroying the tissue. More recently, these procedures have been replaced with DBS. A doctor evaluates the patient by reviewing the patient’s symptoms and medications taken and administering detailed memory, thinking and imaging tests to determine if they are appropriate for DBS. According to the Michael J. Fox Parkinson’s Disease Research Foundation website, patients that seem to do best with DBS are those that have had the disease for at least four years and have benefited from taking medications prescribed to control the disease. In addition, DBS seems to help with reducing the issues with motor functions such as tremors, stiffness and slowness but not for balance issues. Doctors are evaluating treatment to other parts of the brain in an effort to address more symptoms to treat walking or balance issues. In addition, research is being conducted to provide stimulation when the symptoms return as opposed to all of the time.

 

Essential Tremors

 

Essential tremors are thought to be due to electrical irregularities in the brain that send abnormal signals to the muscles. It is a progressive condition that worsens over time and is linked to genetic disorders that typically appear in people who are over 40. Essential tremors usually occur alone and without any other neurological symptoms or signs. The tremors usually occur when the hands are raised and primarily affect the hands. Muscles in the trunk, face and neck may also experience symptoms. Sometimes misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors are an involuntary rhythmic shaking of the hands that is not present at rest. It is apparent during activities such as drinking, writing and eating. Symptoms can worsen due to stress, anxiety, smoking, caffeine, fatigue, etc. Genetics Home Reference estimates that as many as 10,000,000 people in the United States are affected by the disease. Treatments for the disease include medical therapy, weighting the limbs and DBS. Patients need to eliminate any medications they are taking that cause tremors as this can exacerbate the symptoms. For some patients, using wrist weights may ease symptoms allowing the patient to function. Other patients may also use relaxation techniques as stress can increase symptoms. Medical therapy is also used to treat patients’ symptoms. Primidone is typically the first drug prescribed as it has had success in some situations for epilepsy. Botox is also used at times to control head tremors. When these fail, surgery is the next alternative. A surgical procedure used years ago created lesions in the ventral intermediate thalamus and was highly successful with treating essential tremors but is no longer commonly used due to increased risk of developing speech problems. The latest therapy is DBS, which, unlike other therapies, is reversible and programmable, helping to adjust the settings to maximize patient benefit. Similar to Parkinson’s disease, the ability to detect this irregular brain activity before it causes a tremor is highly desirable.

 

Dystonia

 

Dystonia is a neurological condition recognized as a motion disorder that involves over activity of a variety of different muscles simultaneously that work against each other. It presents itself in a variety of symptoms but typically involves repetitive, patterned and often twisting involuntary muscle contractions resembling tremors. According to the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, over 300,000 people are affected in the United States and Canada alone. Dystonia is the third most common problem seen in movement disorder clinics. Because it has many different manifestations, it is often misdiagnosed. In addition, similar to Parkinson’s disease, there are no specific tests that can positively diagnose dystonia. A doctor typically will evaluate patient and family history, potentially do genetic testing, EEG testing, blood and urine tests. There are also many treatment options for patients but depend on the type of dystonia. Botox and certain medications may be helpful or DBS may be used.

 

Spinal Cord Stimulation

 

The market for spinal cord stimulation was reported to be $1.97 billion in the United States in 2017 as reported by Infinium Research in their Spinal Cord Stimulation Market Research report. The market includes the following indications: Failed Back Surgery Syndrome, Ischemic Limb Pain, and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Over half of this market is comprised of patients with FBSS. Certain studies have indicated a benefit for these patients suffering from chronic back and lower limb pain when they have been treated with electrical stimulation. Prior to the patient receiving an implant, they undergo a trial period that allows them to determine if they are receiving relief from the therapy while preventing a surgery to implant the pulse generator that provides the stimulation. If the trial period is successful, then the device is implanted in a follow-up procedure.

 

4

 

 

Artificial Intelligence

 

The brain consists of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, which are small wires that pass electrical signals to control all of its functions. There have been a number of successful clinical trials in which small metal wires, known as electrodes, are implanted in the brain to correct nerve damage using wireless communication between implanted wires to simulate functional nerve cells. In addition to correcting damaged nerve cells, certain scientists have theorized that if millions of wires could be implanted in the brain, these electrodes could present an opportunity to use artificial intelligence to create infrared sight, increase hearing or perfect memory recall. However, there currently is no commercially available manufacturing platform capable of making thousands of wires that can be placed within or on the brain and work reliably for the lifetime of a subject, and are soft enough to match the tissue of the brain, that avoid damage to the brain.

 

Limitations of Currently Available Therapies

 

There are a limited number of currently available products for diagnosis and treatment for people with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Although the currently available systems provide diagnosis and treatment for patients, they have certain inherent limitations and shortcomings that we believe limit their use and validate the need for improved technology in the market. These limitations include:

 

Lengthy diagnostic times: Patients spend one to four weeks in the hospital waiting to have seizures that will allow doctors to determine where the seizures are occurring.

 

Lower Accuracy: Historically, clinical electrode manufacturers primarily provided electrodes that sample brain tissue at approximately centimeter spacial scales. Advances in digital EEG acquisition have made recordings at sub-millimeter spatial scales possible, but high-spatial resolution EEG has been slow to impact clinical practice. Existing, higher spatial scales increase the potential for missing data that may be critical in the removal of brain tissue causing the irregular activity.

 

Need to perform a full craniotomy (invasiveness): Currently available cortical electrode technology is placed through a craniotomy, which requires removing the top part of the cranium and is a very painful and invasive procedure. Procedural times for a craniotomy range from a minimum of four to eight hours. A variety of complications can occur when a full craniotomy is performed, including but not limited to: stroke, bleeding, infection, seizures, swelling of the brain (which may require a second craniotomy), nerve damage, which may cause muscle paralysis or weakness, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, which may require repair, loss of mental functions and permanent brain damage with associated disabilities. The invasiveness, procedural times and possible surgical complications have limited the growth of surgical treatment of epilepsy.

 

Requirement for a surgical incision: Currently, when patients have been implanted with paddle electrodes in the spinal area, a surgical incision has been required. A technology that allows for percutaneous placement is desirable.

 

Limited number of contacts on an electrode: Paddle electrodes currently are available in a variety of sizes and number of contacts. Physicians want to explore adding a greater number of contacts on the same electrode in order to be able to be more precise in stimulating targeted areas.

 

Our Solution

 

As a result of the inherent limitations and inconvenience of existing systems, we believe that there is a significant unmet need among people with neurological disorders for cortical strip, grid and depth electrodes that provide diagnostic capabilities through cEEG and sEEG recording in addition to therapeutic modalities, such as brain stimulation and ablation, offered as an all in one product. In comparison to currently available technologies, we are currently developing our strip, grid and depth electrodes with the goal of providing the following expected advantages:

 

5

 

 

Reduced time for diagnosis: If we are successful in identifying brain activity more quickly, in offering a minimally invasive procedure and developing an all in one solution, we expect our technology will reduce overall procedural times. While our pre-clinical and clinical experience to date is very limited, our cortical grid technology under development has, in some cases, demonstrated the ability to provide hi fidelity recordings that have allowed physicians to identify the affected brain tissue causing seizures in hours versus weeks. This represents the potential for meaningful cost savings for hospitals and patients and improved quality of life for patients.

 

Improved accuracy of diagnostic technologies: Because we believe our thin film technology will be capable of recording at higher fidelity than current technologies used in EEG recording, we believe our technology may be able to more precisely determine the brain tissue causing seizures. Additionally, in the limited clinical tests performed by Mayo Clinic with five patients to date, our technology under development has identified what clinicians refer to as pre-seizure activity (made possible by the ability to detect brain activity using sub-millimeter spatial scales). We believe our technology under development may be able to improve outcomes compared to using other therapeutic technologies regardless of whether we are able to offer an all in one diagnostic and therapeutic solution.

 

Implantation via minimally invasive procedure with fewer post-procedure complications: We are currently developing an approach to deliver the cortical electrodes, including minimizing the invasiveness of the procedure. We expect that patients who have qualified for this therapy will be more accepting of a minimally-invasive procedure. Such a procedure would potentially reduce the patient’s pain, bleeding and other adverse events associated with a full craniotomy. Our technology is expected to also have fewer wires, also referred to as tails, exiting the patient’s head, which can also reduce the potential for infections. Furthermore, the material we currently use in our cortical electrodes has shown in pre-clinical evaluations to cause less inflammation than current electrode substrates as it appears more compatible with brain tissue. As discussed under “Our Strategy” below, our technology under development, if approved, will be implanted via a full craniotomy until such time, if ever, as we are able to develop our minimally invasive procedure.

 

All-in-one diagnostic and therapeutic technology solution: Due to the expected high fidelity recording capabilities of our technology under development, we have received feedback from physicians that they will attempt to perform the diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure, thereby eliminating the need for a second surgical procedure, reducing the likelihood of patient infection and minimizing the diagnostic, procedural and hospital costs. As discussed under “Our Strategy” below, our initial product offering will offer diagnostic-only capabilities while we advance the development of our all in one approach.

 

Percutaneous placement of spinal cord stimulation paddle electrodes with scalability options: Due to the thin film nature of our electrode technology, we believe that it may allow for percutaneous placement, thereby preventing the need to make surgical incisions to place the electrodes. Minimally invasive and percutaneously placed technologies have become almost a requirement for adoption with patients and physicians. In addition, our technology offers the ability to increase the number of contacts on a film that traditionally offers fewer contacts. Increasing the number of contacts may allow for more precise stimulation in the spine, potentially improving the therapeutic outcomes.

 

Our Strategy

 

Our goal is to be the global leader in cEEG and sEEG recording, deep brain stimulation and ablation, owning the procedure from diagnosis through treatment. The key elements of our strategy include:

 

6

 

 

Introduce cortical strip and grid electrodes for the diagnosis of epilepsy in United States: In December 2019, we announced that we received FDA 510(k) clearance to market our thin film cortical electrode technology for temporary (less than 30 days) recording, monitoring, and stimulation on the surface of the brain. Our initial product offering will be placed through traditional surgical means involving a craniotomy until such time, if any, that we launch our minimally invasive procedure. We believe, due to physician feedback, that our technology under development would represent a major improvement over existing cortical electrodes for the recording of brain activity. We are initially targeting epilepsy as we believe this is a clinical area of great need and a market that is underserved with a quick path to commercialization. We believe the largest and quickest-to-market geography for our cortical strip and grid technology under development is in the United States for a number of reasons, including the following: (i) many industry sources believe there is a large underserved U.S. market, (ii) healthy procedural reimbursement for centers and physicians, (iii) robust average selling prices, (iv) physician enthusiasm for our technology under development.

 

Launch depth electrodes for sEEG recording: Given the reluctance of patients to undergo epilepsy surgery due to its invasiveness, a number of epilepsy centers have adopted the use of depth electrodes, which are placed by drilling small holes into the patient’s cranium, thereby avoiding a craniotomy. We believe our technology will offer advantages to current depth electrode technology and will enable us to offer a therapeutic solution using this technology in the future. As we develop our technology, we plan to release further information about the expected advantages of our technology over currently available therapies.

 

Introduce minimally invasive delivery system for cortical electrodes: Cortical electrodes generally require a craniotomy, which is a very invasive procedure that can cause patient complications. Because of this, many patients have opted to not have epilepsy surgery, instead accepting the consequences and risks associated with epilepsy. We intend to develop a procedure that may include a delivery system placed through a small circular incision in the skull for implantation of the cortical grid and strip electrodes. We believe this will increase patient willingness to accept the surgery and increase market penetration. Until we are able to develop this procedure, if at all, our initial product offering will be placed through traditional surgical means involving a craniotomy and may be less likely to be adopted by physicians and patients due to unwillingness of patients to undergo epilepsy surgery.

 

Develop percutaneous placed electrodes for spinal cord stimulation with scalable contact configurations: Given that many surgically placed technologies have become less invasive due to patient and physician demands, we believe that our flexible thin film technology will allow for percutaneous placement, thus potentially eliminating the need to make a surgical incision. By leveraging our existing FDA cleared cortical electrode technology, we may be able to offer the ability to improve precision of where the stimulation is delivered. NeuroOne’s platform thin film technology has the capability to increase the number of contacts in a similar footprint that has fewer contacts.

 

Utilize these core technologies to develop all in one diagnostic and therapeutic solutions: Patients currently undergo one surgical procedure for diagnosis (either to have a cortical electrode placed via a craniotomy or depth electrodes placed via holes drilled into the skull) and, hopefully after the brain recordings successfully indicate where the affected brain tissue is located, a second procedure or surgery is then required to treat the patient. There is strong physician interest in being able to perform both the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure concurrently. We are developing our technology with the goal of being able to offer this benefit although there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so. We are pursuing cortical grid, strip and depth electrode technology that can record brain activity (diagnose), ablate brain tissue and also provide both acute and long term stimulation. The technology has demonstrated these functions in acute and short term animal models; however, additional development is required to offer a device that has long term therapeutic application. These therapeutic technologies are expected to require more robust regulatory approvals for the United States, ranging from a 510(k) with human clinical data to PMAs. We will engage the FDA at the proper time to determine the most efficient clinical path.

 

7

 

 

Gain approval for other brain or motor related disorders such as Parkinson’s with the therapeutic technologies developed for epilepsy: While we are developing our technology for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, we believe that our technology has strong application and utilization for other brain or motor related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, essential tremors and facial pain as these diseases are currently treated with DBS if medications are not effective. As previously mentioned, we are planning to offer electrodes that can be implanted for long term stimulation applications, but such use will require that we pursue additional approvals from the FDA and any international regulatory bodies where we seek to commercialize our technology.

 

Explore partnerships with other companies that leverage our core technology: Given that our technology enables, complements and/or competes with a number of companies that are in the market or attempting to enter the market with diagnostic or therapeutic technologies to treat brain related disorders, we believe there may be opportunities to establish mutually beneficial relationships. In addition, our technology may have application in cardiovascular, orthopedic and pain related indications that could benefit from a hi-fidelity thin film electrode product that can provide stimulation and/or ablation therapies.

 

Investigate the potential applications associated with Artificial Intelligence: We have been informed by some of our corporate advisors that the ability to offer scale-able electrode technology that can provide thousands of electrodes in the brain may be helpful in treating medical conditions that may benefit from using artificial intelligence. The Company has formed an advisory board that will provide guidance to the Company as we continue to explore the opportunities in this exciting field.

 

Our Technology

 

Epilepsy Mapping and Monitoring

 

Epileptic seizures occur when the neurons in the brain miscommunicate. This miscommunication typically results in involuntary muscle seizure activities and/or periods of perceptual disconnect where the individual appears frozen. Modern medical science has advanced the treatment of epileptic seizures by mapping the electrical communication activity of neurons and understanding their special orientation in the brain. This mapping is accomplished by access to the cranium (through a craniotomy) and placing conductive contacts on the brain directly. The craniotomy procedure is very invasive, traumatic to the surrounding tissue, results in high patient down time, and increases the risk of infection.

 

Our Technology

 

We seek to leverage scale-able technology and produce ultra-thin, or paper-thin electrodes that allow for high-resolution and high-definition recordings, which would improve mapping resolution and signal acquisition. If the Company is able to leverage scale-able technology, it would mean that our technology would be able to incorporate smaller electrodes and thereby increase the number of electrodes on a given surface area. We expect that this would increase the imaging resolution so that brain activity is displayed in greater definition. We also believe that the electrodes’ unique thinness and flexibility will provide a less invasive approach to electrode placement. The electrodes would be able to be placed through a small quarter size hole instead of by an invasive full craniotomy procedure.

 

8

 

 

 

  

The images under “Cortical Electrode,” from bottom to top, are images of our cortical electrode strip, our grid electrode, and the placement of the grid electrode on the brain, respectively. The images under “High Density Interconnect” are both images of our product that connects our electrodes to the head box, which is a piece of hardware that connects to electrodes to acquire, amplify, display, store and archive electrophysiological signals, and is integrated as part of our manufactured electrode product. The images under “Head Box” and “Signal Monitoring and Mapping” are images of the device which processes information received through the high density interconnect, and a sample output of data acquisition, respectively, neither of which is one of a Company product.

 

Our technology consists of three primary types of cortical electrodes: grid electrodes, strip electrodes and dual-sided electrodes. These electrodes have a patented design that utilizes proprietary processing and materials technology, which we believe will allow the electrodes to have improved features over the current industry standard recording electrodes.

 

What sets our technology apart from others is the integration of state of the art design leveraging the latest in flexible printed circuit technology. We believe our patented designs will provide the surgeon a higher tactile perspective on electrode placement allowing for ultra-precise neuron recording. We expect the benefits of our electrode designs to include the ability to detect better defined margins between healthy tissue and resect-able tissue, less immune-response from the brain and surrounding tissue, better signal acquisition due to superior conformability of the electrode over the brain, improved flexibility that physicians have requested, which we expect will enable a minimally invasive approach and the electrodes unique thinness that is unmatched by current products being used.

 

The Future of Neurology Mapping with NeuroOne

 

We seek to develop superior “scale-able” technology for future product system iterations in higher density contact placement. This will open the doors to other brain related disease recording procedures by providing hi-fidelity, more accurate diagnostic capabilities and also the ability to provide an all in one therapy capable of diagnosis, ablation and/or stimulation. Beyond the brain, we believe our technology under development has applications in other neurological signal recording disease states related to voluntary or involuntary motor neuron abnormalities, understanding sensory neuro behavior (pain), limb prosthetics and degenerative muscle disease.

9

 

 

Clinical Development and Regulatory Pathway

 

Clinical Experience, Future Development and Clinical Trial Plans

 

Our Evo cortical electrode technology has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA for recording, monitoring, and stimulating brain tissue for up to 30 days. Our other products have not received any clearance for commercialization by any U.S. or foreign regulatory body. To date, the Company has performed a number of bench top (which includes feasibility testing) and pre-clinical tests (which include animal testing of device placement, ergonomics, performance, ease of use, and other tests required by FDA regulations). As described in “—Government Regulation” below, the Company will be required to perform additional testing of its technology in connection with obtaining regulatory approvals.

 

In parallel with the development and testing needed to launch our cortical strip and grid electrodes and sEEG electrodes in development, we intend to expand our product offerings to include less invasive means and all in one solutions, thus providing both patients and physicians better options to treat epilepsy and other brain related disorders. While we expect to make modifications to this initial system, we believe that most of our future product development initiatives will involve unique and transformational next generation technology that should drive further appeal of our products with both physicians and patients.

 

We are utilizing a number of resources to develop these technologies. We license three critical patents from WARF that are the foundation of the technology and we are developing and intend to commercialize and benefit from the thin film technology know-how of Mayo Clinic doctors through our license and development agreement. WARF, Mayo Clinic and Cleveland Clinic have been responsible for all pre-clinical studies of our technology under development to date. See “—WARF License” and “—Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research License and Development Agreement” below.

 

Below we have summarized, for each component of our technology under development, the current stage of development, the pre-clinical testing done to date by WARF, The Cleveland Clinic or Mayo Clinic on such component, if any, our plans for further testing or clinical trials and our expectations regarding the requirements for regulatory approval and timing of regulatory submissions.

 

The development of our technology was delayed in fiscal year 2020 due to interruption in global manufacturing and shipping as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, one of our key manufacturing partners and one of our key suppliers have each had staffing issues due to COVID-19, leading to delays in our development build times and delays in shipping our product. Additionally, our own staff has been impacted by infections and mandatory quarantines. Our plans for further testing or clinical trials may be further impacted by the continuing effects of COVID-19. See “Risk Factors – The COVID-19 pandemic could has adversely impacted, and may continue to impact, our business, including pre-clinical and clinical trials and regulatory approvals.”

 

Technology 

Stage of Development and Pre-Clinical
Testing to Date

 

Additional Expected Steps for Regulatory
Approval

     

Cortical strip and grid electrodes for the diagnosis of epilepsy

 

The Company has finalized the design for the product and there are no further expected changes to the device (“design freeze”).

 

Pre-clinical testing and clinical testing on the final design has been conducted by Mayo Clinic and WARF (as described in “Mayo Clinic Studies” below).

 

The Company received FDA 510(k) clearance in the fourth calendar quarter of 2019.

 

There may be continued clinical evaluation of the technology under a pre-existing IRB research protocol approved by Mayo’s institutional review board, which will provide us with additional clinical evidence that may assist with product acceptance and launch.

 

Commercial launch is in process utilizing Zimmer, Inc. (“Zimmer” or “Zimmer Biomet”), our distribution partner.

 

     

Depth electrodes for recording (diagnostic) purposes

 

We have frozen this design.

 

Bench top testing and pre-clinical tests (animal testing) were conducted in the third and fourth calendar quarters of 2018.

 

No clinical testing has been conducted to date.

 

 

The Company is expecting to initiate biocompatibility (including extractables/leachables (whether the product results in any leaching of metals), and ease of implantation) testing in November 2020;

 

Sterilization validation and adoption, which we estimate will require $25,000 to complete; and

 

Electrical safety, which we estimate will require $60,000 to complete.

 

Pending the outcome of these tests, we expect to file for FDA 510(k) marketing clearance for one design in the first half of 2021. Additionally, Zimmer Biomet may exercise its option to distribute this product, now that we have frozen this design.

 

10

 

 

Minimally invasive cortical electrode delivery system 

No design freeze.

 

An initial pre-clinical feasibility study was conducted by the Mayo Clinic utilizing their device with our cortical film technology in December 2018. Additional testing was completed at the University of Minnesota in the second and third calendar quarters of 2019.

 

 

Pre-clinical testing was conducted in the first calendar quarter of 2019, and regulatory requirements will continue to be evaluated as we develop the design of this product. The Company conducted additional cadaver studies in the second and third calendar quarters of 2019.

 

The Mayo Clinic is conducting testing of its own device. In the event the Mayo Clinic completes development of its own device prior to us, we may forego completing development of our device and seek to enter into an arrangement with Mayo Clinic relating to its device (such as, for example, an acquisition/licensing, or distribution agreement).

 

Otherwise, to complete development of our own device, testing will need to demonstrate design verification, which we estimate will require $50,000.

     

Depth electrode diagnostic and ablation devices

 

No design freeze.

 

Pre-clinical testing, including benchtop and animal testing, has been conducted on early designs.

 

No clinical testing has been conducted to date.

 

 

Additional pre-clinical testing at the Cleveland Clinic was completed in the second calendar quarter of 2020.

 

Once the design is finalized we will be required to conduct additional pre-clinical testing, which may include additional benchtop or animal testing for safety and performance. Additionally, the FDA may require that we conduct human clinical studies.

 

No FDA feedback has been sought or received by us to date on the clinical process that may be required for an ablation indication, but we expect regulatory clearance/approval will require a more robust clinical process, which could range from 510(k) clearance with human clinical data to a PMA, depending on proposed indications for use. We expect that we will need to demonstrate design verification, which we estimate will require $75,000 to complete, biocompatibility, which we estimate will require $100,000 to complete, and sterilization validation and adoption, which we estimate will require $25,000 to complete. We may also need to demonstrate electrical safety, which we estimate will require $60,000.

 

Future pre-clinical and clinical testing requirements for regulatory clearance will continue to be evaluated as we develop the design of this product 

 

11

 

 

Spinal cord stim electrodes

 

No design freeze.

 

No pre-clinical or clinical testing to date.

 

 

This device is in early stages of development. We performed pre-clinical testing in August 2020 and expect to perform additional pre-clinical testing in the first calendar quarter of 2021.

 

Once the design is finalized we will be required to conduct additional pre-clinical testing, which may include additional benchtop or animal testing for safety and performance. Additionally, the FDA may require that we conduct human clinical studies.

 

No FDA feedback has been sought or received by us to date on the clinical process that may be required for an ablation indication, but we expect regulatory clearance/approval will require a more robust clinical process, which could range from 510(k) clearance with human clinical data to a PMA, depending on proposed indications for use. We expect that we will need to demonstrate design verification, which we estimate will require $75,000 to complete, biocompatibility, which we estimate will require $100,000 to complete, and sterilization validation and adoption, which we estimate will require $25,000 to complete. We may also need to demonstrate electrical safety, which we estimate will require $60,000.

 

Future pre-clinical and clinical testing requirements for regulatory clearance will continue to be evaluated as we develop the design of this product

     

Depth electrode chronic stimulation devices

 

No design freeze.

 

No pre-clinical testing, or clinical testing has been conducted to date

 

 

This device is in early development, and we do not expect to begin conducting bench top nor pre-clinical testing until the second calendar quarter of 2021.

 

Following a design freeze, we will be required to conduct additional pre-clinical testing, which may include additional benchtop or animal testing for safety and performance. Additionally, FDA-approved human clinical studies will most likely be required.

 

No FDA feedback has been sought or received by us to date on the clinical process that will be required for chronic stimulation, but we expect regulatory clearance/approval for chronic stimulation may require a more robust clinical process, which could range from 510(k) clearance with human clinical data to a PMA. Because we have not yet met with the FDA, we cannot yet determine what clinical data and testing we will need to complete or what the testing will need to demonstrate. However, we believe, based on the experience of competitors for similar technology, that we will need to conduct clinical trials, which we estimate will require approximately $2,000,000, as well as demonstrate biocompatibility, which we estimate will require $100,000 to complete, and demonstrate sterilization validation and adoption, which we estimate will require $25,000 to complete.

 

12

 

 

Mayo Clinic Studies

 

Our cortical technology for the diagnosis of epilepsy has been tested by doctors at Mayo Clinic in multiple pre-clinical tests conducted from 2012 to 2017. In pre-clinical models, doctors examined the biological impact on mammalian brains. Polyimide substrate electrodes (NeuroOne technology) were implanted on the pig’s brain for one week alongside standard competitive electrodes. The tissue underneath the two types of electrodes was removed, fixed, stained, and examined for immunological responses. The results of a histological (evaluation of brain tissue under a microscope) analysis showed reduced immunological reaction to prolonged polyimide substrate implants (NeuroOne technology) compared to standard silicone substrate clinical electrodes. Electrophysiological recordings showed data obtained from polyimide electrodes which showed the feasibility of high fidelity multi-scale electrophysiology while also displaying easier deployment of polyimide electrodes (NeuroOne technology) through minimally invasive burr holes.

 

Additionally, doctors implanted our polyimide thin film electrodes on five human patients who were undergoing surgery to remove brain tissue for drug resistant epilepsy. Electrophysiological recordings from the polyimide thin film technology displayed in each of these patients demonstrated micro-seizure activity due to the high fidelity multi-scale electrophysiology.

 

Conclusions reached by the physicians at Mayo Clinic were that thin, flexible polyimide electrodes (NeuroOne technology) provided recordings similar to standard clinical electrodes with reduced immunological response. In addition, the flexibility of polyimide electrodes may reduce pain and swelling associated with implantation of the device, and the single wire exiting the skull may reduce infection risk. The ability to record micro-seizure and single neuron brain activity may also provide additional useful clinical data. Combined, these properties suggest that the replacement of our current competitive silicone electrodes with polyimide substrate electrodes (NeuroOne technology) for recording brain activity for epilepsy could provide enhanced clinical value with reduced cost, reduced infection risk, and improved patient comfort.

 

In addition, our thin film cortical implant technology has been tested by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in multiple pre-clinical animal studies conducted from 2006 to 2016, which included mice, rats and primates. In these studies, our technology was able to record brain activity from different areas of the brain, was implanted in a minimally invasive fashion, electrically provided brain stimulation and tissue ablation, and had increased flexibility compared to existing commercially available technology, which allowed the grids to conform more easily to the brain surface (and may have reduced pain and swelling, compared to less flexible devices).

 

Sales and Marketing

 

Based on the size and maturity of the U.S. market, our initial commercial focus, on July 20, 2020, we entered into an exclusive development and distribution agreement (the “Development Agreement”) with Zimmer, Inc. (“Zimmer”), pursuant to which we granted Zimmer exclusive global rights to distribute NeuroOne’s strip and grid cortical electrodes (the “Strip/Grid Products”) and electrode cable assembly products (the “Electrode Cable Assembly Products”), including to approximately 188 Level 4 epilepsy centers.. Additionally, we granted Zimmer the exclusive right and license to distribute certain depth electrodes developed by the Company (“SEEG Products”, and together with the Strip/Grid Products and Electrode Cable Assembly Products, the “Products”). The parties have agreed to collaborate with respect to development activities under the Development Agreement through a joint development committee composed of an equal number of representatives of Zimmer and the Company.

 

Under the terms of the Development Agreement, we will be responsible for all costs and expenses related to developing the Products, and Zimmer will be responsible for all costs and expenses related to the commercialization of the Products. In addition to the Development Agreement, Zimmer and the Company have entered into a Manufacturing and Supply Agreement (the “MS Agreement”) and a supplier quality agreement (the “Quality Agreement”) with respect to the manufacturing and supply of the Products.

 

Except as otherwise provided in the Development Agreement, we will be responsible for performing all development activities, including non-clinical and clinical studies directed at obtaining regulatory approval of each Product. Zimmer has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to promote, market and sell each Product following the “Product Availability Date” (as defined in the Development Agreement) for such Product.

 

Pursuant to the Development Agreement, Zimmer made an upfront payment of $2.0 million to the Company, the announcement of which triggered the automatic conversion of the Company’s 2020 Notes pursuant to their terms. Additionally, in order to maintain the exclusivity of its distribution license for the SEEG Products, Zimmer must pay an additional fee to the Company within 60 days following the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products.

 

The Development Agreement will expire on the tenth anniversary of the date of the first commercial sale of the last of the Products to achieve a first commercial sale, unless terminated earlier pursuant to its terms. Either party may terminate the Development Agreement (x) with written notice for the other party’s material breach following a cure period or (y) if the other party becomes subject to certain insolvency proceedings. In addition, Zimmer may terminate the Development Agreement for any reason with 90 days’ written notice, and we may terminate the Development Agreement if Zimmer acquires or directly or indirectly owns a controlling interest in certain competitors of the Company.

 

We will investigate markets outside of the U.S. with the assistance of Zimmer Biomet and formulate a plan to enter those markets with the support of Zimmer. See “—Recent Developments – Zimmer Development Agreement.”

 

13

 

 

Reimbursement

 

Coverage in the United States

 

Reimbursement from private third-party healthcare payors and, to a lesser extent, Medicare will be an important element of our success. Although the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) and third-party payors have adopted coverage policies for our targeted indications, there is no guarantee this will continue at the same levels or at all in the future. Current Procedural Terminology, or CPT, is a medical code set that is used to report medical, surgical and diagnostic procedures and services to entities such as physicians, health insurance companies and accreditation organizations.

 

Applicable diagnostic CPT codes for mapping (diagnosing) the brain for diagnostic procedures are as follows:

 

61531 Subdural implantation of strip electrodes through one or more burr or trephine (saw) hole(s) for long-term seizure monitoring;

 

61533 Craniotomy with elevation of bone flap: for subdural implantation of an electrode array, for long term seizure monitoring;

 

61535 Craniotomy with elevation of bone flap; for removal of epidural or subdural electrode array, without excision of cerebral tissue (separate procedure); and

 

61760 Stereotactic implantation of depth electrodes into the cerebrum for long term seizure monitoring.

 

Regarding ICD-10 codes, the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) is a clinical cataloging system that went into effect for the U.S. healthcare industry on October 1, 2015, after a series of lengthy delays. Accounting for modern advances in clinical treatment and medical devices, ICD-10 codes offer many more classification options compared to those found in its predecessor, ICD-9. Within the healthcare industry, providers, coders, IT professionals, insurance carriers, government agencies and others use ICD codes to properly note diseases on health records, to track epidemiological trends and to assist in medical reimbursement decisions.

 

ICD-10 codes for epilepsy are as follows:

 

G40.0 Localization-related (focal) (partial) idiopathic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes with seizures of localized onset;

 

G40.1 Localization-related (focal) (partial) symptomatic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes with simple partial seizures;

 

G40.2 Localization-related (focal) (partial) symptomatic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes with complex partial seizures;

 

G40.3 Generalized idiopathic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes;

 

G40.A Absence epileptic syndrome;

  

14

 

  

G40.4 Other generalized epilepsy and epileptic syndromes;

 

G40.50 Epileptic seizures related to external causes, not intractable;

 

G40.80 Other epilepsy; and

 

G40.82 Epileptic spasms.

 

We believe that many of the indications we are pursuing with our technologies are currently reimbursed on a widespread basis by Medicare, Medicaid and private insurance companies.

 

Medicare, Medicaid, health maintenance organizations and other third-party payors are increasingly attempting to contain healthcare costs by limiting both coverage and the level of reimbursement of new medical devices, and, as a result, their coverage policies may be restrictive, or they may not cover or provide adequate payment for our products. In order to obtain reimbursement arrangements, we may have to agree to a net sales price lower than the net sales price we might charge in other sales channels. Our revenue may be limited by the continuing efforts of government and third-party payors to contain or reduce the costs of healthcare through various increasingly sophisticated means, such as requiring prospective reimbursement and second opinions, purchasing in groups, or redesigning benefits. Our future dependence on the commercial success of our technologies makes us particularly susceptible to any cost containment or reduction efforts. Accordingly, unless government and other third-party payors provide adequate coverage and reimbursement for our products and the related insertion and removal procedures, our financial performance may be limited.

 

Coverage Outside the United States

 

If we seek to commercialize in countries outside the United States, coverage for epilepsy surgical procedures are available from certain governmental authorities, private health insurance plans, and labor unions. Coverage systems in international markets vary significantly by country and, within some countries, by region. If we seek to commercialize our technology, if approved, outside the United States, coverage approvals must be obtained on a country-by-country, region-by-region or, in some instances, a case-by case basis. Based on our ongoing evaluation, certain countries reimburse more highly than others.

 

We evaluated international opportunities to market our technology under development. While we believe there is a market for our technology in Europe and other foreign jurisdictions, we have determined not to seek to commercialize in any foreign jurisdictions due to time intensive approval processes, the lack of certainty regarding approval, significant cost and the stringency of the regulatory approval process in Europe in particular, among other factors.

 

Manufacturing, Supply and Quality Assurance

 

We currently outsource the supply and manufacture of all components of our prototypes of our technology under development. We plan to continue with an outsourced manufacturing arrangement for the foreseeable future. Our third-party manufacturers are recognized in their field for their competency to manufacture the respective portions of our system and have quality systems established that meet FDA requirements. We believe the manufacturers we currently utilize have sufficient capacity to meet our launch requirements if our technology under development is approved in the future and are able to scale up their capacity relatively quickly with minimal capital investment. We believe that, as we increase our demand in the future, our per-unit costs will decrease materially. We have also identified capable second source manufacturers and suppliers in the event of disruption from any of our primary vendors.

 

Our suppliers meet the latest ISO 13485 certification, which includes design control requirements. As a medical device developer, the facilities of our sterilization and other critical suppliers are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA and corresponding state and foreign agencies. We believe that our quality systems and those of our suppliers are robust and achieve high product quality. We plan to audit our suppliers periodically to ensure conformity with the specifications, policies and procedures for our devices.

 

15

 

 

Research and Development

 

Our research and development team, which includes our Chief Technology Officer and two third party consultants who perform research and development activities for us, is focused on the development of thin film cortical grid and strip electrodes and depth electrodes for recording, ablation and chronic stimulation for brain related disorders as well as stimulation for spinal cord stimulation for back related pain.

 

Our research and development expenses were $2.1 million and $1.5 million for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

Competition

 

In the market for Epilepsy diagnosis, our cortical strip, sheet and depth electrode technology will likely compete with Integra Life Science’s Integra Epilepsy Strip, Grid and depth electrodes, which provide a similar function to our diagnostic technologies under development. These products are well established in the marketplace and Integra has greater resources than us, which could allow them to innovate faster. Ad-Tech Medical Instrument Corporation’s Epilepsy/LTM (subdural grid, strip and depth) electrodes, which have become the market leaders for diagnostic mapping in epilepsy, and PMT’s Cortac Strips and grid electrodes and Depthalon depth electrodes are used for recording brain activity similar to other competitive technologies. In addition, Dixie Medical has launched a product line of depth electrodes and CorTec has launched a cortical electrode product line called AirRay. Today’s success rates for seizure free post-operative conditions remain at 50%, which has limited patients’ willingness to undergo the currently highly invasive surgical procedure. We will also compete against other companies in early stages of development of thin film technologies.

 

In the neuro-ablation market, we expect to compete with Medtronic’s Visualase guided-laser ablation technology and Monteris Medical’s NeuroBlate technology, which use MRI guided laser surgical ablation for use to ablate, necrotize or coagulate soft tissue through interstitial irradiation or thermal therapy in medicine and surgery in the discipline of neurosurgery with 1064 nm lasers. Their website claims it is used for ablation in the brain for soft tissue and tumors. We believe there are other laser-based systems in development that will compete with these technologies.

 

In the neurostimulation market, we expect to compete with NeuroPace’s RNS system approved for epilepsy, Medtronic’s Activa system approved for Parkinson’s disease, Boston Scientific Vercise (indicated for Parkinson’s, dystonia and essential tremors), Abbott/St. Jude Medical’s Infinity DBS system (approved for Parkinson’s disease and essential tremors), Liva Nova/Cyberonic’s VNS therapy intended for patients suffering with epilepsy. We believe there are additional companies pursuing thin film electrode technology for use in the brain although none are expected to be commercially available in 2020. Although we will face potential competition from many different sources, we believe that our technology, knowledge, experience and scientific resources will provide us with competitive advantages. We expect the key competitive factors affecting the success of our cortical strip and sheet electrodes under development, if successfully developed and approved, are likely to be: hi-fidelity recording that allows for detection of pre-seizure activity, ability to place the devices minimally invasively, deliverability of cortical grid, strip and depth electrode technology, ability to offer grid, strip and depth electrodes in various electrode shapes and sizes, potential reduction in infections and ability to record brain activity both on the surface using cortical grid and strip technology and deeper into the brain using depth electrodes concurrently.

 

Many of the companies against which we may compete in the future have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and diagnostic industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and subject registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our development.

 

16

 

 

WARF License

 

We have an Exclusive Start-Up Company License Agreement with WARF, pursuant to which WARF has granted us the WARF License, to make, use and sell, in the United States only, products that employ certain licensed patents for a neural probe array or thin-film micro electrode array and method. We have agreed to pay WARF a royalty equal to a single-digit percentage of our product sales pursuant to the WARF License, with a minimum annual royalty payment of $50,000 for 2020, $100,000 for 2021 and $150,000 for 2022 and each calendar year thereafter that the WARF License is in effect. If we or any of our sublicenses contest the validity of any licensed patent, the royalty rate will be doubled during the pendency of such contest and, if the contested patent is found to be valid and would be infringed by us if not for the WARF License, the royalty rate will be tripled for the remaining term of the WARF License.

 

We have agreed to diligently develop, manufacture, market and sell products under the WARF License in the United States during the term of the agreement and, specifically, that we would submit a business plan to WARF by February 1, 2018, which we submitted on January 18, 2018, and would file an application for 510(k) marketing clearance with the FDA by February 1, 2019, which we submitted on January 28, 2019. WARF may terminate this license on 30 days’ written notice, if we default on the payments of amounts due to WARF or fail to timely submit development reports, actively pursue our development plan or breach any other covenant in the WARF License and fail to remedy such default in 90 days or in the event of certain bankruptcy events involving us. WARF may also terminate the WARF License (i) on 90 days’ notice if we fail to have commercial sales of one or more FDA-approved products under the WARF License by June 30, 2021 or (ii) if, after royalties earned on sales begin to be paid, such earned royalties cease for more than four calendar quarters. The WARF License otherwise expires by its terms on the date that no valid claims on the patents licensed thereunder remain. We expect the latest expiration of a licensed patent to occur in 2030. The first commercial sale occurred on December 7, 2020, prior to the June 30, 2021 deadline.

 

In addition, WARF reserves the right to grant non-profit research institutions and government agencies non-exclusive licenses to practice and use the inventions of the licensed patents for non-commercial research purposes, and we grant WARF a non-exclusive, sub licensable, royalty-free right and license for non-commercial research purposes to use improvements to the licensed patents. In the event that we discontinue use or commercialization of the licensed patents or improvements thereon, we must grant WARF an option to obtain a non-exclusive, sub-licensable royalty-bearing license to use the improvements for commercial purposes.

 

See “Risk Factors”— We depend on intellectual property licensed from WARF for our technology under development, and the termination of this license would harm our business” for additional information regarding the WARF License.

 

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research License and Development Agreement

 

We have entered into the Amended and Restated License and Development Agreement (the “Mayo Development Agreement”) with Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (“Mayo”) to license worldwide (i) certain know how for the development and commercialization of products, methods and processes related to flexible circuit thin film technology for the recording of tissue and (ii) the products developed therefrom, and to partner with Mayo to assist the Company in the investigation, research application, development and improvement of such technology. Mayo has agreed to assist us by providing access to certain individuals at Mayo, or the Mayo Principal Investigators, in developing our cortical thin film flexible circuit technology, including prototype development, animal testing, protocol development for human and animal use, abstract development and presentation and access to and license of any intellectual property that the Mayo Principal Investigators develop relating to the procedure.

 

We have agreed to pay Mayo a royalty equal to a single-digit percentage of our product sales pursuant to the Mayo Development Agreement. Mayo may purchase any developed products licensed under the Mayo Development Agreement at the best price offered by us to the end user in the prior year. The Mayo Development Agreement generally will expire in October 2034, unless the Mayo know-how and improvements under the Mayo Development Agreement remain in use, and the Mayo Development Agreement may be terminated by Mayo for cause or under certain circumstances.

 

For additional information regarding the Mayo Development Agreement, see “Risk Factors—We depend on our partnership with Mayo to license certain know how for the development and commercialization of our technology. Termination of this partnership would harm our business, and even if this partnership continues, it may not be successful.”

 

17

 

 

Intellectual Property

 

Protection of our intellectual property is a strategic priority for our business. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets as well as nondisclosure and assignment of invention agreements, material transfer agreements, confidentiality agreements and other measures to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights.

 

Patents

 

As of September 30, 2020, our patent estate consists of three issued United States patents licensed from WARF covering a neural probe array and thin-film micro electrode array and method, a pending U.S. patent application filed by us and published in 2018 covering our applications and additional devices used during the diagnostic and therapeutic ablation and stimulation procedures, pending U.S. and PCT patent applications filed by us and published in 2020 relating to improved neural depth electrodes, a pending U.S. patent application filed by us and published in 2020 relating to agent-delivering neural electrodes, and three additional pending U.S. applications (and corresponding PCT applications) filed in 2019 and 2020 relating to minimally invasive electrodes, spinal cord stimulation devices, and additional electrode improvements. The licensed issued patents expire between 2025 and 2030, subject to any patent extensions that may be available for such patents. If a patent or patents are issued on our pending patent applications, the resulting patents are projected to expire between 2038 and 2040.

 

Our patent application may not result in issued patents, and any patents that have been issued or may be issued in the future may not protect the commercially important aspects of our technology. Furthermore, the validity and enforceability of our issued patents may be challenged by third parties and our patents could be invalidated or modified by the issuing governmental authority. Third parties may independently develop technology that is not covered by our patents that is similar to, or competes with, our technology. In addition, our intellectual property may be infringed or misappropriated by third parties, particularly in foreign countries where the laws and governmental authorities may not protect our proprietary rights as effectively as those in the United States.

 

The medical device industry in general, and the recording, ablation and neurostimulation sector of this industry in particular, are characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent litigation based on assertions of patent infringement. We are aware of numerous patents issued to third parties that may relate to the technology used in our business, including the design and manufacture of electrodes and pulse generators, as well as methods for device placement. Each of these patents contains multiple claims, any one of which may be independently asserted against us. The owners of these patents may assert that the manufacture, use, sale or offer for sale of our cortical strip and sheet electrodes infringe one or more claims of their patents. Furthermore, there may be additional patents issued to third parties of which we are presently unaware that may relate to aspects of our technology that such third parties could assert against us and materially and adversely affect our business. In addition, because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be patent applications that are currently pending and unknown to us, which may later result in issued patents that third parties could assert against us and materially and adversely affect our business.

 

Any adverse determination in litigations, post grant trial proceedings, including interference proceedings, at the Patent Office relating to intellectual property to which we are or may become a party could subject us to significant liabilities to third parties or require us to seek licenses from third parties, and result in the cancellation and/or invalidation of our intellectual property. Furthermore, if a court finds that we have willfully infringed a third party’s intellectual property, we could be required to pay treble damages and/or attorney fees for the prevailing party, in addition to other penalties. Although intellectual property disputes in the medical device area are often settled through licensing or similar arrangements, costs associated with such arrangements can be substantial and often require ongoing royalty payments. We may be unable to obtain necessary licenses on satisfactory terms, if at all. If we do not obtain necessary licenses, we may not be able to redesign our products to avoid infringement; if we are able to redesign our products to avoid infringement, we may not receive FDA approval in a timely manner. Adverse determinations in a judicial or administrative proceeding or failure to obtain necessary licenses could prevent us from manufacturing and selling our products, which could have a significant adverse impact on our business.

 

Trademarks

 

We have a registered U.S. trademark for the “NeuroOne” trademark, along with two pending U.S. applications for the “Evo” and “Evo Electrode” trademarks.

 

18

 

 

Trade Secrets

 

We also rely on trade secrets, technical know-how and continuing innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect such intellectual property and proprietary information by generally requiring our employees, consultants, contractors, scientific collaborators and other advisors to execute non-disclosure and assignment of invention agreements upon the commencement of their employment or engagement as the case may be. Our agreements with our employees prohibit them from providing us with any intellectual property or proprietary information of third parties. We also generally require confidentiality agreements or material transfer agreements with third parties that receive or have access to our confidential information, data or other materials. Notwithstanding the foregoing, there can be no assurance that our employees and third parties that have access to our confidential proprietary information will abide by the terms of their agreements. Despite the measures that we take to protect our intellectual property and confidential information, unauthorized third parties may copy aspects of our products or obtain and use our proprietary information.

 

Government Regulation

 

Our cortical strip, grid and depth electrodes are a medical device subject to extensive and ongoing regulation by the FDA, the U.S. CMS, the European Commission, and regulatory bodies in other countries. Regulations cover virtually every critical aspect of a medical device company’s business operations, including research activities, product development, quality and risk management, contracting, reimbursement, medical communications, and sales and marketing. In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”), and the implementing regulations of the FDA govern product design and development, pre-clinical and clinical testing, premarket clearance or approval, product manufacturing, quality systems, import and export, product labeling, product storage, recalls and field safety corrective actions, advertising and promotion, product sales and distribution, and post-market clinical surveillance. Our business is subject to federal, state, local, and foreign regulations, such as ISO 13485, ISO 14971, FDA’s QSR contained in 21 CFR Part 820, and the European Commission’s Directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices and its amendments.

 

Regulatory Framework in the United States

 

Device classification

 

The FDA characterizes medical devices into one of three classes. Devices that are considered by the FDA to pose lower risk are classified as Class I or II. Class I devices are subject to controls for labeling, pre-market notification and adherence to the FDA’s QSR. This pertains to manufacturers’ methods and documentation of the design, testing, production, control quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage and shipping of products, but are usually exempt from premarket notification requirements. Class II devices are subject to the same general controls but may be subject to special controls such as performance standards, post-market surveillance, FDA guidelines, or particularized labeling, and may also require clinical testing prior to clearance or approval. Class III devices are those for which insufficient information exists to assure safety and effectiveness solely through general or special controls, including devices that support or sustain human life, are of substantial importance in preventing impairment of human health, or which present a potential, unreasonable risk of illness or injury.

 

Some Class I and Class II devices are exempted by regulation from the pre-market notification requirement under Section 510(k) of the FDCA, also referred to as a 510(k) clearance, and the requirement of compliance with substantially all of the QSR. However, a pre-market approval (“PMA application”), is required for devices deemed by the FDA to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or certain implantable devices, or those that are “not substantially equivalent” either to a device previously cleared through the 510(k) process or to a “preamendment” Class III device in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976 when PMA applications were not required. The PMA approval process is more comprehensive than the 510(k) clearance process and typically takes several years to complete. Based on FDA definitions, we believe our diagnostic strip, grid and depth electrode technology will be categorized by the FDA as a Class II device that does not require clinical testing and can be filed as a 510(k), similar to existing competitive technology. The Company expects that indications for treating epilepsy, Parkinson’s and other patients suffering from motor related neurological deficiencies via a permanent implant for chronic treatment will require a PMA process to commercially distribute in the United States.

 

19

 

 

The 510(k) clearance process

 

Under the 510(k) clearance process, the manufacturer must submit to the FDA a premarket notification, demonstrating that the device is “substantially equivalent” to a legally marketed predicate device. A predicate device is a legally marketed device that is not subject to a PMA, i.e., a device that was legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976 (pre-amendments device) and for which a PMA is not required, a device that has been reclassified from Class III to Class II or I, or a device that was previously found substantially equivalent through the 510(k) process. To be “substantially equivalent,” the proposed device must have the same intended use as the predicate device, and either have the same technological characteristics as the predicate device or have different technological characteristics and not raise different questions of safety or effectiveness than the predicate device. Clinical data is sometimes required to support substantial equivalence.

 

After a 510(k) premarket notification is submitted, the FDA determines whether to accept it for substantive review. If it lacks necessary information for substantive review, the FDA will refuse to accept the 510(k) notification. If it is accepted for filing, the FDA begins a substantive review. By statute, the FDA is required to complete its review of a 510(k) notification within 90 days of receiving the 510(k) notification. As a practical matter, clearance often takes longer, and clearance is never assured. Although many 510(k) premarket notifications are cleared without clinical data, the FDA may require further information, including clinical data, to make a determination regarding substantial equivalence, which may significantly prolong the review process. If the FDA agrees that the device is substantially equivalent, it will grant clearance to commercially market the device.

 

If the FDA determines that the device is not “substantially equivalent” to a predicate device, or if the device is automatically classified into Class III, the device sponsor must then fulfill the more rigorous premarketing requirements of the PMA approval process, or seek reclassification of the device through the de novo process. The de novo classification process is an alternate pathway to classify medical devices that are automatically classified into Class III but which are low to moderate risk. A manufacturer can submit a petition for direct de novo review if the manufacturer is unable to identify an appropriate predicate device and the new device or new use of the device presents a moderate or low risk. De novo classification may also be available after receipt of a “not substantially equivalent” letter following submission of a 510(k) to FDA.

 

After a device receives 510(k) clearance, any modification that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a new or major change in its intended use, will require a new 510(k) clearance or, depending on the modification, could require a PMA application. The FDA requires each manufacturer to determine whether the proposed change requires a new submission in the first instance, but the FDA can review any such decision and disagree with a manufacturer’s determination. Many minor modifications are accomplished by a letter-to-file in which the manufacture documents the change in an internal letter-to-file. The letter-to-file is in lieu of submitting a new 510(k) to obtain clearance for such change. The FDA can always review these letters to file in an inspection. If the FDA disagrees with a manufacturer’s determination regarding whether a new premarket submission is required for the modification of an existing 510(k)-cleared device, the FDA can require the manufacturer to cease marketing and/or recall the modified device until 510(k) clearance or approval of a PMA application is obtained. In addition, in these circumstances, the FDA can impose significant regulatory fines or penalties for failure to submit the requisite application(s).

 

The PMA approval process

 

Following receipt of a PMA application, the FDA conducts an administrative review to determine whether the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. If it is not, the agency will refuse to file the PMA. If it is, the FDA will accept the application for filing and begin the review. The FDA has 180 days to review a filed PMA application, although the review of an application more often occurs over a significantly longer period of time. During this review period, the FDA may request additional information or clarification of information already provided, and the FDA may issue a major deficiency letter to the applicant, requesting the applicant’s response to deficiencies communicated by the FDA.

 

20

 

 

Before approving or denying a PMA, an FDA advisory committee may review the PMA at a public meeting and provide the FDA with the committee’s recommendation on whether the FDA should approve the submission, approve it with specific conditions, or not approve it. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

 

Prior to approval of a PMA, the FDA may conduct inspections of the clinical trial data and clinical trial sites, as well as inspections of the manufacturing facility and processes. Overall, the FDA review of a PMA application generally takes between one and three years, but may take significantly longer. The FDA can delay, limit or deny approval of a PMA application for many reasons, including:

 

the device may not be safe, effective, reliable or accurate to the FDA’s satisfaction;

 

the data from pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may be insufficient to support approval;

 

the manufacturing process or facilities may not meet applicable requirements; and

 

changes in FDA approval policies or adoption of new regulations may require additional data.

 

If an FDA evaluation of a PMA application is favorable, the FDA will either issue an approval letter, or approvable letter, which usually contains a number of conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the PMA. When and if those conditions have been fulfilled to the satisfaction of the FDA, the agency will issue a PMA approval letter authorizing commercial marketing of a device, subject to the conditions of approval and the limitations established in the approval letter. If the FDA’s evaluation of a PMA application or manufacturing facilities is not favorable, the FDA will deny approval of the PMA or issue a not approvable letter. The FDA also may determine that additional tests or clinical trials are necessary, in which case the PMA approval may be delayed for several months or years while the trials are conducted and data is submitted in an amendment to the PMA. The PMA process can be expensive, uncertain and lengthy and a number of devices for which FDA approval has been sought by other companies have never been approved by the FDA for marketing.

 

New PMA applications or PMA supplements may be required for modifications to the manufacturing process, labeling, device specifications, materials or design of a device that has been approved through the PMA process. PMA supplements often require submission of the same type of information as an initial PMA application, except that the supplement is limited to information needed to support any changes from the device covered by the approved PMA application and may or may not require as extensive technical or clinical data or the convening of an advisory panel.

 

Clinical Trials

 

Clinical trials are typically required to support a PMA application and are sometimes required for a 510(k) clearance. These trials generally require submission of an application for an IDE, to the FDA. The Investigational Device Exemption (“IDE”) application must be supported by appropriate data, such as animal and laboratory testing results, showing that it is safe to test the device in humans and that the testing protocol is scientifically sound. The IDE application must be approved in advance by the FDA for a specified number of patients, unless the product is deemed a non-significant risk device and eligible for abbreviated IDE requirements. Generally, clinical trials for a significant risk device may begin once the IDE application is approved by the FDA and the study protocol and informed consent are approved by appropriate institutional review boards at the clinical trial sites. The FDA’s approval of an IDE allows clinical testing to go forward, but it does not bind the FDA to accept the results of the trial as sufficient to prove the product’s safety and efficacy, even if the trial meets its intended success criteria. All clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with the FDA’s IDE regulations that govern investigational device labeling, prohibit promotion, and specify an array of recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring responsibilities of study sponsors and study investigators. Clinical trials must further comply with the FDA’s regulations for institutional review board approval and for informed consent and other human subject protections. Required records and reports are subject to inspection by the FDA. The results of clinical testing may be unfavorable or, even if the intended safety and efficacy success criteria are achieved, may not be considered sufficient for the FDA to grant approval or clearance of a product. Clinical trials must be entered into the clinical trials registry at clinicaltrials.gov.

 

21

 

 

The commencement or completion of any clinical trial may be delayed or halted, or be inadequate to support approval of a PMA application, for numerous reasons, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

the FDA or other regulatory authorities do not approve a clinical trial protocol or a clinical trial, or place a clinical trial on hold;

 

patients do not enroll in clinical trials at the rate expected;

 

patients, sponsor (NeuroOne) or study sites do not comply with trial protocols;

 

patient follow-up is not at the rate expected;

 

patients experience adverse side effects;

 

patients die during a clinical trial, even though their death may not be related to the products that are part of our trial;

 

institutional review boards and third-party clinical investigators may delay or reject the trial protocol;

 

third-party clinical investigators decline to participate in a trial or do not perform a trial on the anticipated schedule or consistent with the clinical trial protocol, good clinical practices or other FDA requirements;

 

the sponsor (NeuroOne) or third-party organizations do not perform data collection, monitoring and analysis in a timely or accurate manner or consistent with the clinical trial protocol or investigational or statistical plans;

 

third-party clinical investigators have significant financial interests related to the sponsor (NeuroOne) or the study that the FDA deems to make the study results unreliable, or the company or investigators fail to disclose such interests;

 

regulatory inspections of our clinical trials or manufacturing facilities, which may, among other things, require us to undertake corrective action or suspend or terminate our clinical trials;

 

changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions;

 

the interim or final results of the clinical trial are inconclusive or unfavorable as to safety or efficacy; and

 

the FDA concludes that our trial design is inadequate to demonstrate safety and efficacy.

 

International Regulation

 

International sales of medical devices are subject to local government regulations, which may vary substantially from country to country. The time required to obtain approval in another country may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval, and the requirements may differ. There is a trend towards harmonization of quality system standards among the European Union, United States, Canada and various other industrialized countries.

 

22

 

 

The primary regulatory body in Europe is that of the European Union, the European Commission, which includes most of the major countries in Europe. Other countries, such as Switzerland, have voluntarily adopted laws and regulations that mirror those of the European Union with respect to medical devices. The European Union has adopted numerous directives and standards regulating the design, manufacture, clinical trials, labeling and adverse event reporting for medical devices. Devices that comply with the requirements of these relevant directives will be entitled to bear the CE conformity marking, indicating that the device conforms to the essential requirements of the applicable directives and, accordingly, can be commercially distributed throughout Europe. The method of assessing conformity varies depending on the class of the product, but normally involves a combination of self-assessment by the manufacturer and a third party assessment by a “Notified Body.” This third-party assessment may consist of an audit of the manufacturer’s quality system and specific testing of the manufacturer’s product. An assessment by a Notified Body of one country within the European Union is required in order for a manufacturer to commercially distribute the product throughout the European Union. Additional local requirements may apply on a country-by-country basis. Outside of the European Union, regulatory approval would need to be sought on a country-by-country basis in order for us to market our products.

 

Medical devices in Europe are classified into four primary categories. They are as follows:

 

Non-invasive devices;

 

Invasive medical devices;

 

Active medical devices; and

 

Special Rules (including contraceptive, disinfectant, and radiological diagnostic medical devices).

 

Devices are further segmented into the classes noted below. In vitro diagnostic devices have their own classification scheme and while active implantable devices do not follow the same classification system as provided by the Medical Devices Directive, they are subject to similar requirements as Class III devices:

 

Class I – Provided non-sterile or do not have a measuring function (low risk);

 

Class I – Provided sterile and/or have a measuring function (low/medium risk);

 

Class IIa (medium risk);

 

Class IIb (medium/high risk); and

 

Class III (high risk).

 

After a review of our technology, an international regulatory consultant advised us that our strip, grid and depth electrode diagnostic technology is likely a Class III device (since it comes into contact with the central nervous system) which will require a lengthy approval process as a design dossier including clinical data will be required for approval.

 

23

 

 

Other Regulatory Requirements

 

Even after a device receives clearance or approval and is placed in commercial distribution, numerous regulatory requirements apply. These include:

 

establishment registration and device listing;

 

QSR, which requires manufacturers, including third party manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, risk management, production, control, supplier/contractor selection, complaint handling, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of the manufacturing process;

 

labeling regulations that prohibit the promotion of products for uncleared, unapproved or “off-label” uses, and impose other restrictions on labeling, advertising and promotion;

 

MDR regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction were to recur;

 

voluntary and mandatory device recalls to address problems when a device is defective and could be a risk to health; and

 

corrections and removals reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA field corrections and product recalls or removals if undertaken to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FDCA that may present a risk to health.

 

Also, the FDA may require us to conduct post-market surveillance studies or establish and maintain a system for tracking our products through the chain of distribution to the patient level. The FDA enforces regulatory requirements by conducting periodic, unannounced inspections and market surveillance. Inspections may include the manufacturing facilities of our subcontractors.

 

Failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements can result in enforcement actions by the FDA and other regulatory agencies. These may include any of the following sanctions or consequences:

 

warning letters or untitled letters that require corrective action;

 

fines and civil penalties;

 

unanticipated expenditures;

 

delays in approving or refusal to approve future products;

 

FDA refusal to issue certificates to foreign governments needed to export products for sale in other countries;

 

suspension or withdrawal of FDA clearance or approval;

 

product recall or seizure; interruption of production;

 

operating restrictions;

 

injunctions; and

 

criminal prosecution.

 

24

 

 

Our contract manufacturers, specification developers and some suppliers of components or device accessories, also are required to manufacture our products in compliance with current good manufacturing practice requirements set forth in the QSR. The QSR requires a quality system for the design, manufacture, packaging, labeling, storage, installation and servicing of marketed devices, and it includes extensive requirements with respect to quality management and organization, device design, buildings, equipment, purchase and handling of components or services, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, device evaluation, distribution, installation, complaint handling, servicing, and record keeping. The FDA evaluates compliance with the QSR through periodic unannounced inspections that may include the manufacturing facilities of our subcontractors. If the FDA believes that any of our contract manufacturers or regulated suppliers are not in compliance with these requirements, it can shut down such manufacturing operations, require recall of our products, refuse to approve new marketing applications, institute legal proceedings to detain or seize products, enjoin future violations or assess civil and criminal penalties against us or our officers or other employees.

 

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) and Similar Foreign and State Laws and Regulations Affecting the Transmission, Security and Privacy of Health Information

 

We may also be subject to data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, imposes specified requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Among other things, HITECH makes HIPAA’s security standards directly applicable to business associates, defined as service providers of covered entities that create, receive, maintain or transmit protected health information in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity. HITECH also created four new tiers of civil monetary penalties and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, many state laws govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from HIPAA and each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect.

 

Foreign data privacy regulations, such as the EU Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC), the country-specific regulations that implement Directive 95/46/EC, and the EU General Data Protection Regulation also govern the processing of personally identifiable data, and may be stricter than U.S. laws.

 

Fraud and Abuse Laws

 

In addition to FDA restrictions, there are numerous U.S. federal and state laws pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback laws and physician self-referral laws. Our relationships with healthcare providers and other third parties are subject to scrutiny under these laws. Violations of these laws are punishable by criminal and civil sanctions, including, in some instances, imprisonment and exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, including the Medicare, Medicaid and Veterans Administration health programs.

 

Federal Anti-Kickback and Self-Referral Laws

 

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute (the “Anti-Kickback Statute”) prohibits persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration (including any kickback, bribe or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, recommending, or arranging of a good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid or other federal healthcare programs. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value, including such items as gifts, discounts, the furnishing of supplies or equipment, credit arrangements, waiver of payments and providing anything at less than its fair market value. Although there are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Practices that involve remuneration that may be alleged to be intended to induce prescribing, purchases or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or safe harbor. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular applicable statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute. Instead, the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on a review of all its relevant facts and circumstances. Several courts have interpreted the statute’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals of (or purchases, or recommendations related to) federal healthcare covered business, the Anti-Kickback Statute has been implicated and potentially violated.

 

25

 

 

The penalties for violating the Anti-Kickback Statute include imprisonment for up to five years, fines of up to $25,000 per violation and possible exclusion from federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. Many states have adopted prohibitions similar to the Anti-Kickback Statute, some of which do not have the same exceptions and apply to the referral of patients for healthcare services reimbursed by any source, not only by the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Further, the Anti-Kickback Statute was amended by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“ACA”). Specifically, as noted above, under the Anti-Kickback Statute, the government must prove the defendant acted “knowingly” to prove a violation occurred. The ACA added a provision to clarify that with respect to violations of the Anti-Kickback Statute, “a person need not have actual knowledge” of the statute or specific intent to commit a violation of the statute. This change effectively overturns case law interpretations that set a higher standard under which prosecutors had to prove the specific intent to violate the law. In addition, the ACA codified case law that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act (the “False Claims Act”).

 

We plan to provide the initial training to providers and patients necessary for appropriate use of our technology either through our own educators or by contracting with outside educators that have completed an appropriate training course. Outside educators are reimbursed for their services at fair market value.

 

Noncompliance with the Anti-Kickback Statute could result in our exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid or other governmental programs, restrictions on our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions, and civil and criminal penalties.

 

The federal Physician Self-Referral Prohibition, commonly known as the “Stark Law,” prohibits a physician from ordering “designated health services,” including durable medical equipment, for Medicare and Medicaid patients from entities with which the physician (or an immediate family member) has a “financial relationship.” Financial relationships include both compensation arrangements and investment and ownership interests. Violation of the Stark Law could result in denial of payment, disgorgement of reimbursements received under a noncompliant arrangement, civil penalties, and exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid or other governmental programs. We believe that we have structured our provider arrangements to comply with current Stark Law requirements.

 

Nevertheless, a determination of liability under such laws could result in fines and penalties and restrictions on our ability to operate in these jurisdictions.

 

Additionally, as some of these laws are still evolving, we lack definitive guidance as to the application of certain key aspects of these laws as they relate to our arrangements with providers with respect to patient training. We cannot predict the final form that these regulations will take or the effect that the final regulations will have on us. As a result, our provider and training arrangements may ultimately be found to be not in compliance with applicable federal law.

 

False Claims Act

 

The False Claims Act provides, in part, that the federal government may bring a lawsuit against any person whom it believes has knowingly presented, or caused to be presented, a false or fraudulent request for payment from the federal government, or who has made a false statement or used a false record to get a claim approved. In addition, amendments in 1986 to the False Claims Act have made it easier for private parties to bring “qui tam” whistleblower lawsuits against companies under the False Claims Act. Penalties include fines ranging from $5,500 to $11,000 for each false claim, plus three times the amount of damages that the federal government sustained because of the act of that person. Qui tam actions have increased significantly in recent years, causing greater numbers of healthcare companies to have to defend a false claim action, pay fines or be excluded from Medicare, Medicaid or other federal or state healthcare programs as a result of an investigation arising out of such action.

 

There are other federal anti-fraud laws that prohibit, among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.

 

Additionally, HIPAA established two federal crimes related to making false statements in relation to healthcare matters. The healthcare fraud statute prohibits knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private payors. A violation of this statute is a felony and may result in fines, imprisonment or exclusion from government sponsored programs. The false statements statute prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. A violation of this statute is a felony and may result in fines or imprisonment.

 

26

 

 

Civil Monetary Penalties Law

 

In addition to the Anti-Kickback Statute and the False Claims Act, the federal government has the authority to seek civil monetary penalties, or CMPs, assessments, and exclusion against an individual or entity based on a wide variety of prohibited conduct. For example, the Civil Monetary Penalties Law authorizes the imposition of substantial CMPs against an entity that engages in activities including, but not limited to: (1) knowingly presenting or causing to be presented, a claim for services not provided as claimed or which is otherwise false or fraudulent in any way; (2) knowingly giving or causing to be given false or misleading information reasonably expected to influence the decision to discharge a patient; (3) offering or giving remuneration to any beneficiary of a federal health care program likely to influence the receipt of reimbursable items or services; (4) arranging for reimbursable services with an entity which is excluded from participation from a federal health care program; (5) knowingly or willfully soliciting or receiving remuneration for a referral of a federal health care program beneficiary; or (6) using a payment intended for a federal health care program beneficiary for another use. The government is authorized to seek different amounts of CMPs and assessments based on underlying violation. For false or fraudulent claims, the government may seek a penalty of up to $10,000 for each item or service improperly claimed, and an assessment of up to three times the amount improperly claimed. For kickback violations, the government may seek a penalty of up to $50,000 for each improper act and damages of up to three times the amount of remuneration at issue.

 

State Fraud and Abuse Provisions

 

Many states have also adopted some form of anti-kickback and anti-referral laws and a false claims act. We believe that we are in conformance to such laws. Nevertheless, a determination of liability under such laws could result in fines and penalties and restrictions on our ability to operate in these jurisdictions.

 

Physician Payment Sunshine Act

 

Transparency laws regarding payments or other items of value provided to healthcare providers and teaching hospitals may also impact our business practices. The federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act requires most medical device manufacturers to report annually to the Secretary of Human Health Services financial arrangements, payments, or other transfers of value made by that entity to physicians and teaching hospitals. The payment information is made publicly available in a searchable format on a CMS website. Over the next several years, we will need to dedicate significant resources to establish and maintain systems and processes in order to comply with these regulations. Failure to comply with the reporting requirements can result in significant civil monetary penalties. Similar laws have been enacted or are under consideration in foreign jurisdictions.

 

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”)

 

The FCPA prohibits U.S. corporations and their representatives from offering, promising, authorizing or making corrupt payments, gifts or transfers to any foreign government official, government staff member, political party or political candidate in an attempt to obtain or retain business abroad. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the United States to comply with accounting provisions requiring the company to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the corporation, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations. Activities that violate the FCPA, even if they occur wholly outside the United States, can result in criminal and civil fines, imprisonment, disgorgement, oversight, and debarment from government contracts.

 

Employees

 

As of September 30, 2020, we had four employees, all of whom are full-time, and all of whom are located in the United States, and we also retained the services of approximately 11 regular consultants. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our principal executive offices are located at c/o David Rosa, 7599 Anagram Drive, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344, and our telephone number is 952-426-1383. Our website address is www.N1MTC.com. Information on our website is not part of this Annual Report.

 

27

 

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

The risk factors summarized and detailed below could materially harm our business, operating results and/or financial condition, impair our future prospects and/or cause the price of our common stock to decline. These are not all of the risks we face and other factors not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also affect our business if they occur. Material risks that may affect our business, operating results and financial condition include, but are not necessarily limited to, those relating to:

 

we have incurred significant operating losses since inception and cannot assure you that we will ever achieve or sustain profitability;

 

our ability to continue our operations requires that we raise additional capital and our operations could be curtailed if we are unable to obtain the additional funding as or when needed;

 

the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted our business, including pre-clinical and clinical trials and regulatory approvals;

 

we will need to raise substantial additional funds in the future, and these funds may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. A failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, scale back or cease some or all operations;

 

medical device development involves a lengthy and expensive process, with an uncertain outcome. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of any product;

 

changes in the configuration of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development may result in additional costs or delay;

 

we have one product, our cortical strip and grid electrodes for the diagnosis of epilepsy, that has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA. If we are unable to successfully develop, receive regulatory approval for and commercialize our depth electrode technology and other products under development, or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be harmed;

 

we may fail to obtain regulatory approvals to market our products in the United States or in other countries;

 

failure to secure or retain coverage or adequate reimbursement for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or future versions thereof, including the implantation procedures, by third-party payors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results;

 

if our competitors are better able to develop and market products for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders that are safer, more effective, less costly, easier to use or otherwise more attractive than our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, our business will be adversely impacted;

 

the size and future growth in the market for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development has not been established with precision and may be smaller than we estimate, possibly materially;

 

we depend on intellectual property licensed from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (“WARF”) for our technology under development, and the termination of this license would harm our business;

 

28

 

 

we depend on our partnership with Mayo to license certain know how for the development and commercialization of our technology. Termination of this partnership would harm our business, and even if this partnership continues, it may not be successful;

 

even if we have our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology approved for commercial sale, if we are unable to expand our sales and marketing infrastructure, we may not be successful in commercializing our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology in the United States;

 

we contract with third parties for the manufacture of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development and expect to continue to do so for clinical trials and commercialization. Risks associated with the manufacturing of our products could reduce our gross margins and negatively affect our operating results;

 

if we or our third-party suppliers or manufacturers fail to comply with the FDA’s good manufacturing practice regulations, this could impair our ability to market our products in a cost-effective and timely manner;

 

potential complications from our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may come to light or may not be revealed by our clinical experience;

 

if there are significant disruptions in our information technology systems, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected;

 

we have entered into, and may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships with third-parties that may not result in the development of commercially viable products or the generation of significant future revenues;

 

our future success depends on our ability to retain key executives and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology is uncertain;

 

we may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we, or our employees, have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our competitors or are in breach of non-competition or non-solicitation agreements with our competitors;

 

our products and operations are subject to extensive governmental regulation, and failure to comply with applicable requirements could cause our business to suffer;

 

the price of our Common Stock might fluctuate significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment; and

 

we intend to issue more shares to raise capital, which will result in substantial dilution.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

We have incurred significant operating losses since inception and cannot assure you that we will ever achieve or sustain profitability.

 

We have incurred losses since inception, and as of September 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $30.9 million primarily as a result of expenses incurred in connection with our general and administrative expenses associated with our operations and from our research and development programs. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating costs resulting in net losses for the foreseeable future, and management has raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through debt and equity financings, and our primary activities have been limited to, and our limited resources have been dedicated to, performing business and financial planning, raising capital, recruiting personnel, negotiating with business partners and the licensors of our intellectual property and conducting development activities.

 

29

 

 

To implement our business strategy we need to, among other things, successfully complete the development, testing and all required steps for regulatory approval of our depth electrodes for sEEG recording in the U.S., develop and introduce a minimally invasive delivery system for our cortical electrodes, develop an all-in-one diagnostic and therapeutic solution, successfully complete the necessary testing and clinical trials required for regulatory approval of our technology for ablation and stimulation therapies, gain approval for other brain or motor related disorders such as Parkinson’s with the therapeutic technologies developed for epilepsy, convince physicians and patients that our technology, if approved, represents an improvement over existing diagnostic or treatment options, hire direct experienced sales representatives to market our technology, if approved, in the United States, evaluate international opportunities and initiate and successfully complete the approval processes in targeted geographies and engage in beneficial partnerships that can leverage our core technology. We have never been profitable and do not expect to be profitable in the foreseeable future. We expect our expenses to increase significantly as we pursue our objectives. The extent of our future operating losses and the timing of profitability are highly uncertain, and we expect to continue incurring significant expenses and operating losses over the next several years. Our prior losses have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. Any additional operating losses may have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity, and we cannot assure you that we will ever be able to achieve profitability. Even if we achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would depress the value of our Company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our development efforts, obtain regulatory approvals or continue our operations.

 

We have a limited operating history, making it difficult for you to evaluate our business and your investment.

 

We are an early-stage medical technology company developing comprehensive neuromodulation cEEG and sEEG monitoring, ablation, and brain stimulation solutions to diagnose and treat patients with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors, and other brain related disorders. Our cortical strip technology under development has only been used by Mayo in five patients for research purposes and has not been tested in any clinical trials. Our operations are subject to all of the risks inherent in the establishment of a new business enterprise, including but not limited to the absence of an operating history, lack of fully-developed or commercialized products, insufficient capital, expected substantial and continual losses for the foreseeable future, limited experience in dealing with regulatory issues, lack of manufacturing and marketing experience, need to rely on third parties for the development and commercialization of our proposed products, a competitive environment characterized by well-established and well-capitalized competitors and reliance on key personnel.

 

Since inception, we have not established any revenues or operations that will provide financial stability in the long term, and there can be no assurance that we will realize our plans on our projected timetable (or at all) in order to reach sustainable or profitable operations.

 

Investors are subject to all the risks incident to the creation and development of a new business and each investor should be prepared to withstand a complete loss of his, her or its investment. Furthermore, the accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern. We have not emerged from the development stage, and may be unable to raise further equity. These factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

Our Company has limited experience in medical device development and may not be able to successfully develop any device or therapy. Our ability to become profitable depends primarily on: our ability to develop our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, our successful completion of all necessary pre-clinical testing and clinical trials on such technology, our ability to obtain approval for such technology and, if approved, successfully commercialize such technology, our ongoing research and development efforts, the timing and cost of clinical trials, our ability to identify personnel with the necessary skill sets or enter into favorable alliances with third-parties who can provide substantial capabilities in clinical development, regulatory affairs, sales, marketing and distribution and our ability to obtain and maintain necessary intellectual property rights to such technology. Our limited experience in medical device development may make it more difficult for us to complete these tasks.

 

Even if we successfully develop and market such technology, we may not generate sufficient or sustainable revenue to achieve or sustain profitability, which could cause us to cease operations and cause you to lose all of your investment. Because we are subject to these risks, you may have a difficult time evaluating our business and your investment in our Company.

 

30

 

 

Our ability to continue our operations requires that we raise additional capital and our operations could be curtailed if we are unable to obtain the additional funding as or when needed.

 

Our fiscal year September 30, 2020 financial statements included management’s assessment of our ability to continue as a going concern, where we concluded there was substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our independent registered public accounting firm included an explanatory paragraph in its report on our financial statements as of and for the year ended September 30, 2020, noting the existence of substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

At September 30, 2020, we had $4.0 million in cash deposits. Our existing cash and cash equivalents will not be sufficient to fund our operating expenses. To continue to fund operations, we will need to secure additional funding. We may obtain additional financing in the future through the issuance of our Common Stock, through other equity or debt financings or through collaborations or partnerships with other companies. We may not be able to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted, and may continue to impact, our business, including pre-clinical and clinical trials and regulatory approvals.

 

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, COVID-19, surfaced in Wuhan, China. By March 2020, COVID-19 had spread to other countries, including the United States, and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Since the beginning of the pandemic, governments, public institutions, and other organizations in countries and localities where COVID-19 cases have been identified are taking certain preventative or protective measures to combat the transmission of the virus, including implementation of travel restrictions or bans, closures of non-essential businesses, limitations of public gatherings, other social distancing and shelter-in-place measures, and delays or cancellations of elective surgeries. The COVID-19 pandemic poses the risk that the Company, our employees, contractors, suppliers, and other partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time due to shutdowns that may be requested or mandated by state and federal governmental authorities.

 

As COVID-19 continues to spread around the globe, we have experienced, and will likely continue to experience, disruptions that could negatively or severely impact our business and planned clinical trials, including:

 

 delays or difficulties in conducting pre-clinical and clinical trials;

 

 

interruption in global manufacturing and shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials and materials, including testing equipment and personal protective equipment, used at our facilities; 

 

 

changes in local regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak which may require us to change the way in which clinical trials are conducted and may result in unexpected costs;

 

 

delay in the timing of interactions with the FDA due to absenteeism by federal employees or by the diversion of their efforts and attention to approval of other therapeutics or other activities related to COVID-19;

 

 impact our ability to secure additional financing, our ability to up-list from our current OTC Market (“OTCQB”); and

 

 further modifications to our debt agreements.

 

In addition, the outbreak of COVID-19 could disrupt our operations due to absenteeism by infected or ill members of management or other employees, or absenteeism by members of management and other employees who elect not to come to work due to the illness affecting others in our office or laboratory facilities, or due to quarantines. COVID-19 illness could also impact members of our Board and its ability to hold meetings.

 

31

 

 

We will need to raise substantial additional funds in the future, and these funds may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. A failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, scale back or cease some or all operations.

 

The continued growth of our business, including the development, regulatory approval and commercialization of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, will significantly increase our expenses going forward. As a result, we will be required to seek substantial additional funds in the future. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

the cost of developing our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology;

 

obtaining and maintaining regulatory clearance or approval for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology;

 

the costs associated with commercializing our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology;

 

any change in our development priorities;

 

the revenue generated by sales of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, if approved;

 

the costs associated with expanding our sales and marketing infrastructure for commercialization of our cortical strip grid electrode and depth electrode technology, if approved;

 

any change in our plans regarding the manner in which we choose to commercialize any approved product in the United States or internationally;

 

the cost of ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements;

 

expenses we incur in connection with potential litigation or governmental investigations;

 

expenses and costs we incur in connection with changes in the economy and regulatory process in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

the costs to develop additional intellectual property;

 

anticipated or unanticipated capital expenditures; and

 

unanticipated general and administrative expenses.

 

As a result of these and other factors, we do not know whether and the extent to which we may be required to raise additional capital. We may in the future seek additional capital from public or private offerings of our capital stock, borrowings under credit lines or other sources.

 

We may not be able to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Any failure to raise additional capital could compromise our ability to execute on our business plan, and we may be forced to liquidate our assets. In such a scenario, the values we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statements.

 

If we issue equity or debt securities to raise additional funds, our existing stockholders may experience dilution, and the new equity or debt securities may have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of our existing stockholders. In addition, if we raise additional funds through collaborations, licensing, joint ventures, strategic alliances, partnership arrangements or other similar arrangements, it may be necessary to relinquish valuable rights to our potential future products or proprietary technologies or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

 

32

 

 

Medical device development involves a lengthy and expensive process, with an uncertain outcome. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of any product.

 

Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development in the United States or elsewhere, we must complete all pre-clinical testing, clinical trials and other regulatory requirements necessitated by the FDA and foreign regulatory bodies and demonstrate the performance and safety of our technology. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is inherently uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. Further, the outcomes of completed clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Clinical data is often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their products performed satisfactorily in clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval. We have limited resources to complete the expensive process of medical device development, pre-clinical testing and clinical trials, putting us at a disadvantage, particularly compared to some of our larger and established competitors, and we may not have sufficient resources to commercialize our products under development in a timely fashion, if ever.

 

We may experience numerous unforeseen events during or as a result of clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our products, including:

 

regulators may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;

 

the failure to successfully complete pre-clinical testing requirements required by the FDA and international organizations;

 

we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts with third parties or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different trial sites;

 

clinical trials of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may produce negative or inconclusive results, including failure to demonstrate statistical significance, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon our development programs;

 

the number of people with brain related disorders required for clinical trials may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or people may drop out of these clinical trials or fail to return for post-treatment follow-up at a higher rate than we anticipate;

 

our products may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, causing us or our investigators, regulators or institutional review boards to suspend or terminate the trials;

 

our third-party contractors conducting the clinical trials may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;

 

regulators may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical development for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;

 

the cost of clinical trials of our products may be greater than we anticipate;

 

33

 

 

the supply or quality of our products or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our products may be insufficient or inadequate;

 

the COVID-19 pandemic may cause delays and disruptions in the supply chain, clinical trials, clinical development, and regulatory approval process; and

 

��delays from our suppliers and manufacturers could impact clinical trial completion and impact revenue.

 

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development beyond those that we contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not favorable or if there are safety concerns, we may:

 

not obtain marketing approval at all;

 

be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development in a jurisdiction;

 

be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or

 

have our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

 

Our development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or marketing approvals, including, but not limited to, the COVID-19 pandemic. We do not know whether any of our clinical trials will begin as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant clinical trial delays also could allow our competitors to bring innovative products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our products.

 

Changes in the configuration of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development may result in additional costs or delay.

 

As products are developed through pre-clinical testing and clinical trials towards approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods and configuration, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize processes and results. Any changes we make carry the risk that they will not achieve the intended objectives. Any of these changes could cause our products to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or other future clinical trials conducted with the altered device. Such changes may also require additional testing, regulatory notification or regulatory approval. This could delay completion of pre-clinical testing or clinical trials, increase costs, delay approval of our future products and jeopardize our ability to commence sales and generate revenue.

 

We have one product, our cortical strip and grid electrodes for the diagnosis of epilepsy, that has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA. If we are unable to successfully develop, receive regulatory approval for and commercialize our depth electrode technology and other products under development, or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be harmed.

  

Only our Evo cortical electrode technology has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA for recording, monitoring, and stimulating brain tissue for up to 30 days. None of our other products have received clearance or approval for commercial sale. We plan to seek regulatory approval of a second product in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Our ability to generate revenue from our developed products, if any, will depend heavily on their successful development, regulatory approval and eventual commercialization. The success of any products that we develop will depend on several factors, including:

 

34

 

 

FDA approval of our planned regulatory pathway (or approval of foreign regulatory body if we seek approval in any jurisdiction outside the United States);

 

successful completion of all necessary pre-clinical testing and clinical trials;

 

receipt of timely commercialization approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

 

our ability to procure and maintain suppliers and manufacturers of the components of our current cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and future versions;

 

launching commercial sales of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, if approved for marketing;

 

market acceptance of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, if approved, by people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders, the medical community and third-party payors;

 

our ability to obtain extensive coverage and reimbursement for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and implantation procedures;

 

our success in educating healthcare providers and people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders about the benefits, administration and use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and future versions;

 

the prevalence and severity of adverse events, including, but not limited to, events related to the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

the perceived advantages, cost, safety, convenience and accuracy of alternative therapies;

 

obtaining and maintaining patent, trademark and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and otherwise protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;

 

maintaining compliance with regulatory requirements, including current good manufacturing practices; and

 

obtaining and maintaining a continued acceptable performance and safety profile of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology following approval.

 

Whether regulatory approval will be granted is unpredictable and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. Our success in clinical trials will not guarantee regulatory approval. The FDA and, if we seek to commercialize in select international geographies, other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require that we conduct additional pre-clinical testing or clinical trials, provide additional data, take additional manufacturing steps, or require other conditions before they will grant us approval. If the FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities require additional clinical trials or data, we would incur increased costs and delays in the marketing approval process, which may require us to expend more resources than we have available. In addition, the FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not consider sufficient any additional required clinical trials, data or information that we perform and complete or generate.

 

35

 

 

In cases where we are successful in obtaining regulatory approval to market one or more of our products, our revenue will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval, the accepted price for the product, the ability to obtain coverage and reimbursement, and whether we own the commercial rights for that territory. If the number of people we target is not as significant as we estimate or the treatment population is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenue from sales of such products, even if approved.

 

Approval or clearance in the United States by the FDA or by a regulatory agency in another country does not guarantee approval by the regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or ensure approval for the same conditions of use. In addition, clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries. Approval processes vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and validation and additional administrative review periods. It is possible that no product we develop will ever obtain regulatory approval in the United States or any other jurisdiction, even if we expend substantial time and resources seeking such approval. If we do not achieve one or more of these approvals in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to fully commercialize any product and achieve profitability.

 

Both before and after a product is commercially released, we will have ongoing responsibilities under U.S. and foreign regulations. We will also be subject to periodic inspections by the FDA and comparable foreign authorities to determine compliance with regulatory requirements, such as the Quality System Regulation, or QSR, of the FDA, medical device reporting regulations, vigilance in reporting of adverse events and regulations regarding notification, corrections, and recalls. These inspections can result in observations or reports, warning letters or other similar notices or forms of enforcement action. If the FDA or any comparable foreign authority concludes that we are not in compliance with applicable laws or regulations, or that any of our products are ineffective or pose an unreasonable health risk, such authority could ban these products, suspend or cancel our marketing authorizations, impose “stop-sale” and “stop-import” orders, refuse to issue export certificates, detain or seize adulterated or misbranded products, order a recall, repair, replacement, correction or refund of such products, or require us to notify health providers and others that the products present unreasonable risks of substantial harm to the public health. Discovery of previously unknown problems with our product’s design or manufacture may result in restrictions on use, restrictions placed on us or our suppliers, or withdrawal of an existing regulatory clearance. The FDA or comparable foreign authorities may also impose operating restrictions, enjoin and restrain certain violations of applicable law pertaining to medical devices, assess civil or criminal penalties against our officers, employees or us, or recommend criminal prosecution of our Company. Adverse regulatory action may restrict us from effectively marketing and selling our products. In addition, negative publicity and product liability claims resulting from any adverse regulatory action could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

In addition, even if we obtain the proper regulatory approval or clearance to market a product, the FDA has the power to require us to conduct post-market surveillance studies, which are designed to identify adverse events, device malfunctions or complaints from patients implanted with the device during a specified period after the commencement of commercial use in the U.S. The FDA may also require us to conduct post-approval studies to further monitor the safety and/or effectiveness of our products. Failure to conduct required surveillance or studies in a timely manner could result in the revocation of the 510(k) clearance for the product that is subject to such a requirement and could also result in the recall or withdrawal of the product, which would prevent us from generating sales from that product in the United States.

 

Foreign governmental regulations have become increasingly stringent and more extensive, and we may become subject to even more rigorous regulation by foreign governmental authorities in the future. Penalties for a company’s noncompliance with foreign governmental regulation could be severe, including revocation or suspension of a company’s business license and civil or criminal sanctions. In some jurisdictions, such as Germany, a violation of law related to medical devices may also be considered to be a violation of unfair competition law. In such cases, governmental authorities, our competitors and business or consumer associations may file lawsuits to prohibit us from commercializing a product in such jurisdictions. Our competitors may also sue us for damages. Any domestic or foreign governmental law or regulation imposed in the future may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

Depending on the cost and market opportunity, we may never seek approval to commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology in the European Union. We anticipate the cost to seek approval to commercialize in the European Union will be significantly greater than the cost to seek approval to commercialize in the United States. This is because we believe commercial approval by the corresponding Notified Body in the European Union and the European Economic Area, or EEA, even for diagnostic purposes, will require human clinical trials, which we do not believe will be required for regulatory approval by the FDA in the United States in order to seek approval of the use of our technology for diagnostic purposes.

 

36

 

 

Our success depends on our ability to continue to develop, commercialize and gain market acceptance for our product under development, our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology.

 

Our current business strategy is highly dependent on developing and commercially launching one product, our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, and achieving and maintaining market acceptance. In order for us to sell cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology to people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders, we must convince them, their caregivers and healthcare providers that cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology is an attractive alternative to competitive products for neuromodulation cEEG and sEEG recording, ablation, and brain stimulation. Market acceptance and adoption of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology depends on educating people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders, as well as their caregivers and healthcare providers, and other perceived benefits of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology as compared to competitive products. We may face challenges convincing physicians, many of whom have extensive experience with competitors’ products and established relationships with other companies, to appreciate the benefits of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and, in particular, its ability to successfully diagnose and treat epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and other brain related disorders in a way that is superior to and differentiated from currently available technology, and adopt it for treatment of their patients.

 

Achieving and maintaining market acceptance of cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology could be negatively impacted by many factors, including:

 

the failure of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology to achieve wide acceptance among people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders, their caregivers, healthcare providers, third-party payors and key opinion leaders in the community;

 

lack of evidence supporting the performance criteria or other perceived benefits of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology over competitive products or other currently available technology;

 

perceived risks associated with the use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or similar products or technologies generally;

 

the introduction of competitive products and the rate of acceptance of those products as compared to our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology;

 

adverse results of clinical trials relating to our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or similar competitive products; and

 

loss of regulatory approval for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, adverse publicity or other adverse events including any product liability lawsuits.

 

In addition, our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may be perceived by people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders, their caregivers or healthcare providers to be more complicated or less effective than current technology, and people may be unwilling to change their current regimens.

 

Moreover, we believe that healthcare providers tend to be slow to change their medical treatment practices because of perceived liability risks arising from the use of new products and the uncertainty of third-party reimbursement. Accordingly, healthcare providers may not recommend our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology until, if ever, there is sufficient evidence to convince them to alter the treatment methods they typically recommend, such as receiving recommendations from prominent healthcare providers or other key opinion leaders in the community.

 

If we are not successful in convincing people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders of the benefits of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, or if we are unable to achieve the support of caregivers and healthcare providers or widespread market acceptance for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, then our sales potential, strategic objectives and profitability could be negatively impacted, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

37

 

 

We may fail to obtain regulatory approvals to market our products in the United States or in other countries.

 

Before we can market or sell a new regulated product in the United States, we must obtain either clearance under Section 510(k) of the FDCA or approval of a PMA application from the FDA, unless an exemption from pre-market review applies. In the 510(k) clearance process, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is “substantially equivalent” to a device legally on the market, known as a “predicate” device, with respect to intended use, technology and safety and effectiveness, in order to clear the proposed device for marketing. Clinical data is sometimes required to support substantial equivalence. The PMA pathway requires an applicant to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the device based, in part, on extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, preclinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data. The PMA process is typically required for devices that are deemed to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices. Both the 510(k) and PMA processes can be expensive and lengthy and require the payment of significant fees, unless exempt. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to 12 months, but may last longer. The process of obtaining a PMA is much more costly and uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process and generally takes from one to three years, or even longer, from the time the application is submitted to the FDA until an approval is obtained. The process of obtaining regulatory clearances or approvals to market a medical device can be costly and time-consuming, and we may not be able to obtain these clearances or approvals on a timely basis, if at all.

 

Even if we obtain clearance or approval by the FDA, said clearance or approval by the FDA does not ensure approval or certification by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval or certification by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval or certification by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. The foreign regulatory approval or certification process may include all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA clearance or approval. We may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all. We may not be able to file for regulatory approvals or certifications and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market. If we fail to receive necessary approvals or certifications to commercialize our products in foreign jurisdictions on a timely basis, or at all, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

Failure to secure or retain coverage or adequate reimbursement for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or future versions thereof, including the implantation procedures, by third-party payors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

We plan to derive nearly all of our revenue from sales of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development, if approved, in the United States and potentially select international geographies and expect to do so for the next several years. We anticipate a substantial portion of the purchase price of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology will be paid for by third-party payors, including private insurance companies, preferred provider organizations and other managed care providers. Patients who receive treatment for their medical conditions and their healthcare providers generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their medical treatment, including healthcare providers’ services. Coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, including governmental healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and commercial payors, is critical to new product acceptance. Future sales of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology will be limited unless people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders can rely on third-party payors to pay for all or part of the cost to purchase our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. Access to adequate coverage and reimbursement for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology by third-party payors is essential to the acceptance of our products by people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders.

 

In the United States, a third-party payor’s decision to provide coverage for our products does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be obtained. Further, one third-party payor’s decision to cover our products does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the products or will provide coverage at an adequate reimbursement rate. Healthcare providers may choose not to order a product unless third-party payors pay a substantial portion of the product. Within and outside the United States, reimbursement is obtained from a variety of sources, including government-sponsored and private health insurance plans. These third-party payors determine whether to provide coverage and reimbursement for specific products and procedures. Coverage determinations and reimbursement levels of both our products and the healthcare provider’s performance of the insertion and removal procedures are critical to the commercial success of our product, and if we are not able to secure positive coverage determinations and reimbursement levels for our products or the insertion and removal procedures, our business would be materially adversely affected.

 

38

 

 

In addition, there may be significant delays in obtaining reimbursement, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the product is cleared by the FDA or other foreign regulatory authorities. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any product will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Payment rates may vary according to the use of the product and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on payments allowed for lower cost products that are already reimbursed, and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for products may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or third-party payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of products from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States.

 

Because there is generally no separate reimbursement for medical devices and other supplies used in such procedures, including our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, and because we believe that our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, if approved, would be adequately described by existing DRG and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy surgery, some of our target customers may be unwilling to adopt our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology over more established or lower cost therapeutic alternatives already available or subsequently become available. Further, any decline in the amount payors are willing to reimburse our customers for procedures using our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology could make it difficult for new customers to adopt our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and could create additional pricing pressure for us, which could adversely affect our ability to invest in and grow our business.

 

Third-party payors, whether foreign or domestic, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In addition, in the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for medical device products and services exists among third-party payors. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for medical device products and services can differ significantly from payor to payor. In addition, payors continually review new technologies for possible coverage and can, without notice, deny coverage for these new products and procedures. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained, or maintained if obtained.

 

Reimbursement systems in international markets vary significantly by country and by region within some countries, and reimbursement approvals must be obtained on a country-by-country basis. In many international markets, a product must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. Further, many international markets have government-managed healthcare systems that control reimbursement for new devices and procedures. In most markets there are private insurance systems as well as government-managed systems. If sufficient coverage and reimbursement is not available for our any product we develop, in either the United States or internationally, the demand for our products and our revenues will be adversely affected.

 

Reimbursement by Medicare is highly regulated and subject to change.

 

The Medicare program is administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, which imposes extensive and detailed requirements on medical services providers, including, but not limited to, rules that govern how we structure our relationships with physicians, and how and where we provide our solutions. Our failure to comply with applicable Medicare rules could result in discontinuing the ability for physicians to receive reimbursement as they will likely utilize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under the Medicare payment program, civil monetary penalties, and/or criminal penalties, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and revenues.

 

39

 

 

The impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act remains uncertain.

 

In 2010, significant reforms to the health care system were adopted as law in the United States. The law includes provisions that, among other things, reduce or limit Medicare reimbursement, require all individuals to have health insurance (with limited exceptions) and impose increased taxes. These factors, in turn, could result in reduced demand for our products, if approved, and increased downward pricing pressure. Because other parts of the 2010 health care law remain subject to implementation, the long-term impact on us is uncertain. The new law or any future legislation could reduce medical procedure volumes, lower reimbursement for our products, and impact the demand for our products or the prices at which we sell our products.

 

In addition, some of the provisions of the ACA have yet to be implemented, and there have been legal and political challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. Since January 2017, President Trump has signed executive orders and other directives designed to delay, circumvent, or loosen certain requirements mandated by the ACA. Concurrently, Congress has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the ACA. While Congress has not passed repeal legislation, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (H.R. 1) (the “Tax Act”) includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate.” Congress may consider other legislation to repeal or replace elements of the ACA. We continue to evaluate the effect that the ACA and its possible repeal and replacement has on our business but expect that the ACA, as currently enacted or as it may be amended in the future, and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future could have a material adverse effect on our industry generally and on our ability to successfully commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, if approved. In addition to the ACA, there will continue to be proposals by legislators at both the federal and state levels, regulators and third party payors to keep healthcare costs down while expanding individual healthcare benefits.

 

Accordingly, while it is too early to understand and predict the ultimate impact of the ACA on our business, the legislation and resulting regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

 

If our competitors are better able to develop and market products for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders that are safer, more effective, less costly, easier to use or otherwise more attractive than our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, our business will be adversely impacted.

 

The medical device industry is highly competitive and subject to technological change. Our success depends, in part, upon our ability to establish a competitive position in the market for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders by securing broad market acceptance of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development. Any product we develop that achieves regulatory clearance or approval will have to compete for market acceptance and market share. If developed as anticipated, we believe that the primary competitive factors of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development will be: reduced infections, ability to record additional brain activity, minimally invasive surgical procedure, ease of use and cost effectiveness. We face significant competition in the United States and internationally, which we believe will intensify. For example, our major competitors (i) in the market for diagnosis are PMT, Ad-Tec Medical and Integra Lifesciences, (ii) in the market for neuro-ablation are Medtronic and Monteris Medical and (iii) in the market for neurostimulation are Medtronic, Boston Scientific, NeuroPace Biotronik and Abbott. Each of the foregoing competitors has systems approved in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions and has been established for several years. We face a particular challenge overcoming the long-standing practices by some physicians of using the existing technology of our larger, more established competitors. Physicians may be reluctant to try new products from a source with which they are less familiar. If these physicians do not try to subsequently adopt our product, then we may never achieve profitability and such failure to adopt our product could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

40

 

 

Additionally, the Mayo Clinic is conducting testing of its own minimally invasive cortical electrode delivery device. In the event the Mayo Clinic completes development of its own device prior to us, we may forego completing development of our device and we may be unable to enter into any arrangement with Mayo Clinic relating to its device. If we are unable to pursue the development of a minimally invasive cortical electrode device, this may delay our ability to become profitable and we could be forced to terminate our operations.

 

In addition to facing competition from major competitors and potentially our development partner, we may also face competition from other emerging competitors or smaller companies with active development programs that may emerge in the future.

 

Many of the companies developing or marketing competing products enjoy several advantages over us, including:

 

more experienced sales forces;

 

greater name recognition;

 

more established sales and marketing programs and distribution networks;

 

earlier regulatory approval in the United States or foreign jurisdictions;

 

long established relationships with physicians and hospitals;

 

significant patent portfolios, including issued U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications, as well as the resources to enforce patents against us or any of our third-party suppliers and distributors;

 

the ability to acquire and integrate our competitors and/or their technology;

 

demonstrated ability to develop product enhancements and new product offerings;

 

established history of product reliability, safety and durability;

 

the ability to offer rebates or bundle multiple product offerings to offer greater discounts or incentives;

 

greater financial and human resources for product development, sales, and marketing; and

 

greater experience in and resources for conducting research and development, clinical studies, manufacturing, preparing regulatory submissions, obtaining regulatory clearance or approval for products and marketing approved products.

 

Our competitors may develop and patent processes or products earlier than us, obtain patents that may apply to us at any time, obtain regulatory clearance or approvals for competing products more rapidly than us or develop more effective or less expensive products or technologies that render our technology or products obsolete or less competitive. Furthermore, the frequent introduction by competitors of products that are, or claim to be, superior to our products may create market confusion that may make it difficult to differentiate the benefits of our products over competitive products. In addition, the entry of multiple new products may lead some of our competitors to employ pricing strategies that could adversely affect the pricing of any product we may develop and commercialize. We also face fierce competition in recruiting and retaining qualified sales, scientific, and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and enrolling patients in clinical studies. If our competitors are more successful than us in these matters, our business may be harmed.

 

41

 

 

The size and future growth in the market for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development has not been established with precision and may be smaller than we estimate, possibly materially. If our estimates and projections overestimate the size of this market, our sales growth may be adversely affected.

 

Our estimates of the size and future growth in the market for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development, including the number of people with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders who may benefit from and be amenable to using cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology for diagnosis and treatment, is based on a number of internal and third-party studies, reports and estimates. In addition, our internal estimates are based in large part on current treatment patterns by healthcare providers using current generation technology and our belief is that the incidence of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors and other brain related disorders in the United States and worldwide is increasing. While we believe these factors have historically provided and may continue to provide us with effective tools in estimating the total market for cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, these estimates may not be correct and the conditions supporting our estimates may change at any time, thereby reducing the predictive accuracy of these underlying factors. The actual incidence of brain related disorders, and the actual demand for our products or competitive products, could differ materially from our projections if our assumptions are incorrect. As a result, our estimates of the size and future growth in the market for cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may prove to be incorrect. If the actual number of people with brain related disorders who would benefit from cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and the size and future growth in the market for cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology is smaller than we have estimated, it may impair our projected sales growth and have an adverse impact on our business.

 

We depend on intellectual property licensed from Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (“WARF”) for our technology under development, and the termination of this license would harm our business.

 

WARF has granted us the WARF License, to make, use and sell, in the United States only, products that employ certain licensed patents for a neural probe array or thin-film micro electrode array and method. See “Business — WARF License” for additional information regarding our license agreement with WARF.

 

We have agreed to diligently develop, manufacture, market and sell products under the WARF License in the United States during the term of the agreement and, specifically, that we would submit a business plan to WARF by February 1, 2018, which we submitted on January 18, 2018 and file an application for 510(k) marketing clearance with the FDA by February 1, 2019, which we filed on January 28, 2019. WARF may terminate this license in the event that we fail to meet these milestones on 30 days’ written notice, if we default on the payments of amounts due to WARF or fail to timely submit development reports, actively pursue our development plan or breach any other covenant in the WARF License and fail to remedy such default in 90 days or in the event of certain bankruptcy events involving us. WARF may also terminate this license (i) on 90 days’ notice if we fail to have commercial sales of one or more FDA-approved products under the WARF License by June 30, 2021 or (ii) if, after royalties earned on sales begin to be paid, such earned royalties cease for more than four calendar quarters. The WARF License otherwise expires by its terms on the date that no valid claims on the patents licensed thereunder remain. The first commercial sale occurred on December 7, 2020, prior to the June 30, 2021 deadline.

 

Disputes may arise between us and WARF regarding intellectual property subject to this agreement, including with respect to: the scope of rights granted under the WARF License and other interpretation-related issues; whether and the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of WARF that is not subject to the WARF License; the amount and timing of milestones and royalty payments; the rights of WARF under the license; our right to sublicense; and the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the WARF License. For example, if we or any of our sublicenses for any reason contest the validity of any patent licensed under the WARF License, the royalty rate will be doubled during the pendency of such contest and, if the contested patent is found to be valid and would be infringed by us if not for the WARF License, the royalty rate will be tripled for the remaining term of the WARF License.

��

Any disputes with WARF may prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangement. We depend on the intellectual property licensed from WARF to develop our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. We cannot assure you that we will be able to meet the milestones or commercialize a product under the WARF License by the dates required. In fact, the original license agreement entered into with WARF in 2014 required that we meet certain earlier milestones than set forth above and make certain payments to WARF. We failed to do so and were in default under the original license agreement. Furthermore, the LLC was not able to transfer the rights and obligations under the 2014 WARF Agreement to us at the time of the Merger without the consent of WARF. As a result, in February 2017, we signed an amendment to the WARF License which, among other things, modified and removed certain previous milestones and provided WARF’s consent to such transfer. Because of this past breach, WARF may be less likely to waive future defaults or breaches or further amend the WARF License in the future, to the extent we request any waiver or amendment. See “Note 4—Commitments and Contingencies” to the financial statements included in this report.

 

42

 

 

Termination of our license could result in the loss of significant rights and would harm our ability to further develop our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. In addition, WARF reserves the right to grant non-profit research institutions and government agencies non-exclusive licenses to practice and use the inventions of the licensed patents for non-commercial research purposes, and we grant WARF a non-exclusive, sub licensable, royalty-free right and license for non-commercial research purposes to use improvements to the licensed patents. In the event that we discontinue use or commercialization of the licensed patents or improvements thereon, we must grant WARF an option to obtain a non-exclusive, sub-licensable royalty-bearing license to use the improvements for commercial purposes. Such rights, if exercised by WARF, could harm our ability to develop and commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology.

 

We depend on our partnership with Mayo to license certain know how for the development and commercialization of our technology. Termination of this partnership would harm our business, and even if this partnership continues, it may not be successful.

 

We have entered into the Mayo Development Agreement to (i) exclusively license worldwide certain Mayo improvements for the development and commercialization of products, methods and processes related to flexible circuit technology for the recording and stimulation of tissue and (ii) license, on a non-exclusive basis, worldwide Mayo thin film electrode technology know-how for the development and commercialization of products, methods and processes related to flexible circuit technology for the recording and stimulation of tissue. Mayo has agreed to assist the Company by providing access to the Mayo Principal Investigators in developing a minimally invasive device/delivery system and procedure for a minimally invasive approach for the implantation of any flexible circuit technology developed by the Company, including prototype development, animal testing, protocol development for human and animal use, abstract development and presentation and access to and license of any intellectual property that the Mayo Principal Investigators develop relating to the procedure. See “Business—Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research License and Development Agreement” for additional information regarding our agreement with Mayo.

 

The Mayo Development Agreement generally will expire in October 2034, unless the Mayo know-how and improvements under the Mayo Development Agreement remain in use, and the Mayo Development Agreement may be terminated by Mayo for cause or under certain circumstances. Mayo and the Company may not be successful in their efforts to develop any product, method, process, device, delivery system or minimally invasive approach by such expiration date or termination, if at all. If no such minimally invasive device or delivery system and procedure for minimally invasive approach is developed, the Company may never receive regulatory approval of its cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development or the market may never accept such technology, if approved.

 

Disputes may arise between us and Mayo regarding intellectual property subject to the Mayo Development Agreement or other matters, including with respect to: the scope of rights granted under the agreement and other interpretation-related issues; the amount and timing of payments; the rights and obligations of Mayo under the license agreement; and the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by Mayo and us.

 

Any disputes with Mayo may prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current arrangement. We depend on the intellectual property licensed from and development assistance from Mayo to develop our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. We cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to comply with the Mayo Development Agreement. In fact, the original license and development agreement entered into with Mayo in 2014 required that, upon the Merger with the LLC, we make certain payments and issue shares of common stock to Mayo, which we failed to do at such time. We signed the Mayo Development Agreement in May 2017, which, among other things, modified or removed certain provisions of the original agreement, including those we breached. In addition, pursuant to the Mayo Development Agreement signed in May 2017, we agreed to pay Mayo a cash payment of approximately $92,000 on the earlier of September 30, 2017 or the date we raise a minimum amount of financing. We did not make this payment by September 30, 2017 and breached this provision of the Mayo Development Agreement. Mayo granted us an extension of this deadline to December 31, 2017, and we made this payment within such extended deadline. Because of our past breach, Mayo may be less likely to waive future defaults or breaches or further amend the Mayo Development Agreement in the future, to the extent we request any waiver or amendment. Termination of the Mayo Development Agreement could result in the loss of significant rights and would harm our ability to further develop our technology.

 

43

 

 

Even if we have our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology approved for commercial sale, if we are unable to expand our sales and marketing infrastructure, we may not be successful in commercializing our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology in the United States.

 

We are an early stage development company with limited resources. Even if we had products available for sale, which we currently do not, we have not secured sufficient sales and marketing staff at this early stage of operations to sell products. To achieve commercial success in the United States for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, we will need to expand our sales and marketing infrastructure to drive adoption of our products, which will include a team of educators that will train healthcare providers and people with brain related disorders on the benefits and use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. There is significant competition for sales personnel experienced in relevant medical device sales. We expect that we will face significant challenges as we recruit and subsequently grow our sales and marketing infrastructure. If we are unable to attract and retain sufficient, and skilled, sales and marketing representatives, our sales could be adversely affected. If one of our sales or marketing representatives were to depart and be retained by one of our competitors, they could help competitors solicit business from customers, which could further harm our sales. In addition, if our sales and marketing representatives or educators fail to achieve their objectives or if we are not able to recruit and retain a network of educators, we may not be able to successfully train healthcare providers on the use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, which could delay new sales and harm our reputation.

 

As we increase our sales and marketing expenditures with respect to our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development, if approved, or future versions thereof, we will need to hire, train, retain and motivate skilled sales and marketing representatives with significant industry-specific knowledge in various areas. Our success will depend largely on the competitive landscape for our products and the ability of our sales personnel to obtain access to healthcare providers and persuade those healthcare providers to recommend our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. Recently hired sales representatives require training and take time to achieve full productivity. If we fail to train new hires adequately, or if we experience high turnover in our sales force in the future, we cannot be certain that new hires will become as productive as may be necessary to maintain or increase our sales. In addition, the expansion of our sales and marketing personnel will place significant burdens on our management team.

 

If approved for sale, we anticipate that we will derive nearly all of our U.S. revenue from the sales of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or future versions thereof. As a result, our financial condition and operating results will be highly dependent on the ability of our sales representatives to adequately promote, market and sell our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and the ability of our educators to train healthcare providers on the use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. If we are unable to expand our sales and marketing capabilities, we may not be able to effectively commercialize our existing or planned products, or enhance the strength of our brand, either of which could impair our projected sales growth and have an adverse impact on our business.

 

We will depend on a limited number of third-party suppliers for the components of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development and the loss of any of these suppliers, or their inability to provide us with an adequate supply of materials, could harm our business.

 

We will rely on third-party suppliers to supply and manufacture the components of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. For our business strategy to be successful, our suppliers must be able to provide us with components in sufficient quantities, in compliance with regulatory requirements and quality control standards, in accordance with agreed upon specifications, at acceptable costs and on a timely basis. Future increases in sales of our cortical strip and sheet electrode technology, if approved, whether expected or unanticipated, could strain the ability of our suppliers to deliver an increasingly large supply of components and our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology in a manner that meets these various requirements.

 

44

 

 

We will likely use a small number of suppliers of components for our products. Depending on a limited number of suppliers exposes us to risks, including limited control over pricing, availability, quality and delivery schedules. We may not have long-term supply agreements with our suppliers and, in many cases, we may make our purchases on a purchase order basis. Our ability to purchase adequate quantities of components or our products may be limited and we may not be able to convince suppliers to make components and products available to us. Additionally, our suppliers may encounter problems that limit their ability to supply components or manufacture products for us, including financial difficulties, damage to their manufacturing equipment or facilities, product discontinuations, or complications arising in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, there is a risk that certain components could be discontinued and no longer available to us. We may be required to make significant “last time” purchases of component inventory that is being discontinued by the supplier to ensure supply continuity. If we fail to obtain sufficient quantities of high quality components to meet demand for our products in a timely manner or on terms acceptable to us, we would have to seek alternative sources of supply. Because of factors such as the proprietary nature of our products, our quality control standards and regulatory requirements, we may not be able to quickly engage additional or replacement suppliers for some of our critical components. Failure of any supplier to deliver components at the level our business requires could disrupt the manufacturing of our products and, if approved, limit our ability to meet our sales commitments, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business.

 

Furthermore, vandalism, terrorism or a natural or other disaster, such as an earthquake, fire or flood, could damage or destroy equipment or our inventory of component supplies or finished products, cause substantial delays in development or our operations, result in the loss of key information, and cause us to incur additional expenses. We do not currently have insurance to cover such losses or expenses and, once we obtain such insurance, it may not cover our losses in any particular case. In addition, regardless of the level of insurance coverage, damage to our or our suppliers’ facilities could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

We may also have difficulty obtaining similar components from other suppliers that are acceptable to the FDA or other regulatory agencies, and the failure of any supplier to comply with strictly enforced regulatory requirements could expose us to regulatory action including warning letters, product recalls, and termination of distribution, product seizures or civil penalties. It could also require us to cease using the components, seek alternative components or technologies and modify our products to incorporate alternative components or technologies, which could result in a requirement to seek additional regulatory approvals. Any disruption of this nature or increased expenses could harm our development, approval or commercialization efforts and adversely affect our operating results.

 

We contract with third parties for the manufacture of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development and expect to continue to do so for clinical trials and commercialization. Risks associated with the manufacturing of our products could reduce our gross margins and negatively affect our operating results.

 

We currently rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology during development, for clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacture if our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology receives regulatory approval. Therefore, our business strategy depends on our third-party manufacturers’ ability to manufacture our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and future generations thereof in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis so as to meet consumer demand, while adhering to product quality standards, complying with regulatory requirements and managing manufacturing costs. To date, we have only had an initial supply of our product manufactured. As a result, we currently have limited data and experience regarding the quality, reliability and timeliness of our third-party manufacturers.

 

45

 

 

We are subject to numerous risks relating to the manufacturing capabilities of our third-party manufacturers, including:

 

quality or reliability defects;

 

inability to secure product components in a timely manner, in sufficient quantities or on commercially reasonable terms;

 

failure to increase production to meet demand;

 

inability to modify production lines to enable us to efficiently produce future products or implement changes in current products in response to regulatory requirements;

 

difficulty identifying and qualifying alternative manufacturers in a timely manner;

 

inability to manufacture product components cost-effectively;

 

inability to establish agreements with future third-party manufacturers or to do so on acceptable terms; or

 

potential damage to or destruction of our manufacturers’ equipment or facilities.

 

These risks are likely to be exacerbated by our limited experience with our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and its manufacturing process. As demand for our products increases, our third-party suppliers will need to invest additional resources to purchase components, hire and train employees, and enhance their manufacturing processes. If our manufacturers fail to increase production capacity efficiently, our sales may not increase in line with our expectations and our operating margins could fluctuate or decline. In addition, manufacturing any future versions of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may require the modification of production lines, the identification of new manufacturers for specific components, or the development of new manufacturing technologies. It may not be possible for us to manufacture these products at a cost or in quantities sufficient to make any future versions of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology commercially viable.

 

If we or our third-party suppliers or manufacturers fail to comply with the FDA’s good manufacturing practice regulations, this could impair our ability to market our products in a cost-effective and timely manner.

 

We and our third-party suppliers are required to comply with the FDA’s QSR, which covers the methods and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage and shipping of our products. The FDA audits compliance with the QSR through periodic announced and unannounced inspections of manufacturing and other facilities. The FDA may impose inspections or audits at any time. If we or our suppliers or manufacturers have significant non-compliance issues or if any corrective action plan that we or our suppliers propose in response to observed deficiencies is not sufficient, the FDA could take enforcement action against us. Any of the foregoing actions could impair our reputation, business, financial condition and operating results.

 

Various factors outside our direct control may adversely affect manufacturing, sterilization and distribution of our products.

 

The manufacture, sterilization and distribution of our products is challenging. Changes that our suppliers may make outside the purview of our direct control can have an impact on our processes, quality of our products and the successful delivery of products to our customers. Necessary materials for our product under development may not be available from our third-party suppliers in a timely fashion or at all. Mistakes and mishandling are not uncommon and can affect supply and delivery. Some of these risks include:

 

failure to complete sterilization on time or in compliance with the required regulatory standards;

 

transportation and import and export risk;

 

46

 

 

delays in analytical results or failure of analytical techniques that we will depend on for quality control and release of products;

 

natural disasters, labor disputes, financial distress, raw material availability, issues with facilities and equipment or other forms of disruption to business operations affecting our manufacturers or suppliers; and

 

latent defects that may become apparent after products have been released and that may result in a recall of such products.

 

If any of these risks were to materialize, our ability to develop products, conduct clinical trials or provide our products to customers on a timely basis, if approved, would be adversely impacted.

 

Potential complications from our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may come to light or may not be revealed by our clinical experience.

 

Based on our industry experience and the experience of the physicians that use products similar to our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, complications from use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may include post-operative hemorrhage, infection, brain inflammation, brain tissue necrosis, inability to accurately localize the epileptogenic focus (the area of the cerebral cortex responsible for causing epileptic seizures), neurologic deficit (abnormal function of a body area due to weaker function of the brain, spinal cord, muscles or nerves, such as abnormal reflexes, inability to speak and decreased sensation) and extra axial fluid collections (fluid that occurs in the brain after surgery). If these or unanticipated complications or side-effects result from the use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, our product development may be delayed, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for any product, we could be subject to liability and, even if approved, our technology would not be widely adopted. Additionally, we have no clinical experience with use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. We cannot assure you that use, even for a limited time, would not result in unanticipated complications, even after the device is removed.

 

Undetected errors or defects in our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development or future versions thereof could harm our reputation, decrease the market acceptance of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or expose us to product liability claims.

 

Our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may contain undetected errors or defects. Disruptions or other performance problems with our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may delay development, prevent regulatory approval or harm our reputation. If that occurs, we may incur significant costs, the attention of our key personnel could be diverted or other significant customer relations problems may arise. We may also be subject to warranty and liability claims for damages related to errors or defects in our cortical strip and sheet electrode technology or future versions thereof. A material liability claim or other occurrence that harms our reputation or decreases market acceptance of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology could harm our business and operating results. This risk exists even if a device is cleared or approved for commercial sale and manufactured in facilities licensed and regulated by the FDA or an applicable foreign regulatory authority. Our products are designed to affect, and any future products will be designed to affect, important bodily functions and processes. Any side effects, manufacturing defects, misuse or abuse associated with our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or future versions thereof could result in patient injury or death. The medical device industry has historically been subject to extensive litigation over product liability claims, and we cannot offer any assurance that we will not face product liability lawsuits.

 

The sale and use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or future versions thereof could lead to the filing of product liability claims if someone were to allege that our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or one of our products contained a design or manufacturing defect. A product liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time consuming to defend, either of which could materially harm our business or financial condition. Product liability claims may be brought against us by patients, healthcare providers or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with our products, among others. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we will incur substantial liabilities and reputational harm. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:

 

litigation;

 

distraction of management’s attention from our primary business;

 

47

 

 

the inability to commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology;

 

decreased demand;

 

damage to our business reputation;

 

product recalls or withdrawals from the market;

 

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants; or

 

loss of revenue.

 

Product liability lawsuits and claims, safety alerts or product recalls, with or without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs, delay our product development efforts, place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management from our core business, harm our reputation, increase our product liability insurance rates, once we obtain such insurance, or prevent us from securing such insurance coverage in the future and adversely affect our ability to attract and retain customers, if approved, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

We do not currently maintain any product liability insurance and do not anticipate obtaining product liability insurance until we commence clinical trials. Once we obtain such insurance, we cannot assure you that such insurance would adequately protect our assets from the financial impact of defending a product liability claim. Even if any product liability loss is covered by an insurance policy, these policies typically have substantial deductibles for which we are responsible. Product liability claims in excess of applicable insurance coverage would negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results. Insurance coverage varies in cost and can be difficult to obtain, and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain insurance coverage in the future on terms acceptable to us or at all.

 

If there are significant disruptions in our information technology systems, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

 

The efficient operation of our business depends on our information technology systems. We rely on our information technology systems to effectively manage product development tasks, research and development data and accounting and financial functions. We expect in the future we will rely on our information technology systems for inventory management and technical support functions, if and once implemented. Our information technology systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, fires, floods and other natural disasters, terrorist attacks, attacks by computer viruses or hackers, power losses, and computer system or data network failures. In addition, our data management application and a variety of our software systems are hosted by third-party service providers whose security and information technology systems are subject to similar risks, which could be subject to computer viruses or hacker attacks or other failures. If our or our third-party service provider’s security systems are breached or fail, unauthorized persons may be able to obtain access to sensitive data.

 

To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability, and the failure of our or our service providers’ information technology systems or our transmitter’s software to perform as we anticipate or our failure to effectively implement new information technology systems could disrupt our entire operation or adversely affect our products and could delay our product development, clinical trial or commercialization efforts, result in increased overhead costs and damage our reputation, all of which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

48

 

 

Zimmer Biomet has exclusive global rights to distribute our strip and grid cortical electrodes and electrode cable assembly products. Zimmer Biomet's failure to timely develop or commercialize these products would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

 

NeuroOne granted Zimmer Biomet an exclusive global right to use, promote, market, sell, offer for sale, distribute, import/export and otherwise commercialize our cortical electrode products. The collaboration with Zimmer Biomet may not be successful due to several factors, including the following:

 

Zimmer Biomet may not be able to obtain from us or manufacture our products in a timely or cost-effective manner;

 

Zimmer Biomet may not timely perform its obligations under the Zimmer Development Agreement;

 

Zimmer Biomet may fail to effectively commercialize our products; or

 

contractual disputes or other disagreements between us and Zimmer Biomet, including those regarding the development, manufacture, and commercialization of our products, interpretation of the Zimmer Development Agreement, and ownership of proprietary rights.

 

        Any of the foregoing could adversely impact the likelihood and timing of any payments we are eligible to receive under the Zimmer Development Agreement and could result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and prospects and would likely cause our stock price to decline.

 

We have entered into, and may enter into additional collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships with third-parties that may not result in the development of commercially viable products or the generation of significant future revenues.

 

In the ordinary course of our business, we may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances, partnerships or other arrangements to develop products and to pursue new markets. Proposing, negotiating and implementing collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships may be a lengthy and complex process. Other companies, including those with substantially greater financial, marketing, sales, technology or other business resources, may compete with us for these opportunities or arrangements. We may not identify, secure, or complete any such transactions or arrangements in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis, on acceptable terms or at all. We have limited institutional knowledge and experience with respect to these business development activities, and we may also not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transaction or arrangement. In particular, these collaborations may not result in the development of products that achieve commercial success or result in significant revenues and could be terminated prior to developing any products.

 

Additionally, we may not be in a position to exercise sole decision making authority regarding the transaction or arrangement, which could create the potential risk of creating impasses on decisions, and our future collaborators may have economic or business interests or goals that are, or that may become, inconsistent with our business interests or goals. It is possible that conflicts may arise with our collaborators, such as conflicts concerning the achievement of performance milestones, or the interpretation of significant terms under any agreement, such as those related to financial obligations or the ownership or control of intellectual property developed during the collaboration. If any conflicts arise with any future collaborators, they may act in their self-interest, which may be adverse to our best interest, and they may breach their obligations to us. In addition, we may have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that any future collaborators devote to our or their future products. Disputes between us and our collaborators may result in litigation or arbitration which would increase our expenses and divert the attention of our management. Further, these transactions and arrangements will be contractual in nature and will generally be terminable under the terms of the applicable agreements and, in such event, we may not continue to have rights to the products relating to such transaction or arrangement or may need to purchase such rights at a premium.

 

If we enter into in-bound intellectual property license agreements, we may not be able to fully protect the licensed intellectual property rights or maintain those licenses. Future licensors could retain the right to prosecute and defend the intellectual property rights licensed to us, in which case we would depend on the ability of our licensors to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property protection for the licensed intellectual property. These licensors may determine not to pursue litigation against other companies or may pursue such litigation less aggressively than we would. Further, entering into such license agreements could impose various diligence, commercialization, royalty or other obligations on us. Future licensors may allege that we have breached our license agreement with them, and accordingly seek to terminate our license, which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects.

 

We may seek to grow our business through acquisitions of complementary products or technologies, and the failure to manage acquisitions, or the failure to integrate them with our existing business, could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

From time to time, we may consider opportunities to acquire other companies, products or technologies that may enhance our product platform or technology, expand the breadth of our markets or customer base, or advance our business strategies. Potential acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:

 

problems assimilating the acquired products or technologies;

 

issues maintaining uniform standards, procedures, controls and policies;

 

unanticipated costs associated with acquisitions;

 

49

 

 

diversion of management’s attention from our existing business;

 

risks associated with entering new markets in which we have limited or no experience;

 

increased legal and accounting costs relating to the acquisitions or compliance with regulatory matters; and

 

unanticipated or undisclosed liabilities of any target.

 

We have no current commitments with respect to any acquisition. We do not know if we will be able to identify acquisitions we deem suitable, whether we will be able to successfully complete any such acquisitions on favorable terms or at all, or whether we will be able to successfully integrate any acquired products or technologies. Our potential inability to integrate any acquired products or technologies effectively may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

Our future success depends on our ability to retain key executives and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.

 

We are highly dependent on the management, research and development, clinical, financial and business development expertise of our officers and advisory board members. Although we have an employment agreement with David Rosa, he (and each of our other key employees) may terminate his employment with us at any time and will continue to be able to do so. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any of our executives or employees.

 

Recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and clinical personnel will also be critical to our success. The loss of the services of our executive officers or other key employees could impede the achievement of our research, development and commercialization objectives and seriously harm our ability to successfully implement our business strategy. Furthermore, replacing executive officers and key employees may be difficult and may take an extended period of time because of the limited number of individuals in our industry with the breadth of skills and experience required to successfully develop, gain regulatory approval of and commercialize our products. Competition to hire from this limited pool is intense, and we may be unable to hire, train, retain or motivate these key personnel on acceptable terms given the competition among numerous medical device companies for similar personnel, many of which have greater financial and other resources dedicated to attracting and retaining personnel. We also experience competition for the hiring of scientific and clinical personnel from universities and research institutions. In addition, we rely on consultants and advisors, including scientific and clinical advisors, to assist us in formulating our research and development and commercialization strategy. Our consultants and advisors may be employed by employers other than us and may have commitments under consulting or advisory contracts with other entities that may limit their availability to us. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high quality personnel, our ability to pursue our growth strategy will be limited.

 

Prolonged negative economic conditions could adversely affect us, our customers and third-party partners, manufactures or suppliers, if any, which could harm our financial condition.

 

We are subject to the risks arising from adverse changes in general economic and market conditions, including, but not limited to, changes related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Uncertainty about future economic conditions could negatively impact our existing and potential customers, adversely affect the financial ability of health insurers to pay claims, adversely impact our expenses and ability to obtain financing of our operations, and cause delays or other problems with key suppliers.

 

Healthcare spending in Europe and the United States has been, and is expected to continue to be, under significant pressure and there are many initiatives to reduce healthcare costs. As a result, we believe that some insurers are scrutinizing insurance claims more rigorously and delaying or denying coverage and reimbursement more often. Because the sale, if approved, of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development will generally depend on the availability of third-party coverage and reimbursement, any delay or decline in coverage and reimbursement will adversely affect our sales.

 

50

 

 

Risks Related to our Intellectual Property

 

Our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology is uncertain.

 

We rely primarily on patent, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements, to protect our proprietary technologies. Our patent estate consists of three issued United States patents licensed from WARF relating to a neural probe array and thin-film micro electrode array and method, a pending U.S. patent application filed by us and published in 2018 relating to a wide variety of concepts, ranging from accessories for brain surgery to ablation and stimulation concepts for both cortical and depth electrodes, pending U.S. and PCT applications filed by us and published in 2020 relating to improved neural depth electrodes, a pending U.S. application filed by us and published in 2020 relating to agent-delivering neural electrodes, and three additional pending U.S. applications (and corresponding PCT applications) filed in 2019 and 2020 relating to minimally invasive electrodes, spinal cord stimulation devices, and additional electrode improvements. The licensed issued patents expire between 2025 and 2030, subject to any patent extensions that may be available for such patents. If any patents issue based on our pending patent applications, the resulting patents are projected to expire between 2038 and 2040. We continue to review new technological developments in order to make decisions about what additional filings would be the most appropriate for us. We also plan to seek patent protection for our proprietary technology in select countries internationally. We also have one registered U.S. trademark and two pending U.S. trademark applications. We have applied for patent protection relating to certain existing and proposed products and processes. Currently, several of our issued U.S. patents licensed from WARF as well as some of our pending patent applications relate to our cortical and depth electrode technologies and are therefore important to the functionality of our products in the markets in which we are attempting to commercialize. If we fail to timely file a patent application in any jurisdiction, we may be precluded from doing so at a later date. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that any patent application will be approved in a timely manner or at all. The rights granted to us under our patents, and the rights we are seeking to have granted in our pending patent applications, may not be meaningful or provide us with any commercial advantage. In addition, those rights could be opposed, contested or circumvented by our competitors, or be declared invalid or unenforceable in judicial or administrative proceedings. The failure of our patents to adequately protect our technology might make it easier for our competitors to offer the same or similar products or technologies. Even if we are successful in receiving patent protection for certain products and processes, our competitors may be able to design around our patents or develop products that provide outcomes which are comparable to ours without infringing on our intellectual property rights. Due to differences between foreign and U.S. patent laws, our patented intellectual property rights may not receive the same degree of protection in foreign countries as they would in the United States. Even if patents are granted outside the United States, effective enforcement in those countries may not be available.

 

We rely on our trademarks and trade names to distinguish our products from the products of our competitors, and have registered or applied to register many of these trademarks. For example, we have one registered trademark in the United States for “NeuroOne,” along with two pending U.S. applications for the “Evo” and “Evo Electrode” trademarks. We cannot assure you that our trademark applications will be approved in a timely manner or at all. Third parties also may oppose our trademark applications, or otherwise challenge our use of the trademarks. In the event that our trademarks are successfully challenged, we could be forced to rebrand our products, which could result in loss of brand recognition, and could require us to devote additional resources to marketing new brands. Further, we cannot assure you that competitors will not infringe upon our trademarks, or that we will have adequate resources to enforce our trademarks.

 

We also rely on trade secrets, know-how and technology, which are not protectable by patents, to maintain our competitive position. We try to protect this information by entering into confidentiality agreements and intellectual property assignment agreements with our officers, employees, temporary employees and consultants regarding our intellectual property and proprietary technology. In the event of unauthorized use or disclosure or other breaches of those agreements, we may not be provided with meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors. To the extent that our commercial partners, collaborators, employees and consultants use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in the related or resulting know-how and inventions. If any of our trade secrets, know-how or other technologies not protected by a patent were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

51

 

 

If a competitor infringes upon one of our patents, trademarks or other intellectual property rights, enforcing those patents, trademarks and other rights may be difficult and time-consuming. Patent law relating to the scope of claims in the industry in which we operate is subject to rapid change and constant evolution and, consequently, patent positions in our industry can be uncertain. Even if successful, litigation to defend our patents and trademarks against challenges or to enforce our intellectual property rights could be expensive and time consuming and could divert management’s attention from managing our business. Moreover, we may not have sufficient resources or desire to defend our patents or trademarks against challenges or to enforce our intellectual property rights. Litigation also puts our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing. Additionally, we may provoke third-parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially valuable. The occurrence of any of these events may harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

We may not be able to establish or strengthen our brand.

 

We believe that establishing and strengthening our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. Promoting and positioning our brand will depend largely on the success of our marketing efforts and our ability to provide physicians with a reliable product for successful treatment of brain-related disorders. Additionally, we believe the quality and reliability of our product is critical to building physician support in the United States, and any negative publicity regarding the quality or reliability of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology could significantly damage our reputation in the market. Further, given the established nature of our competitors, it is likely that our future marketing efforts will require us to incur significant additional expenses. These brand promotion activities may not yield increased sales and, even if they do, any sales increases may not offset the expenses we incur to promote our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or if we incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology may not be accepted by physicians, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The medical device industry is characterized by patent litigation, and we could become subject to litigation that could be costly, result in the diversion of management’s time and efforts, stop our development and commercialization measures or require us to pay damages.

 

Our success will depend in part on not infringing the patents or violating the other proprietary rights of third-parties. Significant litigation regarding patent rights exists in our industry. Our competitors in both the United States and abroad, many of which have substantially greater resources and have made substantial investments in competing technologies, may have applied for or obtained or may in the future apply for and obtain, patents that will prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make and sell our products. The large number of patents, the rapid rate of new patent issuances, and the complexities of the technology involved increase the risk of patent litigation.

 

In the future, we could receive communications from various industry participants alleging our infringement of their intellectual property rights. Any potential intellectual property litigation could force us to do one or more of the following:

 

stop selling our products or using technology that contains the allegedly infringing intellectual property;

 

incur significant legal expenses;

 

pay substantial damages to the party whose intellectual property rights we are allegedly infringing;

 

redesign those products that contain the allegedly infringing intellectual property; or

 

attempt to obtain a license to the relevant intellectual property from third-parties, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, and if available, may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technology.

 

52

 

 

Patent litigation can involve complex factual and legal questions, and its outcome is uncertain. Any litigation or claim against us, even those without merit, may cause us to incur substantial costs, and could place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management from our core business and harm our reputation. Further, as the number of participants in the neurostimulation market increases, the possibility of intellectual property infringement claims against us increases.

 

We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we, or our employees, have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our competitors or are in breach of non-competition or non-solicitation agreements with our competitors.

 

Some of our current or future employees may have previously been employed at other medical device companies, including those that are our direct competitors or could potentially be our direct competitors. We may be subject to claims that we, or our employees, have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of these former employers or competitors. In addition, we may in the future be subject to allegations that we caused an employee to breach the terms of his or her non-competition or non-solicitation agreement. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims.

 

In May 2017, NeuroOne, Inc. received a letter from PMT, the former employer of Mark Christianson and Wade Fredrickson. PMT claimed that these officers had breached their restrictive covenant obligations with PMT by virtue of their work for NeuroOne, Inc. and such officer’s prior work during employment with the prior employer, that these officers had breached their confidentiality and non-disclosure obligations to PMT and federal and state law by misappropriating confidential and trade secret information, and that the Company is responsible for tortious interference with the contracts. The letter demanded that Mr. Fredrickson (who resigned from the Company in June 2017), Mr. Christianson and NeuroOne, Inc. cease and desist all competitive activities, that Mr. Fredrickson step down from his position and that Mr. Christianson and NeuroOne, Inc. provide the former employer access to NeuroOne, Inc.’s systems to demonstrate that it is not using trade secrets or proprietary information nor competing with the former employer.

 

On March 29, 2018, we were served with a complaint filed by PMT adding the Company, NeuroOne, Inc. and Mr. Christianson to its existing lawsuit against Mr. Fredrickson. In the lawsuit, PMT claims that Mr. Fredrickson and Mr. Christianson breached their non-competition, non-solicitation and non-disclosure obligations, breached their fiduciary duty obligations, were unjustly enriched, engaged in unfair competition, engaged in a civil conspiracy, tortiously interfered with PMT’s contracts and prospective economic advantage, and breached a covenant of good faith and fair dealing. Against Mr. Fredrickson, PMT also alleges that he intentionally or negligently spoliated evidence, made negligent or fraudulent misrepresentations, misappropriated trade secrets in violation of Minnesota law, and committed the tort of conversion and statutory civil theft. Against the Company and NeuroOne, Inc., PMT alleges that the Company and NeuroOne, Inc. were unjustly enriched and engaged in unfair competition. PMT asks the Court to impose a constructive trust over the shares held by Mr. Fredrickson and Mr. Christianson and to award compensatory damages, equitable relief, punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, costs and interest. The Company, NeuroOne, Inc. and Mr. Christianson (who has not worked for PMT since 2012) intend to defend themselves vigorously. Furthermore, Mr. Christianson is a key officer and the loss of him would be detrimental to our operations and prospects.

 

On April 18, 2018, Mr. Christianson, the Company and NeuroOne, Inc. filed a motion for dismissal, which was heard by the Court on October 11, 2018. The motion for dismissal states that: the contract claims against Mr. Christianson fail because his agreement was not supported by consideration; the Minnesota Uniform Trade Secrets Act preempts plaintiff’s claims for unfair competition, civil conspiracy and unjust enrichment; plaintiff fails to state a claim regarding alleged breach of the duties of loyalty and good faith/fair dealing; plaintiff cannot legally obtain a constructive trust; plaintiff has insufficiently pled its tortious interference claims; and Plaintiff has not stated a claim for unfair competition. On January 7, 2019, the judge granted the motion for dismissal with respect to PMT’s claim for breach of the duty of good faith and fair dealing, and denied the motion for dismissal with respect to the other claims presented. Discovery is now virtually complete. On June 28, 2019, the Company presented to the special master evidence of what it believed to reflect significant litigation misconduct by PMT relating to a manufactured non-compete agreement for Wade Fredrickson that it had attempted to pass off as a business record of PMT. Based on the evidence presented, the special master ruled that PMT had waived the attorney client privilege with respect to certain communications with respect to the Fredrickson non-compete with both its former and current litigation counsel and authorized a deposition of the former litigation counsel concerning these communications. On August 30, 2019 the Hennepin County District Court heard dispositive motions in this case. The district court judge indicated some claims would likely be tried to a jury and encouraged the parties to settle.

 

53

 

 

On September 12, 2019 the district court heard NeuroOne’s motion for sanctions. The district court has set the sanctions hearing for December 17, 2019 and December 18, 2019, and indicated any remaining claims would be tried in May 2021. NeuroOne and Mark Christianson (who has not worked for PMT since February 2012) intend to continue to defend themselves vigorously.

 

Even if we successfully defend against these claims, litigation could cause us to incur substantial costs, and could place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management from our core business and harm our reputation. If our defense to those claims fails, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. There can be no assurance that this type of litigation will not occur, and any future litigation or the threat thereof may adversely affect our ability to hire additional employees. A loss of key personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to develop or commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or future versions thereof, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

We are subject to the patent laws of countries other than the United States, which may not offer the same level of patent protection and whose rules could seriously affect how we draft, file, prosecute and maintain patents, trademarks and patent and trademark applications.

 

Many countries, including certain countries in Europe, have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties (for example, the patent owner has failed to “work” the invention in that country, or the third party has patented improvements). In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of the patent. Moreover, the legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the aggressive enforcement of patent and other intellectual property protection which makes it difficult to stop infringement.

 

We cannot be certain that the patent or trademark offices of countries outside the United States will not implement new rules that increase costs for drafting, filing, prosecuting and maintaining patents, trademarks and patent and trademark applications or that any such new rules will not restrict our ability to file for patent protection. For example, we may elect not to seek patent protection in some jurisdictions in order to save costs. We may be forced to abandon or return the rights to specific patents due to a lack of financial resources.

 

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats to our competitive advantage.

 

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business, or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:

 

others may be able to make devices that are the same as or similar to our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own;

 

we or any collaborators might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patents or pending patent applications that we own;

 

we might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions;

 

others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;

 

it is possible that our pending patent applications will not lead to issued patents;

 

issued patents that we own may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be held invalid or unenforceable as a result of legal challenges;

 

54

 

 

we might enforce our patent rights or defend a challenge to our issued patents or pending application, putting the patents and patent applications at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly;

 

our competitors might conduct research and development activities in the United States and other countries that provide a safe harbor from patent infringement claims for certain research and development activities, as well as in countries where we do not have patent rights, and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets; and

 

we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable.

 

Risks Related to our Legal and Regulatory Environment

 

Our products and operations are subject to extensive governmental regulation, and failure to comply with applicable requirements could cause our business to suffer.

 

The medical device industry is regulated extensively by governmental authorities, principally the FDA and corresponding state regulatory agencies in the United States and the European Commission and corresponding Notified Body in the European Union and the EEA. The regulations are very complex and are subject to rapid change and varying interpretations. Regulatory restrictions or changes could limit our ability to carry on or expand our operations or result in higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales. These governmental authorities enforce laws and regulations that are meant to assure product safety and effectiveness, including the regulation of, among other things:

 

product design and development;

 

pre-clinical studies and clinical trials;

 

product safety;

 

establishment registration and product listing;

 

labeling, content and language of instructions for use and storage;

 

marketing, manufacturing, sales and distribution;

 

pre-market clearance or approval;

 

servicing and post-market surveillance;

 

record-keeping procedures;

 

product import and export;

 

advertising and promotion; and

 

recalls and field safety corrective actions.

 

55

 

 

The regulations to which we are subject are complex and have tended to become more stringent over time. Regulatory changes could result in restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations, higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated revenues.

 

Failure to comply with applicable regulations could jeopardize our ability to sell our products and result in enforcement actions such as fines, civil penalties, injunctions, warning letters, recalls of products, delays in the introduction of products into the market, refusal of the regulatory agency or other regulators to grant future clearances or approvals, and the suspension or withdrawal of existing approvals by such regulatory agencies. Any of these sanctions could result in higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales and harm our reputation, business, financial condition and operating results.

 

The FDA regulatory clearance process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain, and the failure to obtain and maintain required regulatory clearances and approvals could prevent us from commercializing our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development and future versions thereof.

 

Our products and operations are subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by the FDA under the FDCA and its implementing regulations, guidance, and standards. The FDA regulates the research, testing, manufacturing, safety, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, promotion, distribution, and production of medical devices in the United States to ensure that medical products distributed domestically are safe and effective for their intended uses. The FDA also regulates the export of medical devices manufactured in the United States to international markets. Any violations of these laws and regulations could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if there is a change in law, regulation or judicial interpretation, we may be required to change our business practices, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Under the FDCA, medical devices are classified into one of three classes—Class I, Class II or Class III—depending on the degree of risk associated with each medical device and the extent of control needed to ensure safety and effectiveness.

 

Class I devices are those for which safety and effectiveness can be assured by adherence to FDA’s “general controls” for medical devices, which include compliance with the applicable portions of the QSR facility registration and product listing, reporting of adverse medical events, and appropriate, truthful and non-misleading labeling, advertising, and promotional materials. Some Class I devices also require premarket clearance by the FDA through the 510(k) premarket notification process described below.

 

Class II devices are subject to FDA’s general controls, and any other “special controls” deemed necessary by FDA to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the device. Premarket review and clearance by the FDA for Class II devices is accomplished through the 510(k) premarket notification procedure, though certain Class II devices are exempt from this premarket review process. When a 510(k) is required, the manufacturer must submit to the FDA a premarket notification submission demonstrating that the device is “substantially equivalent” to a legally marketed device, which in some cases may require submission of clinical data. A legally marketed device is defined by statute to mean a device that was legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976, the date upon which the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 were enacted, or another commercially available, similar device that was cleared through the 510(k) process. Unless a specific exemption applies, 510(k) premarket notification submissions are subject to user fees. If the FDA determines that the device, or its intended use, is not substantially equivalent to a legally marketed device, the FDA will place the device, or the particular use of the device, into Class III, and the device sponsor must then fulfill much more rigorous premarketing requirements in the form of a premarket approval, or PMA.

 

A Class III device includes devices deemed by the FDA to pose the greatest risk such as life-supporting or life-sustaining devices, or implantable devices, in addition to a device that has a new intended use or utilizes advanced technology that is not substantially equivalent to that of a legally marketed device. The safety and effectiveness of Class III devices cannot be assured solely by general and special controls. These devices almost always require formal clinical studies to demonstrate safety and effectiveness. Submission and FDA approval of a PMA application is required before marketing of a Class III device can proceed.

 

56

 

 

We believe our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development will be a Class II medical device. The FDA has not made any determination about whether our specific technology is a Class II medical device. While such a determination is not necessary in order for us to list a device with the FDA and bring that device to the U.S. market, we may decide to get clarification from the FDA prior to introducing a product into the market. From time to time, the FDA may disagree with the classification and require us to apply for approval as a Class III medical device. In the event that the FDA determines that our technology should be classified as Class III, we could be precluded from marketing the devices for clinical use within the United States for months, years or longer, depending on the specific change in the classification. Reclassification of our technology as Class III could significantly increase our regulatory costs, including the timing and expense associated with required clinical trials and other costs.

 

If the FDA requires us to go through more costly, lengthy and uncertain PMA process for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, future products or modifications to existing products than we had expected, we may be less likely to receive approval for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology or such approval may take longer and be more costly.

 

The FDA can delay, limit or deny clearance or approval of a device for many reasons, including:

 

we may not be able to demonstrate that our products are safe and effective for their intended users;

 

the data from our clinical trials may be insufficient to support clearance or approval; and

 

the manufacturing process or facilities we use may not meet applicable requirements.

 

When FDA approval of a device requires human clinical trials, and if the device presents a “significant risk” to human health, the device sponsor is required to file an investigational device exemption, or IDE, application with the FDA and obtain IDE approval prior to commencing the human clinical trial. If the device is considered a “non-significant risk,” IDE submission to FDA is not required. Instead, only approval from the Institutional Review Board, or IRB, overseeing the investigation at each clinical trial site is required. Human clinical studies are generally required in connection with approval of Class III devices and may be required for Class I and II devices. The FDA or the IRB at each institution at which a clinical trial is being performed may suspend a clinical trial at any time for various reasons, including a belief that the subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. We believe that we will need to complete human clinical trials and submit an application for an IDE in order to seek approval to use of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology for stimulation and ablation but not for diagnostic purposes. Because any IDE, if required, must be cleared by the FDA prior to the start of a clinical investigation, this requirement may delay our product development or clinical trial efforts. Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, clearance or approval for our products under development could prevent us from generating revenue from these products or achieving profitability.

 

In addition, the FDA may change its clearance and approval policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, or take other actions which may prevent or delay approval or clearance of our products under development or impact our ability to modify our currently cleared or approved products on a timely basis.

 

After the FDA permits a device to enter commercial distribution, numerous regulatory requirements apply. These include: compliance with the QSR, which requires manufacturers to follow elaborate design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during the manufacturing process; labeling regulations; the FDA’s general prohibition against promoting products for unapproved or “off-label” uses; the reports of Corrections and Removals regulation, which requires manufacturers to report recalls and field actions to the FDA if initiated to reduce a risk of health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FDCA; and the Medical Device Reporting regulation, which requires that manufacturers report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to reoccur. Manufacturers are also required to register and list their devices with the FDA, based on which the FDA will conduct inspections to ensure continued compliance with applicable regulatory requirements.

 

57

 

 

The FDA has broad post-market and regulatory and enforcement powers. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. medical device regulatory requirements could result in, among other things, warning letters; fines; injunctions; consent decrees; civil penalties; repairs, replacements or refunds; recalls, corrections or seizures of products; total or partial suspension of production; the FDA’s refusal to grant future premarket clearances or approvals; withdrawals or suspensions of current product applications; and criminal prosecution. Regulatory enforcement or inquiries, or other increased scrutiny on us, could dissuade some people with brain related disorders from using our products and adversely affect our reputation and the perceived accuracy and safety of our products. If any of these events were to occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

International sales are subject to regulatory requirements in the countries in which our products are sold. The regulatory review process varies from country to country and may in some cases require the submission of clinical data. In addition, the FDA must be notified of, or approve the export to certain countries of devices that require a PMA, and are not yet approved in the United States.

 

A recall of our products, or the discovery of serious safety issues with our products, could have a significant negative impact on us.

 

The FDA has the authority to require the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. Our third-party suppliers may, under their own initiative, recall a product if any material deficiency in a device is found. A government-mandated or voluntary recall by us or one of our third-party distributors, if any, could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, manufacturing errors, design or labeling defects or other deficiencies and issues. Recalls of any of our products would divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our reputation, financial condition and operating results, which could impair our ability to produce our products in a cost-effective and timely manner.

 

Further, under the FDA’s medical device reporting regulations, we are required to report to the FDA any incident in which our product may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or in which our product malfunctioned and, if the malfunction were to recur, would likely cause or contribute to death or serious injury. Repeated product malfunctions may result in a voluntary or involuntary product recall, which could divert managerial and financial resources, impair our ability to manufacture our products in a cost-effective and timely manner and have an adverse effect on our reputation, financial condition and operating results.

 

Any adverse event involving our products could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or regulatory agency action, which could include inspection, mandatory recall or other enforcement action. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, will require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business and may harm our reputation and financial results.

 

We will be subject to the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and other anti-corruption and anti-money-laundering laws, as well as export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our future global operations. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures and legal expenses, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our future global operations will expose us to trade and economic sanctions and other restrictions imposed by the United States, the European Union and other governments and organizations. The U.S. Departments of Justice, Commerce, State and Treasury and other federal agencies and authorities have a broad range of civil and criminal penalties they may seek to impose against corporations and individuals for violations of economic sanctions laws, export control laws, the FCPA, and other federal statutes and regulations, including those established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC. In addition, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010, or the Bribery Act, prohibits both domestic and international bribery, as well as bribery across both private and public sectors. An organization that “fails to prevent bribery” by anyone associated with the organization can be charged under the Bribery Act unless the organization can establish the defense of having implemented “adequate procedures” to prevent bribery. Under these laws and regulations, as well as other anti-corruption laws, anti-money-laundering laws, export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations, various government agencies may require export licenses, may seek to impose modifications to business practices, including cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries or with sanctioned persons or entities and modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and may subject us to fines, penalties and other sanctions. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

58

 

 

We will implement and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us, and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, third-party distributors, if any, consultants and agents with the FCPA, OFAC restrictions, the Bribery Act and other export control, anticorruption, anti-money-laundering and anti-terrorism laws and regulations. We cannot assure you, however, that our policies and procedures will be sufficient or that directors, officers, employees, representatives, third-party distributors, if any, consultants and agents have not engaged and will not engage in conduct for which we may be held responsible, nor can we assure you that our business partners have not engaged and will not engage in conduct that could materially affect their ability to perform their contractual obligations to us or even result in our being held liable for such conduct. Violations of the FCPA, OFAC restrictions, the Bribery Act or other export control, anti-corruption, anti-money-laundering and anti-terrorism laws or regulations may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

 

We are subject to additional federal, state and foreign laws and regulations relating to our healthcare business; our failure to comply with those laws could have an adverse impact on our business.

 

Although we will not provide healthcare services, submit claims for third-party reimbursement, or receive payments directly from government health insurance programs or other third-party payors for our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, we are subject to healthcare fraud and abuse regulation and enforcement by federal, state and foreign governments, which could adversely impact our business. Healthcare fraud and abuse and health information privacy and security laws potentially applicable to our operations include, but are not limited to:

 

the Anti-Kickback Statute, which will apply to our marketing practices, educational programs, pricing policies and relationships with healthcare providers, by prohibiting, among other things, soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration intended to induce the purchase or recommendation of an item or service reimbursable under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare or Medicaid programs. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;

 

federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including civil whistleblower or qui tam actions that prohibit, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment or approval to the federal government that are false or fraudulent, knowingly making a false statement material to an obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the federal government or knowingly concealing or knowingly and improperly avoiding or decreasing an obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the federal government. The government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the false claims statutes;

 

HIPAA, and its implementing regulations, which created federal criminal laws that prohibit, among other things, executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of these statutes or specific intent to violate them;

 

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and their implementing regulations, also imposes certain regulatory and contractual requirements regarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

 

federal “sunshine” requirements imposed by the ACA on device manufacturers regarding any “transfer of value” made or distributed to physicians and teaching hospitals. Failure to submit required information may result in civil monetary penalties of up to an aggregate of $150,000 per year (or up to an aggregate of $1 million per year for “knowing failures”), for all payments, transfers of value or ownership or investment interests that are not timely, accurately, and completely reported in an annual submission. Manufacturers must submit reports by the 90th day of each subsequent calendar year;

 

federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers;

 

59

 

 

state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws that may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers; state laws that require device companies to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers; state laws that require device manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state laws governing the privacy and security of certain health information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA; and

 

foreign data privacy regulations, such as the EU Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC), and the country-specific regulations that implement Directive 95/46/EC, which impose strict obligations and restrictions on the ability to collect, analyze and transfer personal data, including health data from clinical trials and adverse event reporting, and may be stricter than U.S. laws.

 

The risk of our being found in violation of these laws and regulations is increased by the fact that the scope and enforcement of these laws is uncertain, many of them have not been fully interpreted by the regulatory authorities or the courts, their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations, or they vary country by country. We are unable to predict what additional federal, state or foreign legislation or regulatory initiatives may be enacted in the future regarding our business or the healthcare industry in general, or what effect such legislation or regulations may have on us. Federal, state or foreign governments may (i) impose additional restrictions or adopt interpretations of existing laws that could have a material adverse effect on us or (ii) challenge our current or future activities under these laws. Any of these challenges could impact our reputation, business, financial condition and operating results.

 

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us now or in the future, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement of profits, exclusion from governmental health care programs, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Any federal, state or foreign regulatory review to which we may become subject, regardless of the outcome, would be costly and time-consuming.

 

For example, to enforce compliance with the federal laws, the U.S. Department of Justice, or DOJ, has recently increased its scrutiny of interactions between healthcare companies and healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. Dealing with investigations can be time and resource consuming and can divert management’s attention from our core business. Additionally, if we settle an investigation with law enforcement or other regulatory agencies, we may be forced to agree to additional onerous compliance and reporting requirements as part of a consent decree or corporate integrity agreement. Any such investigation or settlement could increase our costs or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business.

 

We may be liable if the FDA or another regulatory agency concludes that we have engaged in the off-label promotion of our products.

 

Our promotional materials and training methods must comply with FDA and other applicable laws and regulations, including the prohibition of the promotion of the off-label use of our products. Healthcare providers may use our products, if approved, off-label, as the FDA does not restrict or regulate a physician’s choice of treatment within the practice of medicine. However, if the FDA determines that our promotional materials or training constitute promotion of an off-label use, it could request that we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine and criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they consider our promotional or training materials to constitute promotion of an unapproved use, which could result in significant fines or penalties. Although we intend to train our marketing and direct sales force to not promote our products for uses outside of their cleared uses and our policy will be to refrain from statements that could be considered off-label promotion of our products, the FDA or another regulatory agency could disagree and conclude that we have engaged in off-label promotion. In addition, the off-label use of our products may increase the risk of product liability claims. Product liability claims are expensive to defend and could result in substantial damage awards against us and harm our reputation.

 

60

 

 

Further, if we seek commercial approval in Europe, the advertising and promotion of our products is subject to the laws of EEA Member States implementing Directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices, Directive 2006/114/EC concerning misleading and comparative advertising, and Directive 2005/29/EC on unfair commercial practices, as well as other EEA Member State legislation governing the advertising and promotion of medical devices. A new Medical Device Regulation (2017/745) that replaced Directive 93/42/EEC was published in 2017, with a three year implementation period, which will impose significant additional premarket and post-market certification requirements on medical devices marketed in the EU. EEA Member State legislation may also restrict or impose limitations on our ability to advertise our products directly to the general public. In addition, voluntary EU and national codes of conduct provide guidelines on the advertising and promotion of our products to the general public and may impose limitations on our promotional activities with healthcare providers harming our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

Legislative or regulatory healthcare reforms may make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain regulatory clearance or approval of our products.

 

Recent political, economic and regulatory influences are subjecting the healthcare industry to fundamental changes. The sales of our products depend in part on the availability of coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors such as government health administration authorities, private health insurers, health maintenance organizations and other healthcare-related organizations. Both the federal and state governments in the United States continue to propose and pass new legislation and regulations designed to contain or reduce the cost of healthcare. This legislation and regulation may result in decreased reimbursement for medical devices, which may further exacerbate industry-wide pressure to reduce the prices charged for medical devices. This could harm our ability to market our products and generate sales.

 

In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. Any new regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times of our products. Delays in receipt of or failure to receive regulatory clearances or approvals for our products would harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

While one often stated goal of healthcare reform is to expand coverage to more individuals, it also involves increased government price controls, additional regulatory mandates and other measures designed to constrain medical costs. For example, the ACA was enacted in March 2010. The ACA substantially changes the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, encourages improvements in the quality of healthcare items and services and significantly impacts the medical device industries. Among other things, the ACA:

 

establishes a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research; and

 

implements payment system reforms including value-based payment programs, increased funding for comparative effectiveness research, reduced hospital payments for avoidable readmissions and hospital acquired conditions, and pilot programs to evaluate alternative payment methodologies that promote care coordination (such as bundled physician and hospital payments).

 

At this time, we cannot predict which, if any, additional healthcare reform proposals will be adopted, when they may be adopted or what impact they, or the ACA, may have on our business and operations, and any of these impacts may be adverse on our operating results and financial condition. Our financial performance may be adversely affected by medical device tax provisions in the healthcare reform laws.

 

61

 

 

The ACA imposed a 2.3% federal excise tax on manufacturers of certain medical devices, which was suspended in 2016, and repealed in December 2019. The ACA also contains a number of other provisions, including provisions governing enrollment in federal and state healthcare programs, reimbursement matters, and fraud and abuse, which we expect will influence our industry and our operations in ways that we cannot currently predict.

 

Tax matters, including the changes in corporate tax rates, disagreements with taxing authorities and imposition of new taxes could impact our results of operations and financial condition.

 

We are subject to income and other taxes in the U.S. and our operations, plans and results are affected by tax and other initiatives. On December 22, 2017, the Tax Act was signed into law by President Trump. The Tax Act contains significant changes to corporate taxation, including reduction of the corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21%, limitation of the tax deduction for interest expense to 30% of earnings (except for certain small businesses), limitation of the deduction for net operating losses to 80% of current year taxable income and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks, one-time taxation of offshore earnings at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, elimination of U.S. tax on foreign earnings (subject to certain important exceptions), immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, and modifying or repealing many business deductions and credits. Notwithstanding the reduction in the corporate income tax rate, guidance on tax reform continues to be released and such guidance may adversely affect our business and financial condition. While the new federal tax law did not extend the moratorium on the medical device excise tax, the reinstatement of which could negatively impact our operating results as we begin full commercialization of our platforms in the United States, the moratorium was subsequently extended until 2020. It is also unknown if and to what extent various states will conform to the newly enacted federal tax law. The impact of this tax reform on holders of our Common Stock is likewise uncertain and could be adverse. We urge you to consult with your legal and tax advisors with respect to this legislation and the potential tax consequences of investing in our Common Stock. The decrease in the corporate tax rate resulted in changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities.

 

We are also subject to regular reviews, examinations, and audits by the Internal Revenue Service and other taxing authorities with respect to our taxes. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, if a taxing authority disagrees with the positions we have taken, we could face additional tax liability, including interest and penalties. There can be no assurance that payment of such additional amounts upon final adjudication of any disputes will not have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

 

We also need to comply with new, evolving or revised tax laws and regulations. The enactment of or increases in tariffs, or other changes in the application or interpretation of the Tax Act, or on specific products that we sell or with which our products compete, may have an adverse effect on our business or on our results of operations.

 

Inadequate funding for the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

 

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs, devices and treatments to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business.

 

62

 

 

In addition, government funding of the SEC and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable. For example, over the last several years, including beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, have had to furlough critical FDA, SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, upon completion of this offering and in our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

 

Risks Related to our Common Stock

 

An active and visible public trading market for our Common Stock may not develop.

 

We do not currently have an active or visible trading market. We cannot predict whether an active market for our Common Stock will ever develop in the future. In the absence of an active trading market:

 

Investors may have difficulty buying and selling or obtaining market quotations;

 

Trading of our Common Stock may be extremely sporadic;

 

Market visibility for shares of our Common Stock may be limited; and

 

A lack of visibility for shares of our Common Stock may have a depressive effect on the market price for shares of our Common Stock.

 

Our Common Stock is quoted over-the-counter on a market operated by OTC Markets Group, Inc. These markets are relatively unorganized, inter-dealer, over-the-counter markets that provide significantly less liquidity than Nasdaq or the NYSE MKT. No assurances can be given that our Common Stock, even if quoted on such markets, will ever actively trade on such markets, much less a senior market like Nasdaq or NYSE MKT. In this event, there would be a highly illiquid market for our Common Stock and you may be unable to dispose of your Common Stock at desirable prices or at all. Moreover, there is a risk that our Common Stock could be delisted from its current tier of the OTC Market, in which case our stock may be quoted on markets even more illiquid.

 

The price of our Common Stock might fluctuate significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

Volatility in the market price of our Common Stock may prevent you from being able to sell your shares of our Common Stock at or above the price you paid for your shares. The trading price of our Common Stock may be volatile and subject to wide price fluctuations in response to various factors, including:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial and operating results;

 

our progress toward developing our cortical strip and sheet electrode technology;

 

the commencement, enrollment and results of our future clinical trials;

 

adverse results from, delays in or termination of our clinical trials;

 

adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive regulatory approval;

 

63

 

 

publication of research reports about us or our industry or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts, if any;

 

perceptions about the market acceptance of our products and the recognition of our brand;

 

adverse publicity about our products or industry in general;

 

overall performance of the equity markets;

 

introduction of products, or announcements of significant contracts, licenses or acquisitions, by us or our competitors;

 

legislative, political or regulatory developments;

 

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

threatened or actual litigation and government investigations;

 

third-party promotional activities, which are subject to ongoing regulatory obligations;

 

sale of shares of our Common Stock by us or members of our management; and

 

general economic conditions.

 

These and other factors might cause the market price of our Common Stock to fluctuate substantially, which may negatively affect the liquidity of our Common Stock. In addition, in recent years, the stock market has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies across many industries. The changes frequently appear to occur without regard to the operating performance of the affected companies. Accordingly, the price of our Common Stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our Company, and these fluctuations could materially reduce our share price.

 

Securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs, divert our management’s attention and resources, and harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

Concentration of ownership of our Common Stock among our existing executive officers, directors and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.

 

As of September 30, 2020, our executive officers, directors and current beneficial owners of 5% or more of our Common Stock and their respective affiliates, in the aggregate, beneficially own approximately 24.9% of our outstanding Common Stock. As a result, these persons, acting together, would be able to significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors, any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other significant corporate transactions.

 

Some of these persons or entities may have interests different than yours. For example, they may be more interested in selling our Company to an acquirer than other investors, or they may want us to pursue strategies that deviate from the interests of other stockholders.

 

64

 

 

Any failure to maintain an effective system of internal controls could result in material misstatements of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or fail to prevent fraud in which case, our stockholders could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which would harm our business and could negatively impact the price of our stock.

 

We are required to comply with the internal control evaluation and certification requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”) and management is required to report annually on our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of SOX until the date we have a public float of $75 million or greater.

 

During the audits for the period ended September 30, 2018, we determined that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective due to material weaknesses relating to: (i) accounting for non-routine and complex debt and equity transactions, (ii) the financial statement close and reporting process, (iii) accounting for routine transactions, and (iv) segregation of duties. Management determined that we had remediated these material weaknesses as of September 30, 2019.

 

However, if we fail to maintain effective internal controls and procedures for financial reporting, it could result in material misstatements in the annual or interim financial statements that would not be prevented or detected in a timely manner. We cannot assure you that material weaknesses or significant deficiencies will not occur in the future and that we will be able to remediate such weaknesses or deficiencies in a timely manner, which could impair our ability to accurately and timely report our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

We intend to issue more shares to raise capital, which will result in substantial dilution.

 

Our certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of a maximum of 100,000,000 shares of Common Stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock. Any additional financings effected by us may result in the issuance of additional securities without stockholder approval and the substantial dilution in the percentage of Common Stock held by our then existing stockholders. Moreover, the Common Stock issued in any such transaction may be valued on an arbitrary or non-arm’s-length basis by our management, resulting in an additional reduction in the percentage of Common Stock held by our current stockholders. Our Board has the power to issue any or all of such authorized but unissued shares without stockholder approval. To the extent that additional shares of Common Stock are issued in connection with a financing, dilution to the interests of our stockholders will occur and the rights of the holder of Common Stock might be materially and adversely affected.

 

As of September 30, 2020, we had outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 10,170,588 shares of Common Stock at a weighted average exercise price of $2.35 per share, and options to purchase an aggregate of 1,478,485 shares of Common Stock at a weighted average exercise price of $2.04 per share. For a description of our outstanding warrants and information about the number of shares of Common Stock for which they are exercisable, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources-Historical Capital Resources.” To the extent these outstanding options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to holders of our Common Stock.

 

Anti-takeover provisions in the Company’s certificate of incorporation and bylaws may prevent or frustrate attempts by stockholders to change the Board or current management and could make a third-party acquisition of the Company difficult.

 

The Company’s certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. For example, our certificate of incorporation permits the Board without stockholder approval to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock and to fix the designation, power, preferences, and rights of those shares. Furthermore, our Board has the ability to increase the size of the Board and fill the newly created vacancies without stockholder approval. These provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of the Common Stock.

 

65

 

 

We are a smaller reporting company, and the reduced reporting requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies may make our Common Stock less attractive to investors.

 

We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Section 12 of the Exchange Act. For as long as we continue to be a smaller reporting company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not smaller reporting companies such as, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our annual and periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding nonbinding advisory votes on executive compensation, and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain a “smaller reporting company” as long as (i) our public float remains less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenues are less than $100 million and we either have no public float, or our public float is less than $700 million. Public float is measured as of the last business day of our most recently-completed second fiscal quarter, and annual revenues are as of the most recently completed fiscal year for which audited financial statements are available. We cannot predict if investors will find our Common Stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Common Stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Common Stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

 

Our Common Stock has been, and may in the future be subject to the “penny stock” rules of the SEC, which makes transactions in our stock cumbersome and may reduce the value of an investment in our stock.

 

The SEC has adopted regulations which generally define a “penny stock” as an equity security that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to specific exemptions. The SEC’s penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from the rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document that provides information about penny stocks and the risks in the penny stock market. The broker-dealer must also provide the customer with current bid and offer quotations for the penny stock, the compensation of the broker-dealer and the salesperson in the transaction, and monthly account statements showing the market value of each penny stock held in the customer’s account. In addition, the penny stock rules generally require that before a transaction in a penny stock occurs, the broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive the purchaser’s agreement to the transaction. These rules may restrict the ability of brokers-dealers to sell our Common Stock and may affect the ability of investors to sell their shares, until our Common Stock no longer is considered a penny stock.

 

The market for penny stocks has experienced numerous frauds and abuses, which could adversely impact investors in our stock.

 

OTC Market securities are frequent targets of fraud or market manipulation, both because of their generally low prices and because reporting requirements are less stringent than those of the stock exchanges such as Nasdaq and The New York Stock Exchange. Patterns of fraud and abuse include:

 

Control of the market for the security by one or a few broker-dealers that are often related to the promoter or issuer;

 

Manipulation of prices through prearranged matching of purchases and sales and false and misleading press releases;

 

“Boiler room” practices involving high pressure sales tactics and unrealistic price projections by inexperienced sales persons;

 

Excessive and undisclosed bid-ask differentials and markups by selling broker-dealers; and

 

Wholesale dumping of the same securities by promoters and broker-dealers after prices have been manipulated to a desired level, along with the inevitable collapse of those prices with consequent investor losses.

 

We have not paid dividends in the past and do not expect to pay dividends in the future, and any return on investment may be limited to the value of our stock.

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, you may have to sell some or all of your shares of our Common Stock in order to generate cash flow from your investment. You may not receive a gain on your investment when you sell shares and you may lose the entire amount of the investment.

 

66

 

 

We have incurred, and may continue to incur increased costs and demands upon management as a result of being a public company.

 

As a public company in the United States, we incur significant legal, accounting and other costs. These additional costs could negatively affect our financial results. In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including regulations implemented by the SEC and the stock exchange on which we may list our Common Stock, may increase legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If, notwithstanding our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards, we fail to comply, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

 

Failure to comply with these rules might also make it more difficult for us to obtain some types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we might be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board, on committees of our Board or as members of senior management.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports, or publish unfavorable research or reports, about us, our business or our market, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our Common Stock will be influenced by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us and our business. Securities or industry analysts may elect not to provide coverage of our Common Stock, and such lack of coverage may adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock. In the event we do not secure additional securities or industry analyst coverage, we will not have any control over the analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. The price of our stock could decline if one or more securities or industry analysts downgrade our stock or issue other unfavorable commentary or research. If one or more securities or industry analysts ceases coverage of our Company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

Risks Related to the Acquisition

 

We may be subject to unknown risks as a result of our completed acquisition by Original Source Entertainment, Inc.

 

Original Source Entertainment, Inc., which was renamed NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation in connection with the Acquisition, was formed to license songs to the television and movie industry and has generated very little revenues. Prior to the Acquisition, its operations have been primarily limited to organizational, start-up, and capital formation activities, with no employees other than the former officers. On February 5, 2014, the board of directors of Original Source Entertainment, Inc. authorized the spin-off of Original Source Music, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary which then held all of our operations and assets, to our stockholders of record as of February 25, 2014. Under the terms of the spin-off, the common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of Original Source Music, Inc. was distributed on a pro-rata basis to each holder of our common stock on the February 25, 2014 record date without any consideration or action on the part of such holders, and the holders of our common stock as of the February 25, 2014 record date became owners of 100% of the common stock of Original Source Music, Inc. The spin-off of Original Source Music, Inc. was effective as of May 13, 2016, due to the satisfactory resolution of all comments from the SEC to the Registration Statement on Form 10 of Original Source Music, Inc. and the Form 10’s effectiveness. Therefore, upon the spinoff of Original Source Music, which held all of our operations and assets at the time, on May 13, 2016, Original Source Entertainment, Inc. ceased having a specific business plan and purpose.

 

67

 

 

In connection with the Acquisition, the liabilities existing in Original Source Entertainment, Inc. at the time of the Acquisition were cancelled or paid by a related party, as required by the Merger Agreement with NeuroOne, Inc. and OSOK Acquisition Company (the “Merger Agreement”). Despite this requirement and the representations and warranties of Original Source Entertainment, Inc. in the Merger Agreement, there may be unknown liabilities, or liabilities that were known but believed to be immaterial, related to the business of Original Source Entertainment, Inc. that may become material liabilities we are subject to in the future. If we are subject to material liabilities as a result of the conduct of Original Source Entertainment, Inc., we may have limited recourse for such liabilities, which could have a material impact on our business and stock price.

 

Because we were engaged in a transaction that can be generally characterized as a “reverse merger,” we may not be able to attract the attention of major brokerage firms.

 

Additional risks may exist since we were engaged in a transaction that can be generally characterized as a “reverse merger” with a shell company. Securities analysts of major brokerage firms may not provide coverage of the Company since there is little incentive to brokerage firms to recommend the purchase of the Common Stock. No assurance can be given that brokerage firms will want to conduct any secondary offerings.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

 

We currently lease office space in Eden Prairie, Minnesota.

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

From time to time, the Company is subject to litigation and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. In May 2017, NeuroOne received a letter from PMT Corporation (“PMT”), the former employer of Mark Christianson and Wade Fredrickson. PMT claimed that these officers had breached their restrictive covenant obligations with PMT by virtue of their work for NeuroOne and such officer’s prior work during employment with the prior employer, that these officers had breached their confidentiality and non-disclosure obligations to PMT and federal and state law by misappropriating confidential and trade secret information, and that the Company is responsible for tortious interference with contracts. The letter, which purported to attach a noncompete agreement signed by Mr. Fredrickson, demanded that Mr. Fredrickson (who resigned from the Company in June 2017), Mr. Christianson and NeuroOne cease and desist all competitive activities, that Mr. Fredrickson step down from his position and that Mr. Christianson and NeuroOne provide the former employer access to NeuroOne’s systems to demonstrate that it was not using trade secrets or proprietary information nor competing with the former employer.

 

On March 29, 2018, the Company was served with a complaint filed by PMT adding the Company, NeuroOne and Mr. Christianson to its existing lawsuit against Mr. Fredrickson in the Fourth Judicial District Court of the State of Minnesota. The complaint purported to attach Mr. Fredrickson’s noncompete agreement as Exhibit A. In the lawsuit, PMT claims that Mr. Fredrickson and Mr. Christianson breached their non-competition, non-solicitation and non-disclosure obligations, breached their fiduciary duty obligations, were unjustly enriched, engaged in unfair competition, engaged in a civil conspiracy, tortiously interfered with PMT’s contracts and prospective economic advantage, and breached a covenant of good faith and fair dealing. Against Mr. Fredrickson, PMT also alleges that he intentionally or negligently spoliated evidence, made negligent or fraudulent misrepresentations, misappropriated trade secrets in violation of Minnesota law, and committed the tort of conversion and statutory civil theft. Against the Company and NeuroOne, PMT alleges that the Company and NeuroOne were unjustly enriched and engaged in unfair competition. PMT asked the Court to impose a constructive trust over the shares held by Mr. Fredrickson and Mr. Christianson and to award compensatory damages, equitable relief, punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, costs and interest.

 

68

 

 

On April 18, 2018, Mr. Christianson, the Company and NeuroOne, Inc. filed a motion for dismissal, which was heard by the Court on October 11, 2018. The motion for dismissal states that: the contract claims against Mr. Christianson fail because his agreement was not supported by consideration; the Minnesota Uniform Trade Secrets Act preempts plaintiff’s claims for unfair competition, civil conspiracy and unjust enrichment; plaintiff fails to state a claim regarding alleged breach of the duties of loyalty and good faith/fair dealing; plaintiff cannot legally obtain a constructive trust; plaintiff has insufficiently pled its tortious interference claims; and Plaintiff has not stated a claim for unfair competition. On January 7, 2019, the judge granted the motion for dismissal with respect to PMT’s claim for breach of the duty of good faith and fair dealing, and denied the motion for dismissal with respect to the other claims presented.

 

In April 2019, PMT served the Company, NeuroOne, Inc and Christianson with a proposed Second Amended Complaint, which included new claims against the Company and NeuroOne, Inc for tortious interference with contract and tortious interference with prospective business advantage and punitive damages against the Company, NeuroOne Inc. and Christianson. On June 28, 2019, the Company presented evidence indicating that PMT had participated in a fraud on the Court and sought an Order that PMT had waived the attorney client privilege.

 

On July 16, 2019, the defendants served PMT with a joint notice of motion for sanctions seeking a variety of sanctions for litigation misconduct including, but not limited to, dismissal of the case and an award of attorneys’ fees. The Company, NeuroOne Inc and Mr. Christianson further moved for summary judgment on all remaining claims asserted against them as well as for leave to assert counterclaims against PMT for abuse of process.

 

On August 30, 2019, the Hennepin County District Court heard dispositive motions in this case. The district court judge indicated some claims would likely be tried to a jury and encouraged the parties to settle.

 

On September 12, 2019, the district court heard NeuroOne’s motion for sanctions. The district court held the sanctions hearing on December 17, 2019 and December 18, 2019 and indicated that a ruling would be made in approximately 90 days.

 

The Court issued multiple rulings on the Company’s request for summary judgment and sanctions against PMT in April 2020.

 

On April 29, 2020, the district court granted the Company’s motion for sanctions. Additionally, the district court granted the Company’s motion for summary judgment in part with respect to the counts for Christianson’s breach of non-confidentiality agreement, Fredrickson’s breach of confidentiality covenants, and the creation of a constructive trust and denied the Company’s motion for summary judgment on all other counts.

 

On August 24, 2020, defendants moved the Court to amend their counterclaims for abuse of process against PMT to add a claim for punitive damages.

 

On October 12, 2020 the Court awarded NeuroOne $185,000 in Rule 11 sanctions and Fredrickson $145,000 in Rule 11 sanctions with respect to its misconduct relating to the Fredrickson noncompete. PMT and its former litigation counsel, Barnes &Thornburg, are jointly and severally liable for these awards, which must be paid by December 11 2020.

 

Trial has been set for May 2021, but this may be delayed or impacted by COVID-19. The Company intends to continue to defend itself vigorously and to continue to aggressively prosecute its affirmative counterclaim against PMT.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

69

 

 

PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Price Range of Common Stock

 

Our Common Stock is not traded on any exchange. Our Common Stock has been quoted on the OTC Market (“OTCQB”) administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority under the symbol “NMTC” since December 19, 2017. Prior to that date, our Common Stock had been quoted on the OTC Pink Sheets since November 2012, under the symbol “NMTC” since August 4, 2017 and under the symbol “OSOK” prior to that time. Trading in stocks quoted on the OTCQB is often thin and is characterized by wide fluctuations in trading prices due to many factors that may be unrelated or have little to do with a company’s operations or business prospects. We cannot assure you that there will be a market for our Common Stock in the future.

 

The following table presents the range of high and low closing bid information for our common equity for each full quarterly period the three most recent fiscal years, as quoted by the OTC.

 

  High  Low 
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2020      
First Quarter $3.74  $1.21 
Second Quarter $2.60  $1.51 
Third Quarter $2.49  $1.25 
Fourth Quarter $2.26  $1.00 
         
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2019        
First Quarter $7.79  $4.60 
Second Quarter $9.89  $3.71 
Third Quarter $5.00  $2.14 
Fourth Quarter $3.80  $1.77 
         
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2018        
First Quarter $3.50  $2.02 
Second Quarter $4.22  $3.50 
Third Quarter $6.00  $3.55 
Fourth Quarter $10.00  $3.00 

 

Stockholders

 

On December 7, 2020, there were 164 record holders of our Common Stock. The transfer agent and registrar for our Common Stock is Action Stock Transfer Corporation.

 

Shares Available Under the Plan

 

The following table presents information as of September 30, 2020 with respect to compensation plans under which shares of our Common Stock may be issued.

 

70

 

 

Plan Category Number of Securities
to be issued upon
exercise of
outstanding options
(a)
  Weighted-average
exercise price of
outstanding options
(b)
  Number of securities
remaining available
for future issuance
under equity
compensation plans
(excluding securities
reflected in column (a)) (1)
(c)
 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders  0  $0   0 
Equity compensation plan approved by security holders  1,478,485  $2.04   1,839,400(2)
Total  1,478,485  $2.04   1,839,400(2)

 

 

(1)The number of shares of Common Stock reserved for issuance under our 2017 Equity Incentive Plan automatically increases on January 1st of each calendar year, starting on January 1, 2018 through January 1, 2027, to an amount equal to 13% of the total number of fully-diluted shares of our Common Stock as of December 31 of the preceding calendar year, or a lesser number of shares determined by our Board.

(2)Consists of 1,394,283 shares remaining available for issuance under the 2017 Equity Incentive Plan and 445,117 shares remaining available for issuance under the 2016 Equity Incentive Plan. Upon the closing of the Acquisition, we no longer granted awards under the 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, and all awards are granted under the 2017 Equity Incentive Plan.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

 

All sales of unregistered equity securities have previously been disclosed in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K.

 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

You should read the following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations of NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation together with our financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the “Risk Factors” section of this Report for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. References in this discussion to “series” or “notes” refer to all of our outstanding notes as of the relevant date of the item being discussed. References in this discussion to “convertible promissory notes” refer to all of our outstanding convertible promissory notes as of the relevant date of the item being discussed.

 

Overview

 

To date, our primary activities have been limited to, and our limited resources have been dedicated to, performing business and financial planning, raising capital, recruiting personnel, negotiating with business partners and the licensors of our intellectual property and conducting research and development activities. Our Evo cortical technology has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA for recording, monitoring, and stimulating brain tissue for up to 30 days. Our other products are still under development, and we do regulatory approval in any jurisdiction to sell any commercial products and we have not generated any revenue from commercial sales.

 

71

 

 

We have incurred losses since inception. As of September 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $30.9 million, primarily as a result of expenses incurred in connection with our research and development programs offset in part by collaborations revenue, from general and administrative expenses associated with our operations and interest expense, fair value adjustments and loss on extinguishments related to our debt, offset in part by collaborations revenue. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating and net losses for the foreseeable future until and unless we generate any revenue from commercial sales.

 

Our main source of cash to date has been proceeds from the issuances of notes, common stock, warrants and unsecured loans. See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Historical Capital Resources” below.

 

At September 30, 2020, we had $4.0 million in cash deposits. Our existing cash and cash equivalents will not be sufficient to fund our operating expenses. We need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources such as additional milestone payments from our current collaboration with Zimmer Biomet. However, we may be unable to raise additional funds when needed on favorable terms or at all. Our failure to raise such capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to develop and commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and future products and our ability to pursue our business strategy. See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Funding Requirements and Outlook” below.

 

Recent Developments

 

Zimmer Development Agreement

 

On July 20, 2020, we entered into an exclusive development and distribution agreement (the “Development Agreement”) with Zimmer, Inc. (“Zimmer”), pursuant to which we granted Zimmer exclusive global rights to distribute NeuroOne’s strip and grid cortical electrodes (the “Strip/Grid Products”) and electrode cable assembly products (the “Electrode Cable Assembly Products”). Additionally, we granted Zimmer the exclusive right and license to distribute certain depth electrodes developed by the Company (“SEEG Products”, and together with the Strip/Grid Products and Electrode Cable Assembly Products, the “Products”). The parties have agreed to collaborate with respect to development activities under the Development Agreement through a joint development committee composed of an equal number of representatives of Zimmer and the Company.

 

Under the terms of the Development Agreement, we will be responsible for all costs and expenses related to developing the Products, and Zimmer will be responsible for all costs and expenses related to the commercialization of the Products. In addition to the Development Agreement, Zimmer and the Company have entered into a Manufacturing and Supply Agreement (the “MS Agreement”) and a supplier quality agreement (the “Quality Agreement”) with respect to the manufacturing and supply of the Products.

 

Except as otherwise provided in the Development Agreement, we will be responsible for performing all development activities, including non-clinical and clinical studies directed at obtaining regulatory approval of each Product. Zimmer has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to promote, market and sell each Product following the “Product Availability Date” (as defined in the Development Agreement) for such Product.

 

Pursuant to the Development Agreement, Zimmer made an upfront non-refundable payment of $2.0 million to the Company, the announcement of which triggered the automatic conversion of the Company’s 2020 Notes pursuant to their terms. Additionally, in order to maintain the exclusivity of its distribution license for the SEEG Products, Zimmer must pay an additional fee to the Company within 60 days following the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products.

 

The Development Agreement will expire on the tenth anniversary of the date of the first commercial sale of the last of the Products to achieve a first commercial sale, unless terminated earlier pursuant to its terms. Either party may terminate the Development Agreement (x) with written notice for the other party’s material breach following a cure period or (y) if the other party becomes subject to certain insolvency proceedings. In addition, Zimmer may terminate the Development Agreement for any reason with 90 days’ written notice, and we may terminate the Development Agreement if Zimmer acquires or directly or indirectly owns a controlling interest in certain competitors of the Company.

 

72

 

 

COVID-19

 

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 as a global pandemic, which continues to spread throughout the United States and around the world. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company has experienced delays and disruptions in our pre-clinical and clinical trials, as well as interruptions in our manufacturing, supply chain, and research and development operations. The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve. In April 2020, given the impact of COVID-19 on the Company, the Company applied for and received loan funding of $83,333 under the Paycheck Protection Program.

 

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business and pre-clinical and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the effect of the pandemic on our suppliers and distributors and the global supply chain, the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions and social distancing in the U.S. and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in the U.S. and other countries to contain and treat the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic may also impact our business as a result of employee illness, school closures, and other community response measures.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic may also impact our ability to secure additional financing or our ability to up-list from our current OTC Market (“OTCQB”), and may result in further modifications to our debt agreements. Although the Company cannot estimate the length or gravity of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak at this time, if the pandemic continues, it may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of future operations, financial position, and liquidity in fiscal year 2021.

 

Financial Overview

 

Revenue

 

Our revenue to date has been derived to date from the upfront initial exclusivity fee payment of $2.0 million received under the Zimmer Development Agreement. For the foreseeable future, we anticipate that will generate additional revenue from the Zimmer Development Agreement related to the upfront initial exclusivity fee payment. We may also generate additional revenue related to the milestone payments under the Zimmer Development Agreement.

 

We have received FDA 510(k) clearance for our cortical strip electrode, but we do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of our other products until we develop and obtain all required regulatory approvals or clearances for and commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. If we fail to complete the development of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, or any other product candidate we may pursue in the future, in a timely manner, or fail to obtain regulatory approval, we may never be able to generate any revenue from product sales.

 

General and Administrative

 

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs including stock-based compensation for personnel in functions not directly associated with research and development activities. Other significant costs include legal fees relating to corporate matters, intellectual property costs, professional fees for consultants assisting with regulatory, clinical, product development, financial matters and product costs not directly related to research and development. We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will significantly increase in the future to support our continued research and development activities, potential commercialization of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology, if approved, and the increased costs of operating as a public company. These increases will include increased costs related to the hiring of additional personnel and fees for legal and professional services, as well as other public-company related costs.

 

73

 

 

Research and Development

 

Research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in performing research and development activities in developing our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. Research and development expenses include compensation and benefits for research and development employees including stock-based compensation, overhead expenses, cost of laboratory supplies, clinical trial and related clinical manufacturing expenses, costs related to regulatory operations, fees paid to consultants and other outside expenses. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and costs incurred by third parties are expensed as the contracted work is performed. Lastly, de minimis income from the sale of prototype products and related materials are offset against research and development expenses.

 

We expect our research and development expenses to significantly increase over the next several years as we develop our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and conduct preclinical testing and clinical trials and will depend on the duration, costs and timing to complete our preclinical programs and clinical trials.

 

Interest Expense

 

Interest expense primarily consists of interest costs and amortized discount costs as applicable related to our 2019 Paulson Notes, 2020 Paulson Notes and the Series 3 Notes while outstanding as described further below.

 

Net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value

 

The net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value include the change in fair value of the 2019 Paulson Notes, 2020 Paulson Notes, warrant liability and the premium conversion derivatives during the particular period these instruments are outstanding.

 

Loss on note extinguishment

 

Loss on note extinguishment includes the loss associated with debt instrument modifications accounted for as note extinguishments.

 

Results of Operations

 

Comparison of the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2020 and 2019

 

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.

 

  For the year ended
September 30,
 
  2020  2019  Period to
Period
Change
 
Revenue $1,926,566  $  $1,926,566 
Operating expenses:            
General and administrative  4,753,036   4,284,205   468,831 
Research and development  2,075,791   1,529,189   546,602 
Total operating expenses  6,828,827   5,813,394   1,015,433 
Loss from operations  (4,902,261)  (5,813,394)  911,133 
Interest expense  (7,524,581)  (284,557)  (7,240,024)
Net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value  804,529   (129,763)  934,292 
Loss on note extinguishment  (2,017,847)  (553,447)  (1,464,400)
Net loss $(13,640,160) $(6,781,161) $(6,858,999)

 

74

 

 

Revenue

 

Revenue was $1.9 million for the year ended September 30, 2020. Revenue during the period was derived from the Zimmer Development Agreement, which was entered into in July 2020, and represented the portion of the upfront initial development fee payment eligible for revenue recognition as of September 30, 2020 related to the access to intellectual property and product development. There was no revenue recognized during the year ended September 30, 2019 as there were no revenue related contracts in place during the prior year period.

 

General and administrative expenses

 

General and administrative expenses were $4.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2020, compared to $4.3 million for the year ended September 30, 2019. The increase of $0.5 million was primarily due to an increase in stock-based compensation of $1.3 million and other marketing costs of approximately $0.2 million, offset partially by a decrease in payroll related costs of $0.3 million, legal and accounting fees of $0.5 million and other operating costs of $0.2 million.

 

Research and development expenses

 

Research and development expenses were $2.1 million for the year ended September 30, 2020, compared to $1.5 million for the year ended September 30, 2019. The increase during fiscal 2020 over the comparable prior year period was attributed to an increase in supporting development activities, which primarily included salary-related expenses and other costs related to consulting services, materials and supplies. Lastly, a de minimis amount of offsetting income from the sale of prototype products and related materials to a medical institution for non-human research applications was recorded during the year ended September 30, 2019 in the amount of $6,000. There was no offsetting income recorded against research and development expenses in 2020.

 

Interest expense

 

Interest expense for the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was $7.5 million and $0.3 million, respectively. The increase was primarily attributed to non-cash interest expense in connection with our 2019 Paulson Notes and 2020 Paulson Notes. Interest expense attributed to the 2019 Paulson Notes and 2020 Paulson Notes was comprised of issuance costs of $1.9 million and day-one interest at issuance of $5.6 million representing the amount by which fair value exceeded note proceeds. Interest on principal in connection with the 2019 Paulson Notes and 2020 Paulson Notes is included in the net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value line item.

 

Interest expense during the year ended September 30, 2019 was comprised of interest on principal of $51,000 and amortization of debt discount costs of $0.2 million related to the Series 3 Notes.

 

Net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value

 

The net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value for the 2019 Paulson Notes, 2020 Paulson Notes, warrants and premium conversion derivatives for the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was a benefit of $(0.8) million and an expense of $0.1 million, respectively. The change is due to accrued interest on the 2019 Paulson Notes and 2020 Paulson Notes and due to fluctuations in our common stock fair value, the number of potential shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the 2019 Paulson Notes, 2020 Paulson Notes, or the Series 3 Notes while outstanding.

 

Loss on note extinguishment

 

Non-cash loss on note extinguishment for the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was $2.0 million and $0.6 million, respectively. The 2019 Paulson notes as described further below were amended on April 24, 2020 to principally add a 40% discount to the optional conversion feature and to extend the maturity date by six months. The April 2020 amendment was accounted for as a note extinguishment given the significant modification made to the optional conversion feature. The Series 3 Notes were converted on February 28, 2019 and the conversion was accounted for as a note extinguishment given the bifurcated embedded premium debt conversion feature during the prior year period.

 

75

 

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Historical Capital Resources

 

As of September 30, 2020, our principal source of liquidity consisted of cash deposits of $4.0 million. We have not generated any revenue from commercial sales, and we anticipate that we will continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future until and unless we generate any revenue from commercial sales.

 

We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we develop our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology and pursue pre-clinical and clinical trials, seek regulatory approvals, contract to manufacture any products, establish our own sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development, if approved, hire additional staff, add operational, financial and management systems and continue to operate as a public company.

 

Our source of cash to date has been proceeds from the issuances of notes with warrants, common stock with and without warrants and unsecured loans, the terms of which are further described below. See also “—Funding Requirements and Outlook” below.

 

Common Stock Offerings

 

On July 24, 2020, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (“2020 Purchase Agreement”) with an accredited investor pursuant to which we, in a private placement, issued and sold 75,000 shares of the Company’s common stock for gross proceeds in the amount of $135,000. Under the 2020 Purchase Agreement, we agreed to use the net proceeds from the private placement for funding operations or working capital and general corporate purposes. We granted the investor indemnification rights with respect to representations, warranties and agreements under the 2020 Purchase Agreement.

 

On October 23, 2019, the Company entered into Securities Purchase Agreements with certain accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement, issued and sold 141,666 shares of the Company’s common stock to the accredited investors at a price of $1.80 per share, for gross proceeds amounting to $0.3 million before deducting offering expenses. The Company filed a registration statement with the SEC covering the resale of the shares of common stock sold in the private placement on August 11, 2020.

 

2020 Paulson Convertible Notes

 

On April 30, 2020, the Company entered into a subscription agreement with certain accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement (the “2020 Paulson Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell to the investors 13% convertible promissory notes (each, a “2020 Paulson Note” and collectively, the “2020 Paulson Notes”) and warrants (each, a “2020 Paulson Warrant” and collectively, the “2020 Paulson Warrants”) to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock.

 

Between April 30, 2020 and June 30, 2020, the Company issued 2020 Paulson Notes in an aggregate principal amount of $5.1 million to the Subscribers. The final closing under the 2020 Paulson Private Placement occurred on June 30, 2020. In July 2020, all remaining 2020 Paulson Notes outstanding were automatically converted into Common Stock following the announcement of a Strategic Transaction (as defined in the 2020 Paulson Notes) with Zimmer, Inc. The terms of the 2020 Paulson Notes are summarized below:

 

The 2020 Paulson Notes had interest at a fixed rate of 13% per annum and required the Company to repay the principal and accrued and unpaid interest thereon on the earlier of (i) December 31, 2020 and (ii) a change of control transaction. If the Company had raised more than $5,000,000 in an equity financing before the maturity date (the “2020 Qualified Financing”), without any action on the part of the Subscribers, all of the outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest of the Notes (the “Outstanding Balance”) would have been converted into that number of shares of the securities issued by the Company in the closing on the date a 2020 Qualified Financing occurred equal to: (i) the Outstanding Balance divided by (ii) the lower of 0.6 multiplied by (A) the actual per share price of the securities issued by the Company in the closing on the date a 2020 Qualified Financing occurred and (B) the volume weighted average price (“VWAP”) of the common stock for ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the 2020 Qualified Financing.

 

76

 

 

In addition, as was the case in July 2020, if the Company announced a transaction between the Company and any other company (or an affiliate of any such company) that was included in the S&P 500 Health Care Index as published from time to time by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC that included an investment or upfront payments resulting in gross proceeds to the Company of at least $2,000,000 upon the execution of such transaction or definitive agreement, and provided for terms of collaboration, manufacturing, distribution, licensing or supply of the Company’s products (a “Strategic Transaction”) before the maturity date, without any action on the part of the subscribers, the Outstanding Balance would convert into that number of shares of common stock equal to: (i) the Outstanding Balance divided by (ii) the lower of 0.6 multiplied by (A) the VWAP of the common stock for the ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the first announcement of the Strategic Transaction or (B) closing price of the common stock on the day preceding the first announcement by the Company of a Strategic Transaction.

 

At any time, at the sole election of the holder of such 2020 Paulson Note prior to a Qualified Financing, Strategic Transaction or change of control transaction, all or a portion of the Outstanding Balance could be converted into that number of shares of common stock equal to: (i) the Outstanding Balance elected by the holder to be converted divided by (ii) an amount equal to 0.6 multiplied by the volume weighted average price of the common stock for the ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the date of conversion.

 

If a change of control transaction had occurred prior to the conversion of the 2020 Paulson Notes or the maturity date, the 2020 Paulson Notes would have become payable on demand as of the closing date of such transaction. Change of control meant a merger or consolidation with another entity in which the Company’s stockholders did not own more than 50% of the outstanding voting power of the surviving entity or the disposition of all or substantially all of the Company’s assets.

 

Each 2020 Paulson Warrant grants the holder the option to purchase the number of shares of common stock equal to (i) 0.5 multiplied by (ii) the principal amount of such subscriber’s 2020 Paulson Notes divided by 1.87, with an exercise price per share equal to $1.87. As of the final closing on June 30, 2020, the Company issued 2020 Paulson Warrants exercisable for 1,369,690 shares of Common Stock in connection with all closings of the private placement.

 

The 2020 Paulson Warrants are immediately exercisable and expire on April 30, 2023. The exercise price is subject to adjustment in the event of any stock dividends or splits, reverse stock split, recapitalization, reorganization, or similar transaction.

 

In connection with the 2020 Paulson Private Placement, Paulson Investment Company (“Paulson”), received a cash commission equal to 12% of the gross proceeds from the sale of the 2020 Paulson Notes, and at the final closing of the 2020 Paulson Private Placement, Paulson received 7-year warrants to purchase an amount of Common Stock equal to 410,911 (“Broker Warrants”). The Broker Warrants have an exercise price equal to $1.87.

 

2020 Paulson Note Conversions

 

Between May 4, 2020 and July 22, 2020, certain Subscribers elected to convert $3,590,353 of the outstanding principal and interest of such Subscribers’ 2020 Paulson Notes into 4,012,334 shares of common stock. On July 23, 2020, the remaining $1,613,961 of the outstanding principal and interest of the 2020 Paulson Notes were automatically converted into 1,605,532 shares of Common Stock following the announcement of a Strategic Transaction as discussed above.

 

2019 Paulson Convertible Notes

 

On November 1, 2019, the Company entered into a subscription agreement with certain accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement (the “2019 Paulson Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell to the investors 13% convertible promissory notes (each, a “2019 Paulson Note” and collectively, the “2019 Paulson Notes”) and warrants (each, a “2019 Paulson Warrant” and collectively, the “2019 Paulson Warrants”) to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock.

 

77

 

 

The initial closing of the private placement was consummated on November 1, 2019, and, on that date and through December 3, 2019, the Company issued 2019 Paulson Notes in an aggregate principal amount of $3,234,800 to the Subscribers for gross proceeds equaling the principal amount. The private placement terminated on December 3, 2019.

 

The Paulson Notes bear interest at a fixed rate of 13% per annum and require the Company to repay the principal and accrued and unpaid interest thereon on May 1, 2020. If the Company raises more than $3,000,000 in an equity financing before the Maturity Date (the “Qualified Financing”), each subscriber shall have the option to convert the outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Note (the “Outstanding Balance”) into the securities issued by the Company in such Qualified Financing in an amount equal to (i) the Outstanding Balance divided by (ii) the lower of 0.6 multiplied by (A) the actual per share price of securities issued by the Company in the Qualified Financing and (B) the ten day volume weighted average closing price of the common stock prior to the first closing of a Qualified Financing. If a change of control transaction occurs prior to the earlier of a Qualified Financing or the maturity date, the 2019 Paulson Notes would become payable on demand as of the closing date of such transaction. Change of control means a merger or consolidation with another entity in which the Company’s stockholders do not own more than 50% of the outstanding voting power of the surviving entity or the disposition of all or substantially all of the Company’s assets.

 

Each 2019 Paulson Warrant grants the holder the option to purchase the number of shares of common stock equal to (i) 0.5 multiplied by (ii) the principal amount of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Notes divided by 1.87, with an exercise price per share equal to $1.87. As of the final closing on December 3, 2019, the Company issued 2019 Paulson Warrants exercisable for 864,913 shares of Common Stock in connection with all closings of the private placement. The 2019 Paulson Warrants are immediately exercisable and expire on November 1, 2022. The exercise price is subject to adjustment in the event of any stock dividends or splits, reverse stock split, recapitalization, reorganization or similar transaction, as described therein.

 

In connection with the private placement, Paulson received a cash commission equal to 12% of the gross proceeds from the sale of the 2019 Paulson Notes, and 10-year warrants to purchase an amount of Common Stock equal to 259,476 shares of common stock at an exercise price equal to $1.87 per share.

 

Second Amendment of 2019 Paulson Notes

 

On April 24, 2020, the Company and holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the 2019 Paulson Notes entered into an amendment to the 2019 Paulson Notes (the “Second Paulson Amendment”) to, among other things:

 

i.Extend the Maturity DateThe Second Paulson Amendment extends the maturity date of the 2019 Paulson Notes from May 1, 2020 to November 1, 2020 (in either case, unless a change of control transaction happens prior to such date);

 

ii.Revise Optional Conversion TermsThe Second Paulson Amendment provides that the amount of shares to be received upon the a subscriber’s optional conversion of the 2019 Paulson Notes prior to a Qualified Financing (as defined in the 2019 Paulson Notes) will be equal to: (1) the outstanding balance of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Note elected by the subscriber to be converted divided by (2) an amount equal to 0.6 multiplied by the volume weighted average price of the common stock for the ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the date of conversion; and

 

iii.Revise the Registration Date – The Second Paulson Amendment provides that promptly following the earlier of (1) May 1, 2020, if the applicable subscriber has converted all or a majority of the outstanding balance of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Note prior to such date; (2) the final closing a Qualified Financing; and (3) the maturity date, the Company will enter into a registration rights agreement with the applicable subscriber containing customary and usual terms pursuant to which the Company shall agree to prepare and file with the SEC a registration statement on or prior to the 90th calendar day following the registration date, covering the resale of any common stock received on conversion of such 2019 Paulson Notes, and shares of common stock underlying the Warrants.

 

There were no other significant changes to terms under the Second Paulson Amendment.

 

78

 

 

2019 Paulson Note Conversion

 

Between April 24, 2020 and September 30, 2020, certain holders elected to convert outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest of 2019 Paulson Notes in the amount of to convert outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest in the amount of $2,838,724 into 2,176,119 shares of common stock.

 

Paycheck Protection Program Loan

 

In connection with the CARES Act, the Company received loan funding of approximately $83,000 under the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”). PPP loan amounts are forgiven to the extent proceeds are used to cover documented payroll, mortgage interest, rent, and utility costs over a 24-week measurement period following loan funding. There can be no assurance this PPP loan will be forgiven. PPP loans have a maturity of 2 years and an interest rate of 1%. Prepayments may be made without penalty.

 

Financings Prior to Fiscal Year 2020

 

Our sources of cash prior to fiscal year 2020 were generated from the following financing arrangements:

 

2019 Unit Private Placement

 

From December 28, 2018 through July 1, 2019, the Company entered into Subscription Agreements (each, a “2019 Purchase Agreement”) with certain accredited investors (the “New Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company, in a new private placement (the “2019 Unit Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell Units (the “2019 Units”), each consisting of (i) one share of common stock and (ii) a warrant to purchase one share of common stock at an initial exercise price of $3.00 per share (the “2019 Warrants”), to the New Purchasers. The 2019 Warrants are exercisable beginning on the date of issuance and will expire on December 28, 2023, five years from the date of the first closing of the 2019 Unit Private Placement.

 

The initial closing of the 2019 Unit Private Placement was consummated on December 28, 2018. The Company issued and sold an aggregate of 2,338,179 of the 2019 Units at $2.50 per Unit to the New Purchasers, for total gross proceeds to the Company of $5,845,448 before deducting offering expenses.

 

2018 Private Placement

 

From July 9, 2018 through November 30, 2018 (the final closing), the Company entered into subscription agreements (each, a “Purchase Agreement”) with certain accredited investors (the “Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement (the “2018 Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell to the Purchasers units (each, a “2018 Unit”), each consisting of (i) one share of common stock and (ii) a warrant to purchase one share of common stock at an initial exercise price of $3.00 per share (the “2018 Warrants”). The 2018 Warrants are exercisable beginning on the date of issuance and will expire on July 9, 2023, five years from the date of the first closing. The 2018 Warrants were accounted for as free-standing equity instruments and classified as additional paid-in capital in the accompanying balance sheets based on their relative fair value to the underlying common shares issued. The initial closing of the 2018 Private Placement was consummated on July 9, 2018 and was terminated on December 12, 2018.

 

As of the termination of the 2018 Private Placement on December 12, 2018, the Company had issued and sold an aggregate of 615,200 of the 2018 Units at a price of $2.50 per Unit to the Purchasers, for total gross proceeds to the Company of $1,538,000 before deducting offering expenses.

 

79

 

 

Series 3 Notes and Warrants (2017 Convertible Notes)

 

From October 2017 to May 2018, the Company issued convertible notes (the “Series 3 Notes” or “2017 Convertible Notes”) in an aggregate principal amount of $1.5 million that bear interest at a fixed rate of 8% per annum and warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s capital stock (the “Series 3 Warrants”). On February 28, 2019, the outstanding principal and interest on the Series 3 Notes converted into 839,179 shares of common stock and 839,179 common stock purchase warrants with an exercise term of approximately 4.8 years and an exercise price of $3.00 per share.

 

In addition, each holder has the option to purchase additional shares of our capital stock equal to 839,179 shares of capital stock of the Company at a per share exercise price equal to $2.50. The warrants exercisable at $2.50 per share have a five-year term which commenced on February 28, 2019. The exercise price and number of the shares issuable upon exercising the Series 3 Warrants are subject to adjustment in the event of any stock dividends and splits, reverse stock split, recapitalization, reorganization, business combination or similar transaction, as described therein.

 

Series 2 Notes and Warrants

 

In August 2017, the Company entered into a subscription agreement in an aggregate principal amount of $253,000 to certain accredited investors (the “Series 2 Notes”). On July 2, 2018, the Series 2 Notes were converted into 144,053 shares of Common Stock and warrants exercisable for 477,856 shares of common stock at a per share exercise price equal to $1.80 per share. The warrants expire on November 21, 2021.

 

Series 1 Notes and Warrants

 

From November 2016 to June 2017, the Company issued convertible promissory notes in an aggregate principal amount of $1.6 million that bear interest at a fixed rate of 8% per annum and warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s capital stock (the “Series 1 Notes”). The Series 1 Notes were converted into 1,002,258 shares of Common Stock and warrants exercisable for 2,004,516 shares of Common Stock were issued on July 2, 2018 at a per share exercise price of $1.80 per share. The warrants will expire on November 21, 2021.

 

Unsecured Loans

 

From March 2018 to December 2018, the Company received gross proceeds from unsecured loans in the amount of $528,000. The unsecured loans were repaid in full as of June 30, 2019.

 

Refer to “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Historical Capital Resources” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2019 for additional information related to financings prior to fiscal year 2020.

 

Funding Requirements and Outlook

 

We have no current source of revenue for our products other than the Evo cortical electrode, to sustain our present activities, outside of our current cash balance of $4.0 million at September 30, 2020, and we do not expect to generate revenue from the commercialization of such other products until, and unless, the FDA or other regulatory authorities approve our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology under development and we successfully commercialize our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology. Additionally, even though our Evo cortical electrode received 510(k) clearance in 2019, it had not generated any revenue from the sale of any product through the fiscal year ended as of September 30, 2020. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity and debt financings as well as collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements. We do not have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third-party partners, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings or through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development, future commercialization efforts, or grant rights to develop and market our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

 

80

 

 

Management has noted the existence of substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Additionally, our independent registered public accounting firm included an explanatory paragraph in its report on our financial statements as of and for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, noting the existence of substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. This uncertainty arose from management’s review of our results of operations and financial condition and its conclusion that, based on our operating plans, we did not have adequate liquidity to fund our operating expenses. While our future operating activities under the distribution and development agreement with Zimmer, Inc. coupled with our plans to raise capital or issue debt financing may provide additional liquidity in the future, these actions are not solely within our control. If we are unable to raise additional funds, or if our anticipated operating results are not achieved, we believe planned expenditures may need to be reduced in order to extend the time period that existing resources can fund our operations. If we are unable to obtain the necessary capital, it may have a material adverse effect on our operations and the development of our technology, or we may have to cease operations altogether.

 

As of September 30, 2020, the outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest on the 2019 Paulson Notes in the aggregate was $609,458.

 

Between October 1, 2020 and November 2, 2020, 2019 Paulson Notes with an aggregate of $557,992, were converted into 787,571 shares of Common Stock.

 

We have agreements with the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (“WARF”) and the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (“Mayo”) that require us to make certain milestone and royalty payments.

 

On January 22, 2020, we entered into an Amended and Restated License Agreement (the “WARF License”) with WARF, which amended and restated in full our prior license agreement with WARF, dated October 1, 2014 (the “Original WARF License”). Under the WARF License, we have agreed to pay WARF a royalty equal to a single-digit percentage of our product sales pursuant to the WARF License, with a minimum annual royalty payment of $50,000 for 2020, $100,000 for 2021 and $150,000 for 2022 and each calendar year thereafter that the WARF License is in effect. If we or any of our sublicensees contest the validity of any licensed patent, the royalty rate will be doubled during the pendency of such contest and, if the contested patent is found to be valid and would be infringed by us if not for the WARF License, the royalty rate will be tripled for the remaining term of the WARF License.

 

Under the Amended and Restated License and Development Agreement with Mayo (the “Mayo Development Agreement”), we have agreed to pay Mayo a royalty equal to a single-digit percentage of our product sales pursuant to the Mayo Development Agreement. Nothing further is due until we start selling our products.

 

Refer to: “Item 1—Business—WARF License,” “Business—Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research License and Development Agreement,” “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—We depend on intellectual property licensed from Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation for our technology under development, and the termination of this license would harm our business” and “Item 1A—Risk Factors—We depend on our partnership with Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research to license certain know how for the development and commercialization of our technology.”

 

Our existing cash and cash equivalents will not be sufficient to fund our operating expenses without raising additional funds. To continue to fund operations, we will need to secure additional funding or take steps to reduce expenses. We may obtain additional financing in the future through the issuance of our Common Stock and securities convertible into our Common Stock, through other equity or debt financings or through collaborations or partnerships with other companies. We may not be able to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Further, we may not be able to pay off or modify terms of our existing debt, and any failure to raise capital or to amend existing debt that may be due as and when needed could compromise our ability to execute on our business plan.

 

The development of our cortical strip, grid electrode and depth electrode technology is subject to numerous uncertainties, and we have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be substantially different than we currently anticipate and could use our cash resources sooner than we expect. Additionally, the process of developing medical devices is costly, and the timing of progress in pre-clinical tests and clinical trials is uncertain. Our ability to successfully transition to profitability will be dependent upon achieving certain regulatory approval and then a level of product sales adequate to support our cost structure. We cannot assure you that we will ever be profitable or generate positive cash flow from operating activities.

 

81

 

 

Cash Flows

 

The following is a summary of cash flows for each of the periods set forth below.

 

  For the Year Ended 
  September 30, 
  2020  2019 
Net cash used in operating activities $(3,425,302) $(5,395,957)
Net cash used in investing activities  (122,427)  (123,352)
Net cash provided by financing activities  7,323,377   5,766,798 
Net increase in cash $3,775,648  $247,489 

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $3.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2020, which consisted of a net loss of $13.6 million partially offset primarily by non-cash interest, stock-based compensation, depreciation, amortization related to intangible assets, revaluation of convertible notes and loss on notes extinguishment, totaling approximately $10.6 million in the aggregate. The net change in our net operating assets and liabilities associated with fluctuations in our operating activities resulted in a cash use of approximately $0.4 million. The change in operating assets and liabilities was primarily attributable to a decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses, largely in connection with the payment of legal expenses, and by an increase in our prepaid expenses.

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $5.4 million for the year ended September 30, 2019, which consisted of a net loss of $6.8 million partially offset by non-cash interest, depreciation related to property and equipment, amortization related to intangibles, stock-based compensation, note discount amortization, revaluation of premium debt conversion derivatives and warrant liabilities and note extinguishments, totaling $1.5 million in the aggregate. Lastly, a net decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses and an increase in prepaid expenses and other assets, in the aggregate net cash use of $0.1 million, contributed to the net cash usage in operating activities.

 

Net cash used in investing activities

 

Net cash used by investing activities for the year ended September 30, 2020 was $0.1 million and consisted of outlays for furniture and equipment.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $0.1 million for the year ended September 30, 2019 and consisted of the payment owed under the terms of the WARF License related to research and development of $65,000 and the purchase of equipment and equipment totaling $58,000.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was $7.3 million for the year ended September 30, 2020, which consisted primarily of net proceeds received upon the issuance of the 2019 and 2020 Paulson Notes and the common stock offerings totaling $7.2 million in the aggregate, and $0.1 million in proceeds received from the Paycheck Protection Program.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was $5.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2019, which consisted of net proceeds received from the 2018 and 2019 Private Placement of common stock and warrants totaling $5.6 million. Additionally, proceeds from the exercise of stock options and warrants of $0.5 million, offset by net repayments of unsecured loans in the amount of $0.3 million, contributed to the balance of financing activities during the year ended September 30, 2019.

 

82

 

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the dates of the balance sheets and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. In accordance with GAAP, we base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances at the time such estimates are made. Actual results may differ materially from our estimates and judgments under different assumptions or conditions. We periodically review our estimates in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. The effects of material revisions in estimates are reflected in our financial statements prospectively from the date of the change in estimate.

 

While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in the notes to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Report, we believe the following are the critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements that require significant estimates and judgments.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Beginning October 1, 2019, we have followed the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The guidance provides a unified model to determine how revenue is recognized. We entered into a development and distribution agreement in the fourth quarter of 2020 which has revenue recognition implications. See “—Recent Developments” above.

 

In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as we fulfil our obligations under any agreement, we perform the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated selling prices; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.

 

A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account in ASC Topic 606. Performance obligations may include license rights, development services, and services associated with regulatory submission and approval processes. Significant management judgment is required to determine the level of effort required under an arrangement and the period over which we expect to complete our performance obligations under the arrangement. If we cannot reasonably estimate when our performance obligations are either completed or become inconsequential, then revenue recognition is deferred until we can reasonably make such estimates. Revenue is then recognized over the remaining estimated period of performance using the cumulative catch-up method.

 

As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation identified in the contract. We use key assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price, which may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, reimbursement rates for personnel costs, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success. We allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or service underlying each performance obligation.

 

Licenses of intellectual property: If the license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize revenues from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer, and the customer can use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we utilize judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. We evaluate the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

 

83

 

 

Milestone payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the value of the associated milestone (such as a regulatory submission) is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our control, such as approvals from regulators, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. When our assessment of probability of achievement changes and variable consideration becomes probable, any additional estimated consideration is allocated to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or service underlying each performance obligation and recorded in license, collaboration, and other revenues based upon when the customer obtains control of each element.

 

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (a) when the related sales occur, or (b) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

We account for fair value measurements of assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring or nonrecurring basis adhering to the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to measurements involving significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:

 

Level 1 Inputs: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities accessible to the Company at the measurement date.

 

Level 2 Inputs: Other than quoted prices included in Level 1 inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.

 

Level 3 Inputs: Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability used to measure fair value to the extent that observable inputs are not available, thereby allowing for situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at measurement date.

 

As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, the fair values of cash, prepaid, other assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximated their carrying values because of the short-term nature of these assets or liabilities. We elected to account for the convertible notes outstanding during the year ended September 30, 2020 on a fair value basis under ASC 825 to comprehensively value and streamline the accounting for the embedded conversion options. The fair value of these convertible notes were based on both the fair value of our common stock, discount associated with the embedded redemption features, and cash flow models discounted at current implied market rates evidenced in recent arms-length transactions representing expected returns by market participants for similar instruments and are based on Level 3 inputs.

 

The estimated fair value of the convertible promissory notes of the Company that were outstanding during the year ended September 30, 2019 were based on amortized cost which was deemed to approximate fair value. The fair value of the warrant liability and the premium conversion derivatives associated with the convertible promissory notes outstanding during fiscal 2019 were based on both the estimated fair value of our common stock and cash flow models discounted at the then current implied market rates evidenced in arms-length transactions representing expected returns by market participants for similar instruments during that period and were based on Level 3 inputs.

 

84

 

 

Common Stock Valuation Methodology

 

As of September 30, 2019 and future periods, we are utilizing the stock market price as quoted on the OTCQB as the basis for the fair value of our common stock given our assessment that the Company is no longer impacted materially by trading liquidity. Prior to September 30, 2019, the valuation of our common stock was based on our estimated enterprise value on a continuing operations basis, using the market approach, with certain adjustments relating to the thinly traded status of the Company. The traded price of the Company, prior to September 30, 2019, was deemed not to be an entirely reliable indication of fair market value given the lack of trading liquidity. Therefore, in addition to applying partial weighting to the traded price, we relied on both forward revenue multiples from guideline public companies (“GPC”) for calendar years 2019 through 2021 as well as on private equity transitions that were completed. The resulting equity value from the GPC method was allocated to common stock using the option pricing method, and a DLOM was applied.

 

There are significant judgments and estimates inherent in the determination of fair value of our common stock, including the contemporaneous valuations. These judgments and estimates include assumptions regarding our future operating performance, and the determination of the appropriate valuation methods. If we had made different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense, net loss and net loss per common share could have been significantly different.

 

The fair value of our common stock is used as an input into the fair value determination of the warrants, stock option or other equity awards that we have issued during the year or are outstanding liabilities at our reporting date.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

See Note 3 — “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” included in “Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in this Report regarding the impact of certain recent accounting pronouncements on our financial statements.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

During the periods presented, we did not have, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined under SEC rules.

 

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

Not applicable.

 

85

 

 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm F-2
Balance Sheets F-3
Statements of Operations F-4
Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) F-5
Statements of Cash Flows F-6
Notes to Financial Statements F-7 to F-30

 

F-1 

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

Stockholders and Board of Directors

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

Eden Prairie, Minnesota

 

Opinion on the Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation (the “Company”) as of September 30, 2020 and 2019, the related statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity (deficit), and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended September 30, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at September 30, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended September 30, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Going Concern Uncertainty

 

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the Company has suffered recurring losses from operations, negative cash flows from operations and an accumulated deficit that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

/s/ BDO USA, LLP

 

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2016.

 

Minneapolis, Minnesota

 

December 8, 2020

 

F-2 

 

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation 

Balance Sheets

 

  As of
September 30,
 
  2020  2019 
Assets        
Current assets:        
Cash $4,036,397  $260,749 
Prepaid and other assets  118,611   41,002 
Total current assets  4,155,008   301,751 
Intangible assets, net  156,523   178,838 
Right-of-use asset  282,211    
Property and equipment, net  166,031   52,026 
Total assets $4,759,773  $532,615 
         
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)        
Current liabilities:        
Accounts payable $762,538  $1,152,472 
Accrued expenses  512,762   617,721 
Convertible promissory notes (Note 8)  1,007,206    
Deferred revenue  73,434    
Total current liabilities  2,355,940   1,770,193 
Operating lease liability  254,328    
Other liabilities  83,333    
Total liabilities  2,693,601   1,770,193 
         
Commitments and contingencies (Note 4)        
         
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):        
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2020 and 2019; no shares issued or outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and 2019.      
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2020 and 2019; 22,180,674 and 13,493,705 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.  22,181   13,494 
Additional paid–in capital  32,923,022   15,987,799 
Accumulated deficit  (30,879,031)  (17,238,871)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)  2,066,172   (1,237,578)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit) $4,759,773  $532,615 

 

See accompanying notes to financial statements

 

F-3 

 

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

Statements of Operations

 

  Year ended
September 30,
 
  2020  2019 
Revenue from collaboration $1,926,566  $ 
Operating expenses:        
General and administrative  4,753,036   4,284,205 
Research and development  2,075,791   1,529,189 
Total operating expenses  6,828,827   5,813,394 
Loss from operations  (4,902,261)  (5,813,394)
Interest expense  (7,524,581)  (284,557)
Net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value  804,529   (129,763)
Loss on note extinguishment  (2,017,847)  (553,447)
Net loss $(13,640,160) $(6,781,161)
         
Net loss per share:        
Basic and diluted $(0.84) $(0.57)
         
Number of shares used in per share calculations:        
Basic and diluted  16,246,130   11,857,571 

 

See accompanying notes to financial statements

 

F-4 

 

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

Statement of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) 

              
  Common Stock  Additional
Paid–In
  Accumulated  

Total
Stockholders’

Equity

 
  Shares  Amount  Capital  Deficit  (Deficit) 
Balance at September 30, 2018  9,656,505  $9,657  $6,052,161  $(10,457,710) $(4,395,892)
Issuance of common stock upon conversion of convertible promissory notes  839,179   839   1,920,881      1,921,720 
Issuance of warrants and reclassification of warrant liability upon conversion of convertible promissory notes        1,565,402      1,565,402 
Issuance of common stock under 2019 and 2018 private placements  2,508,179   2,508   4,558,707      4,561,215 
Issuance of warrants under 2019 and 2018 private placements        1,709,233      1,709,233 
Issuance costs related to 2019 and 2018 private placements        (1,168,679)     (1,168,679)
Issuance of warrants to brokers related to 2019 and 2018 private placements        378,838      378,838 
Issuance of common stock for consulting services  50,000   50   114,950      115,000 
Granting of options previously recorded as a liability        38,696      38,696 
Stock–based compensation        324,205      324,205 
Exercise of stock options  198,043   198   52,313      52,511 
Issuance of stock awards  10,503   11   24,990      25,001 
Exercise of warrants  231,296   231   416,102      416,333 
Net loss           (6,781,161)  (6,781,161)
Balance at September 30, 2019  13,493,705   13,494   15,987,799   (17,238,871)  (1,237,578)
                     
Issuance of common stock under securities purchase agreement  216,666   217   389,783      390,000 
Issuance of warrants in connection with convertible notes offering        696,672      696,672 
Conversion of convertible notes into common stock  7,793,985   7,794   14,172,676      14,180,470 
Issuance costs in connection with conversion of convertible notes into common stock        (161,881)     (161,881)
Stock-based compensation        798,242      798,242 
Issuance of common stock for consulting services  426,583   427   641,289      641,716 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units  173,190   173   395,839      396,012 
Exercise of stock options  76,545   76   2,603      2,679 
Net loss           (13,640,160)  (13,640,160)
Balance at September 30, 2020  22,180,674  $22,181  $32,923,022  $(30,879,031) $2,066,172 

 

See accompanying notes to financial statements

 

F-5 

 

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

Statements of Cash Flows

 

  Year ended
September 30,
 
  2020  2019 
Operating activities        
Net loss $(13,640,160) $(6,781,161)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:        
Amortization and depreciation  47,609   27,569 
Stock-based compensation  1,835,970   491,749 
Non-cash interest on convertible promissory notes  5,616,858   51,333 
Non-cash discount amortization on convertible promissory notes     233,224 
Fair value change of convertible promissory notes  (804,529)   
Revaluation of premium conversion and warrant liability     129,763 
Issuance costs attributed to financing activities  1,907,723    
Non-cash lease expense  22,943    
Loss on notes extinguishment  2,017,847   553,447 
Change in assets and liabilities:        
Prepaid and other assets  (77,609)  (35,624)
Accounts payable  (269,601)  770,612 
Accrued expenses, deferred revenue, operating lease and other liabilities  (82,353)  (836,869)
Net cash used in operating activities  (3,425,302)  (5,395,957)
Investing activities        
Purchase of intangible assets     (65,000)
Purchase of property and equipment  (122,427)  (58,352)
Net cash used in investing activities  (122,427)  (123,352)
Financing activities        
Proceeds from issuance of convertible promissory notes  8,357,500    
Proceeds from issuance of common stock in connection with private placements  390,000   4,561,215 
Proceeds from issuance of warrants in connection with private placements     1,709,233 
Issuance costs in connection with convertible promissory notes  (1,125,241)   
Issuance costs in connection with private placements  (384,894)  (689,494)
Exercise of warrants     416,333 
Exercise of stock-options  2,679   52,511 
Proceeds from paycheck protection program  83,333    
Repayment of unsecured loans net of proceeds     (283,000)
Net cash provided by financing activities  7,323,377   5,766,798 
Net increase in cash  3,775,648   247,489 
Cash at beginning of period  260,749   13,260 
Cash at end of period $4,036,397  $260,749 
Supplemental non-cash financing and investing transactions:        
Conversion of convertible promissory notes to equity $14,180,470  $1,678,361 
Exercise of premium conversion derivative liability $  $419,590 
Reclassification of warrant liability to equity $  $835,723 
Unpaid issuance costs attributed to convertible notes and private placement $95,735  $100,347 
Non-cash issuance of broker warrants in connection with convertible notes and private placements $696,672  $378,838 
Stock-based compensation liability reclassification to equity $  $11,153 
Operating lease right of use asset obtained in exchange for operating lease $335,119  $ 
Unpaid purchases of property and equipment $16,872  $ 

 

See accompanying notes to financial statements

 

F-6 

 

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation

Notes to Financial Statements

 

NOTE 1 - Organization and Nature of Operations

 

NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation (the “Company” or “NeuroOne”), a Delaware Corporation, is an early-stage medical technology company developing comprehensive neuromodulation cEEG and sEEG monitoring, ablation, and brain stimulation solutions to diagnose and treat patients with epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremors, and other brain related disorders.

 

To date, the Company has recorded no commercial sales and has a limited expense history. The Company is currently raising capital to fund the development of its proprietary technology. The Company received 510(k) clearance from the FDA to market the initial device and expect to submit an application for 510(k) clearance for a second product by end of calendar year 2020 or first calendar quarter 2021.

 

The Company is based in Eden Prairie, Minnesota.

 

COVID-19

 

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) as a global pandemic, which continues to spread throughout the United States and around the world. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company has experienced delays and disruptions in its pre-clinical and clinical trials, as well as interruptions in its manufacturing, supply chain, and research and development operations. Additionally, the development of the Company’s technology was delayed in fiscal year 2020 due to interruption in global manufacturing and shipping due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, one of our key manufacturing partners and one of the Company’s suppliers have had staffing issues due to COVID-19, leading to delays in the Company’s development builds and delays in shipping product. Additionally, the Company’s own staff has been impacted by infections and mandatory quarantines. The Company’s plans for further testing or clinical trials may be further impacted by the continuing effects of COVID-19. The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve. In April 2020, given the impact of COVID-19 on the Company, the Company applied for and received loan funding of $83,333 under the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”). The Company may be required to repay any portion of the outstanding principal that is not forgiven, along with accrued interest, and it cannot provide any assurance that it will be eligible for loan forgiveness, or that any amount of the PPP loan will ultimately be forgiven.

 

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the Company’s business and pre-clinical and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the effect of the pandemic on its suppliers and distributors and the global supply chain, the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions and social distancing in the U.S. and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in the U.S. and other countries to contain and treat the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic may also impact the Company’s business because of employee illness, school closures, and other community response measures.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic may also impact the Company’s ability to secure additional financing, or its ability to up-list from our current OTC Market (“OTCQB”) and may result in further modifications to its debt agreements. Although the Company cannot estimate the length or gravity of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak at this time, if the pandemic continues, it may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of future operations, financial position, and liquidity in fiscal year 2021 and beyond.

 

NOTE 2 - Going Concern

 

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared on the basis that the Company will continue as a going concern. The Company has incurred losses since inception, negative cash flows from operations, and an accumulated deficit of $30,879,031 as of September 30, 2020. The Company has not established a source of revenues to cover its full operating costs, and as such, has been dependent on funding operations through the issuance of debt and sale of equity securities. The Company does not have adequate liquidity to fund its operations without raising additional funds. These factors raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this condition. While the Company’s future operating activities under the distribution and development agreement with Zimmer, Inc. coupled with its plans to raise capital or issue debt financing may provide additional liquidity in the future, these actions are not solely within the control of the Company. If the Company is unable to raise additional funds, or the Company’s anticipated operating results are not achieved, management believes planned expenditures may need to be reduced in order to extend the time period that existing resources can fund the Company’s operations. If management is unable to obtain the necessary capital, it may have a material adverse effect on the operations of the Company and the development of its technology, or the Company may have to cease operations altogether.

 

F-7 

 

 

NOTE 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting standards generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Reclassifications

 

Certain amounts presented in the prior year period have been reclassified to conform to current period financial statement presentation. The change in accounts payable and accrued expenses reported in the statements of cash flows during the comparable prior year period was reclassified into two separate line item categories.

 

Management’s Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, primarily in connection with the convertible promissory notes, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

 

Concentration of Credit Risk

 

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk consist of cash. The Company’s cash is held by one financial institution in the United States. Amounts on deposit may at times exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits since inception, and management believes that minimal credit risk exists with respect to these financial institutions. As of September 30, 2020, the Company had $3,786,397 of deposits in excess of federally insured amounts.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Beginning October 1, 2018, the Company has followed the provisions of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The guidance provides a unified model to determine how revenue is recognized. The Company entered into a development and distribution agreement which has current and future revenue recognition implications. See Note 7 – Zimmer Development Agreement.

 

In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as it fulfills its obligations under its agreements, the Company performs the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated selling prices; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.

 

A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account in ASC Topic 606. Performance obligations may include license rights, development services, and services associated with regulatory submission and approval processes. Significant management judgment is required to determine the level of effort required under an arrangement and the period over which the Company expects to complete its performance obligations under the arrangement. If the Company cannot reasonably estimate when its performance obligations are either completed or become inconsequential, then revenue recognition is deferred until the Company can reasonably make such estimates. Revenue is then recognized over the remaining estimated period of performance using the cumulative catch-up method.

 

As part of the accounting for these arrangements, the Company must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation identified in the contract. The Company uses key assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price, which may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, reimbursement rates for personnel costs, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success. The Company allocates the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or service underlying each performance obligation.

 

F-8 

 

 

Licenses of intellectual property: If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenues from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer, and the customer can use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

 

Milestone payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the value of the associated milestone (such as a regulatory submission) is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company, such as approvals from regulators, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. When the Company’s assessment of probability of achievement changes and variable consideration becomes probable, any additional estimated consideration is allocated to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or service underlying each performance obligation and recorded in license, collaboration, and other revenues based upon when the customer obtains control of each element.

 

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (a) when the related sales occur, or (b) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

 

Common Stock Valuation

 

The Company has been utilizing pricing as quoted on the OTC Market as the basis for the fair value of the Company’s common stock since September 30, 2019. Prior to September 30, 2019, the Company utilized methodologies in accordance with the framework of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants’ Technical Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, to estimate the fair value of its common stock (the “AICPA Valuation Framework”). The valuation methodology included estimates and assumptions that required the Company’s judgment. These estimates and assumptions included a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector, and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an offering or sale. Significant changes to the key assumptions used in the valuations would result in different fair values of common stock at each of those valuation dates.

 

The fair value the Company’s common stock is used as an input into the fair value determination of instruments recorded at fair value and stock option or other equity awards that the Company has issued.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The Company’s accounting for fair value measurements of assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring or nonrecurring basis adheres to the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to measurements involving significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:

 

Level 1 Inputs: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities accessible to the Company at the measurement date.

 

Level 2 Inputs: Other than quoted prices included in Level 1 inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.

 

Level 3 Inputs: Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability used to measure fair value to the extent that observable inputs are not available, thereby allowing for situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date.

 

F-9 

 

 

As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, the fair values of cash, prepaid, other assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximated their carrying values because of the short-term nature of these assets or liabilities. The fair value of the convertible notes outstanding during the year ended September 30, 2020 were based on both the fair value of our common stock, discount associated with the embedded redemption features, and cash flow models discounted at current implied market rates evidenced in recent arms-length transactions representing expected returns by market participants for similar instruments and are based on Level 3 inputs.

 

The estimated fair value of the convertible promissory notes of the Company that were outstanding during year ended September 30, 2019 were based on amortized cost which was deemed to approximate fair value. The fair value of the warrant liability and the premium conversion derivatives associated with the convertible promissory notes outstanding during fiscal 2019 were based on both the estimated fair value of our common stock and cash flow models discounted at the then current implied market rates evidenced in arms-length transactions representing expected returns by market participants for similar instruments during that period and were based on Level 3 inputs.

 

There were no transfers between fair value hierarchy levels during the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.

 

The fair value of financial instruments measured on a recurring basis is as follows:

 

  As of
September 30, 2020
 
Description Total  Level 1  Level 2  Level 3 
Liabilities:            
Convertible Notes $1,007,206        $1,007,206 
Total liabilities at fair value $1,007,206        $1,007,206 

 

The following table provides a roll-forward of the convertible notes, warrant liability and premium debt conversion derivatives measured at fair value on a recurring basis using unobservable level 3 inputs for the years ended September 30 as follows:

 

  2020 
Convertible notes    
Balance as of beginning of period – September 30, 2019 $ 
Fair value attributed to convertible promissory notes upon issuance  13,974,358 
Fair value attributed to note extinguishment  2,017,847 
Conversion of convertible promissory notes to common stock  (14,180,470)
Change in fair value including accrued interest  (804,529)
Balance as of end of period – September 30, 2020 $1,007,206 

 

  2019 
Warrant liability    
Balance as of beginning of period – September 30, 2018 $817,155 
Change in fair value of warrant liability  18,568 
Reclassification to equity upon conversion of convertible promissory notes  (835,723)
Balance as of end of period – September 30, 2019 $ 

 

F-10 

 

 

  2019 
Premium debt conversion derivatives    
Balance as of beginning of period – September 30, 2018 $308,395 
Change in fair value of premium debt conversion derivatives  111,195 
Reclassification to equity upon conversion of convertible promissory notes  (419,590)
Balance as of end of period – September 30, 2019 $ 

 

Intellectual Property

 

The Company has entered into two licensing agreements with major research institutions, which allows for access to certain patented technology and know-how. Payments under those agreements are capitalized and amortized to general and administrative expense over the expected useful life of the acquired technology.

 

Property and Equipment

 

Property and equipment is recorded at cost and reduced by accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense is recognized over the estimated useful lives of the assets using the straight-line method. The estimated useful life for equipment and furniture ranges from three to seven years and three years for software. Tangible assets acquired for research and development activities and that have alternative use are capitalized over the useful life of the acquired asset. Estimated useful lives are periodically reviewed, and, when appropriate, changes are made prospectively. Software purchased for internal use consists primarily of amounts paid for perpetual licenses to third-party software providers and installation costs. When certain events or changes in operating conditions occur, asset lives may be adjusted and an impairment assessment may be performed on the recoverability of the carrying amounts. Maintenance and repairs are charged directly to expense as incurred.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

The Company evaluates its long-lived assets, which consist of licensed intellectual property and property and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. The Company assesses the recoverability of long-lived assets by determining whether or not the carrying value of such assets will be recovered through undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the asset is considered to be impaired, the amount of any impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying value and the fair value of the impaired asset.

 

Research and Development Costs

 

Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred. Research and development expenses may include costs incurred in performing research and development activities, including clinical trial costs, manufacturing costs for both clinical and pre-clinical materials as well as other contracted services, license fees, and other external costs. Non-refundable advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity is performed or when the goods have been received, rather than when payment is made, in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 730, Research and Development. Lastly, de minimis income from the sale of prototype products and related materials is offset against research and development expenses.

 

F-11 

 

 

Warrant Liability

 

The Company issued warrants to purchase equity securities in connection with the issuance or amendment of the convertible promissory notes. The Company accounts for these warrants as a liability at fair value when the number of shares is not fixed and determinable. Additionally, issuance costs associated with the warrant liability are expensed as incurred and reflected as interest expense in the accompanying statements of operations. The Company adjusts the liability for changes in fair value until the earlier of the exercise or expiration of the warrants for any period when pricing protections in future equity financings remain in place, or until such time, if any, as the number of shares to be exercised becomes fixed, at which point the warrants will be classified in stockholders’ equity (deficit) provided that there are sufficient authorized and unissued shares of common stock to settle the warrants and redeem any other contracts that may require settlement in shares of common stock. Any future change in fair value of the warrant liability, when outstanding, is recognized in the statements of operations.

 

Premium Debt Conversion Derivatives

 

The Company evaluates all conversion and redemption features contained in a debt instrument to determine if there are any embedded derivatives that require separation from the host debt instrument. An embedded derivative that requires separation is bifurcated from its host debt instrument and a corresponding discount to the host debt instrument is recorded. The discount is amortized and recorded to interest expense over the term of the host debt instrument using the straight-line method which approximates the effective interest method. The separated embedded derivative is accounted for separately on a fair market value basis. The Company records the fair value changes of a separated embedded derivative at each reporting period in the statements of operations based on the fair value of its common stock and cash flow models discounted at current implied market rates evidenced in recent arms-length transactions representing expected returns by market participants for similar instruments and are based on Level 3 inputs.

 

Income Taxes

 

For the Company, income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax base and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.

 

Net Loss Per Share

 

For the Company, basic loss per share of common stock is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period.

 

Diluted earnings or loss per share of common stock is computed similarly to basic earnings or loss per share except the weighted average shares outstanding are increased to include additional shares from the assumed exercise of any common stock equivalents, if dilutive. The Company’s convertible promissory notes, warrants, stock options and restricted stock units while outstanding are considered common stock equivalents for this purpose. Diluted earnings is computed utilizing the treasury method for the warrants, stock options and restricted stock units. Diluted earnings with respect to the convertible promissory utilize the if-converted method. No incremental common stock equivalents were included in calculating diluted loss per share because such inclusion would be anti-dilutive given the net loss reported for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.

 

The following potential common shares were not considered in the computation of diluted net loss per share as their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019:

 

  2020  2019 
Warrants  10,170,588   7,265,598 
Stock options  1,478,485   845,840 
Restricted stock units  88,478   31,515 
Convertible notes  832,848    

 

F-12 

 

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) and subsequently amended the guidance relating largely to transition considerations under the standard in January 2017 and July 2018. The objective of this update is to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those annual periods. The Company adopted the new standard on October 1, 2019 and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s balance sheet, statements of comprehensive loss or statements of cash flows as the Company did not have any material lease agreements in place as of the adoption date. As such, the Company did not restate comparative periods and did not recognize any cumulative adjustment to retained earnings on the date of the adoption. The Company elected the short-term lease expedient upon adoption of the standard.

 

In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-11, Earnings Per Share, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity and Derivatives and Hedging, which changes the accounting and earnings per share for certain instruments with down round features. The amendments in this ASU should be applied using a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the beginning of the fiscal year or retrospective adjustment to each period presented and is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 for public business entities, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted the new guidance on October 1, 2019, and the new guidance did not have an impact on the Company’s financial statements as of the adoption date.

 

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (ASU 2018-13). The new guidance modifies the disclosure requirements in Topic 820 as follows:

 

Removals: the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy; the policy for timing of transfers between levels; and the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements.

 

Modifications: for investments in certain entities that calculate net asset value, an entity is required to disclose the timing of liquidation of an investee’s assets and the date when restrictions from redemption might lapse only if the investee has communicated the timing to the entity or announced the timing publicly; and the amendments clarify that the measurement uncertainty disclosure is to communicate information about the uncertainty in measurement as of the reporting date.

 

Additions: the changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements held at the end of the reporting period; and the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements.

 

This guidance is effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should all be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted. An entity is permitted to early adopt any removed or modified disclosures upon issuance of ASU 2018-13 and delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance and does not expect that it will have a material impact on its financial statements.

 

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740) which amends the existing guidance relating to the accounting for income taxes. This ASU is intended to simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles of accounting for income taxes and to improve the consistent application of GAAP for other areas of accounting for income taxes by clarifying and amending existing guidance. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this new guidance will have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements

 

F-13 

 

 

In August 2020, FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which, among other things, provides guidance on how to account for contracts on an entity’s own equity. This ​ASU eliminates the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models for convertible instruments. It also amends the accounting for certain contracts in an entity’s own equity that are currently accounted for as derivatives because of specific settlement provisions. In addition, this ASU modifies how particular convertible instruments and certain contracts that may be settled in cash or shares impact the diluted EPS computation. The amendments in this ASU are effective for smaller reporting companies as defined by the SEC for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2020-06 on its financial statements.

 

NOTE 4 - Commitments and Contingencies

 

WARF License Agreement

 

The Company has entered into an exclusive start-up company license agreement with the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (“WARF”) for WARF’s neural probe array and thin film micro electrode technology (the “WARF Agreement”). The Company entered into an Amended and Restated Exclusive Start-up Company License Agreement (the “WARF License”) with Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (“WARF”) on January 21, 2020, which amended and restated in full the prior license agreement between WARF and NeuroOne, LLC, a predecessor of the Company, dated October 1, 2014, as amended on February 22, 2017, March 30, 2019 and September 18, 2019.

 

The WARF License grants to the Company an exclusive license to make, use and sell, in the United States only, products that employ certain licensed patents for a neural probe array or thin-film micro electrode array and method. The Company has agreed to pay WARF a royalty equal to a single-digit percentage of its product sales pursuant to the WARF License, with a minimum annual royalty payment of $50,000 for 2020, $100,000 for 2021 and $150,000 for 2022 and each calendar year thereafter that the WARF License is in effect. If the Company or any of its sublicensees contest the validity of any licensed patent, the royalty rate will be doubled during the pendency of such contest and, if the contested patent is found to be valid and would be infringed by the Company if not for the WARF License, the royalty rate will be tripled for the remaining term of the WARF License.

 

WARF may terminate the WARF License if the Company defaults on the payments of amounts due to WARF or fails to timely submit development reports, or breaches any other covenant in the WARF License and fails to remedy such default in ninety (90) days or in the event of certain bankruptcy events involving the Company. WARF may also terminate the WARF License on ninety (90) days’ notice if the Company fails to have commercial sales of one or more FDA-approved products under the WARF License by June 30, 2021. The WARF License otherwise expires by its terms (i) on the date that no valid claims on the patents licensed thereunder remain or (ii) upon the cessation for more than four (4) calendar quarters of the payment, once begun, of earned royalties under certain sections of the WARF License. The Company expects the latest expiration of a licensed patent to occur in 2030. The first commercial sale occurred on December 7, 2020, prior to the June 30, 2021 deadline. See Note 13 – Subsequent Events.

 

In addition, WARF reserves the right to grant non-profit research institutions and government agencies non-exclusive licenses to practice and use the inventions of the licensed patents for non-commercial research purposes, and the Company grants WARF a non-exclusive, sub licensable, royalty-free right and license for non-commercial research purposes to use improvements to the licensed patents. In the event that the Company discontinues use or commercialization of the licensed patents or improvements thereon, the Company must grant WARF an option to obtain a non-exclusive, sub-licensable royalty-bearing license to use the improvements for commercial purposes.

 

F-14 

 

 

Mayo Agreement

 

The Company has an exclusive license and development agreement with the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (“Mayo”) related to certain intellectual property and development services for thin film micro electrode technology (“Mayo Agreement”). If the Company is successful in obtaining regulatory approval, the Company is to pay royalties to Mayo based on a percentage of net sales of products of the licensed technology through the term of the Mayo Agreement, set to expire May 25, 2037.

 

Legal

 

PMT Litigation

 

From time to time, the Company is subject to litigation and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. In May 2017, NeuroOne received a letter from PMT Corporation (“PMT”), the former employer of Mark Christianson and Wade Fredrickson. PMT claimed that these officers had breached their restrictive covenant obligations with PMT by virtue of their work for NeuroOne and such officer’s prior work during employment with the prior employer, that these officers had breached their confidentiality and non-disclosure obligations to PMT and federal and state law by misappropriating confidential and trade secret information, and that the Company is responsible for tortious interference with contracts. The letter, which purported to attach a noncompete agreement signed by Mr. Fredrickson, demanded that Mr. Fredrickson (who resigned from the Company in June 2017), Mr. Christianson and NeuroOne cease and desist all competitive activities, that Mr. Fredrickson step down from his position and that Mr. Christianson and NeuroOne provide the former employer access to NeuroOne’s systems to demonstrate that it is not using trade secrets or proprietary information nor competing with the former employer.

 

On March 29, 2018, the Company was served with a complaint filed by PMT adding the Company, NeuroOne and Mr. Christianson to its existing lawsuit against Mr. Fredrickson in the Fourth Judicial District Court of the State of Minnesota. The complaint purported to attach Mr. Fredrickson’s noncompete agreement as Exhibit A. In the lawsuit, PMT claims that Mr. Fredrickson and Mr. Christianson breached their non-competition, non-solicitation and non-disclosure obligations, breached their fiduciary duty obligations, were unjustly enriched, engaged in unfair competition, engaged in a civil conspiracy, tortiously interfered with PMT’s contracts and prospective economic advantage, and breached a covenant of good faith and fair dealing. Against Mr. Fredrickson, PMT also alleges that he intentionally or negligently spoliated evidence, made negligent or fraudulent misrepresentations, misappropriated trade secrets in violation of Minnesota law, and committed the tort of conversion and statutory civil theft. Against the Company and NeuroOne, PMT alleges that the Company and NeuroOne were unjustly enriched and engaged in unfair competition. PMT asked the Court to impose a constructive trust over the shares held by Mr. Fredrickson and Mr. Christianson and to award compensatory damages, equitable relief, punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, costs and interest.

 

On April 18, 2018, Mr. Christianson, the Company and NeuroOne, Inc. filed a motion for dismissal, which was heard by the Court on October 11, 2018. The motion for dismissal states that: the contract claims against Mr. Christianson fail because his agreement was not supported by consideration; the Minnesota Uniform Trade Secrets Act preempts plaintiff’s claims for unfair competition, civil conspiracy and unjust enrichment; plaintiff fails to state a claim regarding alleged breach of the duties of loyalty and good faith/fair dealing; plaintiff cannot legally obtain a constructive trust; plaintiff has insufficiently pled its tortious interference claims; and Plaintiff has not stated a claim for unfair competition. On January 7, 2019, the judge granted the motion for dismissal with respect to PMT’s claim for breach of the duty of good faith and fair dealing, and denied the motion for dismissal with respect to the other claims presented.

 

In April 2019, PMT served the Company, NeuroOne, Inc and Christianson with a proposed Second Amended Complaint, which included new claims against the Company and NeuroOne, Inc for tortious interference with contract and tortious interference with prospective business advantage and punitive damages against the Company, NeuroOne Inc. and Christianson. On June 28, 2019, the Company presented evidence indicating that PMT had participated in a fraud on the Court and sought an Order that PMT had waived the attorney client privilege.

 

On July 16, 2019, the defendants served PMT with a joint notice of motion for sanctions seeking a variety of sanctions for litigation misconduct including, but not limited to, dismissal of the case and an award of attorneys’ fees. The Company, NeuroOne Inc and Mr. Christianson further intend to move for summary judgment on all remaining claims asserted against them as well as for leave to assert counterclaims against PMT for abuse of process. The outcome of any claim against the Company by PMT was not estimable as of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

F-15 

 

 

On August 30, 2019, the Hennepin County District Court heard dispositive motions in this case. The district court judge indicated some claims would likely be tried to a jury and encouraged the parties to settle.

 

On September 12, 2019, the district court heard NeuroOne’s motion for sanctions. The district court held the sanctions hearing on December 17, 2019 and December 18, 2019 and indicated that a ruling would be made in approximately 90 days. NeuroOne intends to continue to defend themselves vigorously.

 

The Court issued multiple rulings on the Company’s request for summary judgment and sanctions against PMT in April 2020.

 

On April 29, 2020, the district court granted the Company’s motion for sanctions. Additionally, the district court granted the Company’s motion for summary judgment in part with respect to the counts for Christianson’s breach of non-confidentiality agreement, Fredrickson’s breach of confidentiality covenants, and the creation of a constructive trust and denied the Company’s motion for summary judgment on all other counts.

 

On August 24, 2020, defendants moved the Court to amend their counterclaims for abuse of process against PMT to add a claim for punitive damages.

 

Trial has been set for May 2021, but this may be delayed or impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company intends to continue to defend itself vigorously and to continue to aggressively prosecute its affirmative counterclaim against PMT.

 

Facility Lease

 

On October 7, 2019, the Company entered into a non-cancellable lease agreement (the “Lease”) with Biynah Cleveland, LLC, BIP Cleveland, LLC, and Edenvale Investors (together, the “Landlord”) pursuant to which the Company has agreed to lease office space located at 7599 Anagram Drive, Eden Prairie, Minnesota (the “Premises”). The Company took possession of the Premises on November 1, 2019, with the term of the Lease ending 65 months after such date, unless terminated earlier (the “Term”). The initial base rent for the Premises is $6,410 per month for the first 17 months, increasing to $7,076 per month by the end of the Term. In addition, as long as the Company is not in default under the Lease, the Company shall be entitled to an abatement of its base rent for the first 5 months. In addition, the Company will pay its pro rata share of the Landlord’s annual operating expenses associated with the premises, calculated as set forth in the Lease of which the Company is entitled to an abatement of these operating expense for the first 3 months.

 

Prior to the October 2019 Lease, the Company entered into a non-cancellable facility lease for its operations and headquarters for an eleven-month term beginning on December 1, 2018. The monthly rent under that lease was $4,763.

 

During the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, rent expense associated with the facility leases amounted to $103,189 and $47,630, respectively.

 

Supplemental cash flow information related to the operating lease was as follows:

   
  

Year Ended

September 30,
2020

 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liability:    
Operating cash flows from operating leases $38,462 
     
Right-of -use assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations:    
Operating leases $335,119 

 

F-16 

 

 

Supplemental balance sheet information related to the operating lease was as follows:

   
  As of
September 30,
2020
 
Right-of-use assets $282,211 
     
Lease liability $312,176 
     
Weighted average remaining lease term (years)  4.5 
Weighted average discount rate  7.0%

 

Maturity of the lease liability was as follows:

    
   As of
September 30,
2020
 
2021  $77,884 
2022   79,832 
2023   81,827 
2024   83,873 
2025   42,454 
Total lease payments   365,870 
Less imputed interest   (53,694)
Total   312,176 
Short-term portion   (57,848)
Long-term portion  $254,328 

 

NOTE 5 – Intangibles and Property and Equipment

 

Intangibles

 

Intangible assets rollforward is as follows:

 

  Useful Life   
Net Intangibles, December 31, 2018 12-13 years $200,081 
Less: amortization    (21,243)
Net Intangibles, September 30, 2019    178,838 
Less: amortization    (22,315)
Net Intangibles, September 30, 2020   $156,523 

 

The Company anticipates amortization expense of approximately $21,000 per year for fiscal year 2021 through 2025 based upon the two current license agreements.

 

F-17 

 

 

Property and Equipment

 

Property and equipment held for use by category are presented in the following table:

 

  As of
September 30,
 
  2020  2019 
Equipment and furniture $195,756  $56,457 
Software  1,895   1,895 
Total property and equipment  197,651   58,352 
Less accumulated depreciation  (31,620)  (6,326)
Property and equipment, net $166,031  $52,026 

 

Depreciation expense was $25,294 and $6,326 for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

NOTE 6 - Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities

 

Accrued expenses consisted of the following at September 30, 2020 and 2019:

 

  As of
September 30,
 
  2020  2019 
Legal services $  $228,709 
Accrued payroll  238,212   171,087 
Operating lease liability, short term  57,848    
Accrued issuance costs  50,400   50,400 
Other  166,302   167,525 
Total $512,762  $617,721 

 

The “other” category is primarily comprised of board fees.

 

Paycheck Protection Program

 

The CARES Act, signed into law in March 2020, established the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”). The PPP authorizes over $600 billion in forgivable loans to small businesses. Loan amounts are forgiven to the extent proceeds are used to cover documented payroll, mortgage interest, rent, and utility costs over a 24-week measurement period following loan funding. There can be no assurance that this PPP loan will be forgiven. Loans have a maturity of 2 years and an interest rate of 1%. Prepayments may be made without penalty. In April 2020, the Company received loan funding of $83,333 under the PPP and was recorded as a long-term liability. Interest in connection with the PPP was nominal during the year ended September 30, 2020.

 

NOTE 7 – Zimmer Development Agreement

 

On July 20, 2020, the Company entered into an exclusive development and distribution agreement (the “Development Agreement”) with Zimmer, Inc. (“Zimmer”), pursuant to which the Company granted Zimmer exclusive global rights to distribute NeuroOne’s strip and grid cortical electrodes (the “Strip/Grid Products”) and electrode cable assembly products (the “Electrode Cable Assembly Products”). Additionally, the Company granted Zimmer the exclusive right and license to distribute certain depth electrodes developed by the Company (“SEEG Products”, and together with the Strip/Grid Products and Electrode Cable Assembly Products, the “Products”). The parties have agreed to collaborate with respect to development activities under the Development Agreement through a joint development committee composed of an equal number of representatives of Zimmer and the Company.

 

Under the terms of the Development Agreement, the Company will be responsible for all costs and expenses related to developing the Products, and Zimmer will be responsible for all costs and expenses related to the commercialization of the Products. In addition to the Development Agreement, Zimmer and the Company have entered into a Manufacturing and Supply Agreement (the “MS Agreement”) and a supplier quality agreement (the “Quality Agreement”) with respect to the manufacturing and supply of the Products.

 

F-18 

 

 

Except as otherwise provided in the Development Agreement, the Company will be responsible for performing all development activities, including non-clinical and clinical studies directed at obtaining regulatory approval of each Product. Zimmer has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to promote, market and sell each Product following the “Product Availability Date” (as defined in the Development Agreement) for such Product.

 

Pursuant to the Development Agreement, Zimmer made an upfront initial exclusivity fee payment of $2.0 million to the Company, the announcement of which triggered the automatic conversion of the Company’s 2020 Paulson Notes pursuant to their terms. See Note 8 - Convertible Promissory Notes and Warrant Agreements. In addition, the Company is to receive the following fee payments upon reaching certain milestones:

 

Scenario 1: Except where Zimmer timely delivers a Design Modification Notice pursuant to Section 1.2, if one or more of the events set forth below occurs on or before the deadline indicated for such event and the Product Availability Date (as defined in the Development Agreement) for the SEEG Products occurs on or before June 30, 2021, then the Company shall receive the additional amount indicated for such event as part of the SEEG Exclusivity Maintenance Fee:

 

Design freeze for the SEEG Products by November 30, 2020 - $500,000

 

Acceptance of all Deliverables for SEEG Products under the Development Plan (as defined in the Development Agreement) by April 30, 2021 - $500,000

 

Scenario 2: Notwithstanding Scenario 1 above, if Zimmer timely delivers a Design Modification Notice to the Company pursuant to Section 1.2, and one or more of the events set forth below occurs on or before the deadline indicated for such event and the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products occurs on or before June 30, 2021, then the Company shall receive the additional amount indicated for such event as part of the SEEG Exclusivity Maintenance Fee:

 

Acceptance of all Deliverables for SEEG Products under the Development Plan other than the Modified Connector by April 30, 2021 - $500,000

 

Acceptance of all Deliverables for SEEG Products under the Development Plan, including the Modified Connector by September 30, 2021 - $500,000

 

For purposes of the Development Agreement, each of the foregoing events shall have occurred only if the Company has demonstrated the achievement of the event to Zimmer’s reasonable satisfaction. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the events in Sections 6.1(c)(ii), (iii) and (iv) of the Development Agreement shall not be deemed to be met if FDA Approval for the SEEG Products is not received prior to the applicable deadline.

 

In addition to the Initial Exclusivity Fee and Interim Fee Bonus, in order to maintain the exclusivity of the SEEG Distribution License, Zimmer must pay the SEEG Exclusivity Maintenance Fee to the Company, on or prior to the SEEG Exclusivity Confirmation Date, in immediately available funds as follows:

 

if the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products occurs on or before June 30, 2021, then $3,000,000, plus the amount of any Interim Fee Bonuses earned pursuant to Section 6.1(c), including any such Interim Fee Bonus earned after June 30, 2021 pursuant to Section 6.1(c)(iv) following the delivery of a Design Modification Notice;

 

if the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products occurs after June 30, 2021, but on or before September 30, 2021, then $3,000,000, plus if Zimmer timely issues a Design A-9 Modification Notice, any Interim Fee Bonus earned pursuant to Section 6.1(c)(iv);

 

if the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products occurs after September 30, 2021, but on or before December 31, 2021, then $2,500,000; and

 

if the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products occurs after December 31, 2021, then $1,500,000.

 

F-19 

 

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of the Development Agreement, if the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products has not occurred on or before June 30, 2022, Zimmer shall have the right to terminate the SEEG Distribution License by delivering written notice to the Company to that effect and, upon delivery of such notice, Zimmer shall be relieved of all of its obligations hereunder with respect to SEEG Products, including any obligation to pay the SEEG Exclusivity Maintenance Fee or to purchase, market, distribute or sell any SEEG Products. The Initial Exclusivity Fee and the SEEG Exclusivity Maintenance Fee (including any Interim Fee Bonus(es) Fess), once paid, are non-refundable. Additionally, to maintain the exclusivity of its distribution license for the SEEG Products, Zimmer must pay an additional fee to the Company within 60 days following the Product Availability Date for the SEEG Products.

 

The Development Agreement will expire on the tenth anniversary of the date of the first commercial sale of the last of the Products to achieve a first commercial sale, unless terminated earlier pursuant to its terms. Either party may terminate the Development Agreement (x) with written notice for the other party’s material breach following a cure period or (y) if the other party becomes subject to certain insolvency proceedings. In addition, Zimmer may terminate the Development Agreement for any reason with 90 days’ written notice, and the Company may terminate the Development Agreement if Zimmer acquires or directly or indirectly owns a controlling interest in certain competitors of the Company.

 

At inception of the Zimmer Development Agreement through September 30, 2020, the Company had identified three performance obligations under the Zimmer Development Agreement and consisted of the following: (1) the Company obligation to grant Zimmer access to its intellectual property; and, (2) the Company’s obligations to complete the development of both the SEEG and Strip/Grid Products. Accordingly, the Company recognized revenue in the amount of $1,926,566 for the fixed or determinable portion of the upfront payment received related to the license access granted to Zimmer and for the portion of the development of the Products completed. The Zimmer Development Agreement was accounted for under the provisions of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

 

A reconciliation of the closing balance of deferred revenue related to the Zimmer Development Agreement is as follows as of September 30, 2020:

 

  2020 
Deferred Revenue    
Balance as of beginning of period – September 30, 2019 $ 
Upfront initial exclusivity payment  2,000,000 
Revenue recognized  (1,926,566)
Balance as of end of period – September 30, 2020 $73,434 

 

The remaining performance obligations reflected in deferred revenue as of September 30, 2020 is expected to be completed in the latter half of fiscal year 2021.

 

NOTE 8 - Convertible Promissory Notes and Warrant Agreements

 

  As of
September 30,
 
  2020  2019 
Paulson convertible notes, principal $546,000  $ 
Accrued interest  63,458    
Fair value adjustments  397,748    
  $1,007,206  $ 

 

Paulson Convertible Note Offerings

 

Paulson 2019 Convertible Note Financing

 

On November 1, 2019, the Company entered into a subscription agreement with certain accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement (the “2019 Paulson Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell to the investors 13% convertible promissory notes (each, a “2019 Paulson Note” and collectively, the “2019 Paulson Notes”) and warrants (each, a “2019 Paulson Warrant” and collectively, the “2019 Paulson Warrants”) to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock.

 

F-20 

 

 

The initial closing of the 2019 Paulson Private Placement was consummated on November 1, 2019, and, on that date and through December 3, 2019, the Company issued the 2019 Paulson Notes in an aggregate principal amount of $3,234,800 to the subscribers for gross proceeds equaling the principal amount. The 2019 Paulson Private Placement terminated on December 3, 2019.

 

On April 24, 2020, the Company and holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the 2019 Paulson Notes entered into an amendment to the 2019 Paulson Notes (the “Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment”) to, among other things:

 

i.Extended the Maturity DateThe Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment extended the maturity date of the 2019 Paulson Notes from May 1, 2020 to November 1, 2020 (in either case, unless a change of control transaction happens prior to such date);

 

ii.Revised Optional Conversion TermsThe Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment provides that the amount of shares to be received upon the a subscriber’s optional conversion of the 2019 Paulson Notes prior to a 2019 Qualified Financing (as defined in the 2019 Paulson Notes) will be equal to: (1) the Outstanding Balance as defined below of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Note elected by the subscriber to be converted divided by (2) an amount equal to 0.6 multiplied by the volume weighted average price of the common stock for the ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the date of conversion; and

 

iii.Revise the Registration Date – The Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment provided that promptly following the earlier of (1) May 1, 2020, if the applicable subscriber converted all or a majority of the Outstanding Balance of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Note prior to such date; (2) the final closing a 2019 Qualified Financing; and (3) the maturity date, the Company will enter into a registration rights agreement with the applicable subscriber containing customary and usual terms pursuant to which the Company shall agree to prepare and file with the SEC a registration statement on or prior to the 90th calendar day following the registration date, covering the resale of any common stock received on conversion of such 2019 Paulson Notes, and shares of common stock underlying the Warrants.

 

The 2019 Paulson Notes bear interest at a fixed rate of 13% per annum and originally required the Company to repay the principal and accrued and unpaid interest thereon on November 1, 2020. Interest on principal amounted to $213,383 during the year ended September 30, 2020 and was recorded under the net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value in the statements of operations.

 

The Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment was accounted for as a note extinguishment for accounting purposes given the substantive change in the optional redemption feature’s conversion formula. The fair value change in the 2019 Paulson Notes associated with the extinguishment was recorded as a loss on notes extinguishment in the accompanying statements of operations in the amount of $2,017,847 during the year ended September 30, 2020. Lastly, in connection with the Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment, legal costs in the amount of $1,943 were incurred and recorded as a component of interest in the accompanying statements of operations.

 

Prior to the Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment, the subscriber had the option to convert the outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Note (the “Outstanding Balance”) into common stock in an amount equal to the Outstanding Balance divided by the ten day volume weighted average closing price (“VWAP”) of the common stock prior to conversion at no discount. As referenced above, the Second 2019 Paulson Notes Amendment provides for the ten-day VWAP of the common stock under the optional conversion option to be discounted at 40%.

 

In addition, if the Company raises more than $3,000,000 in an equity financing (the “2019 Qualified Financing”) before the maturity date, each subscriber shall have the option to convert the Outstanding Balance into the securities issued by the Company in such 2019 Qualified Financing in an amount equal to (i) the Outstanding Balance divided by (ii) the lower of 0.6 multiplied by (A) the actual per share price of securities issued by the Company in the 2019 Qualified Financing or (B) the ten day VWAP of the common stock prior to the first closing of a 2019 Qualified Financing. If a change of control transaction occurs prior to a 2019 Qualified Financing or the maturity date, the 2019 Paulson Notes would become payable on demand as of the closing date of such transaction. Change of control means a merger or consolidation with another entity in which the Company’s stockholders do not own more than 50% of the outstanding voting power of the surviving entity or the disposition of all or substantially all of the Company’s assets.

 

F-21 

 

 

The Company elected to account for the 2019 Paulson Notes on a fair value basis under ASC 825 to comprehensively value and streamline the accounting for the embedded conversion options. The fair value of the 2019 Paulson Notes was significantly higher than the proceeds received as of each of the respective issuance dates given the significant redemption discount associated with the 2019 Qualified Financing provision. The excess of fair value over proceeds at issuance amounted to $1,831,940 and was recorded to interest expense in the statements of operations during the year ended September 30, 2020. Subsequent to issuance, the fair value change of the 2019 Paulson Notes amounted to a reduction of $1,221,480 during the year ended September 30, 2020 and was recorded under the net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value in the statements of operations.

 

Each 2019 Paulson Warrant grants the holder the option to purchase the number of shares of common stock equal to (i) 0.5 multiplied by (ii) the principal amount of such subscriber’s 2019 Paulson Notes divided by 1.87, with an exercise price per share equal to $1.87. As of the final closing on December 3, 2019, the Company issued 2019 Paulson Warrants exercisable for 864,913 shares of common stock in connection with all closings of the 2019 Paulson Private Placement. The 2019 Paulson Warrants are immediately exercisable and expire on November 1, 2022. The exercise price is subject to adjustment in the event of any stock dividends or splits, reverse stock split, recapitalization, reorganization or similar transaction, as described therein. The 2019 Paulson warrants were deemed to be a free-standing instrument and were accounted for as equity. Given that the fair value of the 2019 Paulson Notes exceeded the proceeds received at issuance, there was no value attributed to the 2019 Paulson Warrants in the financial statements.

 

In connection with the 2019 Private Placement, Paulson Investment Company, LLC (“Paulson”) received a cash commission equal to 12% of the gross proceeds from the sale of the 2019 Paulson Notes, and 10-year warrants to purchase an amount of Common Stock equal to 259,476 shares of common stock at an exercise price equal to $1.87 per share (the “Broker Warrants”). The issuance costs incurred during the year ended September 30, 2020 in connection with the 2019 Paulson Private Placement were $865,567. Issuance costs included cash commissions equal to $388,176 and legal and third-party fees in the amount of $57,756. In addition, issuance costs included the value of the Broker Warrants in the amount of $419,635. The issuance costs were recorded as a component of interest in the accompanying statements of operations.

 

Between January 1, 2020 and September 30, 2020, certain holders of the 2019 Paulson Notes elected to convert outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest in the amount of $2,838,724 into 2,176,119 shares of common stock.

 

Paulson 2020 Convertible Note Financing

 

On April 30, 2020, the Company entered into a subscription agreement with certain accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement (the “2020 Paulson Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell to the investors 13% convertible promissory notes (each, a “2020 Paulson Note” and collectively, the “2020 Paulson Notes”) and warrants (each, a “2020 Paulson Warrant” and collectively, the “2020 Paulson Warrants”) to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock.

 

Between May 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020, the Company issued 2020 Paulson Notes in an aggregate principal amount of $5,122,700 to the Subscribers. The 2020 Paulson Private Placement was terminated on June 30, 2020.

 

Between May 4, 2020 and July 22, 2020, certain Subscribers elected to convert $3,590,353 of the outstanding principal and interest of such Subscribers’ 2020 Paulson Notes into 4,012,334 shares of common stock. On July 23, 2020, the remaining $1,613,961 of the outstanding principal and interest of the 2020 Paulson Notes were automatically converted into 1,605,532 shares of Common Stock following the announcement of the strategic transaction with Zimmer. See Note 7 – Zimmer Development Agreement.

 

F-22 

 

 

Prior to conversion, the 2020 Paulson Notes had a fixed rate of 13% per annum and required the Company to repay the principal and accrued and unpaid interest thereon on the earlier of December 31, 2020 or a change of control transaction. Interest on principal amounted to $81,613 during the year ended September 30, 2020 and was recorded under the net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value in the statements of operations.

 

If the Company raised more than $5,000,000 in an equity financing before the maturity date (the “2020 Qualified Financing”), without any action on the part of the Subscribers, all of the outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest of the Notes (the “Outstanding Balance”) would have converted into that number of shares of the securities issued by the Company in the closing on the date a 2020 Qualified Financing occurred equal to: (i) the Outstanding Balance divided by (ii) the lower of 0.6 multiplied by (A) the actual per share price of the securities issued by the Company in the closing on the date a 2020 Qualified Financing occurred and (B) the volume weighted average price of the common stock for ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the 2020 Qualified Financing.

 

As was the case in July 2020, if the Company announced a transaction between the Company and any other company (or an affiliate of any such company) that was included in the S&P 500 Health Care Index as published from time to time by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC that included an investment or upfront payments resulting in gross proceeds to the Company of at least $2,000,000 upon the execution of such transaction or definitive agreement, and provided for terms of collaboration, manufacturing, distribution, licensing or supply of the Company’s products (a “Strategic Transaction”) before the maturity date, without any action on the part of the subscribers, the Outstanding Balance would convert into that number of shares of common stock equal to: (i) the Outstanding Balance divided by (ii) the lower of 0.6 multiplied by (A) the VWAP of the common stock for the ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the first announcement of the Strategic Transaction or (B) closing price of the common stock on the day preceding the first announcement by the Company of a Strategic Transaction.

 

At any time, prior to a Qualified Financing, Strategic Transaction or change of control transaction at the sole election of the holder of such 2020 Paulson Note, all or a portion of the Outstanding Balance could be converted into that number of shares of common stock equal to: (i) the Outstanding Balance elected by the holder to be converted divided by (ii) an amount equal to 0.6 multiplied by the volume weighted average price of the common stock for the ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the date of conversion.

 

If a change of control transaction occurred prior to the conversion of the 2020 Paulson Notes or the maturity date, the 2020 Paulson Notes would have become payable on demand as of the closing date of such transaction. Change of control meant a merger or consolidation with another entity in which the Company’s stockholders did not own more than 50% of the outstanding voting power of the surviving entity or the disposition of all or substantially all of the Company’s assets.

 

The Company elected to account for the 2020 Paulson Notes on a fair value basis under ASC 825 to comprehensively value and streamline the accounting for the embedded conversion options. The fair value of the 2020 Paulson Notes was significantly higher than the proceeds received as of each of the respective issuance dates given the significant redemption discount associated with the redemption provisions. The excess of fair value over proceeds at issuance amounted to $3,784,918 and was recorded to interest expense in the statements of operations during the year ended September 30, 2020. Subsequent to issuance, the fair value change of the 2020 Paulson Notes amounted to an increase of $416,951 during the year ended September 30, 2020 and was recorded under the net valuation change of instruments measured at fair value in the statements of operations.

 

Each 2020 Paulson Warrant grants the holder the option to purchase the number of shares of common stock equal to (i) 0.5 multiplied by (ii) the principal amount of such subscriber’s 2020 Paulson Notes divided by 1.87, with an exercise price per share equal to $1.87. The 2020 Paulson Warrants are immediately exercisable and expire on April 30, 2023. The exercise price is subject to adjustment in the event of any stock dividends or splits, reverse stock split, recapitalization, reorganization or similar transaction. The Company issued 2020 Paulson Warrants exercisable for 1,369,690 shares of common stock in connection with all closings of the 2020 Paulson Private Placement through June 30, 2020. The 2020 Paulson warrants were deemed to be a free-standing instrument and were accounted for as equity. Given that the fair value of the 2020 Paulson Notes exceeded the proceeds received at issuance, there was no value attributed to the 2020 Paulson Warrants in the financial statements.

 

F-23 

 

 

In connection with the 2020 Paulson Private Placement, Paulson received a cash commission equal to 12% of the gross proceeds from the sale of the 2020 Paulson Notes and received 7-year warrants to purchase an amount of common stock equal to 410,911 (“Broker Warrants”). The Broker Warrants have an exercise price equal to $1.87 per share. The issuance costs incurred during the year ended September 30, 2020 in connection with the 2020 Paulson Private Placement were $1,040,213. Issuance costs included cash commissions equal to $614,725 and legal and third-party fees in the amount of $148,451. In addition, issuance costs included the value of the Broker Warrants in the amount of $277,037. The issuance costs were recorded as a component of interest in the accompanying statements of operations.

 

2017 Convertible Notes

 

From October 2017 to May 2018, the Company issued convertible notes (the “2017 Convertible Notes”) in an aggregate principal amount of $1,540,000 that bear interest at a fixed rate of 8% per annum and warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s capital stock (the “2017 Warrants”).

 

On February 28, 2019, the 2017 Convertible Notes were converted into 839,179 shares of common stock and 839,179 common stock purchase warrants with an exercise term of approximately 4.8 years and an exercise price $3.00 per share. In addition, the previously issued 2017 Warrants became immediately exercisable for 839,179 shares of common stock. The conversion was accounted for as a debt extinguishment given the bifurcation of the embedded premium debt conversion feature. The fair value of the newly issued common shares and warrants associated with the 2017 Convertible Notes conversion relative to the carrying value of the debt and fair value of warrant liability and premium derivative liability on the conversion date was $553,447 and was recorded as a loss on note extinguishment in the accompanying statements of operations for the year September 30, 2019.

 

During the year ended September 30, 2019, interest on the principal was $51,333 and interest related to amortization of discounts related to the bifurcation of premium derivative liability, separation of warrants, revaluation discounts and issuance costs amounted to $233,224. The fair value changes related to the underlying premium conversion derivative and warrant liability amounted to an expense of $129,763 during the year ended September 30, 2019. As noted above, the 2017 Convertible Notes were converted into shares of common stock and were not outstanding during the year ended September 30, 2020.

 

NOTE 9 - Stock-Based Compensation

 

During the years ended September 30, 2019 and 2020, stock-based expense related to the stock options, restricted stock units and stock awards was included in general and administrative and research and development costs as follows in the accompanying statements of operations:

 

  2020  2019 
General and administrative $1,623,629  $357,318 
Research and development  212,341   134,431 
Total stock-based compensation expense $1,835,970  $491,749 

 

The Company’s 2016 and 2017 Equity Incentive Plans provide for the issuance of restricted shares and stock options to employees, directors, and consultants of the Company. The Company initially reserved 2,292,265 shares of common stock for issuance under the 2016 and 2017 Equity Incentive Plans on a combined basis.

 

Evergreen provision

 

Under the 2017 Plan, the shares reserved automatically increase on January 1st of each year, for a period of not more than ten years from the date the 2017 Plan is approved by the stockholders of the Company, commencing on January 1, 2019 and ending on (and including) January 1, 2027, to an amount equal to 13% of the fully-diluted shares outstanding as of December 31st of the preceding calendar year. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board may act prior to January 1st of a given year to provide that there will be no January 1st increase in the share reserve for such year or that the increase in the share reserve for such year will be a lesser number of shares of common stock than would otherwise occur pursuant to the preceding sentence. “Fully Diluted Shares” as of a date means an amount equal to the number of shares of common stock (i) outstanding and (ii) issuable upon exercise, conversion or settlement of outstanding awards under the 2017 Plan and any other outstanding options, warrants or other securities of the Company that are (directly or indirectly) convertible or exchangeable into or exercisable for shares of common stock, in each case as of the close of business of the Company on December 31 of the preceding calendar year. On January 1, 2020 and 2019, 1,286,791 and 498,848 shares were added to the 2017 Plan, respectively, as a result of the evergreen provision.

 

F-24 

 

 

Stock Options

 

During the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, 1,004,175 and 675,667 stock options were granted to employees, directors and consultants at a weighted average exercise price of $2.06 and $2.32 per share, respectively. The stock options granted during the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 had a weighted average grant date fair value of $1.01 and $1.13 per share, respectively, with the vesting period ranging from being immediate to four years. The options expire ten years from the date of grant. The total expense for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 to the stock options was $798,242 and $324,205, respectively.

 

The following table summarizes the Company’s stock option plan activity for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 as follows:

         
  Number of
Options
  Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
  Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term (years)
  Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value(1)
 
Outstanding at September 30, 2018  368,216  $0.07   8.6  $820,862 
Granted  675,667  $2.32        
Exercised  (198,043) $0.27        
Forfeited/Cancelled    $        
Outstanding at September 30, 2019  845,840  $1.82   9.0  $343,406 
Granted  1,004,175  $2.06        
Exercised  (76,545) $0.04        
Forfeited/Cancelled  (294,985) $1.97        
Outstanding at September 30, 2020  1,478,485  $2.04   8.8  $96,088 
Vested and exercisable at September 30, 2020  761,998  $1.99   8.6  $96,088 

 

 

(1)The aggregate intrinsic value is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the underlying options and the estimated fair value of our common stock as of September 30, 2020 and 2019 of $1.29 and $1.87 per share, respectively. As of September 30, 2020, 1,401,940 and 685,453 outstanding and vested options, respectively, have no intrinsic value.

 

The weighted-average assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option-pricing model are as follows for the stock options granted during the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019:

 

  2020  2019 
Expected stock price volatility  53.1%  50.4%
Expected life of options (years)  5.6   5.6 
Expected dividend yield  0%  0%
Risk free interest rate  1.4%  2.4%

 

During the year ended September 30, 2020, 594,536 stock options vested having a weighted average grant date fair value per option of $1.02. During the year ended September 30, 2019, 288,138 stock options vested having a weighted average grant date fair value per option of $1.11. During the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, 294,985 and zero options were forfeited, respectively.

 

F-25 

 

 

Restricted Stock Units

 

During the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, 234,964 and 42,018 restricted stock units (“RSUs”) were granted to members of its board of directors and consultants that vest over a period ranging from immediate to two years, with a grant date fair value of $2.09 and $2.38 per unit, respectively. During the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, 179,378 and 10,503 RSUs vested, respectively. The total expense for the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 to the RSU’s was $396,012 and $25,001, respectively. The number of RSUs forfeited during the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was 7,003 and zero, respectively.

 

Other Stock-Based Awards

 

2020 Activity

 

In October 2019, two consulting agreements were executed whereby up to 115,000 shares of common stock were issued as of September 30, 2020 of which 115,000 shares of common stock were vested as of September 30, 2020 under these agreements. On April 22, 2020, the Company entered into an amendment (the “Amendment”) to one of the consulting agreements. Pursuant to the Amendment, the Company issued an additional 35,000 shares in exchange for consulting services of which 35,000 shares of common stock were vested as of September 30, 2020 under the Amendment. Vesting was based on a time-based vesting condition ranging over a three to nine-month period commencing upon the execution of the consulting agreements.

 

In February 2020, an additional consulting agreement was executed whereby up to 90,000 shares of common stock were issuable of which 90,000 shares of common stock were issued and vested as of September 30, 2020 under this agreement. In addition, on May 21, 2020, 66,583 shares of common stock were issued as compensation to a former 2019 Paulson Note holder related to a prior 2019 Paulson Note conversion and release of liability.

 

In August 2020, an additional consulting agreement was executed whereby 120,000 shares of common stock were issued, subject to Company repurchase. The stock award under the agreement vests over a six-month period. As of September 30, 2020, 20,000 shares vested under this agreement.

 

Compensation expense related to the stock awards granted under the consulting agreements and to the former 2019 Paulson Note holder referenced above amounted to $641,716 for the year ended September 30, 2020 and was included in the total stock-based expense. The expense was based on the fair value of the underlying common stock at the point of vesting which ranged from $1.51 to $2.65 per share.

 

2019 Activity

 

A total of 250,000 shares of common stock were reserved in February 2018 as a result of a consulting agreement for investor relations services executed in February 2018. Under the agreement, 50,000 shares of common stock were awarded during the year ended September 30, 2019 subject to time-based vesting conditions. The compensation expense related to the vested common shares was included in the total stock-based compensation expense referenced above which totaled $115,000 during the year ended September 30, 2019. The expense was based on the fair value of the underlying common stock at the point of vesting which, on a weighted average basis, was $2.30 per share during the year ended September 30, 2019. The underlying stock price used in the analysis was on a non-marketable basis and was according to the market approach, considering both the traded price and forward multiples from guideline public companies, using allocation and marketability-discount methodologies. As of November 2018, all shares under the February 2018 share reserve were issued from the Company’s authorized but unissued shares, but were not eligible to be issued under the 2016 or 2017 Equity Incentive Plan reserves.

 

In addition, the Company previously had formal obligations to issue future common stock options relating to several consulting agreements. A total of 38,874 stock options were granted in May 2019 related to those consulting agreements. The corresponding stock-based compensation expense related to the stock-based awards in the amount of $27,543 was included in research and development expense in the accompanying statements of operations.

 

F-26 

 

 

General

 

As of September 30, 2020, 1,839,400 shares were available for future issuance on a combined basis under the 2016 and 2017 Equity Incentive Plans. Unrecognized stock-based compensation was $845,273 as of September 30, 2020. The unrecognized share-based expense is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.0 years.

 

NOTE 10 - Stockholders’ Deficit

 

2020 Common Stock Offering

 

On July 28, 2020, the Company entered into securities purchase agreements with an accredited investor in a private placement, pursuant to which the Company has issued and sold 75,000 shares to such investor, at $1.80 per share for gross proceeds amounting to $135,000.

 

2019 Common Stock Offering

 

On October 23, 2019, the Company entered into Securities Purchase Agreements with certain accredited investors, pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement, has issued and sold 141,666 shares of the Company’s common stock to the accredited investors at a price of $1.80 per share, for gross proceeds amounting to $255,000. The Company filed a registration statement with the SEC covering the resale of the shares of common stock sold in the private placement on August 11, 2020.

 

2019 Private Placement

 

From December 28, 2018 through July 1, 2019, the Company entered into Subscription Agreements (each, a “2019 Purchase Agreement”) with certain accredited investors (the “New Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company, in a new private placement (the “2019 Unit Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell Units (the “2019 Units”), each consisting of (i) 1 share of common stock and (ii) a warrant to purchase 1 share of common stock at an initial exercise price of $3.00 per share (the “2019 Warrants”), to the New Purchasers. The 2019 Warrants are exercisable beginning on the date of issuance and will expire on December 28, 2023, five years from the date of the first closing of the 2019 Unit Private Placement.

 

The initial closing of the 2019 Unit Private Placement was consummated on December 28, 2018. The Company issued and sold an aggregate of 2,338,179 of the 2019 Units at $2.50 per Unit to the New Purchasers, for total gross proceeds to the Company of $5,845,448 before deducting offering expenses during the year ended September 30, 2019. In connection with the 2019 Unit Private Placement, the Company recorded issuance costs in the amount of $1,150,359. The 2019 Unit Private Placement was terminated on July 1, 2019.

 

2018 Private Placement

 

From July 9, 2018 through November 30, 2018 (the final closing), the Company entered into subscription agreements (each, a “Purchase Agreement”) with certain accredited investors (the “Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company, in a private placement (the “2018 Private Placement”), agreed to issue and sell to the Purchasers units (each, a “2018 Unit”), each consisting of (i) 1 share (each, a “Share”) of common stock and (ii) a warrant to purchase 1 share of common stock at an initial exercise price of $3.00 per share (the “2018 Warrants”). The 2018 Warrants are exercisable beginning on the date of issuance and will expire on July 9, 2023, five years from the date of the first closing. The 2018 Warrants were accounted for as free-standing equity instruments and classified as additional paid-in capital in the accompanying balance sheets based on their relative fair value to the underlying common shares issued. The initial closing of the 2018 Private Placement was consummated on July 9, 2018 and was terminated on December 12, 2018.

 

As of the termination of the 2018 Private Placement on December 12, 2018, the Company had issued and sold an aggregate of 615,200 of the 2018 Units at a price of $2.50 per Unit to the Purchasers, for total gross proceeds to the Company of $1,538,000 before deducting offering expenses (170,000 of the 2018 Units were sold during the year ended September 30, 2019). In connection with the 2018 Private Placement, the Company recorded issuance costs in the amount of $191,387 ($18,320 recorded during the year ended September 30, 2019).

 

F-27 

 

 

Warrant Activity and Summary

 

The following table summarizes warrant activity during the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019:

 

  Warrants  Exercise
Price Per
Warrant
  Weighted
Average Exercise
Price
  Weighted
Average Term
(years)
 
Outstanding and exercisable at September 30, 2018  2,927,572  $1.80 - 3.00  $1.98   3.39 
Issued  4,569,322  $2.00 - 3.00  $2.87    
Exercised  (231,296) $1.80  $1.80    
Forfeited    $  $    
Outstanding and exercisable at September 30, 2019  7,265,598  $1.80 - 3.00  $2.55   3.60 
Issued  2,904,990  $ 1.87  $1.87    
Exercised    $  $    
Forfeited    $  $    
Outstanding and exercisable at September 30, 2020  10,170,588  $1.80 - 3.00  $2.35   2.89 

 

The following table summarizes information about warrants outstanding at September 30, 2020:

 

Exercise Price  Number Outstanding  Weighted Average
Remaining Contractual
life (Years)
 Number Exercisable at
September 30,
2020
 
$1.80   2,251,076  1.14  2,251,076 
$1.87   2,904,990  3.63  2,904,990 
$2.00   135,512  3.75  135,512 
$2.50   839,179  3.41  839,179 
$2.75   193,417  3.75  193,417 
$3.00   3,846,414  3.18  3,846,414 
Total   10,170,588     10,170,588 

 

NOTE 11 - Income Taxes

 

The effective tax rate for the Company for the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was zero percent. A reconciliation of income tax computed at the statutory federal income tax rate to the provision (benefit) for income taxes included in the accompanying statements of operations for the Company is as follows:

 

  2020  2019 
Income tax benefit at federal statutory rate  (21.0)%  (21.0)%
State income tax, net of federal benefit  (7.7)  (7.7)
Warrant expense     2.5 
Disqualified interest and other  17.0   0.2 
Research credits  (1.3)  (2.0)
Stock-based compensation and other  0.2   (0.8)
Valuation allowance  12.8   28.8 
Effective tax rate  %  %

 

F-28 

 

 

Significant components of the Company’s deferred tax assets and liabilities are summarized in the tables below as of September 30, 2020 and 2019:

 

  2020  2019 
Deferred tax assets:      
Federal and state operating loss carryforwards $4,936,384  $3,528,712 
Acquired intangibles  22,635   16,221 
Accruals and other  30,406   40,113 
Research and development credit carryforwards  450,081   275,343 
Stock-based compensation  255,068   90,819 
Total deferred tax assets  5,694,574   3,951,208 
Valuation allowance  (5,694,574)  (3,951,208)
Net deferred tax assets $  $ 

 

As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company had gross deferred tax assets of approximately $5,695,000 and 3,951,000, respectively. Realization of the deferred assets is primarily dependent upon future taxable income, if any, the amount and timing of which are uncertain. The Company has had significant pre-tax losses since its inception. The Company has not yet generated revenues from sales and faces significant challenges to becoming profitable. Accordingly, the net deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance of approximately $5,695,000 and $3,951,000 as of September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The U.S. net deferred tax assets will continue to require a valuation allowance until the Company can demonstrate their realizability through sustained profitability or another source of income.

 

As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company’s federal net operating loss carryforwards were approximately $17,175,000 and $12,277,000, respectively. The Company had federal research credit carryforwards as of September 30, 2020 and 2019 of approximately $272,000 and $166,000, respectively. The federal net operating loss incurred prior to January 1, 2018 and tax credit carryforwards will begin to expire in 2036 if not utilized. Federal net operating losses incurred after December 31, 2017 will not expire. As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company had state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $17,175,000 and $12,277,000, respectively. The Company had state research credit carryforwards of approximately $178,000 and $110,000 as of September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The state net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire in 2031, if not utilized, and the state research credit carryforwards will begin to expire in 2032 if not utilized.

 

Utilization of the net operating loss carryforwards and credits may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to the ownership change limitations provided by Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and similar state provisions. Generally, in addition to certain entity reorganizations, the limitation applies when one or more “5-percent shareholders” increase their ownership, in the aggregate, by more than 50 percentage points over a 36-month testing period or beginning the day after the most recent ownership change, if shorter. The annual limitation may result in the expiration of net operating losses and credits before utilization.

 

In accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”), specifically related to uncertain tax positions, a Company is required to use a recognition threshold and a measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. The Company believes its income tax filing positions and deductions will be sustained upon examination, and accordingly, no reserves or related accruals for interest and penalties have been recorded at September 30, 2020 and 2019.

 

F-29 

 

 

In accordance with this guidance, the Company has adopted a policy under which, if required to be recognized in the future, interest related to the underpayment of income taxes will be classified as a component of interest expense and any related penalties will be classified in operating expenses in the statements of operations.

 

The Company’s corporate returns are subject to examination for the 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 tax years for federal and subject to examination for the 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 tax years in several state jurisdictions.

 

NOTE 12 - Defined Contribution Plan

 

The Company has a 401(k) defined contribution plan (the “401K Plan”) for all employees over age 21. Employees can defer up to 100% of their compensation through payroll withholdings into the 401K Plan subject to federal law limits. The Company matches 100% of deferrals up to 3% of one’s contributions. The Company’s matching contributions to employee deferrals are discretionary. The Company may also make discretionary profit sharing contributions under the 401K Plan in the future, but it has not done so through September 30, 2020.

 

Employee contributions and any employer matching contributions made to satisfy certain non-discrimination tests required by the Internal Revenue Code are 100% vested upon contribution. Discretionary employer matches to employee deferrals vest over a six year period beginning on the second anniversary of an employee’s date of hire. Discretionary profit sharing contributions vest over a five year period beginning on the first anniversary of an employee’s date of hire. The amount of matching contributions made during the year ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was zero and a benefit reduction of $(4,359), respectively.

 

NOTE 13 - Subsequent Events

 

Conversions of 2019 Paulson Notes

 

Between October 1, 2020 and November 2, 2020, 2019 Paulson Notes with an aggregate of $557,992, were converted into 787,571 shares of Common Stock.

 

On December 7, 2020, the Company received its first purchase order for commercial sale of its product from Zimmer Biomet.

 

F-30 

 

 

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

 

None

 

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

Disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) are controls and other procedures that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that that information required to be disclosed in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

As of September 30, 2020, our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, including our Chief Executive Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level as of September 30, 2020.

 

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that: (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and Board; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

 

Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer, recognizes that our internal control over financial reporting cannot prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. The design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Further, because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected. The design of any system of controls is based in part on certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions.

 

Management, with the participation of the Chief Executive Officer, assessed our internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2020, the end of our fiscal year. Management based its assessment on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

 

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

No change in our system of internal control over financial reporting occurred during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION

 

None.

 

86

 

 

PART III

 

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

The information required by this item is set forth under the following captions in our proxy statement to be filed with respect to the 2021 annual meeting of shareholders (the “Proxy Statement”), all of which is incorporated herein by reference: “Proposal No. 1 – Election of Class I Directors”, “Board and Committee Information”, “Executive Officers” and “Additional Information – Stockholder Proposals to be Presented at Next Annual Meeting.”

 

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.

 

The information required by this item set forth under the following captions in our Proxy Statement, all of which is incorporated herein by reference: “Executive Compensation.”

 

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

 

The information required by this item is set forth under the following captions in our Proxy Statement, all of which is incorporated herein by reference: “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”

 

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions

 

The information required by this item is set forth under the following captions in our Proxy Statement, all of which is incorporated herein by reference: “Certain Relationships and Related-Party Transactions.”

 

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

 

The information required by this item is set forth under the following captions in our Proxy Statement, which is incorporated by reference herein by reference: “Proposal No. 2, Ratification of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.”

 

87

 

 

PART IV

 

ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

 

The following documents are filed as part of this Annual Report:

 

(1)Financial Statements: The financial statements filed as part of this Annual Report are listed in Part II, Item 8.

 

(2)Financial Statement Schedules:

 

No financial statement schedules are provided because the information called for is not required or is shown either in the financial statements or notes thereto.

 

(3)Exhibits: The exhibits incorporated by reference or filed as part of this Annual Report are listed in the Index to Exhibits below.

 

Exhibit No. Document
   
2.1 * Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization by and among NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation, OSOK Acquisition Company and NeuroOne, Inc. dated as of July 20, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
2.2 Plan of Conversion of NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation dated June 20, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 29, 2017)
   
3.1 Certificate of Incorporation of NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June, 29, 2017)
   
3.2 Bylaws of NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.5 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 29, 2017)
   
4.1 Form of Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
    
4.2 Description of Securities (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 on the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on December 20, 2019)
   
10.1 # Amended and Restated Exclusive Start-up Company License Agreement effective January 21, 2020 by and between NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation and Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 24, 2020)
   
10.2 ## Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Amended and Restated License and Development Agreement by and between Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, and NeuroOne LLC dated as of May 25, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
10.3 + 2016 Equity Incentive Plan of NeuroOne, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.11 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
10.4 + Form of Stock Option Award Agreement pursuant to 2016 Equity Incentive Plan of NeuroOne, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.12 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
10.5 + Restricted Stock Purchase Agreement by and between NeuroOne, Inc. and Thomas Bachinski, dated as of April 10, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.13 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
10.6 + 2017 Equity Incentive Plan of the Company (incorporated by reference to Appendix G to Schedule 14C filed on April 20, 2017)
   
10.7+ NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation 2017 Equity Incentive Plan Option Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.15 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)

 

88

 

 

10.8 + NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation 2017 Equity Incentive Plan Restricted Stock Unit Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.16 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
10.9 + Offer Letter to Mark Christianson from NeuroOne, Inc. dated December 1, 2016 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.18 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
10.10 + Form of Indemnification Agreement with the Company’s Officers and Directors (incorporated by reference to Exhibit E to Appendix B to Schedule 14C filed on April 20, 2017)
   
10.11 + Release Agreement of Wade Fredrickson dated June 28, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.23 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
10.12+ Employment Agreement by and between NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation and David A. Rosa dated August 4, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 7, 2017)
   
10.13 First Amendment to Promissory Note by and between NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation and the Subscribers dated as of November 30 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 6, 2017)
   
10.14 Form of Capital Stock Purchase Warrant pursuant to August 2017 Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 23, 2017)
   
10.15 Form of October 2017 Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 6, 2017)
   
10.16 Form of Promissory Note issued pursuant to October 2017 Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 6, 2017)
   
10.17 Form of Capital Stock Purchase Warrant issued pursuant to October 2017 Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 6, 2017)
   
10.18 Form of Amended and Restated Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 20, 2017)
   
10.19 Form of Amended and Restated Promissory Note issued pursuant to Amended and Restated Promissory Note and Warrant Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 20, 2017)
   
10.20 Form of Amended and Restated Capital Stock Purchase Warrant issued pursuant to Amended and Restated Promissory Note and Warrant Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 20, 2017)
   
10.21 Form of Amended and Restated Note issued pursuant to August 2017 Subscription Agreement, as amended (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 16, 2018)
   
10.22 Form of Replacement Warrant issued pursuant to August 2017 Subscription Agreement, as amended (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 16, 2018)
   
10.23 Form of Additional Warrant issued pursuant to August 2017 Subscription Agreement, as amended (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 16, 2018)

 

89

 

  

10.24 + Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.40 to 10-K filed April 16, 2018)
   
10.25 Form of Series 1 Notes Debt Conversion Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to 8-K filed July 6, 2018)
   
10.26 Form of Series 2 Notes Debt Conversion Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to 8-K filed July 6, 2018)
   
10.27 Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to 8-K filed July 13, 2018)
   
10.28 Form of Purchase Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to 8-K filed July 13, 2018)
   
10.29 Form of Registration Rights Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to 8-K filed July 13, 2018)
   
10.30 + Employee Proprietary Information, Inventions, Assignment and Non-Competition Agreement. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.52 on the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-KT filed on December 12, 2018) 
   
10.31 Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 4, 2019)
   
10.32 Form of Purchase Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 4, 2019)
   
10.33 Form of Registration Rights Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 4, 2019)
   
10.34 + Offer Letter between Steve Mertens and NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation, effective April 1, 2019 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 on the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on May 10, 2019)
   
10.35 Form of Conversion Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 6, 2019)
   
10.36 Form of Paulson Placement Agent Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 5, 2019)
   
10.37 Form of HRA Placement Agent Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 5, 2019)
   
10.38 Letter Agreement between the Registrant and Lifestyle Healthcare LLC, dated May 8, 2019 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 8, 2019)
   
10.39 Lease Agreement dated October 7, 2019, by and among NeuroOne Medical Technologies Corporation and Biynah Cleveland, LLC, BIP Cleveland, LLC, and Edenvale Investors (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 11, 2019)

 

90

 

 

10.40 Lock-Up Agreement dated October 21, 2019, between Wade Fredrickson and the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.42 on the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on December 20, 2019)
   
10.41 Form of Securities Purchase Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 29, 2019)
   
10.42 Form of Convertible Promissory Note issued pursuant to November 2019 Promissory Note and Warrant Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 7, 2019)
   
10.43 Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant issued pursuant to November 2019 Promissory Note and Warrant Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 7, 2019)
   
10.44 Form of November 2019 Promissory Note and Warrant Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 7, 2019)
   
10.45 Form of Broker Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 24, 2020)
   
10.46 Form of First Amendment to Convertible Promissory Note (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 11, 2019)
   
10.47 Form of Second Amendment to Convertible Promissory Note (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 30, 2020)
   
10.48 Form of Convertible Promissory Note issued pursuant to April 2020 Promissory Note and Warrant Subscription Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 1, 2020)
   
10.49 Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 1, 2020)
   
10.50 Form of Purchase Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 1, 2020)
   
10.51 Exclusive Development and Distribution Agreement dated as of July 20, 2020 by and between the Company and Zimmer, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 22, 2020).
   
10.52 Securities Purchase Agreement dated as of July 24, 2020 by and between the Company and the Purchaser listed thereto (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 3, 2020).
   
16.1 Letter from Pritchett, Siler & Hardy, P.C., dated July 11, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 16.2 on the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2017)
   
21.1 Subsidiaries of the Registrant
   
23.1 Consent of BDO USA, LLP
   
31.1 Certification of Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Exchange Act Rule 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a), as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
   
32.1 Certification of Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
   
101.INS XBRL Instance Document
   
101.SCH XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
   
101.CAL XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
   
101.DEF XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
   
101.LAB XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
   
101.PRE XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document

 

 

 

*Pursuant to Item 601(b)(2) of Regulation S-K, the Registrant agrees to furnish supplementally a copy of any omitted schedule or exhibit to the Agreement and Plan of Merger to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon request.
  
#Certain schedules and exhibits have been omitted pursuant to Item 601(a)(5) of Regulation S-K. A copy of any omitted schedule and/or exhibit will be furnished to the SEC upon request. Certain portions of the exhibits that are not material and would be competitively harmful if publicly disclosed have been redacted pursuant to Item 601(b)(10)(iv) of Regulation S-K. Copies of the unredacted exhibits will be furnished to the SEC upon request.
  
##Portions of this exhibit have been omitted pursuant to a request for confidential treatment and have been separately filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
  
+Indicates management contract or compensatory plan.

 

91

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this Annual Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

Date: December 8, 2020NEUROONE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
   
 By:/s/ DAVID ROSA
  David Rosa
  Chief Executive Officer

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this Annual Report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

SIGNATURE TITLE DATE
     
/s/ DAVID ROSA Chief Executive Officer and Director December 8, 2020
David Rosa (Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer)  
     
/s/ PAUL BUCKMAN Chairman of the Board of Directors December 8, 2020
Paul Buckman    
     
/s/ ED ANDRLE Member of the Board of Directors December 8, 2020
Ed Andrle    
     
/s/ JEFFREY MATHIESEN Member of the Board of Directors December 8, 2020
Jeffrey Mathiesen    

 

92