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TPTX Turning Point Therapeutics

Filed: 9 Aug 21, 4:18pm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                     to                     

 

Commission File Number: 001-38871

 

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

46-3826166

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

10628 Science Center Drive, Ste. 200

San Diego, California

92121

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (858) 926-5251

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

TPTX

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

As of August 2, 2021 the registrant had 49,407,966 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

2


 

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

 

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except share and par value amounts)

 

 

June 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Assets

Unaudited

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

426,047

 

 

$

554,101

 

 

Marketable securities

 

651,759

 

 

 

568,407

 

 

Prepaid and other current assets

 

13,614

 

 

 

8,171

 

 

Total current assets

 

1,091,420

 

 

 

1,130,679

 

 

Property and equipment, net

 

3,210

 

 

 

2,604

 

 

Right-of-use lease assets

 

6,269

 

 

 

3,357

 

 

Other assets

 

2,021

 

 

 

73

 

 

Total assets

$

1,102,920

 

 

$

1,136,713

 

 

Liabilities and stockholders' equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

$

7,088

 

 

$

5,225

 

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

16,096

 

 

 

9,183

 

 

Accrued compensation

 

5,727

 

 

 

8,588

 

 

Current portion of operating lease liabilities

 

2,984

 

 

 

1,396

 

 

Total current liabilities

 

31,895

 

 

 

24,392

 

 

Operating lease liabilities, long-term

 

3,518

 

 

 

2,423

 

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, 0 shares outstanding at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 49,391,738 and 48,678,540 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

1,439,453

 

 

 

1,389,860

 

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

2

 

 

 

209

 

 

Accumulated deficit

 

(371,953

)

 

 

(280,176

)

 

Total stockholders' equity

 

1,067,507

 

 

 

1,109,898

 

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

1,102,920

 

 

$

1,136,713

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

3


 

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Revenue

 

$

5,164

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

30,369

 

 

$

-

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

44,650

 

 

 

24,154

 

 

 

85,913

 

 

 

46,923

 

 

General and administrative

 

 

17,171

 

 

 

8,578

 

 

 

37,162

 

 

 

48,435

 

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

61,821

 

 

 

32,732

 

 

 

123,075

 

 

 

95,358

 

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(56,657

)

 

 

(32,732

)

 

 

(92,706

)

 

 

(95,358

)

 

Other income, net

 

 

384

 

 

 

1,239

 

 

 

929

 

 

 

3,147

 

 

Net loss

 

 

(56,273

)

 

 

(31,493

)

 

 

(91,777

)

 

 

(92,211

)

 

Unrealized gain / (loss) on marketable securities, net of tax

 

 

(22

)

 

 

1,063

 

 

 

(208

)

 

 

747

 

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(56,295

)

 

$

(30,430

)

 

$

(91,985

)

 

$

(91,464

)

 

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

$

(1.14

)

 

$

(0.82

)

 

$

(1.87

)

 

$

(2.47

)

 

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

49,204,425

 

 

 

38,603,236

 

 

 

49,063,298

 

 

 

37,261,296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.


4


 

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Additional

Paid-In

 

 

Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Total

Stockholders’

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Income (Loss)

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2020

 

48,678,540

 

 

$

5

 

 

$

1,389,860

 

 

$

209

 

 

$

(280,176

)

 

$

1,109,898

 

Option exercises

 

438,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,679

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,679

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17,278

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17,278

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(35,504

)

 

 

(35,504

)

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(186

)

 

 

 

 

 

(186

)

Balance at March 31, 2021

 

49,117,040

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

1,416,817

 

 

 

23

 

 

 

(315,680

)

 

 

1,101,165

 

Option exercises

 

253,037

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,398

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,398

 

Shares issued under employee stock

  purchase plan

 

21,661

 

 

 

 

 

 

943

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

943

 

Stock-based compensation

   expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,295

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,295

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(56,273

)

 

 

(56,273

)

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(21

)

 

 

 

 

 

(21

)

Balance at June 30, 2021

 

49,391,738

 

 

$

5

 

 

$

1,439,453

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

(371,953

)

 

$

1,067,507

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Additional

Paid-In

 

 

Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Total

Stockholders’

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Income (Loss)

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2019

 

35,915,119

 

 

$

4

 

 

$

526,960

 

 

$

271

 

 

$

(122,884

)

 

$

404,351

 

Option exercises

 

7,129

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38,365

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38,365

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(60,718

)

 

 

(60,718

)

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(316

)

 

 

 

 

 

(316

)

Balance at March 31, 2020

 

35,922,248

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

565,350

 

 

 

(45

)

 

 

(183,602

)

 

 

381,707

 

Option exercises

 

3,049

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

 

Shares issued under employee

  stock purchase plan

 

14,425

 

 

 

 

 

 

504

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

504

 

Issuance of common stock in connection with

  a public offering, net of underwriting discounts,

  commissions, and offering costs

 

6,229,167

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

351,610

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

351,611

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7,404

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7,404

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(31,493

)

 

 

(31,493

)

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,063

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,063

 

Balance at June 30, 2020

 

42,168,889

 

 

$

5

 

 

$

924,899

 

 

$

1,018

 

 

$

(215,095

)

 

$

710,827

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

5


 

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc.

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

(In thousands)

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

Six months ended June 30,

 

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(91,777

)

 

$

(92,211

)

 

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

30,573

 

 

 

45,769

 

 

Depreciation

 

 

518

 

 

 

423

 

 

Accretion of discount (premium) on marketable securities

 

 

2,771

 

 

 

(236

)

 

Amortization of right-of-use operating lease asset

 

 

965

 

 

 

759

 

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(5,589

)

 

 

(2,650

)

 

Accounts payable

 

 

1,612

 

 

 

(378

)

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

5,719

 

 

 

204

 

 

Accrued compensation

 

 

(2,861

)

 

 

(2,842

)

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(58,069

)

 

 

(51,162

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of marketable securities

 

 

(255,763

)

 

 

(118,687

)

 

Sales and maturities of marketable securities

 

 

169,434

 

 

 

240,717

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(874

)

 

 

(713

)

 

Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities

 

 

(87,203

)

 

 

121,317

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock in public offering, net

 

 

 

 

 

351,611

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock under equity incentive plans

 

 

19,020

 

 

 

560

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

19,020

 

 

 

352,171

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

(126,252

)

 

 

422,326

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at the beginning of period

 

 

554,174

 

 

 

48,261

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted at the end of period

 

$

427,922

 

 

$

470,587

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for income taxes

 

$

1

 

 

$

1

 

 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment in accounts payable

 

$

250

 

 

$

-

 

 

Operating lease liabilities arising from obtaining right-of-use assets

 

$

3,544

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

6


 

 

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements

1. Formation and Business of the Company; Basis of Presentation

Organization

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc. (the Company) was organized in 2013 and commenced operations in 2014. The Company is a clinical-stage precision oncology biopharmaceutical company designing and developing novel small molecule, targeted oncology therapies.  The Company’s principal operations are in the United States and the Company operates in 1 segment, with its headquarters in San Diego, California.

The Company’s primary activities since inception have been to build infrastructure, conduct research and development, including clinical trials, perform business and financial planning, and raise capital.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for interim financial information and pursuant to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Accordingly, since they are interim statements, the accompanying condensed financial statements do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The unaudited interim financial statements reflect all adjustments which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair statement of the results for the periods presented. All such adjustments are of a normal and recurring nature. The condensed balance sheet at December 31, 2020 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The operating results presented in these unaudited condensed financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future periods. These unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and the notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2020 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC. In the opinion of management, the unaudited condensed financial statements and notes thereto include all adjustments that are of a normal and recurring nature that are necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and of the results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented.

Liquidity

Substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern exists when relevant conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, indicate that it is probable that the entity will be unable to meet its obligations as they become due within one year from the financial statement issuance date. The Company determined that there are no conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the unaudited condensed financial statements for the quarter ended June 30, 2021 are issued.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve and has already resulted in a significant disruption of global financial markets.  The Company’s ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and further disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from the pandemic. If such further disruption occurs, the Company could experience an inability to access additional capital.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 of the Notes to Financial Statements included in its Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

Revenue

The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606, Revenue From Contracts With Customers (ASC 606). Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration that the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements within the scope of ASC 606, the entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price, including variable consideration, if any; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration to which it is entitled in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer.

7

 


 

The Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations. Arrangements that include rights to additional goods or services that are exercisable at a customer’s discretion are generally considered options. The Company assesses if these options provide a material right to the customer and if so, they are considered performance obligations.

The Company assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct for the purpose of identifying the performance obligations in the contract. This assessment involves subjective determinations and requires management to make judgments about the individual promised goods or services and whether such are separable from the other aspects of the contractual relationship. Promised goods and services are considered distinct provided that: (i) the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer (that is, the good or service is capable of being distinct) and (ii) the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (that is, the promise to transfer the good or service is distinct within the context of the contract). In assessing whether a promised good or service is distinct, the Company considers factors such as the research, manufacturing and commercialization capabilities of the collaboration partner and the availability of the associated expertise in the general marketplace. The Company also considers the intended benefit of the contract in assessing whether a promised good or service is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. If a promised good or service is not distinct, an entity is required to combine that good or service with other promised goods or services until it identifies a bundle of goods or services that is distinct.

The transaction price is then determined and allocated to the identified performance obligations in proportion to their standalone selling prices (SSP) on a relative SSP basis. SSP is determined at contract inception and is not updated to reflect changes between contract inception and when the performance obligations are satisfied. Determining the SSP for performance obligations requires significant judgment. In developing the SSP for a performance obligation, the Company considers applicable market conditions and relevant entity-specific factors, including factors that were contemplated in negotiating the agreement with the customer and estimated costs.

If the consideration promised in a contract includes a variable amount, the Company estimates the amount of consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods or services to a customer. The Company determines the amount of variable consideration by using the expected value method or the most likely amount method. The Company includes the unconstrained amount of estimated variable consideration in the transaction price. The amount included in the transaction price is constrained to the amount for which it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the estimated variable consideration included in the transaction price and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period of adjustment.

If an arrangement includes development and regulatory milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the Company’s control or the licensee’s control, such as regulatory approvals, are generally not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received.

 

For arrangements with licenses of intellectual property that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes royalty revenue and sales-based milestones at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied.

In determining the transaction price, the Company adjusts consideration for the effects of the time value of money if the timing of payments provides the Company with a significant benefit of financing. The Company does not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is such that the period between payment by the licensees and the transfer of the promised goods or services to the licensees will be one year or less.

The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) each performance obligation is satisfied, either at a point in time or over time, and if over time, recognition is based on the use of an output or input method.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and the disclosure of contingent liabilities in the Company’s financial statements and accompanying notes. The most significant estimates in the

8

 


 

Company’s financial statements relate to determining the SSP of performance obligations associated with license arrangements, preclinical and clinical trial costs and accruals and stock-based compensation costs. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific and relevant assumptions that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Although these estimates are based on the Company’s knowledge of current events and actions it may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately materially differ from these estimates and assumptions. Although the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic to the Company’s business and operating results presents additional uncertainty, the Company continues to use the best information available to update its critical accounting estimates.

Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash

The following table presents a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash to amounts shown in the unaudited condensed statement of cash flows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2021

 

 

June 30, 2020

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

426,047

 

 

$

470,514

 

 

Restricted Cash, as part of other assets

 

 

1,875

 

 

 

73

 

 

Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

$

427,922

 

 

$

470,587

 

 

Concentration of Credit Risk

Substantially all of the Company’s cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities are held at two financial institutions.  Due to the financial strength of the depository institutions, the Company believes these financial institutions represent minimal credit risk. Cash amounts held at financial institutions are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to $250,000.  At June 30, 2021, cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities totaling $1,077.6 million are either not subject to FDIC insurance, or exceed the FDIC insured limit. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities are invested in short term, high credit quality securities, and as a result, the Company believes represent a minimal credit risk.

Clinical Trial Costs and Accruals

A significant portion of the Company’s clinical trial costs relate to contracts with contract research organizations (CROs). The financial terms of the Company’s CRO contracts may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided to the Company under such contracts. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate clinical trial expenses in the Company’s financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which services and efforts are expended. As part of the process of preparing the Company’s financial statements, the Company evaluates cost information provided by the Company’s CROs concerning estimated monthly expenses for services rendered and unbilled obligations as the sponsor of the Company’s clinical trials. Accordingly, the Company’s clinical trial accrual is dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of CROs and other third-party vendors, and the Company’s ability to accurately estimate any unbilled obligations.  If the contracted amounts are modified, for instance, as a result of changes in the clinical trial protocol or scope of work to be performed, the Company modifies its accruals accordingly on a prospective basis. Revisions in the scope of a contract are charged to research and development expense in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become reasonably certain.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. These costs consist primarily of salaries and other personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation; facility-related expenses; depreciation of facilities and equipment; laboratory consumables; and services performed by clinical research organizations, research institutions, and other outside service providers.

The Company recorded the estimated costs of research and development activities based upon the estimated amount of services provided but not yet invoiced and include these costs in accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the balance sheet and within research and development expense in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. As actual costs become known, the Company will adjust its accrued expenses and other current liabilities.

Net Loss Per Share

The Company computes basic loss per share by dividing the net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss assumes the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents, unless the effect of inclusion would be anti-dilutive. For purposes of this calculation, common stock equivalents include the Company’s stock options, restricted stock units (RSUs) and contingently issuable shares. The Company excluded stock options to purchase common stock, RSUs and contingently issuable shares from the number of shares used to calculate diluted shares outstanding because the inclusion of these potentially dilutive securities would have been antidilutive.

9

 


 

Historical outstanding anti-dilutive securities not included in the diluted net loss per share calculation include the following:

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

5,406,931

 

 

 

6,445,367

 

RSUs

 

 

192,281

 

 

 

-

 

Total

 

 

5,599,212

 

 

 

6,445,367

 

 

3. Marketable Securities

The Company invests its excess cash in marketable securities, including debt instruments of financial institutions, corporations with investment grade credit ratings, commercial paper and government agencies.

At June 30, 2021, marketable securities consisted of the following (in thousands): 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maturity in Years

 

Amortized Cost

 

 

Gains

 

 

Losses

 

 

Fair Value

 

U.S. Treasuries

 

2 years or less

 

 

195,076

 

 

 

27

 

 

 

(54

)

 

 

195,049

 

U.S. Government agency securities

 

2 years or less

 

 

179,648

 

 

 

77

 

 

 

(45

)

 

 

179,680

 

Non-U.S. Government agency securities

 

2 years or less

 

 

24,012

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(13

)

 

 

23,999

 

Corporate debt securities

 

2 years or less

 

 

115,783

 

 

 

31

 

 

 

(21

)

 

 

115,793

 

Commercial paper

 

Less than 1

 

 

137,238

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

137,238

 

   Total marketable securities

 

 

 

$

651,757

 

 

$

135

 

 

$

(133

)

 

$

651,759

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At December 31, 2020, marketable securities consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maturity in Years

 

Amortized Cost

 

 

Gains

 

 

Losses

 

 

Fair Value

 

U.S. Treasuries

 

2 years or less

 

$

113,662

 

 

$

19

 

 

$

(1

)

 

$

113,680

 

U.S. Government agency securities

 

2 years or less

 

 

173,583

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

173,683

 

Corporate debt securities

 

2 years or less

 

 

169,189

 

 

 

103

 

 

 

(27

)

 

 

169,265

 

Commercial paper

 

Less than 1

 

 

111,779

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

111,779

 

   Total marketable securities

 

 

 

$

568,213

 

 

$

222

 

 

$

(28

)

 

$

568,407

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Company segments its portfolio based on the underlying risk profiles of their current securities being held. The Company regularly reviews the securities in an unrealized loss position and evaluates the current expected credit loss by considering factors such as historical experience, market data, issuer-specific factors, current and expected future economic conditions. As of June 30, 2021, the Company did not record an allowance for credit loss related to its investment portfolio.

 

4. Fair Value Measurements

Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Fair value should maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The Company determines the fair value of financial assets and liabilities using three levels of inputs as follows:

Level 1—Inputs which include quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date.

Level 2—Inputs (other than quoted market prices included in Level 1) that are either directly or indirectly observable, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the instrument’s anticipated life.

Level 3—Unobservable inputs for assets or liabilities and include little or no market activity.

10

 


 

A financial instrument’s categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s financial assets subject to fair value measurements on a recurring basis and the level of inputs used for such measurements were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements at June 30, 2021 Using:

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Money market funds

 

$

143,203

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

143,203

 

U.S. Treasuries

 

 

195,049

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

195,049

 

U.S. Government agency securities

 

 

-

 

 

 

179,680

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

179,680

 

Non-U.S. Government securities

 

 

-

 

 

 

23,999

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

23,999

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

-

 

 

 

115,793

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

115,793

 

Commercial paper

 

 

-

 

 

 

419,636

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

419,636

 

Total cash equivalents and marketable securities

 

$

338,252

 

 

$

739,108

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

1,077,360

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements at December 31, 2020 Using:

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

Money market funds

 

$

299,571

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

299,571

 

U.S. Treasuries

 

 

113,680

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

113,680

 

U.S. Government agency securities

 

 

-

 

 

 

173,683

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

173,683

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

-

 

 

 

180,718

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

180,718

 

Commercial paper

 

 

-

 

 

 

354,223

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

354,223

 

Total cash equivalents and marketable securities

 

$

413,251

 

 

$

708,624

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

1,121,875

 

 

5. Property and Equipment, Net

Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

June 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Laboratory equipment

 

$

2,240

 

 

$

1,629

 

Computer equipment and software

 

 

1,275

 

 

 

956

 

Tenant improvements

 

 

1,302

 

 

 

1,108

 

Furniture and fixtures

 

 

357

 

 

 

357

 

Property and equipment

 

 

5,174

 

 

 

4,050

 

Less: accumulated depreciation

 

 

(1,964

)

 

 

(1,446

)

Property and equipment, net

 

$

3,210

 

 

$

2,604

 

Depreciation expense for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 was $0.3 million and $0.2 million, respectively.

Depreciation expense for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 was $0.5 million and $0.4 million, respectively.

 

6. Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

 

June 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Accrued research and development expenses

 

$

15,194

 

 

$

8,457

 

Accrued general and administrative expenses

 

 

818

 

 

 

682

 

Other current liabilities

 

 

84

 

 

 

44

 

Total

 

$

16,096

 

 

$

9,183

 

 

7. Zai License Agreements

Zai Repotrectinib Agreement

11

 


 

In July 2020, the Company entered into a license agreement (the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement) with Zai Lab (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (Zai), pursuant to which the Company granted Zai exclusive rights to develop and commercialize products containing the Company’s drug candidate, repotrectinib (the Repotrectinib Products), in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan (collectively, the Zai Territory or Greater China). The Company retains exclusive rights to, among other things, develop, manufacture and commercialize the Repotrectinib Products outside the Zai Territory. The Company will supply or have supplied to Zai the Repotrectinib Products for use in the Zai Territory pursuant to a supply agreement for agreed upon consideration, except that Zai has the right, at its election, to package and label the Repotrectinib Products in or outside the Zai Territory for use in the Zai Territory.

 

Pursuant to the terms of the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement, the Company has received an upfront cash payment of $25.0 million and is eligible to receive up to $151.0 million in development and sales milestone payments, consisting of up to $46.0 million of development milestones and up to $105.0 million of sales milestones. In addition, during the term of the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement, Zai is obligated to pay the Company tiered percentage royalties ranging from mid-to-high teens on annual net sales of the Repotrectinib Products in the Zai Territory, subject to adjustments in specified circumstances. 

Zai is responsible for conducting the development and commercialization activities in the Zai Territory related to the Repotrectinib Products at Zai’s own expense, subject to limited exceptions pursuant to which the Company may be responsible for the cost. The Company is responsible for global clinical studies of the Repotrectinib Products, including the portions that may be conducted in the Zai Territory, at the Company’s expense, except that Zai will participate in global clinical studies of the Repotrectinib Products through clinical trial sites in the Zai Territory as agreed as of the effective date of the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement and may, at Zai’s election, participate in future global clinical studies of the Repotrectinib Products through clinical trial sites in the Zai Territory, in each case at Zai’s expense.

The Zai Repotrectinib Agreement will continue in effect until expiration of the last royalty term for a Repotrectinib Product in any region in the Zai Territory, where the royalty term for a Repotrectinib Product in a region continues until the later of (i) the date of the last-to-expire valid claim within Company’s patent rights that covers the Repotrectinib Product in such region in the Zai Territory; (ii) the expiry of the regulatory exclusivity for such Repotrectinib Product in such region; or (iii) the close of business of the day that is exactly 10 years after the date of the first commercial sale of such Repotrectinib Product in such region. Subject to the terms of the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement, Zai may terminate the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement for convenience by providing written notice to the Company, which termination will be effective following a prescribed notice period. In addition, the Company may terminate the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement under specified circumstances if Zai or certain other parties challenge the Company’s patent rights. Either party may terminate the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach of the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement, with a customary notice and cure period, for the other party’s insolvency or if the other party acquires a third party and the acquired party is engaged in activities with a competing product that is not divested or discontinued within a specified period. After termination (but not natural expiration), other than certain terminations by Zai for cause, the Company is entitled to retain a worldwide and perpetual license from Zai to exploit the Repotrectinib Products.

Revenue Recognition

The Company determined that two performance obligations existed: (1) the exclusive license, bundled with the associated know-how and (2) the Company's initial obligation to supply repotrectinib for clinical development in the Zai Territory.

The total transaction price of $25.7 million was allocated to the performance obligations on the basis of the relative stand-alone selling price estimated for each performance obligation. In estimating the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation, the Company developed assumptions that require judgment and included forecasted revenues, expected development timelines, discount rates, probabilities of technical and regulatory success and costs for manufacturing clinical supplies.

The Company delivered the license and technical know-how to Zai in the third quarter of 2020 to satisfy this performance obligation, and accordingly the Company recognized license revenue of $25.0 million in the third quarter of 2020.  The $0.7 million in consideration allocable to the clinical supply performance obligation will be recognized when clinical trial material has been shipped by the Company and Zai obtains control of the goods, upon delivery, over the period of the obligation. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recognized $0.2 million and $0.4 million, respectively in revenue associated with the clinical supply performance obligation.

The Company assessed the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement to determine whether a significant financing component exists and concluded that a significant financing component does not exist. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recognized $5.0 million in development milestones. The development milestones were subject to foreign tax withholdings.  The Company recorded this tax expense to general and administrative expense in the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive loss. As of June 30, 2021, the Company has 0t recognized any revenue associated with sales milestones.

12

 


 

Zai TPX-0022 Agreement

On January 10, 2021, the Company entered into a license agreement with Zai, which was amended on March 31, 2021 (the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement), pursuant to which the Company granted Zai exclusive rights to develop and commercialize products containing the Company’s drug candidate, TPX-0022 (the TPX-0022 Products), in the Zai Territory.  The Company retains exclusive rights to, among other things, develop, manufacture and commercialize the TPX-0022 Products outside the Zai Territory.

 

Pursuant to the terms of the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement, the Company has received an upfront cash payment of $25.0 million and is eligible to receive up to $336.0 million in development and sales milestone payments, consisting of up to $121.0 million of development milestones and up to $215.0 million of sales milestones. In addition, during the term of the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement, Zai is obligated to pay the Company tiered percentage royalties ranging from mid-teens to low twenties on annual net sales of the TPX-0022 Products in the Zai Territory, subject to adjustments in specified circumstances. 

Zai is responsible for conducting the development and commercialization activities in the Zai Territory related to the TPX-0022 Products at Zai’s own expense, subject to limited exceptions pursuant to which the Company may be responsible for the cost. The Company is responsible for global clinical studies of the TPX-0022 Products, including the portions that may be conducted in the Zai Territory, at the Company’s expense, except that Zai will participate in global clinical studies of the TPX-0022 Products through clinical trial sites in the Zai Territory as agreed as of the effective date of the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement and may, at Zai’s election subject to specified exceptions, participate in future global clinical studies of the TPX-0022 Products through clinical trial sites in the Zai Territory, in each case at Zai’s expense.

The Zai TPX-0022 Agreement will continue in effect until expiration of the last royalty term for a TPX-0022 Product in any region in the Zai Territory, where the royalty term for a TPX-0022 Product in a region continues until the later of (i) the date of the last-to-expire valid claim within Company’s patent rights that covers the TPX-0022 Product in such region in the Zai Territory; (ii) the expiry of the regulatory exclusivity for such TPX-0022 Product in such region; or (iii) the close of business of the day that is exactly 10 years after the date of the first commercial sale of such TPX-0022 Product in such region. Subject to the terms of the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement, Zai may terminate the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement for convenience by providing written notice to the Company, which termination will be effective following a prescribed notice period. In addition, the Company may terminate the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement under specified circumstances if Zai or certain other parties challenge the Company’s patent rights. Either party may terminate the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach of the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement, with a customary notice and cure period, for the other party’s insolvency or if the other party acquires a third party and the acquired party is engaged in activities with a competing product that is not divested or discontinued within a specified period. After termination (but not natural expiration), other than certain terminations by Zai for cause, the Company is entitled to retain a worldwide and perpetual license from Zai to exploit the TPX-0022 Products.

Revenue Recognition

The Company determined that two performance obligations existed: (1) the exclusive license, bundled with the associated know-how and (2) the Company’s initial obligation to supply TPX-0022 for clinical development in the Zai Territory.

The total transaction price of $25.9 million was allocated to the performance obligations on the basis of the relative stand-alone selling price estimated for each performance obligation. In estimating the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation, the Company developed assumptions that require judgment and included forecasted revenues, expected development timelines, discount rates, probabilities of technical and regulatory success and costs for manufacturing clinical supplies.

The Company delivered the license and technical know-how to Zai in the first quarter of 2021 to satisfy this performance obligation, and accordingly the Company recognized license revenue of $25.0 million in the first quarter of 2021.  The $0.9 million in consideration allocable to the clinical supply performance obligation will be recognized when clinical trial material has been shipped by the Company and Zai obtains control of the goods, upon delivery, over the period of the obligation. As of June 30, 2021, the Company has 0t recognized any revenue associated with the clinical supply performance obligation under the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement.  

The Company assessed the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement to determine whether a significant financing component exists and concluded that a significant financing component does not exist. The upfront payment received by the Company was subject to foreign tax withholdings.  The Company recorded this tax expense to general and administrative expense in the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

13

 


 

 

8. Commitments and Contingencies

Operating Leases

 

The Company has an operating lease for its corporate headquarters and laboratory space with a term that expires June 30, 2023, which resulted in an initial lease liability of $4.0 million and a right-of-use asset of $3.7 million, which is net of $0.3 million of the Company’s deferred gain from the office and laboratory space surrendered in 2019. In connection with this operating lease, in lieu of a cash security deposit, the Company’s bank issued a letter of credit on its behalf, which is secured by a deposit totaling $0.1 million and is included in other assets on the condensed balance sheet.

In February 2021, the Company entered into a lease agreement for additional office and laboratory space, which commenced on April 20, 2021, with an initial expiration date of December 31, 2021. In May 2021, the lease was amended to extend the expiration date to June 30, 2023. The Company recorded an operating lease liability and corresponding right-of-use asset of approximately $1.2 million as of the lease commencement date.

In April 2021, the Company entered into a lease agreement for additional office space, which commenced on May 24, 2021 which expires June 30, 2023 with no options to extend. In June 2021, the lease terms were amended to add additional office space which is expected to commence in the third quarter of 2021. The Company recorded an operating lease liability of approximately $2.4 million and a right-of-use asset of $2.5 million, which includes lease incentives.

In May 2021, the Company entered into a lease agreement with HCP Callan Road, LLC (Landlord) for the lease of approximately 185,000 square feet of office and laboratory space, delivered in two phases, for the Company’s future principal executive offices and laboratory space. The term of the lease is approximately 11 years and nine months and is expected to commence in March 2023, with an option by the Company to extend for an additional five years. The base rent will be $1.0 million per month, and the Landlord will provide the Company with a tenant improvement allowance of up to $220 per square foot. The Landlord has not started construction of the building as of June 30, 2021. In connection with the lease, the Company is required to maintain a letter of credit for the benefit of the Landlord in the amount of $1.8 million, which was delivered in May 2021 and is included in other assets on the condensed balance sheet.

Future minimum payments under the leases as of June 30, 2021 are as follows (in thousands):

 

Year Ending December 31,

 

 

 

 

2021 (remaining)

 

 

1,577

 

2022

 

 

3,589

 

2023

 

 

1,831

 

Total future minimum lease payments

 

 

6,997

 

Less: amounts representing interest

 

 

(495

)

Total lease liability

 

$

6,502

 

Remaining lease term

 

2 years

 

 

Amounts presented in the table above exclude non-cancelable future minimum lease payments for operating leases that have not commenced

Rent expense was $0.6 million and $0.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The Company paid $0.6 million and $0.4 million of cash payments related to its operating lease agreements for each of the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.  

 

Rent expense was $1.0 million and $0.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The Company paid $1.0 million and $0.8 million of cash payments related to its operating lease agreement for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

 

The Company’s operating leases had a weighted average remaining lease term of 2 years as of June 30, 2021 and 2.6 years as of December 31, 2020, and a weighted average discount rate of 7.1% as of June 30, 2021 and 8.5% as of December 31, 2020.

 

9. Stockholders’ Equity

14

 


 

At the Market Offering

In August 2020, the Company entered into an Open Market Sale AgreementSM with Jefferies LLC (ATM facility), under which the Company may offer and sell, from time to time, at its sole discretion, up to $250.0 million shares of the Company’s common stock.  As of June 30, 2021, the Company had not yet sold any shares of common stock under the ATM facility.

Equity Compensation Plans

The Company’s 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (the Plan) provides for the grant of stock options, restricted stock and other equity awards of the Company’s common stock to employees, officers, consultants, and directors. In addition, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the Plan will be automatically increased on the first day of each calendar year through January 1, 2029, by an amount equal to 4% of the outstanding number of shares of the Company’s common stock on December 31 of the preceding calendar year or such lesser amount as determined by the Company’s board of directors.  On January 1, 2021, the Company added 1,947,141 shares to the Plan. At June 30, 2021, the Plan had 3,574,211 total shares available for issuance.

Stock Options

Options expire within a period of not more than ten years from the date of grant.  Initial option grants to employees typically vest 25% after one year and monthly thereafter over a three-year period and expire three months after employee termination.  Subsequent option grants to employees and grants to non-employees typically vest monthly over a four-year period. The majority of options outstanding at June 30, 2021 had vesting periods of four years.

The following summarizes option activity under the Plan for the periods presented:

 

 

Outstanding

Options

 

 

Weighted

Average

Exercise

Price

Per Share

 

 

Weighted

Average

Remaining

Contractual

Term (Years)

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value (in

thousands)

 

Balance as of December 31, 2020

 

 

5,790,713

 

 

$

34.97

 

 

 

8.4

 

 

$

503,114

 

Options granted

 

 

820,286

 

 

$

113.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Options exercised

 

 

(691,537

)

 

$

26.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Options forfeited or cancelled

 

 

(512,531

)

 

$

56.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance as of June 30, 2021

 

 

5,406,931

 

 

$

46.02

 

 

 

7.9

 

 

$

208,216

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Options vested and exercisable as of June 30, 2021

 

 

2,100,703

 

 

$

22.24

 

 

 

6.8

 

 

$

119,126

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The fair values of the employee stock options granted during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 were estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

 

1.05

%

 

 

1.01

%

 

 

0.80

%

 

 

1.49

%

Volatility

 

 

79.9

%

 

 

79.0

%

 

 

80.4

%

 

 

79.0

%

Expected term (in years)

 

5.98

 

 

 

5.84

 

 

6.04

 

 

6.06

 

Dividend yield

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

The weighted-average grant-date fair value of options granted to employees was $48.45 and $38.41 for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively and was $77.86 and $41.20 for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of June 30, 2021, there was $130.9 million in total unrecognized compensation expense expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.49 years.

Restricted Stock Units

The summary of the Company’s restricted stock unit activity for the periods presented is as follows:

15

 


 

 

 

Restricted Stock Units Outstanding

 

 

Weighted

Average

Grant Date Fair Value

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value (in

thousands)

 

Balance as of December 31, 2020

 

 

21,500

 

 

$

59.94

 

 

$

2,620

 

Granted

 

 

187,507

 

 

$

121.57

 

 

 

 

 

Vested

 

 

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

 

 

Forfeited

 

 

(16,726

)

 

$

129.87

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding as of June 30, 2021

 

 

192,281

 

 

$

113.96

 

 

$

15,002

 

NaN awards are vested as of June 30, 2021. As of June 30, 2021, the total unrecognized compensation related to restricted stock units granted was $19.8 million, which the Company expects to recognize over a weighted-average period of approximately 3.58 years.

Performance Stock Units

The Company has granted performance stock units (PSUs) which vest based on the achievement of certain predefined Company-specific performance criteria and expire as of December 31, 2023. The fair value of PSUs is estimated based on the closing sale price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. The Company will recognize expense in proportion to the number of PSUs that are deemed probable of vesting, based on the Company’s evaluation of the respective performance-based criteria, at each reporting date.  

The summary of the Company’s PSU activity for the periods presented is as follows:

 

 

Performance Stock Units Outstanding

 

 

Weighted

Average

Grant Date Fair Value

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value (in

thousands)

 

 

Balance as of December 31, 2020

 

 

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

Granted

 

 

210,949

 

 

$

130.97

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vested

 

 

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forfeited

 

 

(22,431

)

 

$

136.85

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding as of June 30, 2021

 

 

188,518

 

 

$

130.27

 

 

$

14,708

 

 

As of June 30, 2021, the Company does not estimate that the achievement of any performance-based criteria is probable, and 0 PSUs vested during the six months ended June 30, 2021.

2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

In April 2019, the Company’s board of directors and stockholders approved and adopted the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the ESPP). The ESPP became effective immediately prior to the date of the underwriting agreement related to the Company’s initial public offering. The ESPP permits eligible employees who elect to participate in an offering under the ESPP to have up to 15% of their eligible earnings withheld, subject to certain limitations, to purchase shares of common stock pursuant to the ESPP. The price of common stock purchased under the ESPP is equal to 85 percent of the lower of the fair market value of the common stock at the commencement date of each offering period or the relevant date of purchase. Each offering period is 24 months, with new offering periods commencing every six months on the dates of June 11 and December 11 of each year. Each offering period consists of four six month purchase periods (each a Purchase Period) during which payroll deductions of the participants are accumulated under the ESPP. The last business day of each Purchase Period is referred to as the “Purchase Date.” Purchase Dates are every six months on the dates of June 10 and December 10 of each year. As of June 30, 2021, a total of 228,156 shares of common stock were available for purchase under the ESPP.

The assumptions used for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 and the resulting estimates of weighted-average fair value per share for stock purchased under the ESPP during such periods were as follows:

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

0.04 - 0.16%

 

 

0.17 - 2.13%

 

Volatility

 

69.9 - 79.8%

 

 

70.6 - 91.6%

 

Expected term (in years)

 

0.50 - 2.00

 

 

0.50 - 2.00

 

Dividend yield

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

16

 


 

 

Modifications to Outstanding Equity Awards

On March 30, 2021, Sheila Gujrathi, M.D. and Jacob M. Chacko, M.D. resigned from the Board of Directors (the Board) of the Company, effective immediately, to focus on other endeavors. Dr. Gujrathi also resigned from her position as Chair of the Board and Dr. Chacko resigned from each committee of the Board for which he was a member. In connection with the foregoing, the Board approved an amendment to the option awards held by Drs. Gujrathi and Chacko to provide that (i) all shares subject to such option awards are fully vested and exercisable as of the resignation date and (ii) the post-resignation exercise period shall be extended to September 30, 2022.

The Company determined that the modification to extend the term of vested stock options was a Type I modification pursuant to ASC 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation (ASC 718). The acceleration of the vesting of the unvested stock options was deemed a Type III modification pursuant to ASC 718, because without Board approval, these stock options would have been forfeited on the date of resignation. As a result of these modifications the Company recognized $5.6 million in stock-based compensation expense in the first quarter of 2021 in general and administrative expenses in the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

On January 9, 2020, the Company entered into a Transition Separation and Consulting Agreement (the Transition Agreement) with the Company’s former Chief Scientific Officer (CSO), Dr. Jingrong Jean Cui. In connection with this Transition Agreement, Dr. Cui resigned from her position as CSO effective January 31, 2020 and thereafter agreed to serve as a consultant to the Company on an as needed basis until June 30, 2020. In accordance with the terms of the Transition Agreement, the Company recorded $1.2 million in expense during the first quarter of 2020 representing the cash severance that was paid to Dr. Cui during 2020. The terms of the Transition Agreement allowed Dr. Cui to continue to vest her outstanding options through to the end of the consulting period on June 30, 2020. At the termination of the consulting period, Dr. Cui immediately received an additional eighteen months vesting of her stock options. In addition, the Company extended Dr. Cui’s period to exercise her vested stock options from 90 days to 12 months from the date of the termination of the consulting period.

The Company determined that the modification to extend the term of vested stock options was a Type I modification pursuant to ASC 718. The acceleration of the vesting of the unvested stock options was deemed a Type III modification pursuant to ASC 718, because pursuant to Dr. Cui’s existing employment agreement as of her resignation date, these stock options would have been forfeited on the date of termination. As a result of these modifications the Company recognized $31.4 million in stock-based compensation expense in the first quarter of 2020. Because the services performed during the consulting period were considered nonsubstantive, the Company recognized the full $31.4 million in stock-based compensation expense on the date of the modification and presented this amount in general and administrative expenses in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss.

 

Stock-Based Compensation Expense

Stock-based compensation expense for awards granted under the Company’s equity plans totaled the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Research and development

 

$

6,980

 

 

$

3,523

 

 

$

12,982

 

 

$

6,888

 

General and administrative

 

 

6,315

 

 

 

3,881

 

 

 

17,591

 

 

 

38,881

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

13,295

 

 

$

7,404

 

 

$

30,573

 

 

$

45,769

 

 

Common Stock Reserved for Future Issuance

Common stock reserved for future issuance consisted of the following:

 

 

June 30,

 

 

 

2021

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

5,406,931

 

PSUs outstanding

 

 

188,518

 

RSUs outstanding

 

 

192,281

 

Options to purchase common stock available for issuance under the Plan

 

 

3,574,211

 

Shares available for purchase under ESPP

 

 

228,156

 

Total

 

 

9,590,097

 

 

 

17

 


 

 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed financial statements and related notes included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Quarterly Report) and the audited financial statements and notes thereto as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, both of which are contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on March 1, 2021.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this Quarterly Report to “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc.

Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report includes forward-looking statements and information within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections, that involve a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified as such because the context of the statement will include words such as “may,” “will,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “likely,” or “opportunity,” the negative of these words or other similar words. Similarly, statements that describe our plans, strategies, intentions, expectations, objectives, goals or prospects and other statements that are not historical facts are also forward-looking statements. For such statements, we claim the protection of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Readers of this Quarterly Report are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the time this Quarterly Report was filed with the SEC. These forward-looking statements are based largely on our expectations and projections about future events and future trends affecting our business, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, the risk factors identified in our SEC reports, including this Quarterly Report. In addition, past financial or operating performance is not necessarily a reliable indicator of future performance, and you should not use our historical performance to anticipate results or future period trends. We can give no assurances that any of the events anticipated by the forward-looking statements will occur or, if any of them do, what impact they will have on our results of operations and financial condition. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly or revise our forward-looking statements.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage precision oncology biopharmaceutical company designing and developing next-generation therapies that target genetic drivers of cancer to improve the lives of patients. We have developed a macrocycle platform from which we designed our current pipeline of proprietary small, compact tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with rigid structures that have the potential to bind to their targets with greater precision and affinity than other kinase inhibitors. Our drug discovery approach integrates tumor biology with structure-based drug design to develop a new generation of orally available proprietary TKIs that we believe will have the ability to maintain or enhance inhibition of the targeted kinase.

Repotrectinib

Our lead drug candidate, repotrectinib, is being evaluated in an ongoing Phase 1/2 trial called TRIDENT-1 for the treatment of patients with ROS1+ advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and patients with NTRK+ advanced solid tumors. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted repotrectinib breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of patients with ROS1+ metastatic NSCLC who have not been treated with a ROS1 TKI. In addition, the FDA has granted repotrectinib orphan drug designation for the treatment of advanced NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology; and three fast track designations for the treatment of (1) NTRK+ advanced solid tumor patients who have been previously treated with one prior line of chemotherapy and one or two prior TRK TKIs, (2) ROS1+ advanced NSCLC patients who have been previously treated with one prior line of platinum-based chemotherapy and one prior line of a ROS1 TKI and (3) ROS1+ advanced NSCLC patients who have not been previously treated with a ROS1 TKI.  

Our multi-cohort Phase 2 registrational portion of TRIDENT-1 is ongoing at sites in North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific regions.  The Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1 is a registrational trial for potential approval in ROS1+ advanced NSCLC and NTRK+ advanced solid tumors. In January 2021, we presented Phase 2 preliminary interim data from cohort 1 (EXP-1) of the TRIDENT-1 study in patients with ROS1+ TKI naïve NSCLC at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer.  To date we have enrolled approximately 300 patients in the Phase 1 and Phase 2 portions of the TRIDENT-1 study across all cohorts, and in the second quarter of 2021 we reached enrollment of 50 patients pooled from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 portions of the TRIDENT-1 study in EXP-1.  Enrollment in EXP-1 is ongoing to provide continued access to new patients.  We anticipate providing preliminary clinical data by physician assessment from multiple ROS1+ and NTRK+ cohorts from the study at the 2021 EORTC-NCI-AACR annual symposium in October. We expect this data update will also include safety data from approximately 300 patients. In addition to the TRIDENT-1 study, our Phase 1/2 CARE study of repotrectinib in pediatric and

18

 


 

young adult patients with ALK+, ROS1+ or NTRK+ advanced solid tumors is ongoing and we anticipate providing initial data from this study in an oral presentation at the 53rd International Society of Paediatric Oncology in October 2021.

Based on being granted breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of patients with ROS1+ metastatic NSCLC who have not been treated with a ROS1 TKI, we held a Type B meeting with the FDA in April 2021 during which we received feedback on next steps toward a potential New Drug Application submission for repotrectinib for patients treated within the EXP-1 cohort.  The FDA guidance was generally supportive of our current plans for clinical, manufacturing and companion diagnostic development. In addition, the FDA guided that a meeting should be requested to discuss topline blinded independent central review (BICR) results when responders have been followed for greater than or equal to six months past onset of response. We believe we have the potential to discuss the topline results from patients treated within EXP-1 at a meeting with the FDA in the first quarter of 2022.  

In April 2021, we presented preclinical data at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) annual meeting demonstrating that repotrectinib in combination with an approved MEK inhibitor, trametinib, had greater activity than single-agent treatment of either repotrectinib or trametinib in patient-derived KRAS mutant G12D/V lung and G12D/V/R pancreatic cancer models.  The clinical study of repotrectinib and trametinib for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic KRAS-mutant solid tumors was allowed to proceed by the FDA in April 2021, and we plan to initiate the Phase 1b/2 study in patients with KRAS mutant G12D advanced solid tumors in the third quarter of 2021. The clinical study is designed to examine safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and any early signals of efficacy of the combination.

TPX-0022

Our Phase 1 SHIELD-1 clinical trial of our MET/SRC/CSF1R inhibitor, TPX-0022, is ongoing in patients with advanced solid tumors harboring genetic alterations in MET. The Phase 1 trial is designed to evaluate the overall safety profile, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of TPX-0022 and includes a dose-finding portion followed by dose expansion in multiple cohorts of MET alterations and tumor types.  

We have selected a likely recommended Phase 2 dose and have initiated the Phase 1 dose expansion portion of the study. We plan to discuss the ongoing Phase 1 SHIELD-1 study, including our recommended Phase 2 dose, with the FDA in the third quarter of 2021, and to potentially modify the study into a registrational Phase 1/2 design pending FDA feedback. We are targeting initiation of the Phase 2 portion of the study in the fourth quarter of 2021, pending FDA feedback. Our proposed Phase 2 study design is similar to that of the ongoing Phase 1 dose expansion portion of the study, which focuses on four main patient populations: treatment naïve and pretreated MET exon-14 skipping NSCLC, and treatment naïve MET amplified NSCLC and gastric cancer. We plan to provide details on the FDA feedback and the Phase 2 design after the end of Phase 1 meeting.  We anticipate reporting preliminary clinical data from patients across multiple tumor types and MET genetic alterations from the dose finding portion of the SHIELD-1 study at the 2021 EORTC-NCI-AACR annual symposium in October. In addition, a Phase 1b/2 combination study with TPX-0022 and an EGFR targeted therapy in patients with EGFR mutant MET-amplified NSCLC is also planned for initiation in the fourth quarter of 2021.

In April 2021, we presented preclinical data at the AACR annual meeting demonstrating potential utility of TPX-0022 in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.  In a syngeneic xenograft tumor model, TPX-0022 treatment downregulated immunosuppressive cytokines, increased anti-tumor M1 macrophages, and enriched levels of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. TPX-0022 had single agent in vivo activity and enhanced the activity of an anti-PD-1 inhibitor. Based on this initial data, we are evaluating a potential additional combination clinical study of TPX-0022 and an anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor.

In June 2021, the FDA granted TPX-0022 orphan drug designation for the treatment of gastric cancer, including gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and in August 2021, the FDA granted TPX-0022 fast track designation for the treatment of patients with MET amplified advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma after prior chemotherapy.

TPX-0046

The Phase 1 portion of our Phase 1/2 SWORD-1 clinical trial of our RET inhibitor, TPX-0046 in patients with advanced solid tumors harboring RET genetic alterations is ongoing. The trial is designed to enroll TKI-naïve and TKI-pretreated patients with RET-altered non-small-cell lung, thyroid, and other advanced cancers in multiple cohorts to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and preliminary clinical activity of TPX-0046, with a targeted enrollment of approximately 60 patients in the Phase 1 dose finding portion.

In April 2021, we reported initial data from the Phase 1 dose finding portion of our SWORD-1 clinical trial of TPX-0046.  We are currently evaluating doses and schedules to determine a recommended Phase 2 dose. After determination of the recommended Phase 2 dose, we plan to study TPX-0046 in multiple Phase 1 dose expansion cohorts in up to 90 patients with RET-altered malignancies, prior to an end of Phase 1 meeting with the FDA.

TPX-0131

Our fourth drug candidate, TPX-0131, is a next-generation CNS penetrant ALK inhibitor.  TPX-0131 was designed with a compact macrocyclic structure and in preclinical studies has been shown to potently inhibit wildtype ALK and numerous ALK

19

 


 

mutations, in particular the clinically observed G1202R solvent front mutation, the L1196M gatekeeper mutation and G1202R/L1196M compound mutation. 

In April 2021, we presented preclinical data at the AACR annual meeting showing the potential of TPX-0131 to cross the blood-brain barrier and its potency against wild type ALK (IC50=0.4 nM) and a broad spectrum of acquired ALK resistance mutations, including the G1202R solvent front mutation (IC50=0.2 nM), L1196M gatekeeper mutation (IC50=0.5 nM), and multiple compound mutations (IC50< 1 nM), based on cell proliferation assays.  In June 2021, additional preclinical data was published in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics showing TPX-0131 to be potent against a wide range of ALK resistant mutations, including G1202R, L1196M and multiple compound mutations.

In April 2021, the FDA allowed our TPX-0131 clinical study to proceed in patients with ALK+ advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Additionally, in April 2021, we initiated our global Phase 1/2 FORGE-1 study of TPX-0131 in TKI-pretreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK+ NSCLC. The study endpoints include safety and tolerability, determination of the maximum tolerated dose and/or the recommended Phase 2 dose, and objective response rate by RECIST 1.1.  

Discovery Programs

Our macrocycle platform is the foundation of our current four drug candidates in clinical development and we are applying novel small molecule design approaches integrating tumor biology and structure-based design to develop a new generation of orally available proprietary TKIs that we believe will have the potential to address important unmet medical needs for patients.  Our four internal drug discovery programs are targeting aberrant GTPase signaling known to drive genomically defined cancers with high unmet medical need. The most advanced programs target KRAS G12D, and the p21 activated kinase, or “PAK” family.  The goal of our KRAS G12D program is to advance a selective, oral KRAS inhibitor for patients harboring a G12D mutation.  Our PAK program is exploring a highly isoform selective inhibitor of oncogenic PAK, and in particular, dual inhibition of amplified PAK1 and PAK4 which we believe has potential as a single agent and in combinations. We are targeting selection of a development candidate from each of these programs in the second half of 2022. Our goal is to achieve at least one new IND per year beginning in 2023.

COVID-19 Pandemic

We have experienced disruptions to our business operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.  Due to the continued evolving and uncertain global impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot precisely determine or quantify the impact this pandemic will have on our ongoing business, operations and financial performance.  For our ongoing and planned clinical trials, while we anticipate and have experienced some temporary delays or disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular with respect to activation of additional clinical trial sites and patient enrollment, we continue to work closely with our contract research organizations (CROs) and clinical sites as we navigate and seek to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on our clinical studies and current timelines. Measures we have taken in response to COVID-19, include where feasible, conducting remote clinical trial site activations and data monitoring, enabling patients to have routine tests conducted closer to home, allowing trial sites to evaluate certain patients remotely, in compliance with their local procedures, and direct-to-patient study drug shipping. In addition, we currently have sufficient supply or plans for supply to meet our anticipated clinical development needs for our drug candidates for at least the next 12 months. However, depending on the length and ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, our suppliers could be adversely impacted, which may result in delays or disruptions in our current or future supply chain.  

We will continue to assess the duration, scope and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and the existing and potential impacts on our business, operations and financial performance, and we will continue to work closely with our third-party vendors, CROs, collaborators and other parties in order to seek to advance our drug candidate pipeline as quickly as possible, while making the health and safety of our employees and their families, healthcare providers, patients and communities a top priority.

Liquidity Overview

Since our inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our ability to generate product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our drug candidates. As of June 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $372.0 million and we incurred net losses of approximately $91.8 million and $92.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for at least the next several years.

In August 2020, we entered into an Open Market Sale AgreementSM with Jefferies LLC (ATM facility) under which we may offer and sell, from time to time, at our sole discretion, up to $250.0 million shares of our common stock.  As of June 30, 2021, we had not yet sold any shares of our common stock under the ATM facility.

 

We will not generate revenue from product sales until we successfully complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates. If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our drug candidates and do not enter into a commercialization partnership, we expect to incur significant expenses related to developing our internal commercialization capability to support product sales, marketing and distribution.

20

 


 

 

As a result, we will need substantial additional funding to support our continuing operations and pursue our growth strategy. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements or arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve and has already resulted in a significant disruption of global financial markets.  Our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and further disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from the pandemic. If such further disruption occurs, we could experience an inability to access additional capital. If we fail to raise capital or enter into such agreements we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development and commercialization of one or more of our drug candidates.

Components of Our Results of Operations

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales. If our development efforts for our drug candidates are successful and result in regulatory approval, we may generate revenue in the future from product sales. If we enter into license or collaboration agreements for any of our drug candidates or intellectual property, such as our license agreements with Zai Lab (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (Zai) that we executed in July 2020 (the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement) and January 2021, which was amended in March 2021 (the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement, and together with the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement, the Zai License Agreements), we may generate revenue in the future from payments as a result of such license or collaboration agreements. Under the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement we recognized revenue of $25.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2020, and $0.2 million and $5.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. Under the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement, we recognized revenue of $25.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021. Unless and until we are able to generate revenue from future product sales, we expect that our revenue, if any, will be derived primarily from the Zai License Agreements, as well as any collaborations or additional license agreements that we may enter into in the future. We cannot provide assurance as to the timing of future milestone or royalty payments or that we will receive any of these payments at all. We cannot predict if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of our drug candidates. We may never succeed in obtaining regulatory approval for any of our drug candidates.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses include:

 

employee-related expenses, including salaries, related benefits, travel and stock-based compensation expense for employees engaged in research and development functions;

 

expenses incurred in connection with the preclinical and clinical development of our drug candidates, including expenses incurred under agreements with CROs;

 

the cost of consultants and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) that manufacture drug products for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials; and

 

facilities, depreciation and other expenses, which include allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and supplies.

We expense research and development costs to operations as incurred. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are recorded as prepaid assets. Our prepaid assets are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

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Our direct research and development expenses are tracked on a program-by-program basis and consist primarily of external costs, such as fees paid to consultants, central laboratories, contractors, CMOs and CROs in connection with our preclinical and clinical development activities. We allocate indirect expenses, such as employee salaries, fringe benefits, facilities, travel and other miscellaneous expenses, based on an estimated percentage of time worked on programs.

The table below summarizes our research and development expenses incurred by development program for the periods presented (in thousands):

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Research and development expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Repotrectinib

 

$

24,377

 

 

$

13,536

 

 

$

48,070

 

 

$

26,508

 

TPX-0022

 

 

7,835

 

 

 

3,058

 

 

 

13,639

 

 

 

6,564

 

TPX-0046

 

 

3,578

 

 

 

3,505

 

 

 

7,340

 

 

 

6,404

 

Other research programs

 

 

8,860

 

 

 

4,055

 

 

 

16,864

 

 

 

7,447

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

44,650

 

 

$

24,154

 

 

$

85,913

 

 

$

46,923

 

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related costs for personnel in executive, finance and administrative functions, including stock-based compensation. General and administrative expenses also include travel expenses and direct and allocated facility-related costs, as well as professional fees for legal, patent, accounting and tax-related services and insurance costs.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will continue to increase as a result of increased payroll, expanded infrastructure and higher consulting, accounting and investor relations costs, and director and officer insurance premiums associated with being a public company.

Other income, net

Other income, net consists of interest earned on cash, cash equivalents and our marketable securities.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of our financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, related disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of expenses and other income during the reporting period. We continually evaluate our estimates and judgments, the most critical of which are those related to determining the standalone selling prices of performance obligations associated with license arrangements, preclinical and clinical trial costs and accruals and stock-based compensation costs. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Materially different results can occur as circumstances change and additional information becomes known.

There were no significant changes during the three months ended June 30, 2021 to the items that we disclosed as our critical accounting policies and estimates in Note 2 to our audited financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

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Results of Operations

Comparison of the Three Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Change

 

Revenue

 

$

5,164

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

5,164

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

44,650

 

 

 

24,154

 

 

 

20,496

 

General and administrative

 

 

17,171

 

 

 

8,578

 

 

 

8,593

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

61,821

 

 

 

32,732

 

 

 

29,089

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(56,657

)

 

 

(32,732

)

 

 

(23,925

)

Other income, net

 

 

384

 

 

 

1,239

 

 

 

(855

)

Net loss

 

$

(56,273

)

 

$

(31,493

)

 

$

(24,780

)

Revenue

Revenue recognized during the three months ended June 30, 2021 was $5.2 million, and was attributable to $5.0 million earned related to development milestones for the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement. We also recognized $0.2 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 for the sale of clinical supply to Zai for supporting the TRIDENT-1 Phase 2 clinical trial in Zai’s territory.

Research and development expenses

During the three months ended June 30, 2021, total research and development expenses increased by $20.5 million from $24.2 million to $44.7 million compared to the three months ended June 30, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to increased activity for the ongoing clinical trials for the Phase 2 registrational portion of TRIDENT-1, the Phase 1 trial for TPX-0022 and the Phase 1/2 trial TPX-0046. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase in future periods with the advancement of our clinical programs and additional future clinical trials and discovery efforts.  

General and administrative expenses

During the three months ended June 30, 2021, general and administrative expenses increased by $8.6 million from $8.6 million to $17.2 million compared to three months ended June 30, 2020. The increase is primarily attributable to an increase in personnel-related expenses as a result of increased employee headcount and professional fees for legal and accounting services.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will continue to increase as a result of increased headcount, expanded infrastructure, higher consulting, accounting and investor relations costs, and director and officer insurance premiums associated with being a public company.

Other Income, Net

During the three months ended June 30, 2021, other income, net, decreased by $0.9 million from $1.2 million to $0.4 million compared to the three months ended June 30, 2020. The decreases were primarily due to lower overall yields on our marketable securities and money market funds.

Comparison of the Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2021 ended and 2020 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Six Months Ended June 30,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Change

 

Revenue

 

$

30,369

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

30,369

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

85,913

 

 

 

46,923

 

 

 

38,990

 

General and administrative

 

 

37,162

 

 

 

48,435

 

 

 

(11,273

)

Total operating expenses

 

 

123,075

 

 

 

95,358

 

 

 

27,717

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(92,706

)

 

 

(95,358

)

 

 

2,652

 

Other income, net

 

 

929

 

 

 

3,147

 

 

 

(2,218

)

Net income

 

$

(91,777

)

 

$

(92,211

)

 

$

434

 

23

 


 

 

Revenue

Revenue recognized during the six months ended June 30, 2021 was $30.4 million, and was attributable to a $25.0 million upfront payment received in first quarter related to the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement and $5.0 million earned in the second quarter related to development milestones for the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement. We also recognized $0.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 for the sale of clinical supply to Zai for supporting the TRIDENT-1 Phase 2 clinical trials in the Zai Territory.

Research and development expenses

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, research and development expenses increased by $39.1 million from $46.8 million to $85.9 million compared to the six months ended June 30, 2020.  The increase was primarily attributable to increased activity for the ongoing clinical trials for the Phase 2 registrational portion of TRIDENT-1, the Phase 1 trial for TPX-0022 and the Phase 1/2 trial TPX-0046. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase in future periods with the advancement of our clinical programs and additional future clinical trials and discovery efforts.  

General and administrative expenses

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, general and administrative expenses decreased by $11.3 million from $48.4 million to $37.2 million compared to the six months ended June 30, 2020.  The decrease was primarily attributable to a one time charge to non-cash stock-based compensation expense and cash severance incurred in the first half of 2020 for $32.6 million.  This decrease was partially offset by increased expenses associated with higher personnel-related expenses as a result of increased employee headcount and professional fees for legal and accounting services. In addition, we recorded $5.6 million attributable to a one time charge to non-cash stock-based compensation associated with the resignations of two board members in the first half of 2021.  We recorded a $1.6 million foreign tax withholding expense as a result of the upfront payment from Zai received during the first half of 2021 under the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will continue to increase as a result of increased headcount, expanded infrastructure, higher consulting, accounting and investor relations costs, and director and officer insurance premiums associated with being a public company.

Other Income, Net

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, other income, net decreased by $2.2 million from $3.1 million to $0.9 million compared to the six months ended June 30, 2020. The decreases were primarily due to lower overall yields on our marketable securities and money market funds.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

At June 30, 2021, we had $1,077.8 million of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities compared to $1,122.5 million at December 31, 2020. Based on our current and anticipated level of operations, we believe that our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities as of June 30, 2021, will be sufficient to fund current operations for at least one year from the date that this Quarterly Report is filed with the SEC.

Since inception, our operations have been financed primarily through the sale of common stock and convertible preferred stock. Through June 30, 2021, we received net proceeds of approximately $1,330.4 million from the issuance of common stock and convertible preferred stock and through stock option exercises.

In August 2020, we entered into the ATM facility, under which we may offer and sell, from time to time, at our sole discretion, up to $250.0 million shares of our common stock.  As of June 30, 2021, we had not yet sold any shares of our common stock under the ATM facility.

Since inception, we have primarily devoted our resources to build infrastructure, conduct research and development, including clinical trials, perform business and financial planning, and raise capital. To fund future operations, we will need to raise significant additional capital. The amount and timing of future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the timing and results of our ongoing development activities, the potential expansion of our current development programs, potential new development programs and related general and administrative support. We may seek to obtain additional financing in the future through equity or debt financings or other sources, such as potential collaboration agreements. We cannot make assurances that anticipated additional financing will be available to us on favorable terms, or at all. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve and has already resulted in a significant disruption of global financial markets.  Our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and further disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from the pandemic. If such further disruption occurs, we could experience an inability to access additional capital, which could in the future negatively affect our capacity to fund research and development programs, including discovery research, preclinical and clinical development activities and activities to support

24

 


 

commercialization. Although we have previously been successful in obtaining financing through our equity securities offerings, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in the future.

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our sources and uses of cash for each of the periods presented (in thousands):

 

 

 

Six months ended June 30,

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

Statement of Cash Flows Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(58,069

)

 

 

(51,162

)

 

Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities

 

 

(87,203

)

 

 

121,317

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

19,020

 

 

 

352,171

 

 

Operating Activities

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, operating activities used approximately $58.1 million primarily due to the Phase 2 registrational portion of TRIDENT-1, the Phase 1 clinical trial for TPX-0022 and Phase 1/2 clinical trial for TPX-0046. Cash used to fund operations is partially offset from the cash received from the $25.0 million upfront payment under the Zai TPX-0022 Agreement and $5.0 million of development milestones earned under the Zai Repotrectinib Agreement.    

During the six months ended June 30, 2020, operating activities used approximately $51.2 million primarily due to the Phase 2 registrational portion of TRIDENT-1, the Phase 1 trial for TPX-0022 and Phase 1/2 trial for TPX-0046.

Investing Activities

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, investing activities used approximately $87.2 million primarily resulting from the purchases (net of maturities) of our marketable securities.

During the six months ended June 30, 2020, investing activities provided approximately $121.3 million primarily resulting from the maturities (net of purchases) of our marketable securities.

Financing Activities

During the six months ended June 30, 2021, financing activities provided approximately $19.0 million, primarily resulting from option exercises.

During the six months ended June 30, 2020, financing activities provided approximately $352.2 million primarily resulting from our public offering in May 2020.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

During the periods presented, we did not have, nor do we currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined under SEC rules.

Contractual Obligations

The table below presents a summary of our contractual obligations as of June 30, 2021 (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments Due By Period Total

 

Less Than

1 Year

 

1 to 3

Years

 

4 to 5

Years

 

More Than

5 Years

 

Operating leases (1)

$

173,508

 

$

3,623

 

$

13,385

 

$

26,189

 

$

130,311

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

 


 

 

(1) Consists of the minimum lease payments and includes approximately 185,000 square feet of office and laboratory space in San Diego, California 92121 for our future principal executive offices and laboratory space for research and development and related use. The term of the lease is approximately 11 years and nine months and is expected to commence March 2023. The base rent will be $1.0 million per month.  Operating expenses associated with our leased premises are not included in table above.

We enter into contracts in the normal course of business with various third parties for clinical trials, preclinical research studies and testing, manufacturing and other services and products for operating purposes. These contracts provide for termination upon notice. Payments due upon cancellation consist only of payments for services provided or expenses incurred, including non-cancellable obligations of our service providers, up to the date of cancellation. These payments are not included in the table of contractual obligations above.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Please refer to Note 2 to our unaudited condensed financial statements appearing under Part 1, Item 1 for a discussion of new accounting standards updates that may impact us.

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily relate to equity price risk and interest rate fluctuations. Substantially all of our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities are held at two financial institutions. Due to the financial strength of the depository institutions, we believe these financial institutions represent a minimal credit risk. Cash amounts held at financial institutions are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to $250,000. At June 30, 2021, cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities totaling $1,077.6 million are either not subject to FDIC insurance, or exceed the FDIC insured limit. Our cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities are invested in short term, high grade securities, and as a result, we believe represent a minimal credit risk.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our periodic and current reports that we file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our President and Chief Executive Officer (our principal executive officer) and Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (our principal financial officer), as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognized that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable and not absolute assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In reaching a reasonable level of assurance, management was required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. In addition, the design of any system of controls is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions; over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

As of June 30, 2021, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act. Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level as of June 30, 2021.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting during our most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, we have not experienced any material impact to our internal controls over financial reporting as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, including from employees working remotely. We are continually monitoring and assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our internal controls over financial reporting.

26

 


 

PART II—OTHER INFORMATION

We are not currently subject to any material legal proceedings. From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings or subject to claims incident to the ordinary course of business. Regardless of the outcome, such proceedings or claims can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of resources and other factors, and there can be no assurances that favorable outcomes will be obtained.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

 

RISK FACTORS SUMMARY

We face many risks and uncertainties, as more fully described in this section under the heading “Risk Factors.” Some of these risks and uncertainties are summarized below. The summary below does not contain all of the information that may be important to you, and you should read this summary together with the more detailed discussion of these risks and uncertainties contained in “Risk Factors.”

 

 

We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception and have not generated any revenue from product sales. We expect to incur continued losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

We are highly dependent on the success of our lead drug candidate, repotrectinib, which is currently in a Phase 2 potentially registrational clinical trial, and our other drug candidates which are in early clinical development. We have not successfully completed late-stage clinical trials or obtained regulatory approval for any drug candidate. We may never obtain approval for any of our drug candidates or achieve or sustain profitability.

 

Drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of repotrectinib or our other drug candidates.

 

If we experience delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our ongoing or planned clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approval could be delayed or prevented.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our TRIDENT-1 clinical trial and could adversely impact our other clinical trials and business.

 

Adverse side effects or other safety risks associated with our drug candidates could delay or preclude approval, cause us to suspend or discontinue clinical trials or abandon further development, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.

 

The development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products are subject to extensive regulation, and we may not obtain regulatory approvals for repotrectinib or any other drug candidates, on a timely basis or at all.

 

If we are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient patent protection for our drug candidates, or if the scope of the patent protection is not sufficiently broad, third parties, including our competitors, could develop and commercialize products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to commercialize our drug candidates successfully may be adversely affected.

 

The incidence and prevalence for target patient populations of our drug candidates have not been established with precision. If the market opportunities for our drug candidates are smaller than we estimate or if any approval that we obtain is based on a narrower definition of the patient population, our revenue potential and ability to achieve profitability will be adversely affected.

 

The trading price of our common stock has been and may in the future be volatile and fluctuate substantially.

 

 

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. In addition to the information included or incorporated by reference in this Quarterly Report and in our other public filings, you should carefully consider the risks described below in evaluating our company. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be harmed by any of these risks. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks not currently known to us or other factors not perceived by us to present significant risks to our business at this time also may impair our business operations. We have marked with an asterisk (*) those risk factors that reflect changes from the risk factors previously disclosed in Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 1, 2021.

27

 


 

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception and have not generated any revenue from product sales. We expect to incur continued losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.*

Investment in drug discovery and development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We are a clinical-stage precision oncology biopharmaceutical company that was formed in 2013 and commenced operations in 2014. We have no approved products for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. We continue to incur significant research and development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations. As a result, we have never been profitable and have incurred losses in each year since inception. For the prior years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we reported net losses of $157.3 million and $72.1 million, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, we reported net losses of $91.8 million and $92.2 million, respectively. As of June 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $372.0 million.

Since our inception, we have focused substantially all of our efforts and financial resources on the research and development of our lead drug candidate, repotrectinib, and our other drug candidates. To date, we have funded our operations primarily with proceeds from sales of shares of our common stock and convertible preferred stock. From inception through June 30, 2021, we received an aggregate of $1,321.1 million in net proceeds from such sales. As of June 30, 2021, our cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities were $1,077.8 million.

We expect to incur increasing levels of operating losses for the foreseeable future, particularly as we advance repotrectinib, and our other drug candidates through clinical development. Our prior losses, combined with expected future losses, have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. We expect our research and development expenses to significantly increase in connection with our drug discovery activities and our ongoing and planned clinical trials, and any other clinical trials or development activities we may choose to pursue. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for repotrectinib or any of our other drug candidates, we will incur significant sales, marketing and outsourced manufacturing expenses in connection with the commercialization of these drug candidates.  As a result, we expect to continue to incur significant and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when we will become profitable, if at all. Even if we do become profitable, we may not be able to sustain or increase our profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Our ability to become profitable depends upon our ability to generate revenue. To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and we do not know when, or if, we will generate any such revenue. If we enter into license or collaboration agreements for any of our drug candidates or intellectual property, such as the Zai License Agreements, we may generate revenue in the future from payments as a result of such license or collaboration agreements. Unless and until we are able to generate revenue from future product sales, we expect that our revenue, if any, will be derived primarily from the Zai License Agreements, as well as any collaborations or additional license agreements that we may enter into in the future. We do not expect to generate significant revenue unless and until we obtain marketing approval for, and begin to sell, repotrectinib or another drug candidate. Our ability to generate revenue depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:

 

 

successfully complete the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1;

 

 

initiate and successfully complete all safety, pharmacokinetic and other studies required to obtain U.S. and foreign marketing approval for repotrectinib as a treatment for patients with ROS1+ advanced NSCLC and patients with NTRK+ advanced solid tumors;

 

 

initiate and successfully complete other later-stage clinical trials that meet their clinical endpoints, including our planned Phase 2 clinical trial of TPX-0022;

 

 

obtain favorable results from our clinical trials and apply for and obtain marketing approval for repotrectinib or another drug candidate;

 

 

establish licenses, collaborations or strategic partnerships that may increase the value of our programs;

 

 

successfully manufacture or contract with others to manufacture repotrectinib and our other drug candidates;

 

 

establish and maintain a sales, marketing, market access, patient services and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval, including, assisting our licensee Zai in its efforts to develop and, if approved, commercialize repotrectinib and TPX-0022 in Greater China, and/or entering into additional licenses and/or collaborations with third parties;

 

 

obtain, maintain, protect and defend our intellectual property portfolio; and

28

 


 

 

 

 

achieve market acceptance of repotrectinib and our other drug candidates in the medical community and with third-party payors.

To become and remain profitable, we must succeed in designing, developing and eventually commercializing products that generate significant revenue. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing preclinical testing and clinical trials for our drug candidates, designing additional drug candidates, establishing arrangements with third parties for the manufacture of clinical supplies of our drug candidates, obtaining marketing approval for our drug candidates and manufacturing, marketing and selling any products for which we may obtain marketing approval. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenues that are significant enough to achieve profitability.

In cases where we are successful in obtaining regulatory approval to market one or more of our drug candidates, our revenue will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval, the accepted price for the product, the ability to obtain coverage and reimbursement, and whether we own the commercial rights for that territory. If the number of our addressable patients is not as significant as we estimate, the indication approved by regulatory authorities is narrower than we expect, or the treatment population is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenue from sales of such products, even if approved.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses we will incur or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. If we decide to or are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or other regulatory authorities to perform studies or clinical trials in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in establishing appropriate manufacturing arrangements for, in initiating or completing our current and planned clinical trials for, or in the development of, any of our drug candidates, our expenses could increase materially and profitability could be further delayed.

Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would depress the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts, diversify our product offerings or even continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

We will require substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital on favorable terms when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research or drug development programs or any future commercialization efforts.*

We expect our expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we advance our lead drug candidate, repotrectinib, TPX-0022, and our other drug candidates through clinical development and further develop our pipeline. We expect increased expenses as we continue our research and development, initiate additional clinical trials, and seek marketing approval for repotrectinib and our other drug candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution. Furthermore, we expect to continue to incur significant costs associated with operating as a public company.

In addition, our drug candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of products that we do not expect to be commercially available for sale for at least the next several years, if ever, and such funds, if raised, may not be sufficient to enable us to continue to implement our business strategy. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on favorable terms, or at all. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve and has already resulted in a significant disruption of global financial markets. Our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and further disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from the pandemic. If such further disruption deepens, we could experience an inability to access additional capital. Further, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on favorable terms, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research and development programs, our commercialization plans or other operations. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities as of June 30, 2021, will be sufficient to enable us to fund our operating expenses for at least the next 12 months. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Changes beyond our control may occur that would cause us to use our available capital before that time, including changes in and progress of our drug development activities and changes in regulation. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

 

the progress and results of our Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1, our Phase 1/2 pediatric study of repotrectinib and any other additional clinical trials evaluating repotrectinib;

 

29

 


 

 

 

the scope, rate of progress, results and costs of drug design, preclinical development, and clinical trials for the other drug candidates in our pipeline, including TPX-0022, TPX-0046 and TPX-0131;

 

 

the extent to which we develop, in-license or acquire other pipeline drug candidates or technologies and associated intellectual property rights;

 

 

the number and development requirements of other drug candidates that we may pursue, and other indications for our current drug candidates that we may pursue;

 

 

the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our drug candidates and any companion diagnostics we may pursue;

 

 

the scope and costs of making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, or establishing manufacturing capabilities, for both clinical and commercial supplies of our drug candidates;

 

 

the cost associated with commercializing any approved drug candidates, including to establish sales and marketing capabilities;

 

 

the cost associated with completing any post-marketing studies or trials required by the FDA or other regulatory authorities;

 

 

the revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of repotrectinib, if approved, or our other pipeline drug candidates that receive marketing approval;

 

 

the achievement of milestones or occurrence of other developments that trigger payments, including, without limitation, milestone or royalty payments, to us under our Zai License Agreements or any collaboration or other license agreements that we may enter into in the future, if any;

 

 

the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims that we may become subject to; and

 

 

to the extent we pursue strategic collaborations, including additional collaborations to commercialize repotrectinib or any of our other drug candidates, our ability to establish and maintain collaborations on favorable terms, if at all.

We will require additional capital to complete our planned clinical development programs for our current drug candidates to obtain regulatory approval. Any additional capital-raising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our current and future drug candidates, if approved.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or drug candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements. We do not currently have any committed external source of funds. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making acquisitions or capital expenditures or declaring dividends. In August 2020, we entered into the ATM facility, under which we may offer and sell, from time to time, at our sole discretion, up to $250.0 million shares of our common stock.  As of June 30, 2021, we had not yet sold any shares of our common stock under the ATM facility.

If we raise additional funds through additional collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or drug candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings or other arrangements when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our research, product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to third parties to develop and market drug candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

30

 


 

Risks Related to the Design and Development of Our Drug Candidates

We are highly dependent on the success of our lead drug candidate, repotrectinib, which is currently in a Phase 2 potentially registrational clinical trial, and our other drug candidates which are in early clinical development. We have not successfully completed late-stage clinical trials or obtained regulatory approval for any drug candidate. We may never obtain approval for any of our drug candidates or achieve or sustain profitability.*

Our future success is highly dependent on our ability to obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize our lead product candidate, repotrectinib, and our other drug candidates which are in earlier stages of development. We currently have no products that are approved for sale. Our Phase 2 registrational portion of our TRIDENT-1 clinical trial for our lead drug candidate, repotrectinib, is ongoing and our other drug candidates currently in clinical trials, are only in Phase 1 studies. There can be no assurance that repotrectinib or our other drug candidates in development will achieve success in their clinical trials or obtain regulatory approval.

Our ability to generate product revenues, which we do not expect will occur for many years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of repotrectinib or other drug candidates in development. The success of our drug candidates, including repotrectinib, will depend on several factors, including the following:

 

 

successful completion of preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

 

acceptance of investigation new drug (IND) submissions by the FDA or other clinical trial or similar applications from foreign regulatory authorities for future clinical trials for our current or any future pipeline drug candidates;

 

 

timely and successful enrollment of patients in, and completion of, clinical trials with favorable results;

 

 

demonstration of safety, efficacy and acceptable risk-benefit profiles of our drug candidates to the satisfaction of the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies;

 

 

our ability, or that of our collaborators, to develop and obtain clearance or approval of companion diagnostics, on a timely basis, or at all;

 

 

receipt and related terms of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities, including the completion of any required post-marketing studies or trials;

 

 

raising additional funds necessary to complete clinical development of and commercialize our drug candidates;

 

 

obtaining and maintaining patent, trade secret and other intellectual property protection and regulatory exclusivity for our drug candidates;

 

 

making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, or establishing manufacturing capabilities, for both clinical and commercial supplies of our drug candidates;

 

 

developing and implementing marketing and reimbursement strategies;

 

 

establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and launching commercial sales of our products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others such as Zai, our licensee for repotrectinib and TPX-0022 in Greater China;

 

 

acceptance of our products, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;

 

 

effectively competing with other therapies;

 

 

obtaining and maintaining third-party payor coverage and adequate reimbursement;

 

 

protecting and enforcing our rights in our intellectual property portfolio; and

 

 

maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of the products following approval.

Many of these factors are beyond our control, and it is possible that none of our drug candidates will ever obtain regulatory approval even if we expend substantial time and resources seeking such approval. If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in

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a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates, which would materially harm our business. For example, our business could be harmed if results of our clinical trials of repotrectinib or our other drug candidates vary adversely from our expectations.

Our assumptions about the EXP-1 cohort to support a potential new drug application (NDA) for the treatment of patients with ROS1+ metastatic NSCLC who have not been treated with a ROS1 TKI may not be accurate.  We held a Type B meeting with the FDA in April 2021 during which we received feedback on next steps toward a potential NDA submission for repotrectinib for the treatment of  ROS1+ metastatic NSCLC that has not been treated with a ROS1 TKI.  The FDA’s guidance at that meeting may be subject to change, including on the basis of future topline results from this cohort.  A change in the assumptions or FDA requirements for NDA acceptance for filing and approval may delay our development timelines.

Drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of repotrectinib or our other drug candidates.*

We currently have four drug candidates in clinical development, and the risk of failure is high. We are unable to predict when or if our drug candidates will prove effective or safe in humans or will obtain marketing approval. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any drug candidate, we must complete preclinical development and then conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our drug candidates in humans. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to the outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim or preliminary results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. In particular, the small number of patients and limited geographies in our early clinical trials may make the results of these trials less predictive of the outcome of later clinical trials. Although we have observed encouraging preliminary overall response rates (ORR) in the Phase 1 portion of our ongoing TRIDENT-1 clinical trial of repotrectinib, the primary objectives were to determine the safety, tolerability and maximum tolerated dose of repotrectinib and to determine a recommended Phase 2 dose and not to demonstrate efficacy. The assessments of efficacy from this portion of the clinical trial were not designed to demonstrate statistical significance and may not be predictive of the results of further clinical trials of repotrectinib.  Additionally, the early interim data we reported from the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1 in August 2020 and in January 2021 was only physician assessed data from a small subset of patients and may not be predictive of the final results of the trial. The preliminary interim data we reported from both our TPX-0022 Phase 1 SHIELD-1 clinical trial in October 2020 and our TPX-0046 Phase 1 SWORD-1 clinical trial in April 2021, were only physician assessed data from the initial patients enrolled in the dose escalation portions of each trial and may not be predictive of the final results of the trials or of any further trials of TPX-0022 or TPX-0046.

We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to obtain marketing approval or commercialize our drug candidates, including:

 

 

regulators or institutional review boards (IRBs)/ethics committees (ECs) may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;

 

 

we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites;

 

 

clinical trials for our drug candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials, delay clinical trials or abandon product development programs;

 

 

the number of patients required for clinical trials for our drug candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate, participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate or the duration of these clinical trials may be longer than we anticipate;

 

 

competition for clinical trial participants from investigational and approved therapies may make it more difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials;

 

 

we or third-party collaborators may fail to obtain the clearance or approval of companion diagnostic tests, if required, on a timely basis, or at all;

 

 

our third-party contractors may fail to meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all, or may fail to comply with regulatory requirements;

 

 

we may have to suspend or terminate clinical trials for our drug candidates for various reasons, including a finding by us or by a Data Monitoring Committee for a trial that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;

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our drug candidates may have undesirable or unexpected side effects or other unexpected characteristics, causing us or our investigators, regulators or IRBs/ECs to suspend or terminate the trials;

 

 

the cost of clinical trials for our drug candidates may be greater than we anticipate;

 

 

the supply or quality of our drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials for our drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate and result in delays or suspension of our clinical trials; and

 

 

we or a diagnostic development partner may fail to receive regulatory approval of a companion diagnostic for use with a marketed product.

Our product development costs will increase if we experience delays in preclinical studies or clinical trials or in obtaining marketing approvals. We do not know if any of our planned preclinical studies or clinical trials will begin in a timely basis or at all. We do not know whether any of our ongoing clinical trials will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. For example, the FDA may place a partial or full clinical hold on, any of our clinical trials for a variety of reasons. In February 2018, we received a Deficiency–Potential Hold Issues letter from the FDA stating that the number of patients treated in the Phase 1 portion of TRIDENT-1 exceeded the protocol-specified dose escalation enrollment plan. Additionally, the Development Safety Update Report (DSUR) and the Investigator’s Brochure (IB) had not been updated with available clinical safety information. Following discussion with the FDA, our IND was placed on partial clinical hold pending the submission of an amended protocol, an updated DSUR and updated IB. The partial clinical hold was removed on June 29, 2018 after the requested documents were revised and TRIDENT-1 resumed patient enrollment.

Significant preclinical or clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our drug candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates and may harm our business and results of operations.

Any delays in the commencement or completion, or termination or suspension, of our ongoing, planned or future clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects.*

Before we can initiate clinical trials of a drug candidate in any indication, we must submit the results of preclinical studies to the FDA along with other information, including information about the drug candidate’s chemistry, manufacturing and controls and our proposed clinical trial protocol, as part of an IND or similar regulatory filing.

Before obtaining marketing approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, for the sale of repotrectinib or any other drug candidate in any indication, we must conduct extensive clinical studies to demonstrate safety and efficacy. Clinical testing is expensive, time consuming and uncertain as to outcome. In addition, we expect to rely in part on preclinical, clinical and quality data generated by our CROs and other third parties for regulatory submissions for our drug candidates. While we have or will have agreements governing these third parties’ services, we have limited influence over their actual performance. If these third parties do not make data available to us, or, if applicable, make regulatory submissions in a timely manner, in each case pursuant to our agreements with them, our development programs may be significantly delayed and we may need to conduct additional studies or collect additional data independently. In either case, our development costs would increase. We will require the acceptance by the FDA of an IND prior to initiating any clinical trials in the United States for any future combination studies of any of our drug candidates, or for any of our future potential drug candidates. The FDA may require us to conduct additional preclinical studies for any drug candidate before it allows us to initiate clinical trials under any IND, which may lead to additional delays and increase the costs of our preclinical development programs.

Any delays in the commencement or completion of our ongoing, planned or future clinical trials could significantly affect our product development costs. We do not know whether our planned trials will begin on time or at all, or be completed on schedule, if at all. The commencement and completion of clinical trials can be delayed for a number of reasons, including delays related to:

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities disagreeing as to the design or implementation of our clinical trials or with our recommended dose for any of our pipeline programs;

 

 

obtaining FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities’ authorization to commence a trial or reaching a consensus with regulatory authorities on trial design;

 

 

failing to obtain regulatory clearance or approval of companion diagnostics we may use to identify patients for enrollment in our clinical trials;

 

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any failure or delay in reaching an agreement with CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

 

 

obtaining approval from one or more IRBs/ECs;

 

 

IRBs/ECs refusing to approve, suspending or terminating the trial at an investigational site, precluding enrollment of additional subjects, or withdrawing their approval of the trial;

 

 

changes to clinical trial protocol;

 

 

clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;

 

 

failing to manufacture or obtain sufficient quantities of drug candidate or, if applicable, combination therapies for use in clinical trials;

 

 

patients failing to enroll or remain in our trial at the rate we expect, or failing to return for post-treatment follow-up, including patients failing to remain in our trials due to movement restrictions, health reasons or otherwise resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

 

patients choosing an alternative treatment, or participating in competing clinical trials;

 

 

lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial;

 

 

patients experiencing severe or unexpected drug-related adverse effects;

 

 

occurrence of serious adverse events in trials of the same class of agents conducted by other companies;

 

 

selecting or being required to use clinical end points that require prolonged periods of clinical observation or analysis of the resulting data;

 

 

a facility manufacturing our drug candidates or any of their components being ordered by the FDA to temporarily or permanently shut down due to violations of current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) regulations or other applicable requirements, or infections or cross-contaminations of drug candidates in the manufacturing process;

 

 

interruptions to operations of clinical sites, manufacturers, suppliers, or other vendors from a health epidemic or pandemic such as COVID-19;

 

 

any changes to our manufacturing process that may be necessary or desired;

 

 

third-party clinical investigators losing the licenses or permits necessary to perform our clinical trials, not performing our clinical trials on our anticipated schedule or consistent with the clinical trial protocol, good clinical practices (GCP) or other regulatory requirements;

 

 

us, or our third-party contractors not performing data collection or analysis in a timely or accurate manner or improperly disclosing data prematurely or otherwise in violation of a clinical trial protocol; or

 

 

third-party contractors becoming debarred or suspended or otherwise penalized by the FDA or other government or regulatory authorities for violations of regulatory requirements, in which case we may need to find a substitute contractor, and we may not be able to use some or all of the data produced by such contractors in support of our marketing applications.

We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs/ECs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by a Data Monitoring Committee for such trial or by the FDA. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a pharmaceutical, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. In addition, changes in regulatory requirements and policies may occur, and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols to comply with these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit our clinical trial protocols to IRBs/ECs for reexamination, which may impact the costs, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial.

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Certain of our scientific advisors or consultants who have received compensation from us are investigators for our clinical trials. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA. Although we believe our existing relationships are within the FDA’s guidelines, the FDA may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected interpretation of the study. The FDA may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of repotrectinib or other drug candidates. If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of repotrectinib or any other drug candidate, the commercial prospects of such drug candidate will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues will be delayed. Moreover, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues, which may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects significantly.

If we experience delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our ongoing or planned clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approval could be delayed or prevented.*

We may not be able to initiate or continue our ongoing or planned clinical trials for our drug candidates if we are unable to identify and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA. In addition, some of our competitors may have planned or ongoing clinical trials or expanded access programs for approved and/or investigational drugs that would treat the same patients as repotrectinib or our other drug candidates, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials may instead enroll in our competitors’ clinical trials or expanded access programs. This is relevant for our development of repotrectinib for the treatment of patients with ROS1+ advanced NSCLC and NTRK+ advanced solid tumors, development of TPX-0022 for the treatment of MET+ advanced solid tumors, development of TPX-0046 for the treatment of patients with RET+ advanced solid tumors, and our development of TPX-0131 for the treatment of patients with ALK+ NSCLC, indications for which approved and/or investigational drugs are competing for clinical trial participants. Patient enrollment is also affected by other factors, including:

 

 

severity of the disease under investigation;

 

 

 

our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators of appropriate competencies and experience;

 

 

the incidence and prevalence of our target indications;

 

 

clinicians’ and patients’ awareness of, and perceptions as to the potential advantages and risks of our drug candidates in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;

 

 

invasive procedures required to enroll patients and to obtain evidence of the drug candidate’s performance during the clinical trial;

 

 

availability and efficacy of approved medications for the disease under investigation;

 

 

eligibility criteria defined in the protocol for the trial in question;

 

 

the ability of our companion diagnostics to identify patients;

 

 

the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

 

 

efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;

 

 

whether we are subject to a partial or full clinical hold on any of our clinical trials;

 

 

reluctance of physicians to encourage patient participation in clinical trials;

 

 

the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment;

 

 

our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents;

 

 

proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients, and

 

 

our ability to timely activate clinical trial sites during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

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Our inability to enroll and retain a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs, which would cause the value of our company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our TRIDENT-1 clinical trial and could adversely impact our other clinical trials and business.*

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and in other countries in which we have planned or active clinical trial sites and where our third party manufacturers operate, could cause significant disruptions that could severely impact our business and clinical trials, including:

 

delays or difficulties in screening and enrolling and retaining patients in our clinical trials;

 

 

delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;

 

 

diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of our clinical trials;

 

 

inability or unwillingness of subjects to travel to the clinical trial sites;

 

 

delays or difficulties in data collection and analysis and other related activities;

 

 

decreased implementation of protocol required clinical trial activities and quality of source data verification at clinical trial sites;

 

 

interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others;

 

 

limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our clinical trials and our other research and development activities, including because of sickness of employees or their families or mitigation measures such as lock-downs and social distancing;

 

 

delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities to initiate our planned clinical trials;

 

 

delays in clinical sites receiving the supplies and materials needed to conduct our clinical trials;

 

 

interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials, such as investigational drug product used in our clinical trials;

 

 

changes in local regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 pandemic which may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, which may result in unexpected costs, delays, or to discontinue the clinical trials altogether;

 

 

delays in necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government employees;

 

 

refusal of regulatory authorities such as FDA or EMA to accept data from clinical trials in affected geographies; and

 

 

adverse impacts on global economic conditions which could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition, including impairing our ability to raise capital when needed.

Such disruptions could impede, delay, limit or prevent completion of our ongoing clinical trials and preclinical studies or commencement of new clinical trials and ultimately lead to the delay or denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates, which would seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. We are in close contact with our CROs and clinical sites as we seek to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on our studies and current timelines. Measures we have taken in response to COVID-19, include where feasible, conducting remote clinical trial site activations and data monitoring, enabling patients to have routine tests conducted closer to home, allowing trial sites to evaluate certain patients remotely, in compliance with their local procedures and direct-to-patient study drug shipping. Such greater dependency on electronic monitoring could prove to be

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less reliable and could increase data privacy and cybersecurity risks. However, despite these efforts, we have experienced some temporary delays or disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular with respect to activation of additional clinical trial sites and patient screening and enrollment. We may also experience delays or disruptions in trial data collection and analysis.  These delays could have an adverse impact on our timelines and our business. If patients drop out of our trials, miss scheduled doses or follow-up visits or otherwise fail to follow trial protocols, or if our trials are otherwise disputed due to COVID-19 or actions taken to slow its spread, the integrity of data from our trials may be compromised or not accepted by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, which would represent a significant setback for the applicable program and could have an adverse impact on our business. The COVID-19 pandemic could also affect the business of the FDA, EMA or other health authorities, which could result in delays in meetings related to planned or completed clinical trials and ultimately of reviews and approvals of our product candidates. The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions and social distancing in the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in the United States and other countries to contain and treat the disease.

Adverse side effects or other safety risks associated with repotrectinib, TPX-0022 or our other drug candidates could delay or preclude approval, cause us to suspend or discontinue clinical trials or abandon further development, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.*

Results of clinical trials of our drug candidates could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of side effects or unexpected characteristics. Undesirable side effects caused by our drug candidates could result in the delay, suspension or termination of clinical trials by us or the FDA for a number of reasons. Additionally, due to the high mortality rates of the cancers for which we are initially pursuing development and the pretreated nature of many patients in our clinical trials of our drug candidates, a material percentage of patients in these clinical trials may die during a trial, which could impact development of our drug candidates. If we elect or are required to delay, suspend or terminate any clinical trial, the commercial prospects of our drug candidates will be harmed and our ability to generate product revenues from this drug candidate will be delayed or eliminated. Serious adverse events observed in clinical trials could hinder or prevent market acceptance of our drug candidates. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations significantly.

Moreover, if our drug candidates are associated with undesirable side effects in clinical trials or have characteristics that are unexpected, we may elect to abandon or limit their development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective, which may limit the commercial expectations for our drug candidates, if approved. We may also be required to modify our study plans based on findings in clinical trials of our drug candidates. Many drugs that initially showed promise in early stage testing have later been found to cause side effects that prevented further development. In addition, regulatory authorities may draw different conclusions or require additional testing to confirm these determinations. Zai has rights to develop and commercialize products containing repotrectinib and products containing TPX-0022 within Greater China. If serious adverse events occur during any clinical trials Zai conducts with respect to repotrectinib or TPX-0022, the FDA and other regulatory authorities may delay, limit or deny approval of repotrectinib or TPX-0022 or require us to conduct additional clinical trials as a condition to marketing approval, which would increase our costs.

It is possible that as we test our drug candidates in larger, longer and more extensive clinical trials, including with different dosing regimens, or as the use of our drug candidates becomes more widespread following any regulatory approval, illnesses, injuries, discomforts and other adverse events that were observed in earlier trials, as well as conditions that did not occur or went undetected in previous trials, will be reported by patients. If such side effects become known later in development or upon approval, if any, such findings may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects significantly.

In addition, if any of our drug candidates receive marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by treatment with such drug, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

 

 

regulatory authorities may withdraw approval of the drug;

 

 

we may be required to recall a product or change the way the drug is administered to patients;

 

 

regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, such as a “black box” warning or a contraindication, or issue safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product;

 

 

we may be required to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) or create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

 

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additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing or promotion of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component thereof;

 

 

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;

 

 

the drug could become less competitive; and

 

 

our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of our drug candidates, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available, and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.*

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary, interim or topline data from our clinical trials, such as the preliminary interim data from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 portions of our repotrectinib TRIDENT-1 clinical trial, from our TPX-0022 Phase 1 SHIELD-1 clinical trial and from the Phase 1 portion of our TPX-0046 Phase 1/2 SWORD-1 clinical trial. These interim updates are based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial.  For our TRIDENT-1 data updates in August 2020 and January 2021, we reported preliminary safety and efficacy data as assessed by trial investigators, or physician assessment, using standard RECIST v1.1 criteria. The primary endpoint of the study is ORR determined not by trial investigators but rather blinded independent central review (BICR) to limit any potential bias implemented by the treating physicians in the overall efficacy assessments. Published literature demonstrates that there is often a discordance between physician assessments and BICR assessments with the physician assessed overall response data often being higher than that by BICR.  There is a risk that the preliminary physician assessed TRIDENT-1 data we reported in August 2020 and in January 2021 could be materially different from the BICR assessed data.

We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the interim, preliminary and topline results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. In addition, we may report interim analyses of only certain endpoints rather than all endpoints. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Adverse changes between interim data and final data could significantly harm our business and prospects. Further, additional disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors in the future could result in volatility in the price of our common stock.

Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular drug candidate or product and our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is typically selected from a more extensive amount of available information. You or others may not agree with what we determine is the material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure, and any information we determine not to disclose may ultimately be deemed significant with respect to future decisions, conclusions, views, activities or otherwise regarding a particular drug, drug candidate or our business. If the preliminary or topline data that we report differ from late, final or actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, repotrectinib or any other drug candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we are unable to successfully develop companion diagnostic tests for our drug candidates that require such tests, or experience significant delays in doing so, we may not realize the full commercial potential of these drug candidates.*

We are developing or plan to develop, either by ourselves or with collaborators, companion diagnostic tests for our drug candidates for certain indications. To be successful, we or our collaborators will need to address a number of scientific, technical, regulatory and logistical challenges. We have no prior experience with medical device or diagnostic test development. If we choose to develop and seek FDA approval for companion diagnostic tests on our own, we will require additional personnel. We may rely on third parties for the design, development and manufacture of companion diagnostic tests for our therapeutic drug candidates that require such tests. If these parties are unable to successfully develop companion diagnostics for these therapeutic drug candidates, or

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experience delays in doing so, we may be unable to enroll enough patients for our current and planned clinical trials, the development of these therapeutic drug candidates may be adversely affected, these therapeutic drug candidates may not obtain marketing approval, and we may not realize the full commercial potential of any of these therapeutics that obtain marketing approval. We have developed a prototype companion diagnostic that is being used as a clinical trial assay to confirm the presence of ROS1+ or NTRK+ gene fusions in patients in the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1. We are also enrolling patients into the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1 based on the results of select laboratory developed tests (LDTs) and other tests used by the clinical sites. There is no guarantee that the results obtained from such LDTs or other tests will be consistent with the results obtained from our prototype companion diagnostic. Any inconsistency may result in inclusion of patients with false positive test results that could adversely impact the results of the clinical trial and adversely impact the development and approval of a companion diagnostic. We have selected a diagnostic partner to support development of the companion diagnostic and submission of a PMA application to the FDA. In May 2019, the FDA approved an investigational device exemption (IDE) for use of this clinical trial assay in the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1 and the assay was CE-marked under the In- Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Directive (IVDD) in Europe. An approved companion diagnostic may be required in order to obtain marketing approval of repotrectinib in patients with ROS1+ advanced NSCLC and patients with NTRK+ advanced solid tumors. Any failure to successfully develop this companion diagnostic may prevent us from ultimately seeking approval for repotrectinib in patients with ROS1+ advanced NSCLC and patients with NTRK+ advanced solid tumors. As a result, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed.

The failure to obtain required regulatory clearances or approvals for any companion diagnostic tests that we may pursue may prevent or delay approval of any of our drug candidates. Moreover, the commercial success of any of our drug candidates that require a companion diagnostic will be tied to the receipt of any required regulatory clearances or approvals and the continued availability of such tests.*

In connection with the clinical development of our drug candidates for certain indications, we may work with collaborators to develop or obtain access to companion diagnostic tests to identify appropriate patients for our drug candidates. We may rely on third parties for the development, testing and manufacturing of these companion diagnostics, the application for and receipt of any required regulatory clearances or approvals, and the commercial supply of these companion diagnostics. The FDA and foreign regulatory authorities regulate companion diagnostics as medical devices that will likely be subject to analytical and clinical validation studies in conjunction with the clinical trials for drug candidates, and which will require separate regulatory clearance or approval prior to commercialization. This process could include additional meetings with health authorities, such as a pre-submission meeting and the requirement to submit an IDE. In the case of a companion diagnostic that is designated as “significant risk device,” such as the clinical trial assay we are using in the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1, approval of an IDE by the FDA and IRB is required before such diagnostic is used in conjunction with the clinical trials for a corresponding drug candidate. In May 2019 the FDA approved an IDE for the clinical trial assay we are using in the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1. We or our third-party collaborators may fail to obtain the required regulatory clearances or approvals in the United States or in relevant geographies outside the United States, which could prevent or delay approval of our drug candidates in such geographies. In addition, the commercial success of any of our drug candidates that require a companion diagnostic will be tied to and dependent upon the receipt of required regulatory clearances or approvals and the continued ability of such third parties to make the companion diagnostic commercially available to us on reasonable terms in the relevant geographies.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular drug candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on drug candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on research programs and drug candidates that we identify for specific indications. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other drug candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and drug candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular drug candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that drug candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such drug candidate.

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We may not be successful in our efforts to design additional potential drug candidates.*

A key element of our strategy is to apply our knowledge and our understanding of the structure, biology and activity of kinase inhibitors to design drug candidates. The therapeutic design and development activities that we are conducting may not be successful in developing drug candidates that are useful in treating cancer or other diseases. Our research programs may initially show promise in identifying potential drug candidates, yet fail to yield drug candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons, including:

 

 

the research methodology used may not be successful in identifying potential drug candidates;

 

 

potential drug candidates may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be drugs that will obtain marketing approval or achieve market acceptance; or

 

 

potential drug candidates may not be effective in treating their targeted diseases.

Research programs to identify and design new drug candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources. We may choose to focus our efforts and resources on a drug discovery program or potential drug candidate that ultimately proves to be unsuccessful. We may also pursue opportunities to acquire or in-license additional businesses, technologies or drug candidates to complement or augment our existing drug discovery and development pipeline. If we are unable to identify or design suitable drug candidates for preclinical and clinical development, we will not be able to obtain revenues from the sale of products in future periods, which likely would result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely impact our stock price.

We may not be able to obtain or maintain orphan drug designation or exclusivity for our drug candidates.*

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as “orphan drugs.” Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug candidate as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or if the disease or condition affects more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a drug product available in the United States for the type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product.

Orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives, such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and user-fee waivers. Additionally, if a product that has orphan designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease or condition for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity. This means that the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug or biological product for the same indication for seven years, except in certain circumstances, including proving clinical superiority (i.e., another product is safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care) to the product with orphan exclusivity. Competitors, however, may receive approval of different products for the indication for which the orphan product has exclusivity, or obtain approval for the same product but for a different indication than that for which the orphan product has exclusivity. In addition, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be limited if we seek approval for an indication broader than the orphan-designated indication or may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective.

We have obtained orphan drug designations in the United States for use of repotrectinib in treatment of NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology and for use of TPX-0022 in treatment of gastric cancer, including gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. We may apply for similar designations in other geographies or for our other drug candidates in the future. Orphan drug status does not ensure that we will receive marketing exclusivity in a particular market, and we cannot assure you that any future application for orphan drug designation in any other geography or with respect to any other drug candidate will be granted. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug, nor gives the drug any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process.

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Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We rely, and intend to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and perform some of our research and preclinical studies. If these third parties do not satisfactorily carry out their contractual duties, fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements or do not meet expected deadlines, our development programs may be delayed or subject to increased costs or we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval, each of which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We do not have the ability to independently conduct all aspects of our preclinical testing or clinical trials ourselves. As a result, we are dependent on third parties to conduct our ongoing and planned clinical trials and other studies of repotrectinib and our other drug candidates. The timing of the initiation and completion of these studies and trials will therefore be partially controlled by such third parties and may result in delays to our development programs. Specifically, our CROs, clinical investigators and consultants play a significant role in the conduct of these trials and the subsequent collection and analysis of data. However, we will not be able to control all aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each clinical trial is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on the CROs and other third parties does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We and our CROs are required to comply with GCP requirements, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA for drug candidates in clinical development. Regulatory authorities enforce these GCP requirements through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, clinical trial investigators and clinical trial sites. If we or any of our CROs or clinical trial sites fail to comply with applicable GCP requirements, the data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable, and the FDA may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that, upon inspection, the FDA will determine that our clinical trials comply with GCPs. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP regulations. Our failure or the failure of third parties on whom we rely to comply with these regulations may require us to stop and/or repeat clinical trials, which would delay the marketing approval process.

There is no guarantee that any such CROs, clinical trial investigators or other third parties on which we rely will devote adequate time and resources to our development activities or perform as contractually required. If any of these third parties fail to meet expected deadlines, adhere to our clinical protocols or meet regulatory requirements, otherwise perform in a substandard manner, or terminate their engagements with us, the timelines for our development programs may be extended or delayed or our development activities may be suspended or terminated. If our clinical trial site terminates for any reason, we may experience the loss of follow-up information on subjects enrolled in such clinical trial unless we are able to transfer those subjects to another qualified clinical trial site, which may be difficult or impossible. In addition, certain of our scientific advisors or consultants who receive compensation from us are clinical trial investigators for our clinical trial. Although we believe our existing relationships are within the FDA’s guidelines, if these relationships and any related compensation result in perceived or actual conflicts of interest, or the FDA concludes that the financial relationship may have affected the interpretation of the trial, the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site may be questioned and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized, which could result in the delay or rejection of any marketing application we submit by the FDA. Any such delay or rejection could prevent us from commercializing repotrectinib or any other drug candidates.

Furthermore, these third parties may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other pharmaceutical product development activities that could harm our competitive position. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for repotrectinib or any other drug candidates and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our products.

Manufacturing pharmaceutical products is complex and subject to product loss for a variety of reasons. We contract with third parties for the manufacture of our drug candidates for preclinical testing and clinical trials and expect to continue to do so for commercialization. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We do not have any manufacturing facilities. We produce in our laboratory very small quantities of small molecules for evaluation in our research programs. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of our drug candidates for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacture if any of our drug candidates obtain marketing approval. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts. We rely heavily on manufacturers in China for starting materials for our drug candidates. Any delays or interruptions in the supply of starting materials for the manufacture of any of our drug candidates could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.  We currently have sufficient supply or plans for supply to meet our anticipated clinical development needs for repotrectinib, TPX-0022, TPX-0046 and TPX-0131 through 2021. However, depending on the length and ultimate impact of the

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COVID-19 pandemic, our suppliers could be adversely impacted, which may result in delays or disruptions in our current or future supply chain.

We may be unable to establish any agreements with third-party manufacturers or to do so on favorable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:

 

 

reliance on the third party for regulatory, compliance and quality assurance;

 

 

operations of our third-party manufacturers or suppliers could be disrupted by conditions unrelated to our business or operations, including the bankruptcy of the manufacturer or supplier or the issuance of an FDA Form 483 notice or warning letter;

 

 

the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party;

 

 

the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know how;

 

 

the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us;

 

 

carrier disruptions or increased costs that are beyond our control; and

 

 

failure to deliver our drugs under specified storage conditions and in a timely manner.

We have only limited supply arrangements in place with respect to our drug candidates, and these arrangements do not extend to commercial supply. We acquire many key materials on a purchase order basis. As a result, we do not have long-term committed arrangements with respect to our drug candidates and other materials. If we obtain marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, we will need to have established an agreement for commercial manufacture with a third party.

Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside of the United States. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers and suppliers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including clinical holds, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of drug candidates or products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our products. In addition, our third-party manufacturers and suppliers are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of waste products, and failure to comply with such laws and regulations could result in significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties for such third parties. Based on the severity of regulatory actions that may be brought against these third parties in the future, our clinical or commercial supply of drug and packaging and other services could be interrupted or limited, which could harm our business.

Our drug candidates and any products that we may develop may compete with other drug candidates and products for access to manufacturing facilities. As a result, we may not obtain access to these facilities on a priority basis or at all. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under cGMP regulations and that might be capable of manufacturing for us.

As we prepare for later-stage clinical trials and potential commercialization, we will need to take steps to increase the scale of production of our drug candidates. We have not yet scaled up the manufacturing process for any of our drug candidates. Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. If microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in our drug candidates or in the manufacturing facilities in which our drug candidates are made, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination.

Any performance failure on the part of our existing or future manufacturers could delay clinical development or marketing approval. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply or a second source for bulk drug substance. If our current contract manufacturers for preclinical and clinical materials cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace such manufacturers. Although we believe that there are several potential alternative manufacturers who could manufacture our drug candidates, we may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacement manufacturer or be able to reach agreement with any alternative manufacturer. Further, our third-party manufacturers may experience manufacturing or shipping difficulties due to resource constraints or as a result of natural disasters, labor disputes, unstable political environments, or public health epidemics such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak. If our current third-party manufacturers cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace such manufacturers and we may be unable to replace them on a timely basis or at all.

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our drug candidates or products may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any products that obtain marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.

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We may enter into collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of our drug candidates. If those collaborations, including, without limitation, our license arrangements with Zai for the development and commercialization of repotrectinib and TPX-0022 in Greater China, are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of these drug candidates.*

We currently have and may in the future seek third-party collaborators for the development and commercialization of some of our drug candidates on a selected basis. Our likely collaborators for any collaboration arrangements include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. For example, we have granted to Zai, a China and U.S.-based commercial stage biopharmaceutical company, rights to develop and commercialize products containing repotrectinib and products containing TPX-0022, in Greater China. Consequently, our ability to generate any revenues from repotrectinib or TPX-0022 in Greater China depends on our ability to maintain our collaborations with Zai. We have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that Zai will dedicate to these efforts. We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Our ability to reach a definitive agreement for any future collaboration we may seek, will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors.

To the extent we have, and if we do enter into any further such arrangements with any third parties, we will likely have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or commercialization of our drug candidates. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on our collaborators’ abilities and efforts to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. Collaborations involving our drug candidates, such as our collaborations with Zai, pose numerous risks to us, including the following:

 

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations and may not perform their obligations as expected;

 

 

collaborators may de-emphasize or not pursue development and commercialization of our drug candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus, including as a result of a sale or disposition of a business unit or development function, or available funding or external factors such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;

 

 

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a drug candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a drug candidate for clinical testing;

 

 

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products or drug candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;

 

 

a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to multiple products may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of our product relative to other products;

 

 

collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information and intellectual property in such a way as to invite litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings that could jeopardize or invalidate our proprietary information and intellectual property or expose us to potential litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings;

 

 

disputes may arise between the collaborators and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our products or drug candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;

 

 

collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable drug candidates;

 

 

collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of drug candidates in the most efficient manner or at all; and

 

 

if a collaborator of ours were to be involved in a business combination, the continued pursuit and emphasis on our product development or commercialization program could be delayed, diminished or terminated.

 

If our license arrangements with Zai, or any future license or collaboration we may enter into, if any, is not successful, our business, financial condition, results of operations, prospects and development and commercialization efforts may be adversely

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affected. Any termination or expiration of either of the Zai License Agreements, or any future license or collaboration we may enter into, if any, could adversely affect us financially or harm our business reputation, development and commercialization efforts.

Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Marketing of Our Drug Candidates and Other Legal
Compliance Matters

The development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products are subject to extensive regulation, and we may not obtain regulatory approvals for repotrectinib or any other drug candidates, on a timely basis or at all.

The clinical development, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, recordkeeping, advertising, promotion, export, import, marketing, distribution, adverse event reporting, including the submission of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, and other possible activities relating to our drug candidates are subject to extensive regulation. Marketing approval of drugs in the United States requires the submission of an NDA to the FDA and we are not permitted to market any drug candidate in the United States until we obtain approval from the FDA of the NDA for that product. An NDA must be supported by extensive clinical and preclinical data, as well as extensive information regarding pharmacology, chemistry, manufacturing and controls.

FDA approval of an NDA is not guaranteed, and the review and approval process is an expensive and uncertain process that may take several years. The FDA also has substantial discretion in the approval process. The number and types of preclinical studies and clinical trials that will be required for NDA approval varies depending on the drug candidate, the disease or the condition that the drug candidate is designed to treat and the regulations applicable to any particular drug candidate. For example, if successful, we believe that the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1 may be sufficient to support FDA approval of an NDA for repotrectinib, but the FDA may disagree with the sufficiency of our data and require additional clinical trials. Additionally, depending upon the results of the Phase 2 portion of TRIDENT-1, we may choose to seek Subpart H Accelerated Approval for repotrectinib, which would require completion of a confirmatory trial or trials to validate the clinical benefit of the drug. Despite the time and expense associated with preclinical studies and clinical trials, failure can occur at any stage. The results of preclinical and early clinical trials of repotrectinib or any other drug candidate may not be predictive of the results of our later-stage clinical trials.

Clinical trial failure may result from a multitude of factors including flaws in trial design, dose selection, placebo effect, patient enrollment criteria and failure to demonstrate favorable safety or efficacy traits, and failure in clinical trials can occur at any stage. Companies in the pharmaceutical industry frequently suffer setbacks in the advancement of clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials. Based upon negative or inconclusive results, we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or preclinical studies. In addition, data obtained from clinical trials are susceptible to varying interpretations, and regulators may not interpret our data as favorably as we do, which may further delay, limit or prevent marketing approval.

 

The FDA could delay, limit or deny approval of a drug candidate for many reasons, including because they:

 

 

may not deem our drug candidate to be adequately safe and effective as compared to available therapies;

 

 

may not agree that the data collected from preclinical studies and clinical trials are acceptable or sufficient to support the submission of an NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval, and may impose requirements for additional preclinical studies or clinical trials;

 

 

may determine that adverse events experienced by participants in clinical trials of our drug candidates represent an unacceptable level of risk;

 

 

may determine that population studied in the clinical trial may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure safety in the full population for which we seek approval;

 

 

may not accept clinical data from trials, which are conducted at clinical facilities or in countries where the standard of care is potentially different from that of the United States;

 

 

may disagree regarding the formulation, labeling and/or the specifications;

 

 

may not approve the manufacturing processes or facilities associated with our drug candidate;

 

 

may change approval policies or adopt new regulations; or

 

 

may not accept a submission due to, among other reasons, the content or formatting of the submission.

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Generally, public concern regarding the safety of pharmaceutical products could delay or limit our ability to obtain regulatory approval, result in the inclusion of unfavorable information in our labeling, or require us to undertake other activities that may entail additional costs. We have not obtained FDA approval for any product. This lack of experience may impede our ability to obtain FDA approval in a timely manner, if at all, for repotrectinib or any of our other drug candidates.

If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of repotrectinib or our other drug candidates, our commercial prospects will be harmed and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

A breakthrough therapy designation by the FDA for repotrectinib may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and it does not increase the likelihood that repotrectinib will receive marketing approval.

The FDA has granted breakthrough therapy designation to repotrectinib for the treatment of patients for the treatment of patients with ROS1+ metastatic NSCLC who have not been treated with a ROS1 TKI. We may also seek breakthrough therapy designation for other indications or for some of our other drug candidates. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. For drugs that have been designated as breakthrough therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development while minimizing the number of patients placed in ineffective control regimens.

Designation as a breakthrough therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe one of our drug candidates meets the criteria for designation as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. In any event, the receipt of a breakthrough therapy designation for a drug candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to other drugs and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even though we received breakthrough therapy designation for repotrectinib for the treatment of patients with ROS1+ metastatic NSCLC who have not been treated with a ROS1 TKI and even if one or more of our other drug candidates qualify as breakthrough therapies, the FDA may later decide that the drugs no longer meet the conditions for qualification.

A fast track designation by the FDA may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process for our drug candidates.*

The FDA has granted fast track designation to repotrectinib for the treatment of (i) NTRK+ advanced solid tumor patients who have progressed following treatment with at least one prior line of chemotherapy and one or two prior TRK TKIs, (ii) ROS1+ advanced NSCLC patients who have been previously treated with one prior line of platinum-based chemotherapy and one prior line of a ROS1 TKI and (iii) ROS1+ advanced NSCLC patients who have not been previously treated with a ROS1 TKI.  The FDA has also granted fast track designation to TPX-0022 for the treatment of patients with MET amplified advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma after prior chemotherapy.  We may also seek fast track designation for other indications or for some of our other drug candidates. If a drug is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and the drug demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this condition, the drug sponsor may apply for fast track designation. The FDA has broad discretion whether or not to grant this designation, so even if we believe a particular drug candidate is eligible for this designation, we cannot assure you that the FDA would decide to grant it. Even though we have received fast track designation for repotrectinib for the treatment of (i) NTRK+ advanced solid tumor patients who have progressed following treatment with at least one prior line of chemotherapy and one or two prior TRK TKIs, (ii) ROS1+ advanced NSCLC patients who have been previously treated with one prior line of platinum-based chemotherapy and one prior line of a ROS1 TKI and (iii) ROS1+ advanced NSCLC patients who have not been previously treated with a ROS1 TKI, and for TPX-0022 for the treatment of patients with MET amplified advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma after prior chemotherapy, or even if we receive fast track designation for other indications or for our other drug candidates, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval. The FDA may withdraw fast track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.

Our failure to obtain marketing approval in foreign jurisdictions would prevent our drug candidates from being marketed abroad, and any approval we are granted for our drug candidates in the United States would not assure approval of drug candidates in foreign jurisdictions.*

 

In order to market and sell our products in the European Union (EU) or other jurisdictions outside the United States, we must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. Zai is responsible for obtaining marketing approval for repotrectinib and TPX-0022 in Greater China. The approval procedure varies among countries and jurisdictions and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with

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obtaining FDA approval. We may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, it is required that the product be approved for reimbursement before the product can be approved for sale in that country. We may not be able to submit for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market.

 

Even if we obtain marketing approval for repotrectinib or any of our other drug candidates, the terms of approvals and ongoing regulation of our products may limit how we manufacture and market our products and compliance with such requirements may involve substantial resources, which could materially impair our ability to generate revenue.

Even if marketing approval of a drug candidate is granted, an approved product and its manufacturer and marketer are subject to ongoing review and extensive regulation, which may include the requirement to implement a REMS or to conduct costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product. We must also comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for any of our drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Promotional communications with respect to prescription drugs are subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions and must be consistent with the information in the product’s approved labeling. Thus, we will not be able to promote any products we develop for indications or uses for which they are not approved. In addition, manufacturers of approved products and those manufacturers’ facilities are required to ensure that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMPs, which include requirements relating to quality control and quality assurance as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation and reporting requirements. We and our contract manufacturers could be subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA to monitor and ensure compliance with cGMPs.

Accordingly, assuming we obtain marketing approval for one or more of our drug candidates, we and our contract manufacturers will continue to expend time, money and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production, product surveillance and quality control. If we are not able to comply with post-approval regulatory requirements, we could have the marketing approvals for our products withdrawn by regulatory authorities and our ability to market any future products could be limited, which could adversely affect our ability to achieve or sustain profitability. As a result, the cost of compliance with post-approval regulations may have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval will be subject to ongoing enforcement of post-marketing requirements and we could be subject to substantial penalties, including withdrawal of our product from the market, if we fail to comply with all regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our products, when and if any of them are approved.*

Any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval, along with the manufacturing processes, post-approval clinical data, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such product, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include, but are not limited to, restrictions governing promotion of an approved product, submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, cGMP requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, and requirements regarding drug distribution and the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping.

The FDA and other federal and state agencies, including the Department of Justice, closely regulate compliance with all requirements governing prescription drug products, including requirements pertaining to marketing and promotion of drugs in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling and manufacturing of products in accordance with cGMP requirements. For example, the FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability. Although physicians may prescribe products for off-label uses as the FDA and other regulatory agencies do not regulate a physician’s choice of drug treatment made in the physician’s independent medical judgment, they do restrict promotional communications from companies or their sales force with respect to off-label uses of products for which marketing clearance has not been issued. Companies may only share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with a product’s FDA approved labeling. Violations of such requirements may lead to investigations alleging violations of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) and other statutes, including the False Claims Act and other federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws as well as state consumer protection laws. Our failure to comply with all regulatory requirements, and later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with our products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes, may yield various results, including:

 

litigation involving patients taking our products;

 

 

restrictions on such products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes;

 

 

restrictions on the labeling or marketing of a product;

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restrictions on product distribution or use;

 

 

requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials;

 

 

warning or untitled letters;

 

 

withdrawal of the products from the market;

 

 

refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit;

 

 

recall of products;

 

 

fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues;

 

 

suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;

 

 

damage to relationships with any potential collaborators;

 

 

unfavorable press coverage and damage to our reputation;

 

 

refusal to permit the import or export of our products;

 

 

product seizure; or

 

 

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

Non-compliance by us, our licensee Zai or any future collaborator with regulatory requirements, including safety monitoring or pharmacovigilance, and with requirements related to the development of products for the pediatric population can also result in significant financial penalties.

Our relationships with customers, healthcare providers, and third-party payors may be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil and administrative penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.*

Healthcare providers, including physicians, and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare providers, third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, market, sell and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations, include the following:

 

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;

 

 

the federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the False Claims Act, which can be enforced by civil whistleblower or qui tam actions on behalf of the government, and the civil monetary penalties law, prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented false or fraudulent claims for payment by a federal government program, or making a false statement or record material to payment of a false claim or avoiding, decreasing or concealing an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

 

 

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which, among other things, imposes criminal and civil liability for executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or knowingly and willingly falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services;

 

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HIPAA as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), and their implementing regulations, which impose requirements on certain healthcare providers, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses, known as “covered entities,” and persons or entities that perform functions or activities that involve individually identifiable health information on behalf of a covered entity, known as “business associates,” and their covered subcontractors, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

 

 

the federal transparency requirements under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively the ACA), requires certain manufacturers of certain drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies to report to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) information related to payments and other transfers of value provided to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report information regarding payments and other transfers of value provided during the previous year to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, anesthesiologist assistants, certified registered nurse anesthetists and certified nurse midwives; and

 

 

analogous state laws and regulations such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws and analogous non-U.S. fraud and abuse laws and regulations, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers. Some state laws require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance regulations promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures, and some state laws require the reporting of information related to drug pricing. Some state and local laws require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives. Some state and non-U.S. laws that also govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, additional integrity reporting and oversight obligations, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to significant criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Recently enacted and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our drug candidates and decrease the prices we may obtain.*

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to profitably sell any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.

For example, the ACA was passed in March 2010 and substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and continues to significantly impact the U.S. pharmaceutical industry.

Among the provisions of the ACA of importance to our potential drug candidates are the following:

 

annual fees and taxes on manufacturers of certain branded prescription drugs;

 

 

an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports specified branded prescription drugs and biologic products;

 

 

a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must now agree to offer 70% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D;

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a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected;

 

 

an increase in the statutory minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and extended the rebate program to individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations;

 

 

expansion of healthcare fraud and abuse laws, including the False Claims Act and the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, new government investigative powers, and enhanced penalties for noncompliance;

 

 

extension of manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability;

 

 

expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs;

 

 

expansion of the entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program;

 

 

requirements to report financial arrangements with physicians, as defined by such law, and teaching hospitals;

 

 

a requirement to annually report drug samples that manufacturers and distributors provide to physicians; and

 

 

a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research.

There have been executive, judicial and Congressional challenges to repeal or replace certain aspects of the ACA. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, it has enacted laws that modify certain provisions of the ACA such as removing penalties, starting January 1, 2019, for not complying with the ACA’s individual mandate to carry health insurance and eliminating the implementation of certain ACA-mandated fees. Additionally, on June 17, 2021 the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge on procedural grounds that argued the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress. Thus, the ACA will remain in effect in its current form. Further, prior to the U.S. Supreme Court ruling, on January 28, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that initiated a special enrollment period for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace, which began February 15, 2021 and will remain open through August 15, 2021. The executive order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the ACA. It is possible that the ACA will be subject to judicial or Congressional challenges in the future. It is unclear how any such challenges and the healthcare reform measures of the Biden administration will impact the ACA.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011 was signed into law, which, among other things, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend to Congress proposals for spending reductions. The Joint Select Committee did not achieve a targeted deficit reduction, triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, starting in 2013, and due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2030, except for a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, unless additional Congressional action is taken. In January 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding.

Further, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. At the federal level, the Trump administration used several means to propose or implement drug pricing reform, including through federal budget proposals, executive orders and policy initiatives. For example, on July 24, 2020 and September 13, 2020, the prior administration announced several executive orders related to prescription drug pricing that attempted to implement several of the administration’s proposals. As a result, the FDA released a final rule on September 24, 2020, effective November 30, 2020, providing guidance for states to build and submit importation plans for drugs from Canada. Further, on November 20, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) finalized a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The implementation of the rule has been delayed by the Biden administration from January 1, 2022 to January 1,

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2023 in response to ongoing litigation. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers, the implementation of which have also been delayed by the Biden administration until January 1, 2023. On November 20, 2020, CMS issued an interim final rule implementing President Trump’s Most Favored Nation (MFN) executive order, which would tie Medicare Part B payments for certain physician-administered drugs to the lowest price paid in other economically advanced countries. The MFN regulations mandate participation by identified Medicare Part B providers and will apply in all U.S. states and territories for a seven-year period beginning January 1, 2021, and ending December 31, 2027. On December 28, 2020, the United States District Court in Northern California issued a nationwide preliminary injunction against implementation of the interim final rule. On January 13, 2021, in a separate lawsuit brought by industry groups in the U.S. District of Maryland, the government defendants entered a joint motion to stay litigation on the condition that the government would not appeal the preliminary injunction granted in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California and that performance for any final regulation stemming from the MFN interim final rule shall not commence earlier than 60 days after publication of that regulation in the Federal Register. Based on a recent executive order, the Biden administration expressed its intent to pursue certain policy initiatives to reduce drug prices. In addition, at the state level, individual states have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.

We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved product. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our products. Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our drug candidates, if any, may be. It is also possible that additional governmental action is taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Governments outside of the United States tend to impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our revenues, if any.

In some countries, particularly the countries of the EU, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our drug candidate to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be harmed. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained. Reference pricing used by various EU member states, and parallel trade, i.e., arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced member states, can further reduce prices. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any products, if approved in those countries.  In the EU the regulation of pricing and reimbursement varies widely between individual member states. Some member states prohibit the marketing of products prior to a reimbursement price being agreed, some member states may require the completion of additional studies to assess cost-effectiveness against currently available therapies. Price controls or profit controls are in place in a number of member states. In addition, cross-border imports from low-priced markets exert downwards competitive pressure on prices.

Laws and regulations governing any international operations we may have in the future may preclude us from developing, manufacturing and selling certain drug candidates and products outside of the United States and require us to develop and implement costly compliance programs.

If we expand our operations outside of the United States, we must dedicate additional resources to comply with numerous laws and regulations in each jurisdiction in which we plan to operate. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) prohibits any U.S. individual or business from paying, offering, authorizing payment or offering anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, political party or candidate for the purpose of influencing any act or decision of such third party in order to assist the individual or business in obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the United States to comply with certain accounting provisions requiring the company to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the company, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations.

Compliance with the FCPA is expensive and difficult, particularly in countries in which corruption is a recognized problem. In addition, the FCPA presents particular challenges in the pharmaceutical industry, because, in many countries, hospitals are operated by the government, and doctors and other hospital employees are considered foreign officials. Certain payments to hospitals in

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connection with clinical trials and other work have been deemed to be improper payments to government officials and have led to FCPA enforcement actions.

Various laws, regulations and executive orders also restrict the use and dissemination outside of the United States, or the sharing with certain non-U.S. nationals, of information classified for national security purposes, as well as certain products and technical data relating to those products. If we expand our presence outside of the United States, it will require us to dedicate additional resources to comply with these laws, and these laws may preclude us from developing, manufacturing or selling certain drug candidates and products outside of the United States, which could limit our growth potential and increase our development costs.

The failure to comply with laws governing international business practices may result in substantial civil and criminal penalties and suspension or debarment from government contracting. The SEC also may suspend or bar issuers from trading securities on U.S. exchanges for violations of the FCPA’s accounting provisions.

If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could harm our business.

We are subject to numerous foreign, federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources, including any available insurance.

In addition, our leasing and operation of real property may subject us to liability pursuant to certain of these laws or regulations. Under existing U.S. environmental laws and regulations, current or previous owners or operators of real property and entities that disposed or arranged for the disposal of hazardous substances may be held strictly, jointly and severally liable for the cost of investigating or remediating contamination caused by hazardous substance releases, even if they did not know of and were not responsible for the releases.

We could incur significant costs and liabilities which may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results for failure to comply with such laws and regulations, including, among other things, civil or criminal fines and penalties, property damage and personal injury claims, costs associated with upgrades to our facilities or changes to our operating procedures, or injunctions limiting or altering our operations.

Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations, which are becoming increasingly more stringent, may impair our research, development or production efforts. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

We are subject to certain U.S. and certain foreign anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, export control, sanctions and other trade laws and regulations. We can face serious consequences for violations.

U.S. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, export control, sanctions and other trade laws and regulations prohibit, among other things, companies and their employees, agents, CROs, legal counsel, accountants, consultants, contractors and other partners from authorizing, promising, offering, providing, soliciting, or receiving directly or indirectly, corrupt or improper payments or anything else of value to or from recipients in the public or private sector. Violations of these laws can result in substantial criminal fines and civil penalties, imprisonment, the loss of trade privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, reputational harm and other consequences. We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or government-affiliated hospitals, universities and other organizations. We also expect our non-U.S. activities to increase over time. We expect to rely on third parties for research, preclinical studies and clinical trials and/or to obtain necessary permits, licenses, patent registrations and other marketing approvals. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our personnel, agents, or partners, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have prior knowledge of such activities.

Any violations of the laws and regulations described above may result in substantial civil and criminal fines and penalties, imprisonment, the loss of export or import privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, reputational harm and other consequences.

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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient patent protection for our drug candidates, or if the scope of the patent protection is not sufficiently broad, third parties, including our competitors, could develop and commercialize products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to commercialize our drug candidates successfully may be adversely affected.

Our success depends in large part on our ability to protect our proprietary technologies that we believe are important to our business, including pursuing, obtaining and maintaining patent protection in the United States and other countries intended to cover the composition of matter of our drug candidates, the methods of use, related technologies and other inventions that are important to our business. Although we own patents in the United States and foreign countries, we cannot be certain that the claims in our other U.S. pending patent applications, corresponding international patent applications and patent applications in certain foreign countries will be considered patentable by the USPTO, courts in the United States or by the patent offices and courts in foreign countries, nor can we be certain that the claims in our patents will not be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged. In addition to patent protection, we also rely on trade secrets to protect aspects of our business that are not amenable to, or that we do not consider appropriate for, patent protection. If we do not adequately pursue, obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property, third parties, including our competitors, may be able to erode or negate any competitive advantage we may have, which could harm our business and ability to achieve profitability.

To protect our proprietary position, we file patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our drug candidates that we consider important to our business. The patent application and approval process is expensive, time-consuming and complex. We may not be able to file, prosecute and maintain all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner or in all jurisdictions. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection. Moreover, depending on the terms of any future license agreements to which we may become a party, we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing, and prosecution of patent applications, or to maintain the patents, covering technology licensed from third parties. Therefore, these patents and patent applications may not be prosecuted and enforced in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business.

Furthermore, the patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain. No consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents has emerged to date in the United States or in many foreign jurisdictions. The standards applied by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and foreign patent offices in granting patents are not always applied uniformly or predictably. In addition, the determination of patent rights with respect to biological and pharmaceutical products commonly involves complex legal and factual questions, which have in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Thus, we cannot offer any assurances about which, if any, patents will issue, the breadth of any such patents, whether any patents will be found invalid and unenforceable or will be threatened by third parties or whether any patents will effectively prevent others from commercializing competing technologies and drug candidates.

Our pending patent applications cannot be enforced against third parties practicing the technology claimed in such applications unless and until at least one patent issues from such applications. Assuming the other requirements for patentability are met, currently, the first to file a patent application is generally entitled to the patent. However, prior to March 16, 2013, in the United States, the first to invent was entitled to the patent. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing, and some remain so until issued, we cannot be certain that we were the first to file or invent (prior to March 16, 2013) any patent application related to our drug candidates. In addition, we enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, hospitals, independent treatment centers, consultants, independent contractors, suppliers, advisors and other third parties; however, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection. Furthermore, if third parties have filed patent applications related to our drug candidates or technology, we may not be able to obtain our own patent rights to those drug candidates or technology.

Moreover, because the issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, our patents or pending patent applications may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. For example, we may be subject to a third-party pre-issuance submission of prior art to the USPTO or become involved in post-grant review procedures, oppositions, derivations, revocation, reexaminations, inter partes review or interference proceedings, in the United States or elsewhere, challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or products and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party rights. Moreover, we may have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the USPTO to determine priority of invention or in post-grant challenge proceedings, such as oppositions in a foreign patent office, that challenge priority of invention or other features of patentability. Such challenges may result in loss of exclusivity or in our patent claims being narrowed,

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invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and products. Such challenges also may result in substantial cost and require significant time from our scientists and management, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

In addition, given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, our patents protecting such drug candidates might expire before or shortly after such drug candidates are commercialized. As a result, our intellectual property may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. Moreover, some of our patents and patent applications may in the future be co-owned with third parties. If we are unable to obtain an exclusive license to any such third-party co-owners’ interest in such patents or patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners of our patents in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

Our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued that protect our drug candidates, in whole or in part, or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive products. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection. In addition, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent or in the same manner as the laws of the United States. For example, European patent law restricts the patentability of methods of treatment of the human body more than United States law does.

Even if our patent applications issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors or other third parties from competing with us or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Moreover, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance. Consequently, we do not know whether any of our drug candidates will be protectable or remain protected by valid and enforceable patents. Our competitors and other third parties may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner. Our competitors and other third parties may also seek approval to market their own products similar to or otherwise competitive with our products. Alternatively, our competitors or other third parties may seek to market generic versions of any approved products by submitting abbreviated NDAs to the FDA during which process they may claim that patents owned by us are invalid, unenforceable or not infringed. In these circumstances, we may need to defend or assert our patents, or both, including by filing lawsuits alleging patent infringement. In any of these types of proceedings, a court or other agency with jurisdiction may find our patents invalid or unenforceable, or that our competitors are competing in a non-infringing manner. Thus, even if we have valid and enforceable patents, these patents still may not provide protection against competing products or processes sufficient to achieve our business objectives. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

Furthermore, future patents may be subject to a reservation of rights by one or more third parties. For example, to the extent the research resulting in future patent rights or technologies is funded in the future in part by the U.S. government, the government could have certain rights in any resulting patents and technology, including a non-exclusive license authorizing the government to use the invention or to have others use the invention on its behalf for non-commercial purposes. If the U.S. government then decides to exercise these rights, it is not required to engage us as its contractor in connection with doing so. These rights may also permit the government to disclose our confidential information to third parties and to exercise march-in rights to use or allow third parties to use our licensed technology. The government may also exercise its march-in rights if it determines that action is necessary because we failed to achieve practical application of the government-funded technology, because action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs, to meet requirements of federal regulations, or to give preference to U.S. industry. In addition, our rights in such government-funded inventions may be subject to certain requirements to manufacture products embodying such inventions in the United States. Any exercise by the government of aforementioned proprietary rights could harm our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

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Changes to the patent law in the United States and other jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our products.

As is the case with other pharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the pharmaceutical industry involves both technological and legal complexity and is therefore costly, time consuming and inherently uncertain. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. Recent patent reform legislation in the United States and other countries, including the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the Leahy-Smith Act) signed into law in September 2011, could increase those uncertainties and costs. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art and provide more efficient and cost-effective avenues for competitors to challenge the validity of patents. For example, the Leahy-Smith Act allows third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to attack the validity of a patent by USPTO administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter partes review, and derivation proceedings. In addition, the Leahy-Smith Act has transformed the U.S. patent system from a “first-to-invent” system to a “first-to-file” system in which, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. The first-to-file provisions, however, only became effective on March 16, 2013. Accordingly, it is not yet clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could make it more difficult to obtain patent protection for our inventions and increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our or our collaboration partners’ patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our or our collaboration partners’ issued patents, all of which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

In addition, the patent positions of companies in the development and commercialization of biologics and pharmaceuticals are particularly uncertain. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. This combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents, once obtained. Additionally, there have been recent proposals for additional changes to the patent laws of the United States and other countries that, if adopted, could impact our ability to enforce our proprietary technology. Depending on future actions by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. courts, the USPTO and the relevant law-making bodies in other countries, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could have a material adverse effect on our existing patent portfolio and weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future.

We may become involved in lawsuits or administrative disputes to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors and other third parties may infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate our patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets or other intellectual property. To counter infringement, misappropriation or other violations, we may be required to file infringement, misappropriation or other violation claims, which can be expensive and time consuming and divert the time and attention of our management and business and scientific personnel. In addition, many of our adversaries in these proceedings may have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to prosecuting these legal actions than we can.

Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their patents or their other intellectual property, in addition to counterclaims asserting that our patents are invalid or unenforceable, or both. In patent litigation in the United States, counterclaims challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of asserted patents are commonplace. Similarly, third parties may initiate legal proceedings against us seeking a declaration that certain of our intellectual property is non-infringed, invalid or unenforceable. The outcome of any such proceeding is generally unpredictable.

In any patent infringement proceeding, there is a risk that a court will decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, and that we do not have the right to stop the other party from using the invention at issue. There is also a risk that, even if the validity of such patents is upheld, the court will construe the patent’s claims narrowly or decide that we do not have the right to stop the other party from using the invention at issue on the grounds that our patent claims do not cover the invention. An adverse outcome in a litigation or proceeding involving our patents could limit our ability to assert our patents against those parties or other competitors, and may curtail or preclude our ability to exclude third parties from making and selling similar or competitive products. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability of our patents covering one of our drug candidates, we could lose at least a part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection covering such a drug candidate. Competing drugs may also be sold in other countries in which our patent coverage might not exist or be as strong. If we lose a foreign patent lawsuit, alleging our infringement of a competitor’s patents, we could be prevented from marketing our drugs in one or more foreign countries. Any of these occurrences could adversely affect our competitive business position, business prospects and financial condition. Similarly, if we assert trademark infringement claims, a court may determine that the marks we have asserted are invalid or

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unenforceable, or that the party against whom we have asserted trademark infringement has superior rights to the marks in question. In this case, we could ultimately be forced to cease use of such trademarks.

Even if we establish infringement, the court may decide not to grant an injunction against further infringing activity and instead award only monetary damages, which may or may not be an adequate remedy. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during litigation. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of shares of our common stock. Moreover, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient financial or other resources to file and pursue such infringement claims, which typically last for years before they are concluded. Even if we ultimately prevail in such claims, the monetary cost of such litigation and the diversion of the attention of our management and scientific personnel could outweigh any benefit we receive as a result of the proceedings.

Furthermore, third parties may also raise invalidity or unenforceability claims before administrative bodies in the United States or foreign authorities, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, inter partes review, post-grant review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). Such proceedings could result in revocation, cancellation or amendment to our patents in such a way that they no longer cover and protect our drug candidates. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness, non-enablement or written description. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with the prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution of the patent. With respect to the validity of our patents, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art of which we, our licensors, our patent counsel and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. Moreover, it is possible that prior art may exist that we are aware of but do not believe is relevant to our current or future patents, but that could nevertheless be determined to render our patents invalid. If a third party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we could lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on one or more of our drug candidates. Any such loss of patent protection could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not be able to effectively enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents with respect to our drug candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. The requirements for patentability may differ in certain countries, particularly in developing countries. In addition, any future intellectual property license agreements may not always include worldwide rights. Consequently, competitors and other third parties may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we may obtain patent protection, but where patent enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States and where our ability to enforce our patents to stop infringing activities may be inadequate. These products may compete with our products in such territories and in jurisdictions where we do not have any patent rights or where any future patent claims or other intellectual property or proprietary rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Moreover, our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights may be adversely affected by unforeseen changes in foreign intellectual property laws. Additionally, the laws of some countries outside of the United States and Europe do not afford intellectual property protection to the same extent as the laws of the United States and Europe. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property and proprietary rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of some countries, including, for example, India, China and other developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property or proprietary rights, particularly those relating to biotechnology products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement, misappropriation or other violation of our patents or other intellectual property or proprietary rights. For example, many foreign countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner must grant licenses to third parties. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in certain countries outside the United States and Europe. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we are forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected. Proceedings to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights in foreign jurisdictions, whether or not successful, could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and resources from other aspects of our business, could put our patents, trademarks or other intellectual property and proprietary rights at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Furthermore, while we intend to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights in major markets for our products, we cannot ensure that we

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will be able to initiate or maintain similar efforts in all jurisdictions in which we may wish to market our products. Accordingly, our efforts to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights in such countries may be inadequate.

If we are sued for infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating intellectual property or proprietary rights of third parties, such litigation or disputes could be costly and time consuming and could prevent or delay us from developing or commercializing our drug candidates.

Our commercial success depends, in part, on our ability to develop, manufacture, market and sell our drug candidates and use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property and other proprietary rights of third parties. If any third-party patents, patent applications or other proprietary rights are found to cover our drug candidates or any related companion diagnostics or their compositions, methods of use or manufacturing, we may be required to pay damages, which could be substantial, and we would not be free to manufacture or market our drug candidates or to do so without obtaining a license, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

We may in the future become party to, or threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property or proprietary rights with respect to our drug candidates and technologies we use in our business. Our competitors or other third parties may assert infringement claims against us, alleging that our drug candidates are covered by their patents. We cannot be certain that we do not infringe existing patents or that we will not infringe patents that may be granted in the future. Furthermore, because patent applications can take many years to issue and may be confidential for 18 months or more after filing, and because patent claims can be revised before issuance, there may be applications now pending which may later result in issued patents that may be infringed by the manufacture, use or sale of our drug candidates. If a patent holder believes our drug candidate infringes its patent rights, the patent holder may sue us even if we have received patent protection for our technology. Moreover, we may face patent infringement claims from non-practicing entities that have no relevant drug revenue and against whom our own patent portfolio may thus have no deterrent effect.

There is a substantial amount of intellectual property litigation in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and we may become party to, or threatened with, litigation or other adversarial proceedings regarding intellectual property or proprietary rights with respect to our drug candidates, including post-grant proceedings before the USPTO. Third parties may assert infringement, misappropriation or other claims against us based on existing or future intellectual property or proprietary rights. The outcome of intellectual property litigation and other disputes is subject to uncertainties that cannot be adequately quantified in advance. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have produced a significant number of patents, and it may not always be clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover various types of products or methods of using or manufacturing products. The coverage of patents is subject to interpretation by the courts, and the interpretation is not always uniform. If we were sued for patent infringement, we would need to demonstrate that our drug candidates, products or methods of use, manufacturing or other applicable activities either do not infringe the patent claims of the relevant patent or that the patent claims are invalid or unenforceable, and we may not be successful in doing so. However, proving invalidity or unenforceability is difficult. For example, in the United States, proving invalidity requires a showing of clear and convincing evidence to overcome the presumption of validity enjoyed by patents. Even if we believe third-party intellectual property claims are without merit, there is no assurance that a court would find in our favor on questions of infringement, validity, or enforceability. Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and the time and attention of our management and business and scientific personnel could be diverted in pursuing these proceedings, which could significantly harm our business and operating results. In addition, we may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion.

If we are found to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate a third party’s intellectual property or proprietary rights and we are unsuccessful in demonstrating that such intellectual property or proprietary rights are invalid or unenforceable, we could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing, manufacturing or commercializing the infringing drug candidate or product. Alternatively, we may be required to obtain a license from such third party in order to use the infringing technology and continue developing, manufacturing or marketing the infringing drug candidate. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain such a license, it could be granted on non-exclusive terms, thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us. In addition, we could be found liable for significant monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to have willfully infringed such third-party patent rights. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that our employees or consultants or we have misappropriated their intellectual property, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Some of our employees and consultants are currently or have been previously employed at universities or at other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. These employees and consultants may have

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executed proprietary rights, non-disclosure and non-competition agreements, or similar agreements, in connection with such other current or previous employment. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against such claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property or personnel or sustain damages. Such intellectual property could be awarded to a third party, and we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to commercialize our technology or products. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management. Any of the foregoing would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees, consultants and contractors who may be involved in the conception or development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who, in fact, conceives or develops intellectual property that we regard as our own, which may result in claims by or against us related to the ownership of such intellectual property. In addition, such agreements may not be self-executing such that the intellectual property subject to such agreements may not be assigned to us without additional assignments being executed, and we may fail to obtain such assignments. In addition, such agreements may be breached. Accordingly, we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims that they may bring against us to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our senior management and scientific personnel, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Rights to improvements to our drug candidates may be held by third parties.

In the course of testing our drug candidates, we have entered into agreements with third parties to conduct clinical testing, which provide that improvements to our drug candidates may be owned solely by a party or jointly between the parties. If we determine that rights to such improvements owned solely by a third party are necessary to commercialize our drug candidates or maintain our competitive advantage, we may need to obtain a license from such third party in order to use the improvements and continue developing, manufacturing or marketing the drug candidates. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain such a license, it could be granted on non-exclusive terms, thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us. Failure to obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or to obtain an exclusive license, could prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. If we determine that rights to improvements jointly owned between us and a third party are necessary to commercialize our drug candidates or maintain our competitive advantage, we may need to obtain an exclusive license from such third party. If we are unable to obtain an exclusive license to any such third-party co-owners’ interest in such improvements, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners of our intellectual property in order to enforce such intellectual property against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

The term of our patents may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our products.

Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. Depending upon the timing, duration and other factors relating to any FDA marketing approval we receive for any of our drug candidates, one or more of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Action of 1984 (Hatch-Waxman Amendments). We expect to seek extensions of patent terms in the United States and, if available, in other countries where we are prosecuting patents. In the United States, the Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the normal expiration of the patent, limited to the approved indication (or any additional indications approved during the period of extension), as compensation for patent term lost during the regulatory review process. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent applicable to an approved drug is eligible for the extension and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended, and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. However, the applicable authorities, including the FDA and the USPTO in the United States, and any equivalent regulatory authority in other countries, may not agree with our assessment of whether such extensions are available for our patents, may refuse to grant extensions to our patents, or may grant more limited extensions than we request. We may not be granted an extension because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents, or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. If we are

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unable to obtain patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors and other third parties may be able to obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration and take advantage of our investment in development and clinical trials by referencing our clinical and preclinical data and launch their product earlier than might otherwise be the case. Any of the foregoing would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, documentary, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent offices, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees and various other government fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to the USPTO and patent offices in foreign countries in several stages over the lifetime of the patent. The USPTO and patent offices in foreign countries require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other requirements during the patent application process. In the future, we may rely on licensing partners to pay these fees due to U.S. and non-U.S. patent agencies and to comply with these other requirements with respect to any future licensed patents and patent applications. While an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of a patent or patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. In such an event, our competitors and other third parties might be able to enter the market with similar or identical products of technology, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, the value of our technology could be materially adversely affected and our business would be harmed.

While we have obtained patents with respect to three of our drug candidates, we also rely on proprietary know-how and trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how or trade secrets that are not patentable or that we elect not to patent. We seek to protect our trade secrets and proprietary know-how in part by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to such knowledge, such as our employees, consultants, independent contractors, advisors, contract manufacturers, CROs, hospitals, independent treatment centers, suppliers, collaborators and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with employees and certain consultants. However, we cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary know-how. Additionally, our confidentiality agreements and other contractual protections may not be adequate to protect our intellectual property from unauthorized disclosure, third-party infringement or misappropriation. Any party with whom we have executed such an agreement may breach that agreement and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent such third party, or those to whom they communicate such technology or information, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects our business and competitive position could be materially harmed.

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

 

others may be able to make products similar to any drug candidates we may develop or utilize similarly related technologies that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we may license or may own in the future;

 

we, or any future license partners or current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the patent or pending patent application that we license or may own in the future;

 

we, or any future license partners or current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;

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others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating any of our owned or licensed intellectual property rights;

 

it is possible that our pending patent applications or those that we may own in the future will not lead to patents;

 

patents that we hold rights to may be held invalid or unenforceable, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors or other third parties;

 

 

our competitors or other third parties might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;

 

 

we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

 

 

the patents of others may harm our business; and

 

 

we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property.

Should any of these events occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Risks Related to the Commercialization of Our Drug Candidates

The incidence and prevalence for target patient populations of our drug candidates have not been established with precision. If the market opportunities for our drug candidates are smaller than we estimate or if any approval that we obtain is based on a narrower definition of the patient population, our revenue potential and ability to achieve profitability will be adversely affected.

The total addressable market opportunity for repotrectinib and our other drug candidates will ultimately depend upon, among other things, the diagnosis criteria included in the final label for each such drug candidate if our drug candidates are approved for sale for these indications, acceptance by the medical community and patient access, drug and any related companion diagnostic pricing and their reimbursement. The number of patients in our targeted commercial markets and elsewhere may turn out to be lower than expected, patients may not be otherwise amenable to treatment with our drugs, or new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify or gain access to, all of which would adversely affect our results of operations and our business.

Even if any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. For example, current cancer treatments, such as existing targeted therapies, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, are well established in the medical community, and doctors may continue to rely on these treatments. If our drug candidates do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenues and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of our drug candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

the efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;

 

the prevalence and severity of any side effects, in particular compared to alternative treatments;

 

limitations or warnings contained in the labeling approved for our drug candidates by the FDA;

 

the size of the target patient population;

 

the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;

 

our ability to offer our products for sale at competitive prices;

 

the convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;

 

the strength of marketing and distribution support;

 

publicity for our drug candidates and competing products and treatments;

 

the existence of distribution and/or use restrictions, such as through a REMS;

 

the availability of third-party payor coverage and adequate reimbursement;

 

the timing of any marketing approval in relation to other product approvals;

 

support from patient advocacy groups; and

 

any restrictions on the use of our products together with other medications.

We have no experience as a company in commercializing products and we may have to invest significant resources to develop these capabilities. If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our products, we may not be able to generate revenue.

We do not have a sales infrastructure and are only in the very early stages of building a marketing infrastructure and have no experience in the sale, marketing or distribution of pharmaceutical products. To achieve commercial success for any product for which

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we obtain marketing approval, we will need to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, either ourselves or through collaboration or other arrangements with third parties.

We plan to build our own focused, specialized sales and marketing organization in the United States. Outside of the United States, in addition to our existing repotrectinib and TPX-0022 licenses to Zai for Greater China, we plan to selectively establish partnerships in markets outside the United States to support the commercialization of drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval and that can be commercialized with such capabilities.

There are risks involved with establishing our own sales and marketing capabilities. For example, recruiting and training a sales force is expensive and time-consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a drug candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. These efforts are expected to be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our products on our own include:

 

our inability to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;

 

our inability to raise financing necessary to build our commercialization infrastructure;

 

the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or educate an adequate number of physicians as to the benefits of our products;

 

unfavorable third-party payor coverage and reimbursement in any geography;

 

the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and

 

unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.

As a result of any potential partnerships in markets outside of the United States, including our license arrangements with Zai, or if we are unable to establish our own sales and marketing capabilities in the United States and instead enter into arrangements with third parties to perform these services, our product revenues and our profitability, if any, are likely to be lower than if we were to market and sell any products that we develop ourselves. In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to market and sell our drug candidates or may be unable to do so on terms that are acceptable to us. We likely will have little control over such third parties, and any of these third parties may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our products effectively. If we do not establish sales and marketing capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing any of our drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval.

We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.*

The development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products is highly competitive. We face competition with respect to our current drug candidates, and will face competition with respect to any drug candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. There are a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that currently market and sell products or are pursuing the development of products for the treatment of the disease indications for which we are developing our drug candidates. Some of these competitive products and therapies are based on scientific approaches that are similar to our approach, and others are based on entirely different approaches. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing and commercialization.

There are a large number of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies developing or marketing targeted treatments for cancer that would be competitive with the drug candidates we are developing, if our drug candidates are approved. Many of these companies are developing cancer therapeutics that are also kinase inhibitors.

If we are successful in developing repotrectinib, we expect that repotrectinib will compete against approved drugs, including: crizotinib, which is marketed by Pfizer Inc. under the name Xalkori for the treatment of ROS1+ and ALK+ NSCLC; entrectinib, which is marketed by F. Hoffman La Roche AG under the name Rozlytrek, for the treatment of ROS1+ NSCLC and TRK+ solid tumors; and larotrectinib, which is marketed by Bayer AG under the trade name Vitrakvi, for the treatment of TRK+ solid tumors. We also expect

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that repotrectinib will compete against other compounds which are currently in late-stage clinical development, including TKIs in Phase 2, or later, clinical development for the treatment of ROS1+ NSCLC at companies including against Pfizer Inc. (lorlatinib), Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation (ceritinib), Betta Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. (ensartinib), Exelixis, Inc. (cabozantinib) and AnHeart Therapeutics Company (taletrectinib) and TKIs in Phase 2, or later, clinical development for the treatment of TRK+ solid tumors at companies including Bayer AG (selitrectinib), Exelixis, Inc. (cabozantinib) and AnHeart Therapeutics Company (taletrectinib).

If we are successful in developing TPX-0022, we expect that TPX-0022 will compete against capmatinib, which is marketed by Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation under the name Tabrecta; tepotinib, which is marketed by Merck KGaA under the name Tepmetko; savolitinib, which is marketed in China by AstraZeneca PLC and Hutchison China MediTech Limited under the name Orpathys; and amivantamab, which is marketed by Johnson & Johnson under the name Rybrevant. Capmatinib, tepotinib and savolitinib are indicated for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic NSCLC harboring MET exon 14 skipping alterations.  We also expect TPX-0022 will compete against Xalkori (crizotinib) and other compounds which are in Phase 2 or later clinical development for the treatment of MET+ tumors at companies including Exelixis, Inc. (cabozantinib), Apollomics, Inc. (APL-101), Haihe Biopharma Co., Ltd (glumetinib), Servier (Sym015), AbbVie Inc. (telisotuzumab vedotin) and Aveo Oncology (ficlatuzumab).

If we are successful in developing TPX-0046, we expect that TPX-0046 will compete against selpercatinib, which is marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the name Retevmo for the treatment of NSCLC, medullary thyroid cancer and other types of thyroid cancer in patients with RET gene alterations, and pralsetinib, which is marketed by F. Hoffman La Roche AG and Blueprint Medicines Corporation under the name Gavreto for the treatment of NSCLC, medullary thyroid cancer and other types of thyroid cancer in patients with RET gene alterations, and are both in development for the treatment of other RET+ cancers, and other approved multi-kinase inhibitors with RET activity that are being evaluated in clinical trials including alectinib (F. Hoffman La Roche AG), cabozantinib (Exelixis, Inc.), lenvatinib (Eisai Inc.), sorafenib (Bayer AG), sunitinib (Pfizer Inc.) and vandetinib (Sanofi Genzyme).

If we are successful in developing TPX-0131, we expect that TPX-0131 will compete against approved drugs, including: alectinib, which is marketed by F. Hoffman La Roche AG under the name Alecensa for the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC; brigatinib, which is marketed by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited under the name Alunbrig for the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC; ceritinib, which is marketed by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation under the name Zykadia for the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC; crizotinib, which is marketed by Pfizer Inc. under the name Xalkori for the treatment of ROS1+ and ALK+ NSCLC; and lorlatinib, which is marketed by Pfizer Inc. under the names Lorbrena and Lorviqua for the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC. We also expect that TPX-0131 will compete against other compounds which are currently in late-stage clinical development, including TKIs in Phase 2, or later, clinical development for the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC at companies including against Betta Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. (ensartinib).

Many of the companies against which we are competing or against which we may compete in the future have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining marketing approvals and marketing and selling approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller and other early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific, management and sales and marketing personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are approved for broader indications or patient populations, are more convenient or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other marketing approval for their products more rapidly than any approval we may obtain for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. In addition, our ability to compete may be affected in many cases by insurers or other third-party payors seeking to encourage the use of generic products. Generic products are currently on the market for some of the indications that we are pursuing, and additional products are expected to become available on a generic basis over the coming years. If our drug candidates achieve marketing approval, we expect that they will be priced at a significant premium over any competitive generic products. The key competitive factors affecting the success of our drug candidates are likely to be their efficacy, safety, scope and limitations of marketing approval, and availability of reimbursement.

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Even if we are able to commercialize any drug candidates, the products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party coverage and reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives, which would harm our business.*

The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, coverage and reimbursement for new drug products vary widely from country to country. Current and future legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our drug candidate to other available therapies. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a drug candidate in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact the revenues, if any, we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more drug candidates, even if such drug candidates obtain marketing approval.

Our ability to commercialize any drug candidates successfully also will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from third-party payors, including government healthcare programs, private health insurers and other organizations. Third-party payors decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. Additionally, companion diagnostic tests we may develop for use with our product candidates require coverage and reimbursement separate and apart from the coverage and reimbursement for their companion pharmaceutical or biological products. Similar challenges to obtaining coverage and reimbursement, applicable to pharmaceutical or biological products, will apply to companion diagnostics.

A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Coverage and reimbursement may not be available for any product that we commercialize and, even if these are available, the level of reimbursement may not be satisfactory. Reimbursement may affect the demand for, or the price of, any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. Obtaining and maintaining coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products may be difficult. We may be required to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to justify coverage and reimbursement or the level of reimbursement relative to other therapies. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

Additionally, we are developing or plan to develop, either by ourselves or with collaborators, in vitro companion diagnostic tests for our drug candidates for certain indications. We, or our collaborators, will be required to obtain coverage and reimbursement for these tests separate and apart from the coverage and reimbursement we seek for our product candidates, once approved. While we have not yet developed any companion diagnostic test for our product candidates, if we do, there is significant uncertainty regarding our ability to obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for the same reasons applicable to our product candidates.

There may also be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug is approved by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. Moreover, eligibility for coverage and reimbursement does not imply that a drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, intellectual property, manufacture, sale and distribution expenses. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies, but also have their own methods and approval process apart from Medicare determinations. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement rates from third-party payors for any approved products that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.

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Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our drug candidates in human clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercialize any products that we may develop. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against any claims that our drug candidates or products caused injuries, we will incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

decreased demand for any drug candidates or products that we may develop;

 

injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;

 

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

significant costs to defend the related litigation;

 

substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

 

loss of revenue;

 

reduced resources of our management to pursue our business strategy; and

 

the inability to commercialize any products that we may develop.

Our current product liability insurance coverage for the United States and certain other jurisdictions may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. We likely will need to increase our insurance coverage as we expand our clinical trials or if we commence commercialization of our drug candidates. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise.

Risks Related to Employee Matters, Managing Growth and Other Risks Related to Our Business

Our future success depends on our ability to retain key employees and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.

We are highly dependent on the development and managerial expertise of Athena Countouriotis, M.D., our President and Chief Executive Officer, as well as the other principal members of our management, scientific and clinical team. Although we have entered into employment agreements with our executive officers, each of them may terminate their employment with us at any time.

Our industry has experienced a high rate of turnover in recent years. Our ability to compete in the highly competitive pharmaceuticals industry depends upon our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled and experienced personnel with scientific, clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and management skills and experience. We conduct our operations in the greater San Diego area, a region that is home to many other pharmaceutical companies as well as many academic and research institutions, resulting in fierce competition for qualified personnel. We may not be able to attract or retain qualified personnel in the future due to the intense competition for a limited number of qualified personnel among pharmaceutical companies. Many of the other pharmaceutical companies against which we compete have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and a longer history in the industry than we do. Our competitors may provide higher compensation, more diverse opportunities and/or better opportunities for career advancement. Any or all of these competing factors may limit our ability to continue to attract and retain high quality personnel, which could negatively affect our ability to successfully develop and commercialize our drug candidates and to grow our business and operations as currently contemplated.

We expect to expand our development and regulatory capabilities and potentially implement sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, and as a result, we may encounter difficulties in managing our growth, which could disrupt our operations.*

As of June 30, 2021, we had 201 full-time employees. We expect to experience significant growth in the number of our employees and the scope of our operations, particularly in the areas of clinical development, clinical operations, manufacturing, regulatory affairs, commercial and, if any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, sales, marketing and distribution. To manage our anticipated future growth, we must continue to implement and improve our managerial, operational and financial systems, expand our facilities and continue to recruit and train additional qualified personnel. Due to our limited financial resources and the limited experience of our management team in managing a company with such anticipated growth and with developing sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure, we may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations or recruit and

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train additional qualified personnel. The expansion of our operations may lead to significant costs and may divert our management and business development resources.

Further, we currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain third-party contract organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services, including assuming substantial responsibilities for the conduct of our clinical trials and the manufacture of repotrectinib or any of our other current or future drug candidates. We cannot assure you that the services of such third-party contract organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed, or that we can find qualified replacements. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by our vendors or consultants is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval of repotrectinib or any of our other current or future drug candidates or otherwise advance our business. We cannot assure you that we will be able to properly manage our existing vendors or consultants or find other competent outside vendors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all.

If we are not able to effectively manage growth and expand our organization, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize repotrectinib, our other pipeline drug candidates or any future drug candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

Our internal information technology systems, or those of our third-party CROs or other vendors, contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, loss or leakage of data and other disruptions, which could result in a material disruption of our development programs, compromise sensitive information related to our business or prevent us from accessing critical information, potentially exposing us to liability or otherwise adversely affecting our business.

We are increasingly dependent upon information technology systems, infrastructure and data to operate our business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect, store and transmit confidential information (including but not limited to intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information). It is critical that we do so in a secure manner to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of such confidential information. We also have outsourced elements of our operations to third parties, and as a result we manage a number of third-party CROs, vendors, and other contractors and consultants who have access to our confidential information.

Despite the implementation of security measures, given their size and complexity and the increasing amounts of confidential information that they maintain, our internal information technology systems and those of our third-party CROs, vendors and other contractors and consultants are potentially vulnerable to breakdown or other damage or interruption from service interruptions, system malfunction, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, as well as security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, third-party CROs, vendors, contractors, consultants, business partners and/or other third parties, or from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties (including the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information), which may compromise our system infrastructure, or that of our third-party CROs, vendors and other contractors and consultants, or lead to data leakage. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. We may not be able to anticipate all types of security threats, nor may we be able to implement preventive measures effective against all such security threats. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups such as external service providers, organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations or hostile foreign governments or agencies. Changes in how our employees work and access our systems during the current COVID-19 pandemic could lead to additional opportunities for bad actors to launch cyber-attacks or for employees to cause inadvertent security risks or incidents. To the extent that any accidental or intentional disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or those of our third-party CROs, vendors and other contractors and consultants, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and reputational damage and the further development and commercialization of repotrectinib or any other drug candidates could be delayed. The costs related to significant security breaches or disruptions could be material and exceed the limits of the cybersecurity insurance we maintain against such risks. The effects of a security breach or disruption could be further amplified during the current COVID-19 pandemic. If the information technology systems of our third-party CROs, vendors and other contractors and consultants become subject to disruptions or security breaches, we may have insufficient recourse against such third parties and we may have to expend significant resources to mitigate the impact of such an event, and to develop and implement protections to prevent future events of this nature from occurring.

While we have not experienced any such system failure, accident or security breach to date, and believe that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology reduce the likelihood of such incidents in the future, we cannot guarantee that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology will prevent significant breakdowns, data leakages, breaches in our systems, or those of our third-party CROs, vendors and other contractors and consultants, or other cyber incidents that could have a material adverse effect upon our reputation, business, operations or financial condition. For example, if such an event were to

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occur and cause interruptions in our operations, or those of our third-party CROs, vendors and other contractors and consultants, it could result in a material disruption of our programs and the development of our drug candidates could be delayed. In addition, the loss of clinical trial data for repotrectinib or any other drug candidates could result in delays in our marketing approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Furthermore, significant disruptions of our internal information technology systems or those of our third-party CROs, vendors and other contractors and consultants, or security breaches could result in the loss, misappropriation and/or unauthorized access, use, or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, confidential information (including trade secrets or other intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information), which could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us. For example, any such event that leads to unauthorized access, use, or disclosure of personal information, including personal information regarding our clinical trial subjects or employees, could harm our reputation directly, compel us to comply with federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, subject us to mandatory corrective action, and otherwise subject us to liability under laws and regulations that protect the privacy and security of personal information, which could result in significant legal and financial exposure and reputational damages that could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.

Failure to comply with health and data protection laws and regulations could lead to government enforcement actions (which could include civil or criminal penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business.*

We and any potential collaborators may be subject to federal, state and foreign data protection laws and regulations (i.e., laws and regulations that address privacy and data security). In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including federal health information privacy laws, state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act), that govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health-related and other personal information could apply to our operations or the operations of our collaborators. In addition, we may obtain health information from third parties (including research institutions from which we obtain clinical trial data) that are subject to privacy and security requirements under the HIPAA, as amended by HITECH. Depending on the facts and circumstances, we could be subject to penalties if we obtain, use, or disclose individually identifiable health information maintained by a HIPAA-covered entity in a manner that is not authorized or permitted by HIPAA.

International data protection laws, including Regulation 2016/679, known as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) may also apply to health-related and other personal information obtained outside of the United States. The GDPR went into effect on May 25, 2018. The GDPR introduced new data protection requirements in the EU, as well as potential fines for noncompliant companies of up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of annual global revenue. The regulation imposes numerous new requirements for the collection, use and disclosure of personal information, including more stringent requirements relating to consent and the information that must be shared with data subjects about how their personal information is used, the obligation to notify regulators and affected individuals of personal data breaches, extensive new internal privacy governance obligations and obligations to honor expanded rights of individuals in relation to their personal information (e.g., the right to access, correct and delete their data). In addition, the GDPR includes restrictions on cross-border data transfer. The GDPR will increase our responsibility and liability in relation to personal data that we process, and we may be required to put in place additional mechanisms to ensure compliance with the new EU data protection rules. In addition, the GDPR prohibits the transfer of personal data to countries outside of the European Economic Area (EEA), such as the United States, which are not considered by the European Commission to provide an adequate level of data protection. Switzerland has adopted similar restrictions. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued a decision that struck down the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework, which provided companies with a mechanism to comply with data protection requirements when transferring personal data from the EU to the United States and additionally called into question the validity of the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses, on which U.S. companies rely to transfer personal data from Europe to the United States and elsewhere. In September 2020, the Swiss Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner issued an opinion that stated it no longer considers the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield adequate for the purposes of personal data transfers from Switzerland to the United States. These developments may result in European data protection regulators applying differing standards for, and requiring ad hoc verification of, transfers of personal data from Europe to the United States. To the extent that we engage in such transfers, if we are unable to implement safeguards to ensure that our transfers are lawful or if any safeguards upon which we rely are invalidated, we will face increased exposure to litigation, regulatory actions, fines, and injunctions against data processing. If we are unable to engage in such transfers because there is no lawful mechanism to do so, the functionality or effectiveness of our products and services may decrease and our marketing efforts, plans and activities may be adversely impacted. In addition, the GDPR provides that European Union member states may make their own further laws and regulations limiting the processing of personal data, including biometric or health data.

In addition, California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which creates new individual privacy rights for California consumers (as defined in the law) and places increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling certain personal data of consumers or households. The CCPA requires covered companies to provide new disclosure to consumers about such companies’ data collection, use and sharing practices, provides such consumers new ways to opt-out of certain sales or transfers of personal information, and provides consumers with additional causes of action. The CCPA went into effect on January 1, 2020, and the California Attorney General may bring enforcement actions for violations beginning July 1, 2020. The CCPA has been

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amended from time to time, and, further a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, was approved by California voters in the November 3, 2020 election. Effective starting January 1, 2023, the CPRA will significantly modify the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive personal information. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. It remains unclear what, if any, further modifications will be made to the CCPA or CPRA, or how such legislation will be interpreted. The CCPA and CPRA may impact our business activities and exemplifies the vulnerability of our business to the evolving regulatory environment related to personal data and protected health information.

Compliance with U.S. and international data protection laws and regulations could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to collect, use and disclose data, or in some cases, impact our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions. Failure to comply with U.S. and international data protection laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions (which could include civil, criminal, and administrative penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business. Moreover, clinical trial subjects about whom we or our potential collaborators obtain information, as well as the providers who share this information with us, may contractually limit our ability to use and disclose the information. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights, failed to comply with data protection laws, or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could harm our business.

We or the third parties upon whom we depend may be adversely affected by natural disasters and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from a serious disaster.

Our company is located in San Diego, California, an area prone to wildfires and earthquakes. These and other natural disasters could severely disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. If a natural disaster, power outage or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our headquarters, that damaged critical infrastructure, such as the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. Any disaster recovery and business continuity plans we have in place may prove inadequate in the event of a serious disaster or similar event. We may incur substantial expenses as a result of the limited nature of our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, which, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

We have incurred substantial losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and we may never achieve profitability. Unused U.S. federal net operating losses for the tax years beginning before January 1, 2018, will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), unused U.S. federal net operating losses generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, will not expire and may be carried forward indefinitely but the deductibility of such federal net operating losses in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. In addition, both our current and our future unused losses and other tax attributes may be subject to limitation under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code) if we undergo an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in our equity ownership by certain stockholders over a three-year period. We have experienced ownership changes in the past and we may also experience additional ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which may be outside of our control.  If an ownership change occurs and our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards is materially limited, it would harm our future operating results by effectively increasing our future tax obligations. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply to limit our use of accumulated state tax attributes. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of NOLs or other tax attributes is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed. For example, on June 29, 2020, California enacted A.B. 85 which imposed limits on the usability of California state net operating losses and certain tax credits in tax years beginning after 2019 and before 2023. As a result, even if we attain profitability, we may be unable to use all or a material portion of our NOLs and other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our future cash flows.

We may engage in strategic transactions that could impact our liquidity, increase our expenses and present significant distractions to our management.

From time to time, we may consider strategic transactions, such as acquisitions of companies, businesses or assets and out-licensing or in-licensing of products, drug candidates or technologies. Additional potential transactions that we may consider include a variety of different business arrangements, including spin-offs, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, restructurings, divestitures, business combinations and investments. Any such transaction may require us to incur non-recurring or other charges, may increase our near term or long-term expenditures and may pose significant integration challenges or disrupt our management or business, which

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could adversely affect our operations and financial results. For example, these transactions may entail numerous operational and financial risks, including:

 

exposure to unknown liabilities;

 

disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s time and attention in order to develop acquired products, drug candidates or technologies;

 

incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of equity securities to pay for acquisitions;

 

higher than expected acquisition and integration costs;

 

write-downs of assets or goodwill or impairment charges;

 

increased amortization expenses;

 

difficulty and cost in combining the operations, systems and personnel of any acquired businesses with our operations, systems and personnel;

 

impairment of relationships with key suppliers or customers of any acquired businesses due to changes in management and ownership; and

 

inability to retain key employees of any acquired businesses.

Our portfolio of marketable securities is subject to market, interest and credit risk that may reduce its value.

The value of our investments may decline due to increases in interest rates, downgrades of the bonds and other securities included in our portfolio and instability in the global financial markets that reduces the liquidity of securities included in our portfolio. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has and may continue to adversely affect the financial markets in some or all countries worldwide. Each of these events may cause us to record charges to reduce the carrying value of our investment portfolio or sell investments for less than our acquisition cost. Although we attempt to mitigate these risks through diversification of our investments and continuous monitoring of our portfolio’s overall risk profile, the value of our investments may nevertheless decline.

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Risks Related to Our Common Stock

The trading price of our common stock has been and may in the future be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could result in substantial losses.*

Our stock price is volatile. For example, the closing price of our common stock since April 17, 2019 through June 30, 2021, has ranged from a low of $26.67 to a high of $141.30. The stock market in general and the market for smaller pharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

the degree of success of competitive products or technologies;

 

the commencement, enrollment or results of clinical trials and preclinical studies of our drug candidates or those of our competitors;

 

adverse results from, delays in or termination of clinical trials;

 

unanticipated serious safety concerns related to the use of our product candidates;

 

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

 

any delay in our regulatory filings for our drug candidates and any adverse development or perceived adverse development with respect to the applicable regulatory authority’s review of such filings, including without limitation the FDA’s issuance of a “refusal to file” letter or a request for additional information;

 

receipt of, or failure to obtain, regulatory approvals;

 

lower than expected market acceptance of our product candidates following approval, if any, for commercialization;

 

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

 

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

the level of expenses related to any of our drug candidates or clinical development programs;

 

the results of our efforts to design, develop, acquire or in-license additional technologies or drug candidates;

 

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;

 

publication of research reports about us or our industry or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;

 

announcements of investigations or regulatory scrutiny of our operations or lawsuits filed against us;

 

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

rumors or announcements regarding transactions involving our company or drug candidates;

 

proposed changes to healthcare laws in the United States or foreign jurisdictions, or speculation regarding such changes, such as changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

 

market conditions or trends in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

 

general economic, industry and market conditions, other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control, such as the COVID-19 outbreak; and

 

the other events or factors, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section.

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Delaware law and provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the trading price of our common stock.

Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in our control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws:

 

permit our board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate (including the right to approve an acquisition or other change in our control);

 

provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors;

 

provide that our board of directors or any individual director may only be removed with cause and the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66-2/3% of the voting power of all of our then-outstanding common stock;

 

provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;

 

divide our board of directors into three classes;

 

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent;

 

provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide notice in writing in a timely manner and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;

 

do not provide for cumulative voting rights (therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose);

 

provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chair of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or by the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors; and

 

 •

provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees, arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; (iv) any action or proceeding to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; (v) any action or proceeding as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and (vi) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. These provisions would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims.

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The amendment of any of these provisions, with the exception of the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and designate any rights, preferences and privileges thereto, would require approval by the holders of at least 66-2/3% of our then-outstanding common stock.

In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time. A Delaware corporation may opt out of this provision by express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or by amendment to its certificate of incorporation or bylaws approved by its stockholders. However, we have not opted out of this provision.

These and other provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our board of directors or initiate actions that are opposed by our then-current board of directors, including delay or impede a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving our company. The existence of these provisions could negatively affect the price of our common stock and limit opportunities for you to realize value in a corporate transaction.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for certain disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; (iv) any action or proceeding to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; (v) any action or proceeding as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and (vi) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. These provisions would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims.

These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees and may discourage these types of lawsuits. Furthermore, the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. If a court were to find the choice of forum provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur further significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, all of which could seriously harm our business.

We have incurred and will continue to incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.*

As a public company we have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of The Nasdaq Global Select Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain and maintain director and officer liability insurance, which in turn could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors.

We are evaluating these rules and regulations, and cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Section 404), we are required to furnish an annual report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting and include an attestation report on internal control over financial

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reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we have been and will continue to be engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that in the future neither we nor our independent registered public accounting firm will be able to conclude within the prescribed timeframe or at all, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404 or that we will not be able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner. If any of these occur, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. Furthermore, investor perceptions of our company may suffer if deficiencies are found, and this could cause a decline in the market price of our stock. Irrespective of compliance with Section 404, any failure of our internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our stated operating results and harm our reputation. If we are unable to implement these requirements effectively or efficiently, it could harm our operations, financial reporting, or financial results and could result in an adverse opinion on our internal control over financial reporting from our independent registered public accounting firm.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements we may enter into may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

General Risk Factors

Our employees, clinical trial investigators, CROs, consultants, vendors and any potential commercial partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees, clinical trial investigators, CROs, consultants, vendors and any potential commercial partners. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless and/or negligent conduct or disclosure of unauthorized activities to us that violates: (i) FDA regulations or those of comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including those laws that require the reporting of true, complete and accurate information, (ii) manufacturing standards, (iii) federal and state health and data privacy, security, fraud and abuse, government price reporting, transparency reporting requirements, and other healthcare laws and regulations in the United States and abroad, (iv) sexual harassment and other workplace misconduct, or (v) laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. Such misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. We maintain a written code of business conduct and ethics that applies to our directors, officers and employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or person performing similar functions, as well as a disclosure program and other applicable policies and procedures, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, additional integrity reporting and oversight obligations, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.

We are subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. We designed our disclosure controls and procedures to reasonably assure that information we must disclose in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, and recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well-conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met.

These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. For example, our directors or executive officers could inadvertently fail to disclose a new

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relationship or arrangement causing us to fail to make any related party transaction disclosures. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected. In addition, we do not have a risk management program or processes or procedures for identifying and addressing risks to our business in other areas.

Changes in tax laws or regulations that are applied adversely to us or our customers may have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition or results of operations.

New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time, which could adversely affect our business operations and financial performance. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted many significant changes to the U.S. tax laws. Future guidance from the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities with respect to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act may affect us, and certain aspects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act could be repealed or modified in future legislation. For example, the CARES Act modified certain provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Changes in corporate tax rates, the realization of net deferred tax assets relating to our operations, the taxation of foreign earnings, and the deductibility of expenses under the Tax Act or future reform legislation could have a material impact on the value of our deferred tax assets, could result in significant one-time charges, and could increase our future U.S. tax expense.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, our business or our market, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our common stock could decrease, which might cause our common stock price and trading volume to decline.

Our business could be negatively affected as a result of actions of activist stockholders, and such activism could impact the trading value of our securities.

Stockholders may, from time to time, engage in proxy solicitations or advance stockholder proposals, or otherwise attempt to effect changes and assert influence on our board of directors and management. Activist campaigns that contest or conflict with our strategic direction or seek changes in the composition of our board of directors could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. A proxy contest would require us to incur significant legal and advisory fees, proxy solicitation expenses and administrative and associated costs and require significant time and attention by our board of directors and management, diverting their attention from the pursuit of our business strategy. Any perceived uncertainties as to our future direction and control, our ability to execute on our strategy, or changes to the composition of our board of directors or senior management team arising from a proxy contest could lead to the perception of a change in the direction of our business or instability which may result in the loss of potential business opportunities, make it more difficult to pursue our strategic initiatives, or limit our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel and business partners, any of which could adversely affect our business and operating results. If individuals are ultimately elected to our board of directors with a specific agenda, it may adversely affect our ability to effectively implement our business strategy and create additional value for our stockholders. We may choose to initiate, or may become subject to, litigation as a result of the proxy contest or matters arising from the proxy contest, which would serve as a further distraction to our board of directors and management and would require us to incur significant additional costs. In addition, actions such as those described above could cause significant fluctuations in our stock price based upon temporary or speculative market perceptions or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the underlying fundamentals and prospects of our business.

We could be subject to securities class action litigation.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

Use of Proceeds

We commenced our initial public offering pursuant to registration statements on Form S-1 (File Nos. 333-230428 and 333-230911) that were declared or became effective on April 16, 2019 and registered an aggregate of 10,637,500 shares of our common

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stock. On April 22, 2019, we completed our initial public offering and sold 10,637,500 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $18.00 per share for an aggregate gross offering price of $191.5 million. Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and SVB Leerink LLC acted as joint book-running managers for the offering. Wells Fargo, LLC also served as a joint book-running manager. Canaccord Genuity LLC acted as lead manager.

The underwriting discounts and commissions for the offering totaled approximately $13.4 million. We incurred additional costs of approximately $2.9 million in offering expenses, which when added to the underwriting discounts and commissions paid by us, amounts to total fees and costs of approximately $16.3 million. Thus, net offering proceeds to us, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering costs, were approximately $175.2 million. No offering costs were paid directly or indirectly to any of our directors or officers (or their associates) or persons owning ten percent or more of any class of our equity securities or to any other affiliates.

Upon receipt, the net proceeds from our initial public offering were held in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. Through June 30, 2021, we have used $141.7 million of the net proceeds from our initial public offering.  We are investing the remaining net proceeds in a combination of short-term and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government. We expect to use the remaining net proceeds from our initial public offering as described under “Use of Proceeds” in the final prospectus related to our initial public offering (Prospectus). We cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the remaining net proceeds from our initial public offering, or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses described under “Use of Proceeds” in the Prospectus. The amounts and timing of our actual use of the remaining net proceeds will vary depending on numerous factors, including our ability to access additional financing, the relative success and cost of our research, preclinical and clinical development programs and whether we are able to enter into future licensing arrangements. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the remaining net proceeds, and investors will be relying on our judgment regarding the application of the remaining net proceeds from our initial public offering.

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities.

None

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable

Item 5. Other Information.

None

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Item 6. Exhibits.

Furnish the exhibits required by Item 601 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.601 of this chapter).

 

Exhibit

Number

 

Description

  3.1

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-38871), filed with the SEC on April 22, 2019).

 

 

 

  3.2

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-38871), filed with the SEC on April 22, 2019).

 

 

 

  4.1

 

Form of Common Stock Certificate of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-230428), filed with the SEC on April 8, 2019).

 

 

 

  4.2

 

Fourth Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement, dated October 18, 2018, by and among the Registrant and certain of its securityholders (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-230428)), filed with the SEC on March 21, 2019).

 

 

 

10.1

 

Turning Point Therapeutics, Inc. Severance Benefit Plan, as amended (C-Suite) May 4, 2021.

 

 

 

10.2

 

Executive Employment Agreement, dated June 22, 2021, by and between the Registrant and Paolo Tombesi.

 

 

 

10.3

 

First Amendment to Lease, dated June 11, 2021, by and between Registrant and Gateway Torrey Hills LLC.

 

 

 

10.4

 

Lease, dated April 9, 2021, by and between the Registrant and Gateway Torrey Hills LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on April 13, 2021).

 

 

 

10.5

 

First Amendment to Lease Agreement dated May 12, 2021 by and between the Registrant and ARE-SD Region No. 44, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 13, 2021).

 

 

 

10.6

 

Lease dated May 20, 2021, by and between the Registrant and HCP Callan Road, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 26, 2021).

 

 

 

31.1

 

Certification of Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

 

 

 

31.2

 

Certification of Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

 

 

 

32.1*

 

Certification of Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

 

 

 

32.2*

 

Certification of Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

 

 

 

101.INS

 

XBRL Instance Document - The instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document

101.SCH

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document

101.CAL

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document

101.DEF

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document

101.LAB

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document

101.PRE

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document

104

 

Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101

 

 

 

 

Indicates management contract or compensatory plan.

 

 

 

*

 

This certification shall not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liability of that Section, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

 

TURNING POINT THERAPEUTICS, INC.

 

 

 

 

Date: August 9, 2021

 

By:

/s/ Athena Countouriotis

 

 

 

Athena Countouriotis, M.D.

 

 

 

President & Chief Executive Officer

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

 

Date: August 9, 2021

 

By:

/s/ Paolo Tombesi

 

 

 

Paolo Tombesi

 

 

 

Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)

 

 

 

 

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