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SNAP Snap

Filed: 22 Apr 21, 8:00pm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                to                

Commission File Number: 001-38017

 

SNAP INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

45-5452795

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organizations)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

3000 31st Street

Santa Monica, California 90405

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(310) 399-3339

(Registrant's telephone, including area code)

 

2772 Donald Douglas Loop North

Santa Monica, California 90405

(Former name, former address, and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share

SNAP

New York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.      

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

 

Class

 

Number of Shares Outstanding

Class A common stock, $0.00001 par value

 

1,268,223,482 shares outstanding as of April 20, 2021

Class B common stock, $0.00001 par value

 

23,640,382 shares outstanding as of April 20, 2021

Class C common stock, $0.00001 par value

 

231,626,943 shares outstanding as of April 20, 2021

 

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

3

Note Regarding User Metrics and Other Data

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

Item 1.

 

Consolidated Financial Statements

 

5

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

5

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations

 

6

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 

7

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

8

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

 

9

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

10

Item 2.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

22

Item 3.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

35

Item 4.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART II - OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

Item 1.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

37

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

37

Item 2.

 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

69

Item 3.

 

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

69

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

69

Item 5.

 

Other Information

 

69

Item 6.

 

Exhibits

 

70

Signatures

 

 

 

71

 

Snap Inc., “Snapchat,” and our other registered and common-law trade names, trademarks, and service marks appearing in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are the property of Snap Inc. or our subsidiaries.

 

2


 

NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this report, including statements regarding guidance, our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, user growth and engagement, product initiatives, and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “going to,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. We caution you that the foregoing may not include all of the forward-looking statements made in this report.

You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends, including our financial outlook and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, that we believe may continue to affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including among other things:

 

our financial performance, including our revenues, cost of revenues, operating expenses, and our ability to attain and sustain profitability;

 

our ability to generate and sustain positive cash flow;

 

our ability to attract and retain users and partners;

 

our ability to attract and retain advertisers;

 

our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants;

 

our ability to effectively manage our growth and future expenses;

 

our ability to comply with modified or new laws, regulations, and executive actions applying to our business;

 

our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property;

 

our ability to successfully expand in our existing market segments and penetrate new market segments;

 

our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;

 

our ability to repay outstanding debt;

 

future acquisitions of or investments in complementary companies, products, services, or technologies; and

 

the potential adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we and our partners, advertisers, and users operate.

Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. And while we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this report to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this report or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, dispositions, joint ventures, restructurings, legal settlements, or investments.

Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (investor.snap.com), filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, webcasts, press releases, and conference calls. We use these mediums, including Snapchat and our website, to communicate with our members and the public about our company, our products, and other issues. It is possible that the information that we make available may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website.

3


NOTE REGARDING USER METRICS AND OTHER DATA

We define a Daily Active User, or DAU, as a registered Snapchat user who opens the Snapchat application at least once during a defined 24-hour period. We calculate average DAUs for a particular quarter by adding the number of DAUs on each day of that quarter and dividing that sum by the number of days in that quarter. DAUs are broken out by geography because markets have different characteristics. We define average revenue per user, or ARPU, as quarterly revenue divided by the average DAUs. For purposes of calculating ARPU, revenue by user geography is apportioned to each region based on our determination of the geographic location in which advertising impressions are delivered, as this approximates revenue based on user activity. This allocation differs from our components of revenue disclosure in the notes to our consolidated financial statements, where revenue is based on the billing address of the advertising customer. For information concerning these metrics as measured by us, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Unless otherwise stated, statistical information regarding our users and their activities is determined by calculating the daily average of the selected activity for the most recently completed quarter included in this report.

While these metrics are determined based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates of our user base for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring how our products are used across large populations globally. For example, there may be individuals who have unauthorized or multiple Snapchat accounts, even though we forbid that in our Terms of Service and implement measures to detect and suppress that behavior. We have not determined the number of such multiple accounts.

Changes in our products, infrastructure, mobile operating systems, or metric tracking system, or the introduction of new products, may impact our ability to accurately determine active users or other metrics and we may not determine such inaccuracies promptly. We also believe that we don’t capture all data regarding each of our active users. Technical issues may result in data not being recorded from every user’s application. For example, because some Snapchat features can be used without internet connectivity, we may not count a DAU because we don’t receive timely notice that a user has opened the Snapchat application. This undercounting may increase as we grow in Rest of World markets where users may have poor connectivity. We do not adjust our reported metrics to reflect this underreporting. We believe that we have adequate controls to collect user metrics, however, there is no uniform industry standard. We continually seek to identify these technical issues and improve both our accuracy and precision, including ensuring that our investors and others can understand the factors impacting our business, but these and new issues may continue in the future, including if there continues to be no uniform industry standard.

Some of our demographic data may be incomplete or inaccurate. For example, because users self-report their dates of birth, our age-demographic data may differ from our users’ actual ages. And because users who signed up for Snapchat before June 2013 were not asked to supply their date of birth, we may exclude those users from our age demographics or estimate their ages based on a sample of the self-reported ages that we do have. If our active users provide us with incorrect or incomplete information regarding their age or other attributes, then our estimates may prove inaccurate and fail to meet investor expectations.

In the past we have relied on third-party analytics providers to calculate our metrics, but today we rely primarily on our analytics platform that we developed and operate. We count a DAU only when a user opens the application and only once per user per day. We believe this methodology more accurately measures our user engagement. We have multiple pipelines of user data that we use to determine whether a user has opened the application during a particular day, and becoming a DAU. This provides redundancy in the event one pipeline of data were to become unavailable for technical reasons, and also gives us redundant data to help measure how users interact with our application.

If we fail to maintain an effective analytics platform, our metrics calculations may be inaccurate. We regularly review, have adjusted in the past, and are likely in the future to adjust our processes for calculating our internal metrics to improve their accuracy. As a result of such adjustments, our DAUs or other metrics may not be comparable to those in prior periods. Our measures of DAUs may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly titled metrics of our competitors due to differences in methodology or data used.

4


PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Snap Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(286,882

)

 

$

(305,936

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating

   activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

23,498

 

 

 

21,204

 

Stock-based compensation

 

237,073

 

 

 

172,049

 

Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs

 

1,044

 

 

 

11,563

 

Other

 

(15,682

)

 

 

10,030

 

Change in operating assets and liabilities, net of effect of

   acquisitions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net of allowance

 

129,316

 

 

 

92,892

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

(12,436

)

 

 

(12,867

)

Operating lease right-of-use assets

 

11,198

 

 

 

8,716

 

Other assets

 

(898

)

 

 

(1,155

)

Accounts payable

 

56,505

 

 

 

5,734

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

5,349

 

 

 

17,910

 

Operating lease liabilities

 

(13,295

)

 

 

(13,994

)

Other liabilities

 

2,096

 

 

 

137

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

136,886

 

 

 

6,283

 

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

(10,851

)

 

 

(10,891

)

Non-marketable investments

 

(1,350

)

 

 

(35,500

)

Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired

 

(108,912

)

 

 

 

Purchases of marketable securities

 

(523,219

)

 

 

(552,675

)

Sales of marketable securities

 

108,056

 

 

 

217,958

 

Maturities of marketable securities

 

816,931

 

 

 

752,685

 

Other

 

(100

)

 

 

 

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

280,555

 

 

 

371,577

 

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

 

4,453

 

 

 

3,130

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

4,453

 

 

 

3,130

 

Change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

 

421,894

 

 

 

380,990

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, beginning of period

 

546,543

 

 

 

521,260

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, end of period

$

968,437

 

 

$

902,250

 

Supplemental disclosures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for income taxes, net

$

11,008

 

 

$

808

 

Cash paid for interest

$

5,127

 

 

$

4,899

 

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

5


 

Snap Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Revenue

$

769,584

 

 

$

462,478

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

412,601

 

 

 

253,410

 

Research and development

 

348,580

 

 

 

238,613

 

Sales and marketing

 

150,286

 

 

 

122,205

 

General and administrative

 

161,723

 

 

 

134,614

 

Total costs and expenses

 

1,073,190

 

 

 

748,842

 

Operating loss

 

(303,606

)

 

 

(286,364

)

Interest income

 

1,137

 

 

 

8,589

 

Interest expense

 

(5,031

)

 

 

(15,113

)

Other income (expense), net

 

22,058

 

 

 

(12,389

)

Loss before income taxes

 

(285,442

)

 

 

(305,277

)

Income tax benefit (expense)

 

(1,440

)

 

 

(659

)

Net loss

$

(286,882

)

 

$

(305,936

)

Net loss per share attributable to Class A, Class B, and Class C

   common stockholders (Note 3):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.21

)

Diluted

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.21

)

Weighted average shares used in computation of net loss per

   share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

1,501,636

 

 

 

1,426,305

 

Diluted

 

1,501,636

 

 

 

1,426,305

 

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

6


Snap Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Net loss

$

(286,882

)

 

$

(305,936

)

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net of tax

 

116

 

 

 

3,694

 

Foreign currency translation

 

(9,569

)

 

 

(7,163

)

Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

 

(9,453

)

 

 

(3,469

)

Total comprehensive income (loss)

$

(296,335

)

 

$

(309,405

)

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

7


Snap Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except par value)

 

 

March 31,

2021

 

 

December 31,

2020

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

967,519

 

 

$

545,618

 

Marketable securities

 

1,589,178

 

 

 

1,991,922

 

Accounts receivable, net of allowance

 

612,757

 

 

 

744,288

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

69,245

 

 

 

56,147

 

Total current assets

 

3,238,699

 

 

 

3,337,975

 

Property and equipment, net

 

177,071

 

 

 

178,709

 

Operating lease right-of-use assets

 

269,023

 

 

 

269,728

 

Intangible assets, net

 

132,483

 

 

 

105,929

 

Goodwill

 

1,025,710

 

 

 

939,259

 

Other assets

 

215,794

 

 

 

192,638

 

Total assets

$

5,058,780

 

 

$

5,024,238

 

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

$

126,132

 

 

$

71,908

 

Operating lease liabilities

 

44,872

 

 

 

41,077

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

580,924

 

 

 

554,342

 

Total current liabilities

 

751,928

 

 

 

667,327

 

Convertible senior notes, net

 

2,245,203

 

 

 

1,675,169

 

Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent

 

281,849

 

 

 

287,292

 

Other liabilities

 

73,622

 

 

 

64,474

 

Total liabilities

 

3,352,602

 

 

 

2,694,262

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class A non-voting common stock, $0.00001 par value. 3,000,000 shares

   authorized, 1,263,733 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021, and

   3,000,000 shares authorized, 1,248,010 shares issued and outstanding

   at December 31, 2020.

 

13

 

 

 

12

 

Class B voting common stock, $0.00001 par value. 700,000 shares authorized,

   23,640 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021, and 700,000 shares

   authorized, 23,696 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

Class C voting common stock, $0.00001 par value. 260,888 shares authorized,

   231,627 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021, and 260,888 shares

   authorized, 231,627 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020.

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

9,777,646

 

 

 

10,200,141

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

 

11,910

 

 

 

21,363

 

Accumulated deficit

 

(8,083,393

)

 

 

(7,891,542

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

1,706,178

 

 

 

2,329,976

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

5,058,780

 

 

$

5,024,238

 

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

8


 

Snap Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

Class A non-voting common stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, beginning of period

 

1,248,010

 

 

$

12

 

 

 

1,160,127

 

 

$

12

 

Shares issued in connection with exercise

   of stock options under stock-based

   compensation plans

 

314

 

 

 

 

 

 

396

 

 

 

 

Issuance of Class A non-voting common

   stock for vesting of restricted stock

   units and restricted stock awards, net

 

15,348

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

21,759

 

 

 

 

Conversion of Class B voting common

   stock to Class A non-voting common

   stock

 

61

 

 

 

 

 

 

245

 

 

 

 

Balance, end of period

 

1,263,733

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

1,182,527

 

 

 

12

 

Class B voting common stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, beginning of period

 

23,696

 

 

 

 

 

 

24,522

 

 

 

 

Shares issued in connection with exercise

   of stock options under stock-based

   compensation plans

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

Conversion of Class B voting common

   stock to Class A non-voting common

   stock

 

(61

)

 

 

 

 

 

(245

)

 

 

 

Balance, end of period

 

23,640

 

 

 

 

 

 

24,279

 

 

 

 

Class C voting common stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, beginning of period

 

231,627

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

231,147

 

 

 

2

 

Issuance of Class C voting common stock

   for settlement of restricted stock units,

   net

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,636

 

 

 

 

Balance, end of period

 

231,627

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

232,783

 

 

 

2

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, beginning of period

 

 

 

 

10,200,141

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,205,256

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

237,073

 

 

 

 

 

 

172,049

 

Shares issued in connection with exercise

   of stock options under stock-based

   compensation plans

 

 

 

 

4,453

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,130

 

Cumulative-effect adjustment from

   accounting changes

 

 

 

 

(664,021

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, end of period

 

 

 

 

9,777,646

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,380,435

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, beginning of period

 

 

 

 

(7,891,542

)

 

 

 

 

 

(6,945,930

)

Cumulative-effect adjustment from

   accounting changes

 

 

 

 

95,031

 

 

 

 

 

 

(780

)

Net loss

 

 

 

 

(286,882

)

 

 

 

 

 

(305,936

)

Balance, end of period

 

 

 

 

(8,083,393

)

 

 

 

 

 

(7,252,646

)

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance, beginning of period

 

 

 

 

21,363

 

 

 

 

 

 

573

 

Other comprehensive income (loss), net

   of tax

 

 

 

 

(9,453

)

 

 

 

 

 

(3,469

)

Balance, end of period

 

 

 

 

11,910

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2,896

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

1,519,000

 

 

$

1,706,178

 

 

 

1,439,589

 

 

$

2,124,907

 

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

9


Snap Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Snap Inc. is a camera company.

Snap Inc. (“we,” “our,” or “us”) was formed as Future Freshman, LLC, a California limited liability company, in 2010. We changed our name to Toyopa Group, LLC in 2011, incorporated as Snapchat, Inc., a Delaware corporation, in 2012, and changed our name to Snap Inc. in 2016. Snap Inc. is headquartered in Santa Monica, California. Our flagship product, Snapchat, is a camera application that was created to help people communicate through short videos and images called “Snaps.”

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information. Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Snap Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Our fiscal year ends on December 31. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC in February 2021 (the “Annual Report”).

In our opinion, the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature necessary for the fair presentation of our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2021.

Other than described below, there have been no changes to our significant accounting policies described in our Annual Report that have had a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related notes.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements. Management’s estimates are based on historical information available as of the date of the consolidated financial statements and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Key estimates relate primarily to determining the fair value of assets and liabilities assumed in business combinations, evaluation of contingencies, uncertain tax positions, lease exit charges, forfeiture rate, the fair value of convertible senior notes, the fair value of stock-based awards, and the fair value of non-marketable investments. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates our estimates compared to historical experience and trends, which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. Under ASU 2020-06, the embedded conversion features are no longer separated from the host contract for convertible instruments with conversion features that are not required to be accounted for as derivatives under Topic 815, or that do not result in substantial premiums accounted for as paid-in capital. Consequently, a convertible debt instrument will be accounted for as a single liability measured at its amortized cost, as long as no other features require bifurcation and recognition as derivatives. The new guidance also requires the if-converted method to be applied for all convertible instruments. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. Adoption of the standard requires using either a modified retrospective or a full retrospective approach. Effective January 1, 2021, we early adopted ASU 2020-06 using the modified retrospective approach. Adoption of the new standard resulted in a decrease to accumulated deficit of $95.0 million, a decrease to additional paid-in capital of $664.0 million, and an increase to convertible senior notes, net of $569.0 million. Interest expense recognized in future periods will be reduced as a result of accounting for the convertible debt instrument as a single liability measured at its amortized cost.

10


In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-01, Investments-Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments-Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), which clarifies the interaction between the accounting for equity securities in Topic 321, the accounting for equity method investments in Topic 323, and the accounting for certain forward contracts and purchased options in Topic 815. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. Effective January 1, 2021, we adopted this standard on a prospective basis. The impact of adoption of this standard on our consolidated financial statements, including accounting policies, processes, and systems, was not material.

2. Revenue

We determine revenue recognition by first identifying the contract or contracts with a customer, identifying the performance obligations in the contract, determining the transaction price, allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and recognizing revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation.

Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. We determine collectability by performing ongoing credit evaluations and monitoring customer accounts receivable balances. Sales tax, including value added tax, is excluded from reported revenue.

We generate substantially all of our revenues by offering various advertising products on Snapchat, which include Snap Ads and AR Ads, referred to as advertising revenue. AR Ads include Sponsored Filters and Sponsored Lenses. Sponsored Filters allow users to interact with an advertiser’s brand by enabling stylized brand artwork to be overlaid on a Snap. Sponsored Lenses allow users to interact with an advertiser’s brand by enabling branded augmented reality experiences.

The substantial majority of advertising revenue is generated from the display of advertisements on Snapchat through contractual agreements that are either on a fixed fee basis over a period of time or based on the number of advertising impressions delivered. Revenue related to agreements based on the number of impressions delivered is recognized when the advertisement is displayed. Revenue related to fixed fee arrangements is recognized ratably over the service period, typically less than 30 days in duration, and such arrangements do not contain minimum impression guarantees.

In arrangements where another party is involved in providing specified services to a customer, we evaluate whether we are the principal or agent. In this evaluation, we consider if we obtain control of the specified goods or services before they are transferred to the customer, as well as other indicators such as the party primarily responsible for fulfillment, inventory risk, and discretion in establishing price. For advertising revenue arrangements where we are not the principal, we recognize revenue on a net basis. For the periods presented, revenue for arrangements where we are the agent was not material.

We also generate revenue from sales of hardware. For the periods presented, revenue from the sales of hardware was not material.

The following table represents our revenue disaggregated by geography based on the billing address of the advertising customer:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North America (1) (2)

$

531,363

 

 

$

281,274

 

Europe (3)

 

129,118

 

 

 

81,077

 

Rest of world

 

109,103

 

 

 

100,127

 

Total revenue

$

769,584

 

 

$

462,478

 

 

(1)

North America includes Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America.

(2)

United States revenue was $514.6 million and $273.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

(3)

Europe includes Russia and Turkey.

 

11


 

3. Net Loss per Share

We compute net loss per share using the two-class method required for multiple classes of common stock. We have three classes of authorized common stock for which voting rights differ by class.

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to each class of stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of stock outstanding during the period, adjusted for vested restricted stock units (“RSUs”) that have not been settled and restricted stock awards (“RSAs”) for which the risk of forfeiture has not yet lapsed.

For the calculation of diluted net loss per share, net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for basic net loss per share is adjusted by the effect of dilutive securities, including awards under our equity compensation plans. Diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the resulting net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of fully diluted common shares outstanding. We use the if-converted method for calculating any potential dilutive effect of the senior convertible notes due in 2025 and 2026 (collectively, the “Convertible Notes”) on diluted net loss per share. The Convertible Notes would have a dilutive impact on net income per share when the average market price of Class A common stock for a given period exceeds the respective conversion price of the Convertible Notes. For the periods presented, our potentially dilutive shares relating to stock options, RSUs, RSAs, and Convertible Notes were not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share as the effect of including these shares in the calculation would have been anti-dilutive.

The numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted net loss per share computations for our common stock are calculated as follows for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

 

Class A

Common

 

 

Class B

Common

 

 

Class C

Common

 

 

Class A

Common

 

 

Class B

Common

 

 

Class C

Common

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(238,107

)

 

$

(4,523

)

 

$

(44,252

)

 

$

(249,240

)

 

$

(5,223

)

 

$

(51,473

)

Net loss attributable to

   common stockholders

$

(238,107

)

 

$

(4,523

)

 

$

(44,252

)

 

$

(249,240

)

 

$

(5,223

)

 

$

(51,473

)

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic shares:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average

   common shares

   - Basic

 

1,246,333

 

 

 

23,676

 

 

 

231,627

 

 

 

1,161,982

 

 

 

24,352

 

 

 

239,971

 

Diluted shares:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average

   common shares

   - Diluted

 

1,246,333

 

 

 

23,676

 

 

 

231,627

 

 

 

1,161,982

 

 

 

24,352

 

 

 

239,971

 

Net loss per share

   attributable to

   common stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.21

)

 

$

(0.21

)

 

$

(0.21

)

Diluted

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.19

)

 

$

(0.21

)

 

$

(0.21

)

 

$

(0.21

)

 

 

The following potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Stock options

 

 

5,305

 

 

 

9,793

 

Unvested RSUs and RSAs

 

 

114,307

 

 

 

143,511

 

Convertible Notes (if-converted)

 

 

101,591

 

 

 

55,468

 

 

4. Stockholders’ Equity

We maintain 3 share-based employee compensation plans: the 2017 Equity Incentive Plan (“2017 Plan”), the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (“2014 Plan”), and the 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (“2012 Plan”, and collectively with the 2017 Plan and the 2014 Plan, the “Stock Plans”). In January 2017, our board of directors adopted the 2017 Plan, and in February 2017 our stockholders approved the 2017 Plan, effective on March 1, 2017, which serves as the successor to the 2014 Plan and 2012 Plan and provides for the grant of incentive stock options to employees, including employees of any parent or

12


subsidiary, and for the grant of nonstatutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, RSAs, RSUs, performance stock awards, performance cash awards, and other forms of stock awards to employees, directors, and consultants, including employees and consultants of our affiliates.

Restricted Stock Units and Restricted Stock Awards

The following table summarizes the RSU and RSA activity during the three months ended March 31, 2021:

 

 

 

Class A

Outstanding

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Grant Date

Fair Value

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

Unvested at December 31, 2020

 

 

131,172

 

 

$

15.10

 

Granted

 

 

3,252

 

 

$

60.94

 

Vested

 

 

(16,436

)

 

$

15.02

 

Forfeited

 

 

(3,681

)

 

$

12.04

 

Unvested at March 31, 2021

 

 

114,307

 

 

$

16.51

 

 

All RSUs and RSAs granted after December 31, 2016 vest on the satisfaction of only a service-based condition (“Post-2017 Awards”). Total unrecognized compensation cost related to Post-2017 Awards was $1.8 billion as of March 31, 2021 and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.5 years. The service condition for Post-2017 Awards granted prior to February 2018 is generally satisfied over four years, 10% after the first year of service, 20% over the second year, 30% over the third year, and 40% over the fourth year. In limited instances, we have issued Post-2017 RSUs with vesting periods in excess of four years. The service condition for Post-2017 Awards granted after February 2018 is generally satisfied in equal monthly or quarterly installments over one to four years.

Stock Options

The following table summarizes the stock option award activity under the Stock Plans during the three months ended March 31, 2021:

 

 

 

Class A

Number

of Shares

 

 

Class B

Number

of Shares

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Exercise

Price

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Contractual

Term

(in years)

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value(1)

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

Outstanding at December 31, 2020

 

 

4,828

 

 

 

796

 

 

$

10.37

 

 

 

5.20

 

 

$

223,230

 

Granted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Exercised

 

 

(314

)

 

 

(5

)

 

$

13.98

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Forfeited

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Outstanding at March 31, 2021

 

 

4,514

 

 

 

791

 

 

$

10.16

 

 

 

4.76

 

 

$

223,515

 

 

(1)

The aggregate intrinsic value is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the underlying stock option awards and the closing market price of our Class A common stock as of December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, respectively.

 

Total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock options was $6.7 million as of March 31, 2021 and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.0 year.

13


Stock-Based Compensation Expense by Function

Total stock-based compensation expense by function was as follows:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Cost of revenue

$

2,656

 

 

$

1,782

 

Research and development

 

163,793

 

 

 

118,317

 

Sales and marketing

 

29,084

 

 

 

24,806

 

General and administrative

 

41,540

 

 

 

27,144

 

Total

$

237,073

 

 

$

172,049

 

 

 

5. Business Acquisitions

2021 Acquisitions

Fit Analytics

In March 2021, we acquired Fit Analytics GmbH (“Fit Analytics”), a sizing technology company that powers solutions for retailers and brands, to grow our e-commerce and shopping offerings. The purchase consideration for Fit Analytics was $124.4 million, which primarily represents current and future cash consideration payments.

The allocation of purchase price is preliminary and is subject to additional information received related to the assets and liabilities that existed as of the acquisition date. The preliminary allocation of the total purchase consideration for this acquisition is estimated as follows:

 

 

Total

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Trademarks

$

800

 

Technology

 

17,000

 

Customer Relationships

 

17,000

 

Goodwill

 

88,132

 

Net deferred tax liability

 

(5,643

)

Other assets acquired and liabilities assumed, net

 

7,160

 

Total

$

124,449

 

The goodwill amount represents synergies related to our existing platform expected to be realized from this business combination and assembled workforce. The associated goodwill and intangible assets are not deductible for tax purposes.

Other Acquisitions

In the first quarter of 2021, we completed an acquisition to enhance our existing platform, technology, and workforce. The purchase consideration was $7.6 million of which $5.8 million was allocated to goodwill and the remainder primarily to identifiable intangible assets. The goodwill amount represents synergies related to our existing platform expected to be realized from the business acquisitions and assembled workforces. The associated goodwill and intangible assets are not deductible for tax purposes.

14


2020 Acquisitions

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we completed acquisitions to enhance our existing platform, technology, and workforce. The aggregate allocation of acquisition date fair value was as follows:

 

 

Total

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Technology

 

46,112

 

Goodwill

 

162,747

 

Net deferred tax liability

 

(5,741

)

Other assets acquired and liabilities assumed, net

 

1,392

 

Total

$

204,510

 

The goodwill amount represents synergies related to our existing platform expected to be realized from the business acquisitions and assembled workforces. Of the acquired goodwill and intangible assets, $49.6 million is deductible for tax purposes.

6. Goodwill and Intangible Assets

The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the three months ended March 31, 2021 were as follows:

 

 

Goodwill

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Balance as of December 31, 2020

$

939,259

 

Goodwill acquired

 

93,913

 

Foreign currency translation

 

(7,462

)

Balance as of March 31, 2021

$

1,025,710

 

 

Intangible assets consisted of the following:

 

 

March 31, 2021

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Useful Life -

Years

 

 

Gross

Carrying

Amount

 

 

Accumulated

Amortization

 

 

Net

 

 

(in thousands, except years)

 

Domain names

 

1.4

 

 

$

414

 

 

$

303

 

 

$

111

 

Trademarks

 

3.0

 

 

 

800

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

789

 

Acquired developed technology

 

3.3

 

 

 

205,470

 

 

 

101,249

 

 

 

104,221

 

Customer relationships

 

8.0

 

 

 

17,000

 

 

 

89

 

 

 

16,911

 

Patents

 

4.7

 

 

 

20,145

 

 

 

9,694

 

 

 

10,451

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

243,829

 

 

$

111,346

 

 

$

132,483

 

 

 

December 31, 2020

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Useful Life -

Years

 

 

Gross

Carrying

Amount

 

 

Accumulated

Amortization

 

 

Net

 

 

(in thousands except years)

 

Domain names

 

1.6

 

 

$

414

 

 

$

283

 

 

$

131

 

Acquired developed technology

 

3.2

 

 

 

206,197

 

 

 

111,129

 

 

 

95,068

 

Patents

 

4.9

 

 

 

19,860

 

 

 

9,130

 

 

 

10,730

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

226,471

 

 

$

120,542

 

 

$

105,929

 

 

Amortization of intangible assets was $10.4 million and $8.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

15


As of March 31, 2021, the estimated intangible asset amortization expense for the next five years and thereafter is as follows:

 

 

Estimated

Amortization

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Remainder of 2021

$

31,779

 

2022

 

34,711

 

2023

 

30,657

 

2024

 

20,159

 

2025

 

7,130

 

Thereafter

 

8,047

 

Total

$

132,483

 

 

7. Convertible Notes

2025 Notes

In April 2020, we entered into a purchase agreement for the sale of an aggregate of $1.0 billion principal amount of senior convertible notes (the “2025 Notes”) in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The 2025 Notes consisted of an $850.0 million initial placement and an over-allotment option that provided the initial purchasers of the 2025 Notes with the option to purchase an additional $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of the 2025 Notes, which was fully exercised. The 2025 Notes were issued pursuant to an Indenture dated April 28, 2020 (the “Indenture”). The net proceeds from the issuance of the 2025 Notes were $888.6 million, net of debt issuance costs and cash used to purchase the capped call transactions (the “2025 Capped Call Transactions”) discussed below. The debt issuance costs are amortized to interest expense using the effective interest rate method.

The 2025 Notes are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. Interest is payable in cash semi-annually in arrears beginning on November 1, 2020 at a rate of 0.25% per year. The 2025 Notes mature on May 1, 2025 unless repurchased, redeemed, or converted in accordance with the terms prior to such date.

The 2025 Notes are convertible into cash, shares of our Class A common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our Class A common stock, at our election, at an initial conversion rate of 46.1233 shares of Class A common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2025 Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $21.68 (the “2025 Conversion Price”) per share of our Class A common stock. We may redeem for cash all or portions of the 2025 Notes, at our option, on or after May 6, 2023 based on certain circumstances.

2026 Notes

In August 2019, we entered into a purchase agreement for the sale of an aggregate of $1.265 billion principal amount of senior convertible notes (the “2026 Notes”) in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act. The net proceeds from the issuance of the 2026 Notes were $1.15 billion, net of debt issuance costs and cash used to purchase the capped call transactions (the “2026 Capped Call Transactions”) discussed below. The debt issuance costs are amortized to interest expense using the effective interest rate method.

The 2026 Notes are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. Interest is payable in cash semi-annually in arrears beginning on February 1, 2020 at a rate of 0.75% per year. The 2026 Notes mature on August 1, 2026 unless repurchased, redeemed, or converted in accordance with the terms prior to such date.

The 2026 Notes are convertible into cash, shares of our Class A common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our Class A common stock, at our election, at an initial conversion rate of 43.8481 shares of Class A common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2026 Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $22.81 (the “2026 Conversion Price”) per share of our Class A common stock. We may redeem for cash all or portions of the 2026 Notes, at our option, on or after August 6, 2023 based on certain circumstances.

16


The Convertible Notes consisted of the following:

 

 

As of March 31, 2021

 

 

2025 Notes

 

 

2026 Notes

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Principal

$

1,000,000

 

 

$

1,265,000

 

Unamortized debt issuance costs

 

(9,330

)

 

 

(10,467

)

Net carrying amount

$

990,670

 

 

$

1,254,533

 

 

As of March 31, 2021, the debt issuance costs on the 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes will be amortized over the remaining period of approximately 4.1 years and 5.3 years, respectively.

Prior to January 1, 2021, we separated the 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes into liability and equity components. On issuance, the carrying amount of the equity components was recorded as a debt discount and subsequently amortized to interest expense. Effective January 1, 2021, we early adopted ASU 2020-06 using the modified retrospective approach. The 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes are each accounted for as a single liability measured at its amortized cost, as no other embedded features require bifurcation and recognition as derivatives. Adoption of the new standard resulted in a decrease to accumulated deficit of $95.0 million, a decrease to additional paid-in capital of $664.0 million, and an increase to convertible senior notes, net of $569.0 million.

Interest expense related to the amortization of debt issuance costs was $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Interest expense related to the amortization of debt discount and issuance costs was $11.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, while contractual interest expense was $3.0 million and $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

As of March 31, 2021, the if-converted value of the 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes exceeded the principal amount by $1.4 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively. The sale price for conversion was satisfied as of March 31, 2021 and as a result, the Convertible Notes will continue to be eligible for optional conversion during the second quarter of 2021.

Refer to our audited consolidated financial statements and Note 7 in the Annual Report for additional details.

Capped Call Transactions 

In connection with the pricing of the 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes, we entered into the 2025 Capped Call Transactions and the 2026 Capped Call Transactions (together, the “Capped Call Transactions”), respectively, with certain counterparties at a net cost of $100.0 million and $102.1 million, respectively. The cap price of the 2025 Capped Call Transactions is initially $32.12 per share of our Class A common stock and the cap price of the 2026 Capped Call Transaction is $32.58 per share of our Class A common stock. Both are subject to certain adjustments under the terms of the Capped Call Transactions. Conditions that cause adjustments to the initial strike price of the Capped Call Transactions mirror conditions that result in corresponding adjustments for the Convertible Notes.

The Capped Call Transactions are intended to reduce potential dilution to holders of our Class A common stock beyond the conversion prices up to the cap prices on any conversion of the Convertible Notes or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount, as the case may be, with such reduction or offset subject to a cap. The cost of the Capped Call Transactions was recorded as a reduction of our additional paid-in capital in our consolidated balance sheets. As of March 31, 2021, the Capped Call Transactions were in-the-money and will not be remeasured as long as they continue to meet the conditions for equity classification.

8. Commitments and Contingencies

Commitments

We have non-cancelable contractual agreements related to the hosting of our data processing, storage, and other computing services.

In January 2017, we entered into the Google Cloud Platform License Agreement. Under the agreement, we were granted a license to access and use certain cloud services.

17


The agreement has an initial term of five years and we are required to purchase at least $400.0 million of cloud services in each year of the agreement. For each of the first four years, up to 15% of this amount may be moved to a subsequent year. If we fail to meet the minimum purchase commitment during any year, we are required to pay the difference.

In March 2016, we entered into the AWS Enterprise Agreement for the use of cloud services from Amazon Web Services, Inc. (“AWS”). Under the agreement, as amended, we are committed to spend an aggregate of $1.1 billion between January 2017 and December 2022 on AWS services ($90.0 million in 2018, $150.0 million in 2019, $215.0 million in 2020, $280.0 million in 2021, and $349.0 million in 2022). If we fail to meet the minimum purchase commitment during any year, we are required to pay the difference. Any such payment may be applied to future use of AWS services during the term, although it will not count towards meeting the future minimum purchase commitments.

The future minimum contractual commitment including commitments less than one year, as of March 31, 2021, for each of the next five years are as follows:

 

 

Minimum

Commitment

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Remainder of 2021

$

554,319

 

2022

 

389,114

 

2023

 

447

 

2024

 

57

 

2025

 

 

Thereafter

 

2

 

Total minimum commitments

$

943,939

 

 

Contingencies

We record a loss contingency when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. We also disclose material contingencies when we believe a loss is not probable but reasonably possible. Accounting for contingencies requires us to use judgment related to both the likelihood of a loss and the estimate of the amount or range of loss. Many legal and tax contingencies can take years to be resolved.

Pending Matters

Beginning in May 2017, we, certain of our officers and directors, and the underwriters for our IPO were named as defendants in securities class actions purportedly brought on behalf of purchasers of our Class A common stock, alleging violation of securities laws that arose following our IPO.

On January 17, 2020, we reached a preliminary agreement to settle the securities class actions. The preliminary settlement agreement was signed in January 2020 and provided for a resolution of all of the pending claims in the securities class actions for $187.5 million. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we recorded legal expense, net of amounts directly covered by insurance, of $100.0 million for the expected settlement of the stockholder actions since we concluded the loss was probable and estimable. The amount was recorded in general and administrative expense in our consolidated statements of operations. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020. In March 2021, the federal court granted final approval of the settlement and entered judgment while the state court granted final approval of the settlement in March 2021 and entered judgement in April 2021. The settlement amount will be released from escrow following exhaustion of any appeals.

The outcomes of our legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable, subject to significant uncertainties, and could be material to our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows for a particular period. For any pending matters, it is not possible to estimate the reasonably possible loss or range of loss.

We are subject to various other legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business, including certain patent, trademark, privacy, regulatory, and employment matters. Although occasional adverse decisions or settlements may occur, we do not believe that the final disposition of any of our other pending matters will seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Indemnifications

In the ordinary course of business, we may provide indemnifications of varying scope and terms to customers, vendors, lessors, investors, directors, officers, employees, and other parties with respect to certain matters. Indemnification may include losses from our breach of such agreements, services we provide, or third party intellectual property infringement

18


claims. These indemnifications may survive termination of the underlying agreement and the maximum potential amount of future indemnification payments may not be subject to a cap. We have not incurred material costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims related to these indemnifications as of March 31, 2021. We believe the fair value of these liabilities is immaterial and accordingly have 0 liabilities recorded for these agreements at March 31, 2021.

9. Leases

We have various non-cancelable lease agreements for certain of our offices with original lease periods expiring between 2021 and 2042. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain we will exercise that option. Certain of the arrangements have free rent periods or escalating rent payment provisions. Leases with an initial term of twelve months or less are not recorded on the consolidated balance sheets. We recognize rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, we sublease certain operating leases to third parties primarily as a result of moving to a centralized corporate office in Santa Monica, California in 2018.

Lease Cost

The components of lease cost were as follows:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Operating lease expense

$

14,940

 

 

$

14,405

 

Sublease income

 

(402

)

 

 

(742

)

Total net lease costs

$

14,538

 

 

$

13,663

 

Lease Term and Discount Rate

The weighted-average remaining lease term (in years) and discount rate related to the operating leases were as follows:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

 

 

2020

 

Weighted-average remaining lease term

 

7.3

 

 

 

 

 

7.9

 

Weighted-average discount rate

 

5.5

%

 

 

 

 

5.6

%

 

As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date to determine the present value of lease payments.

Maturity of Lease Liabilities

The present value of our operating lease liabilities as of March 31, 2021 were as follows:

 

 

Operating Leases

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Remainder of 2021

$

43,793

 

2022

 

66,872

 

2023

 

62,401

 

2024

 

62,038

 

2025

 

57,179

 

Thereafter

 

107,373

 

Total lease payments

$

399,656

 

Less: Imputed interest

 

(72,935

)

Present value of lease liabilities

$

326,721

 

As of March 31, 2021, we have additional operating leases for facilities that have not yet commenced with lease obligations of $15.6 million. These operating leases will commence between 2021 and 2022 with lease terms of greater than one year to five years. This table does not include lease payments that were not fixed at commencement or modification.

19


Other Information

Cash payments included in the measurement of our operating lease liabilities were $17.0 million and $21.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Lease liabilities arising from obtaining operating lease right-of-use assets was $9.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Lease liabilities arising from obtaining operating lease right-of-use assets was not material for the three months ended March 31, 2020.

10. Fair Value Measurements

Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified into the following categories:

 

Level 1: Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

 

Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data.

 

Level 3: Unobservable inputs reflecting the reporting entity’s own assumptions or external inputs from inactive markets.

We classify our cash equivalents and marketable securities within Level 1 or Level 2 because we use quoted market prices or alternative pricing sources and models utilizing market observable inputs to determine their fair value. There were 0 transfers between levels during the periods presented.

The following tables set forth our financial assets as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis during the period:

 

 

March 31, 2021

 

 

Cost or

Amortized Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Total Estimated

Fair Value

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Cash

$

930,155

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

930,155

 

Level 1 securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. government securities

 

1,002,193

 

 

 

193

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,002,386

 

U.S. government agency securities

 

123,354

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

(6

)

 

 

123,354

 

Level 2 securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate debt securities

 

68,483

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

(12

)

 

 

68,474

 

Commercial paper

 

397,233

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

397,233

 

Certificates of deposit

 

35,095

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35,095

 

Total

$

2,556,513

 

 

$

202

 

 

$

(18

)

 

$

2,556,697

 

 

 

December 31, 2020

 

 

Cost or

Amortized Cost

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Gross

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Total Estimated

Fair Value

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Cash

$

464,006

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

464,006

 

Level 1 securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. government securities

 

1,272,125

 

 

 

122

 

 

 

(21

)

 

 

1,272,226

 

U.S. government agency securities

 

245,055

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

(24

)

 

 

245,039

 

Level 2 securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate debt securities

 

81,158

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

(18

)

 

 

81,141

 

Commercial paper

 

425,861

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

425,861

 

Certificates of deposit

 

49,267

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49,267

 

Total

$

2,537,472

 

 

$

131

 

 

$

(63

)

 

$

2,537,540

 

 

Gross unrealized losses were not material as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, we considered any decreases in fair value on our marketable securities to be driven by factors other than credit risk, including market risk. All of our marketable securities have contractual maturities of less than one year.

20


For certain non-marketable investments we have elected the fair value option, using Level 3 inputs, where changes in fair value are recorded in other income (expense), net. Unrealized gains and losses related to these debt investments were not material for the period ended March 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2021 the fair value of the debt investments was recorded within other assets and was not material.

We carry the Convertible Notes at face value less the unamortized debt issuance costs on our consolidated balance sheets and present that fair value for disclosure purposes only. As of March 31, 2021, the fair value of the 2025 Notes and the 2026 Notes was $2.4 billion and $3.0 billion, respectively. The estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes, which are classified as Level 2 financial instruments, was determined based on the estimated or actual bid prices of the Convertible Notes in an over-the-counter market on the last business day of the period.

11. Income Taxes

Our tax provision for interim periods is determined using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items arising in that quarter. Our effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets as it is more likely than not that some or all of our deferred tax assets will not be realized. Income tax expense was $1.4 million and $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

12. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)

The table below presents the changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) by component and the reclassifications out of AOCI:

 

 

 

Changes in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) by Component

 

 

 

Marketable

Securities

 

 

Foreign Currency

Translation

 

 

Total

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Balance at December 31, 2020

 

$

(87

)

 

$

21,450

 

 

$

21,363

 

OCI before reclassifications

 

 

123

 

 

 

(9,569

)

 

 

(9,446

)

Amounts reclassified from AOCI (1)

 

 

(7

)

 

 

 

 

 

(7

)

Net current period OCI

 

 

116

 

 

 

(9,569

)

 

 

(9,453

)

Balance at March 31, 2021

 

$

29

 

 

$

11,881

 

 

$

11,910

 

 

(1) Realized gains and losses on marketable securities are reclassified from AOCI into other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations. 

13. Property and Equipment, Net

The following table lists property and equipment, net by geographic area:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of

March 31, 2021

 

 

As of

December 31, 2020

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Property and equipment, net:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States

$

157,312

 

 

$

157,596

 

Rest of world (1)

 

19,759

 

 

 

21,113

 

Total property and equipment, net

$

177,071

 

 

$

178,709

 

 

(1)

NaN individual country exceeded 10% of our total property and equipment, net for any period presented.

21


 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs that involve significant risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to those differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, particularly in “Risk Factors,” “Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and “Note Regarding User Metrics and Other Data.”

Overview of First Quarter 2021 Results

Our key user metrics and financial results for the first quarter of 2021 were as follows:

User Metrics

 

Daily Active Users, or DAUs, increased to 280 million in Q1 2021, compared to 229 million in Q1 2020.

 

Average revenue per user, or ARPU, increased to $2.74 in Q1 2021, compared to $2.02 in Q1 2020.

Financial Results

 

Revenue increased 66% to $769.6 million in Q1 2021, compared to $462.5 million in Q1 2020.

 

Total costs and expenses, excluding stock-based compensation and other payroll related tax expense, increased 41% to $794.8 million in Q1 2021, compared to $564.9 million in Q1 2020.

 

Net loss decreased 6% to $(286.9) million in Q1 2021, compared to $(305.9) million in Q1 2020.

 

Diluted net loss per share decreased 11% to $(0.19) in Q1 2021, compared to $(0.21) in Q1 2020.

 

Adjusted EBITDA increased 98% to $(1.7) million in Q1 2021, compared to $(81.2) million in Q1 2020.

 

Cash provided by operating activities was $136.9 million in Q1 2021, compared to $6.3 million in Q1 2020.

 

Capital expenditures were $10.9 million in Q1 2021, compared to $10.9 million in Q1 2020.

 

Free Cash Flow was $126.0 million in Q1 2021, compared to $(4.6) million in Q1 2020.

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities were $2.6 billion as of March 31, 2021.

 

Common shares outstanding plus shares underlying stock-based awards, including restricted stock units, restricted stock awards, and outstanding stock options, totaled 1,629 million at March 31, 2021, compared with 1,589 million one year ago.

Overview

Snap Inc. is a camera company.

We believe that reinventing the camera represents our greatest opportunity to improve the way that people live and communicate. We contribute to human progress by empowering people to express themselves, live in the moment, learn about the world, and have fun together.

Our flagship product, Snapchat, is a camera application that helps people communicate visually with friends and family through short videos and images called Snaps.

22


Trends in User Metrics

We define a DAU as a registered Snapchat user who opens the Snapchat application at least once during a defined 24-hour period. We define ARPU as quarterly revenue divided by the average DAUs. We assess the health of our business by measuring DAUs and ARPU because we believe that these metrics are important ways for both management and investors to understand engagement and monitor the performance of our platform.

User Engagement

We calculate average DAUs for a particular quarter by adding the number of DAUs on each day of that quarter and dividing that sum by the number of days in that quarter. DAUs are broken out by geography because markets have different characteristics. We had 280 million DAUs on average in the first quarter of 2021, an increase of 51 million, or 22%, from the first quarter of 2020.

Quarterly Average Daily Active Users

(in millions)

 

 

 

(1)

North America includes Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America.

(2)

Europe includes Russia and Turkey.

23


 

Monetization

We recorded revenue of $769.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to revenue of $462.5 million for the same period in 2020, an increase of 66% year-over-year. We monetize our business primarily through advertising. Our advertising products include Snap Ads and AR Ads. We measure our business using ARPU because it helps us understand the rate at which we’re monetizing our daily user base.

ARPU was $2.74 in the first quarter of 2021, up from $2.02 in the first quarter of 2020. For purposes of calculating ARPU, revenue by user geography is apportioned to each region based on a determination of the geographic location in which advertising impressions are delivered, as this approximates revenue based on user activity. This differs from the presentation of our revenue by geography in the notes to our consolidated financial statements, where revenue is based on the billing address of the advertising customer.

 

Quarterly Average Revenue per User

 

 

(1)

North America includes Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America.

(2)

Europe includes Russia and Turkey.

24


 

Results of Operations

The following table summarizes certain selected historical financial results:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Revenue

$

769,584

 

 

$

462,478

 

Operating loss

 

(303,606

)

 

 

(286,364

)

Net loss

 

(286,882

)

 

 

(305,936

)

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

 

(1,709

)

 

 

(81,237

)

 

(1)

For information on how we define and calculate Adjusted EBITDA, and a reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

We generate substantially all of our revenue through the sale of our advertising products, which primarily include Snap Ads and AR Ads, and measurement services, referred to as advertising revenue. Snap Ads may be subject to revenue sharing arrangements between us and the media partner. We also generate revenue from sales of hardware. This revenue is reported net of allowances for returns.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists primarily of payments to third-party infrastructure partners for hosting our products, which include expenses related to storage, computing, and bandwidth costs. Cost of revenue also includes payments for content, developer, and advertiser partner costs as well as advertising measurement services. In addition, cost of revenue includes third-party selling costs, personnel-related costs, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation expenses. Cost of revenue also includes facilities and other supporting overhead costs, including depreciation and amortization, and inventory costs.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation expense for our engineers, designers, and other employees engaged in the research and development of our products. In addition, research and development expenses include facilities and other supporting overhead costs, including depreciation and amortization. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.

Sales and Marketing Expenses

Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs, including salaries, benefits, commissions, and stock-based compensation expense for our employees engaged in sales and sales support, business development, media, marketing, corporate partnerships, and customer service functions. Sales and marketing expenses also include costs incurred for advertising, market research, tradeshows, branding, marketing, promotional expense, and public relations, as well as facilities and other supporting overhead costs, including depreciation and amortization.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation expense for our finance, legal, information technology, human resources, and other administrative teams. General and administrative expenses also include facilities and supporting overhead costs, including depreciation and amortization, and external professional services.

Interest Income

Interest income consists primarily of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities.

25


Interest Expense

Interest expense consists primarily of interest expense associated with the Convertible Notes and commitment fees and amortization of financing costs related to our revolving credit facility.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net consists of realized gains and losses on sales of marketable securities, our portion of non-marketable investment income and losses, foreign currency transaction gains and losses, and gains and impairments on non-marketable investments.

Income Tax Benefit (Expense)

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. These foreign jurisdictions have different statutory tax rates than the United States. Additionally, certain of our foreign earnings may also be taxable in the United States. Accordingly, our effective tax rates will vary depending on the relative proportion of foreign to domestic income, use of tax credits, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, and changes in tax laws.

Adjusted EBITDA

We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss), excluding interest income; interest expense; other income (expense), net; income tax benefit (expense); depreciation and amortization; stock-based compensation expense and other payroll related tax expense; and certain other non-cash or non-recurring items impacting net income (loss) from time to time. We consider the exclusion of certain non-cash and non-recurring expenses in calculating Adjusted EBITDA to provide a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our business and for investors and others to evaluate our operating results in the same manner as does our management. Additionally, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is an important measure since we use third-party infrastructure partners to host our services and therefore we do not incur significant capital expenditures to support revenue-generating activities. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for additional information and a reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA.

26


 

Discussion of Results of Operations

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic

The broader impact of the recent COVID-19 pandemic on our results of operations and overall financial performance continues to remain uncertain. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted revenue growth, and will likely continue to adversely impact many aspects of our business and our partners. See “Risk Factors” for further discussion of the potential adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and related events on our business and partners.

The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

$

769,584

 

 

$

462,478

 

Costs and expenses(1) (2):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

412,601

 

 

 

253,410

 

Research and development

 

348,580

 

 

 

238,613

 

Sales and marketing

 

150,286

 

 

 

122,205

 

General and administrative

 

161,723

 

 

 

134,614

 

Total costs and expenses

 

1,073,190

 

 

 

748,842

 

Operating loss

 

(303,606

)

 

 

(286,364

)

Interest income

 

1,137

 

 

 

8,589

 

Interest expense

 

(5,031

)

 

 

(15,113

)

Other income (expense), net

 

22,058

 

 

 

(12,389

)

Loss before income taxes

 

(285,442

)

 

 

(305,277

)

Income tax benefit (expense)

 

(1,440

)

 

 

(659

)

Net loss

$

(286,882

)

 

$

(305,936

)

Adjusted EBITDA(3)

$

(1,709

)

 

$

(81,237

)

 

(1)

Stock-based compensation expense included in the above line items:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Stock-based compensation expense:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

$

2,656

 

 

$

1,782

 

Research and development

 

163,793

 

 

 

118,317

 

Sales and marketing

 

29,084

 

 

 

24,806

 

General and administrative

 

41,540

 

 

 

27,144

 

Total

$

237,073

 

 

$

172,049

 

 

(2)

Depreciation and amortization expense included in the above line items:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Depreciation and amortization expense:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

$

5,276

 

 

$

5,525

 

Research and development

 

11,036

 

 

 

8,915

 

Sales and marketing

 

3,186

 

 

 

3,166

 

General and administrative

 

4,000

 

 

 

3,598

 

Total

$

23,498

 

 

$

21,204

 

 

(3)

See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for more information and for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.

27


The following table sets forth the components of our consolidated statements of operations data for each of the periods presented as a percentage of revenue:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

100

%

 

 

100

%

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

54

 

 

 

55

 

Research and development

 

45

 

 

 

52

 

Sales and marketing

 

20

 

 

 

26

 

General and administrative

 

21

 

 

 

29

 

Total costs and expenses

 

139

 

 

 

162

 

Operating loss

 

(39

)

 

 

(62

)

Interest income

 

 

 

 

2

 

Interest expense

 

(1

)

 

 

(3

)

Other income (expense), net

 

3

 

 

 

(3

)

Loss before income taxes

 

(37

)

 

 

(66

)

Income tax benefit (expense)

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

(37

)%

 

 

(66

)%

Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 and 2020

Revenue

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Revenue

$

769,584

 

 

$

462,478

 

Revenue as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

307,106

 

Revenue as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

66

%

 

Revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased $307.1 million compared to the same period in 2020. Revenue increased due to a combination of growth in advertisers and advertising demand and optimization efficiencies.

Cost of Revenue

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Cost of Revenue

$

412,601

 

 

$

253,410

 

Cost of Revenue as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

159,191

 

Cost of Revenue as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

63

%

 

Cost of revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased $159.2 million compared to the same period in 2020. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily driven by higher content costs which include $90.0 million for Spotlight, which launched in Q4 2020, as well as increases in revenue share due to the overall increase in revenue and higher mix of revenue subject to revenue share. The increase was also a result of increased infrastructure costs, attributable to DAU growth, net of infrastructure cost efficiencies and rate improvements.

28


Research and Development Expenses

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

Research and Development Expenses

$

348,580

 

 

$

238,613

 

 

Research and Development Expenses as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

109,967

 

 

Research and Development Expenses as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

46

%

 

 

Research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased $110.0 million compared to the same period in 2020. The increase was primarily driven by an increase in personnel expenses due to the growth in research and development headcount and stock-based compensation expense, and changes to our cash compensation programs.

Sales and Marketing Expenses

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

Sales and Marketing Expenses

$

150,286

 

 

$

122,205

 

 

Sales and Marketing Expenses as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

28,081

 

 

Sales and Marketing Expenses as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

23

%

 

 

Sales and marketing expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased $28.1 million compared to the same period in 2020. The increase was primarily driven by an increase in personnel expenses due to the growth in sales and marketing headcount and stock-based compensation expense as well as increased marketing investments. The increase was partially offset by the impact of lower travel and event-related spending due to COVID-19 related restrictions on these activities.

General and Administrative Expenses

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

General and Administrative Expenses

$

161,723

 

 

$

134,614

 

 

General and Administrative Expenses as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

27,109

 

 

General and Administrative Expenses as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

20

%

 

General and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased $27.1 million compared to the same period in 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase in personnel expenses driven by stock-based compensation expense as well as headcount growth. This increase was partially offset by the impact of lower travel and event-related spending due to COVID-19 related restrictions on these activities.

Interest Income

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

Interest Income

$

1,137

 

 

$

8,589

 

 

Interest Income as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

(7,452

)

 

Interest Income as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

(87

)%

 

 

Interest income for the three months ended March 31, 2021 decreased $7.5 million compared to the same period in 2020. The decrease was primarily a result of lower interest rates on U.S. government-backed securities, partially offset by a higher overall invested cash balance.

29


Interest Expense

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

Interest Expense

$

(5,031

)

 

$

(15,113

)

 

Interest Expense as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

10,082

 

 

Interest Expense as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

(67

)%

 

 

Interest expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021 decreased $10.1 million compared to the same period in 2020 due to the early adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2021. As a result, we account for the Convertible Notes as a single liability, which eliminates the amortization of the debt discount. Prior to January 1, 2021, the carrying amount of the equity component was recorded as a debt discount and amortized to interest expense. Interest expense related to the amortization of debt issuance costs was $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 while interest expense related to the amortization of debt discount and issuance costs was $11.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. Contractual interest expense was $3.0 million and $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Other Income (Expense), Net

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

Other Income (Expense), Net

$

22,058

 

 

$

(12,389

)

 

Other Income (Expense), Net as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

34,447

 

 

Other Income (Expense), Net as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

(278

)%

 

Other income, net for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $22.1 million, compared to other expense, net of $(12.4) million in the same period in 2020. Other income, net for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was primarily a result of a $23.3 million gain on non-marketable investments. Other expense, net for the three months ended March 31, 2020 was primarily a result of a $10.5 million impairment of non-marketable investments.

Income Tax Benefit (Expense)

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

Income Tax Benefit (Expense)

$

(1,440

)

 

$

(659

)

 

Income Tax Benefit (Expense) as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

(781

)

 

Income Tax Benefit (Expense) as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

119

%

 

Effective Tax Rate

 

(0.5

)%

 

 

(0.2

)%

 

 

Income tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $1.4 million compared to an income tax expense of $0.7 million for the same period in 2020.

Our effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets as it is more likely than not that some or all of our deferred tax assets will not be realized.

30


Net Loss and Adjusted EBITDA

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

 

Net Loss

$

(286,882

)

 

$

(305,936

)

 

Net Loss as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

19,054

 

 

Net Loss as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

(6

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

$

(1,709

)

 

$

(81,237

)

 

Adjusted EBITDA as a dollar change

 

 

 

 

$

79,528

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage change

 

 

 

 

 

(98

)%

 

 

Net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $286.9 million compared to $305.9 million for the same period in 2020. Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $(1.7) million compared to $(81.2) million for the same period in 2020. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA was attributable to increased revenues, partially offset by increased cost of revenue primarily due to higher content acquisition costs between the periods. The decrease in net loss was also partially offset by the increase in stock-based compensation expense.

For a discussion of the limitations associated with using Adjusted EBITDA rather than GAAP measures and a reconciliation of this measure to net loss, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

To supplement our consolidated financial statements, which are prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP, we use certain non-GAAP financial measures, as described below, to understand and evaluate our core operating performance. These non-GAAP financial measures, which may be different than similarly titled measures used by other companies, are presented to enhance investors’ overall understanding of our financial performance and should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP.

We use the non-GAAP financial measure of Free Cash Flow, which is defined as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, reduced by purchases of property and equipment. We believe Free Cash Flow is an important liquidity measure of the cash that is available, after capital expenditures, for operational expenses and investment in our business and is a key financial indicator used by management. Additionally, we believe that Free Cash Flow is an important measure since we use third-party infrastructure partners to host our services and therefore we do not incur significant capital expenditures to support revenue generating activities. Free Cash Flow is useful to investors as a liquidity measure because it measures our ability to generate or use cash. Once our business needs and obligations are met, cash can be used to maintain a strong balance sheet and invest in future growth.

We use the non-GAAP financial measure of Adjusted EBITDA, which is defined as net income (loss); excluding interest income; interest expense; other income (expense), net; income tax benefit (expense); depreciation and amortization; stock-based compensation expense and other payroll related tax expense; and certain other non-cash or non-recurring items impacting net income (loss) from time to time. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA helps identify underlying trends in our business that could otherwise be masked by the effect of the expenses that we exclude in Adjusted EBITDA.

We believe that both Free Cash Flow and Adjusted EBITDA provide useful information about our financial performance, enhance the overall understanding of our past performance and future prospects, and allow for greater transparency with respect to key metrics used by our management for financial and operational decision-making. We are presenting the non-GAAP measures of Free Cash Flow and Adjusted EBITDA to assist investors in seeing our financial performance through the eyes of management, and because we believe that these measures provide an additional tool for investors to use in comparing our core financial performance over multiple periods with other companies in our industry.

These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as substitutes for, financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. There are a number of limitations related to the use of these non-GAAP financial measures compared to the closest comparable GAAP measure. Some of these limitations are that:

 

Free Cash Flow does not reflect our future contractual commitments.

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain recurring, non-cash charges such as depreciation of fixed assets and amortization of acquired intangible assets and, although these are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future;

31


 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes stock-based compensation expense and other payroll related tax expense, which have been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, significant recurring expenses in our business and an important part of our compensation strategy; and

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes income tax expense.

The following table presents a reconciliation of Free Cash Flow to net cash provided by operating activities, the most comparable GAAP financial measure, for each of the periods presented:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Free Cash Flow reconciliation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

$

136,886

 

 

$

6,283

 

Less:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

(10,851

)

 

 

(10,891

)

Free Cash Flow

$

126,035

 

 

$

(4,608

)

 

The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most comparable GAAP financial measure, for each of the periods presented:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Adjusted EBITDA reconciliation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(286,882

)

 

$

(305,936

)

Add (deduct):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

(1,137

)

 

 

(8,589

)

Interest expense

 

5,031

 

 

 

15,113

 

Other (income) expense, net

 

(22,058

)

 

 

12,389

 

Income tax (benefit) expense

 

1,440

 

 

 

659

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

23,498

 

 

 

21,204

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

237,073

 

 

 

172,049

 

Payroll and other tax expense related to stock-based compensation

 

41,326

 

 

 

11,874

 

Adjusted EBITDA

$

(1,709

)

 

$

(81,237

)

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities were $2.6 billion as of March 31, 2021, primarily consisting of cash on deposit with banks and highly liquid investments in U.S. government and agency securities, corporate debt securities, certificates of deposit, and commercial paper. Our primary source of liquidity is cash generated through financing activities. Our primary uses of cash include operating costs such as personnel-related costs and the infrastructure costs of the Snapchat application, facility-related capital spending, and acquisitions and investments. There are no known material subsequent events that could have a material impact on our cash or liquidity. We may contemplate and engage in merger and acquisition activity that could materially impact our liquidity and capital resource position.

In April 2020, we entered into a purchase agreement for the sale of an aggregate of $1.0 billion principal amount of senior convertible notes, or the 2025 Notes. The net proceeds from the issuance of the 2025 Notes were $888.6 million, net of debt issuance costs and cash used to pay the costs of the capped call transactions, or the 2025 Capped Call Transactions, discussed further in Note 7. The 2025 Notes mature on May 1, 2025 unless repurchased, redeemed, or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date. The sale price for conversion was satisfied as of March 31, 2021 and as a result, the 2025 Notes will continue to be eligible for optional conversion during the second quarter of 2021.

32


In August 2019, we entered into a purchase agreement for the sale of an aggregate of $1.265 billion principal amount of senior convertible notes, or the 2026 Notes. The net proceeds from the issuance of the 2026 Notes were $1.15 billion, net of debt issuance costs and cash used to pay the costs of the capped call transactions, or the 2026 Capped Call Transactions, discussed further in Note 7. The 2026 Notes mature on August 1, 2026 unless repurchased, redeemed, or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date. The sale price for conversion was satisfied as of March 31, 2021 and as a result, the 2026 Notes will continue to be eligible for optional conversion during the second quarter of 2021.

In July 2016, we entered into a five-year senior unsecured revolving credit facility, or the Credit Facility, with lenders some of which are affiliated with certain members of the underwriting syndicate for our Convertible Notes offering, that allows us to borrow up to $1.1 billion to fund working capital and general corporate-purpose expenditures. The loan bears interest at LIBO plus 0.75%, as well as an annual commitment fee of 0.10% on the daily undrawn balance of the facility. No origination fees were incurred at the closing of the Credit Facility. In December 2016, the amount we are permitted to borrow under the Credit Facility was increased to $1.2 billion. In February 2018, the amount we are permitted to borrow under the Credit Facility was increased to $1.25 billion. In August 2018, we amended the Credit Facility to extend the term to August 2023 with respect to an aggregate of $1.05 billion of the $1.25 billion that we may borrow under the Credit Facility. In August 2019, we amended the Credit Facility to revise the covenants that restrict the repurchase of equity securities and the incurrence of indebtedness to permit the 2026 Capped Call Transactions and issuance of the 2026 Notes. In April 2020, we amended the Credit Facility to revise the covenants that restrict the incurrence of indebtedness to permit the 2025 Capped Call Transactions and issuance of the 2025 Notes. As of March 31, 2021, no amounts were outstanding under the Credit Facility. As of March 31, 2021, we had $26.1 million in the form of outstanding standby letters of credit.

We believe our existing cash balance is sufficient to fund our ongoing working capital, investing, and financing requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors including our growth rate, headcount, sales and marketing activities, research and development efforts, the introduction of new features, products, and acquisitions, and continued user engagement. We continually evaluate opportunities to issue or repurchase equity or debt securities, obtain, retire, or restructure credit facilities or financing arrangements, or declare dividends for strategic reasons or to further strengthen our financial position.

As of March 31, 2021, approximately 12% of our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities was held outside the United States. These amounts were primarily held in the United Kingdom and are utilized to fund our foreign operations. Cash held outside the United States may be repatriated, subject to certain limitations, and would be available to be used to fund our domestic operations. However, repatriation of funds may result in additional tax liabilities. We believe our existing cash balance in the United States is sufficient to fund our working capital needs.

The following table sets forth the major components of our consolidated statements of cash flows for the periods presented:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

$

136,886

 

 

$

6,283

 

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

280,555

 

 

 

371,577

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

4,453

 

 

 

3,130

 

Change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

$

421,894

 

 

$

380,990

 

Free Cash Flow (1)

$

126,035

 

 

$

(4,608

)

 

(1)

For information on how we define and calculate Free Cash Flow and a reconciliation to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities to Free Cash Flow, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 and 2020

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities

Net cash provided by operating activities increased $130.6 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to the same period in 2020. Net cash provided by operating activities was $136.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, resulting primarily from our net loss, adjusted for non-cash items, including stock-based compensation expense of $237.1 million and depreciation and amortization expense of $23.5 million. Net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was also driven by a decrease in the accounts receivable balance of $129.3 million due to higher collections in the period, and a $56.5 million increase in accounts payable primarily due to the timing of payments.

33


Net Cash Provided by Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities was $280.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $371.6 million for the same period in 2020. Our investing activities in the three months ended March 31, 2021 consisted of cash provided by the sales and maturities of marketable securities of $925.0 million, partially offset by the purchase of marketable securities of $523.2 million and cash paid for acquisitions of $108.9 million. Net cash provided by investing activities in the prior period consisted of cash provided by the sales and maturities of marketable securities of $970.6 million, partially offset by cash used in the purchase of marketable securities of $552.7 million.

Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was $4.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $3.1 million for the same period in 2020. Our financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 consisted of net proceeds from the exercise of stock options.

Free Cash Flow

Free Cash Flow was $126.0 million and $(4.6) million in the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and was composed of net cash provided by operating activities, resulting primarily from net loss, adjusted for non-cash items as well as changes in working capital and other operating assets and liabilities. Free Cash Flow also included purchases of property and equipment of $(10.9) million and $(10.9) million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements for any of the periods presented.

Contingencies

We are involved in claims, lawsuits, tax matters, government investigations, and proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We record a provision for a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. We also disclose material contingencies when we believe that a loss is not probable but reasonably possible. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount. Such claims, suits, and proceedings are inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. Many of these legal and tax contingencies can take years to resolve. Should any of these estimates and assumptions change or prove to be incorrect, it could have a material impact on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.

Commitments

The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of March 31, 2021:

 

 

Total

 

 

Less than

1 Year

(Remainder of

2021)

 

 

1-3 Years

(2022 and 2023)

 

 

3-5 Years

(2024 and 2025)

 

 

After 5

Years

(Thereafter)

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Hosting commitments

$

896,679

 

 

$

520,039

 

 

 

376,640

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Lease commitments

 

415,259

 

 

 

43,940

 

 

 

135,329

 

 

 

127,623

 

 

 

108,367

 

Other commitments

 

47,260

 

 

 

34,280

 

 

 

12,921

 

 

 

57

 

 

 

2

 

Total contractual commitments

$

1,359,198

 

 

$

598,259

 

 

$

524,890

 

 

$

127,680

 

 

$

108,369

 

 

For additional discussion on our leases, hosting, and other purchase commitments, see Note 7 and Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

34


In January 2017, we entered into the Google Cloud Platform License Agreement. Under the agreement, we were granted a license to access and use certain cloud services. The agreement has an initial term of five years and we are required to purchase at least $400.0 million of cloud services in each year of the agreement. For each of the first four years, up to 15% of this amount may be moved to a subsequent year. If we fail to meet the minimum purchase commitment during any year, we are required to pay the difference.

In March 2016, we entered into the AWS Enterprise Agreement for the use of cloud services from Amazon Web Services, Inc. We are committed to spend an aggregate of $1.1 billion between January 2017 and December 2022 on AWS services ($90.0 million in 2018, $150.0 million in 2019, $215.0 million in 2020, $280.0 million in 2021, and $349.0 million in 2022). If we fail to meet the minimum purchase commitment during any year, we are required to pay the difference. Any such payment may be applied to future use of AWS services during the term, although it will not count towards meeting the future minimum purchase commitments.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

We prepare our financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Preparing these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ from these estimates.

The critical accounting estimates, assumptions, and judgments that we believe to have the most significant impact on our consolidated financial statements are revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, business combinations and valuation of goodwill and other acquired intangible assets, Convertible Notes, loss contingencies, and income taxes.

There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as described in our Annual Report, other than described below.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for recently adopted accounting pronouncements and recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Item 3. Qualitative and Quantitative Factors about Market Risk

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily include interest rate risk and foreign currency risk as follows:

Interest Rate Risk

We had cash and cash equivalents totaling $967.5 million and $545.6 million at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. We had marketable securities totaling $1.6 billion and $2.0 billion at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Our cash and cash equivalents consist of cash in bank accounts and marketable securities consisting of U.S. government debt and agency securities, corporate debt securities, certificates of deposit, and commercial paper. The primary objectives of our investment activities are to preserve principal and provide liquidity without significantly increasing risk. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. Due to the relatively short-term nature of our investment portfolio, a hypothetical 100 basis point change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair value of our portfolio for the periods presented.

In April 2020, we issued 2025 Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $1.0 billion. We carry the 2025 Notes at face value less the unamortized debt issuance costs on our consolidated balance sheets. The 2025 Notes have a fixed interest rate; therefore, we have no financial statement risk associated with changes in interest rates with respect to the 2025 Notes. The fair value of the 2025 Notes changes when the market price of our stock fluctuates or market interest rates change.

In August 2019, we issued 2026 Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $1.265 billion. We carry the 2026 Notes at face value less the unamortized debt issuance costs on our consolidated balance sheets. The 2026 Notes have a fixed interest rate; therefore, we have no financial statement risk associated with changes in interest rates with respect to the 2026 Notes. The fair value of the 2026 Notes changes when the market price of our stock fluctuates or market interest rates change.

35


Foreign Currency Risk

For all periods presented, our sales and operating expenses were predominately denominated in U.S. dollars. We therefore have not had material foreign currency risk associated with sales and cost-based activities. The functional currency of our material operating entities is the U.S. dollar.

For the periods presented, we believe the exposure to foreign currency fluctuation from operating expenses is immaterial as the related costs do not constitute a significant portion of our total expenses. As we grow operations, our exposure to foreign currency risk will likely become more significant.

For the periods presented, we did not enter into any foreign currency exchange contracts. We may, however, enter into foreign currency exchange contracts for purposes of hedging foreign exchange rate fluctuations on our business operations in future operating periods as our exposures are deemed to be material. For additional discussion on foreign currency risk, see “Risk Factors” elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended), as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Based on such evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of March 31, 2021, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that the information required to be disclosed by us in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q was (a) reported within the time periods specified by SEC rules and regulations, and (b) communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding any required disclosure.

Changes in Internal Control

During the first quarter of 2021, we completed the initial phase of our new enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system implementation and migrated our general ledger, consolidation, and planning processes onto the new system.  In connection with this implementation, we modified the design and documentation of our internal control processes and procedures relating to the new system. Following implementation, these changes to our control environment were validated according to our established processes. No other changes in our internal control over financial reporting were identified in management’s evaluation pursuant to Rules 13a-15(d) or 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act during the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that materially affected, or which are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures

In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.

36


PART II - OTHER INFORMATION

We are currently involved in, and may in the future be involved in, legal proceedings, claims, inquiries, and investigations in the ordinary course of our business, including claims for infringing intellectual property rights related to our products and the content contributed by our users and partners. Although the results of these proceedings, claims, inquiries, and investigations cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not believe that the final outcome of these matters is reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Regardless of final outcomes, however, any such proceedings, claims, and investigations may nonetheless impose a significant burden on management and employees and may come with costly defense costs or unfavorable preliminary and interim rulings.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, revenue, and future prospects could be seriously harmed. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. Unless otherwise indicated, references to our business being seriously harmed in these risk factors will include harm to our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, revenue, and future prospects. In that event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to significant risks and uncertainties that make an investment in us speculative and risky. Below we summarize what we believe are the principal risk factors but these risks are not the only ones we face, and you should carefully review and consider the full discussion of our risk factors in this “Risk Factors” section, together with the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. If any of the following risks actually occurs (or if any of those listed elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q occurs), our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, revenue, and future prospects could be seriously harmed. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business.

1.

Our Strategy and Advertising Business

We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment so we must continually innovate our products and evolve our business model for us to succeed.

As a company, we emphasize rapid innovation and prioritize long-term user engagement over short-term financial conditions or results if we believe that it will benefit the aggregate user experience and will thereby improve our financial performance over the long term. We currently have a history of operating losses but, as a result of our long-term focus, we may prioritize investments and expenses we believe are necessary for our long-term growth over achieving short-term profitability. Investments in our future, including through new products or acquisitions, are inherently risky and may not pay off, which would further delay or hinder our ability to settle the principal and interest payments on our convertible notes or other indebtedness when due, and to attain and sustain profitability. This in turn would hinder our ability to secure additional financing to meet our current and future financial needs on favorable terms, or at all.

We generate substantially all of our revenue from advertising. Our advertising business is most effective when our advertisers succeed. Driving their success requires continual investment in our advertising products and may be hindered by competitive challenges and various legal, regulatory, and operating system changes that make it more difficult for us to achieve and demonstrate a meaningful return for our advertisers. For example, recent changes to privacy laws and mobile operating systems have made it more difficult for us to collect and disclose user data or metrics that an advertiser needs to prove success, or that we need to demonstrate such success. In addition, our advertising business is seasonal and volatile, which could result in fluctuations in our quarterly revenues and operating results, including the expectations of our business prospects.

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Our business and operations have also been adversely affected by events beyond our control, such as health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, impacting the markets and communities in which we and our partners, advertisers, and users operate.

2.

Our Community and Competition

We need to continually innovate and create new products, and enhance our existing products, to attract, retain, and grow our global community. Products that we create may fail to attract or retain users, or to generate meaningful revenue, if at all. If our community does not see the value in our products or brand, or if competitors offer better alternatives, our community could easily switch to other services. While we have experienced rapid growth in the last few years, we have also experienced declines and there can be no assurance that won’t happen again. We have and expect to continue to expand organically and through acquisitions, including in international markets, which we may not be able to effectively manage or scale.

Many of our competitors have significantly more resources and larger market shares than we do, each of which gives them advantages over us that can make it more difficult for us to succeed.

3.

Our Partners

We primarily rely on Google, Apple, and Amazon to operate our service and provide the mobile operating systems for our applications. If these partners do not provide their services as we expect, terminate their services, or change the terms of our agreements or the functionality of their operating systems in ways that are adverse to us, our service may be interrupted and our product experience could be degraded, and these may harm our reputation, increase our costs, or make it harder for us to attain or sustain profitability. Many other parts of our business depend on partners, including content partners and advertising partners, so our success depends on our ability to attract and retain these partners.

4.

Our Technology and Regulation

Our business is complex and success depends on our ability to rapidly innovate, the interoperability of our service on many different smartphones and operating systems, and our ability to handle sensitive user data with the care our users expect. Because our systems and our products are constantly changing, we are susceptible to data breaches, bugs, and other errors in how our products work and are measured. We may also fail to maintain effective processes that report our metrics or financial results. Given the complexity of the systems involved and the rapidly changing nature of mobile devices and systems, we expect to encounter issues, particularly if we continue to expand in parts of the world where mobile data systems and connections are less stable.

We are also subject to complex and evolving federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy, data protection, content, taxes, and other matters, which are subject to change and have uncertain interpretations. Any actual or perceived failure to comply with such legal and regulatory obligations, including in connection with our consent decree with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or any economic or political instability, may adversely impact our business.

We also must actively protect our intellectual property. From time to time, we are subject to various legal claims, investigations, and proceedings, including class actions and matters involving intellectual property, that may be costly or distract management. We also rely on a variety of statutory and common-law frameworks for the content we provide our users, including the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the Communications Decency Act, and the fair-use doctrine, each of which has been subject to adverse political and regulatory scrutiny in recent times.

5.

Our Team and Capital Structure

We need to attract and retain a high caliber team, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Technology Officer, to maintain our competitive position. We may incur significant costs and expenses in maintaining and growing our team, and may lose valuable members of our team as we compete globally, including with many of our competitors, for key talent. A substantial portion of our employment costs is paid in our common stock, the price of which has been very volatile, and our ability to attract and retain talent may be adversely affected if our shares decline in value.

Our two co-founders control over 99% of the voting capital stock, which means they control substantially all outcomes submitted to stockholders. Class A common stockholders have no voting rights, unless required by Delaware law. This concentrated control may result in our co-founders voting their shares in their best interest, which might not always be in the interest of our stockholders generally.

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Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our ecosystem of users, advertisers, and partners depends on the engagement of our user base. We have seen the growth rate of our user base decline in the past and it may do so again in the future. If we fail to retain current users or add new users, or if our users engage less with Snapchat, our business would be seriously harmed.

We had 280 million DAUs on average in the quarter ended March 31, 2021. We view DAUs as a critical measure of our user engagement, and adding, maintaining, and engaging DAUs have been and will continue to be necessary. Our DAUs and DAU growth rate have declined in the past and they may decline in the future due to various factors, including as the size of our active user base increases, as we achieve higher market penetration rates, as we face continued competition for our users and their time, or if there are performance issues with our application. For example, in 2018, we believe our DAUs declined primarily due to changes in the design of our application and continued performance issues with the Android version of our application. In addition, as we achieve maximum market penetration rates among younger users in developed markets, future growth in DAUs will need to come from older users in those markets, developing markets, or users with Android operating systems, which may not be possible or may be more difficult or time consuming for us to achieve. While we may experience periods when our DAUs increase due to products and services with short-term popularity, or due to a lack of other events that compete for our users’ attention, such as during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, we may not always be able to attract new users, retain existing users, or maintain or increase the frequency and duration of their engagement if current or potential new users do not perceive our products to be fun, engaging, and useful. In addition, because our products typically require high bandwidth data capabilities, the majority of our users live in countries with high-end mobile device penetration and high bandwidth capacity cellular networks with large coverage areas. We therefore do not expect to experience rapid user growth or engagement in countries with low smartphone penetration even if such countries have well-established and high bandwidth capacity cellular networks. We may also not experience rapid user growth or engagement in countries where, even though smartphone penetration is high, consumers rely heavily on Wi-Fi due to the lack of sufficient cellular based data networks and therefore may not access our products regularly throughout the day. If our DAU growth rate slows or becomes stagnant, or we have a decline in DAUs, our financial performance will increasingly depend on our ability to elevate user activity or increase the monetization of our users.

Snapchat is free and easy to join, the barrier to entry for new entrants in our business is low, and the switching costs to another platform are also low. Moreover, the majority of our users are 18-34 years old. This demographic may be less brand loyal and more likely to follow trends, including viral trends, than other demographics. These factors may lead users to switch to another product, which would negatively affect our user retention, growth, and engagement. Snapchat also may not be able to penetrate other demographics in a meaningful manner. Falling user retention, growth, or engagement could make Snapchat less attractive to advertisers and partners, which may seriously harm our business. In addition, we continue to compete with other companies to attract and retain our users’ attention. We calculate average DAUs for a particular quarter by adding the number of DAUs on each day of that quarter and dividing that sum by the number of days in that quarter. This calculation may mask any individual days or months within the quarter that are significantly higher or lower than the average. There are many factors that could negatively affect user retention, growth, and engagement, including if:

 

users engage more with competing products instead of ours;

 

our competitors continue to mimic our products or improve on them, which could harm our user engagement and growth;

 

we fail to introduce new and exciting products and services or those we introduce or modify are poorly received;

 

our products fail to operate effectively on the iOS and Android mobile operating systems;

 

we are unable to continue to develop products that work with a variety of mobile operating systems, networks, and smartphones;

 

we do not provide a compelling user experience because of the decisions we make regarding the type and frequency of advertisements that we display or the structure and design of our products;

 

we are unable to combat spam or other hostile or inappropriate usage on our products;

 

there are changes in user sentiment about the quality or usefulness of our products in the short term, long term, or both;

 

there are concerns about the privacy implications, safety, or security of our products;

 

our partners who provide content to Snapchat do not create content that is engaging, useful, or relevant to users;

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our partners who provide content to Snapchat decide not to renew agreements or devote the resources to create engaging content or do not provide content exclusively to us;

 

advertisers and partners display ads that are untrue, offensive, or otherwise fail to follow our guidelines;

 

our products are subject to increased regulatory scrutiny or approvals, or there are changes in our products that are mandated or prompted by legislation, regulatory authorities, executive actions, or litigation, including settlements or consent decrees, that adversely affect the user experience;

 

technical or other problems frustrate the user experience, including by providers that host our platforms, particularly if those problems prevent us from delivering our product experience in a fast and reliable manner;

 

we fail to provide adequate service to users, advertisers, or partners;

 

we do not provide a compelling user experience to entice users to use the Snapchat application on a daily basis, or our users don’t have the ability to make new friends to maximize the user experience;

 

we, our partners, or other companies in our industry segment are the subject of adverse media reports or other negative publicity, some of which may be inaccurate or include confidential information that we are unable to correct or retract;

 

we do not maintain our brand image or our reputation is damaged; or

 

our current or future products reduce user activity on Snapchat by making it easier for our users to interact directly with our partners.

Any decrease to user retention, growth, or engagement could render our products less attractive to users, advertisers, or partners, and would seriously harm our business.

Snapchat depends on effectively operating with mobile operating systems, hardware, networks, regulations, and standards that we do not control. Changes in our products or to those operating systems, hardware, networks, regulations, or standards may seriously harm our user retention, growth, and engagement.

Because Snapchat is used primarily on mobile devices, the application must remain interoperable with popular mobile operating systems, primarily Android and iOS, application stores, and related hardware, including mobile-device cameras. The owners and operators of such operating systems and application stores, primarily Google and Apple, each have approval authority over our products and provide consumers with products that compete with ours, and there is no guarantee that any approval will not be rescinded in the future. Additionally, mobile devices and mobile-device cameras are manufactured by a wide array of companies. Those companies have no obligation to test the interoperability of new mobile devices or mobile-device cameras with Snapchat, and may produce new products that are incompatible with or not optimal for Snapchat. We have no control over these operating systems, application stores, or hardware, and any changes to these systems or hardware that degrade our products’ functionality, or give preferential treatment to competitive products, or actions by government authorities that impact our access to these systems or hardware, could seriously harm Snapchat usage on mobile devices. Our competitors that control the operating systems and related hardware our application runs on could make interoperability of our products with those mobile operating systems more difficult or display their competitive offerings more prominently than ours. Additionally, our competitors that control the standards for the application stores for their operating systems could make Snapchat, or certain features of Snapchat, inaccessible for a potentially significant period of time or attempt to violate the terms of our agreements with them. We plan to continue to introduce new products and features regularly and have experienced that it takes time to optimize such products and features to function with these operating systems, hardware, and standards, impacting the popularity of such products, and we expect this trend to continue.

Moreover, our products require high-bandwidth data capabilities. If the costs of data usage increase or access to cellular networks is limited, our user retention, growth, and engagement may be seriously harmed. Additionally, to deliver high-quality video and other content over mobile cellular networks, our products must work well with a range of mobile technologies, systems, networks, regulations, and standards that we do not control. In particular, any future changes to the iOS or Android operating systems or application stores may impact the accessibility, speed, functionality, and other performance aspects of our products and features, and result in issues in the future from time to time. In addition, the proposal or adoption of any laws, regulations, or initiatives that adversely affect the growth, popularity, or use of the internet, including laws governing internet neutrality, could decrease the demand for our products and increase our cost of doing business.

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For example, in January 2018, the Federal Communications Commission, or FCC, issued an order that repealed the “open internet rules,” which prohibit mobile providers in the United States from impeding access to most content, or otherwise unfairly discriminating against content providers like us and also prohibit mobile providers from entering into arrangements with specific content providers for faster or better access over their data networks. The FCC order repealing the open internet rules went into effect in June 2018. The core aspects of that order have been upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, but a number of states have adopted or are considering legislation or executive actions to impose state-level open internet rules, and those actions have been or can be expected to be challenged in court. We cannot predict whether the FCC order or state initiatives regulating providers will ultimately be upheld, modified, overturned, or vacated by further legal action, federal legislation, or the FCC, or the degree to which such outcomes would adversely affect our business, if at all. Similarly, the European Union requires equal access to internet content, but as part of certain initiatives and reviews (including recent modifications to the European Electronic Communications Code and proposals to expand the scope and nature of the EU Network and Information Security Directive), the European Union may impose additional obligations, including network security requirements, reporting and transparency obligations, disability access, or 911-like obligations on certain “over-the-top” services or those that qualify as “electronic communication services.” If we are considered to be in the scope of such service definition, our costs of doing business could increase and our business could be seriously harmed. The European Union’s highest court has also issued rulings that may limit our ability to engage in certain practices, such as “zero rating.” If the FCC’s repeal of the open internet rules is maintained, state initiatives are modified, overturned, or vacated, or the European Union modifies these open internet rules or limits commercial practices, mobile and internet providers may be able to limit our users’ ability to access Snapchat or make Snapchat a less attractive alternative to our competitors’ applications. Were that to happen, our ability to retain existing users or attract new users may be impaired, and our business would be seriously harmed.

We may not successfully cultivate relationships with key industry participants or develop products that operate effectively with these technologies, systems, networks, regulations, or standards. If it becomes more difficult for our users to access and use Snapchat on their mobile devices, if our users choose not to access or use Snapchat on their mobile devices, or if our users choose to use mobile products that do not offer access to Snapchat, our business and user retention, growth, and engagement could be seriously harmed.

We rely on Google Cloud and Amazon Web Services, or AWS, for the vast majority of our computing, storage, bandwidth, and other services. Any disruption of or interference with our use of either platform would negatively affect our operations and seriously harm our business.

Google and Amazon provide distributed computing infrastructure platforms for business operations, or what is commonly referred to as a “cloud” computing service. We currently run the vast majority of our computing on Google Cloud and AWS, and our systems are not fully redundant on the two platforms. Any transition of the cloud services currently provided by either Google Cloud or AWS to the other platform or to another cloud provider would be difficult to implement and will cause us to incur significant time and expense. We have committed to spend $2.0 billion with Google Cloud over five years and $1.1 billion with AWS over six years, in each case beginning January 2017, and have built our software and computer systems to use computing, storage capabilities, bandwidth, and other services provided by Google and AWS. Given this, any significant disruption of or interference with our use of Google Cloud or AWS would negatively impact our operations and our business would be seriously harmed. If our users or partners are not able to access Snapchat or specific Snapchat features, or encounter difficulties in doing so, due to issues or disruptions with Google Cloud or AWS, we may lose users, partners, or advertising revenue. The level of service provided by Google Cloud and AWS or similar providers may also impact our users’, advertisers’, and partners’ usage of and satisfaction with Snapchat and could seriously harm our business and reputation. If Google Cloud, AWS, or similar providers experience interruptions in service regularly or for a prolonged basis, or other similar issues, our business would be seriously harmed. Hosting costs also have and will continue to increase as our user base and user engagement grows and may seriously harm our business if we are unable to grow our revenues faster than the cost of utilizing the services of Google Cloud, AWS, or similar providers.

In addition, each of Google and Amazon may take actions beyond our control that could seriously harm our business, including:

 

discontinuing or limiting our access to its cloud platform;

 

increasing pricing terms;

 

terminating or seeking to terminate our contractual relationship altogether;

 

establishing more favorable relationships or pricing terms with one or more of our competitors; and

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modifying or interpreting its terms of service or other policies in a manner that impacts our ability to run our business and operations.

Google and Amazon each has broad discretion to change and interpret its terms of service and other policies with respect to us, and those actions may be unfavorable to us. They may also alter how we are able to process data on their cloud platforms. If Google or Amazon makes changes or interpretations that are unfavorable to us, our business could be seriously harmed.

We generate substantially all of our revenue from advertising. The failure to attract new advertisers, the loss of advertisers, or a reduction in how much they spend could seriously harm our business.

Substantially all of our revenue is generated from third parties advertising on Snapchat, a trend that we expect to continue. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, advertising revenue accounted for approximately 99%, 98%, and 99% of total revenue, respectively. Although we have and continue to try to establish longer-term advertising commitments with advertisers, most advertisers do not have long-term advertising commitments with us, and our efforts to establish long-term commitments may not succeed.

We are still early in developing our advertising business. Our advertising customers vary from small businesses to well-known brands. Many of our customers only recently started working with us and spend a relatively small portion of their overall advertising budget with us, but some customers have devoted meaningful budgets that contribute to our total revenue. Still, no individual customer accounts for more than 10% of our annual revenue. In addition, advertisers may view some of our products as experimental and unproven. Advertisers will not continue to do business with us if we do not deliver advertisements in an effective manner, or if they do not believe that their investment in advertising with us will generate a competitive return relative to other alternatives. As our business continues to develop, including globally, there may be new or existing advertisers or resellers, or advertisers or resellers from different geographic regions that contribute more significantly to our total revenue. For example, greater China represented more than 10% of our revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2020. Any economic or political instability, whether as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise, in a specific country or region may negatively impact the global or local economy, advertising ecosystem, our customers and their budgets with us, or our ability to forecast our advertising revenue, and our business would be seriously harmed.

Moreover, we rely heavily on our ability to collect and disclose data and metrics to and for our advertisers to attract new advertisers and retain existing advertisers. Any restriction, whether by law, regulation, policy, or other reason, on our ability to collect and disclose data and metrics which our advertisers find useful would impede our ability to attract and retain advertisers. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, in the European Union, which went into effect in May 2018, expanded the rights of individuals to control how their personal data is collected and processed, and placed restrictions on the use of personal data of younger minors. In addition, the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, went into effect in January 2020 and places additional requirements on the handling of personal data for us, our partners, and our advertisers. The CCPA also provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches, which may increase the likelihood and cost of data breach litigation. The potential effects of this legislation, including any regulations implemented by the legislation, are far-reaching, uncertain, and evolving, and may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. Other state, federal, and foreign legislative and regulatory bodies have also implemented or may implement similar legislation regarding the handling of personal data. Changes in the European Union’s Electronic Communications Code, which became effective in December 2020, may result in the expanded applicability of the European Union’s ePrivacy Directive over parts of our services, requiring us to make changes to how we process and store certain types of communications data of users in the European Union, which could have a material impact on the availability of data we rely on to improve and personalize our products and features. Furthermore, changes to iOS or Android operating systems’ practices and policies, such as Apple’s upcoming iOS update that may impose heightened restrictions on our access and use of user data, may reduce the quantity or quality of the data and metrics that can be collected or used by us and our partners, or adversely affect our ability to effectively target advertisements to users or demonstrate the value of our advertisements to advertisers, any of which could reduce the demand and pricing for our advertising products and seriously harm our business. The impact of these proposed changes on the overall mobile advertising ecosystem, our competitors, our business, and the developers, partners, and advertisers within our community is uncertain. Depending on how these changes are implemented, how we, our competitors, and the overall mobile advertising ecosystem adjusts, and how our partners, advertisers, and users respond, our business could be seriously harmed. Any adverse effects could be particularly material to us because we are still early in building our advertising business. Our advertising revenue could also be seriously harmed by many other factors, including:

 

a diminished or stagnant growth in the total and regional number of DAUs on Snapchat, or our inability to deliver advertisements to all of our users due to hardware, software, or network limitations;

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a decrease in the amount of time spent on Snapchat, a decrease in the amount of content that our users share, or decreases in usage of our Camera, Communication, Snap Map, Stories, and Spotlight platforms;

 

our inability to create new products that sustain or increase the value of our advertisements;

 

changes in our user demographics that make us less attractive to advertisers;

 

lack of ad creative availability by our advertising partners;

 

our partners who provide content to us may not renew agreements or devote the resources to create engaging content or do not provide content exclusively to us;

 

decreases in the perceived quantity, quality, usefulness, or relevance of the content provided by our users or partners;

 

changes in our analytics and measurement solutions, including what we are permitted to collect and disclose under the terms of Apple’s and Google’s mobile operating systems, that demonstrate the value of our advertisements and other commercial content;

 

competitive developments or advertiser perception of the value of our products that change the rates we can charge for advertising or the volume of advertising on Snapchat;

 

product changes or advertising inventory management decisions we may make that change the type, size, or frequency of advertisements displayed on Snapchat or the method used by advertisers to purchase advertisements;

 

adverse legal developments relating to advertising, including changes mandated or prompted by legislation, regulation, executive actions, or litigation;

 

adverse media reports or other negative publicity involving us, our founders, our partners, or other companies in our industry segment;

 

advertiser or user perception that content published by us, our users, or our partners is objectionable;

 

the degree to which users skip advertisements and therefore diminish the value of those advertisements to advertisers;

 

changes in the way advertising is priced or its effectiveness is measured;

 

our inability to measure the effectiveness of our advertising or target the appropriate audience for advertisements;

 

our inability to collect and disclose data or access a user’s Identifier for Advertising or similar deterministic identifier that new and existing advertisers may find useful;

 

difficulty and frustration from advertisers who may need to reformat or change their advertisements to comply with our guidelines; and

 

the macroeconomic climate and the status of the advertising industry in general.

These and other factors could reduce demand for our advertising products, which may lower the prices we receive, or cause advertisers to stop advertising with us altogether. Either of these would seriously harm our business.

Our two co-founders have control over all stockholder decisions because they control a substantial majority of our voting stock.

Our two co-founders, Evan Spiegel and Robert Murphy, own or control voting shares of our capital stock that represent over 99% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock as of March 31, 2021, and Mr. Spiegel alone can exercise voting control over a majority of our voting power. As a result, Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy, or in many instances Mr. Spiegel acting alone, have the ability to control the outcome of all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election, removal, and replacement of our directors and any merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets.

If Mr. Spiegel’s or Mr. Murphy’s employment with us is terminated, they will continue to have the ability to exercise the same significant voting power and potentially control the outcome of all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval. Either of our co-founders’ shares of Class C common stock will automatically convert into Class B common stock, on a one-to-one basis, nine months following his death or on the date on which the number of outstanding shares of Class C common stock held by such holder represents less than 30% of the Class C common stock held by such holder on the closing of our IPO, or 32,383,178 shares of Class C common stock. Should either of our co-founders’ Class C common stock be converted

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to Class B common stock, the remaining co-founder will be able to exercise voting control over our outstanding capital stock. Moreover, Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy have entered into a proxy agreement under which each has granted to the other a voting proxy with respect to all shares of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock that each may beneficially own from time to time or have voting control over. The proxy would become effective on either founder’s death or disability. Accordingly, on the death or incapacity of either Mr. Spiegel or Mr. Murphy, the other could individually control nearly all of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock.

In addition, in October 2016, we issued a dividend of one share of non-voting Class A common stock to all our equity holders, which will prolong our co-founders’ voting control because our co-founders are able to liquidate their holdings of non-voting Class A common stock without diminishing their voting control. In the future, our board of directors may, from time to time, decide to issue special or regular stock dividends in the form of Class A common stock, and if we do so our co-founders’ control could be further prolonged. This concentrated control could delay, defer, or prevent a change of control, merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets that our other stockholders support. Conversely, this concentrated control could allow our co-founders to consummate such a transaction that our other stockholders do not support. In addition, our co-founders may make long-term strategic investment decisions and take risks that may not be successful and may seriously harm our business.

As our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Spiegel has control over our day-to-day management and the implementation of major strategic investments of our company, subject to authorization and oversight by our board of directors. As board members and officers, Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy owe a fiduciary duty to our stockholders and must act in good faith in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interests of our stockholders. As stockholders, even controlling stockholders, Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy are entitled to vote their shares, and shares over which they have voting control, in their own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally. We have not elected to take advantage of the “controlled company” exemption to the corporate governance rules for companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE.

Health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, have had, and could in the future have, an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we and our partners, advertisers, and users operate.

The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, many aspects of our business. As certain of our advertisers experience downturns or uncertainty in their own business operations and revenue because of the economic effects, including resulting from the spread of COVID-19, they have halted or decreased or may halt or decrease or continue to decrease, whether temporarily or permanently, their advertising spending and may focus their advertising spending more on other platforms, all of which may result in decreased advertising revenue. Furthermore, a portion of our advertising revenue is related to in-person events or activities, such as sporting events, music festivals, the Olympics, and in-person learning that have been or may be postponed or cancelled. In addition, the unpredictability of the COVID-19 pandemic may make it difficult to forecast our advertising revenue, and although we may benefit in the shorter term from changes in the current advertising landscape, any increases may not be indicative of longer-term trends. Any decline in advertising revenue or the collectability of our receivables could seriously harm our business.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many state, local, and foreign governments have put in place, and others in the future may put in place, quarantines, executive actions, shelter-in-place orders, physical distancing requirements, and similar government orders and restrictions in order to control the spread of the disease. Such orders or restrictions, or the perception that such orders or restrictions could occur, have resulted in business closures, work stoppages, slowdowns and delays, work-from-home policies, travel restrictions, and cancellation or postponement of events, among other effects that could negatively impact productivity and disrupt our operations and those of our partners, advertisers, and users. We implemented and continue a work-from-home policy for substantially all of our employees, and we may take further actions that alter our operations as may be required by federal, state, or local authorities, or which we believe are in our best interests. While most of our operations can be performed remotely, there is no guarantee that we will be as effective while working remotely because our team is dispersed, many employees may have additional personal needs to attend to (such as looking after children as a result of school closures or family who become sick), and employees may become sick themselves and be unable to work. Decreased effectiveness of our team could adversely affect our results due to our inability to meet in person with potential advertisers, longer time periods to review and approve ads, longer time to respond to application performance issues or spam, extended timelines for product reviews and a corresponding reduction in innovation, or other decreases in productivity that could seriously harm our business. Furthermore, we may decide to postpone or cancel planned investments in our business in response to changes in our business as a result of the spread of COVID-19, which may impact our user engagement and rate of innovation, either of which could seriously harm our business.

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As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our partners who provide content or services to us may experience delays or interruptions in their ability to create content or provide services, if they are able to do so at all. A decrease in the amount or quality of content available on Snapchat, or an interruption in the services provided to us, could lead to a decline in user engagement, which could seriously harm our business.

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on user engagement or growth are highly uncertain, and may lead to unpredictable results in the short term and long term, including shorter-term increases in user engagement or growth that may not be indicative of longer-term trends. As physical distancing requirements and shelter-in-place orders continue or are reactivated, and there are fewer in-person activities, we may experience short-term and long-term disruption to user behavior and our business. We may also experience inconsistent or negative engagement as user behavior on our platform changes, including changes in user activity as a result of continued physical distancing requirements and shelter-in-place orders. In addition, while the potential impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and our business in particular may be difficult to assess or predict, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant volatility and disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could negatively affect our liquidity in the future.

The global impact of COVID-19 has and continues to rapidly evolve, and we will continue to monitor the situation closely. While there have recently been vaccines developed and administered, and the spread of COVID-19 may eventually be contained or mitigated, we cannot predict the timing of the vaccine roll-out globally or the efficacy of such vaccines, and we do not yet know how businesses, advertisers, or our partners will operate in a post COVID-19 environment. Our users may change how they use our products and services in an environment where the perceived risk of COVID-19 and regulations surrounding it have changed. There may be additional costs or impacts to our business and operations, including when we are able to return to our offices and resume in-person activities, travel, and events.  In addition, there is no guarantee that a future outbreak of this or any other widespread epidemics will not occur, or that the global economy will fully recover. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic on our business, operations, or the global economy as a whole remains highly uncertain.  

If we do not develop successful new products or improve existing ones, our business will suffer. We may also invest in new lines of business that could fail to attract or retain users or generate revenue.

Our ability to engage, retain, and increase our user base and to increase our revenue will depend heavily on our ability to successfully create new products, both independently and together with third parties. We may introduce significant changes to our existing products or develop and introduce new and unproven products and services, including technologies with which we have little or no prior development or operating experience. These new products and updates may fail to increase the engagement of our users, advertisers, or partners, may subject us to increased regulatory requirements or scrutiny, and may even result in short-term or long-term decreases in such engagement by disrupting existing user, advertiser, or partner behavior or by introducing performance and quality issues. For example, beginning in 2017, we started transitioning our advertising sales to a self-serve platform, which decreased average advertising prices. In 2018, we believe our DAUs declined primarily due to changes in the design of our application and continued performance issues with the Android version of our application. The short- and long-term impact of any major change, like our early 2018 application redesign and the rewrite of our application for Android users in 2019, or even a less significant change such as a refresh of the application or a feature change, is difficult to predict. Although we believe that these decisions will benefit the aggregate user experience and improve our financial performance over the long term, we may experience disruptions or declines in our DAUs or user activity. Product innovation is inherently volatile, and if new or enhanced products fail to engage our users, advertisers, or partners, or if we fail to give our users meaningful reasons to return to our application, we may fail to attract or retain users or to generate sufficient revenue, operating margin, or other value to justify our investments, any of which may seriously harm our business in the short term, long term, or both. Additionally, we frequently launch new products and the products that we launch may have technical issues that diminish the performance of our application. These performance issues or issues that we encounter in the future could impact our user engagement.

Because our products created new ways of communicating, they have often required users to learn new behaviors to use our products, or to use our products repeatedly to receive the most benefit. These new behaviors, such as swiping and tapping in the Snapchat application, are not always intuitive to users. This can create a lag in adoption of new products and new user additions related to new products. To date, this has not hindered our user growth or engagement, but that may be the result of a large portion of our user base being in a younger demographic and more willing to invest the time to learn to use our products most effectively. To the extent that future users, including those in older demographics, are less willing to invest the time to learn to use our products, and if we are unable to make our products easier to learn to use, our user growth or engagement could be affected, and our business could be harmed. We may also develop new products or initiatives that

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increase user engagement and costs without increasing revenue. For example, in 2016, we introduced Memories, our cloud storage service for Snaps, which increases our storage costs but does not currently generate revenue.

In addition, we have invested and expect to continue to invest in new lines of business, new products, and other initiatives to generate revenue and increase our user base and user activity. For example, in 2019 we launched Snap Games, a live, multi-player gaming experience, and in November 2020 we launched Spotlight, a new entertainment platform for user-generated content within Snapchat. Such new lines of business, new products, and other initiatives may be costly, difficult to operate, and divert management’s attention, and there is no guarantee that they will be positively received by our community or provide positive returns on our investment. In certain cases, new products that we develop may require regulatory approval prior to launch or may require us to comply with additional regulations or legislation. There is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain such regulatory approval, and our efforts to comply with these laws and regulations could be costly and divert management’s time and effort and may still not guarantee compliance. If we do not successfully develop new approaches to monetization or meet the expectations of our users or partners, we may not be able to maintain or grow our revenue as anticipated or recover any associated development costs, and our business could be seriously harmed.

Our business is highly competitive. We face significant competition that we anticipate will continue to intensify. If we are not able to maintain or improve our market share, our business could suffer.

We face significant competition in almost every aspect of our business both domestically and internationally. This ranges from smaller or newer companies to larger more established companies such as Apple, ByteDance (including TikTok), Facebook (including Instagram and WhatsApp), Google (including YouTube), Kakao, LINE, Naver (including Snow), Tencent, and Twitter which provide their users with a variety of products, services, content, and online advertising offerings, and advertising-supported video on demand platforms that offer, or will offer, products and services that may compete with Snapchat features or offerings. For example, Instagram, a competing application owned by Facebook, has incorporated many of our features, including a “stories” feature that largely mimics our Stories feature and may be directly competitive. Facebook has introduced, and likely will continue to introduce, more private ephemeral products into its various platforms which mimic other aspects of Snapchat’s core use case. We may also lose users to companies that offer products and services that compete with specific Snapchat features because of the low cost for our users to switch to a different product or service. Moreover, in emerging international markets, where mobile devices often lack large storage capabilities, we may compete with other applications for the limited space available on a user’s mobile device. We also face competition from traditional and online media businesses for advertising budgets. We compete broadly with the social media offerings of Apple, ByteDance, Facebook, Google, Pinterest, and Twitter, and with other, largely regional, social media platforms that have strong positions in particular countries. As we introduce new products, as our existing products evolve, or as other companies introduce new products and services, we may become subject to additional competition.

Many of our current and potential competitors have significantly greater resources and broader global recognition and occupy stronger competitive positions in certain market segments than we do. These factors may allow our competitors to respond to new or emerging technologies and changes in market requirements better than we can, undertake more far-reaching and successful product development efforts or marketing campaigns, or adopt more aggressive pricing policies. In addition, advertisers may use information that our users share through Snapchat to develop or work with competitors to develop products or features that compete with us. Certain competitors, including Apple, Facebook, and Google, could use strong or dominant positions in one or more market segments to gain competitive advantages against us in areas where we operate, including by:

 

integrating competing social media platforms or features into products they control such as search engines, web browsers, advertising networks, or mobile device operating systems;

 

making acquisitions for similar or complementary products or services; or

 

impeding Snapchat’s accessibility and usability by modifying existing hardware and software on which the Snapchat application operates.

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Certain acquisitions by our competitors may result in reduced functionality of our products and services, provide our competitors with valuable insight into the performance of our and our partners’ businesses, and provide our competitors with a pipeline of future acquisitions to maintain a dominant position. As a result, our competitors may acquire and engage users at the expense of our user base, growth, or engagement, which may seriously harm our business.

We believe that our ability to compete effectively depends on many factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

the usefulness, novelty, performance, and reliability of our products compared to our competitors;

 

the number and demographics of our DAUs;

 

the timing and market acceptance of our products, including developments and enhancements of our competitors’ products;

 

our ability to monetize our products;

 

the availability of our products to users;

 

the effectiveness of our advertising and sales teams;

 

the effectiveness of our advertising products;

 

our ability to establish and maintain advertisers’ and partners’ interest in using Snapchat;

 

the frequency, relative prominence, and type of advertisements displayed on our application or by our competitors;

 

the effectiveness of our customer service and support efforts;

 

the effectiveness of our marketing activities;

 

changes as a result of actual or proposed legislation, regulation, executive actions, or litigation, including settlements and consent decrees, some of which may have a disproportionate effect on us;

 

acquisitions or consolidation within our industry segment;

 

our ability to attract, retain, and motivate talented employees, particularly engineers, designers, and sales personnel;

 

our ability to successfully acquire and integrate companies and assets;

 

our ability to cost-effectively manage and scale our rapidly growing operations; and

 

our reputation and brand strength relative to our competitors.

If we cannot effectively compete, our user engagement may decrease, which could make us less attractive to users, advertisers, and partners and seriously harm our business.

We have incurred operating losses in the past, and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We began commercial operations in 2011 and we have historically experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations. As of March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $8.1 billion and for the three months ended March 31, 2021, we experienced a net loss of $286.9 million. We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future as we expand our operations. If our revenue does not grow at a greater rate than our expenses, we will not be able to achieve and maintain profitability. We may incur significant losses in the future for many reasons, including due to the other risks and uncertainties described in this report. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, operating delays, or other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If our expenses continue to exceed our revenue, our business may be seriously harmed and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

The loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could seriously harm our business.

We depend on the continued services and performance of our key personnel, including Evan Spiegel and Robert Murphy. Although we have entered into employment agreements with Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy, the agreements are at-will, which means that they may resign or could be terminated for any reason at any time. Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy are high profile individuals who have received threats in the past and are likely to continue to receive threats in the future. Mr. Spiegel, as Chief Executive Officer, has been responsible for our company’s strategic vision and Mr. Murphy, as Chief

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Technology Officer, developed the Snapchat application’s technical foundation. Should either of them stop working for us for any reason, it is unlikely that the other co-founder would be able to fulfill all of the responsibilities of the departing co-founder nor is it likely that we would be able to immediately find a suitable replacement. The loss of key personnel, including members of management and key engineering, product development, marketing, and sales personnel, could disrupt our operations, adversely impact employee retention and morale, and seriously harm our business.

As we continue to grow, we cannot guarantee we will continue to attract and retain the personnel we need to maintain our competitive position.  We face significant competition in hiring and attracting qualified engineers, designers, and sales personnel, and the recent move by companies to offer a remote or hybrid work environment may increase the competition for such employees from employers outside of our traditional office locations. In addition, if our reputation were to be harmed, whether as a result of media, legislative, or regulatory scrutiny or otherwise, it could make it more difficult to attract and retain personnel that are critical to the success of our business.

As we mature, or if our stock price declines, our equity awards may not be as effective an incentive to attract, retain, and motivate employees. Additionally, many of our current employees received substantial amounts of our capital stock, giving them a substantial amount of personal wealth, which can lead to an increase in attrition. As a result, it may be difficult for us to continue to retain and motivate these employees, and this wealth could affect their decision about whether they continue to work for us. Furthermore, if we issue significant equity to attract and retain employees, we would incur substantial additional stock-based compensation expense and the ownership of our existing stockholders would be further diluted. If we do not succeed in attracting, hiring, and integrating excellent personnel, or retaining and motivating existing personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively and our business could be seriously harmed.

We have a continually evolving business model, which makes it difficult to evaluate our prospects and future financial results and increases the risk that we will not be successful.

We began commercial operations in 2011 and began meaningfully monetizing Snapchat in 2015. We started transitioning our advertising sales to a self-serve platform in 2017. We have a continually evolving business model, based on reinventing the camera to improve the way that people live and communicate, which makes it difficult to effectively assess our future prospects. Accordingly, we believe that investors’ future perceptions and expectations, which can be idiosyncratic and vary widely, and which we do not control, will affect our stock price. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the many challenges we face, including the ones discussed in this report.

If our security is compromised or if our platform is subjected to attacks that frustrate or thwart our users’ ability to access our products and services, our users, advertisers, and partners may cut back on or stop using our products and services altogether, which could seriously harm our business.

Our efforts to protect the information that our users have shared with us may be unsuccessful due to the actions of third parties, software bugs or other technical malfunctions, employee error or malfeasance, or other factors. In addition, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or users to disclose information to gain access to our data or our users’ data. If any of these events occur, our or our users’ information could be accessed or disclosed improperly. We have previously suffered the loss of employee information related to an employee error. Our Privacy Policy governs how we may use and share the information that our users have provided us. Some advertisers and partners may store information that we share with them. If these third parties fail to implement adequate data-security practices or fail to comply with our terms and policies, our users’ data may be improperly accessed or disclosed. And even if these third parties take all these steps, their networks may still suffer a breach, which could compromise our users’ data.

Any incidents where our users’ information is accessed without authorization, or is improperly used, or incidents that violate our Terms of Service or policies, could damage our reputation and our brand and diminish our competitive position. In addition, affected users or government authorities could initiate legal or regulatory action against us over those incidents, which could be time-consuming and cause us to incur significant expense and liability or result in orders or consent decrees forcing us to modify our business practices. Maintaining the trust of our users is important to sustain our growth, retention, and user engagement. Concerns over our privacy practices, whether actual or unfounded, could damage our reputation and brand and deter users, advertisers, and partners from using our products and services. Any of these occurrences could seriously harm our business.

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We also are or may in the future be subject to many federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations, including those related to privacy, rights of publicity, content, data protection, intellectual property, health and safety, competition, protection of minors, consumer protection, employment, money transmission, import and export restrictions, gift cards, electronic funds transfers, anti-money laundering, and taxation. These laws and regulations are constantly evolving and may be interpreted, applied, created, or amended in a manner that could seriously harm our business.

In addition, in December 2014, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or the FTC, resolved an investigation into some of our early practices by issuing a final order. That order requires, among other things, that we establish a robust privacy program to govern how we treat user data. During the 20-year term of the order, we must complete biennial independent privacy audits. In addition, in June 2014, we entered into a 10-year assurance of discontinuance with the Attorney General of Maryland implementing similar practices, including measures to prevent minors under the age of 13 from creating accounts and providing annual compliance reports. Violating existing or future regulatory orders or consent decrees could subject us to substantial monetary fines and other penalties that could seriously harm our business.

Our user metrics and other estimates are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and real or perceived inaccuracies in those metrics may seriously harm and negatively affect our reputation and our business.

We regularly review metrics, including our DAUs and ARPU metrics, to evaluate growth trends, measure our performance, and make strategic decisions. These metrics are calculated using internal company data gathered on an analytics platform that we developed and operate and have not been validated by an independent third party. While these metrics are based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates of our user base for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring how our products are used across large populations globally. For example, there may be individuals who have multiple Snapchat accounts, even though we forbid that in our Terms of Service and implement measures to detect and suppress that behavior. Our user metrics are also affected by technology on certain mobile devices that automatically runs in the background of our Snapchat application when another phone function is used, and this activity can cause our system to miscount the user metrics associated with such account.

Some of our demographic data may be incomplete or inaccurate. For example, because users self-report their dates of birth, our age-demographic data may differ from our users’ actual ages. And because users who signed up for Snapchat before June 2013 were not asked to supply their date of birth, we may exclude those users from age demographics or estimate their ages based on a sample of the self-reported ages we do have. If our users provide us with incorrect or incomplete information regarding their age or other attributes, then our estimates may prove inaccurate and fail to meet investor or advertiser expectations.

Errors or inaccuracies in our metrics or data could also result in incorrect business decisions and inefficiencies. For instance, if a significant understatement or overstatement of active users were to occur, we may expend resources to implement unnecessary business measures or fail to take required actions to attract a sufficient number of users to satisfy our growth strategies. We count a DAU when a user opens the application and only once per user per day. We have multiple pipelines of user data that we use to determine whether a user has opened the application during a particular day, becoming a DAU. This provides redundancy in the event one pipeline of data were to become unavailable for technical reasons, and also gives us redundant data to help measure how users interact with our application. However, we believe that we do not capture all data regarding our active users, which may result in understated metrics. This generally occurs because of technical issues, like when our systems do not record data from a user’s application or when a user opens the Snapchat application and contacts our servers but is not recorded as an active user. We continually seek to address these technical issues and improve our accuracy, such as comparing our active users and other metrics with data received from other pipelines, including data recorded by our servers and systems. But given the complexity of the systems involved and the rapidly changing nature of mobile devices and systems, we expect these issues to continue, particularly if we continue to expand in parts of the world where mobile data systems and connections are less stable. If advertisers, partners, or investors do not perceive our user, geographic, or other demographic metrics to be accurate representations of our user base, or if we discover material inaccuracies in our user, geographic, or other demographic metrics, our reputation may be seriously harmed. Our advertisers and partners may also be less willing to allocate their budgets or resources to Snapchat, which could seriously harm our business. In addition, we calculate average DAUs for a particular quarter by adding the number of DAUs on each day of that quarter and dividing that sum by the number of days in that quarter. This calculation may mask any individual days or months within the quarter that are significantly higher or lower than the quarterly average.

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Mobile malware, viruses, hacking and phishing attacks, spamming, and improper or illegal use of Snapchat could seriously harm our business and reputation.

Mobile malware, viruses, hacking, and phishing attacks have become more prevalent and sophisticated in our industry, have occurred on our systems in the past, and may occur on our systems in the future. Because of our prominence, we believe that we are an attractive target for these sorts of attacks. Although it is difficult to determine what, if any, harm may directly result from an interruption or attack, any failure to detect such attack and maintain performance, reliability, security, and availability of our products and technical infrastructure to the satisfaction of our users may seriously harm our reputation and our ability to retain existing users and attract new users.

In addition, spammers attempt to use our products to send targeted and untargeted spam messages to users, which may embarrass or annoy users and make our products less user friendly. We cannot be certain that the technologies that we have developed to repel spamming attacks will be able to eliminate all spam messages from our products. Our actions to combat spam may also require diversion of significant time and focus from improving our products. As a result of spamming activities, our users may use our products less or stop using them altogether, and result in continuing operational cost to us.

Similarly, terror and other criminal groups may use our products to promote their goals and encourage users to engage in terror and other illegal activities. We expect that as more people use our products, these groups will increasingly seek to misuse our products. Although we invest resources to combat these activities, including by suspending or terminating accounts we believe are violating our Terms of Service and Community Guidelines, we expect these groups will continue to seek ways to act inappropriately and illegally on Snapchat. Combating these groups requires our teams to divert significant time and focus from improving our products. In addition, we may not be able to control or stop Snapchat from becoming the preferred application of use by these groups, which may become public knowledge and seriously harm our reputation or lead to lawsuits or attention from regulators. If these activities increase on Snapchat, our reputation, user growth and user engagement, and operational cost structure could be seriously harmed.

Because we store, process, and use data, some of which contains personal information, we are subject to complex and evolving federal, state, and foreign laws, regulations, and executive actions regarding privacy, data protection, content, and other matters. Many of these laws, regulations, and executive actions are subject to change and uncertain interpretation, and could result in investigations, claims, changes to our business practices, increased cost of operations, and declines in user growth, retention, or engagement, any of which could seriously harm our business.

We are subject to a variety of laws, regulations, and executive actions in the United States and other countries that involve matters central to our business, including user privacy, security, rights of publicity, data protection, content, intellectual property, distribution, electronic contracts and other communications, competition, protection of minors, consumer protection, taxation, and online-payment services. These laws, regulations, and executive actions can be particularly restrictive in countries outside the United States. Both in the United States and abroad, these laws, regulations, and executive actions constantly evolve, remain subject to significant change, and may be issued with limited advance notice. For example, an executive order under the prior U.S. administration was issued prohibiting certain transactions with a Chinese-owned company, with the prohibition becoming effective 45 days after the date of the order. In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws, regulations, and executive actions are often uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry in which we operate. Because we store, process, and use data, some of which contains personal information, we are subject to complex and evolving federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy, data protection, content, and other matters. Many of these laws, regulations, and executive actions are subject to change and uncertain interpretation, and could result in investigations, claims, changes to our business practices, increased cost of operations, and declines in user growth, retention, or engagement, any of which could seriously harm our business.

Several proposals have recently been adopted or are currently pending before, and we believe a number of investigations into other technology companies are currently being conducted by, federal, state, and foreign legislative and regulatory bodies that could significantly affect our business. GDPR in the European Union, which went into effect in May 2018, placed new data protection obligations and restrictions on organizations and may require us to further change our policies and procedures. If we are not compliant with GDPR requirements, we may be subject to significant fines and our business may be seriously harmed. In addition, the California Consumer Privacy Act went into effect in January 2020 and places additional requirements on the handling of personal data. The CCPA also provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches, which may increase the likelihood and cost of data breach litigation. The potential effects of this legislation, including any regulations implemented the legislation, are far-reaching, uncertain, and evolving, and may require us, our partners, and advertisers to modify data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. Other state, federal, and foreign legislative and regulatory bodies have enacted or may enact similar legislation regarding the handling of personal data, or conduct additional investigations into specific companies or the industry as a whole that could alter the existing regulatory environment in a manner that would be adverse to us. Changes in the European Union’s Electronic Communications Code, which became effective in December 2020, may result in the

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expanded applicability of the European Union’s ePrivacy Directive over parts of our services, requiring us to make changes to how we process and store certain types of communications data of users in the European Union, which could have a material impact on the availability of data we rely on to improve and personalize our products and features. Furthermore, in December 2018, the Australian government passed the Assistance and Access Bill 2018 that provides Australian law enforcement authorities with mechanisms to make requests for electronic communication, even if the data is end-to-end encrypted like in Snapchat, which may create new obligations for companies providing communication services and make their data less secure.

Our financial condition and results of operations will fluctuate from quarter to quarter, which makes them difficult to predict.

Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated in the past and will fluctuate in the future. Additionally, we have a limited operating history with the current scale of our business, which makes it difficult to forecast our future results. As a result, you should not rely on our past quarterly results of operations as indicators of future performance. You should take into account the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in rapidly evolving market segments. Our financial condition and results of operations in any given quarter can be influenced by numerous factors, many of which we are unable to predict or are outside of our control, including:

 

our ability to maintain and grow our user base and user engagement;

 

the development and introduction of new or redesigned products or services by us or our competitors;

 

the ability of our data service providers to scale effectively and timely provide the necessary technical infrastructure to offer our service;

 

our ability to attract and retain advertisers in a particular period;

 

seasonal or other fluctuations in spending by our advertisers and product usage by our users, each of which may change as our product offerings evolve or as our business grows or as a result of unpredictable events such as the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

the number of advertisements shown to users;

 

the pricing of our advertisements and other products;

 

our ability to demonstrate to advertisers the effectiveness of our advertisements;

 

the diversification and growth of revenue sources beyond current advertising;

 

increases in marketing, sales, and other operating expenses that we may incur to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive;

 

our ability to maintain operating margins, cash used in operating activities, and Free Cash Flow;

 

our ability to accurately forecast consumer demand for our hardware products and adequately manage inventory;

 

system failures or breaches of security or privacy, and the costs associated with such breaches and remediations;

 

inaccessibility of Snapchat, or certain features within Snapchat, due to third-party or governmental actions;

 

stock-based compensation expense;

 

our ability to effectively incentivize our workforce;

 

adverse litigation judgments, settlements, or other litigation-related costs, or product recalls;

 

changes in the legislative or regulatory environment, including with respect to privacy and data protection, enforcement by government regulators, including fines, orders, or consent decrees, or the issuance of executive orders or other similar executive actions that may adversely affect our revenues or restrict our business;

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates and changes in the proportion of our revenue and expenses denominated in foreign currencies;

 

fluctuations in the market values of our portfolio investments and interest rates or impairments of any assets on our balance sheet;

 

changes in our effective tax rate;

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announcements by competitors of significant new products, licenses, or acquisitions;

 

our ability to make accurate accounting estimates and appropriately recognize revenue for our products for which there are no relevant comparable products;

 

our ability to meet minimum spending commitments in agreements with our infrastructure providers;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations, or principles; and

 

changes in domestic and global business or macroeconomic conditions, including as a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

If we are unable to continue to successfully grow our user base and further monetize our products, our business will suffer.

We have made, and are continuing to make, investments to enable users, partners, and advertisers to create compelling content and deliver advertising to our users. Existing and prospective Snapchat users and advertisers may not be successful in creating content that leads to and maintains user engagement. We are continuously seeking to balance the objectives of our users and advertisers with our desire to provide an optimal user experience. We do not seek to monetize all of our products nor do we focus our efforts on users with higher ARPU, and we may not be successful in achieving a balance that continues to attract and retain users and advertisers. If we are not successful in our efforts to grow or effectively monetize our user base, or if we are unable to build and maintain good relations with our advertisers, our user growth and user engagement and our business may be seriously harmed. In addition, we may expend significant resources to launch new products that we are unable to monetize, which may seriously harm our business.

Additionally, we may not succeed in further monetizing Snapchat. We currently monetize Snapchat by displaying in the application advertisements that we sell and advertisements sold by our partners. As a result, our financial performance and ability to grow revenue could be seriously harmed if:

 

we fail to increase or maintain DAUs;

 

our user growth outpaces our ability to monetize our users, including if we don’t attract sufficient advertisers or if our user growth occurs in markets that are not as monetizable;

 

we fail to increase or maintain the amount of time spent on Snapchat, the amount of content that our users share, or the usage of our Camera, Communication, Snap Map, Stories, and Spotlight platforms;

 

partners do not create engaging content for users or renew their agreements with us;

 

we fail to attract sufficient advertisers to utilize our self-serve platform to make the best use of our advertising inventory;

 

advertisers do not continue to introduce engaging advertisements;

 

advertisers reduce their advertising on Snapchat;

 

we fail to maintain good relationships with advertisers or attract new advertisers; or

 

the content on Snapchat does not maintain or gain popularity.

We cannot assure you that we will effectively manage our growth.

The growth and expansion of our business, headcount, and products create significant challenges for our management, including managing multiple relationships with users, advertisers, partners, and other third parties, and constrain operational and financial resources. If our operations or the number of third-party relationships continues to grow, our information-technology systems and our internal controls and procedures may not adequately support our operations. In addition, some members of our management do not have significant experience managing large global business operations, so our management may not be able to manage such growth effectively. To effectively manage our growth, we must continue to improve our operational, financial, and management processes and systems and effectively expand, train, and manage our employee base. As part of that effort, in 2019, we reorganized the structure and operations of our ad sales team. Although we believe the reorganization will improve the efficiency of our sales team and result in better service for our advertisers over the long term, the reorganization may not have the intended effect and we may experience disruptions, employee turnover, and declines in revenue while our sales team and advertisers become accustomed to the new operations.

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As our organization continues to mature and we are required to implement more complex organizational management structures, we may also find it increasingly difficult to maintain the benefits of our corporate culture, including our ability to quickly develop and launch new and innovative products. This could negatively affect our business performance and seriously harm our business.

Our costs may increase faster than our revenue, which could seriously harm our business or increase our losses.

Providing our products to our users is costly, and we expect our expenses, including those related to people and hosting, to grow in the future. This expense growth will continue as we broaden our user base, as users increase the number of connections and amount of content they consume and share, as we develop and implement new product features that require more computing infrastructure, and as we grow our business. Historically, our costs have increased each year due to these factors, and we expect to continue to incur increasing costs. Our costs are based on development and release of new products and the addition of users and may not be offset by a corresponding growth in our revenue. We will continue to invest in our global infrastructure to provide our products quickly and reliably to all users around the world, including in countries where we do not expect significant short-term monetization, if any. Our expenses may be greater than we anticipate, and our investments to make our business and our technical infrastructure more efficient may not succeed and may outpace monetization efforts. In addition, we expect to increase marketing, sales, and other operating expenses to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive. Increases in our costs without a corresponding increase in our revenue would increase our losses and could seriously harm our business and financial performance.

Our business depends on our ability to maintain and scale our technology infrastructure. Any significant disruption to our service could damage our reputation, result in a potential loss of users and decrease in user engagement, and seriously harm our business.

Our reputation and ability to attract, retain, and serve users depends on the reliable performance of Snapchat and our underlying technology infrastructure. We have in the past experienced, and may in the future experience, interruptions in the availability or performance of our products and services from time to time. Our systems may not be adequately designed with the necessary reliability and redundancy to avoid performance delays or outages that could seriously harm our business. If Snapchat is unavailable when users attempt to access it, or if it does not load as quickly as they expect, users may not return to Snapchat as often in the future, or at all. As our user base and the volume and types of information shared on Snapchat grow, we will need an increasing amount of technology infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power, to continue to satisfy our users’ needs. It is possible that we may fail to effectively scale and grow our technology infrastructure to accommodate these increased demands. In addition, our business is subject to interruptions, delays, and failures resulting from earthquakes, other natural disasters, terrorism, pandemics, and other catastrophic events.

Substantially all of our network infrastructure is provided by third parties, including Google Cloud and Amazon Web Services. Any disruption or failure in the services we receive from these providers could harm our ability to handle existing or increased traffic and could seriously harm our business. Any financial or other difficulties these providers face may seriously harm our business. And because we exercise little control over these providers, we are vulnerable to problems with the services they provide.

In 2020, we began work on the implementation of a new ERP system. During the first quarter of 2021, we completed the initial phase of our new ERP system implementation and migrated our general ledger, consolidation, and planning processes onto the new system.  In connection with this implementation, we modified the design and documentation of our internal control processes and procedures relating to the new system. As part of this implementation, we may experience difficulties in managing our existing systems and processes, which could disrupt our operations, the management of our finances, and the reporting of our financial results. Our failure to complete such system implementation on a timely basis, or its failure to operate in the intended manner, may result in our inability to manage the growth of our business and to accurately forecast and report our results, each of which could seriously harm our business. 

Our business emphasizes rapid innovation and prioritizes long-term user engagement over short-term financial condition or results of operations. That strategy may yield results that sometimes don’t align with the market’s expectations. If that happens, our stock price may be negatively affected.

Our business is growing and becoming more complex, and our success depends on our ability to quickly develop and launch new and innovative products. We believe our culture fosters this goal. Our focus on innovations and quick reactions could result in unintended outcomes or decisions that are poorly received by our users, advertisers, or partners. We have made, and expect to continue to make, significant investments to develop and launch new products and services and we

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cannot assure you that users will purchase or use such new products and services in the future. We will also continue to attempt to find effective ways to show our community new and existing products and alert them to events, holidays, relevant content, and meaningful opportunities to connect with their friends. These methods may provide temporary increases in engagement that may ultimately fail to attract and retain users. Our culture also prioritizes our long-term user engagement over short-term financial condition or results of operations. We frequently make decisions that may reduce our short-term revenue or profitability if we believe that the decisions benefit the aggregate user experience and will thereby improve our financial performance over the long term. For example, we monitor how advertising on Snapchat affects our users’ experiences to ensure we do not deliver too many advertisements to our users, and we may decide to decrease the number of advertisements to ensure our users’ satisfaction in the product. In addition, we improve Snapchat based on feedback provided by our users, advertisers, and partners. These decisions may not produce the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case our user growth and engagement, our relationships with advertisers and partners, and our business could be seriously harmed.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and our business may be seriously harmed. If we need to license or acquire new intellectual property, we may incur substantial costs.

We aim to protect our confidential proprietary information, in part, by entering into confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements with all our employees, consultants, advisors, and any third parties who access or contribute to our proprietary know-how, information, or technology. We also rely on trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret, and domain-name-protection laws to protect our proprietary rights. In the United States and internationally, we have filed various applications to protect aspects of our intellectual property, and we currently hold a number of issued patents, trademarks, and copyrights in multiple jurisdictions. In the future, we may acquire additional patents or patent portfolios, which could require significant cash expenditures. However, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and pending and future trademark, copyright and patent applications may not be approved. Further, the laws of certain foreign countries do not provide the same level of protection of corporate proprietary information and assets such as intellectual property, trade secrets, know-how, and records as the laws of the United States. For instance, the legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection. As a result, we may be exposed to material risks of theft of our proprietary information and other intellectual property, including technical data, manufacturing processes, data sets, or other sensitive information, and we may also encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property or proprietary rights abroad. In any of these cases, we may be required to expend significant time and expense to prevent infringement or to enforce our rights. Although we have taken measures to protect our proprietary rights, there can be no assurance that others will not offer products or concepts that are substantially similar to ours and compete with our business. If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights or prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our service and methods of operations. Any of these events could seriously harm our business.

In addition, we have contributed software source code under open-source licenses, have made other technology we developed available under other open licenses, and include open-source software in our products. From time to time, we may face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or demanding release of, the open-source software or derivative works that we have developed using such software, which could include our proprietary source code, or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open-source license. These claims could result in litigation and could require us to make our software source code freely available, seek licenses from third parties to continue offering our products for certain uses, or cease offering the products associated with such software unless and until we can re-engineer them to avoid infringement, which may be very costly.

If our users do not continue to contribute content or their contributions are not perceived as valuable to other users, we may experience a decline in user growth, retention, and engagement on Snapchat, which could result in the loss of advertisers and revenue.

Our success depends on our ability to provide Snapchat users with engaging content, which in part depends on the content contributed by our users. If users, including influential users such as world leaders, government officials, celebrities, athletes, journalists, sports teams, media outlets, and brands, do not continue to contribute engaging content to Snapchat, our user growth, retention, and engagement may decline. That, in turn, may impair our ability to maintain good relationships with our advertisers or attract new advertisers, which may seriously harm our business.

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Foreign government initiatives and restrictions could seriously harm our business.

Foreign data protection, privacy, consumer protection, content regulation, and other laws and regulations are often more restrictive than those in the United States. Foreign governments may censor Snapchat in their countries, restrict access to Snapchat from their countries entirely, impose other restrictions that may affect their citizens’ ability to access Snapchat for an extended period of time or even indefinitely, require data localization, or impose other laws or regulations that we cannot comply with, would be difficult for us to comply with, or would require us to rebuild our products or the infrastructure for our products. Any restriction on access to Snapchat due to foreign government actions or initiatives, or any withdrawal by us from certain countries because of such actions or initiatives, would adversely affect our DAUs, including by giving our competitors an opportunity to penetrate geographic markets that we cannot access. As a result, our user growth, retention, and engagement may be seriously harmed, and we may not be able to maintain or grow our revenue as anticipated and our business could be seriously harmed.

Our users may increasingly engage directly with our partners and advertisers instead of through Snapchat, which may negatively affect our revenue and seriously harm our business.

Using our products, some partners and advertisers not only can interact directly with our users but can also direct our users to content with third-party websites and products and downloads of third-party applications. The more our users engage with third-party websites and applications, the less engagement we may get from them, which would adversely affect the revenue we could earn from them. Although we believe that Snapchat reaps significant long-term benefits from increased user engagement with content on Snapchat provided by our partners, these benefits may not offset the possible loss of advertising revenue, in which case our business could be seriously harmed.

If events occur that damage our brand or reputation, our business may be seriously harmed.

We have developed a brand that we believe has contributed to our success. We also believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand is critical to expanding our user base, advertisers, and partners. Because many of our users join Snapchat on the invitation or recommendation of a friend or family member, one of our primary focuses is on ensuring that our users continue to view Snapchat and our brand favorably so that these referrals continue. Maintaining and enhancing our brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide useful, novel, fun, reliable, trustworthy, and innovative products, which we may not do successfully. We may introduce new products, make changes to existing products and services, or require our users to agree to new terms of service related to new and existing products that users do not like, which may negatively affect our brand in the short term, long term, or both. Additionally, our partners’ actions may affect our brand if users do not appreciate what those partners do on Snapchat. We may also fail to adequately support the needs of our users, advertisers, or partners, which could erode confidence in our brand. Maintaining and enhancing our brand may require us to make substantial investments and these investments may not be successful. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business may be seriously harmed.

We and our founders also receive a high degree of media coverage globally. In the past, we have experienced, and we expect that we will continue to experience, media, legislative, and regulatory scrutiny. Unfavorable publicity regarding us, our privacy practices, product changes, product quality, litigation, employee matters, or regulatory activity, or regarding the actions of our founders, our partners, our users, or other companies in our industry, could seriously harm our reputation and brand. Negative publicity and scrutiny could also adversely affect the size, demographics, engagement, and loyalty of our user base and result in decreased revenue, fewer app installs (or increased app un-installs), or declining user base or growth rates, any of which could seriously harm our business.

Expanding and operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention. If we are not successful in expanding and operating our business in international markets, we may incur significant costs, damage our brand, or need to lay off employees in those markets, any of which may seriously harm our business.

We have expanded to new international markets, which may have very different cultures and commercial, legal, and regulatory systems than where we predominately operate. In connection with our international expansion, we have also hired new employees in many of these markets. This international expansion may:

 

impede our ability to continuously monitor the performance of all of our employees;

 

result in hiring of employees who may not yet fully understand our business, products, and culture; or

 

cause us to expand in markets that may lack the culture and infrastructure needed to adopt our products.

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These issues may eventually lead to layoffs of employees in these markets and may harm our ability to grow our business in these markets. In addition, scaling our business to international markets imposes complexity on our business, and requires additional financial, legal, and management resources. We may not be able to manage growth and expansion effectively, which could damage our brand, result in significant costs, and seriously harm our business.

Our products are highly technical and may contain undetected software bugs or hardware errors, which could manifest in ways that could seriously harm our reputation and our business.

Our products are highly technical and complex. Snapchat, or any other products we may introduce in the future, may contain undetected software bugs, hardware errors, and other vulnerabilities. These bugs and errors can manifest in any number of ways in our products, including through diminished performance, security vulnerabilities, malfunctions, or even permanently disabled products. We have a practice of rapidly updating our products and some errors in our products may be discovered only after a product has been released or shipped and used by users, and may in some cases be detected only under certain circumstances or after extended use. Spectacles, as an eyewear product, is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, and may malfunction in a way that physically harms a user. We offer a limited one-year warranty in the United States and a limited two-year warranty in Europe, and any such defects discovered in our products after commercial release could result in a loss of sales and users, which could seriously harm our business. Any errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities discovered in our code after release could damage our reputation, drive away users, lower revenue, and expose us to damages claims, any of which could seriously harm our business.

We could also face claims for product liability, tort, or breach of warranty. In addition, our product contracts with users contain provisions relating to warranty disclaimers and liability limitations, which may not be upheld. Defending a lawsuit, regardless of its merit, is costly and may divert management’s attention and seriously harm our reputation and our business. In addition, if our liability insurance coverage proves inadequate or future coverage is unavailable on acceptable terms or at all, our business could be seriously harmed.

We have been, are currently, and may in the future be subject to regulatory inquiries, investigations, and proceedings in the future, which could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a way that could seriously harm our business.

We have been, are currently, and may in the future be subject to investigations and inquiries from government entities. These investigations and inquiries, and our compliance with any associated regulatory orders or consent decrees, may require us to change our policies or practices, subject us to substantial monetary fines or other penalties or sanctions, result in increased operating costs, divert management’s attention, harm our reputation, and require us to incur significant legal and other expenses, any of which could seriously harm our business. For example, in the past, we responded to subpoenas and requests for information made by staff from the U.S. Department of Justice, or DOJ, and the SEC. We believe that these regulators were investigating issues related to allegations asserted in our federal securities class actions about our IPO disclosures. In September 2019, both the DOJ and SEC provided us with written confirmations that they are no longer pursuing their investigations of these matters.

We are currently, and expect to be in the future, party to patent lawsuits and other intellectual property claims that are expensive and time-consuming. If resolved adversely, these lawsuits and claims could seriously harm our business.

Companies in the mobile, camera, communication, media, internet, and other technology-related industries own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and other intellectual property rights, and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. In addition, various “non-practicing entities” and other entities that own patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and other intellectual property rights often attempt to aggressively assert their rights to extract value from technology companies. Furthermore, from time to time we may introduce new products or make other business changes, including in areas where we currently do not compete, which could increase our exposure to patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, and other intellectual property rights claims from competitors and non-practicing entities. We have been subject to, and expect to continue to be subject to, claims and legal proceedings from holders of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other intellectual property rights alleging that some of our products or content infringe their rights. For example, in January 2020, You Map, Inc. filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware against us, our subsidiary Zenly, and certain of our respective employees alleging that we misappropriated various trade secrets regarding map technology used in Snapchat’s and Zenly’s map products and that Snapchat and Zenly’s application infringe a You Map patent. While we believe we have meritorious defenses to these claims, an unfavorable outcome in these lawsuits could seriously harm our business. If these or other matters continue in the future or we need to enter into licensing arrangements, which may not be available to us or on terms favorable to us, it may increase our costs and decrease the value of our products, and our business could be seriously harmed.

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We rely on a variety of statutory and common-law frameworks for the content we host and provide our users, including the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the Communications Decency Act, or CDA, and the fair-use doctrine. However, each of these statutes and doctrines is subject to uncertain judicial interpretation and regulatory and legislative amendments. For example, Congress amended the CDA in 2018 in ways that could expose some Internet platforms to an increased risk of litigation. In addition, Congress and the Executive branch have proposed further changes or amendments each year since 2019 including, among other things, proposals that would narrow the CDA immunity, expand government enforcement power relating to content moderation concerns, or repeal the CDA altogether. While such efforts have not been enacted into law, any changes enacted in the future may decrease the protections provided by the CDA. Moreover, some of these statutes and doctrines provide protection only or primarily in the United States. If the rules around these doctrines change, if international jurisdictions refuse to apply similar protections, or if a court were to disagree with our application of those rules to our service, we could incur liability or be required to make significant changes to our products, business practices, or operations, and our business could be seriously harmed.

From time to time, we are involved in class-action lawsuits and other litigation matters that are expensive and time-consuming and could seriously harm our business.

We are involved in numerous lawsuits, including putative class-action lawsuits brought by users and investors, some of which may claim statutory damages. We anticipate that we will continue to be a target for lawsuits in the future. Because we have millions of users, class-action lawsuits against us that are purportedly filed by or on behalf of users typically claim enormous monetary damages in the aggregate even if the alleged per-user harm is small or non-existent. For example, in November 2020 a putative class filed an action against us in Illinois, alleging that we violated Illinois’ Biometric Information Privacy Act with respect to many Illinois users of Snapchat and allege that we are liable to those users for statutory damages. While we believe we have meritorious defenses to these claims, an unfavorable outcome in these lawsuits could seriously harm our business. Similarly, because we have a large number of stockholders, class-action lawsuits on securities theories typically claim enormous monetary damages in the aggregate even if the alleged loss per stockholder is small. Any litigation to which we are a party may result in an onerous or unfavorable judgment that might not be reversed on appeal, or we may decide to settle lawsuits on adverse terms. Any such negative outcome could result in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, or changes to our products or business practices, and seriously harm our business. Even if the outcome of any such litigation or claim is favorable, defending them is costly and can impose a significant burden on management and employees. We may also receive unfavorable preliminary, interim, or final rulings in the course of litigation. For example, beginning on May 16, 2017, we, certain of our officers and directors, and the underwriters of our IPO were named as defendants in securities class actions in federal and state courts purportedly brought on behalf of purchasers of our Class A common stock. In January 2020, we entered into a preliminary agreement to settle the federal and state securities class actions. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020. In March 2021, the federal court granted final approval of the settlement and entered judgment while the state court granted final approval of the settlement in March 2021 and entered judgement in April 2021. The settlement amount will be released from escrow following exhaustion of any appeals.

We may face lawsuits, incur liability, or need to seek licenses based on information posted to our products.

We have faced, currently face, and will continue to face claims relating to information that is published or made available on our products, including Snapchat. In particular, the nature of our business exposes us to claims related to defamation, intellectual property rights, rights of publicity and privacy, and personal injury torts. For example, we do not monitor or edit the vast majority of content that is communicated through Snapchat, and such content may expose us to lawsuits. This risk is enhanced in certain jurisdictions outside the United States where our protection from liability for third-party actions may be unclear or evolving and where we may be less protected under local laws than we are in the United States. For example, in April 2019, the European Union passed a directive expanding online platform liability for copyright infringement and regulating certain uses of news content online, which member states are required to implement by June 2021. In addition, legislation in Germany may impose significant fines for failure to comply with certain content removal and disclosure obligations. Numerous other countries in Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America are considering or have implemented similar legislation imposing penalties for failure to remove certain types of content or follow certain processes. In the United States, there have been various Congressional and Executive branch efforts to remove or restrict the scope of the protections available to online platforms under Section 230 of the CDA. For example, the CDA was amended in 2018, and Congress and the executive branch have proposed further changes or amendments each year since 2019, including among other things proposals that would narrow CDA immunity, expand government enforcement power relating to content moderation concerns, or repeal the CDA altogether. Such changes could decrease or change our protections from liability for third-party content in the United States. We could incur significant costs investigating and defending such claims and, if we are found liable, significant damages, or license costs. We could also face fines or orders restricting or blocking our services in particular geographies as a result of content hosted on our services. If any of these events occur, we may incur significant costs or be required to make significant changes to our products, business practices, or operations and our business could be seriously harmed.

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We plan to continue expanding our international operations where we have limited operating experience and may be subject to increased business and economic risks that could seriously harm our business.

We plan to continue expanding our business operations abroad and translating our products into other languages. Snapchat is currently available in more than 30 languages, and we have offices in more than 15 countries. We plan to enter new international markets where we have limited or no experience in marketing, selling, and deploying our products and advertisements. Our limited experience and infrastructure in such markets, or the lack of a critical mass of users in such markets, may make it more difficult for us to effectively monetize any increase in DAUs in those markets, and may increase our costs without a corresponding increase in revenue. If we fail to deploy or manage our operations in international markets successfully, our business may suffer. In the future, as our international operations increase, or more of our expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, our operating results may be more greatly affected by fluctuations in the exchange rates of the currencies in which we do business. In addition, as our international operations and sales continue to grow, we are subject to a variety of risks inherent in doing business internationally, including:

 

political, social, and economic instability;

 

risks related to the legal and regulatory environment in foreign jurisdictions, including with respect to privacy, and unexpected changes in laws, regulatory requirements, and enforcement;

 

potential damage to our brand and reputation due to compliance with local laws, including potential censorship and requirements to provide user information to local authorities;

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

 

higher levels of credit risk and payment fraud;

 

complying with tax requirements of multiple jurisdictions;

 

enhanced difficulties of integrating any foreign acquisitions;

 

complying with a variety of foreign laws, including certain employment laws requiring national collective bargaining agreements that set minimum salaries, benefits, working conditions, and termination requirements;

 

reduced protection for intellectual-property rights in some countries;

 

difficulties in staffing and managing global operations and the increased travel, infrastructure, and compliance costs associated with multiple international locations;

 

regulations that might add difficulties in repatriating cash earned outside the United States and otherwise preventing us from freely moving cash;

 

import and export restrictions and changes in trade regulation;

 

complying with statutory equity requirements;

 

complying with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar laws in other jurisdictions; and

 

export controls and economic sanctions administered by the Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security and the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control.

If we are unable to expand internationally and manage the complexity of our global operations successfully, our business could be seriously harmed.

Exposure to United Kingdom political developments, including the effect of its withdrawal from the European Union, could be costly and difficult to comply with and could harm our business.

We have based a significant portion of our European operations in the United Kingdom and have licensed a portion of our intellectual property to one of our United Kingdom subsidiaries. These operations continue to face risks and potential disruptions related to the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, commonly referred to as “Brexit.” Although the United Kingdom and the European Union have recently entered into a trade and cooperation agreement, the long-term nature of the United Kingdom’s relationship with the European Union remains unclear. For example, Brexit could lead to potentially divergent laws and regulations, such as with respect to data protection and data transfer laws, that could be costly and difficult to comply with. While we continue to monitor these developments, the full effect of Brexit on our operations is uncertain and our business could be harmed by trade disputes or political differences between the United Kingdom and the European Union in the future.

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We plan to continue to make acquisitions and investments in other companies, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute our stockholders, and seriously harm our business.

As part of our business strategy, we have made and intend to make acquisitions to add specialized employees and complementary companies, products, and technologies, as well as investments in other companies in furtherance of our strategic objectives. Our ability to acquire and successfully integrate larger or more complex companies, products, and technologies is unproven. In the future, we may not be able to find other suitable acquisition or investment candidates, and we may not be able to complete acquisitions or investments on favorable terms, if at all. Our previous and future acquisitions and investments may not achieve our goals, and any future acquisitions or investments we complete could be viewed negatively by users, advertisers, partners, or investors. In addition, if we fail to successfully close transactions, integrate new teams, or integrate the products and technologies associated with these acquisitions into our company, our business could be seriously harmed. Any integration process may require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or use the acquired products, technology, and personnel, or accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition or investment transaction, including accounting charges. We may also incur unanticipated liabilities that we assume as a result of acquiring companies. We may have to pay cash, incur debt, or issue equity securities to pay for any acquisition or investment, any of which could seriously harm our business. Selling or issuing equity to finance or carry out any such acquisition or investment would also dilute our existing stockholders. Incurring debt would increase our fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations.

In addition, it generally takes several months after the closing of an acquisition to finalize the purchase price allocation. Therefore, it is possible that our valuation of an acquisition may change and result in unanticipated write-offs or charges, impairment of our goodwill, or a material change to the fair value of the assets and liabilities associated with a particular acquisition, any of which could seriously harm our business.

Our acquisition and investment strategy may not succeed if we are unable to remain attractive to target companies or expeditiously close transactions. For example, if we develop a reputation for being a difficult acquirer or having an unfavorable work environment, or target companies view our non-voting Class A common stock unfavorably, we may be unable to source and close acquisition targets. In addition, members of the new U.S. administration and Congress have proposed new legislation that could limit, hinder, or delay the acquisition process and target opportunities. If we are unable to consummate key acquisition transactions essential to our corporate strategy, it may limit our ability to grow or compete effectively and our business may be seriously harmed.  

If our goodwill or intangible assets become impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings, which could seriously harm our business.

Under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, we review our intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at least annually. As of March 31, 2021, we had recorded a total of $1.2 billion of goodwill and intangible assets, net related to our acquisitions. An adverse change in market conditions, particularly if such change has the effect of changing one of our critical assumptions or estimates, could result in a change to the estimation of fair value that could result in an impairment charge to our goodwill or intangible assets. Any such material charges may seriously harm our business.

We have spent and may continue to spend substantial funds in connection with the tax liabilities on the settlement of equity awards. The manner in which we fund these tax liabilities may cause us to spend substantial funds or dilute stockholders, either of which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

When our employee equity awards vest, we withhold taxes and remit them to relevant taxing authorities on behalf of employees. To fund the withholding and remittance obligations for equity awards, we have either used our existing cash or sold a portion of vested equity awards on behalf of our employees near the applicable settlement dates in an amount that is substantially equivalent to the number of shares of common stock that we would withhold in connection with these settlements. In the future, we may also sell equity on our behalf and use the proceeds to fund the withholding and remittance obligations for equity awards. Any of these methods may have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

If we sell shares on behalf of our employees, although those newly issued shares should not be dilutive, such sales to the market could result in a decline to our stock price. If we use our existing cash, or if our cash reserves are not sufficient, we may choose to issue equity securities or borrow funds under our revolving credit facility. In such an event, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully match the proceeds of any such equity financing to the then applicable tax liability, and any such equity financing could result in a decline in our stock price and be dilutive to existing stockholders. If we elect to satisfy tax withholding and remittance obligations in whole or in part by drawing on our revolving credit facility, our interest expense and principal repayment requirements could increase significantly, which could seriously harm our business.

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We do not have manufacturing capabilities and depend on contract manufacturers. If we encounter problems with our contract manufacturers or if the manufacturing process stops or is delayed for any reason, we may not deliver our hardware products, such as Spectacles, to our customers on time, which may seriously harm our business.

We have limited manufacturing experience for our only physical product, Spectacles, and we do not have any internal manufacturing capabilities. Instead, we rely on contract manufacturers to build Spectacles. Our contract manufacturers are vulnerable to capacity constraints and reduced component availability, and our control over delivery schedules, manufacturing yields, and costs, particularly when components are in short supply, or if we introduce a new product or feature, is limited. In addition, we have limited control over our manufacturers’ quality systems and controls, and therefore must rely on our manufacturers to manufacture our products to our quality and performance standards and specifications. Delays, component shortages, including custom components that are manufactured for us at our direction, global trade conditions and agreements, and other manufacturing and supply problems could impair the distribution of our products and ultimately our brand. For example, the United States has threatened tougher trade terms with China and other countries, leading to the imposition, or announcement of future imposition, of substantially higher U.S. Section 301 tariffs on certain imports from China, which may adversely affect our products and seriously harm our business. Furthermore, any adverse change in our contract manufacturers’ financial or business condition or our relationship with our contract manufacturers could disrupt our ability to supply our products to our retailers and distributors. If we are required to change our contract manufacturers or assume internal manufacturing operations, we may lose revenue, incur increased costs, and damage our reputation and brand. Qualifying a new contract manufacturer and commencing production is expensive and time-consuming. In addition, if we experience increased demand for our products, we may need to increase our component purchases, contract-manufacturing capacity, and internal test and quality functions. The inability of our contract manufacturers to provide us with adequate supplies of high-quality products could delay our order fulfillment, and may require us to change the design of our products to meet this increased demand. Any redesign would require us to re-qualify our products with any applicable regulatory bodies, which would be costly and time-consuming. This may lead to unsatisfied customers and users and increase costs to us, which could seriously harm our business.

Components used in our products may fail as a result of a manufacturing, design, or other defect over which we have no control, and render our devices inoperable.

We rely on third-party component suppliers to provide some of the functionalities needed to operate and use our products, such as Spectacles. Any errors or defects in that third-party technology could result in errors in our products that could seriously harm our business. If these components have a manufacturing, design, or other defect, they can cause our products to fail and render them permanently inoperable. For example, the typical means by which our Spectacles product connects to mobile devices is by way of a Bluetooth transceiver located in the Spectacles product. If the Bluetooth transceiver in our Spectacles product were to fail, it would not be able to connect to a user’s mobile device and Spectacles would not be able to deliver any content to the mobile device and the Snapchat application. As a result, we may have to replace these products at our sole cost and expense. Should we have a widespread problem of this kind, the reputational damage and the cost of replacing these products could seriously harm our business.

The FDA and other state and foreign regulatory agencies regulate Spectacles. We may develop future products that are regulated as medical devices by the FDA or regulated by other governmental agencies. Government authorities, primarily the FDA and corresponding regulatory agencies, regulate the medical device industry. Unless there is an exemption, we must obtain regulatory approval from the FDA and corresponding agencies, or other applicable governmental authorities, before we can market or sell a new regulated product or make a significant modification to an existing product. Obtaining regulatory clearances to market a medical device or other regulated products can be costly and time-consuming, and we may not be able to obtain these clearances or approvals on a timely basis, or at all, for future products. Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, clearance or approval for any products under development could prevent us from launching new products. We could seriously harm our business and the ability to sell our products if we experience any product problems requiring reporting to governmental authorities, if we fail to comply with applicable state or foreign agency regulations, or if we are subject to enforcement actions such as fines, civil penalties, injunctions, product recalls, or failure to obtain regulatory clearances or approvals.

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We have faced inventory risk with respect to our Spectacles products.

We have been and may in the future be exposed to inventory risks related to Spectacles as a result of rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, defective merchandise, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, changes in consumer tastes with respect to our products, and other factors. We try to accurately predict these trends and avoid overstocking or understocking inventory. Demand for products, however, can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. The acquisition of certain types of inventory or components may require significant lead-time and prepayment and they may not be returnable. Failure to manage our inventory, supplier commitments, or customer expectations could seriously harm our business.

Risks Related to Credit and Financing

As our business expands, we have offered and may continue to offer credit to our partners to stay competitive, and as a result we may be exposed to credit risk of some of our partners, which may seriously harm our business.

As our business continues to grow and expand, we have decided to engage in business with some of our partners on an open credit basis. While we attempt to monitor individual partner payment capability when we grant open credit arrangements and maintain allowances we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts, we cannot assure investors these programs will be effective in managing our credit risks in the future. This may be especially true as our business expands, we engage with partners that have limited operating history, or we engage with partners that we may not be familiar with. If we are unable to adequately control these risks, our business could be seriously harmed.

Operating our business requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our Convertible Notes, and any other debt when due, which may seriously harm our business.

Our ability to make principal or interest payments on, or to refinance, the Convertible Notes or other indebtedness depends on our future performance, which is subject to many factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations in the future to service our debt and business. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt, obtaining additional debt financing, or issuing additional equity securities, any of which may be on terms that are not favorable to us or, in the case of equity securities, highly dilutive to our stockholders. Our ability to refinance the Convertible Notes or our other indebtedness will depend on various factors, including the available capital markets, our business, and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations. In addition, our existing and future debt agreements, including our Convertible Notes and Credit Facility, may contain restrictive covenants that may prohibit us from adopting any of these alternatives. Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of our debt, and would seriously harm our business.

In addition, holders of the Convertible Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase all or a portion of the Convertible Notes on the occurrence of a fundamental change at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. Further, if a make-whole fundamental change as defined in each of the Indentures governing the Convertible Notes occurs prior to the maturity date of the Convertible Notes, we will in some cases be required to increase the conversion rate for a holder that elects to convert its Convertible Notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change. On the conversion of the Convertible Notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our Class A common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments for the Convertible Notes being converted. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make such repurchases of the Convertible Notes surrendered or pay cash with respect to the Convertible Notes being converted.

If we default on our credit obligations, our operations may be interrupted and our business could be seriously harmed.

We have a Credit Facility that we may draw on to finance our operations, acquisitions, and other corporate purposes, such as funding our tax-withholding and remittance obligations in connection with settling equity awards. If we default on these credit obligations, our lenders may:

 

require repayment of any outstanding amounts drawn on our Credit Facility;

 

terminate our Credit Facility; or

 

require us to pay significant damages.

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If any of these events occur, our operations may be interrupted and our ability to fund our operations or obligations, as well as our business, could be seriously harmed. In addition, our Credit Facility contains operating covenants, including customary limitations on the incurrence of certain indebtedness and liens, restrictions on certain intercompany transactions, and limitations on the amount of dividends and stock repurchases. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and breaches of these covenants could result in a default under the Credit Facility and any future financial agreements into which we may enter. If not waived, defaults could cause our outstanding indebtedness under our Credit Facility and any future financing agreements that we may enter into to become immediately due and payable. For more information on our Credit Facility, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

We cannot be certain that additional financing will be available on reasonable terms when needed, or at all, which could seriously harm our business.

We have incurred net losses and negative cash flow from operations in prior periods, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability. As a result, we may need additional financing. Our ability to obtain additional financing, if and when required, will depend on investor demand, our operating performance, our credit rating, the condition of the capital markets, and other factors. To the extent we use available funds or draw on our Credit Facility, we may need to raise additional funds and we cannot assure investors that additional financing will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-linked, or debt securities, those securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to the rights of our Class A common stock, and our existing stockholders may experience dilution. In the event that we are unable to obtain additional financing on favorable terms, our interest expense and principal repayment requirements could increase significantly, which could seriously harm our business.

Risks Related to Taxes

New legislation that would change U.S. or foreign taxation of business activities, including the imposition of tax based on gross revenue, could seriously harm our business, or the financial markets and the market price of our Class A common stock.

Reforming the taxation of international businesses has been a priority for politicians, and a wide variety of changes have been proposed or enacted. Due to the large and expanding scale of our international business activities, any changes in the taxation of such activities may increase our tax expense, the amount of taxes we pay, or both, and seriously harm our business. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, was enacted in December 2017 and significantly reformed the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. The Tax Act lowered U.S. federal corporate income tax rates, changed the utilization of future net operating loss carryforwards, allowed for the expensing of certain capital expenditures, and put into effect sweeping changes to U.S. taxation of international business activities. However, the new U.S. administration has indicated a desire to reform the Code, including by potentially increasing U.S. federal corporate income tax rates, and it is currently unclear what, if any, changes to the tax code will be enacted and how that may affect our business or the financial markets and the market price of our Class A common stock.

In addition, many jurisdictions and intergovernmental organizations have been discussing proposals that may change various aspects of the existing framework under which our tax obligations are determined in many of the jurisdictions in which we do business and in which our users are located. Some jurisdictions have enacted, and others have proposed, taxes based on gross receipts applicable to digital services regardless of profitability. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has been working on a proposal that may change how taxable presence for digital services is defined and result in the imposition of taxes based on net income in countries where we have no physical presence.

We continue to examine the impact these and other tax reforms may have on our business. The impact of these and other tax reforms is uncertain and one or more of these or similar measures could seriously harm our business.

We may have exposure to greater-than-anticipated tax liabilities, which could seriously harm our business.

Our income tax obligations are based on our corporate operating structure and third-party and intercompany arrangements, including the manner in which we develop, value, and use our intellectual property and the valuations of our intercompany transactions. The tax laws applicable to our international business activities, including the laws of the United States and other jurisdictions, are subject to change and uncertain interpretation. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology, intercompany arrangements, or transfer pricing, which could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and the amount of taxes we pay and seriously harm our business. Taxing authorities may also determine that the manner in which we operate our business is not consistent with how we report our income, which could increase our effective tax rate and the amount of taxes we pay and seriously harm our business. In addition, our future income taxes could fluctuate because of earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates,

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by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or by changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting principles. We are subject to regular review and audit by U.S. federal and state and foreign tax authorities. Any adverse outcome from a review or audit could seriously harm our business. In addition, determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment by management, and there are many transactions where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe that our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements for such period or periods and may seriously harm our business.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited, each of which could seriously harm our business.

As of December 31, 2020, we had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $5.3 billion and state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $3.2 billion, as well as U.K. net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $2.1 billion. We also accumulated U.S. federal and state research tax credits of $302.6 million and $190.4 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2020. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income and taxes may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” occurs if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “5% shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. In the event that we experience one or more ownership changes as a result of future transactions in our stock, then we may be limited in our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax assets to reduce taxes owed on the net taxable income that we earn.

In the United States, net operating loss carryforwards arising in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 can be carried forward indefinitely but use of such carryforwards is limited to 80% of taxable income. Net operating loss carryforwards generated by us before January 1, 2018 will not be subject to the taxable income limitation and will continue to have a twenty-year carryforward period. In the U.K., net operating loss carryforwards can be carried forward indefinitely; however, use of such carryforwards in a given year is generally limited to 50% of such year’s taxable income and may be subject to ownership change rules that restrict the use of net operating loss carryforwards.

Any limitations on the ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax assets, as well as the timing of any such use, could seriously harm our business.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock

Holders of Class A common stock have no voting rights. As a result, holders of Class A common stock will not have any ability to influence stockholder decisions.

Class A common stockholders have no voting rights, unless required by Delaware law. As a result, all matters submitted to stockholders will be decided by the vote of holders of Class B common stock and Class C common stock. As of March 31, 2021, Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy control over 99% of our voting power, and Mr. Spiegel alone may exercise voting control over our outstanding capital stock. Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy voting together, or in many instances, Mr. Spiegel acting alone, will have control over all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval. In addition, because our Class A common stock carries no voting rights (except as required by Delaware law), the issuance of the Class A common stock in future offerings, in future stock-based acquisition transactions, or to fund employee equity incentive programs could prolong the duration of Mr. Spiegel’s and Mr. Murphy’s current relative ownership of our voting power and their ability to elect certain directors and to determine the outcome of all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. This concentrated control eliminates other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that our stockholders do not view as beneficial. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.

We cannot predict the impact our capital structure and the concentrated control by our founders may have on our stock price or our business.

Although other U.S.-based companies have publicly traded classes of non-voting stock, to our knowledge, we were the first company to only list non-voting stock on a U.S. stock exchange. We cannot predict whether this structure, combined with the concentrated control by Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy, will result in a lower trading price or greater fluctuations in the trading price of our Class A common stock, or will result in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. In addition, some indexes have indicated they will exclude non-voting stock, like our Class A common stock, from their membership. For example, FTSE Russell, a provider of widely followed stock indexes, now requires new constituents of its indexes to have at least five percent of their voting rights in the hands of public stockholders. In addition, S&P Dow Jones, another provider of widely followed stock indexes, has stated that companies with multiple share classes will not be eligible for certain of their

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indexes. As a result, our Class A common stock is likely not eligible for these stock indexes. We cannot assure you that other stock indexes will not take a similar approach to FTSE Russell or S&P Dow Jones in the future. Exclusion from indexes could make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors and, as a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected. Additionally, the exclusion of our Class A common stock from these indexes may limit the types of investors who invest in our Class A common stock and could make the trading price of our Class A common stock more volatile.

Because our Class A common stock is non-voting, we and our stockholders are exempt from certain provisions of U.S. securities laws. This may limit the information available to holders of our Class A common stock.

Because our Class A common stock is non-voting, significant holders of our common stock are exempt from the obligation to file reports under Sections 13(d), 13(g), and 16 of the Exchange Act. These provisions generally require periodic reporting of beneficial ownership by significant stockholders, including changes in that ownership. For example, in November 2017, Tencent Holdings Limited notified us that it, together with its affiliates, acquired 145,778,246 shares of our non-voting Class A common stock via open market purchases. As a result of our capital structure, neither we nor Tencent is obligated to disclose changes in Tencent’s ownership of our Class A common stock, so there can be no assurance that you, or we, will be notified of any such changes. Our directors and officers are required to file reports under Section 16 of the Exchange Act. Our significant stockholders, other than directors and officers, are exempt from the “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. As such, stockholders will be unable to bring derivative claims for disgorgement of profits for trades by significant stockholders under Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act unless the significant stockholders are also directors or officers.

Since our Class A common stock is our only class of stock registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act and that class is non-voting, we are not required to file proxy statements or information statements under Section 14 of the Exchange Act, unless a vote of the Class A common stock is required by applicable law. Accordingly, legal causes of action and remedies under Section 14 of the Exchange Act for inadequate or misleading information in proxy statements may not be available to holders of our Class A common stock. If we do not deliver any proxy statements, information statements, annual reports, and other information and reports to the holders of our Class B common stock and Class C common stock, then we will similarly not provide any of this information to holders of our Class A common stock. Because we are not required to file proxy statements or information statements under Section 14 of the Exchange Act, any proxy statement, information statement, or notice of our annual meeting may not include all information under Section 14 of the Exchange Act that a public company with voting securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act would be required to provide to its stockholders. Most of that information, however, will be reported in other public filings. For example, any disclosures required by Part III of Form 10-K as well as disclosures required by the NYSE for the year ended December 31, 2020 that are customarily included in a proxy statement are instead included in our Annual Report, rather than a proxy statement. But some information required in a proxy statement or information statement is not required in any other public filing. For example, we will not be required to comply with the proxy access rules under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. If we take any action in an extraordinary meeting of stockholders where the holders of Class A common stock are not entitled to vote, we will not be required to provide the information required under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. Nor will we be required to file a preliminary proxy statement under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. Since that information is also not required in a Form 10-K, holders of Class A common stock may not receive the information required under Section 14 of the Exchange Act with respect to extraordinary meetings of stockholders. In addition, we are not subject to the “say-on-pay” and “say-on-frequency” provisions of the Dodd–Frank Act. As a result, our stockholders do not have an opportunity to provide a non-binding vote on the compensation of our executive officers. Moreover, holders of our Class A common stock will be unable to bring matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or nominate directors at such meeting, nor can they submit stockholder proposals under Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act.

The trading price of our Class A common stock has been and will likely continue to be volatile.

The trading price of our Class A common stock has been and is likely to continue to be volatile. Shares of Class A common stock were sold in our IPO in March 2017 at a price of $17.00 per share. Since then, the trading price of our Class A common stock has ranged from $4.82 to $73.59 through March 31, 2021. Declines or volatility in our trading price could make it more difficult to attract and retain talent, adversely impact employee retention and morale, and may require us to issue more equity to incentivize employees which could dilute stockholders. The market price of our Class A common stock may fluctuate or decline significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our user growth, retention, engagement, revenue, or other operating results;

 

variations between our actual operating results and the expectations of investors and the financial community;

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the accuracy of our financial guidance or projections;

 

any forward-looking financial or operating information we may provide, any changes in this information, or our failure to meet expectations based on this information;

 

actions of investors who initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any investors who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

whether our capital structure is viewed unfavorably, particularly our non-voting Class A common stock and the significant voting control of our co-founders;

 

additional shares of our common stock being sold into the market by us or our existing stockholders, or the anticipation of such sales, including if we issue shares to satisfy equity-related tax obligations;

 

stock repurchase programs undertaken by us;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant products or features, technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;

 

announcements by us or estimates by third parties of actual or anticipated changes in the size of our user base or the level of user engagement;

 

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of technology companies in our industry segment, including our partners and competitors;

 

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;

 

lawsuits threatened or filed against us;

 

developments in new legislation and pending lawsuits, executive actions, or regulatory actions, including interim or final rulings by judicial or regulatory bodies; and

 

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, pandemics, or responses to these events.

In addition, extreme price and volume fluctuations in the stock markets have affected and continue to affect many technology companies’ stock prices, including us. Often, their stock prices have fluctuated in ways unrelated or disproportionate to the companies’ operating performance. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class-action litigation following periods of market volatility. Beginning on May 16, 2017, we, certain of our officers and directors, and the underwriters for our IPO were named as defendants in securities class actions purportedly brought on behalf of purchasers of our Class A common stock. In January 2020, we entered into a preliminary agreement to settle the federal and state securities class actions. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020. In March 2021, the federal court granted final approval of the settlement and entered judgment while the state court granted final approval of the settlement in March 2021 and entered judgement in April 2021. The settlement amount will be released from escrow following exhaustion of any appeals. Any litigation could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and seriously harm our business.

Conversion of the Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the market price of our Class A common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders. On conversion of the Convertible Notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our Class A common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our Class A common stock. If we elect to settle our conversion obligation in shares of our Class A common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our Class A common stock, any sales in the public market of our Class A common stock issuable on such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our Class A common stock. In addition, the existence of the Convertible Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Convertible Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Convertible Notes into shares of our Class A common stock, any of which could depress the market price of our Class A common stock.

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We may still incur substantially more debt or take other actions that would diminish our ability to make payments on the Convertible Notes when due. Our ability to repay our debt depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control.

We and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional debt in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our current and future debt instruments. We are not restricted under the terms of the Indentures governing the Convertible Notes from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt, repurchasing our stock, making investments, paying dividends, recapitalizing our debt, or taking a number of other actions that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on the Convertible Notes when due.

Our ability to pay our debt when due or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Convertible Notes, depends on our financial condition at such time, the condition of capital markets, and our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control.

The conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Our Convertible Notes are convertible at the option of the holder. In the event the conditions for optional conversion of the 2025 Notes or 2026 Notes by holders continue to be met before the close of business on the business day immediately preceding February 1, 2025 or May 1, 2026, respectively, holders of the applicable Convertible Notes will be entitled to convert the Convertible Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Convertible Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our Class A common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we may settle all or a portion of our conversion obligation in cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their Convertible Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Convertible Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital and may seriously harm our business.

We entered into certain hedging positions that may affect the value of the Convertible Notes and the volatility and value of our Class A common stock.

In connection with the issuance of the Convertible Notes, we entered into certain hedging positions with certain financial institutions. These hedging positions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution of our Class A common stock on any conversion of the Convertible Notes or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of such converted Convertible Notes, as the case may be, with such reduction or offset subject to a cap.

The counterparties to these hedging positions or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our Class A common stock or purchasing or selling our Class A common stock in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the Convertible Notes (and are likely to do so during any observation period related to a conversion of Convertible Notes or following any repurchase of Convertible Notes by us on any fundamental change repurchase date or otherwise). This activity could cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of our Class A common stock or the Convertible Notes. In addition, if any such hedging positions fail to become effective, the counterparties to these hedging positions or their respective affiliates may unwind their hedge positions, which could adversely affect the value of our Class A common stock.

Delaware law and provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as our Indentures, could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult or more expensive, thereby depressing the trading price of our Class A common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our Class A common stock by acting to discourage, delay, or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. These provisions include the following:

 

our certificate of incorporation provides for a tri-class capital structure. As a result of this structure, Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy control all stockholder decisions, and Mr. Spiegel alone may exercise voting control over our outstanding capital stock. This includes the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or our assets. This concentrated control could discourage others from initiating any potential merger, takeover, or other change-of-control transaction that other stockholders may view as beneficial. As noted above, the issuance of the Class A common stock dividend, and any future issuances of Class A common stock dividends, could have the effect of prolonging the influence of Mr. Spiegel and Mr. Murphy on the company;

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our board of directors has the right to elect directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

our certificate of incorporation prohibits cumulative voting in the election of directors. This limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect directors; and

 

our board of directors may issue, without stockholder approval, shares of undesignated preferred stock. The ability to issue undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us.

Any provision of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws, or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.

Furthermore, certain provisions in the Indentures governing our Convertible Notes may make it more difficult or expensive for a third party to acquire us. For example, the Indentures require us, at the holders’ election, to repurchase the Convertible Notes for cash on the occurrence of a fundamental change and, in certain circumstances, to increase the conversion rate for a holder that converts its Convertible Notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change. A takeover of us may trigger the requirement that we repurchase the Convertible Notes or increase the conversion rate, which could make it more costly for a third party to acquire us. The Indentures also prohibit us from engaging in a merger or acquisition unless, among other things, the surviving entity assumes our obligations under the Convertible Notes and the Indentures. These and other provisions in the Indentures could deter or prevent a third party from acquiring us even when the acquisition may be favorable to holders of the Convertible Notes or our stockholders.

Future sales of shares by existing stockholders could cause our stock price to decline.

If our existing stockholders, including employees and service providers who obtain equity, sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our Class A common stock in the public market, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline. As of March 31, 2021, we had outstanding a total of 1.3 billion shares of Class A common stock, 23.6 million shares of Class B common stock, and 231.6 million shares of Class C common stock. In addition, as of March 31, 2021, 109.4 million shares of Class A common stock and 0.8 million shares of Class B common stock were subject to outstanding stock options and RSUs. All of our outstanding shares are eligible for sale in the public market, except approximately 389.5 million shares (including options exercisable and RSAs subject to forfeiture as of March 31, 2021) held by directors, executive officers, and other affiliates that are subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 of the Securities Act. Our employees, other service providers, and directors are subject to our quarterly trading window closures. In addition, we have reserved shares for issuance under our equity incentive plans. When these shares are issued and subsequently sold, it would be dilutive to existing stockholders and the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline.

If securities or industry analysts either do not publish research about us, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, the trading price or trading volume of our Class A common stock could decline.

The trading market for our Class A common stock is influenced in part by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. If one or more of the analysts initiate research with an unfavorable rating or downgrade our Class A common stock, provide a more favorable recommendation about our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our Class A common stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the trading price or trading volume to decline. Since we provide only limited financial guidance, this may increase the probability that our financial results are perceived as not in line with analysts’ expectations, and could cause volatility to our Class A common stock price.

We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our Class A common stock if the market price of our Class A common stock increases. In addition, our Credit Facility includes restrictions on our ability to pay cash dividends.

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If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, and the market price of our Class A common stock may be seriously harmed.

We are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting, perform system and process evaluation and testing of those internal controls to allow management to report on their effectiveness, report any material weaknesses in such internal controls, and obtain an opinion from our independent registered public accounting firm regarding the effectiveness of such internal controls as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, all of which is time-consuming, costly, and complicated. If we are unable to comply with these requirements in a timely manner, if we assert that our internal control over financial reporting is ineffective, if we identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion or expresses a qualified or adverse opinion about the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Class A common stock could be negatively affected. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the NYSE, the SEC, and other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, result in more litigation, and divert management’s attention.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the listing requirements of the NYSE, and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Complying with these rules and regulations have caused and will continue to cause us to incur additional legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, be time-consuming or costly, and continue to increase demand on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and operating results, and that our independent registered public accounting firm provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.

By complying with public disclosure requirements, our business and financial condition are more visible, which we believe may result in increased threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. For example, beginning on May 16, 2017, we, certain of our officers and directors, and the underwriters of our IPO were named as defendants in securities class actions purportedly brought on behalf of purchasers of our Class A common stock. In January 2020, we entered into a preliminary agreement to settle the federal and state securities class actions. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020. The settlement amount was paid into escrow in December 2020. In March 2021, the federal court granted final approval of the settlement and entered judgment while the state court granted final approval of the settlement in March 2021 and entered judgement in April 2021. The settlement amount will be released from escrow following exhaustion of any appeals. Shareholder litigation can subject us to substantial costs and divert resources and the attention of management from our business and, if the claims are successful, our business could be seriously harmed. Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, the time and resources needed to resolve them could divert our management’s resources, impose large defense costs, and seriously harm our business.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for:

 

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;

 

any action asserting a claim against us arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation, or our bylaws; and

 

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.

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This provision would not apply to actions brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all Securities Act claims, which means both courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our certificate of incorporation provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

These exclusive forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring an action in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring an action in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of our exclusive forum provisions, which may require significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, and there can be no assurance that the provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions. If a court were to find either exclusive forum provision in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur further significant additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, all of which could seriously harm our business.

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we agreed to issue a total of 89,320 shares of our Class A common stock as consideration in connection with an acquisition, all in private transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act pursuant to Section 4(2) or Regulation D under the Securities Act.

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

None.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

Item 5. Other Information

None.

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Item 6. Exhibits

 

 

 

 

 

Incorporated by Reference

Exhibit

Number

 

Description

 

Schedule /

Form

 

File

Number

 

Exhibit

 

Filing Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of Snap Inc.

 

10-K

 

001-38017

 

3.2

 

February 4, 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.1

 

Snap Inc. 2021 Bonus Program

 

10-K

 

001-38017

 

10.22

 

February 4, 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.2

 

Employment Agreement and Transition Agreement, by and between Snap Inc. and Jared Grusd, dated February 3, 2021

 

10-K

 

001-38017

 

10.30

 

February 4, 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.1

 

Certification of the Chief Executive Officer of Snap Inc. pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a)/Rule 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.2

 

Certification of the Chief Financial Officer of Snap Inc. pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a)/Rule 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32.1*

 

Certification of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of Snap Inc. pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101.INS

 

Inline XBRL Instance Document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101.SCH

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101.CAL

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101.DEF

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Definition Linkbase Document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101.LAB

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Labels Linkbase Document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101.PRE

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

104

 

Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

The certifications furnished in Exhibit 32.1 hereto are deemed to accompany this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and will not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that the registrant specifically incorporates it by reference.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

 

 

SNAP INC.

 

 

 

 

 

Date: April 22, 2021

 

 

/s/ Derek Andersen

 

 

 

 

Derek Andersen

 

 

 

 

Chief Financial Officer

 

 

 

 

(Principal Financial Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

Date: April 22, 2021

 

 

/s/ Rebecca Morrow

 

 

 

 

Rebecca Morrow

 

 

 

 

Chief Accounting Officer

 

 

 

 

(Principal Accounting Officer)

 

 

71