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SNAP Snap

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 5, 2021

Registration No. 333-          

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Snap Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware 45-5452795
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

2772 Donald Douglas Loop North

Santa Monica, California

(310) 399-3339

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Evan Spiegel

Chief Executive Officer

Snap Inc.

2772 Donald Douglas Loop North

Santa Monica, California 90405

(310) 399-3339

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Eric C. Jensen

Seth J. Gottlieb

Alex K. Kassai

Cooley LLP

3175 Hanover Street

Palo Alto, California 94304-1130

(650) 843-5000

 

Michael O’Sullivan

Atul Porwal

Snap Inc.

2772 Donald Douglas Loop North

Santa Monica, California 90405

(310) 399-3339

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company 
   

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
 Amount
to be
Registered
 Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit
 Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
 Amount of
Registration Fee

Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share

 (1) (1) (1) (2)

Preferred Stock, par value $0.00001 per share

 (1) (1) (1) (2)

Debt Securities

 (1) (1) (1) (2)

Warrants

 (1) (1) (1) (2)

 

 

(1)

Omitted pursuant to General Instructions II.E of Form S-3. An indeterminate number or amount, as the case may be, of Class A common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, and warrants are being registered hereunder as may from time to time be issued at indeterminate prices. The securities being registered hereunder may be convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for other securities of any identified class, and may be sold separately or in combination. In addition to the securities that may be issued directly under this registration statement, there is being registered hereunder such indeterminate aggregate number or amount, as the case may be, of the securities of each identified class as may from time to time be issued on the conversion, exchange, settlement, or exercise of other securities offered hereby. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on the conversion or exercise of, or in exchange for, other securities offered hereby or that are offered in combination. Securities registered hereby may be offered for U.S. dollars or the equivalent thereof in foreign currencies.

(2)

Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r), the registrant is deferring payment of all applicable registration fees. Any registration fees will be paid subsequently on a pay-as-you-go basis in accordance with Rule 457(r).

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Class A Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

We or a selling securityholder may, from time to time, offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We or a selling securityholder may also offer Class A common stock or preferred stock on conversion of debt securities, Class A common stock on conversion of preferred stock, or Class A common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities on exercise of warrants.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to an offering of our securities. Each time we or a selling securityholder sells securities pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, and any related free writing prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

Securities may be sold by us or selling securityholders through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers, or through designated agents from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters and any applicable discounts or commissions and options to purchase additional securities will be listed in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be listed in a prospectus supplement. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by selling securityholders.

Our Class A common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SNAP.” On February 4, 2021, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $58.31 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the New York Stock Exchange or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in, or incorporated by reference into, the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is February 5, 2021.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

   Page 

About this Prospectus

   i 

Prospectus Summary

   1 

The Securities We May Offer

   2 

Risk Factors

   5 

Forward-Looking Statements

   6 

Use of Proceeds

   8 

Description of Capital Stock

   9 

Description of Debt Securities

   16 

Description of Warrants

   23 

Legal Ownership of Securities

   25 

Selling Securityholders

   29 

Plan of Distribution

   30 

Legal Matters

   32 

Experts

   32 

Where You Can Find Additional Information

   33 

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

   34 

We have not authorized anyone to provide any information other than that included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or in any such free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than their respective dates.

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration statement, from time to time, we or selling securityholders may sell, in one or more offerings, Class A common stock, preferred stock, various series of debt securities, or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities described in this prospectus. There is no limit on the aggregate amount of the securities that we or selling securityholders may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or selling securityholders may offer.

Each time we or selling securityholders sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will include more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. In a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we may also add, update, or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. Before buying any of the securities being offered, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described in the section titled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

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This prospectus contains estimates and information concerning our industry, including market size and growth rates of the markets in which we participate, that are based on industry publications and reports. This information involves many assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and reports. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors,” that could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in these publications and reports.

This prospectus includes summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described in this prospectus, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed, or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described in the section titled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

Unless otherwise indicated, all references in this prospectus to “Snap,” the “company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and similar terms refer to Snap Inc. and its subsidiaries.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks, and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks, and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information included elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Before making your investment decision, you should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

SNAP INC.

Overview

Snap Inc. is a camera company. We believe that reinventing the camera represents our greatest opportunity to improve the way that people live and communicate. We contribute to human progress by empowering people to express themselves, live in the moment, learn about the world, and have fun together.

Our flagship product, Snapchat, is a camera application that helps people communicate visually with friends and family through short videos and images called Snaps. By opening directly to the camera, we empower users to express themselves instantly. Snaps are deleted by default, so there is less pressure to look pretty or perfect when creating and sending images on Snapchat. By reducing the friction typically associated with creating and sharing content, Snapchat has become one of the most used cameras in the world.

In the way that the flashing cursor became the starting point for most products on desktop computers, we believe the camera screen will be the starting point for most products on smartphones. This is because images created by smartphone cameras contain more context and richer information than other forms of input like text entered on a keyboard. Given the magnitude of this opportunity, we invest heavily and take big risks in an attempt to create innovative and differentiated camera products that are better able to reflect and improve our life experiences.

Corporate Information

We were formed as Future Freshman, LLC, a California limited liability company, in 2010. We changed our name to Toyopa Group, LLC in 2011, incorporated as Snapchat, Inc., a Delaware corporation, in 2012, and changed our name to Snap Inc. in 2016. We completed our initial public offering in March 2017 and our Class A common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SNAP.”

Our principal executive offices are located at 2772 Donald Douglas Loop North, Santa Monica, California 90405, and our telephone number is (310) 399-3339. Our website address is www.snap.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only. Snap Inc., “Snapchat,” and our other registered and common-law trade names, trademarks, and service marks appearing in this prospectus are property of Snap Inc. or our subsidiaries.

Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to numerous risks, as described in the section titled “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including the sections titled “Risk Factor Summary” and “Risk Factors” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as any amendments reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC.



 

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THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

We or selling securityholders may offer shares of our Class A common stock or preferred stock, various series of debt securities, or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination, from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. We or selling securityholders may also offer Class A common stock or preferred stock on conversion of debt securities, Class A common stock on conversion of preferred stock, or Class A common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities on exercise of warrants. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or selling securityholders may offer. Each time we or selling securityholders offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices, and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  

designation or classification;

 

  

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

  

maturity date;

 

  

original issue discount;

 

  

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends;

 

  

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange, or sinking fund terms;

 

  

ranking;

 

  

restrictive covenants;

 

  

voting or other rights;

 

  

conversion or exchange prices or rates and any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable on conversion or exchange; and

 

  

a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations.

The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update, or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference.

We or selling securityholders may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters, or dealers. We, selling securityholders, and our agents, underwriters, or dealers reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we or selling securityholders do offer securities to or through agents, underwriters, or dealers, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

  

the names of those agents, underwriters, or dealers;

 

  

applicable fees, discounts, and commissions to be paid to them;

 

  

details regarding options to purchase additional securities, if any; and

 

  

the net proceeds to us, if any.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Class A Common Stock

From time to time, we may issue shares of our Class A common stock. Our Class A common stock is non-voting and is not entitled to any votes on any matter that is submitted to a vote of our stockholders, except as required

 

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by Delaware law. Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will be entitled to share equally, identically, and ratably, on a per share basis, with respect to any dividend or distribution of cash or property paid or distributed by us, unless different treatment of the shares of the affected class is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of the class treated adversely, voting separately as a class. On our liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up, the holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will be entitled to share equally, identically, and ratably in all assets remaining after the payment of any liabilities, liquidation preferences, and accrued or declared but unpaid dividends, if any, with respect to any outstanding preferred stock, unless a different treatment is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of each class of common stock, including the Class A common stock, voting separately as a class. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, conversion, or subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to any class of common stock. The rights, preferences, and privileges of the holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate in the future. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the common stock in the section titled “Description of Capital Stock-Class A Common Stock, Class B Common Stock, and Class C Common Stock.” We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to any Class A common stock being offered.

Preferred Stock

From time to time, we may issue shares of our preferred stock, in one or more series. Under our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority to designate up to 500,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions of each series of preferred stock. Our board of directors also has the authority to the qualifications, limitations, or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms, and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our Class A common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences, and rights of such series of preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations, or restrictions, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock in the section titled “Description of Capital Stock-Preferred Stock.” We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to any preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities

From time to time, we may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option, and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this

 

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prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities in the section titled “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

Warrants

From time to time, we may issue warrants for the purchase of Class A common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with Class A common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants in the section titled “Description of Warrants.” We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

Selling Securityholders

Selling securityholders are persons or entities that, directly or indirectly, have acquired or will from time to time acquire from us, our securities. Information about selling securityholders, if any, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. See the section entitled “Selling Securityholders.”

Use of Proceeds

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities offered by us, if any, for general corporate purposes, including working capital and capital expenditures. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, we will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our securities by selling securityholders.

New York Stock Exchange Listing

Our Class A common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SNAP.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings on the New York Stock Exchange or other securities exchange of the shares of our Class A common stock covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in the section titled “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factor Summary” and “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as any amendments reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, revenue, and future prospects could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section titled “Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference herein, contains, and any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus including the documents we incorporate by reference therein may contain, forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, including statements regarding our future financial condition, business strategy, and plans and objectives of management for future operations. All statements other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including risks described in the sections titled “Risk Factor Summary” and “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, regarding, among other things:

 

  

our financial performance, including our revenues, cost of revenues, operating expenses, and our ability to attain and sustain profitability;

 

  

our ability to generate and sustain positive cash flow;

 

  

our ability to attract and retain users and publishers;

 

  

our ability to attract and retain advertisers;

 

  

our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants;

 

  

our ability to effectively manage our growth and future expenses;

 

  

our ability to comply with modified or new laws, regulations, and executive actions applying to our business;

 

  

our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property;

 

  

our ability to successfully expand in our existing market segments and penetrate new market segments;

 

  

our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;

 

  

our ability to repay outstanding debt;

 

  

future acquisitions of or investments in complementary companies, products, services, or technologies; and

 

  

the potential adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we and our partners, advertisers, and users operate.

Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found in the sections titled “Risk Factor Summary,” “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as any amendments filed with the SEC. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance, or achievement to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail, and incorporate by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, many of these risks and uncertainties in the sections titled “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, and

 

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in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as any amendments reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC. In addition, statements that we “believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital and capital expenditures. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by selling securityholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the date of this prospectus, our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue up to (i) 3,960,887,848 shares of common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, 3,000,000,000 of which are designated Class A common stock, 700,000,000 of which are designated Class B common stock, and 260,887,848 of which are designated Class C common stock; and (ii) 500,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.00001 par value per share. As of January 31, 2021:

 

  

1,252,952,827 shares of Class A common stock were outstanding;

 

  

23,691,358 shares of Class B common stock were outstanding;

 

  

231,626,943 shares of Class C common stock were outstanding; and

 

  

no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

The following summary describes the material terms of our capital stock. The description of capital stock is qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws.

Class A Common Stock, Class B Common Stock, and Class C Common Stock

Voting Rights

Our Class A common stock is non-voting and is not entitled to any votes on any matter that is submitted to a vote of our stockholders, except as required by Delaware law. Delaware law would permit holders of Class A common stock to vote, with one vote per share, on a matter if we were to:

 

  

change the par value of the common stock; or

 

  

amend our certificate of incorporation to alter the powers, preferences, or special rights of the common stock as a whole in a way that would adversely affect the holders of our Class A common stock.

In addition, Delaware law would permit holders of Class A common stock to vote separately, as a single class, if an amendment to our certificate of incorporation would adversely affect them by altering the powers, preferences, or special rights of the Class A common stock, but not the Class B common stock or Class C common stock. As a result, in these limited instances, the holders of a majority of the Class A common stock could defeat any amendment to our certificate of incorporation. For example, if a proposed amendment of our certificate of incorporation provided for the Class A common stock to rank junior to the Class B common stock and Class C common stock with respect to (i) any dividend or distribution, (ii) the distribution of proceeds were we to be acquired, or (iii) any other right, Delaware law would require the vote of the Class A common stock, with each share of Class A common stock entitled to one vote per share. In this instance, the holders of a majority of Class A common stock could defeat that amendment to our certificate of incorporation. Moreover, if an amendment to our certificate of incorporation would alter the powers, preferences, or special rights of the Class A common stock and either the Class B common Stock or the Class C common stock in a way that would affect them adversely compared to the unaffected class, Delaware law would permit the holders of Class A common stock to vote with the other adversely affected class of common stock together as a single class. For example, if a proposed amendment to our certificate of incorporation provided for the Class A common stock and Class B common stock to rank junior to the Class C common stock with respect to (i) any dividend or distribution, (ii) the distribution of proceeds were we to be acquired, or (iii) any other right, Delaware law would require the vote of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock voting together as a single class, with each share of Class A common stock and Class B common stock entitled to one vote per share. In this instance, the holders of a majority of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock, voting together as a single class, could defeat that amendment to our certificate of incorporation.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that the number of authorized shares of common stock or any class of common stock, including our Class A common stock, may be increased or decreased (but not below the number

 

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of shares of common stock then outstanding) by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the Class B common stock and Class C common stock, voting together as a single class. As a result, the holders of a majority of the outstanding Class B common stock and Class C common stock can approve an increase or decrease in the number of authorized shares of Class A common stock without a separate vote of the holders of Class A common stock. This could allow us to increase and issue additional shares of Class A common stock beyond what is currently authorized in our certificate of incorporation without the consent of the holders of our Class A common stock.

Holders of our Class B common stock are entitled to one vote per share and holders of Class C common stock are entitled to ten votes per share on any matter submitted to our stockholders. Except as set forth above, holders of shares of Class B common stock and Class C common stock will vote together as a single class on all matters (including the election of directors) submitted to a vote of stockholders. In addition, each class of our common stock may have the right to vote separately in certain instances as listed in the section titled “-Economic Rights.”

On the date that all outstanding shares of Class C common stock have converted to Class B common stock, all shares of Class B common stock will convert to Class A common stock and the holders of Class A common stock will be entitled to one vote per share.

Our certificate of incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting for the election of directors.

Founder Proxy Agreement

Evan Spiegel and Robert Murphy, our co-founders, have entered into a proxy agreement with each other. The agreement will apply to all shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock that each may beneficially own from time to time or have voting control over.

Under the proxy agreement, Mr. Spiegel has designated Mr. Murphy as his designated proxy holder, and Mr. Murphy has designated Mr. Spiegel as his designated proxy holder. Each co-founder has the right to select from time to time an alternate proxy holder who would exercise the proxy if the primary proxy holder were unable or unwilling to serve as a proxy. Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy have each appointed Michael Lynton as his alternate proxy. Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy may not change the primary proxy holder without the other’s consent. A proxy holder will have the right to exercise all of the voting and consent rights of our shares of Class B common stock and Class C common stock beneficially owned by the deceased or disabled co-founder or over which he has voting control on and for the nine months following the co-founder’s death or during his disability. Before any proxy holder may vote or act by written consent with respect to the shares of Class B common stock and Class C common stock over which they hold a proxy, that proxy holder will meet with the independent members of our board of directors within 90 days of the co-founder’s death or disability.

The proxy agreement will terminate as soon as any of the following occur: (i) nine months after the death of both Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy, (ii) the liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of our business operations, (iii) the execution by us of a general assignment for the benefit of creditors or the appointment of a receiver or trustee to take possession of our property and assets, or (iv) the date as of which Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy terminate the proxy agreement by written consent of Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy, with notice to us.

Economic Rights

Except as otherwise expressly provided in our certificate of incorporation or required by Delaware law, all shares of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will have the same rights and privileges and rank equally, share ratably, and be identical in all respects for all matters, including those described below

Dividends and Distributions. Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will be

 

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entitled to share equally, identically, and ratably, on a per share basis, with respect to any dividend or distribution of cash or property paid or distributed by us, unless different treatment of the shares of the affected class is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of the class treated adversely voting separately as a class. Even though holders of Class A common stock are not normally entitled to a vote on matters presented to our stockholders, they would be entitled to vote separately as a class, with one vote per share, on dividends and distributions if the holders of Class A common stock were treated adversely. As a result, if the holders of Class A common stock were treated adversely in any dividend or distribution, the holders of a majority of Class A common stock could defeat that dividend or distribution. In addition, if any two classes of common stock are treated adversely relative to another class of common stock with respect to any dividend or distribution, the vote of the holders of a majority of the adversely affected classes, voting together as a single class, would be required to approve that dividend or distribution. For example, if we were to make a distribution of cash to the holders of Class C common stock but not make a cash distribution or make a distribution of stock instead of cash to the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, the holders of a majority of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, voting together as a single class, would be required to approve that dividend or distribution. In that scenario, each share of Class A common stock and Class B common stock would be entitled to one vote per share.

Liquidation Rights. On our liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up, the holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will be entitled to share equally, identically, and ratably in all assets remaining after the payment of any liabilities, liquidation preferences, and accrued or declared but unpaid dividends, if any, with respect to any outstanding preferred stock, unless a different treatment is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of each class of common stock, including the Class A common stock, voting separately as a class. As a result, the holders of a majority of each class of common stock, including the Class A common stock, could defeat a proposed distribution of any assets on our liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up if that distribution were not to be shared equally, identically, and ratably.

Change of Control Transactions. The holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock will be treated equally and identically with respect to shares of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, or Class C common stock owned by them, unless different treatment of the shares of each class is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of each class of common stock, including the Class A common stock, voting separately as a class, on (i) the closing of the sale, transfer, or other disposition of all or substantially all of our assets, (ii) the consummation of a merger, reorganization, consolidation, or share transfer which results in our voting securities outstanding immediately before the transaction (or the voting securities issued with respect to our voting securities outstanding immediately before the transaction) representing less than a majority of the combined voting power of the voting securities of the company or the surviving or acquiring entity, or (iii) the closing of the transfer (whether by merger, consolidation, or otherwise), in one transaction or a series of related transactions, to a person or group of affiliated persons of securities of the company if, after closing, the transferee person or group would hold 50% or more of the outstanding voting power of the company (or the surviving or acquiring entity). However, consideration to be paid or received by a holder of common stock in connection with any such asset sale, merger, reorganization, consolidation, or share transfer under any employment, consulting, severance, or other arrangement will be disregarded for the purposes of determining whether holders of common stock are treated equally and identically. As a result, the holders of a majority of each class of common stock, including the holders Class A common stock, could defeat a change of control transaction if the holders of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock were not to be treated equally and identically in such change of control transaction.

Subdivisions and Combinations. If we subdivide or combine in any manner outstanding shares of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, or Class C common stock, the outstanding shares of the other classes will be subdivided or combined in the same manner.

If holders of Class A common stock are treated the same as holders of Class B common stock and Class C common stock with respect to the dividends and distributions, liquidation rights, change of control transactions,

 

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and subdivisions and combinations, such holders of Class A common stock will not have the right to vote on such matters.

No Preemptive or Similar Rights

Our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights, and are not subject to conversion, redemption, or sinking fund provisions, except for the conversion provisions with respect to the Class B common stock and Class C common stock described in this prospectus.

Conversion

Each share of Class B common stock is convertible at any time at the option of the holder into one share of Class A common stock. Each share of Class C common stock is convertible at any time at the option of the holder into one share of Class B common stock. On any transfer of shares of Class B common stock, whether or not for value, each such transferred share will automatically convert into one share of Class A common stock, except for certain transfers described in our certificate of incorporation, including transfers for tax and estate planning purposes, so long as the transferring holder continues to hold sole voting and dispositive power with respect to the shares transferred. Any holder’s shares of Class B common stock will automatically convert into Class A common stock, on a one-to-one basis, on the death of the holder.

On any transfer of shares of Class C common stock, whether or not for value, each transferred share will automatically convert into one share of Class B common stock, except for certain transfers described in our certificate of incorporation, including transfers for tax and estate planning purposes, so long as the transferring holder or a qualified trustee for that holder continues to hold sole voting and dispositive power with respect to the shares transferred, and transfers between founders.

Any holder’s shares of Class C common stock will automatically convert into Class B common stock, on a one-to-one basis, on the date on which the number of outstanding shares of Class C common stock held by that holder represents less than 30% of the Class C common stock held by that holder as of the date of the closing of our initial public offering in March 2017, or 32,383,178 shares of Class C common stock. Any holder’s shares of Class C common stock will automatically convert into Class B common stock, on a one-to-one basis, nine months after the death of that holder. Once there are no shares of Class C common stock outstanding, all shares of Class B common stock will convert to Class A common stock, on a one-to-one basis, and all shares of Class A common stock will have one vote per share, as described in our certificate of incorporation. Either of our founders may transfer shares of Class B common stock or Class C common stock to the other founder or a founder’s permitted transferee without such transferred shares converting into Class A common stock or Class B common stock, respectively. In addition, either founder may transfer shares of Class B common stock or Class C common stock to a qualified trustee without such transferred shares converting into Class A common stock or Class B common stock, respectively. A qualified trustee is a professional in the business of providing trustee services that is subject to appointment and removal solely by that founder or, following a founder’s death or during the founder’s disability event, by the founder’s designated proxy (who may be the other founder or another person selected by the founder and approved to act in that role by the independent members of our board of directors). A qualified trustee may not have any pecuniary interest in any Class B common stock or Class C common stock held by any entity of which that person is a trustee. Shares of Class C common stock held by a founder’s qualified trustee will convert to Class B common stock nine months after the death of that founder. Termination of a founder’s employment or services with us does not result in conversion of Class C common stock held by such founder.

Once transferred and converted into Class A common stock, the Class B common stock may not be reissued. Once transferred and converted into Class B common stock, the Class C common stock may not be reissued.

 

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Preferred Stock

Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, fix the rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions of up to an aggregate of 500,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and authorize their issuance. These rights, preferences, and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, or Class C common stock. Any issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of our Class B common stock or Class C common stock, and the likelihood that such holders would receive dividend payments and payments on liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change of control or other corporate action.

The following summary of terms of our preferred stock is not complete. You should refer to the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the resolutions containing the terms of each class or series of the preferred stock which have been or will be filed with the SEC at or prior to the time of issuance of such class or series of preferred stock and described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement may also state that any of the terms in this prospectus are inapplicable to such series of preferred stock, provided that the information in such prospectus supplement does not constitute material changes to the information in this prospectus such that it alters the nature of the offering or the securities offered.

We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences, and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations, or restrictions, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  

the title and stated value;

 

  

the number of shares we are offering;

 

  

the liquidation preference per share;

 

  

the purchase price;

 

  

the dividend rate, period, and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

 

  

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

  

the procedures for any auction and remarketing;

 

  

the provisions for a sinking fund;

 

  

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

  

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

  

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our Class A common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

  

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

  

voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

  

preemptive rights;

 

  

restrictions on transfer, sale, or other assignment;

 

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whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

  

a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

  

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve, or wind up our affairs;

 

  

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve, or wind up our affairs; and

 

  

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the voting power of our shares of common stock will be able to elect all of our directors. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide for stockholder actions at a duly called meeting of stockholders or, before the date on which all shares of common stock convert into a single class, by written consent. A special meeting of stockholders may be called by a majority of total number of authorized directors of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, or, before the date on which all shares of common stock convert into a single class, the holders of at least 30% of the total voting power of our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock, voting together as a single class. Our bylaws include an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors.

Our certificate of incorporation further provides for a tri-class common stock structure, which provides Mr. Spiegel, our co-founder and Chief Executive Officer, and Mr. Murphy, our co-founder and Chief Technology Officer, or Mr. Spiegel alone, with control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets.

The foregoing provisions will make it more difficult for our existing stockholders, other than Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy, or Mr. Spiegel alone, to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions, including the tri-class structure of our common stock, are intended to preserve our existing founder control structure, facilitate our continued product innovation and the risk-taking that it requires, permit us to continue to prioritize our long-term goals rather than short-term results, enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies, and discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened acquisition of us. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts

 

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When we have a class of voting stock that is either listed on a national securities exchange or held of record by more than 2,000 stockholders, we will be subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, subject to certain exceptions.

Choice of Forum

Our certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising under the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation, or our bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

This provision would not apply to actions brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all Securities Act claims, which means both courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our certificate of incorporation provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.

Listing on the New York Stock Exchange

Our Class A common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SNAP.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the New York Stock Exchange or other securities exchange of the shares of our Class A common stock covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

From time to time, we may issue debt securities in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities listing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger, and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition, or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

  

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

  

any limit on the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

  

the maturity date or dates;

 

  

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

  

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

  

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

  

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt, or any combination of the foregoing, and the terms of any subordination;

 

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if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable on declaration of acceleration of the maturity, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion will be determined;

 

  

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable, and the regular record dates for interest payment dates, or the method for determining such dates;

 

  

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

  

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

  

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

  

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple;

 

  

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

  

whether the debt securities of the series will be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities, the terms and conditions, if any, on which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

  

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions on which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period, and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

  

if other than the full principal amount, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which will be payable on declaration of acceleration of the maturity;

 

  

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including the consolidation, merger, or sale covenant;

 

  

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, and interest, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

  

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

  

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

  

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

  

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

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whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions on which the election may be made;

 

  

the terms and conditions, if any, on which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

  

any restrictions on transfer, sale, or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

  

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will list the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement on conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our Class A common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger, or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer, or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default Under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

  

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same will become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental will not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

  

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same will become due and payable whether at maturity, on redemption, by declaration, or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental will not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

  

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

  

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization occur.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal

 

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amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. Such declaration may be made by notice to us in writing and to the trustee if notice is given by the holders. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding will be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver will cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method, and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

  

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

  

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

  

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

  

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;

 

  

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses, and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

  

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request, and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

  

to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

  

to comply with the provisions described in the section titled “-Consolidation, Merger, or Sale;”

 

  

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

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to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions, or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions, or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions, or provisions an event of default, or to surrender any right or power conferred on us in the indenture;

 

  

to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of debt securities, as listed in the indenture;

 

  

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

  

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided in the section titled “-General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

  

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

  

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

  

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

  

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of, or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable on the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

  

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification, or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

  

provide for payment;

 

  

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

  

replace stolen, lost, or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

  

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

  

maintain paying agencies;

 

  

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

  

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

  

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

  

appoint any successor trustee.

 

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To exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit money or government obligations with the trustee sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange, and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating such securities will be listed in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities listed in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar, or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will name the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. At any time, we may designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

  

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

  

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically listed in the applicable indenture. On an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses, and liabilities that it might incur.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium, or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase Class A common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with Class A common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates listing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that list the terms of the warrants.

General

In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will describe the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

  

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

  

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

  

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable on exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased on such exercise;

 

  

in the case of warrants to purchase Class A common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of Class A common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable on the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased on such exercise;

 

  

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale, or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

  

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

  

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable on exercise of the warrants;

 

  

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

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the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

  

a discussion of material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

  

the terms of the securities issuable on exercise of the warrants; and

 

  

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

  

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable on such exercise, including:

 

  

in the case of warrants to purchase Class A common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments on our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any; or

 

  

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable on exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as listed in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we list in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

On receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable on such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand on us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable on exercise of, its warrants.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary, or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As discussed below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers. They are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker, or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker, or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers, and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any applicable trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the legal holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker, or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

  

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

  

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

  

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

  

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

  

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

  

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with, and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee, or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. Those situations are described in the section titled “-Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank, or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

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Special Considerations for Global Securities

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

  

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations described below;

 

  

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank, broker, or other financial institution for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as described above;

 

  

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

  

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge for the pledge to be effective;

 

  

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges, and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

 

  

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

  

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your bank, broker, or other financial institution may require you to do so as well; and

 

  

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices, and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks, brokers, or other financial institutions to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. The rights of holders and street name investors are described above.

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when any of the following special situations occur:

 

  

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable, or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

  

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

  

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

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The prospectus supplement may also include additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not us or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

Information about selling securityholders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment to this registration statement, or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We or selling securityholders may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, “at-the-market” offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades, or a combination of these methods, or through any other methods described in a prospectus supplement. We or selling securityholders may sell the securities to or through one or more underwriters or dealers (acting as principal or agent), through agents, directly to one or more purchasers, or as otherwise described in a prospectus supplement. We or selling securityholders may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

  

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

  

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

  

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

  

at negotiated prices.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  

the name or names of the underwriters, dealers, or agents, if any;

 

  

the name or names of the selling securityholders, if any;

 

  

the purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;

 

  

any options to purchase additional shares or other options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us or any selling securityholders;

 

  

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

  

any public offering price;

 

  

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

  

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and compensation received by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts. If such dealers or agents were deemed to be underwriters, they may be subject to statutory liabilities under the Securities Act.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We or selling securityholders may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any option to purchase additional shares or other option. If a dealer is used in the sale of securities, we, a selling stockholder, or an underwriter will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. To the extent required, we will set forth in the prospectus supplement the name of the dealer and the terms of the transaction. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time.

 

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We or selling securityholders may use underwriters, dealers, or agents with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, dealer, or agent, the nature of any such relationship.

We or selling securityholders may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions payable to the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, the agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may provide agents, underwriters and dealers with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents, underwriters or dealers may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents, underwriters and dealers, or their affiliates, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

Selling securityholders may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act in connection with the securities they resell and any profits on the sales may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.

All securities we may offer, other than Class A common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriter may be granted an option to purchase additional shares and engage in stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. An underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

Any underwriters that are qualified market makers on the New York Stock Exchange may engage in passive market making transactions in the Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the Class A common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, will be passed on for us by Cooley LLP. As of the date of this prospectus, (i) Cooley LLP beneficially owns an aggregate of 6,000 shares of our Class A common stock, and (ii) certain attorneys of Cooley LLP beneficially own an aggregate of 33,051 shares of our Class A common stock.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, some of which is contained in exhibits to the registration statement as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement, including the exhibits filed as a part of the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus concerning the contents of any contract or any other document are not necessarily complete. If a contract or other document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, please see the copy of the contract or document that has been filed. Each statement in this prospectus relating to a contract or document filed as an exhibit is qualified in all respects by the filed exhibit.

We file annual, quarterly, and current reports, information statements, and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Snap. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.snap.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings (including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part) we will make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until the termination of the offering of the shares covered by this prospectus:

 

  

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 5, 2021; and

 

  

the description of our Class  A common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on February 23, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description, including Exhibit 4.4 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Snap Inc.

2772 Donald Douglas Loop North

Santa Monica, California 90405

(310) 399-3339

Attn: Secretary

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. That registration statement and the exhibits filed along with the registration statement contain more information about us and the securities in this offering. Because information about documents referred to in this prospectus is not always complete, you should read the full documents which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement. You may read and copy the full registration statement and its exhibits at the SEC’s website.

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table lists an estimate of the expenses payable by us in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered.

 

SEC registration fee

  $     

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority filing fee

   225,500 

Exchange listing fees

       ** 

Legal fees and expenses

       ** 

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses

       ** 

Trustee fees and expenses

       ** 

Accounting fees and expenses

       ** 

Blue sky fees and expenses (including legal fees)

       ** 

Printing and miscellaneous fees

       ** 
  

 

 

 

Total

  $     ** 
  

 

 

 

 

*

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), we are deferring payment of all applicable registration fees for the securities offered under this registration statement.

**

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time. The applicable prospectus supplement will list the estimated amount of expenses of any offering of securities.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act. Our certificate of incorporation permits indemnification of our directors, officers, employees, and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, and our bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers and permit us to indemnify our employees and other agents, in each case to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers, whereby we have agreed to indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by law, including indemnification against expenses and liabilities incurred in legal proceedings to which the director or officer was, or is threatened to be made, a party by reason of the fact that such director or officer is or was a director, officer, employee, or agent of Snap Inc., provided that such director or officer acted in good faith and in a manner that the director or officer reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interest of Snap Inc.

Beginning on May 16, 2017, we, certain of our officers and directors, and the underwriters of our initial public offering in March 2017 were named as defendants in securities class actions purportedly brought on behalf of purchasers of our Class A common stock. In January 2020, we entered into a preliminary agreement to settle the federal and state securities class actions. The settlement agreement was preliminarily approved by the federal court in April 2020 and by the state court in November 2020. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020 and will be released following final approval.

We maintain insurance policies that indemnify our directors and officers against various liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that might be incurred by any director or officer in his capacity as such.

 

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The underwriting agreements that we may enter into may provide for indemnification by any underwriters of us, our directors, our officers who sign the registration statement and our controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

      Incorporated by Reference 

Exhibit
Number

  

Description

  Schedule
Form
   File Number   Exhibit   Filing Date 
  1.1*  Form of Underwriting Agreement.        
  3.1  Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Snap Inc.   S-1    333-215866    3.2    
February 2,
2017
 
 
  3.2  Amended and Restated Bylaws of Snap Inc.   10-K    001-38017    3.2    
February 5,
2021
 
 
  4.1  Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2.        
  4.2  Form of Class A Common Stock Certificate.   S-1    333-215866    4.1    
February 2,
2017
 
 
  4.5*  Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.        
  4.6  Form of Indenture.        
  4.7*  Form of Debt Securities.        
  4.8  Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.        
  4.9  Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.        
  4.10  Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.        
  5.1  Opinion of Cooley LLP.        
23.1  Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm.        
23.2  Consent of Cooley LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).        
24.1  Power of Attorney (see signature pages).        
25.1**  Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.        

 

*

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

**

To be filed separately under electronic form type 305B2, if applicable.

Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

 (i)

To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

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 (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

 (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

Provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii), and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

(2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

 (i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

 (ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by

 

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 means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

 (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

 (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

 (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7)

To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Santa Monica, California, on February 5, 2021.

 

SNAP INC.
By: 

/s/ Evan Spiegel

Name: Evan Spiegel
Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

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POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Evan Spiegel, Michael O’Sullivan, and Atul Porwal, and each one of them, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in their name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in their names and behalf in their capacities as officers and directors to enable Snap Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his or her substitutes or substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

 

Name

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Evan Spiegel

Evan Spiegel

  Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer) February 5, 2021

/s/ Robert Murphy

Robert Murphy

  Director and Chief Technology Officer February 5, 2021

/s/ Derek Andersen

Derek Andersen

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial Officer)

 February 5, 2021

/s/ Rebecca Morrow

Rebecca Morrow

  

Chief Accounting Officer

(Principal Accounting Officer)

 February 5, 2021

/s/ Kelly Coffey

Kelly Coffey

  Director February 5, 2021

/s/ Joanna Coles

Joanna Coles

  Director February 5, 2021

/s/ Elizabeth Jenkins

Elizabeth Jenkins

  Director February 5, 2021

/s/ A.G. Lafley

A.G. Lafley

  Director February 5, 2021

/s/ Michael Lynton

Michael Lynton

  Director February 5, 2021

/s/ Stanley Meresman

Stanley Meresman

  Director February 5, 2021

/s/ Scott D. Miller

Scott D. Miller

  Director February 5, 2021

/s/ Poppy Thorpe

Poppy Thorpe

  Director February 5, 2021

 

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