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ANET Arista Networks

Filed: 2 Aug 21, 8:00pm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                    
Commission File Number:001-36468
Arista Networks, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware 20-1751121
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
5453 Great America Parkway,Santa Clara,California95054
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(408)547-5500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Not Applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueANETNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ý
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, as of July 28, 2021 was 76,716,633.



ARISTA NETWORKS, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS



PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements (Unaudited)
ARISTA NETWORKS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited, in thousands, except par value)
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
ASSETS
CURRENT ASSETS:
Cash and cash equivalents$893,688 $893,219 
Marketable securities2,388,015 1,979,649 
Accounts receivable, net of rebates and allowances of $4,603 and $4,497, respectively364,214 389,540 
Inventories543,199 479,668 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets139,279 94,922 
Total current assets4,328,395 3,836,998 
Property and equipment, net32,362 32,231 
Acquisition-related intangible assets, net107,995 122,790 
Goodwill188,277 189,696 
Investments13,647 8,314 
Operating lease right-of-use assets70,497 77,288 
Deferred tax assets433,674 441,531 
Other assets33,433 30,071 
TOTAL ASSETS$5,208,280 $4,738,919 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
Accounts payable$145,159 $134,235 
Accrued liabilities163,245 143,357 
Deferred revenue482,112 396,259 
Other current liabilities69,419 94,392 
Total current liabilities859,935 768,243 
Income taxes payable57,977 53,053 
Operating lease liabilities, non-current64,295 72,397 
Deferred revenue, non-current263,978 254,568 
Deferred tax liabilities, non-current216,746 227,936 
Other long-term liabilities47,508 42,431 
TOTAL LIABILITIES1,510,439 1,418,628 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)00
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value—100,000 shares authorized and 0 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020
Common stock, $0.0001 par value—1,000,000 shares authorized as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 76,665 and 76,174 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 20208
Additional paid-in capital1,395,4591,292,431 
Retained earnings2,303,5132,027,614 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)(1,139)238 
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY3,697,841 3,320,291 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY$5,208,280 $4,738,919 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).
1

ARISTA NETWORKS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(Unaudited, in thousands, except per share amounts)


Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Revenue:
Product$566,467 $421,413 $1,105,612 $832,319 
Service140,852 119,157 269,269 231,280 
Total revenue707,319 540,570 1,374,881 1,063,599 
Cost of revenue:
Product225,779 176,432 444,212 340,061 
Service27,362 20,049 51,219 41,198 
Total cost of revenue253,141 196,481 495,431 381,259 
Gross profit454,178 344,089 879,450 682,340 
Operating expenses:
Research and development143,293 111,544 275,780 224,698 
Sales and marketing70,625 51,237 141,645 108,323 
General and administrative20,895 14,319 36,368 32,668 
Total operating expenses234,813 177,100 453,793 365,689 
Income from operations219,365 166,989 425,657 316,651 
Other income, net1,719 8,256 3,294 20,413 
Income before income taxes221,084 175,245 428,951 337,064 
Provision for income taxes24,196 30,452 51,697 53,840 
Net income$196,888 $144,793 $377,254 $283,224 
Net income per share:
Basic$2.58 $1.91 $4.94 $3.72 
Diluted$2.47 $1.83 $4.73 $3.56 
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income per share:
Basic76,461 75,808 76,384 76,036 
Diluted79,710 79,298 79,677 79,620 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).


2

ARISTA NETWORKS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
(Unaudited, in thousands)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Net income$196,888 $144,793 $377,254 $283,224 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Foreign currency translation adjustments191 1,193 (350)(1,546)
Net change in unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale securities(466)5,802 (1,027)9,226 
Other comprehensive income (loss)(275)6,995 (1,377)7,680 
Comprehensive income$196,613 $151,788 $375,877 $290,904 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).

3

ARISTA NETWORKS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders Equity
(Unaudited, in thousands)
Three Months Ended June 30, 2021Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
Common Stock  Additional
Paid-In Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other Comprehensive Loss
Total
Stockholders’ Equity
Common Stock  Additional
Paid-In Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at beginning of period76,257 $$1,345,569 $2,106,625 $(864)$3,451,338 76,174 $$1,292,431 $2,027,614 $238 $3,320,291 
Net income— — — 196,888 — 196,888 — — — 377,254 — 377,254 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — (275)(275)— — — — (1,377)(1,377)
Stock-based compensation— — 44,944 — — 44,944 — — 82,497 — — 82,497 
Issuance of common stock in connection with employee equity incentive plans419 — 8,803 — — 8,803 878 — 26,884 26,884 
Repurchase of common stock— — — — — — (367)— — (101,355)— (101,355)
Tax withholding paid for net share settlement of equity awards(11)— (3,857)— — (3,857)(20)— (6,353)— — (6,353)
Balance at end of period76,665 $$1,395,459 $2,303,513 $(1,139)$3,697,841 76,665 $$1,395,459 $2,303,513 $(1,139)$3,697,841 

Three Months Ended June 30, 2020Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
Common Stock  Additional
Paid-In Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated Other Comprehensive IncomeTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
Common Stock  Additional
Paid-In Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at beginning of period75,655 $$1,149,224 $1,698,766 $828 $2,848,826 76,389 $$1,106,305 $1,788,230 $143 $2,894,686 
Net income— — — 144,793 — 144,793 — — — 283,224 — 283,224 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — 6,995 6,995 — — — — 7,680 7,680 
Stock-based compensation— — 32,922 — — 32,922 — — 60,478 — — 60,478 
Issuance of common stock in connection with employee equity incentive plans319 — 5,146 — — 5,146 801 — 22,228 — — 22,228 
Repurchase of common stock— — — — — — (1,209)— — (227,895)— (227,895)
Tax withholding paid for net share settlement of equity awards(10)— (2,260)— — (2,260)(17)— (4,000)— — (4,000)
Vesting of early-exercised stock options— — 61 — — 61 — — 82 — — 82 
Balance at end of period75,964 $$1,185,093 $1,843,559 $7,823 $3,036,483 75,964 $$1,185,093 $1,843,559 $7,823 $3,036,483 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).
4

ARISTA NETWORKS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited, in thousands)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net income$377,254 $283,224 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation, amortization and other25,235 21,170 
Stock-based compensation82,497 60,478 
Noncash lease expense8,410 8,223 
Deferred income taxes(2,998)2,668 
Amortization of investment premiums12,121 2,938 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net25,326 15,263 
Inventories(63,531)(82,891)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(44,356)26,815 
Other assets(3,390)5,360 
Accounts payable10,879 31,473 
Accrued liabilities20,025 (39,882)
Deferred revenue95,263 (19,242)
Income taxes payable(9,144)16,820 
Other liabilities(15,550)646 
Net cash provided by operating activities518,041 333,063 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities819,807 875,213 
Purchases of marketable securities(1,241,657)(1,236,477)
Purchases of property and equipment(9,567)(5,178)
Business acquisitions, net of cash acquired(66,317)
Escrow receipts from past business acquisitions1,419 
Investment in privately-held companies and intangibles(6,084)
Net cash used in investing activities(436,082)(432,759)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Proceeds from issuance of common stock under equity plans26,884 22,228 
Tax withholding paid on behalf of employees for net share settlement(6,353)(4,000)
Repurchase of common stock(101,355)(227,895)
Net cash used in financing activities(80,824)(209,667)
Effect of exchange rate changes(665)(1,663)
NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH470 (311,026)
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH —Beginning of period897,454 1,115,515 
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH —End of period$897,924 $804,489 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING INFORMATION:
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities1,619 
Property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities1,732 788 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited).
5

ARISTA NETWORKS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
1.    Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Organization
    Arista Networks, Inc. (together with our subsidiaries, “we,” “our,” "Arista," "Company" or “us”) is a supplier of cloud networking solutions that use software innovations to address the needs of large-scale internet companies, cloud service providers and next-generation enterprises. Our cloud networking solutions consist of our Extensible Operating System ("EOS"), a set of network applications and our Gigabit Ethernet switching and routing platforms. We are incorporated in the state of Delaware. Our corporate headquarters are located in Santa Clara, California, and we have wholly-owned subsidiaries throughout the world, including North America, Europe, Asia and Australia.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
    The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Arista Networks, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries and have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) and the requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for interim reporting. As permitted under those rules, certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by GAAP can be condensed or omitted. In management’s opinion, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and include all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of our financial information. The results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full fiscal year. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements at that date but does not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
    Our condensed consolidated financial statements and related financial information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related footnotes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 19, 2021.
Use of Estimates
    The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates and assumptions include, but are not limited to, revenue recognition and deferred revenue; allowance for doubtful accounts, sales rebates and return reserves; valuation of goodwill and acquisition-related intangible assets; accounting for income taxes, including the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets and reserves for uncertain tax positions; estimate of useful lives of long-lived assets including intangible assets; valuation of inventory and contract manufacturer/supplier liabilities; and the recognition and measurement of contingent liabilities. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions based on historical experience and other factors and adjust those estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances dictate. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Risks and Uncertainties
    The global coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic and resulting mitigation efforts by governments around the world to contain or slow its spread have negatively impacted the global economy and disrupted business activities.
    Our contract manufacturers and suppliers have experienced delays in component sourcing, production and export of their products, which have negatively impacted our supply chain and could negatively impact our business in the future. While we have experienced some recovery in demand from our customers in recent quarters, we believe any renewed COVID-19- related disruptions could result in negative impacts on demand in future periods. However, the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our operational and financial performance, including our ability to execute our business strategies and initiatives in the expected time frame, and the impact of any initiatives and programs we may undertake to address financial and operational challenges, will depend on future developments, including the duration and spread of the pandemic and related mitigation efforts, the impact to our customers, partners, contract manufacturers and supply chain, as well as restrictions on travel and transport, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. Management continues to actively monitor the impact of the pandemic on the Company's financial condition, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry, and workforce. As of the date of issuance of these condensed consolidated financial statements, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact the Company's financial condition, liquidity, or results of operations is uncertain.
6

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Income Taxes 
    In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and amending existing guidance to improve consistent application. This new standard is effective for our interim and annual periods beginning January 1, 2021. Most amendments within this standard are required to be applied on a prospective basis, while certain amendments must be applied on a retrospective or modified retrospective basis. We adopted this new standard on January 1, 2021 with no material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
2.    Fair Value Measurements
    We measure and report our cash equivalents, restricted cash, and available-for-sale marketable securities at fair value on a recurring basis. The following tables summarize the amortized costs, unrealized gains and losses and fair value of these financial assets by significant investment category and their levels within the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):
June 30, 2021
Amortized CostUnrealized GainsUnrealized LossesFair ValueLevel ILevel IILevel III
Financial Assets:
Cash Equivalents:
Money market funds$443,597 $— $— $443,597 $443,597 $$
Marketable Securities:
Commercial paper60,959 60,959 60,959 
Certificate of deposits(1)
73,870 73,870 73,870 
U.S. government notes832,903 111 (214)832,800 832,800 
Corporate bonds1,083,824 532 (578)1,083,778 1,083,778 
Agency securities336,455 188 (35)336,608 336,608 
2,388,011 831 (827)2,388,015 832,800 1,555,215 
Other Assets:
Money market funds - restricted4,236 — — 4,236 4,236 
Total Financial Assets$2,835,844 $831 $(827)$2,835,848 $1,280,633 $1,555,215 $

7

December 31, 2020
Amortized CostUnrealized GainsUnrealized LossesFair ValueLevel ILevel IILevel III
Financial Assets:
Cash Equivalents:
Money market funds$438,854 $— $— $438,854 $438,854 $$
Marketable Securities:
Commercial paper51,211 51,211 51,211 
Certificate of deposits(1)
50,136 50,139 50,139 
U.S. government notes523,320 187 (1)523,506 523,506 
Corporate bonds878,484 1,167 (330)879,321 879,321 
Agency securities475,132 343 (3)475,472 475,472 
1,978,283 1,700 (334)1,979,649 523,506 1,456,143 
Other Assets:
Money market funds - restricted4,235 — — 4,235 4,235 
Total Financial Assets$2,421,372 $1,700 $(334)$2,422,738 $966,595 $1,456,143 $
______________________
(1) As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, all of our certificates of deposits were domestic deposits.
    As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, total unrealized losses of our marketable securities were immaterial. We invest in marketable securities that have maximum maturities of up to two years and are generally deemed to be low risk based on their credit ratings from the major rating agencies. The longer the duration of these marketable securities, the more susceptible they are to changes in market interest rates and bond yields. We expect to realize the full value of these investments upon maturity or sale and therefore, we do not consider any of our marketable securities to be impaired as of June 30, 2021. We did not recognize any credit losses or non-credit-related impairments related to our available-for-sale marketable securities during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021.
    As of June 30, 2021, the contractual maturities of our investments did not exceed 24 months. The fair values of available-for-sale marketable securities, by remaining contractual maturity, are as follows (in thousands):
June 30, 2021
Due in 1 year or less$1,258,837 
Due in 1 year through 2 years1,129,178 
      Total marketable securities$2,388,015 
    The weighted-average remaining duration of our current marketable securities is approximately 1.0 year as of June 30, 2021. As we view these securities as available to support current operations, we classify securities with maturities beyond 12 months as current assets under the caption "Marketable securities" on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
3.    Financial Statements Details
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
    The reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported on the condensed consolidated balance sheets to the total of the same such amounts in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows is as follows (in thousands):
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents$893,688 $893,219 
Restricted cash included in other assets4,236 4,235 
 Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$897,924 $897,454 
Accounts Receivable, net
    Accounts receivable, net consists of the following (in thousands):
8

June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Accounts receivable$368,817 $394,037 
Allowance for doubtful accounts(587)(659)
Product sales rebate and returns reserve(4,016)(3,838)
   Accounts receivable, net$364,214 $389,540 
Inventories
    Inventories consist of the following (in thousands):
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Raw materials$271,055 $219,218 
Finished goods272,144 260,450 
   Total inventories$543,199 $479,668 
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
    Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Inventory deposits$22,386 $18,783 
Prepaid income taxes18,479 267 
Other current assets81,017 60,556 
Other prepaid expenses and deposits17,397 15,316 
   Total prepaid expenses and other current assets$139,279 $94,922 
Property and Equipment, net
    Property and equipment, net consists of the following (in thousands):
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Equipment and machinery$77,361 $70,655 
Computer hardware and software43,087 40,081 
Leasehold improvements
30,502 31,448 
Furniture and fixtures3,592 3,787 
Construction-in-process1,214 1,441 
    Property and equipment, gross155,756 147,412 
Less: accumulated depreciation(123,394)(115,181)
    Property and equipment, net$32,362 $32,231 
    Depreciation expense was $4.8 million and $5.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $9.7 million and $10.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Accrued Liabilities
    Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Accrued payroll related costs$64,028 $73,634 
Accrued manufacturing costs63,260 43,181 
Accrued product development costs15,355 6,733 
Accrued warranty costs8,995 9,314 
Other11,607 10,495 
   Total accrued liabilities$163,245 $143,357 
9

Warranty Accrual
    The following table summarizes the activity related to our accrued liability for estimated future warranty costs (in thousands):
Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Warranty accrual, beginning of period$9,314 $6,742 
Liabilities accrued for warranties issued during the period5,603 2,181 
Warranty costs incurred during the period(5,922)(2,852)
Warranty accrual, end of period$8,995 $6,071 
Contract Assets
    The following table summarizes the beginning and ending balances of our contract assets included in "Prepaid and other current assets" on the condensed consolidated balance sheets (in thousands):
Six Months Ended June 30,
2021
Contract assets, beginning balance$16,380 
Contract assets, ending balance11,935 
Contract Liabilities, Deferred Revenue and Other Performance Obligations    
    A contract liability is recognized when we have received customer payments in advance of our satisfaction of a performance obligation under a cancellable contract. The following table summarizes the activity related to our contract liabilities (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Contract liabilities, beginning balance$80,465 $64,325 $85,957 $61,050 
Less: Revenue recognized from beginning balance(8,482)(5,735)(18,482)(11,722)
Less: Beginning balance reclassified to deferred revenue(3,856)(2,757)(12,710)(2,226)
Add: Contract liabilities recognized15,227 11,435 28,589 20,166 
Contract liabilities, ending balance$83,354 $67,268 $83,354 $67,268 
    As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, $35.9 million and $34.5 million of our contract liabilities, respectively, were included in "Other current liabilities" with the remaining balances included in "Other long-term liabilities" on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
    Deferred revenue is comprised mainly of unearned revenue related to multi-year post-contract support ("PCS") contracts, services and product deferrals related to acceptance clauses. The following table summarizes the activity related to our deferred revenue (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Deferred revenue, beginning balance
$720,031 $596,775 $650,827 $575,288 
Less: Revenue recognized from beginning balance(145,556)(104,480)(222,865)(178,264)
Add: Deferral of revenue in current period, excluding amounts recognized during the period171,615 85,216 318,128 180,487 
Deferred revenue, ending balance$746,090 $577,511 $746,090 $577,511 
    As of June 30, 2021, other performance obligations of $169.2 million were comprised mainly of unbilled multi-year PCS contract amounts that will be recognized as revenue in future periods.
10

Revenue from Total Remaining Performance Obligations
    Revenue from total remaining performance obligations represents contract liabilities, deferred revenue and unbilled contract revenue that will be recognized in future periods. As of June 30, 2021, approximately $998.7 million of revenue is expected to be recognized from remaining performance obligations, of which approximately 83% is expected to be recognized over the next two years and approximately 17% is expected to be recognized during the third to the fifth year.
Other Income, net
    Other income, net consists of the following (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Interest income$1,872 $8,668 $3,917 $20,330 
Other income (expense), net(153)(412)(623)83 
    Total$1,719 $8,256 $3,294 $20,413 
4.    Investments
Investments in Privately-Held Companies    
    Our investments in privately-held companies do not have readily-determinable fair values. Their initial cost is adjusted to fair value on a non-recurring basis based on observable price changes from orderly transactions of identical or similar securities of the same issuer, or for impairment. These investments are classified within Level III of the fair value hierarchy as we estimate the value based on valuation methods using the observable transaction price at the transaction date and other significant unobservable inputs, such as volatility, rights, and obligations related to these securities. In addition, the valuation requires management judgment due to the absence of market price and lack of liquidity. The following table summarizes the activity related to our investments in privately-held companies as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 (in thousands):
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Cost of investments$8,333 $3,000 
Cumulative impairment
Cumulative upward adjustment5,314 5,314 
Carrying amount of investments$13,647 $8,314 
    During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2020, there were 0 realized or unrealized gains or losses recorded.
5.    Commitments and Contingencies
Purchase Commitments
    We outsource most of our manufacturing and supply chain management operations to third-party contract manufacturers, who procure components and assemble products on our behalf. A significant portion of our purchase orders to our contract manufacturers for finished products consists of non-cancellable purchase commitments. In addition, we purchase strategic component inventory from certain suppliers under non-cancellable purchase commitments, including integrated circuits, which are consigned to our contract manufacturers. As of June 30, 2021, we had non-cancellable purchase commitments of $1,057.5 million, of which $1,019.0 million was to our contract manufacturers and suppliers. In addition, we had deposits to our contract manufacturers to secure our purchase commitments in the amount of $25.1 million and $21.5 million as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. These deposits are included in “Prepaid expenses and other current assets” and “Other assets” on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Guarantees
    We have entered into agreements with some of our direct customers and channel partners that contain indemnification provisions relating to potential situations where claims could be alleged that our products infringe the intellectual property rights of a third party. We have, at our option and expense, the ability to repair any infringement, replace product with a non-infringing equivalent-in-function product or refund our customers all or a portion of the value of the product. Other guarantees or indemnification agreements include guarantees of product and service performance and standby letters of credit for leased facilities and corporate credit cards. We have not recorded a liability related to these indemnification and guarantee provisions
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and our guarantee and indemnification arrangements have not had a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements to date.
Legal Proceedings
WSOU Investments, LLC
    On November 25, 2020, WSOU Investments LLC ("WSOU") filed a lawsuit against us in the Western District of Texas asserting that certain of our products infringe three WSOU patents. WSOU's allegations are directed to certain features of our wireless and switching products. WSOU seeks remedies including monetary damages, attorney's fees and costs. On February 4, 2021, we filed an answer denying WSOU's allegations.
    We intend to vigorously defend against the claims brought against us by WSOU. However, we cannot be certain that any of WSOU's claims will be resolved in our favor, regardless of the merits of those claims. Any adverse litigation ruling could result in a significant damages award against us and injunctive relief.
    With respect to the legal proceedings described above, it is our belief that while a loss is not probable, it may be reasonably possible. Further, at this stage in the litigation, any possible loss or range of loss cannot be estimated. However, the outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. Therefore, if this legal matter were resolved against us in a reporting period for a material amount, our consolidated financial statements for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected.
Other matters
    In the ordinary course of business, we are a party to other claims and legal proceedings including matters relating to commercial, employee relations, business practices and intellectual property.
    We record a provision for contingent losses when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. As of June 30, 2021, provisions recorded for contingent losses related to other claims and matters have not been significant. Based on currently available information, management does not believe that any additional liabilities relating to other unresolved matters are probable or that the amount of any resulting loss is estimable, and believes these other matters are not likely, individually and in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties and our view of these matters may change in the future. Were an unfavorable outcome to occur, there exists the possibility of a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows for the period in which the unfavorable outcome occurs, and potentially in future periods.
6.    Stockholders’ Equity and Stock-Based Compensation
Stock Repurchase Program
    In April 2019, our board of directors authorized a $1.0 billion stock repurchase program (the "Repurchase Program"). This authorization allows us to repurchase shares of our common stock and is funded from working capital. Repurchases may be made at management’s discretion from time to time on the open market, through privately negotiated transactions, transactions structured through investment banking institutions, block purchases, trading plans under Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") or a combination of the foregoing. The Repurchase Program, which expires in April 2022, does not obligate us to acquire any of our common stock, and may be suspended or discontinued by us at any time without prior notice. As of June 30, 2021, the remaining authorized amount for stock repurchases under this program was approximately $237.3 million.
    A summary of the stock repurchase activity under the Repurchase Program for the six months ended June 30, 2021 is as follows (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Aggregate purchase price$101,355 
Shares repurchased367 
Average price paid per share$275.88 
    There was 0 stock repurchase activity for the three months ended June 30, 2021. The aggregate purchase price of repurchased shares of our common stock is recorded as a reduction to retained earnings and common stock in our condensed consolidated statements of stockholders' equity. All shares repurchased under the Repurchase Program have been retired.
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Equity Award Plan Activities
2014 Equity Incentive Plan
    The 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”) provides for the granting of Incentive Stock Options (“ISOs”), Non-statutory Stock Options (“NSOs”), Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”), Restricted Stock Awards (“RSAs”) or Stock Appreciation Rights (“SARs”). The number of shares available for grant and issuance under the 2014 Plan increases automatically on January 1 of each year by the lesser of (i) 12,500,000 shares, (ii) 3% of the outstanding shares of our common stock on the last day of our immediately preceding fiscal year, or (iii) such other amount as determined by our board of directors. Effective January 1, 2021, our board of directors authorized an increase of 2,285,228 shares to the shares available for issuance under the 2014 Plan. As of June 30, 2021, there remained approximately 23.0 million shares available for issuance under the 2014 Plan.
2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan
    Effective January 1, 2021, our board of directors authorized an increase of 761,742 shares to the shares available for issuance under our 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”). Pursuant to the ESPP, the 2021 share increase was determined based on the lesser of 1% of the total shares of common stock outstanding on December 31, 2020, 2,500,000 shares, or such amount as determined by our board of directors. During the six months ended June 30, 2021, we issued 56,326 shares at a weighted-average purchase price of $182.76 per share under the ESPP. As of June 30, 2021, there remained 4.6 million shares available for issuance under the ESPP.
Stock Option Activities
    The following table summarizes the option activity under our stock plans and related information (in thousands, except years and per share amounts):
Options Outstanding
Number of
Shares
Underlying
Outstanding Options
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price per Share
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term (Years) of
Stock Options
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
of Stock
Options
Outstanding
Balance—December 31, 20203,430 $45.17 3.6$841,659 
       Options granted
       Options exercised(538)30.81 
       Options canceled(18)38.62 
Balance—June 30, 20212,874 $47.90 3.2$903,398 
Vested and exercisable—June 30, 20212,059 $36.79 2.8$670,147 
Restricted Stock Unit (RSU) Activities
    A summary of the RSU activity is presented below (in thousands, except years and per share amounts):
Number of
Shares
Weighted-
Average Grant
Date Fair Value Per Share
Weighted-Average
Remaining
Contractual Term (in years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value
Unvested balance—December 31, 20201,816 $215.68 1.8$527,574 
              RSUs granted671 347.89 
              RSUs vested(280)202.72 
              RSUs forfeited/canceled(85)232.83 
Unvested balance—June 30, 20212,122 $258.52 1.9$768,921 
    In the six months ended June 30, 2021, we granted 69,620 performance-based RSUs (“PRSUs”) to our CEO and other key employees that include both service and performance-based conditions.
    These PRSUs will vest over three to four years and the ultimate number of shares eligible to vest will vary between 0% and 200% of the amount granted based on the achievement of certain performance metrics over the vesting period and each holder’s continued employment with Arista.
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Stock-Based Compensation Expense
    The following table summarizes the stock-based compensation expense related to our equity awards (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Cost of revenue$1,796 $1,585 $3,196 $2,912 
Research and development23,139 19,378 45,121 35,306 
Sales and marketing
11,368 8,277 21,453 14,673 
General and administrative8,641 3,682 12,727 7,587 
              Total stock-based compensation$44,944 $32,922 $82,497 $60,478 
    As of June 30, 2021, there were $550.3 million of unamortized compensation costs related to all unvested awards. The unamortized compensation costs are expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 3.4 years.
7.    Net Income Per Share
    The following table sets forth the computation of our basic and diluted net income per share (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Numerator:
Net income$196,888 $144,793 $377,254 $283,224 
Denominator:
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income per share, basic76,461 75,808 76,384 76,036 
Add weighted-average effect of dilutive securities:
    Stock options and RSUs3,191 3,486 3,235 3,580 
    Employee stock purchase plan58 58 
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income per share, diluted79,710 79,298 79,677 79,620 
Net income per share:
         Basic$2.58 $1.91 $4.94 $3.72 
         Diluted$2.47 $1.83 $4.73 $3.56 
    The following weighted-average outstanding shares of common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share for the periods presented because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Stock options and RSUs101 334 115 467 
Employee stock purchase plan20 149 15 159 
       Total121 483 130 626 
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8.    Income Taxes
 Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 2021202020212020
(in thousands, except percentages)(in thousands, except percentages)
Income before income taxes$221,084 $175,245 $428,951 $337,064 
Provision for income taxes24,196 30,452 51,697 53,840 
Effective tax rate10.9 %17.4 %12.1 %16.0 %
    The change in effective tax rates in the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to the same periods in 2020, was primarily due to an increase in tax benefits attributable to stock-based compensation, combined with a favorable change in jurisdictional mix of earnings.
9.    Geographical Information
    We operate in 1 reportable segment. The following table represents revenue based on customers’ shipping addresses (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Americas$514,149 $435,829 $1,016,021 $836,489 
Europe, Middle East and Africa112,048 63,977 208,322 136,601 
Asia-Pacific81,122 40,764 150,538 90,509 
   Total revenue$707,319 $540,570 $1,374,881 $1,063,599 
    Long-lived assets, net, excluding intercompany receivables, investments in subsidiaries, privately-held equity investments and deferred tax assets, by location are summarized as follows (in thousands):
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
United States$23,097 $24,110 
International9,265 8,121 
   Total$32,362 $32,231 
10.    Subsequent event
    Subsequent to the end of the quarter, on July 20, 2021, we finalized a commitment to acquire land and all improvements thereon for a total consideration of approximately $40.0 million. We expect to fund payment of this amount in the third quarter of 2021.
Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
    You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes that are included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 19, 2021. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current plans, expectations and beliefs that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Overview
    Arista Networks pioneered software-driven, cognitive cloud networking for large-scale data center and campus workspace environments. Our cloud networking solutions consist of our Extensible Operating System ("EOS"), a set of network applications and our Ethernet switching and routing platforms. Our cloud networking solutions deliver industry-leading performance, scalability, availability, programmability, automation and visibility. In recent years, we have sought to bring the operational consistency and principles of cloud networking to the broader enterprise and campus markets with our Cognitive Cloud Networking approach. Our cognitive single-tier SplineTM campus network extends EOS across the campus workspace
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and the data center. In addition, we have added Cognitive WiFiTM to our portfolio to extend these same cognitive principles to the wireless network. CloudVision®, our network-wide approach for workload orchestration and automation, leverages EOS and Cognitive WiFiTM features, to deliver a turnkey workflow orchestration and automation solution for cloud networking to our enterprise customers.
    We generate revenue primarily from sales of our switching and routing platforms, which incorporate our EOS software, and related network applications. We also generate revenue from post-contract support ("PCS"), which end customers typically purchase in conjunction with our products and renewals of PCS. We sell our products through both our direct sales force and our channel partners. As of December 31, 2020, we had delivered our cloud networking solutions to over 7,000 end customers worldwide. Our end customers span a range of industries and include large internet companies, service providers, financial services organizations, government agencies, media and entertainment companies and others.
    Historically, large purchases by a relatively limited number of end customers have accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. We have experienced unpredictability in the timing of orders from these large end customers primarily due to changes in demand patterns specific to these customers, the time it takes these end customers to evaluate, test, qualify and accept our products, and the overall complexity of these large orders. We expect continued variability in our customer concentration and timing of sales on a quarterly and annual basis. For example, sales to our end customers Microsoft and Facebook in fiscal 2019 collectively represented 40% of our total revenue, whereas sales to Microsoft and Facebook in fiscal 2020 amounted to 21.5% and less than 10% of our total revenues, respectively. In addition, we typically provide pricing discounts to large end customers, which may result in lower margins for the period in which such sales occur.
    We believe that cloud computing represents a fundamental shift from traditional legacy network architectures. As organizations of all sizes have moved workloads to the cloud, spending on cloud and next-generation data centers has increased rapidly, while traditional legacy IT spending has grown more slowly. Our cloud networking platforms are well positioned to address the growing cloud networking market, and to address increasing performance requirements driven by the growing number of connected devices, as well as the need for constant connectivity and access to data and applications.
    The markets for cloud networking solutions are highly competitive and characterized by rapidly changing technology, changing end-customer needs, evolving industry standards, frequent introductions of new products and services and industry consolidation. We expect competition to intensify in the future as the market for cloud networking expands and existing competitors and new market entrants introduce new products or enhance existing products. Our future success is dependent upon our ability to continue to evolve and adapt to our rapidly changing environment. We must also continue to develop market leading products and features that address the needs of our existing and new customers, and increase sales in the enterprise data center switching, and campus workspace markets. We intend to continue expanding our sales force and marketing activities in key geographies, as well as our relationships with channel, technology and system-level partners in order to reach new end customers more effectively, increase sales to existing customers, and provide services and support. In addition, we intend to continue to invest in our research and development organization to enhance the functionality of our existing cloud networking platform, introduce new products and features, and build upon our technology leadership. We believe one of our greatest strengths lies in our ability to rapidly develop new features and applications.
    Our development model is focused on the development of new products based on our EOS software and enhancements to EOS. We engineer our products to be agnostic with respect to the underlying merchant silicon architecture. The programmability of EOS has allowed us to expand our software applications to address the ever increasing demands of cloud networking, including workflow automation, network visibility, analytics and network detection and response, and has further allowed us to integrate rapidly with a wide range of third-party applications for virtualization, management, automation, orchestration and network services. This enables us to focus our research and development resources on our software core competencies and to leverage the investments made by merchant silicon vendors to achieve cost-effective solutions. We work closely with third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture our products. Our contract manufacturers deliver our products to our third-party direct fulfillment facilities. We and our fulfillment partners then perform labeling, final configuration, quality assurance testing and shipment to our customers.
COVID-19 Update
    The global coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic continues to negatively impact the global economy and disrupt business activities. We are actively monitoring and evaluating the developments as the situation evolves and will continue to take further actions in our approach to address COVID-19. We have prioritized the protection of our employees during this pandemic and, as a result, our offices across the globe have remained closed since March 2020, limiting access to facilities-based employees and a limited number of employees on a voluntary basis; in addition, we continue to impose some travel restrictions. Although we did not experience significant business disruptions in the current quarter, we continue to work closely with our contract manufacturers and supply chain partners who have experienced delays in component sourcing, workforce disruptions and governmental restrictions on the production and export of their products. Although we have worked diligently
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to drive improvements in these areas, including funding additional working capital and incremental purchase commitments, these delays have negatively impacted our ability to supply products to our customers on a timely basis. We are currently experiencing shortages and delays relating to certain components as a result of manufacturing and supply disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect to continue to invest in working capital to address delays in component sourcing and the risk of future COVID-19 related supply chain disruptions, but we cannot be certain that such delays or disruptions will not occur.
    The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our operational and financial performance, including our ability to execute our business strategies and initiatives in the expected time frame, will depend on future developments, including the duration of the pandemic, the breadth and duration of governmental containment measures such as workplace, travel and social distancing restrictions, as well as the reauthorization of or increase in such measures in the event of spikes in COVID-19 infection rates, the success of the COVID-19 vaccination deployment, and the impact on our customers, partners, contract manufacturers and supply chain, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. However, any continued or renewed disruption in manufacturing and supply resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic or related containment measures could negatively impact our business. We also believe that any extended or renewed COVID-19 related economic disruption could have a negative impact on demand from our customers in future periods. Accordingly, current results and financial condition discussed herein may not be indicative of future operating results and trends.
Results of Operations
Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Compared to Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
Revenue, Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin (in thousands, except percentages)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020Change in20212020Change in
$$$%$$$%
Revenue
Product$566,467 $421,413 $145,054 34.4 %$1,105,612 $832,319 $273,293 32.8 %
Service140,852 119,157 21,695 18.2 269,269 231,280 37,989 16.4 
Total revenue707,319 540,570 166,749 30.8 1,374,881 1,063,599 311,282 29.3 
Cost of revenue
Product225,779 176,432 49,347 28.0 444,212 340,061 104,151 30.6 
Service27,362 20,049 7,313 36.5 51,219 41,198 10,021 24.3 
Total cost of revenue253,141 196,481 56,660 28.8 495,431 381,259 114,172 29.9 
Gross profit$454,178 $344,089 $110,089 32.0 %$879,450 $682,340 $197,110 28.9 %
Gross margin64.2 %63.7 %64.0 %64.2 %

Revenue by Geography (in thousands, except percentages)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021% of Total2020% of Total2021% of Total2020% of Total
Americas$514,149 72.7  %$435,829 80.7  %$1,016,021 73.9  %$836,489 78.7  %
Europe, Middle East and Africa112,048 15.8 63,977 11.8 208,322 15.2 136,601 12.8 
Asia-Pacific81,122 11.5 40,764 7.5 150,538 10.9 90,509 8.5 
Total revenue$707,319 100.0 %$540,570 100.0 %$1,374,881 100.0 %$1,063,599 100.0 %
Revenue
    Product revenue primarily consists of sales of our switching and routing products, and software licenses. Service revenue is primarily derived from sales of PCS, which is typically purchased in conjunction with our products, and subsequent renewals of those contracts. We expect our revenue may vary from period to period based on, among other things, the timing, size, and complexity of orders, especially with respect to our large end customers.
    Product revenue increased $145.1 million, or 34.4%, and $273.3 million, or 32.8%, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2020. These increases reflected increased demand for our products from new and existing customers, including broader market acceptance of our enterprise and campus products. Service revenue increased $21.7 million, or 18.2%, and $38.0 million, or 16.4%, in the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, compared to
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the same periods in 2020, as a result of continued growth in initial and renewal support contracts as our customer installed base has continued to expand. International revenues represented 27.3% and 26.1% of total revenues in the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, increasing from 19.3% and 21.3% compared to the same periods in the prior year. These changes reflected increased international purchases by our large global end customers in addition to increased demand from our in-region end customers. We continued to experience competitive pricing pressure on our products and services.
Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin
    Cost of product revenue primarily consists of amounts paid for inventory to our third-party contract manufacturers and merchant silicon vendors, overhead costs of our manufacturing operations, and other costs associated with manufacturing our products and managing our inventory. Cost of service revenue primarily consists of personnel and other costs associated with our global customer support and services organizations.
    Cost of revenue increased $56.7 million, or 28.8%, and $114.2 million, or 29.9%, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2020. These increases were primarily driven by a corresponding increase in product and service revenues, coupled with an increase in supply chain and product transition related costs.
    Gross margin, or gross profit as a percentage of revenue, has been and will continue to be affected by a variety of factors, including pricing pressure on our products and services due to competition, the mix of sales to large end customers who generally receive lower pricing, manufacturing-related costs, including costs associated with supply chain sourcing activities, merchant silicon costs, the mix of products sold, and excess/obsolete inventory write-downs, including charges for excess/obsolete component inventory held by our contract manufacturers. We expect our gross margin to fluctuate over time, depending on the factors described above.
    Gross margin increased from 63.7% to 64.2% for the three months ended June 30, 2021, and decreased from 64.2% to 64.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2021, compared to the same periods in 2020. The changes in each period were favorably impacted by a reduced proportion of our sales to larger end customers who generally receive larger discounts, and adversely impacted by increased supply chain and product transition-related costs, including some excess and obsolete inventory-related charges.
Operating Expenses (in thousands, except percentages)
    Our operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses. The largest component of our operating expenses is personnel costs. Personnel costs consist of wages, benefits, bonuses and, with respect to sales and marketing expenses, sales commissions. Personnel costs also include stock-based compensation and travel expenses.
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 20212020Change in20212020Change in
 $$$%$$$%
Operating expenses:
Research and development$143,293 $111,544 $31,749 28.5 %$275,780 $224,698 $51,082 22.7 %
Sales and marketing70,625 51,237 19,388 37.8 141,645 108,323 33,322 30.8 
General and administrative20,895 14,319 6,576 45.9 36,368 32,668 3,700 11.3 
Total operating expenses$234,813 $177,100 $57,713 32.6 %$453,793 $365,689 $88,104 24.1 %
Research and development
    Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, prototype expenses, third-party engineering costs, and an allocated portion of facility and IT costs. Our research and development efforts are focused on new product development and maintaining and developing additional functionality for our existing products, including new releases and upgrades to our EOS software and applications. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in software development in order to expand the capabilities of our cloud networking platform, introduce new products and features, and build upon our technology leadership.
    Research and development expenses increased $31.7 million, or 28.5%, and $51.1 million, or 22.7%, in the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2020. The increases were primarily driven by an increase in personnel costs of $20.5 million and $35.7 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2020 due to headcount growth. In addition, new product introduction costs increased by $9.4
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million and $20.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2020. These increases were partly offset by a decrease in merger-related costs of $5.9 million associated with our acquisition of Big Switch Networks ("Big Switch") in 2020.
Sales and marketing
    Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, marketing, trade shows, and other promotional activities, and an allocated portion of facility and IT costs. We expect our sales and marketing expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to expand our sales and marketing efforts worldwide.
    Sales and marketing expenses increased $19.4 million, or 37.8%, and $33.3 million, or 30.8%, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2020, which was primarily caused by increased personnel costs driven by headcount growth.
General and administrative
    General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs and professional services costs. General and administrative personnel costs include those for our executive, finance, human resources and legal functions. Our professional services costs are primarily related to external legal, accounting and tax services.
    General and administrative expenses increased $6.6 million, or 45.9%, and $3.7 million, or 11.3%, in the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 compared to the same periods in 2020, which was primarily driven by increased personnel costs, including increased stock-based compensation expenses. The increase was partly offset by a decrease in merger-related costs of $2.3 million associated with our acquisition of Big Switch in 2020.
Other Income, Net (in thousands, except percentages)
    Other income, net consists primarily of interest income from our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, gains and losses on our investments in privately-held companies, and foreign currency transaction gains and losses. We expect other income, net may fluctuate in the future as a result of the re-measurement of our private company equity investments upon the occurrence of observable price changes and/or impairments, changes in interest rates or returns on our cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities, and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 20212020Change in20212020Change in
 $$$%$$$%
Other income, net:
Interest income$1,872 $8,668 $(6,796)(78.4)%$3,917 $20,330 $(16,413)(80.7)%
Other income (expense), net(153)(412)259 62.9 (623)83 (706)(850.6)
Total other income, net$1,719 $8,256 $(6,537)(79.2)%$3,294 $20,413 $(17,119)(83.9)%
    The unfavorable change in other income, net, during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same periods in 2020 was primarily caused by significant declines in the yields of government and corporate bonds in our investment portfolio.
Provision for Income Taxes (in thousands, except percentages)
    We operate in a number of tax jurisdictions and are subject to taxes in each country or jurisdiction in which we conduct business. Earnings from our non-U.S. activities are subject to local country income tax and may also be subject to U.S. income tax. Generally, our U.S. tax obligations are reduced by a credit for foreign income taxes paid on these foreign earnings, which avoids double taxation. Our tax expense to date consists of federal, state and foreign current and deferred income taxes.
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 20212020Change in20212020Change in
 $$$%$$$%
Income before income taxes$221,084 $175,245 $45,839 26.2 %$428,951 $337,064 $91,887 27.3 %
Provision for income taxes24,196 30,452 (6,256)(20.5)%51,697 53,840 (2,143)(4.0)%
Effective tax rate10.9 %17.4 %12.1 %16.0 %
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    Despite an increase in pre-tax income in each period of 2021 as compared to 2020, our provision for income taxes for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to the same periods in 2020, decreased due to higher tax benefits attributable to stock-based awards, combined with a favorable change in jurisdictional mix of earnings.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
    Our principal sources of liquidity are cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, and cash generated from operations. As of June 30, 2021, our total balance of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities was approximately $3.3 billion, of which approximately $442.8 million was held outside the U.S. in our foreign subsidiaries. 
    Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities are held for general business purposes, including the funding of working capital. Our marketable securities investment portfolio is primarily invested in highly rated securities, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. We plan to continue to invest for long-term growth. We believe that our existing balances of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, together with cash generated from operations, will be sufficient to meet our working capital requirements and our growth strategies for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our growth rate, the timing and extent of our spending to support research and development activities, the timing and cost of establishing additional sales and marketing capabilities, the introduction of new and enhanced product and service offerings, our costs associated with supply chain activities, including access to outsourced manufacturing, our costs related to investing in or acquiring complementary or strategic businesses and technologies, the continued market acceptance of our products, and stock repurchases. If we require or elect to seek additional capital through debt or equity financing in the future, we may not be able to raise capital on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are required and unable to raise additional capital when desired, our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Cash Flows (in thousands)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
(in thousands)
Cash provided by operating activities$518,041 $333,063 
Cash used in investing activities(436,082)(432,759)
Cash used in financing activities(80,824)(209,667)
Effect of exchange rate changes(665)(1,663)
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$470 $(311,026)
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
    During the six months ended June 30, 2021, cash provided by operating activities was $518.0 million, primarily from net income of $377.3 million and non-cash adjustments to net income of $125.2 million driven by stock-based compensation and depreciation and amortization, and a net decrease of $15.5 million in working capital requirements. The decrease in working capital requirements primarily consisted of a $95.3 million increase in product and service deferred revenue driven by customer contracts with acceptance terms and growth in PCS contracts, a $25.3 million decrease in accounts receivable due to strong collections, and a $20.0 million increase in accrued liabilities due to additional supply chain related obligations. These cash inflows were partially offset by a $63.5 million increase in inventory and a $44.4 million increase in prepaid expenses primarily due to prepaid income taxes and deferred product cost of revenue.
    During the six months ended June 30, 2020, cash provided by operating activities was $333.1 million, primarily from net income of $283.2 million and non-cash adjustments to net income of $95.5 million driven by stock-based compensation and depreciation and amortization, partially offset by a net $45.6 million increase in working capital requirements. This increase in working capital primarily consisted of an $82.9 million increase in inventory to help mitigate COVID-19 related supply chain disruptions and a $39.9 million decrease in accrued liabilities related to the timing of corporate bonus payouts. These working capital increases were partially offset by a $31.5 million increase in accounts payable related to the timing of production receipts, a $26.8 million decrease in prepaid taxes, and a $15.3 million decrease in accounts receivable due to strong collections.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
    During the six months ended June 30, 2021, cash used in investing activities was $436.1 million, consisting of purchases of available-for-sale securities of $1,241.7 million, and purchases of property and equipment of $9.6 million, partially offset by proceeds from maturities of marketable securities of $819.8 million.
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    During the six months ended June 30, 2020, cash used in investing activities was $432.8 million, consisting of purchases of available-for-sale securities of $1,236.5 million, $66.3 million for the acquisition of Big Switch, and purchases of property and equipment of $5.2 million, partially offset by proceeds from maturities of marketable securities of $875.2 million.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
    During the six months ended June 30, 2021, cash used in financing activities was $80.8 million, consisting of payments for repurchases of our common stock from the open market of $101.4 million, and employee taxes withheld and paid of $6.4 million upon vesting of restricted stock units, offset partially by proceeds from the issuance of common stock under employee equity incentive plans of $26.9 million.
    During the six months ended June 30, 2020, cash used in financing activities was $209.7 million, consisting of payments for repurchases of our common stock from the open market of $227.9 million, and taxes paid of $4.0 million upon vesting of restricted stock units, offset partially by proceeds from the issuance of common stock under employee equity incentive plans of $22.2 million.
Stock Repurchase Program
    From time to time, we repurchase our common stock pursuant to our Repurchase Program authorized by our board of directors in April 2019. The Repurchase Program allows for stock repurchases of up to $1.0 billion through April 2022, and these repurchases are funded from working capital. The Repurchase Program does not obligate us to acquire any of our common stock and may be suspended or discontinued by us at any time without prior notice. During the three months ended June 30, 2021, there was no stock repurchase activity. As of June 30, 2021, the remaining authorized amount for repurchases under the Repurchase Program was $237.3 million. Refer to Note 6. Stockholders' Equity and Stock-based Compensation of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further discussion.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
    As of June 30, 2021, we did not have any relationships with any unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities that would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
    Our contractual commitments will have an impact on our future liquidity. Our contractual obligations represent material expected or contractually committed future payment obligations. We believe that we will be able to fund these obligations through cash generated from operations and from our existing balances of cash, cash equivalent and marketable securities. As of June 30, 2021, our principal commitments consist primarily of obligations under operating leases for offices and data centers and purchase commitments with our contract manufacturers and suppliers. See Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for our purchase commitments as of June 30, 2021.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates 
    Our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations are based on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from these estimates. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and our actual results, our future financial statements will be affected. We believe the critical accounting policies and estimates in the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 19, 2021 reflect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements. There have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
    Refer to the subheading titled “Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements” in Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

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Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
    We are exposed to market risk in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily a result of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates and investments in privately-held companies.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
    Our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Substantially all of our revenue is denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore, our revenue is not directly subject to foreign currency risk. However, we are indirectly exposed to foreign currency risk. A stronger U.S. dollar could make our products and services more expensive in foreign countries and therefore reduce demand. A weaker U.S. dollar could have the opposite effect. Such economic exposure to currency fluctuations is difficult to measure or predict because our sales are also influenced by many other factors.
    Our expenses are generally denominated in the currencies in which our operations are located, which is primarily in the U.S. and to a lesser extent in Europe and Asia. Our results of operations and cash flows are, therefore, subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and may be adversely affected in the future due to changes in foreign exchange rates. A hypothetical 10% change in foreign currency exchange rates on our monetary assets and liabilities would not be material to our financial condition or results of operations. To date, foreign currency transaction gains and losses and exchange rate fluctuations have not been material to our financial statements. While we have not engaged in the hedging of our foreign currency transactions to date and do not enter into any hedging contracts for trading or speculative purposes, we may in the future hedge selected significant transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
    As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had cash, cash equivalents and available-for-sale marketable securities totaling $3.3 billion and $2.9 billion, respectively. Our portfolio consists of money market funds, corporate bonds, U.S. agency mortgage-backed securities, U.S. treasury securities and commercial paper, with a minimum rating of A- by Standard & Poor’s or A3 by Moody’s. At any time, a sharp rise in market interest rates could have a material adverse impact on the fair value of our fixed income investment portfolio. Conversely, significant declines in coupon interest rates could have a material adverse impact on interest income for our investment portfolio, which has occurred recently. To support our liquidity requirements, we plan to maintain a conservative investment policy, which focuses on the safety and preservation of our capital by limiting default risk, market risk, and concentration risk. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes and have not used any derivative financial instruments. As of June 30, 2021, a hypothetical increase of 100 basis points in market interest rates would have resulted in an approximate $23.5 million decline of the fair value of our available-for-sale fixed income securities. This estimate is based on a sensitivity model that measures market value changes when changes in interest rates occur.
Investments in Privately-Held Companies
    Our non-marketable equity investments in privately-held companies are recorded in “Investments” in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the total carrying amount of our investments in privately-held companies was $13.6 million and $8.3 million, respectively. See Note 4. Investments of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
    The privately-held companies in which we have invested are in the startup or development stages. These investments are inherently risky because the markets for the technologies or products these companies are developing are typically in the early stages and may never materialize. We could lose our entire investment in these companies. Our evaluation of investments in privately-held companies is based on the fundamentals of the businesses invested in, including among other factors, the nature of their technologies and potential for financial return.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
    Management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and our Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of June 30, 2021, our CEO and CFO concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures are designed at a reasonable assurance level and are effective to provide reasonable assurance that information we are required to disclose in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our CEO and CFO, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
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Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
    There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rules 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act, that occurred during the quarter ended June 30, 2021 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Inherent Limitations of Internal Controls
    Our management, including our CEO and CFO, do not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal controls over financial reporting will prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of a simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the controls. The design of any system of controls also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
    The information set forth under the “Legal Proceedings” subheading in Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
    You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, which could materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The risks described below are not the only risks facing us. Risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risk Factors Summary
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in Part I, Item 1A titled “Risk Factors.” These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
the COVID-19 pandemic could materially adversely affect our business;
the networking market is rapidly evolving;
failure to successfully pursue new products and services and expand into adjacent markets could adversely affect our business;
our revenue and revenue growth may decline;
our results of operations may vary significantly from period to period;
our gross margins vary and may be adversely affected;
shipment delays could cause revenue to fall;
some key components in our products come from sole or limited sources of supply which results in risks of supply shortages, extended lead times or supply changes;
adverse economic conditions and reduced information technology and network infrastructure spending may adversely affect our business;
we face intense competition and industry consolidation;
we are subject to risks associated with international sales and operations;
we face risks associated with the acquisition and integration of complementary companies, products or technologies;
seasonal fluctuations impact revenue;
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fluctuations in currency exchange rates could adversely affect our business;
failure to raise any needed capital on favorable terms could harm our business.
Risks Related to Customers and Sales
if we are unable to attract new large customers or sell additional products and services to our existing customers, our revenue growth will be adversely affected;
large purchases by a limited number of customers represent a substantial portion of our revenue;
if we are unable to increase market awareness of our products, our revenue may not continue to grow or may decline;
some large customers require more favorable terms;
sales of our switches generate most of our product revenue;
sales prices of our products and services may decrease;
sales cycle can be long and unpredictable;
inability to offer high quality support and services could adversely affect our business;
declines in maintenance renewals by customers could harm our business;
indemnification provisions under sales contracts could expose us to losses;
we rely on distributors, systems integrators and resellers to sell our products;
sales to government entities are subject to a number of risks and challenges;
we are exposed to credit risk of channel partners and customers.
Risks Related to Products and Services
product quality problems, defects, errors or vulnerabilities could harm our business;
failure to anticipate technological shifts could harm our business;
our products must interoperate with operating systems, software and hardware developed by others.
Risks Related to Supply Chain and Manufacturing
managing the supply of our products and product components is complex;
we depend on third-party manufacturers to build our products;
future sales forecasts may be materially inaccurate which could result in incorrect levels of inventory.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property and Other Proprietary Rights
assertions by third parties of intellectual property infringement could harm our business;
failure to protect our intellectual property rights could harm our competitive position;
we rely on the availability of licenses to third-party software and other intellectual property;
failure to comply with open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products;
risk that our competitors could develop products that are similar to or better than ours because we provide access to our software and selected source code to certain partners, which creates additional risks.
Risks Related to Litigation
we may become involved in litigation that may materially adversely affect us.
Risks Related to Cybersecurity and Data Privacy
defects, errors or vulnerabilities in our security network products, failure of our products to detect security breaches, misuse of our products or risks of product liability could harm our business;
breaches of our cybersecurity systems or other security breaches could harm our business and our products.
Risks Related to Accounting, Compliance, Regulation and Tax
failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting;
if our critical accounting policies are based on incorrect assumptions, our results of operations could fall below analyst and investor expectations and result in a decline in the market price of our common stock;
enhanced U.S. tax, tariff, import/export restrictions or other trade barriers may negatively affect our business;
changes in our effective tax rate or new tax laws could adversely affect our results;
failure to comply with government laws and regulations could harm our business;
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we are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability for violations.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
the trading price of our common stock is volatile and the value of your investment could decline;
any reduction or discontinuance of our stock repurchase program could cause the market price of our common stock to decline;
sales of substantial amounts of our common stock could reduce the market price of our common stock;
insiders have substantial control over us;
our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage takeover attempts and lead to management entrenchment.
General Risks
if we are unable to hire, retain and train personnel and senior management, our business could suffer;
natural disasters, terrorism and other catastrophic events could harm our business;
we have not paid dividends and do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The COVID-19 pandemic could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The COVID-19 pandemic could have an adverse impact on the business operations of our company and our customers, partners, manufacturers, suppliers, distribution fulfillment centers and service depots. While the vast majority of our employees continue to work from home, we plan to reopen our offices in the fall subject to health conditions, and this may present operational and other workplace challenges that may affect our business. We experienced, and may continue to experience, manufacturing and supply chain disruptions and logistic challenges. Our contract manufacturers in Malaysia, Mexico and the United States are impacted by the pandemic and have experienced shelter in place orders, workforce disruptions and delays in production and exporting products. While our contract manufacturers have made significant progress to minimize disruptions caused by COVID-19, they may be subject to supply constraints. Similar to our manufacturing facilities, our direct fulfillment centers and service depots continue to operate with varying degrees of government restriction on access, which can materially impact our ability to ship products or provide support services to our customers. As a result of COVID-19 related manufacturing disruptions, the lead times for our products have increased and our supply chain costs have increased which has adversely impacted our gross margins. In addition, we have and may continue to purchase buffer inventories of components and products that have extended lead times to ensure adequate supply to support long-term customer demand, and this may increase the risk of future excess and obsolete inventory and could have a negative impact on our gross margins.
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, we have experienced and may continue to experience additional risks including:
more manufacturing disruptions and supply shortages, including shortages in semiconductors;
increased lead times for our products including longer lead-times for component parts incorporated into our products;
reduced capacity and output at factories and factory closures;
disruptions in logistics which impact the movement of components and finished products;
overall increased demand for materials which could result in a limited supply of materials and components that are incorporated in our products;
delays in product shipments and limits on our ability to provide in-person support services to customers; and
increased risk of future excess and obsolete inventory as we increase our inventory buffers of long lead time components to support longer term customer demand.
The COVID-19 pandemic could limit our ability to add new customers and cause sales disruptions, order cancellations, longer upgrade cycles by customers for network equipment and overall lower demand for our products and services. Customers may purchase products in advance of their internal demand which could result in lower purchases in subsequent quarters. We could face increased risk of customer defaults and delays in payment.
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In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the global economy and financial markets, which may result in an extended economic slowdown or a global recession that could adversely impact our business. Due to the duration of the pandemic, and the uncertainty around the impact of new strains of COVID-19, we are unable to predict the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations and financial performance.
The networking market is rapidly evolving. If this market does not evolve as we anticipate or our target end customers do not adopt our networking solutions, we may not be able to compete effectively, and our ability to generate revenue will suffer.
A substantial portion of our business and revenue depends on the growth and evolution of the networking market. The market demand for networking solutions has increased in recent years as end customers have deployed larger, more sophisticated networks and have increased the use of virtualization and cloud computing. The continued growth of this market will be dependent upon many factors including but not limited to the adoption of and demand for our end customers’ products and services, the expansion, evolution and build out of our end customers’ networks, the capacity utilization of existing network infrastructures, changes in the technological requirements for the products and services to be deployed in these networks, the amount and mix of capital spending by our end customers, the development of network switches and cloud service solutions by our large end customers for internal use, the financial performance and prospects of our end customers, the availability of capital resources to our end customers, changes in government regulation that could impact networking business models including those regulations related to cybersecurity, privacy, data protection and net neutrality, our ability to provide networking solutions that address the needs of end customers more effectively and economically than those of other competitors or existing technologies and general economic conditions, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
If the networking solutions market does not develop in the way we anticipate or otherwise experiences a slow-down, if our solutions do not offer benefits compared to competing networking products or if end customers do not recognize the benefits that our solutions provide, then our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We pursue new product and service offerings and expand into adjacent markets, and if we fail to successfully carry out these initiatives, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We have made substantial investments to develop new products and services and enhancements to existing products through our acquisitions and research and development efforts to expand our product offerings and maintain our revenue growth. If we are unable to anticipate technological changes in our industry by introducing new or enhanced products and services in a timely and cost-effective manner, if we fail to introduce products and services that meet market demand, or if we do not successfully expand into adjacent markets, we may lose our competitive position, our products may become obsolete, and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. For example, as we introduce our 400 GbE and 800 GbE products, our ability to continue to maintain our competitive position with our customers will depend on our ability to deliver these new products in a timely manner and our customers' acceptance of these products. In addition, the evaluation, testing and qualification of our new products by our customers may be lengthy and may require contractual acceptance clauses, which could delay or impact our revenue and deferred revenue balances.
Additionally, from time to time, we invest in expansion into adjacent markets, including campus switching, WiFi networking and network security markets. Although we believe these solutions are complementary to our current offerings, we have less experience and a more limited operating history in these markets, and our efforts in this area may not be successful. Expanding our services in existing and new markets and increasing the depth and breadth of our presence imposes significant burdens on our marketing, compliance, and other administrative and managerial resources. Our plan to expand and deepen our market share in our existing markets and possibly expand into additional markets is subject to a variety of risks and challenges. Our success in these new markets depends on a variety of factors, including but not limited to our ability to develop new products, new product features and services that address the customer requirements for these markets, attract a customer base in markets in which we have less experience, compete with new and existing competitors in these adjacent markets, and gain market acceptance of our new products.
Developing our products is expensive, and the investment in product development may involve a long payback cycle. We expect to continue to invest heavily in software development in order to expand the capabilities of our cloud networking platform and introduce new products and features. We expect that our results of operations will be impacted by the timing and size of these investments. These investments may take several years to generate positive returns, if ever.
Additionally, future market share gains may take longer than planned and cause us to incur significant costs. If we are unable to attract new large end customers or to sell additional products and services to our existing end customers, our revenue growth will be adversely affected and our revenue could decrease. Difficulties in any of our new product development efforts or our efforts to enter adjacent markets could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
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Our revenue and our revenue growth rates are volatile and may decline.
Our revenue growth rate in previous periods may not be indicative of our future performance. We have experienced annual revenue growth rates of -3.9%, 12.1%, and 30.7% in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. In the future, our revenue growth rates may be volatile as we become more penetrated in our existing customer base and product markets, and as we look to enter and expand into new markets. In addition, COVID-19 related disruptions may have a negative impact on demand from our customers in future periods and on our ability to add new customers. Other factors may also contribute to declines in our growth rates, including changes in demand for our products and services, particularly from our large end customers, changes in capital spending by our large end customers, increased competition, our ability to successfully manage our expansion or continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, the maturation of our business, general economic and international trade conditions, and our ability to be successful in adjacent markets, such as campus switching, WiFi networking markets and network security markets. For example, we have experienced volatility in demand from certain of our large end customers. Overall demand from larger customers may decline in future periods, which would impact our future revenue growth. You should not rely on our revenue for any prior quarterly or annual period as an indication of our future revenue or revenue growth. If we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or revenue growth, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected and our stock price could be volatile.
Our results of operations may vary significantly from period to period and be unpredictable and if we fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors or our previously issued financial guidance, or if any forward-looking financial guidance does not meet the expectation of analysts or investors, the market price of our common stock could decline substantially.
Our results of operations have historically varied from period to period, and we expect that this trend will continue. As a result, you should not rely upon our past financial results for any period as indicators of future performance. Our results of operations in any given period can be influenced by a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:
the disruption caused by COVID-19 and the government restrictions in response to the pandemic;
our inability to fulfill our end customers’ orders due to the unavailability of inventory, supply chain delays, access to key commodities or technologies or events that impact our manufacturers or their suppliers;
deferral, reduction or cancellation of orders from end customers, due to long lead times, announcements by us or other competitors of new products or product enhancements, warranty returns or other factors;
our ability to increase sales to existing customers and attract new end customers, including large end customers;
the budgeting, sales, implementation and refresh cycles, purchasing practices and buying patterns of end customers, including large end customers who may receive lower pricing terms due to volume discounts and who may or may not make large bulk purchases in certain quarters or who may elect to re-assign allocations to multiple vendors based upon specific network roles or projects;
changes in the growth rate of existing or new customers, including large end customers and service providers, changes in end-customer, distributor or reseller requirements or market needs, and changes in growth rates of the networking market;
the cost and potential outcomes of existing and future litigation;
increased expenses resulting from increases in material or component costs and production costs including as a result of shortages in supply for semiconductors or the tariffs imposed by the U.S. on goods from other countries and tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods, including the tariffs implemented by the U.S. government on various imports from China;
changes in our pricing policies, whether initiated by us or as a result of competition;
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operation and expansion of our business;
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difficulty forecasting, budgeting and planning due to limited visibility beyond the first two quarters into the spending plans of current or prospective customers;
the inclusion of any acceptance provisions in our customer contracts or any delays in acceptance of those products;
the actual or rumored timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or end customers;
our ability to successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;
our ability to increase the size and production of our sales or distribution channel, or any disruption in, or termination of, our sales or distribution channels;
decisions by potential end customers to purchase our networking solutions from larger, more established vendors, white box vendors or their primary network equipment vendors;
insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our end customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our products and services, or confronting our key suppliers, including our sole source suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;
seasonality or cyclical fluctuations in our markets;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;
our overall effective tax rate, including impacts caused by any reorganization in our corporate structure, any changes in our valuation allowance for domestic deferred tax assets and any new legislation or regulatory developments, including the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”);
increases or decreases in our expenses caused by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, as an increasing portion of our expenses are incurred and paid in currencies other than the U.S. dollar;
general economic conditions, both domestically and in foreign markets, and disruptions in our business and the markets due to, among other things, health epidemics, natural disasters, terrorism and other catastrophic events;
increases in cybersecurity threats, including security threats from state sponsors; and
other risk factors described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Any one of the factors above or the cumulative effect of several of the factors described above may result in significant fluctuations in our financial and other results of operations and may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. In the past, we have failed to meet investor financial expectations and the market price of our common stock declined. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet our revenue, gross margins, results of operations or other expectations contained in any forward looking financial guidance we have issued or the expectations of securities analysts or investors for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such guidance or expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our common stock could decline substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.
We expect our gross margins to vary over time and may be adversely affected by numerous factors.
We expect our gross margins to vary over time and the gross margins we have achieved in recent years may not be sustainable and may be adversely affected in the future by numerous factors, including but not limited to changes in end-customer, geographic or product mix, increased price competition, introduction of new products and new business models including the sale and delivery of more software and subscription solutions, increases in material or component costs and production costs including as a result of shortages in supply for semiconductors, entry into new markets or growth in lower margin markets, entry in markets with different pricing and cost structures, pricing discounts given to customers, costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement and other claims and the potential outcomes of such disputes, excess inventory and inventory holding charges, changes in shipment volume, the timing of revenue recognition and revenue deferrals, increased costs arising from tariffs, increased costs arising from epidemics, changes in distribution channels, increased warranty costs, and our ability to execute our operating plans. In addition, inflationary pressures and shortages may
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increase costs for certain materials, components, supplies and services. We determine our operating expenses largely on the basis of anticipated revenues and a high percentage of our expenses are fixed in the short and medium term. As a result, a failure or delay in generating or recognizing revenue could cause significant variations in our operating results and operating margin from quarter to quarter. Failure to sustain or improve our gross margins reduces our profitability and may have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.
Interruptions or delays in shipments could cause our revenue for the applicable period to fall below expected levels.
We may be subject to supply chain delays, or end-customer buying patterns in which a substantial portion of sales orders and shipments may occur in the second half of each quarter. This places significant pressure on order review and processing, supply chain management, manufacturing, inventory and quality control management, shipping and trade compliance to ensure that we have properly forecasted supply purchasing, manufacturing capacity, inventory and quality compliance and logistics. A significant interruption in these critical functions could result in delayed order fulfillment, adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and result in a decline in the market price of our common stock.
Because some of the key components in our products come from sole or limited sources of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages, extended lead times or supply changes, which could disrupt or delay our scheduled product deliveries to our end customers and may result in the loss of sales and end customers.
Our products rely on key components, including merchant silicon chips, integrated circuit components, printed circuit boards, connectors, custom-tooled sheet metal and power supplies that we purchase or our contract manufacturers purchase on our behalf from a limited number of suppliers, including certain sole source providers. Generally, we do not have guaranteed supply contracts with our component suppliers, and our suppliers could suffer shortages, longer lead times, delay shipments, prioritize shipments to other vendors, increase prices or cease manufacturing such products or selling them to us at any time. Supply of these components may also be adversely affected by industry consolidation which could result in increased component prices or fewer sourcing options as well as geopolitical conditions such as international trade wars like the U.S. trade war with China and the impact of public health epidemics like the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, in the past, we have experienced shortages in inventory for dynamic random access memory integrated circuits, semiconductors and delayed releases of the next generation of chipset, which delayed our production and/or the release of our new products. We are also currently experiencing shortages and delays relating to certain components as a result of manufacturing and supply disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
If we are unable to obtain sufficient quantities of these components on commercially reasonable terms or in a timely manner, or if we are unable to obtain alternative sources for these components, sales of our products could be delayed or halted entirely or we may be required to redesign our products. Any of these events could result in lost sales, reduced gross margins or damage to our end customer relationships, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our reliance on component suppliers also yields the potential for the infringement or misappropriation of third-party intellectual property rights due to the incorporation of such components into our products. We may not be indemnified by such component suppliers for such infringement or misappropriation claims. Any litigation for which we do not receive indemnification could require us to incur significant legal expenses in defending against such claims or require us to pay substantial royalty payments or settlement amounts that would not be reimbursed by our component suppliers.
Our product development efforts are also dependent upon the success of our continued collaboration with our key merchant silicon vendors such as Broadcom and Intel. As we develop our product roadmap, we select specific merchant silicon from these vendors for each new product. It is critical that we work in tandem with these vendors to ensure that their silicon includes improved features, that our products take advantage of such improved features, and that such vendors are able to supply us with sufficient quantities on commercially reasonable term to meet customer demand. Reliance on these relationships allows us to focus our research and development resources on our software core competencies while leveraging their investments and expertise. The merchant silicon vendors may not be successful in continuing to innovate, meet deadlines for the release of their products or produce a sufficient supply of their products. Moreover, these vendors may not collaborate with us or may become competitive with us by selling merchant silicon for “white boxes” or other products to our customers.
If our key merchant silicon vendors do not continue to innovate, if there are delays in the release of their products or supply shortages, if they no longer collaborate in such fashion or if such merchant silicon is not offered to us on commercially reasonable terms, our products may become less competitive, our own product launches could be delayed or we may be required to redesign our products to incorporate alternative merchant silicon, which could result in lost sales, reduce gross margins, damage to our customer relationships or otherwise have a material effect on revenue and business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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In the event of a shortage or supply interruption from our component suppliers, we may not be able to develop alternate or second sources in a timely manner. Further, long-term supply and maintenance obligations to end customers increase the duration for which specific components are required, which may increase the risk of component shortages or the cost of carrying inventory. In addition, our component suppliers change their selling prices frequently in response to market trends, including industry-wide increases in demand, and because we do not have contracts with these suppliers or guaranteed pricing, we are susceptible to availability or price fluctuations related to raw materials and components. If we are unable to pass component price increases along to our end customers or maintain stable pricing, our gross margins could be adversely affected and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could suffer.
Adverse economic conditions or reduced information technology and network infrastructure spending may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our business depends on the overall demand for information technology, network connectivity and access to data and applications. Weak domestic or global economic conditions, fear or anticipation of such conditions, international trade disputes, global pandemics, or a reduction in information technology and network infrastructure spending even if economic conditions improve, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in a number of ways, including longer sales cycles, lower prices for our products and services, higher default rates among our distributors, and reduced unit sales and lower or no growth. For example, the global macroeconomic environment could be negatively affected by, among other things, the COVID-19 pandemic or other epidemics, instability in global economic markets, increased U.S. trade tariffs and trade disputes between the U.S., China and other countries, instability in the global credit markets, the impact and uncertainty regarding global central bank monetary policy, including the instability in the geopolitical environment as a result of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union ("EU"), political demonstrations, and foreign governmental debt concerns. Such challenges have caused, and are likely to continue to cause, uncertainty and instability in local economies and in global financial markets. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused business disruptions around the world and may result in customers delaying or canceling capital expenditures on information technology and network infrastructure, which may affect the overall demand for our products. Continuing or worsening economic instability could adversely affect spending for IT, network infrastructure, systems and tools. A downturn may also significantly affect financing markets, the availability of capital and the terms and conditions of financing arrangements, including the overall cost of financing as well as the financial health or creditworthiness of our end customers. Circumstances may arise in which we need, or desire, to raise additional capital, and such capital may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
We face intense competition, especially from larger, well-established companies and industry consolidation may lead to further increased competition, which may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The markets in which we compete, including the markets for data center, campus networking and network security, are intensely competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future from established competitors and new market entrants. This competition could result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses and our failure to increase, or the loss of, market share, any of which would likely seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The data center and campus networking markets have been historically dominated by Cisco, with competition also coming from other large network equipment and system vendors, including Extreme Networks, Dell/EMC, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Juniper Networks. Most of our competitors and some strategic alliance partners have made acquisitions and/or have entered into or extended partnerships or other strategic relationships to offer more comprehensive product lines, including cloud networking solutions and network security. For example, Cisco acquired Acacia Communications, Broadcom acquired Brocade Communications Systems, Extreme Networks purchased certain data center networking assets from Broadcom/Brocade and Avaya, Dell acquired EMC, and Hewlett Packard Enterprise acquired Aruba Networks. This industry consolidation may lead to increased competition and may harm our business. Large system vendors are increasingly seeking to deliver top-to-bottom cloud networking solutions to end customers that combine cloud-focused hardware and software solutions to provide an alternative to our products. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen their market positions in an evolving industry and as companies are acquired or are unable to continue operations. Industry consolidation may result in stronger competitors that are better able to compete with us, and this could lead to more variability in our results of operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, the pricing of our solutions, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We also face competition from other companies and new market entrants, including current technology partners, suppliers and end customers or other cloud service providers who may acquire or develop network switches and cloud service solutions for internal use and/or to broaden their portfolio of products to market and sell to customers. Some of these competitors are developing networking products based on off-the-shelf or commoditized hardware technology, or “white box” hardware, particularly where an end customer’s network strategy seeks to emphasize deployment of such product offerings or
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adopt a disaggregated approach to the procurement of hardware and software. End customers may also increase their adoption of networking solutions based upon open source network operating systems that may be provided for free and used either on “white box” or proprietary hardware. The entrance of new competitors into our markets or the increased adoption of these new technology solutions or consumption models may cause downward pricing pressures, result in lost sales or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Our relationships with our strategic alliance partners or suppliers may also shift as industry dynamics changes. If strategic alliance partners acquire or develop competitive products or services, our relationship with those partners may be adversely impacted, which could lead to more variability to our results of operations and impact the pricing of our solutions.
Many of our existing and potential competitors enjoy substantial competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition and longer operating histories, larger sales and marketing budgets and resources, broader distribution and established relationships with channel partners and end customers, the ability to leverage their sales efforts across a broader portfolio of products, the ability to bundle competitive offerings with other products and services, the ability to develop their own silicon chips, the ability to set more aggressive pricing policies, lower labor and development costs, greater resources to make acquisitions, larger intellectual property portfolio, and substantially greater financial, technical, research and development or other resources.
In addition, large competitors may have more extensive relationships with and within existing and potential end customers that provide them with an advantage in competing for business with those end customers. For example, certain large competitors encourage end customers of their other products and services to adopt their data networking solutions through discounted bundled product packages. Our ability to compete will depend upon our ability to provide a better solution than our competitors at a more competitive price. We may be required to make substantial additional investments in research, development, marketing and sales in order to respond to competition, and we cannot assure you that these investments will achieve any returns for us or that we will be able to compete successfully in the future.
We also expect increased competition if our market continues to expand. As we continue to expand globally, we may see new competition in different geographic regions. In particular, we may experience price-focused competition from competitors in Asia, especially from China. As we expand into new markets, we will face competition not only from our existing competitors but also from other competitors, including existing companies with strong technological, marketing, and sales positions in those markets, as well as those with greater resources, including technical and engineering resources, than we do. Conditions in our market could change rapidly and significantly as a result of technological advancements or other factors.
We are subject to a number of risks associated with the expansion of our international sales and operations.
Our ability to grow our business and our future success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our operations and customer base worldwide. Many of our customers, resellers, partners, suppliers and manufacturers operate around the world. Operating in a global marketplace, we are subject to risks associated with having an international reach and compliance and regulatory requirements. Our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including the following:
ability to establish necessary business relationships and to comply with local business requirements, including distributor and reseller relationships;
greater difficulty in enforcing contracts and accounts receivable collection and longer collection periods and non-standard terms with customers related to payment, warranties or performance obligations;
increased expenses incurred in establishing and maintaining our international operations;
fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies where we do business;
general economic and political conditions in these foreign markets;
risks associated with U.S. and foreign legal requirements, including those relating to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, privacy, data protection and the importation, certification and localization of our products in foreign countries;
risks associated with U.S. government trade restrictions, including those which may impose restrictions, including prohibitions, on the exportation, re-exportation, sale, shipment or other transfer of programming, technology, components, and/or services to foreign persons;
greater risk of unexpected changes in regulatory practices, tariffs and tax laws and treaties, including the Tax Act, particularly since there has been a change in U.S. presidential administration;
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greater risk of unexpected changes in tariffs imposed by the U.S. and other countries;
deterioration of political relations between the U.S. and China, Russia, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the EU, which could have a material adverse effect on our sales and operations in these countries;
the uncertainty of protection for intellectual property rights in some countries; and
heightened risk of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results and result in restatements of, or irregularities in, financial statements.
These and other factors could harm our ability to gain future international revenue and, consequently, materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Expanding our existing international operations and entering into additional international markets will require significant management attention and financial commitments. Our failure to successfully manage our international operations and the associated risks effectively could limit our future growth or materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We may invest in or acquire other businesses which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
As part of our business strategy, we may make investments in complementary companies, products or technologies which could involve licenses, additional channels of distribution, discount pricing or investments in or acquisitions of other companies. For example, we completed the acquisitions of Awake Security in October 2020 and Big Switch Networks in February 2020 which required management to focus efforts on integrating Awake Security and Big Switch Networks with the company. We may not be able to find suitable investment or acquisition candidates and we may not be able to complete such investments or acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete investments or acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any investments or acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by our end customers, investors and securities analysts. Through acquisitions, we continue to expand into new markets and new market segments and we may experience challenges in entering into new market segments for which we have not previously manufactured and sold products, including facing exposure to new market risks, difficulty achieving expected business results due to a lack of experience in new markets, products or technologies or the initial dependence on unfamiliar distribution partners or vendors.
In addition, investments and acquisitions may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. For example, if we are unsuccessful at integrating any acquisitions or retaining key talent from those acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects of the combined company could be adversely affected. We may have difficulty retaining the employees of any acquired business or the acquired technologies or research and development expectations may prove unsuccessful. Any integration process may require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. Acquisitions may also disrupt our ongoing business, divert our resources and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for development of our business. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel or accurately forecast the financial effects of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. Any acquisition or investment could expose us to unknown liabilities. Moreover, we cannot assure you that the anticipated benefits of any acquisition or investment would be realized or that we would not be exposed to unknown liabilities. We may not be successful in retaining or expanding the customers and sales activities of any acquired business or in realizing the expected operational and cost efficiencies anticipated with the acquisition. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such investment or acquisition, each of which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market price of our common stock. The sale of equity or issuance of debt to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations. Moreover, if the investment or acquisition becomes impaired, we may be required to take an impairment charge, which could adversely affect our financial condition or the market price of our common stock.
Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations.
We operate on a December 31st year end and have typically experienced higher sequential product revenue growth in the fourth quarter, followed by flat to declining sequential growth in the first quarter of the following year. We believe that this seasonality results from a number of factors, including the procurement, budgeting and deployment cycles of many of our end customers. Our rapid historical growth may have reduced the impact of seasonal or cyclical factors that might have influenced our business to date. If our increasing size causes our growth rate to slow, seasonal or cyclical variations in our operations may
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become more pronounced over time and may materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our sales contracts are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore, substantially all of our revenue is not subject to foreign currency risk. However, a strengthening U.S. dollar could increase the real cost of our products to our end customers outside of the U.S., which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, a decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies could increase our product and operating costs in foreign locations. Further, a portion of our operating expenses is incurred outside the U.S., is denominated in foreign currencies and is subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If we are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with the currency fluctuations, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
If we needed to raise additional capital to expand our operations, invest in new products or for other corporate purposes, our failure to do so on favorable terms could reduce our ability to compete and could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for the foreseeable future. If we did need to raise additional funds to expand our operations, invest in new products or for other corporate purposes, we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms. If we raise additional equity financing, our stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests, and the market price of our common stock could decline. Furthermore, if we engage in debt financing, the holders of such debt would have priority over the holders of common stock, and we may be required to accept terms that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness or impose other restrictions on our business. We may also be required to take other actions that would otherwise be in the interests of the debt holders, including maintaining specified liquidity or other ratios, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, we may not be able to, among other things, enhance our products and services, expand our sales and marketing and research and development organizations, acquire complementary technologies, products or businesses, and respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated working capital requirements. Our failure to do any of these things could seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Customers and Sales
If we are unable to attract new large end customers or to sell additional products and services to our existing end customers, our revenue growth will be adversely affected and our revenue could decrease.
To increase our revenue, we must add new end customers, especially large end customers and sell additional products and services to existing end customers. For example, one of our sales strategies is to target specific projects at our current end customers because they are familiar with the operational and economic benefits of our solutions, thereby reducing the sales cycle into these customers. We also believe the opportunity with current end customers to be significant given their existing infrastructure and expected future spend. Another one of our sales strategies is focused on increasing penetration in the enterprise and campus markets. However, sales strategies focused on expansion to adjacent markets can require more time and effort since enterprise and campus end customers typically start with small purchases, and there is often a long testing period. For this reason, in order to grow our revenue, it is important for us to attract new large end customers. Some factors that may limit our ability to attract new large end customers include, but are not limited to, saturation with certain large cloud networking customers, competition, decreased capital spending of such customers, a limited number of such customers, and a decline in growth of such customers. If we fail to attract new large end customers, including enterprise and campus end customers, or fail to reduce the sales cycle and sell additional products to our existing end customers, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be harmed.
We expect large purchases by a limited number of end customers to continue to represent a substantial portion of our revenue, and any loss, delay, decline or other change in expected purchases could result in material quarter-to-quarter fluctuations of our revenue or otherwise adversely affect our results of operations.
Historically, large purchases by a relatively limited number of end customers have accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. We have experienced unpredictability in the timing of orders from these large end customers primarily due to changes in demand patterns specific to these customers, the time it takes these end customers to evaluate, test, qualify and accept our products, and the overall complexity of these large orders. We expect continued variability in our customer concentration and timing of sales on a quarterly and annual basis. For example, sales to our end customer Microsoft and Facebook in fiscal 2019 collectively represented 40% of our total revenue, whereas sales to our end customer Microsoft in
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fiscal 2020 amounted to 21.5% of our revenues, with our end customer Facebook representing less than 10% of our revenues in the period. In addition, we typically provide pricing discounts to large end customers, which may result in lower margins for the period in which such sales occur.
As a consequence of the concentrated nature of our customer base and their purchasing behavior, our quarterly revenue and results of operations may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and are difficult to estimate. Changes in the business requirements or focus, upgrade cycles, vendor selection, project prioritization, manner in which spending allocations are assigned among multiple vendors based upon specific network roles or projects, financial prospects, lack of growth of our customers, capital resources and expenditures or purchasing behavior and deceleration in spending of our key end customers could significantly decrease our sales to such end customers or could lead to delays, reductions or cancellations of planned purchases of our products or services. Moreover, because our sales will be based primarily on purchase orders, our customers may cancel, delay, reduce or otherwise modify their purchase commitments with little or no notice to us. This limited visibility regarding our end customers’ product needs, the timing and quantity of which could vary significantly, requires us to rely on estimated demand forecasts to determine how much material to purchase and product to manufacture. Our failure to accurately forecast demand can lead to product shortages which could lead to delays in fulfilling current and future purchase orders that can impede production by our customers and harm our customer relationships. And, in the event of a cancellation or reduction of an order, we may not have enough time to reduce operating expenses to mitigate the effect of the lost revenue on our business, which could materially affect our operating results.
We may be unable to sustain or increase our revenue from our large end customers, grow revenues with new or other existing end customers at the rate we anticipate or at all, or offset the discontinuation of concentrated purchases by our larger end customers with purchases by new or existing end customers. These customers could choose to divert all or a portion of their business with us to one of our competitors, re-assign spending allocations, increase their adoption of "white box" solutions and open source network operating systems, demand pricing concessions for our services, require us to provide enhanced services that increase our costs, or reduce their spending levels. If these factors drove some of our large customers to cancel all or a portion of their business relationships with us, the growth in our business and the ability to meet our current and long-term financial forecasts may be materially impacted. We expect that such concentrated purchases will continue to contribute materially to our revenue for the foreseeable future and that our results of operations may fluctuate materially as a result of such larger end customers’ buying patterns. In addition, we may see consolidation of our customer base, such as among Internet companies and cloud service providers, which could result in loss of end customers. The loss of such end customers, or a significant delay or reduction in their purchases, including reductions or delays due to customer departures from recent buying patterns, or an unfavorable change in competitive conditions could materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If we are unable to increase market awareness of our company and our new products and services, our revenue may not continue to grow or may decline.
We have not yet established broad market awareness of our new products and services, including new products we introduced in the campus workspace and network security markets. Market awareness of our value proposition and products and services will be essential to our continued growth and our success, particularly for the service provider and broader enterprise markets. If our marketing efforts are unsuccessful in creating market awareness of our company and our products and services or in gaining access to new customer markets, then our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be adversely affected, and we will not be able to achieve sustained growth.
Some of our large end customers require more favorable terms and conditions from their vendors and may request price concessions. As we seek to sell more products to these end customers, we may be required to agree to terms and conditions that may have an adverse effect on our business or ability to recognize revenue.
Our large end customers have significant purchasing power and, as a result, may receive more favorable terms and conditions than we typically provide to other end customers, including lower prices, bundled upgrades, extended warranties, acceptance terms, indemnification terms and extended return policies and other contractual rights. As we seek to sell more products to these large end customers, an increased mix of our shipments may be subject to such terms and conditions, which may reduce our margins or affect the timing of our revenue recognition and thus may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Sales of our switches generate most of our product revenue, and if we are unable to continue to grow sales of these products, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will suffer.
Historically, we have derived substantially all of our product revenue from sales of our switches, and we expect to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. We have experienced declines in sales prices for our products, including our 10 Gigabit Ethernet modular and fixed switches. A decline in the price of switches and related services, or our inability to increase sales of these products, would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects more seriously than if
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we derived significant revenue from a larger variety of product lines and services. Our future financial performance will also depend upon successfully developing and selling next-generation versions of our switches. If we fail to deliver new products, new features, or new releases that end customers want and that allow us to maintain leadership in what will continue to be a competitive market environment, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be harmed.
The sales prices of our products and services may decrease, which may reduce our gross profits and adversely affect our results of operations.
The sales prices for our products and services may decline for a variety of reasons, including competitive pricing pressures, discounts, a change in our mix of products and services, the introduction of new products and services by us or by our competitors including the adoption of “white box” solutions, promotional programs, product and related warranty costs or broader macroeconomic factors. In addition, we have provided, and may in the future provide, pricing discounts to large end customers, which may result in lower margins for the period in which such sales occur. Our gross margins may also fluctuate as a result of the timing of such sales to large end customers.
We have experienced declines in sales prices for our products and services. Competition continues to increase in the market segments in which we participate, and we expect competition to further increase in the future, thereby leading to increased pricing pressures. Larger competitors with more diverse product and service offerings may reduce the price of products and services that compete with ours or may bundle them with other products and services. Additionally, although we generally price our products and services worldwide in U.S. dollars, currency fluctuations in certain countries and regions may adversely affect actual prices that partners and end customers are willing to pay in those countries and regions. Furthermore, sales prices and gross profits for our products may decrease over product life cycles. Decreased sales prices for any reason may reduce our gross profits and adversely affect our result of operations.
Our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense. As a result, our sales and revenue are difficult to predict and may vary substantially from period to period, which may cause our results of operations to fluctuate significantly.
The timing of our sales and revenue recognition is difficult to predict because of the length and unpredictability of our products’ sales cycles. A sales cycle is the period between initial contact with a prospective end customer and any sale of our products. End-customer orders often involve the purchase of multiple products. These orders are complex and difficult to complete because prospective end customers generally consider a number of factors over an extended period of time before committing to purchase the products and solutions we sell. End customers, especially our large end customers, often view the purchase of our products as a significant and strategic decision and require considerable time to evaluate, test and qualify our products prior to making a purchase decision and placing an order. The length of time that end customers devote to their evaluation, contract negotiation and budgeting processes varies significantly. In addition, customers may delay upgrades to their network infrastructure which extends the upgrade and sales cycle. Our products’ sales cycles can be lengthy in certain cases, especially with respect to our prospective large end customers. During the sales cycle, we expend significant time and money on sales and marketing activities and make investments in evaluation equipment, all of which lower our operating margins, particularly if no sale occurs. Even if an end customer decides to purchase our products, there are many factors affecting the timing of our recognition of revenue, which makes our revenue difficult to forecast. For example, there may be unexpected delays in an end customer’s internal procurement processes, particularly for some of our larger end customers for which our products represent a very small percentage of their total procurement activity. In addition, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the sales cycle may be extended and there may be delays and reductions of expenditures and cancellations by end customers. There are many other factors specific to end customers that contribute to the timing of their purchases and the variability of our revenue recognition, including the strategic importance of a particular project to an end customer, budgetary constraints and changes in their personnel.
Even after an end customer makes a purchase, there may be circumstances or terms relating to the purchase that delay our ability to recognize revenue from that purchase. In addition, the significance and timing of our product enhancements, and the introduction of new products by our competitors, may also affect end customers’ purchases. For all of these reasons, it is difficult to predict whether a sale will be completed, the particular period in which a sale will be completed or the period in which revenue from a sale will be recognized. If our sales cycles lengthen, our revenue could be lower than expected, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our ability to sell our products is highly dependent on the quality of our support and services offerings, and our failure to offer high-quality support and services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Once our products are deployed within our end customers’ networks, our end customers depend on our support organization and our channel partners to resolve any issues relating to our products. High-quality support is critical for the successful marketing and sale of our products. If we or our channel partners do not assist our end customers in deploying our
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products effectively, do not succeed in helping our end customers resolve post-deployment issues quickly or do not provide adequate ongoing support, or if we experience quality issues with these new products, it could adversely affect our ability to sell our products to existing end customers and could harm our reputation with potential end customers. In addition, as we expand our operations internationally, our support organization will face additional challenges, including those associated with delivering support, training and documentation in languages other than English. Our failure or the failure of our channel partners to maintain high-quality support and services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our business depends on end customers renewing their maintenance and support contracts. Any decline in maintenance renewals could harm our future business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We typically sell our products with maintenance and support as part of the initial purchase, and a portion of our annual revenue comes from renewals of maintenance and support contracts. Our end customers have no obligation to renew their maintenance and support contracts after the expiration of the initial period, and they may elect not to renew their maintenance and support contracts, to renew their maintenance and support contracts at lower prices through alternative channel partners or to reduce the product quantity under their maintenance and support contracts, thereby reducing our future revenue from maintenance and support contracts. If our end customers, especially our large end customers, do not renew their maintenance and support contracts or if they renew them on terms that are less favorable to us, our revenue may decline and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will suffer.
Our standard sales contracts contain indemnification provisions requiring us to defend our end customers against third-party claims, including against infringement of certain intellectual property rights that could expose us to losses which could seriously harm our business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects.
Under the indemnification provisions of our standard sales contracts, we agree to defend our end customers and channel partners against third-party claims asserting infringement of certain intellectual property rights, which may include patents, copyrights, trademarks or trade secrets, and to pay judgments entered on such claims. An adverse ruling in such litigation may potentially expose us to claims in the event that claims are brought against our customers based on the ruling and we are required to indemnify such customers.
Our exposure under these indemnification provisions is frequently limited to the total amount paid by our end customer under the agreement. However, certain agreements include indemnification provisions that could potentially expose us to losses in excess of the amount received under the agreement. Any of these events, including claims for indemnification, could seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In addition to our own direct sales force, we rely on distributors, systems integrators and value-added resellers to sell our products, and our failure to effectively develop, manage or prevent disruptions to our distribution channels and the processes and procedures that support them could cause a reduction in the number of end customers of our products.
Our future success is highly dependent upon maintaining our relationships with distributors, systems integrators and value-added resellers and establishing additional sales channel relationships. We anticipate that sales of our products to a limited number of channel partners will continue to account for a material portion of our total product revenue for the foreseeable future. We provide our channel partners with specific training and programs to assist them in selling our products, but these steps may not be effective. In addition, our channel partners may be unsuccessful in marketing, selling and supporting our products and services. If we are unable to develop and maintain effective sales incentive programs for our channel partners, we may not be able to incentivize these partners to sell our products to end customers. These partners may have incentives to promote our competitors’ products to the detriment of our own or may cease selling our products altogether. One of our channel partners could elect to consolidate or enter into a strategic partnership with one of our competitors, which could reduce or eliminate our future opportunities with that channel partner. Our agreements with our channel partners may generally be terminated for any reason by either party with advance notice. We may be unable to retain these channel partners or secure additional or replacement channel partners. The loss of one or more of our significant channel partners requires extensive training, and any new or expanded relationship with a channel partner may take several months or more to achieve productivity.
Where we rely on the channel partners for sales of our products, we may have little or no contact with the ultimate users of our products that purchase through such channel partners, thereby making it more difficult for us to establish brand awareness, ensure proper delivery and installation of our products, service ongoing end-customer requirements, estimate end-customer demand and respond to evolving end-customer needs. In addition, our channel partner sales structure could subject us to lawsuits, potential liability and reputational harm if, for example, any of our channel partners misrepresent the functionality of our products or services to end customers, fail to comply with their contractual obligations or violate laws or our corporate policies. If we fail to effectively manage our existing sales channels, or if our channel partners are unsuccessful in fulfilling the orders for our products, if we are unable to enter into arrangements with, and retain a sufficient number of, high-quality channel
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partners in each of the regions in which we sell products and keep them motivated to sell our products, our ability to sell our products and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be harmed.
A portion of our revenue is generated by sales to government entities, which are subject to a number of challenges and risks.
We anticipate increasing our sales efforts to U.S. and foreign, federal, state and local governmental end customers in the future. Sales to government entities are subject to a number of risks. Selling to government entities can be highly competitive, expensive and time consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. The substantial majority of our sales to date to government entities have been made indirectly through our channel partners. Government certification requirements for products like ours may change and, in doing so, restrict our ability to sell into the government sector until we have attained revised certifications. Government demand and payment for our products and services may be affected by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our products and services. Government entities may have statutory, contractual or other legal rights to terminate contracts with our distributors and resellers for convenience or due to a default, and any such termination may adversely impact our future business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Selling to government entities may also require us to comply with various regulations that are not applicable to sales to non-government entities, including regulations that may relate to pricing, classified material, prohibitions against use of certain foreign components in our products and services and other matters. Complying with such regulations may also require us to put in place controls and procedures to monitor compliance with the applicable regulations that may be costly or not possible. We are not currently certified to perform work under classified contracts with government entities. Failure to comply with any such regulations could adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. Governments routinely investigate and audit government contractors’ administrative processes, and any unfavorable audit could result in the government ceasing to buy our products and services, a reduction of revenue, fines or civil or criminal liability if the audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The U.S. government may require certain products that it purchases to be manufactured in the U.S. and other relatively high-cost manufacturing locations, and we may not manufacture all products in locations that meet these requirements. Any of these and other circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, the U.S. government may require that products it purchases contain a certain threshold of “domestic origin” components in order to meet “Buy America” requirements.
We are exposed to the credit risk of our channel partners and some of our end customers, which could result in material losses.
Most of our sales are on an open credit basis, with standard payment terms of 30 days in the United States and, because of local customs or conditions, longer in some markets outside the U.S. We monitor individual end-customer payment capability in granting such open credit arrangements, seek to limit such open credit to amounts we believe the end customers can pay and maintain reserves we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts. We are unable to recognize revenue from shipments until the collection of those amounts becomes reasonably assured. Any significant delay or default in the collection of significant accounts receivable could result in an increased need for us to obtain working capital from other sources, possibly on worse terms than we could have negotiated if we had established such working capital resources prior to such delays or defaults. Any significant default could adversely affect our results of operations and delay our ability to recognize revenue.
A material portion of our sales is derived through our distributors, systems integrators and value-added resellers. Some of our distributors, systems integrators and value-added resellers may experience financial difficulties, which could adversely affect our collection of accounts receivable. Distributors tend to have more limited financial resources than other systems integrators, value-added resellers and end customers. Distributors represent potential sources of increased credit risk because they may be less likely to have the reserve resources required to meet payment obligations. Our exposure to credit risks of our channel partners may increase if our channel partners and their end customers are adversely affected by global or regional economic conditions. One or more of these channel partners could delay payments or default on credit extended to them, either of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Products and Services
Product quality problems, defects, errors or vulnerabilities in our products or services could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We produce highly complex products that incorporate advanced technologies, including both hardware and software technologies. Despite testing prior to their release, our products may contain undetected defects or errors, especially when first introduced or when new versions are released. Product defects or errors could affect the performance of our products, could result in a failure of appropriate updates to be distributed or installed, could delay the development or release of new products
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or new versions of products, and could result in warranty claims and product liability claims from customers. Any actual or perceived defect, error, or vulnerability in our products or services, or other allegations of unsatisfactory performance could cause us to lose revenue or market share, increase our service costs, cause us to incur substantial costs in analyzing, correcting or redesigning the products or otherwise addressing defects, errors or vulnerabilities, cause us to lose significant end customers, harm our reputation and market positions, subject us to liability for damages, subject us to litigation, regulatory inquiries or investigations, and divert our resources from other tasks, any one of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
From time to time, we have had to replace certain components of products that we had shipped and provide remediation in response to the discovery of defects or bugs, including failures in software protocols or defective component batches resulting in reliability issues, in such products, and we may be required to do so in the future. We may also be required to provide full replacements or refunds for such defective products. We cannot assure you that such remediation or any of the other circumstances described above, including claims, litigation, or regulatory investigations, would not have a material effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If we do not successfully anticipate technological shifts and develop products and product enhancements that meet those technological shifts, if those products are not made available in a timely manner or do not gain market acceptance, or if we do not successfully manage product introductions, we may not be able to compete effectively, and our ability to generate revenue will suffer.
We must continue to enhance our existing products and develop new technologies and products that address emerging technological trends, evolving industry standards and changing end-customer needs. The process of enhancing our existing products and developing new technology is complex and uncertain, and new offerings require significant upfront investment that may not result in material design improvements to existing products or result in marketable new products or costs savings or revenue for an extended period of time, if at all.
In addition, new technologies could render our existing products obsolete or less attractive to end customers, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected if such technologies are widely adopted. For example, end customers may prefer to address their network switch requirements by licensing software operating systems separately and placing them on “white box” hardware rather than purchasing integrated hardware products as has occurred in the server industry. Additionally, end customers may require product upgrades including higher Ethernet speeds and additional functionality to address the increasing demands of the cloud computing environments.
In the past several years, we have announced a number of new products and enhancements to our products and services, including new products in the campus workspace and network security markets. The success of our new products depends on several factors including, but not limited to, appropriate new product definition, the development of product features that sufficiently meet end-user requirements, our ability to manage the risks associated with new product production ramp-up issues, component costs, availability of components, timely completion and introduction of these products, prompt solution of any defects or bugs in these products, our ability to support these products, differentiation of new products from those of our competitors and market acceptance of these products. For example, our new product releases will require strong execution from our third-party merchant silicon chip suppliers to develop and release new merchant silicon chips that satisfy end-customer requirements, to meet expected release schedules and to provide sufficient quantities of these components. If we are unable to successfully manage our product introductions or transitions, or if we fail to penetrate new markets, as a result of any of these or other factors, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
Our product releases introduced new software products that include the capability for disaggregation of our software operating systems from our hardware. The success of our strategy to expand our software business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties including the additional development efforts and costs to create these new products or make them compatible with other technologies, the potential for our strategy to negatively impact revenues and gross margins and additional costs associated with regulatory compliance.
We may not be able to successfully anticipate or adapt to changing technology or end-customer requirements on a timely basis, or at all. If we fail to keep up with technology changes or to convince our end customers and potential end customers of the value of our solutions even in light of new technologies, we may lose customers, decrease or delay market acceptance and sales of our present and future products and services and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our products must interoperate with operating systems, software applications and hardware that is developed by others, and if we are unable to devote the necessary resources to ensure that our products interoperate with such software and hardware, we may lose or fail to increase market share and experience a weakening demand for our products.
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Generally, our products comprise only a part of the network infrastructure and must interoperate with our end customers’ existing infrastructure, specifically their networks, servers, software and operating systems, which may be manufactured by a wide variety of vendors and original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs. Our products must comply with established industry standards in order to interoperate with the servers, storage, software and other networking equipment in the network infrastructure such that all systems function efficiently together. We depend on the vendors of servers and systems in a data center to support prevailing industry standards. Often, these vendors are significantly larger and more influential in driving industry standards than we are. Also, some industry standards may not be widely adopted or implemented uniformly and competing standards may emerge that may be preferred by our end customers.
In addition, when new or updated versions of these software operating systems or applications are introduced, we must sometimes develop updated versions of our software so that our products will interoperate properly. We may not accomplish these development efforts quickly, cost-effectively or at all. These development efforts require capital investment and the devotion of engineering resources. If we fail to maintain compatibility with these systems and applications, our end customers may not be able to adequately utilize our products, and we may lose or fail to increase market share and experience a weakening in demand for our products, among other consequences, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Supply Chain and Manufacturing
Managing the supply of our products and product components is complex. Insufficient component supply and inventory may result in lost sales opportunities or delayed revenue, while excess inventory may harm our gross margins.
Managing our extended supply chain is complex, and our inventory management systems and related supply-chain visibility tools may not enable us to forecast accurately and effectively manage the supply of our products and product components. Our ability to manage our supply chain may also be adversely affected by other factors including shortages of, and extended lead times for, components used to manufacture our products, a reduction or interruption of supply, prioritization of component shipments to other vendors, cessation of manufacturing of such components by our suppliers and geopolitical conditions such as the U.S. trade war with China and the impact of public health epidemics like the COVID-19 pandemic. Insufficient component supply, or any increases in the time required to manufacture our products, may lead to inventory shortages that could result in increased customer lead times for our products, delayed revenue or loss of sales opportunities altogether as potential end customers turn to competitors’ products that are readily available. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in manufacturing and supply chain disruptions, including temporary closures of certain of our contract manufacturer facilities and shortages of certain components and, as a result, has extended lead times for our products.
In order to reduce manufacturing lead times and plan for adequate component supply, from time to time, we may issue purchase orders for components and products that are non-cancelable and non-returnable. In addition, we may purchase components and products that have extended lead teams to ensure adequate supply to support long-term customer demand and mitigate the impact of COVID-19 related supply disruptions. We establish a liability for non-cancelable, non-returnable purchase commitments with our component inventory suppliers for quantities in excess of our demand forecasts, or for products that are considered obsolete. In addition, we establish a liability and reimburse our contract manufacturer for component inventory purchased on our behalf that has been rendered excess or obsolete due to manufacturing and engineering change orders, or in cases where inventory levels greatly exceed our demand forecasts. If we ultimately determine that we have excess inventory or obsolete inventory, we may have to reduce our prices and write down inventory to its estimated realizable value, which in turn could result in lower gross margins. If we are unable to effectively manage our supply and inventory, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
Because we depend on third-party manufacturers to build our products, we are susceptible to manufacturing delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from shipping end-customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales and end customers.
We depend on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture our product lines. A significant portion of our cost of revenue consists of payments to these third-party contract manufacturers. Our reliance on these third-party contract manufacturers reduces our control over the manufacturing process, quality assurance, product costs and product supply and timing, which exposes us to risk. Our reliance on contract manufacturers also yields the potential for their infringement of third-party intellectual property rights in the manufacturing of our products or their misappropriation of our intellectual property rights in the manufacturing of other customers’ products. If we are unable to manage our relationships with our third-party contract manufacturers effectively, or if these third-party manufacturers suffer delays or disruptions or quality control problems in their operations, experience increased manufacturing lead times, capacity constraints or fail to meet our future requirements for timely delivery, our ability to ship products to our end customers would be severely impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects would be seriously harmed.
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To the extent that our products are manufactured at facilities in foreign countries, we may be subject to additional risks associated with complying with local rules and regulations in those jurisdictions, including shelter in place orders issued in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of our contract manufacturers experienced temporary closures and labor shortages as a result of shelter in place orders issued in their local jurisdictions. While our manufacturing sites are currently operational, further shelter in place orders, factory closures or reductions in staffing in these or other manufacturing sites would result in material disruptions, increased lead times and supply shortages of our products.
Our contract manufacturers typically fulfill our supply requirements on the basis of individual orders. We do not have long-term contracts with our third-party manufacturers that guarantee capacity, the continuation of particular pricing terms or the extension of credit limits. Accordingly, they are not obligated to continue to fulfill our supply requirements, which could result in supply shortages, and the prices we are charged for manufacturing services could be increased on short notice. For example, a competitor could place large orders with the third-party manufacturer, thereby utilizing all or substantially all of such third-party manufacturer’s capacity and leaving the manufacturer little or no capacity to fulfill our individual orders without price increases or delays, or at all. Our contract with one of our contract manufacturers permits it to terminate the agreement for convenience, subject to prior notice requirements. We may not be able to develop alternate or second contract manufacturers in a timely manner.
If we add or change contract manufacturers or change any manufacturing plant locations within a contract manufacturer network, we would add additional complexity and risk to our supply chain management and may increase our working capital requirements. Ensuring a new contract manufacturer or new plant location is qualified to manufacture our products to our standards and industry requirements could take significant effort and be time consuming and expensive. Any addition or change in manufacturers may be extremely costly, time consuming and we may not be able to do so successfully.
In addition, we may be subject to additional significant challenges to ensure that quality, processes and costs, among other issues, are consistent with our expectations and those of our customers. A new contract manufacturer or manufacturing location may not be able to scale its production of our products at the volumes or quality we require. This could also adversely affect our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our end customers, which could damage our customer relationships and cause the loss of sales to existing or potential end customers, late delivery penalties, delayed revenue or an increase in our costs which could adversely affect our gross margins. This could also result in increased levels of inventory subjecting us to increased excess and obsolete charges that could have a negative impact on our operating results.
Any production interruptions, labor shortages or disruptions for any reason, including those noted above, as well as a natural disaster, epidemic (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), capacity shortages, adverse results from intellectual property litigation or quality problems, at one of our manufacturing partners would adversely affect sales of our product lines manufactured by that manufacturing partner and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We base our inventory requirements on our forecasts of future sales. If these forecasts are materially inaccurate, we may procure inventory that we may be unable to use in a timely manner or at all.
We and our contract manufacturers procure components and build our products based on our forecasts. These forecasts are based on estimates of future demand for our products, which are in turn based on historical trends and analysis from our sales and marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions and other factors. To the extent our forecasts are materially inaccurate or if we otherwise do not need such inventory, we may under- or over-procure inventory, and such inaccuracies in our forecasts could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property and Other Proprietary Rights
Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights, or other lawsuits asserted against us, could result in significant costs and substantially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Patent and other intellectual property disputes are common in the network infrastructure, network security and Wi-Fi industries and have resulted in protracted and expensive litigation for many companies. Many companies in the network infrastructure, network security and Wi-Fi industries, including our competitors and other third parties, as well as non-practicing entities, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, which they may use to assert claims of patent infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of intellectual property rights against us. From time to time, they have or may in the future also assert such claims against us, our end customers or channel partners whom we typically indemnify against claims that our products infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of third parties. For example, we have previously been involved in litigation with Cisco and OptumSoft, and are currently involved in litigation with WSOU, which is described in the “Legal Proceedings” subheading in Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
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As the number of products and competitors in our market increases and overlaps occur or if we enter into new markets, claims of infringement, misappropriation and other violations of intellectual property rights may increase. Any claim of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights by a third party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against the claim, distract our management from our business and require us to cease use of such intellectual property. In addition, some claims for patent infringement may relate to subcomponents that we purchase from third parties. If these third parties are unable or unwilling to indemnify us for these claims, we could be substantially harmed.
The patent portfolios of most of our competitors are larger than ours. This disparity may increase the risk that our competitors may sue us for patent infringement and may limit our ability to counterclaim for patent infringement or settle through patent cross-licenses. In addition, future assertions of patent rights by third parties, and any resulting litigation, may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence or protection. We cannot assure you that we are not infringing or otherwise violating any third-party intellectual property rights.
The third-party asserters of intellectual property claims may be unreasonable in their demands, or may simply refuse to settle, which could lead to expensive settlement payments, longer periods of litigation and related expenses, additional burdens on employees or other resources, distraction from our business, supply stoppages and lost sales.
An adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to pay substantial damages or penalties including treble damages if we are found to have willfully infringed a third-party’s patents; cease making, licensing, using or importing into the U.S. products or services that are alleged to infringe or misappropriate the intellectual property of others; expend additional development resources to attempt to redesign our products or services or otherwise to develop non-infringing technology, which may not be successful; enter into potentially unfavorable royalty or license agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies or intellectual property rights; and indemnify our partners and other third parties. Any damages, penalties or royalty obligations we may become subject to as a result of an adverse outcome, and any third-party indemnity we may need to provide, could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Royalty or licensing agreements, if required or desirable, may be unavailable on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may require significant royalty payments and other expenditures. Further, there is little or no information publicly available concerning market or fair values for license fees, which can lead to overpayment of license or settlement fees. In addition, some licenses may be non-exclusive, and therefore our competitors may have access to the same technology licensed to us. Suppliers subject to third-party intellectual property claims also may choose or be forced to discontinue or alter their arrangements with us, with little or no advance notice to us. Any of these events could seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In the event that we are found to infringe any third-party intellectual property, we could be enjoined, or subject to other remedial orders that would prohibit us, from making, licensing, using or importing into the U.S. such products or services. In order to resume such activities with respect to any affected products or services, we (or our component suppliers) would be required to develop technical redesigns to this third-party intellectual property that no longer infringe the third-party intellectual property. In any efforts to develop technical redesigns for these products or services, we (or our component suppliers) may be unable to do so in a manner that does not continue to infringe the third-party intellectual property or that is acceptable to our customers. These redesign efforts could be extremely costly and time consuming as well as disruptive to our other development activities and distracting to management. Moreover, such redesigns could require us to obtain approvals from the court or administrative body to resume the activities with respect to these affected solutions. We may not be successful in our efforts to obtain such approvals in a timely manner, or at all. Any failure to effectively redesign our solutions or to obtain timely approval of those redesigns by a court or administrative body may cause a disruption to our product shipments and materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, reputation, results of operations, and financial condition. For example, in two prior investigations brought by Cisco in the International Trade Commission (“ITC”), we were subjected to remedial orders that prohibited us from importing and selling after importation any products the ITC found to infringe Cisco’s patents. As a result, we were required to redesign certain aspects of our products and obtain U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s approval of those redesigns before we could continue to import those products into the United States.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed or we could be required to incur significant expenses to enforce our rights.
We depend on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws and confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties, all of which offer only limited protection.
The process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. We may choose not to seek patent protection for certain innovations and may choose not to pursue patent protection in certain jurisdictions. Further, we do not know whether any of our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or whether the examination process
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will require us to narrow our claims. To the extent that additional patents are issued from our patent applications, which is not certain, they may be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. Moreover, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages, and, as with any technology, competitors may be able to develop similar or superior technologies to our own now or in the future. In addition, we rely on confidentiality or license agreements with third parties in connection with their use of our products and technology. There is no guarantee that such parties will abide by the terms of such agreements or that we will be able to adequately enforce our rights, in part because we rely on “shrink-wrap” licenses in some instances.
We have not registered our trademarks in all geographic markets. Failure to secure those registrations could adversely affect our ability to enforce and defend our trademark rights and result in indemnification claims. Further, any claim of infringement by a third party, even those claims without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against such claim, could divert management attention from our business and could require us to cease use of such intellectual property in certain geographic markets.
Despite our efforts, the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to preclude misappropriation of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights, and our ability to police such misappropriation or infringement is uncertain, particularly in countries outside of the United States.
Detecting and protecting against the unauthorized use of our products, technology and proprietary rights is expensive, difficult and, in some cases, impossible. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and there is no guarantee that we would be successful. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to protecting their technology or intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property, which could result in a substantial loss of our market share.
We rely on the availability of licenses to third-party software and other intellectual property.
Many of our products and services include software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties, and we otherwise use software and other intellectual property licensed from third parties in our business. This exposes us to risks over which we may have little or no control. For example, a licensor may have difficulties keeping up with technological changes or may stop supporting the software or other intellectual property that it licenses to us. Also, it will be necessary in the future to renew licenses, expand the scope of existing licenses or seek new licenses, relating to various aspects of these products and services or otherwise relating to our business, which may result in increased license fees. These licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, a third party may assert that we or our end customers are in breach of the terms of a license, which could, among other things, give such third party the right to terminate a license or seek damages from us, or both. The inability to obtain or maintain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain or maintain such licenses or rights on favorable terms, or the need to engage in litigation regarding these matters, could result in delays in releases of products and services and could otherwise disrupt our business, until equivalent technology can be identified, licensed or developed, if at all, and integrated into our products and services or otherwise in the conduct of our business. Moreover, the inclusion in our products and services of software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis may limit our ability to differentiate our products from those of our competitors. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our products contain third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.
Our products contain software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software that we use. If we combine our software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release portions of the source code of our software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for us.
Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our products to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling our use of open source software in our products will be effective. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue
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offering our products on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our products, to discontinue the sale of our products if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We provide access to our software and other selected source code to certain partners, which creates additional risk that our competitors could develop products that are similar to or better than ours.
Our success and ability to compete depend substantially upon our internally developed technology, which is incorporated in the source code for our products. We seek to protect the source code, design code, documentation and other information relating to our software, under trade secret, patent and copyright laws. However, we have chosen to provide access to selected source code of our software to several of our partners for co-development, as well as for open application programming interfaces ("APIs"), formats and protocols. Though we generally control access to our source code and other intellectual property and enter into confidentiality or license agreements with such partners as well as with our employees and consultants, this combination of procedural and contractual safeguards may be insufficient to protect our trade secrets and other rights to our technology. Our protective measures may be inadequate, especially because we may not be able to prevent our partners, employees or consultants from violating any agreements or licenses we may have in place or abusing their access granted to our source code. Improper disclosure or use of our source code could help competitors develop products similar to or better than ours.
Risks Related to Litigation
We may become involved in litigation that may materially adversely affect us.
From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings relating to matters incidental to the ordinary course of our business, including patent, copyright, commercial, product liability, employment, class action, whistleblower and other litigation, in addition to governmental and other regulatory investigations and proceedings. Such matters can be time-consuming, divert management’s attention and resources, cause us to incur significant expenses or liability and/or require us to change our business practices. For example, we were previously involved in litigation with Cisco and OptumSoft. In addition. on November 25, 2020, WSOU Investments LLC ("WSOU") filed a lawsuit against us in the Western District of Texas asserting that certain of our products infringe three WSOU patents. WSOU's allegations are directed to certain features of our wireless and switching products. WSOU seeks remedies including monetary damages, attorney’s fees and costs. On February 4, 2021, we filed an answer denying WSOU's allegations. We intend to vigorously defend against the claims brought against us by WSOU. However, we cannot be certain that any of WSOU's claims will be resolved in our favor, regardless of the merits of those claims. Any adverse litigation ruling could result in a significant damages award against us and injunctive relief.
Because of the potential risks, expenses and uncertainties of litigation, we may, from time to time, settle disputes, even where we have meritorious claims or defenses. Although we have insurance which may provide coverage for some kinds of claims we may face, that insurance may not cover some kinds of claims or types of relief and may not be adequate in a particular case. Because litigation is inherently unpredictable, we cannot assure you that the results of any of these actions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
For more information regarding the litigation in which we have been involved, see the “Legal Proceedings” subheading in Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q incorporated herein by reference.
Risks Related to Cybersecurity and Data Privacy
Defects, errors or vulnerabilities in our products, the failure of our products to detect security breaches, the misuse of our products or the risks of product liability could harm our reputation and adversely impact our operating results.
Our products, services and internal network systems could become a target for security attacks, including attacks specifically designed to disrupt our business and our customers and introduce malicious software and attacks by state sponsors. If our products, services or internal networks, system or data are or are perceived to have been compromised, our reputation may be damaged and our financial results may be negatively affected.
Organizations are increasingly subject to a wide variety of attacks on their networks, systems, endpoints, products and services, and no security solution, including our security platform, can address all possible security threats or block all methods of penetrating a network, products and services or otherwise perpetrating a security incident. Additionally, any defects, errors, or vulnerabilities in our security platform or in the hardware upon which it is deployed, including a failure to implement updates to such platform, could temporarily or permanently limit our detection capabilities and expose our end-customers’ networks, leaving their networks unprotected against the latest security threats. If customers of our security platform do suffer a data security incident or data breach, even if it is not attributable to a failure of our platform to identify any threat or vulnerability, customers may believe that our platform failed to detect a threat or vulnerability, which could harm our reputation or negatively affect our financial results.
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The classifications of application type, virus, spyware, vulnerability exploits, data, or URL categories by our security platform may also falsely detect, report and act on applications, content, or threats that do not actually exist. These false positives may impair the perceived reliability of our security platform and may therefore adversely impact market acceptance of our security platform. Any such false identification of important files or applications could result in damage to our reputation, negative publicity, loss of channel partners, end-customers and sales, increased costs to remedy any problem, and costly litigation.
Breaches of our cybersecurity systems, or other security breaches or incidents with respect to our products, services, networks, systems, or data, could degrade our ability to conduct our business operations and deliver products and services to our customers, delay our ability to recognize revenue, compromise the integrity of our software products and our networks, systems, and data, result in significant data losses and the theft of our intellectual property, damage our reputation, expose us to liability to third parties and require us to incur significant additional costs to maintain the security of our networks and data.
We increasingly depend upon our IT systems to conduct virtually all of our business operations, ranging from our internal operations and product development activities to our marketing and sales efforts and communications with our customers and business partners. Computer programmers or other persons or organizations may attempt to penetrate our network security, or that of our website or systems, and access or obtain confidential, personal, or otherwise sensitive or proprietary information about us or our customers or cause interruptions of our service. These risks may increase due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. Because the techniques used to access or sabotage networks and systems change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. In addition, our software and sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we produce or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could cause the software or applications to fail or otherwise to unexpectedly interfere with the operation of the system. We face risks of others gaining unauthorized access to our products and services and introducing malicious software and, in turn, expose our end-customers' networks, leaving their networks unprotected against the latest security threats. We have also outsourced a number of our business functions to third parties, including our manufacturers, logistics providers, and cloud service providers, and our business operations also depend, in part, on the success of these third parties’ own cybersecurity measures. Similarly, we rely upon distributors, resellers and system integrators to sell our products and our sales operations depend, in part, on the reliability of their cybersecurity measures. Additionally, we depend upon our employees to appropriately handle confidential data and deploy our IT resources with the use of security measures designed to prevent exposure of our network systems to security breaches and the loss of data. We and all of the aforementioned third parties also face the risk of malicious software, phishing schemes and other social engineering methods, fraud and other malfeasance, cybersecurity threats from state sponsors, and intentional or negligent acts or omissions of employees and contractors. Furthermore, our acquisition of Awake Security and our provision of its NDR platform may result in us being a more attractive target for such attacks. Accordingly, if our cybersecurity systems and measures or those of any of the aforementioned third parties fail to protect against sophisticated cyber-attacks, the mishandling of data by employees and contractors, or any other means of unauthorized access to, or use of, our manufacturing process, products, services, networks, systems, or data that we or such third parties maintain, operate, or process, our ability to conduct our business effectively could be damaged in a number of ways, including:
sensitive data regarding our business or our customers, including intellectual property and other proprietary data, could be stolen;
our electronic communications systems, including email and other methods, or other systems, could be disrupted, and our ability to conduct our business operations could be seriously damaged until such systems can be restored, which we may be unable to achieve in a prompt manner or at all;
our ability to process customer orders and electronically deliver products and services could be degraded, and our distribution channels could be disrupted, resulting in delays in revenue recognition;
defects and security vulnerabilities could be introduced into our software, thereby damaging the reputation and perceived reliability and security of our products and potentially making the data systems of our customers vulnerable to further data loss and cyber incidents;
our manufacturing process, products, services, supply chain, network systems and data could be corrupted; and
personal data of our customers, employees, contractors, and business partners could be accessed, obtained, or used without authorization, or otherwise compromised.
Should any of the above events occur, or be perceived to occur, we could be subject to significant claims for liability from our customers and others and regulatory investigations and actions from governmental agencies, and we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to remediate and otherwise address any data security incident or breach,
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including to notify individuals, entities, or regulatory bodies and to implement measures in an effort to prevent further breaches or incidents. In addition, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights could be compromised and our reputation and competitive position could be significantly harmed. Also, the regulatory and contractual actions, litigation, investigations, fines, penalties and liabilities relating to data breaches that result in losses of, damage or destruction of, or unauthorized access to or acquisition of, credit card information or other personal or sensitive data of users of our services can be significant in terms of fines and reputational impact and necessitate changes to our business operations that may be disruptive to us. Additionally, we could incur significant costs in order to upgrade our cybersecurity systems and other measures in an effort to prevent security breaches and other incidents. Even the perception of inadequate security may damage our reputation and negatively impact our ability to win new customers and retain existing customers. Consequently, our financial performance and results of operations could be adversely affected by any of the foregoing types of security breaches, incidents, vulnerabilities, or other matters, or the perception that any of them have occurred.
In addition, we cannot assure that any limitation of liability provisions in our customer agreements, contracts with third-party vendors and service providers or other contracts would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from any liabilities or damages with respect to any particular claim relating to a security breach or other security-related matter. We also cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data handling or data security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any future claim will not be excluded or otherwise be denied coverage by any insurer. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our reputation, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Accounting, Compliance. Regulation and Tax
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected.
Assessing our processes, procedures and staffing in order to improve our internal control over financial reporting is an ongoing process. Preparing our financial statements involves a number of complex processes, many of which are done manually and are dependent upon individual data input or review. These processes include, but are not limited to, calculating revenue, inventory costs and the preparation of our statement of cash flows. While we continue to automate our processes and enhance our review controls to reduce the likelihood for errors, we expect that for the foreseeable future many of our processes will remain manually intensive and thus subject to human error.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect or if there is a change in accounting principles, our results of operations could fall below expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. A change in these principles or interpretations could harm our revenue and financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change. In addition, we base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations", in Part I, Item 2, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, inventory valuation and contract manufacturer/supplier liabilities, income taxes and loss contingencies. If our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, our results of operations may be adversely affected and may fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.
Enhanced United States tax, tariff, import/export restrictions, Chinese regulations or other trade barriers may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.
There is currently significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States, and various other countries, most significantly China, with respect to trade policies, treaties, tariffs and taxes. In 2018, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (the “USTR”) enacted a tariff of 10% on imports into the U.S. from China, including communications equipment products and components manufactured and imported from China. Since then, additional tariffs have been imposed by the USTR on imports into the United States from China, and China has also imposed tariffs on imports into China from the United States. Although the United States and China signed an interim trade agreement in January 2020, the new administration has not yet negotiated a trade agreement.
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In addition, due to concerns with the security of products and services from certain telecommunications and video providers based in China, U.S. Congress has enacted bans on the use of certain Chinese-origin components or systems either in items sold to the U.S. government or in the internal networks of government contractors and subcontractors (even if those networks are not used for government-related projects). Further, the Chinese government has responded to these U.S. actions by indicating its intention to develop an unreliable entity list, which may limit the ability of companies on the list to engage in business with Chinese customers.
If tariffs, trade restrictions, or trade barriers remain in place or if new tariffs, trade restrictions, or trade barriers are placed on products such as ours by U.S. or foreign governments, especially China, our costs may increase. We believe we can adjust our supply chain and manufacturing practices to minimize the impact of the tariffs, but our efforts may not be successful, there can be no assurance that we will not experience a disruption in our business related to these or other changes in trade practices and the process of changing suppliers in order to mitigate any such tariff costs could be complicated, time-consuming, and costly.
The U.S. tariffs may also cause customers to delay orders as they evaluate where to take delivery of our products in connection with their efforts to mitigate their own tariff exposure. Such delays create forecasting difficulties for us and increase the risk that orders might be canceled or might never be placed. Current or future tariffs imposed by the U.S. may also negatively impact our customers' sales, thereby causing an indirect negative impact on our own sales. Even in the absence of further tariffs, the related uncertainty and the market's fear of an escalating trade war might cause our distributors and customers to place fewer orders for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition, and/or results of operations.
Given the relatively fluid regulatory environment in China and the United States and uncertainty how the U.S. government or foreign governments will act with respect to tariffs, international trade agreements and policies, a trade war, further governmental action related to tariffs or international trade policies, or additional tax or other regulatory changes in the future could directly and adversely impact our financial results and results of operations.
Changes in our income taxes or our effective tax rate, enactment of new tax laws or changes in the application of existing tax laws of various jurisdictions or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income tax returns could adversely affect our results.
Our income taxes are subject to volatility and could be adversely affected by several factors, many of which are outside of our control, including earnings that are lower than anticipated in countries that have lower tax rates and higher than anticipated in countries that have higher tax rates; our ability to generate and use tax attributes; changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; expiration of or lapses in the federal research and development (“R&D”) tax credit laws; transfer pricing adjustments; tax effects of nondeductible compensation, including certain stock-based compensation; tax costs related to inter-company realignments; changes in accounting principles; imposition of withholding or other taxes on payments by subsidiaries or customers; or a change in our decision to indefinitely reinvest certain foreign earnings.
Significant judgment is required to evaluate our tax positions and determine our income tax liability. The accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes applies to all income tax positions, including the potential recovery of previously paid taxes, which if settled unfavorably could adversely affect income taxes or additional paid-in capital. In addition, tax laws are dynamic and subject to change. Changes in tax laws and regulations and interpretations of such laws and regulations, including taxation of earnings outside of the U.S., the introduction of a base erosion anti-abuse tax and the disallowance of tax deductions for certain expense, as well as changes that may be enacted in the future, could impact the tax treatment of our earnings and cash and cash equivalent balances we currently maintain. Furthermore, due to shifting economic and political conditions, tax policies or rates in various jurisdictions, including the United States, may be subject to significant change.
Finally, we are subject to the examination of our income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and other tax authorities. Audits by the IRS or other tax authorities are subject to inherent uncertainties and could result in unfavorable outcomes, including potential fines or penalties. As we operate in numerous taxing jurisdictions, the application of tax laws can be subject to diverging and sometimes conflicting interpretations by tax authorities of these jurisdictions. The expense of defending and resolving such an audit may be significant. The amount of time to resolve an audit is also unpredictable and may divert management’s attention from our business operations. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our income taxes. We cannot assure you that fluctuations in our provision for income taxes or our effective tax rate, the enactment of new tax laws or changes in the application or interpretation of existing tax laws or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our tax returns by tax authorities will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Failure to comply with governmental laws and regulations could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Our business is subject to regulation by various federal, state, local and foreign governmental agencies, including agencies responsible for monitoring and enforcing employment and labor laws, workplace safety, product safety, environmental laws (including new laws related to climate change), consumer protection laws, privacy, data protection, anti-bribery laws, import/export controls, conflict minerals, federal securities laws and tax laws and regulations. In certain jurisdictions, these regulatory requirements may be more stringent than those in the United States. For example, the EU has implemented the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”). The GDPR provides for substantial obligations relating to the handling, storage and other processing of data relating to individuals and administrative fines for violations, which can be up four percent of the previous year’s annual revenue or €20 million, whichever is higher. We have relied on the E.U.-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield programs, and the use of model contractual clauses approved by the E.U. Commission, to legitimize these transfers. Both the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield and these model contractual clauses have been subject to legal challenge. We continue to analyze the July 2020 “Schrems II” decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union and its impact on our data transfer mechanisms as well as subsequent guidance from data privacy regulators. The effects of this decision are uncertain and difficult to predict. Among other effects, we may experience additional costs associated with increased compliance burdens and new contract negotiations with third parties that aid in processing data on our behalf. We may experience reluctance or refusal by current or prospective European customers to use our products, and we may find it necessary or desirable to make further changes to our handling of personal data of residents of the European Economic Area (“EEA”). The regulatory environment applicable to the handling of EEA residents’ personal data, and our actions taken in response, may cause us to assume additional liabilities or incur additional costs and could result in our business, operating results and financial condition being harmed. Additionally, we and our customers may face a risk of enforcement actions by data protection authorities in the EEA relating to personal data transfers to us and by us from the EEA. Any such enforcement actions could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, distract management and technical personnel and negatively affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. Further, the UK has implemented legislation that substantially provides for the GDPR, which provides for fines of up to the greater of 17.5 million British Pounds or four percent of the previous year’s annual revenue, whichever is higher. The relationship between the UK and the EU in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains unclear following the UK’s exit from the EU, including with respect to regulation of data transfers between EU member states and the UK.
Several jurisdictions have passed new laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection, and other matters, and other jurisdictions are considering imposing additional restrictions. These laws continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) became operative on January 1, 2020. The CCPA requires covered companies to, among other things, provide new disclosures to California consumers, and affords such consumers new abilities to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. Certain aspects of the CCPA and its interpretation remain uncertain and are likely to remain uncertain for an extended period. Further, a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), was approved by the votes in the November 3, 2020 election. The CPRA modifies the CCPA significantly, creating obligations relating to consumer data beginning on January 1, 2022, with implementing regulations expected on or before July 1, 2022, and enforcement beginning July 1, 2023. Passage of the CPRA has resulted in further uncertainty and may require us to incur additional costs and expenses in an effort to comply. In addition to the CCPA, numerous other states’ legislatures are considering similar laws that will require ongoing compliance efforts and investment. For example, in March 2021, Virginia enacted a Consumer Data Protection Act that will go into effect on January 1, 2023 and in June 2021, Colorado enacted a Colorado Privacy Act that will go into effect on July 1, 2023, both of which share similarities with the CCPA, CPRA, and legislation proposed in other states.
In addition, some countries are considering or have enacted legislation requiring local storage and processing of data that could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services. Accordingly, we cannot predict the full impact of the CCPA, the CPRA or other evolving privacy and data protection obligations on our business or operations. Complying with emerging and changing legal and regulatory requirements relating to privacy, data protection and other matters may cause us to incur costs or require us to change our business practices, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are also subject to environmental laws and regulations governing the management and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, including the hazardous material content of our products and laws relating to the collection, recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic equipment. Our failure, or the failure of our partners, including our contract manufacturers, to comply with past, present and future environmental laws could result in fines, penalties, third-party claims, reduced sales of our products, re-engineering our products, substantial product inventory write-offs and reputational damage, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We also expect that our business will be affected by new environmental laws and regulations on an ongoing basis applicable to us and our partners, including our contract manufacturers. To date, our expenditures for environmental compliance have not had a material effect on our results of operations or cash flows. Although we cannot predict the future effect of such laws or regulations, they will likely result in additional costs or require us to change the content or manufacturing of our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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From time to time, we may receive inquiries from governmental agencies or we may make voluntary disclosures regarding our compliance with applicable governmental regulations or requirements relating to various matters, including import/export controls, federal securities laws and tax laws and regulations which could lead to formal investigations. Actual or alleged noncompliance with applicable laws, regulations or other governmental requirements could lead to regulatory investigations, enforcement actions, and other proceedings, private claims and litigation, and potentially may subject us to sanctions, mandatory product recalls, enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, fines, damages, civil and criminal penalties or injunctions. If any governmental fines, penalties, or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected. In addition, responding to any investigation, action or other proceeding will likely result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and an increase in professional fees. Enforcement actions, investigations, and fines, penalties, and other sanctions could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate these controls.
Our products may be subject to various export controls and because we incorporate encryption technology into certain of our products, certain of our products may be exported from various countries only with the required export license or through an export license exception. If we were to fail to comply with the applicable export control laws, customs regulations, economic sanctions or other applicable laws, we could be subject to monetary damages or the imposition of restrictions which could be material to our business, operating results and prospects and could also harm our reputation. Further, there could be criminal penalties for knowing or willful violations, including incarceration for culpable employees and managers. Obtaining the necessary export license or other authorization for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Furthermore, certain export control and economic sanctions laws prohibit the shipment of certain products, technology, software and services to embargoed countries and sanctioned governments, entities, and persons. Even though we take precautions to ensure that we and our channel partners comply with all relevant regulations, any failure by us or our channel partners to comply with such regulations could have negative consequences, including reputational harm, government investigations and penalties.
Although we have developed procedures and controls to comply with export control and other applicable laws, historically, we have had some instances where we inadvertently have not fully complied with certain export control laws, but we have disclosed them to, and implemented corrective actions with, the appropriate government agencies.
In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permit and license requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or could limit our end customers’ ability to implement our products in those countries. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential end customers with international operations or create delays in the introduction of our products into international markets. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile, and the value of your investment could decline.
The trading price of our common stock has historically been and is likely to continue to be volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the market price of our common stock include, but are not limited to, forward-looking statements related to future revenue, gross margins and earnings per share, changes or decreases in our growth rate, manufacturing, supply or distribution shortages or constraints, ratings changes by securities analysts, actual or anticipated announcements of new products by our company or our competitors, litigation, actual or anticipated changes or fluctuations in our results of operations, regulatory developments, repurchases of our common stock, departures of key executives, major catastrophic events, and broad market and industry fluctuations.
In addition, technology stocks have historically experienced high levels of volatility and, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences a loss of investor confidence, the market price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The market price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. If the market price of our common stock is volatile, we may become the
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target of securities litigation. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources from our business and prospects. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We have adopted a stock repurchase program to repurchase shares of our common stock, however, any future decisions to reduce or discontinue repurchasing our common stock pursuant to our stock repurchase program could cause the market price for our common stock to decline.
Although our board of directors has authorized a stock repurchase program, any determination to execute our stock repurchase program will be subject to, among other things, our financial position and results of operations, available cash and cash flow, capital requirements, and other factors, as well as our board of director’s continuing determination that the repurchase program is in the best interests of our shareholders and is in compliance with all laws and agreements applicable to the repurchase program. Our stock repurchase program does not obligate us to acquire any common stock. If we fail to meet any expectations related to stock repurchases, the market price of our common stock could decline, and could have a material adverse impact on investor confidence. Additionally, price volatility of our common stock over a given period may cause the average price at which we repurchase our common stock to exceed the stock’s market price at a given point in time.
We may further increase or decrease the amount of repurchases of our common stock in the future. Any reduction or discontinuance by us of repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our current stock repurchase program could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. Moreover, in the event repurchases of our common stock are reduced or discontinued, our failure or inability to resume repurchasing common stock at historical levels could result in a lower market valuation of our common stock.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales might occur, could reduce the market price that our common stock might otherwise attain and may dilute your voting power and your ownership interest in us.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and may make it more difficult for you to sell your common stock at a time and price that you deem appropriate and may dilute your voting power and your ownership interest in us. Based on shares outstanding as of June 30, 2021, holders of approximately 21.7% of our common stock have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. In addition, we have registered the offer and sale of all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans. If holders, by exercising their registration rights, sell large numbers of shares, it could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Insiders have substantial control over us, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.
Our directors, executive officers and each of our stockholders who own greater than 10% of our outstanding common stock together with their affiliates, in the aggregate, beneficially own approximately 21.1% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, based on shares outstanding as of June 30, 2021. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, could exercise a significant level of influence over matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions or other extraordinary transactions. They may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentration of ownership may also discourage a potential investor from acquiring our common stock due to the limited voting power of such stock or otherwise may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.
Our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage takeover attempts and lead to management entrenchment.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of our company. These provisions could also make it difficult for stockholders to elect directors that are not nominated by the current members of our board of directors or take other corporate actions, including effecting changes in our management. These provisions include:
a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;
the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;
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the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;
a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;
the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our president, our secretary or a majority vote of our board of directors, which could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;
the requirement for the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of the voting stock, voting together as a single class, to amend the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation relating to the issuance of preferred stock and management of our business or our amended and restated bylaws, which may inhibit the ability of an acquirer to effect such amendments to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt;
the ability of our board of directors, by majority vote, to amend the bylaws, which may allow our board of directors to take additional actions to prevent an unsolicited takeover and inhibit the ability of an acquirer to amend the bylaws to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt; and
advance notice procedures with which stockholders must comply to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.
In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time.
General Risks
If we are unable to hire, retain, train and motivate qualified personnel and senior management, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could suffer.
Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, particularly software engineering and sales personnel. In addition, our success in expanding into adjacent markets including the enterprise market requires a significant investment of time, effort and financial resources into hiring and training our sales force to address these markets. If we do not effectively train our direct sales force, we may be unable to add new end customers, increase sales to our existing end customers, or successfully expand into new markets. Competition for highly skilled personnel is often intense, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area where we have a substantial presence and need for highly skilled personnel. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have to provide more attractive compensation packages and other amenities. Research and development personnel are aggressively recruited by startup and growth companies, which are especially active in many of the technical areas and geographic regions in which we conduct product development. In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the high-technology industry, job candidates often consider the value of the stock-based compensation they are to receive in connection with their employment. Declines in the market price of our stock could adversely affect our ability to attract, motivate or retain key employees. In addition, our future performance also depends on the continued services and continuing contributions of our senior management to execute our business plan and to identify and pursue new opportunities and product innovations. Our employment arrangements with our employees do not generally require that they continue to work for us for any specified period, and therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. If we are unable to attract or retain qualified personnel, or if there are delays in hiring required personnel, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be seriously harmed.
Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, power outages, floods, health epidemics and other catastrophic events and to interruption by man-made problems such as terrorism.
Our corporate headquarters and the operations of our key manufacturing vendors, logistics providers and partners, as well as many of our customers, are located in areas exposed to risks of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, including the San Francisco Bay Area, Japan and Taiwan. A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, tsunami, fire or a flood, or other catastrophic event such as the COVID-19 pandemic or other disease outbreak, could have a material adverse effect on our or their business, which could in turn materially affect our financial condition, results of operations and prospects. These events could result in manufacturing and supply chain disruptions, shipment delays, order cancellations, and sales delays which could result in missed financial targets. Any health epidemic could have a material adverse effect on our ability to obtain
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components for our products that are supplied from Asia or to manufacture our products in Asia. Any such disruption of our suppliers, our contract manufacturers or our service providers would likely impact our sales and operating results. In addition, a health epidemic could adversely affect the economies of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our products and likely impact our operating results. In addition, acts of terrorism could cause disruptions in our business or the business of our manufacturers, logistics providers, partners or end customers or the economy as a whole. Given our typical concentration of sales at each quarter end, any disruption in the business of our manufacturers, logistics providers, partners or end customers that affects sales at the end of our quarter could have a particularly significant adverse effect on our quarterly results.
We have not paid dividends in the past and do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared nor paid any dividends on our common stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the future. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our common stock if the market price of our common stock increases.

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
(c) Issuer Purchase of Equity Securities
On May 2, 2019, we announced that our board of directors had approved the Repurchase Program (see Note 6. Stockholders' Equity and Stock-based Compensation of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q). There were no shares repurchased under the Repurchase Program during the three months ended June 30, 2021.
Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Not applicable.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

Item 5. Other Information
Disclosure pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
    The U.S. government designated the Russian Federal Security Service (the “FSB”) as a blocked party under Executive Order 13382. On the same day, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control issued General License No. 1B (the “OFAC General License”), which generally authorizes certain licensing, permitting, certification, notification and related transactions with the FSB as may be required pursuant to Russian encryption product import controls for the importation, distribution or use of information technology products in the Russian Federation.
    Arista Networks Limited, one of our subsidiaries, authorized certain third-party resellers in Russia to periodically file notifications with, or apply for import licenses and permits from, the FSB on our behalf in connection with the importation of our products into Russia, as permitted under the OFAC General License. In the quarter ended June 30, 2021, resellers filed notifications with and/or applied for import licenses and permits from the FSB on our behalf. There was no gross revenue or net profits of the Company or any subsidiary directly associated with these filing activities. The Company and its subsidiaries do not sell products or provide services to the FSB. The Company and its subsidiaries will continue to authorize our resellers to file notifications with and apply for import licenses and permits from the FSB to qualify our products for importation and distribution in the Russian Federation to the extent permitted by applicable law.
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Item 6. Exhibits
Exhibit NumberDescription
31.1
31.2
32.1*
101.INSInline XBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.
101.SCHInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
101.CALInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.
101.DEFInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
101.LABInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.
101.PREInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.
104Cover Page Interactive File (formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101)
______________________
* The certifications attached as Exhibit 32.1 that accompany this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are not deemed filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Arista Networks, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, irrespective of any general incorporation language contained in such filing.

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SIGNATURES

    Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
Arista Networks, Inc.
(Registrant)
Date:August 2, 2021By:/s/ JAYSHREE ULLAL
Jayshree Ullal
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
 (Principal Executive Officer)
Date:August 2, 2021By:/s/ ITA BRENNAN
Ita Brennan
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Accounting and Financial Officer)

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