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JRVR James River

Filed: 2 Aug 19, 3:10pm
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2019
or
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from _______ to _______
 
Commission File Number: 001-36777
JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD.
 
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Bermuda 98-0585280
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
Wellesley House, 2nd Floor, 90 Pitts Bay Road, Pembroke HM08, Bermuda
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
 (441) 278-4580
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Names of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, par value $0.0002 per shareJRVR NASDAQGlobal Select Market 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes   x    No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes       No   x
Number of shares of the registrant's common shares outstanding at July 31, 2019: 30,376,675
 



James River Group Holdings, Ltd.
Form 10-Q
Index

 

2


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or Quarterly Report, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These statements may be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. You may identify forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report by the use of words such as “anticipates,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans”, “seeks” and “believes,” and similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “should,” “would,” “may” and “could.” These forward-looking statements include, among others, statements relating to our future financial performance, our business prospects and strategy, anticipated financial position, liquidity and capital needs and other similar matters. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations and assumptions about future events, which are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict.
 
Our actual results may differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements included in this Quarterly Report as a result of various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including, among others:
 
the inherent uncertainty of estimating reserves and the possibility that incurred losses may be greater than our loss and loss adjustment expense reserves;
inaccurate estimates and judgments in our risk management may expose us to greater risks than intended;
the potential loss of key members of our management team or key employees and our ability to attract and retain personnel;
adverse economic factors resulting in the sale of fewer policies than expected or an increase in the frequency or severity of claims, or both;
a decline in our financial strength rating resulting in a reduction of new or renewal business;
reliance on a select group of brokers and agents for a significant portion of our business and the impact of our potential failure to maintain such relationships;
reliance on a select group of customers for a significant portion of our business and the impact of our potential failure to maintain such relationships;
losses resulting from reinsurance counterparties failing to pay us on reinsurance claims, insurance companies with whom we have a fronting arrangement failing to pay us for claims, or an insured group of companies with whom we have an indemnification arrangement failing to perform their reimbursement obligations;
changes in laws or government regulation, including tax or insurance law and regulations;
the ongoing effect of Public Law No. 115-97, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which may have a significant effect on us including, among other things, by potentially increasing our tax rate, as well as on our shareholders;
in the event we do not qualify for the insurance company exception to the passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) rules and are therefore considered a PFIC, there could be material adverse tax consequences to an investor that is subject to U.S. federal income taxation;
the Company or any of its foreign subsidiaries becoming subject to U.S. federal income taxation;
a failure of any of the loss limitations or exclusions we utilize to shield us from unanticipated financial losses or legal exposures, or other liabilities;
losses from catastrophic events which substantially exceed our expectations and/or exceed the amount of reinsurance we have purchased to protect us from such events;
potential effects on our business of emerging claim and coverage issues;
exposure to credit risk, interest rate risk and other market risk in our investment portfolio;
our ability to obtain reinsurance coverage at prices and on terms that allow us to transfer risk and adequately protect our company against financial loss;
the potential impact of internal or external fraud, operational errors, systems malfunctions or cyber security incidents;
our ability to manage our growth effectively;

3


inadequacy of premiums we charge to compensate us for our losses incurred;
failure to maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“Sarbanes-Oxley”); and​​
changes in our financial condition, regulations or other factors that may restrict our subsidiaries’ ability to pay us dividends.
Additional information about these risks and uncertainties, as well as others that may cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, is contained in our filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), including our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 27, 2019.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report. Except as expressly required under federal securities laws and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not have any obligation, and do not undertake, to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances arising after the date of this Quarterly Report, whether as a result of new information or future events or otherwise. You should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements included in this Quarterly Report or that may be made elsewhere from time to time by us, or on our behalf. All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified by these cautionary statements.
 




4


PART 1. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 Item 1. Financial Statements
 
 
JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

 (Unaudited)
June 30,
2019
 December 31,
2018
 (in thousands)
Assets 
  
Invested assets: 
  
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale, at fair value (amortized cost: 2019 – $1,302,946; 2018 – $1,199,409)$1,332,042
 $1,184,202
Equity securities, at fair value (cost:  2019 – $80,846; 2018 – $77,152)87,528
 78,385
Bank loan participations held-for-investment, at amortized cost, net of allowance251,472
 260,972
Short-term investments24,463
 81,966
Other invested assets70,419
 72,321
Total invested assets1,765,924
 1,677,846
    
Cash and cash equivalents169,125
 172,457
Accrued investment income13,073
 11,110
Premiums receivable and agents’ balances, net398,514
 307,899
Reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses545,404
 467,371
Reinsurance recoverable on paid losses39,777
 18,344
Prepaid reinsurance premiums143,172
 112,498
Deferred policy acquisition costs58,294
 54,450
Intangible assets, net37,239
 37,537
Goodwill181,831
 181,831
Other assets98,754
 95,433
Total assets$3,451,107
 $3,136,776
 
See accompanying notes.
 


5


JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (continued)
  
 (Unaudited)
June 30,
2019
 December 31,
2018
 (in thousands, except share amounts)
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity 
  
Liabilities: 
  
Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses$1,783,334
 $1,661,459
Unearned premiums474,430
 386,473
Payables to reinsurers104,882
 61,662
Senior debt98,300
 118,300
Junior subordinated debt104,055
 104,055
Accrued expenses52,846
 51,792
Other liabilities42,210
 43,794
Total liabilities2,660,057
 2,427,535
Commitments and contingent liabilities


 


Shareholders’ equity: 
  
Common Shares – 2019 and 2018: $0.0002 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized; 30,330,675 and 29,988,460 shares issued and outstanding, respectively6
 6
Preferred Shares – 2019 and 2018: $0.00125 par value; 20,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding
 
Additional paid-in capital653,151
 645,310
Retained earnings112,729
 79,753
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)25,164
 (15,828)
Total shareholders’ equity791,050
 709,241
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$3,451,107
 $3,136,776
 
See accompanying notes.


6

 JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income (Unaudited)


 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands, except share amounts)
Revenues 
  
  
  
Gross written premiums$380,003
 $293,378
 $707,337
 $591,494
Ceded written premiums(140,093) (104,772) (259,686) (191,910)
Net written premiums239,910
 188,606
 447,651
 399,584
Change in net unearned premiums(40,796) 19,604
 (58,385) 9,568
Net earned premiums199,114
 208,210
 389,266
 409,152
Net investment income17,535
 16,135
 36,966
 29,391
Net realized and unrealized gains (losses) on investments1,063
 (64) 2,688
 (874)
Other income2,662
 3,760
 5,581
 8,716
Total revenues220,374
 228,041
 434,501
 446,385
Expenses 
  
  
  
Losses and loss adjustment expenses147,053
 154,595
 286,980
 298,367
Other operating expenses44,843
 51,751
 90,595
 106,534
Other expenses683
 93
 683
 97
Interest expense2,684
 2,946
 5,492
 5,468
Amortization of intangible assets149
 149
 298
 298
Total expenses195,412
 209,534
 384,048
 410,764
Income before taxes24,962
 18,507
 50,453
 35,621
Income tax expense4,655
 1,523
 7,418
 3,004
Net income20,307
 16,984
 43,035
 32,617
Other comprehensive income (loss): 
  
  
  
Net unrealized gains (losses), net of taxes of $1,865 and $3,311 in 2019 and $(183) and $(727) in 201820,732
 (6,558) 40,992
 (25,105)
Total comprehensive income$41,039
 $10,426
 $84,027
 $7,512
Per share data: 
  
  
  
Basic earnings per share$0.67
 $0.57
 $1.43
 $1.09
Diluted earnings per share$0.66
 $0.56
 $1.41
 $1.08
Dividend declared per share$0.30
 $0.30
 $0.60
 $0.60
Weighted-average common shares outstanding: 
  
  
  
Basic30,246,420
 29,882,988
 30,153,426
 29,823,982
Diluted30,689,074
 30,293,933
 30,581,205
 30,243,946

 
See accompanying notes.
 

 

7

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity (Unaudited)



 
 Number of
Common
Shares
Outstanding
 Common
Shares (Par)
 Preferred
Shares
 Additional
Paid-in
Capital
 Retained
Earnings
 Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
 Total
 (in thousands, except share amounts)
Balances at March 31, 201930,162,045
 $6
 $
 $648,242
 $101,617
 $4,432
 $754,297
Net income
 
 
 
 20,307
 
 20,307
Other comprehensive income
 
 
 
 
 20,732
 20,732
Dividends
 
 
 
 (9,195) 
 (9,195)
Exercise of stock options166,963
 
 
 3,099
 
 
 3,099
Vesting of RSUs1,667
 
 
 
 
 
 
Compensation expense under share incentive plans
 
 
 1,810
 
 
 1,810
Balances at June 30, 201930,330,675
 $6
 $
 $653,151
 $112,729
 $25,164
 $791,050
              
Balances at December 31, 201829,988,460
 $6
 $
 $645,310
 $79,753
 $(15,828) $709,241
Net income
 
 
 
 43,035
 
 43,035
Other comprehensive income
 
 
 
 
 40,992
 40,992
Dividends
 
 
 
 (18,339) 
 (18,339)
Exercise of stock options265,938
 
 
 5,731
 
 
 5,731
Vesting of RSUs76,277
 
 
 (1,374) 
 
 (1,374)
Compensation expense under share incentive plans
 
 
 3,484
 
 
 3,484
Adoption of ASU No. 2016-02, derecognition of build-to-suit lease, (see Note 1)


 
 
 
 8,280
 
 8,280
Balances at June 30, 201930,330,675
 $6
 $
 $653,151
 $112,729
 $25,164
 $791,050
 
See accompanying notes.


8

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity (Unaudited)



 Number of
Common
Shares
Outstanding
 Common
Shares (Par)
 Preferred
Shares
 Additional
Paid-in
Capital
 Retained
Earnings
 Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
 Total
 (in thousands, except share amounts)
Balances at March 31, 201829,866,705
 $6
 $
 $639,183
 $58,753
 $(12,172) $685,770
Net income
 
 
 
 16,984
 
 16,984
Other comprehensive loss
 
 
 
 
 (6,558) (6,558)
Dividends
 
 
 
 (9,060) 
 (9,060)
Exercise of stock options50,639
 
 
 448
 
 
 448
Vesting of RSUs477
 
 
 (1) 
 
 (1)
Compensation expense under share incentive plans
 
 
 1,660
 
 
 1,660
Balances at June 30, 201829,917,821
 $6
 $
 $641,290
 $66,677
 $(18,730) $689,243
              
Balances at December 31, 201729,696,682
 $6
 $
 $636,149
 $48,198
 $10,346
 $694,699
Net income
 
 
 
 32,617
 
 32,617
Other comprehensive loss
 
 
 
 
 (25,105) (25,105)
Dividends
 
 
 
 (18,109) 
 (18,109)
Exercise of stock options177,835
 
 
 2,803
 
 
 2,803
Vesting of RSUs43,304
 
 
 (777) 
 
 (777)
Compensation expense under share incentive plans
 
 
 3,115
 
 
 3,115
Cumulative effect of adoption of ASU No. 2016-01, net of taxes


 
   
 4,682
 (4,682) 
Cumulative effect of adoption of ASU No. 2018-02


 
 
 
 (711) 711
 
Balances at June 30, 201829,917,821
 $6
 $
 $641,290
 $66,677
 $(18,730) $689,243

See accompanying notes.
 

9

 JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)



 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Operating activities 
  
Net cash provided by operating activities$68,123
 $164,086
Investing activities 
  
Securities available-for-sale: 
  
Purchases – fixed maturity securities(260,853) (178,600)
Sales – fixed maturity securities91,537
 65,275
Maturities and calls – fixed maturity securities64,905
 81,138
Purchases – equity securities(3,977) (5,949)
Sales – equity securities263
 3,179
Bank loan participations: 
  
Purchases(46,327) (121,285)
Sales27,920
 77,933
Maturities25,565
 28,053
Other invested assets: 
  
Purchases
 (6,993)
Return of capital1,266
 308
Redemptions3,000
 
Short-term investments, net57,503
 11,664
Securities receivable or payable, net1,925
 2,015
Purchases of property and equipment(197) (470)
Net cash used in investing activities(37,470) (43,732)
Financing activities 
  
Senior debt repayment(20,000) 
Dividends paid(18,342) (18,042)
Issuance of common shares under equity incentive plans6,493
 3,900
Common share repurchases(2,136) (1,874)
Other financing activities
 (466)
Net cash used in financing activities(33,985) (16,482)
Change in cash and cash equivalents(3,332) 103,872
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period172,457
 163,495
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$169,125
 $267,367
Supplemental information 
  
Interest paid$6,499
 $5,368
 
See accompanying notes.
 



10


JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

1.    Accounting Policies
Organization
James River Group Holdings, Ltd. (referred to as “JRG Holdings” or, with its subsidiaries, the “Company”) is an exempted holding company registered in Bermuda, organized for the purpose of acquiring and managing insurance and reinsurance entities.
The Company owns five insurance companies based in the United States (“U.S.”) focused on specialty insurance niches and two Bermuda-based reinsurance companies as described below:
James River Group Holdings UK Limited (“James River UK”) is an insurance holding company formed in 2015 in the United Kingdom (“U.K.”). JRG Holdings contributed James River Group, Inc. (“James River Group”), a U.S. insurance holding company, to James River UK in 2015.
James River Group is a Delaware domiciled insurance holding company formed in 2002 which owns all of the Company’s U.S.-based subsidiaries, either directly or indirectly through one of its wholly-owned U.S. subsidiaries. James River Group oversees the Company’s U.S. insurance operations and maintains all of the outstanding debt in the U.S.
James River Insurance Company is an Ohio domiciled excess and surplus lines insurance company that, with its wholly-owned insurance subsidiary, James River Casualty Company, is authorized to write business in every state and the District of Columbia.
Falls Lake National Insurance Company (“Falls Lake National”) is an Ohio domiciled insurance company which wholly owns Stonewood Insurance Company (“Stonewood Insurance”), a North Carolina domiciled company, and Falls Lake Fire and Casualty Company, a California domiciled company. Falls Lake National and its subsidiaries primarily write specialty admitted fronting and program business and individual risk workers' compensation insurance.
JRG Reinsurance Company Ltd. (“JRG Re”) was formed in 2007 and commenced operations in 2008. JRG Re, a Bermuda domiciled reinsurer, primarily provides non-catastrophe casualty reinsurance to U.S. third parties and, through December 31, 2017, to the Company’s U.S.-based insurance subsidiaries.
Carolina Re Ltd (“Carolina Re”) was formed in 2018 and as of January 1, 2018 provides reinsurance to the Company’s U.S.-based insurance subsidiaries. Carolina Re is also the cedent on a stop loss reinsurance treaty with JRG Re.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and notes have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and do not contain all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the results of the Company and its subsidiaries from their respective dates of inception or acquisition, as applicable. Readers are urged to review the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 for a more complete description of the Company’s business and accounting policies. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the condensed consolidated financial statements have been included. Such adjustments consist only of normal recurring items. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results of operations for the full year. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 was derived from the Company’s audited annual consolidated financial statements.
Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Estimates and Assumptions
Preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying disclosures. Those estimates are inherently subject to change, and actual results may ultimately differ from those estimates.
Variable Interest Entities
Entities that do not have sufficient equity at risk to allow the entity to finance its activities without additional financial support or in which the equity investors, as a group, do not have the characteristic of a controlling financial interest are referred to as variable interest entities (“VIE”). A VIE is consolidated by the variable interest holder that is determined to have the controlling financial interest (primary beneficiary) as a result of having both the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. The Company determines whether it is the primary beneficiary of an entity subject to consolidation based on a qualitative assessment of the VIE’s capital structure, contractual terms, nature of the VIE’s operations

11

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


and purpose, and the Company’s relative exposure to the related risks of the VIE on the date it becomes initially involved in the VIE. The Company reassesses its VIE determination with respect to an entity on an ongoing basis.
The Company holds interests in VIEs through certain equity method investments included in “other invested assets” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company has determined that it should not consolidate any of the VIEs as it is not the primary beneficiary in any of the relationships. Although the investments resulted in the Company holding variable interests in the entities, they did not empower the Company to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the entities. The Company’s investments related to these VIEs totaled $30.4 million and $29.8 million as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, representing the Company’s maximum exposure to loss.
Income Tax Expense
Our effective tax rate fluctuates from period to period based on the relative mix of income reported by country and the respective tax rates imposed by each tax jurisdiction. For the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, our U.S. federal income tax expense was 18.6% and 8.2% of income before taxes, respectively (14.7% and 8.4% for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively). For U.S.-sourced income, the Company’s U.S. federal income tax expense differs from the amounts computed by applying the federal statutory income tax rate to income before taxes due primarily to interest income on tax-advantaged state and municipal securities, dividends received income, and excess tax benefits on share based compensation. The effective tax rates for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 were elevated due to changes in reserve estimates between accident years in the commercial auto business, and the related impact on the mix of income reported by country.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. This update was issued as a result of the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("TCJA"). The ASU allows for the option to reclassify the stranded tax effects resulting from the implementation of the TCJA out of accumulated other comprehensive income and into retained earnings. The reclassification resulted in a $711,000 decrease to the Company's retained earnings with a corresponding increase to accumulated other comprehensive income in the first quarter of 2018 in connection with the Company's adoption of this ASU.
Adopted Accounting Standards
Effective January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This update requires the recognition of a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability, discounted to the present value, for all leases that extend beyond 12 months. The Company adopted the new standard using a modified retrospective transition method, applying the transition provisions at the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard and did not elect to use hindsight in determining the lease term. Upon adoption of the new standard, the Company derecognized assets of $22.6 million and liabilities of $30.9 million associated with a lease that was designated as build-to-suit under the previous guidance, and recorded a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings of $8.3 million.
The Company recorded right-of-use assets of $17.2 million and lease liabilities of $17.8 million at adoption of the new standard associated with operating leases for office space in Bermuda, North Carolina, Virginia, Arizona, and Georgia. The new standard did not materially impact the Company's results of operations, earnings per share, or cash flows, and did not impact compliance under the covenants of our current credit agreements.
At June 30, 2019, right-of-use assets and lease liabilities were $16.9 million and $17.8 million, respectively. Operating lease costs were $1.2 million and $2.5 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, compared to $1.1 million and $2.2 million in the respective prior year periods. The weighted-average discount rate and weighted average remaining lease term for operating leases was 4.3% and 5.7 years, respectively, as of June 30, 2019.
The table below summarizes maturities of the Company’s operating lease liabilities as of June 30, 2019, which reconciles to total lease liabilities included in other liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet.

12

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


Years ending December 31,(in thousands)
2019$1,864
20203,680
20213,491
20223,293
20233,099
Thereafter4,706
Total lease payments20,133
Less imputed interest(2,347)
Total operating lease liabilities$17,786

Prospective Accounting Standards
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. Current GAAP requires the recognition of credit losses when it is probable a loss has been incurred. The update will require financial assets measured at amortized cost, such as bank loan participations held for investment, to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected by means of an allowance for credit losses that is reflected in net income. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will also be recorded through an allowance for credit losses, with the amount of the allowance limited to the amount by which fair value is below amortized cost. This ASU is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Upon adoption, this ASU will be applied using the modified-retrospective approach, by which a cumulative-effect adjustment will be made to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period presented. The Company is in the process of analyzing how adopting this ASU will affect the Company’s financial statements.

13

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


2.    Investments
The Company’s available-for-sale fixed maturity securities are summarized as follows:
 Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 Fair
Value
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2019 
  
  
  
Fixed maturity securities: 
  
  
  
State and municipal$130,215
 $8,041
 $(6) $138,250
Residential mortgage-backed249,452
 2,212
 (1,906) 249,758
Corporate590,233
 16,672
 (631) 606,274
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed216,771
 3,808
 (503) 220,076
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government114,250
 1,454
 (71) 115,633
Redeemable preferred stock2,025
 26
 
 2,051
Total fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$1,302,946

$32,213

$(3,117)
$1,332,042
December 31, 2018 
  
  
  
Fixed maturity securities: 
  
  
  
State and municipal$147,160
 $3,422
 $(1,287) $149,295
Residential mortgage-backed208,869
 577
 (5,337) 204,109
Corporate534,024
 1,516
 (10,772) 524,768
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed199,528
 310
 (2,813) 197,025
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government107,803
 235
 (845) 107,193
Redeemable preferred stock2,025
 
 (213) 1,812
Total fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$1,199,409

$6,060

$(21,267)
$1,184,202

The amortized cost and fair value of available-for-sale investments in fixed maturity securities at June 30, 2019 are summarized, by contractual maturity, as follows:
 Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 Fair
Value
 (in thousands)
One year or less$46,982
 $47,016
After one year through five years481,646
 490,856
After five years through ten years210,431
 218,335
After ten years95,639
 103,950
Residential mortgage-backed249,452
 249,758
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed216,771
 220,076
Redeemable preferred stock2,025
 2,051
Total$1,302,946
 $1,332,042
 
Actual maturities may differ for some securities because borrowers have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without penalties.

14

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


The following table shows the Company’s gross unrealized losses and fair value for available-for-sale securities aggregated by investment category and the length of time that individual securities have been in a continuous unrealized loss position:
 Less Than 12 Months 12 Months or More Total
 Fair
Value
 Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 Fair
Value
 Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 Fair
Value
 Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2019 
  
  
  
  
  
Fixed maturity securities: 
  
  
  
  
  
State and municipal$170
 $
 $2,317
 $(6) $2,487
 $(6)
Residential mortgage-backed8,983
 (32) 109,153
 (1,874) 118,136
 (1,906)
Corporate3,988
 (6) 67,981
 (625) 71,969
 (631)
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed21,557
 (81) 47,797
 (422) 69,354
 (503)
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government
 
 19,775
 (71) 19,775
 (71)
Total fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$34,698

$(119)
$247,023

$(2,998)
$281,721

$(3,117)
December 31, 2018 
  
  
  
  
  
Fixed maturity securities: 
  
  
  
  
  
State and municipal$19,733
 $(284) $47,018
 $(1,003) $66,751
 $(1,287)
Residential mortgage-backed49,180
 (743) 105,778
 (4,594) 154,958
 (5,337)
Corporate243,384
 (5,089) 155,902
 (5,683) 399,286
 (10,772)
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed106,423
 (1,229) 51,805
 (1,584) 158,228
 (2,813)
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government17,618
 (51) 54,201
 (794) 71,819
 (845)
Redeemable preferred stock1,812
 (213) 
 
 1,812
 (213)
Total fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$438,150

$(7,609)
$414,704

$(13,658)
$852,854

$(21,267)

 
The Company held securities of 77 issuers that were in an unrealized loss position at June 30, 2019 with a total fair value of $281.7 million and gross unrealized losses of $3.1 million. None of the fixed maturity securities with unrealized losses has ever missed, or been delinquent on, a scheduled principal or interest payment.
At June 30, 2019, 99.6% of the Company’s fixed maturity security portfolio was rated “BBB-” or better (“investment grade”) by Standard & Poor’s or received an equivalent rating from another nationally recognized rating agency. Fixed maturity securities with ratings below investment grade by Standard & Poor’s or another nationally recognized rating agency at June 30, 2019 had an aggregate fair value of $5.3 million and an aggregate net unrealized gain of $48,000.
At March 31, 2019, management concluded that three fixed maturity securities from one issuer that we intended to sell at a loss in the second quarter were impaired. The Company recorded impairment losses on these securities of $271,000 in the three months ended March 31, 2019. Management concluded that none of the fixed maturity securities with an unrealized loss at June 30, 2019 or December 31, 2018 had experienced an other-than-temporary impairment. For fixed maturity securities available-for-sale that are not other-than-temporarily impaired at June 30, 2019, management does not intend to sell the securities in an unrealized loss position, and it is not “more likely than not” that the Company will be required to sell these securities before a recovery in their value to their amortized cost basis occurs.
Management concluded that two loans from one issuer in the Company's bank loan portfolio were impaired at June 30, 2019. At June 30, 2019, the impaired loans had a carrying value of $3.4 million, unpaid principal of $3.6 million, and an allowance for credit losses of $231,000. Management concluded that none of the loans in the Company's bank loan portfolio were impaired at December 31, 2018. The aggregate allowance for credit losses on impaired loans was $1.2 million at June 30, 2018 and $3.2 million at December 31, 2017.
At December 31, 2017, the Company held a participation in a loan with unpaid principal of $807,000 issued by a company that produces and supplies power to Puerto Rico through a power purchase agreement with Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, a public corporation and governmental agency of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Management concluded that an allowance

15

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


for credit losses should be established on the loan at December 31, 2017 to reduce its carrying value to $0. In the first quarter of 2018, the full outstanding principal on the loan was repaid and the Company recognized a realized gain of $807,000 on the repayment.
Bank loan participations generally have a credit rating that is below investment grade (i.e. below “BBB-” for Standard & Poor’s) at the date of purchase. These bank loans are primarily senior, secured floating-rate debt rated “BB”, “B”, or “CCC” by Standard & Poor’s or an equivalent rating from another nationally recognized rating agency. These bank loans include assignments of, and participations in, performing and non-performing senior corporate debt generally acquired through primary bank syndications and in secondary markets. Bank loans consist of, but are not limited to, term loans, the funded and unfunded portions of revolving credit loans, and other similar loans and investments. Management believed that it was probable at the time that these loans were acquired that the Company would be able to collect all contractually required payments receivable.
Generally, the accrual of interest on a bank loan participation is discontinued when the contractual payment of principal or interest has become 90 days past due or management has serious doubts about further collectability of principal or interest. A bank loan participation may remain on accrual status if it is in the process of collection and is either guaranteed or well secured. Generally, bank loan participations are restored to accrual status when the obligation is brought current, has performed in accordance with the contractual terms for a reasonable period of time, and the ultimate collectability of the total contractual principal and interest is no longer in doubt. Interest received on nonaccrual loans generally is reported as investment income. There were no bank loans on nonaccrual status at June 30, 2019 or December 31, 2018.
The allowance for credit losses is maintained at a level believed adequate by management to absorb estimated probable credit losses. Management’s periodic evaluation of the adequacy of the allowance is based on consultations and advice of the Company’s independent investment manager, known and inherent risks in the portfolio, adverse situations that may affect the borrower’s ability to repay, the estimated value of any underlying collateral, current economic conditions, and other relevant factors. When an observable market price for a loan is available, the Company has recorded an allowance equal to the difference between the fair value and the amortized cost of bank loans that it has determined to be impaired as a practical expedient for an estimate of probable future cash flows to be collected on those bank loans. Bank loans are charged off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote.
The average recorded investment in impaired bank loans was $1.7 million and $3.7 million during the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Investment income of $0 and $65,000, respectively, was recognized during the time within those periods that the loans were impaired. The Company recorded net realized investment losses of $231,000 and $1.8 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, for changes in the fair value of impaired bank loans (net realized investment losses of $896,000 and $893,000 in three and six months ended June 30, 2018 respectively).


16

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


The Company’s net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments are summarized as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Fixed maturity securities: 
  
  
  
Gross realized gains$411
 $360
 $588
 $382
Gross realized losses(80) (252) (485) (475)
 331

108

103

(93)
Bank loan participations: 
  
  
  
Gross realized gains137
 360
 150
 1,580
Gross realized losses(1,308) (1,006) (3,000) (1,106)
 (1,171)
(646)
(2,850)
474
Equity securities: 
  
  
  
Gross realized gains
 
 
 
Gross realized losses
 (47) (18) (62)
Changes in fair values of equity securities1,900
 521
 5,449
 (1,189)
 1,900

474

5,431

(1,251)
Short-term investments and other: 
  
  
  
Gross realized gains3
 
 4
 
Gross realized losses
 
 
 (4)
 3



4

(4)
Total$1,063

$(64)
$2,688

$(874)

  
Realized investment gains or losses are determined on a specific identification basis. 
The Company invests selectively in private debt and equity opportunities. These investments, which together comprise the Company’s other invested assets, are primarily focused in renewable energy, limited partnerships, and bank holding companies.
 Carrying Value Investment Income
 June 30, December 31, Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Renewable energy LLCs (a)
$30,449
 $29,795
 $(13) $530
 $908
 $1,741
Renewable energy notes receivable (b)
8,750
 8,750
 328
 328
 656
 625
Limited partnerships (c)
26,720
 29,276
 728
 1,092
 2,797
 1,319
Bank holding companies (d)
4,500
 4,500
 86
 86
 172
 172
Total other invested assets$70,419

$72,321

$1,129

$2,036

$4,533

$3,857
 
(a)The Company’s Corporate and Other segment owns equity interests ranging from 2.6% to 32.2% in various LLCs whose principal objective is capital appreciation and income generation from owning and operating renewable energy production facilities (wind and solar). The LLCs are managed by an entity for which two of our directors serve as officers, and the Company’s Non-Executive Chairman has invested in certain of these LLCs. The equity method is used to account for the Company’s LLC investments. Income for the LLCs primarily reflects adjustments to the carrying values of investments in renewable energy projects to their determined fair values. The fair value adjustments are included in revenues for the LLCs. Expenses for the LLCs are not significant and are comprised of administrative and interest expenses. The Company received cash distributions from these investments totaling $253,000 and $2.1 million in the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
(b)
The Company's Corporate and Other segment has invested in notes receivable for renewable energy projects. At June 30, 2019, the Company holds an $8.8 million note issued by an entity for which two of our directors serve as officers. Interest on the note, which matures in 2021, is fixed at 15.0%. Interest income on the note was $328,000 and $656,000 for the three and six

17

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


months ended June 30, 2019, respectively ($328,000 and $625,000 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively).
(c)
The Company owns investments in limited partnerships that invest in concentrated portfolios including publicly-traded small cap equities, loans of middle market private equity sponsored companies, equity tranches of collateralized loan obligations (CLOs), and tranches of distressed home loans. Income from the partnerships is recognized under the equity method of accounting. The Company’s Corporate and Other segment held an investment in a limited partnership with a carrying value of $3.6 million at June 30, 2019. The Company recognized investment income of $480,000 and $208,000 on the investment for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The Company’s Excess and Surplus Lines segment holds investments in limited partnerships of $23.2 million at June 30, 2019. Investment income of $2.3 million and $1.1 million was recognized on the investments for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. At June 30, 2019, the Company’s Excess and Surplus Lines segment has outstanding commitments to invest another $625,000 in these limited partnerships.
(d)The Company's Corporate and Other segment holds $4.5 million of subordinated notes issued by a bank holding company for which the Company’s Non-Executive Chairman was previously the Lead Independent Director and an investor and for which one of the Company’s directors was an investor and is currently a lender (the "Bank Holding Company"). Interest on the notes, which mature on August 12, 2023, is fixed at 7.6% per annum. Interest income on the notes was $172,000 in both the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company held an investment in a CLO where one of the underlying loans was issued by the Bank Holding Company. The investment, with a carrying value of $3.4 million at June 30, 2019, is classified as an available-for-sale fixed maturity.
3.    Goodwill and Intangible Assets
On December 11, 2007, the Company completed an acquisition of James River Group by acquiring 100% of the outstanding shares of James River Group common stock, referred to herein as the “Merger”. The transaction was accounted for under the purchase method of accounting, and goodwill and intangible assets were recognized by the Company as a result of the transaction. Goodwill resulting from the Merger was $181.8 million at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
The gross carrying amounts and accumulated amortization for each major specifically identifiable intangible asset class were as follows: 
   June 30, 2019 December 31, 2018
 Life
(Years)
 Gross
Carrying
Amount
 Accumulated
Amortization
 Gross
Carrying
Amount
 Accumulated
Amortization
   ($ in thousands)
Intangible Assets   
  
  
  
TrademarksIndefinite $22,200
 $
 $22,200
 $
Insurance licenses and authoritiesIndefinite 8,964
 
 8,964
 
Identifiable intangibles not subject to amortization  31,164
 
 31,164
 
Broker relationships24.6 11,611
 5,536
 11,611
 5,238
Identifiable intangible assets subject to amortization  11,611
 5,536
 11,611
 5,238
   $42,775
 $5,536
 $42,775
 $5,238

 

18

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


4.    Earnings Per Share
The following represents a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic and diluted earnings per share computations contained in the condensed consolidated financial statements:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Net income to shareholders$20,307
 $16,984
 $43,035
 $32,617
        
Weighted average common shares outstanding:       
Basic30,246,420
 29,882,988
 30,153,426
 29,823,982
Common share equivalents442,654
 410,945
 427,779
 419,964
Diluted30,689,074
 30,293,933
 30,581,205
 30,243,946
        
Earnings per share:       
Basic$0.67
 $0.57
 $1.43
 $1.09
Common share equivalents(0.01) (0.01) (0.02) (0.01)
Diluted$0.66
 $0.56
 $1.41
 $1.08

Common share equivalents relate to our outstanding equity awards (stock options and restricted share units ("RSUs")). For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, common share equivalents of 9,735 and 170,310 shares, respectively, were excluded from the calculations of diluted earnings per share as their effects were anti-dilutive (182,246 and 187,502 shares in the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively).

19

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


5.    Reserve for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
The following table provides a reconciliation of the beginning and ending reserve balances for losses and loss adjustment expenses, net of reinsurance, to the gross amounts reported in the condensed consolidated balance sheets:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses net of reinsurance recoverables at beginning of period$1,221,652
 $1,038,303
 $1,194,088
 $989,825
Add: Incurred losses and loss adjustment expenses net of reinsurance: 
  
  
  
Current year144,738
 152,371
 283,697
 298,753
Prior years2,315
 2,224
 3,283
 (386)
Total incurred losses and loss and adjustment expenses147,053
 154,595
 286,980
 298,367
Deduct: Loss and loss adjustment expense payments net of reinsurance: 
  
    
Current year20,575
 20,577
 25,254
 32,754
Prior years110,200
 79,503
 217,884
 162,620
Total loss and loss adjustment expense payments130,775
 100,080
 243,138
 195,374
Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses net of reinsurance recoverables at end of period1,237,930
 1,092,818
 1,237,930
 1,092,818
Add: Reinsurance recoverables on unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses at end of period545,404
 375,535
 545,404
 375,535
Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses gross of reinsurance recoverables on unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses at end of period$1,783,334
 $1,468,353
 $1,783,334
 $1,468,353

  
The Company experienced $2.3 million of adverse reserve development in the three months ended June 30, 2019 on the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses held at December 31, 2018. This reserve development included $1.2 million of adverse development in the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, as adverse development in the 2016 and 2017 accident years for commercial auto business were largely offset by favorable development in the 2018 accident year for commercial auto business. The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment experienced $1.2 million of favorable development due to favorable development in the workers' compensation business for prior accident years. The Company also experienced $2.4 million of adverse development in the Casualty Reinsurance segment primarily related to losses from risk profiles and treaty structures that the Company no longer writes.
The Company experienced $2.2 million of adverse reserve development in the three months ended June 30, 2018 on the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses held at December 31, 2017. This reserve development included $58,000 of favorable development in the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, primarily from $1.9 million of favorable development on the property catastrophe losses from the September 2017 storms coupled with adverse development in commercial auto business and favorable development in other core Excess and Surplus Lines. The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment experienced $167,000 of favorable development, primarily due to favorable development in the workers' compensation business for prior accident years, partially offset by adverse development on certain terminated program business. The Company also experienced $2.4 million of adverse development in the Casualty Reinsurance segment primarily related to losses from risk profiles and treaty structures that the Company no longer writes.
The Company experienced $3.3 million of adverse reserve development in the six months ended June 30, 2019 on the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses held at December 31, 2018. This reserve development included $1.2 million of adverse development in the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, as adverse development in the 2016 and 2017 accident years for commercial auto business were largely offset by favorable development in the 2018 accident year for commercial auto business. The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment experienced $3.3 million of favorable development due to favorable development in the workers' compensation business for prior accident years. The Company also experienced $5.3 million of adverse development in the Casualty Reinsurance segment primarily related to losses from risk profiles and treaty structures that the Company no longer writes.

20

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


The Company experienced $386,000 of favorable reserve development in the six months ended June 30, 2018 on the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses held at December 31, 2017. This reserve development included $1.2 million of favorable development in the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, primarily from $1.9 million of favorable development on the property catastrophe losses from the September 2017 storms coupled with adverse development in commercial auto business and favorable development in other core Excess and Surplus Lines. The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment experienced $1.5 million of favorable development, primarily due to favorable development in the workers' compensation business for prior accident years, partially offset by adverse development on certain terminated program business. The Company also experienced $2.3 million of favorable development in the Casualty Reinsurance segment primarily related to losses from risk profiles and treaty structures that the Company no longer writes.
6.    Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The following table summarizes the components of other comprehensive income (loss):
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Unrealized gains (losses) arising during the period, before U.S. income taxes$22,928
 $(6,633) $44,406
 $(25,925)
U.S. income taxes(1,908) 155
 (3,355) 699
Unrealized gains (losses) arising during the period, net of U.S. income taxes21,020
 (6,478) 41,051
 (25,226)
Less reclassification adjustment: 
  
    
Net realized investment gains (losses)331
 108
 103
 (93)
U.S. income taxes(43) (28) (44) (28)
Reclassification adjustment for investment gains (losses) realized in net income288
 80
 59
 (121)
Other comprehensive income (loss)$20,732
 $(6,558) $40,992
 $(25,105)

In addition to the $331,000 and $103,000 of net realized investment gains on available-for-sale fixed maturity securities for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively ($108,000 of net realized investment gains and $93,000 of net realized investment losses in the respective prior year periods), the Company also recognized $1.2 million and $2.9 million of net realized investment losses in the respective periods on its investments in bank loan participations ($646,000 of net realized investment losses and $474,000 of net realized investment gains in the respective prior year periods), and $1.9 million and $5.4 million of net realized gains in the respective periods for the change in fair values of equity securities ($521,000 of net realized gains and $1.2 million of net realized losses in the respective prior year periods).
7.       Contingent Liabilities
The Company is a party to various lawsuits arising in the ordinary course of its operations. The Company believes that the ultimate resolution of these matters will not materially impact its financial position, cash flows, or results of operations.
JRG Re has entered into three letter of credit facilities with banks as security to third-party reinsureds on reinsurance assumed by JRG Re. JRG Re has established custodial accounts to secure these letters of credit. Under a $75.0 million facility, $48.2 million of letters of credit were issued through June 30, 2019 which were secured by deposits of $60.2 million. Under a $102.5 million facility, $65.8 million of letters of credit were issued through June 30, 2019 which were secured by deposits of $86.8 million. Under a $100.0 million facility, $5.3 million of letters of credit were issued through June 30, 2019 which were secured by deposits of $10.7 million. JRG Re has also established trust accounts to secure its obligations to selected reinsureds. The total amount deposited in the trust accounts for the benefit of third-party reinsureds was $294.7 million at June 30, 2019.
The Company is a party to a set of insurance contracts with an insured group of companies under which the Company pays losses and loss adjustment expenses on the contract. The Company has indemnity agreements with this group of insured parties (non-insurance entities) and is contractually entitled to receive reimbursement for a significant portion of the losses and loss adjustment expenses paid on behalf of the insured parties and other expenses incurred by the Company. The insured parties are required to collateralize all amounts currently due to the Company and to provide additional collateral sufficient to cover the amounts that may be recoverable under the indemnity agreement, including, among other things, case loss and loss adjustment expense reserves, IBNR loss and loss adjustment expense reserves, extra contractual obligations and excess of policy limits

21

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


liabilities. The collateral is currently provided through a collateral trust arrangement established in favor of the Company by a captive insurance company affiliate of the insured group. At June 30, 2019, the cash equivalent collateral held in the collateral trust arrangement was approximately $1,162.7 million, which exceeds the amount of claims receivable and unpaid reported losses and loss adjustment expenses outstanding. The Company has ongoing exposure to estimated losses and expenses on these contracts growing at a faster pace than growth in our collateral balances. In addition, we have credit exposure if our estimates of future losses and loss adjustment expenses and other amounts recoverable, which are the basis for establishing collateral balances, are lower than actual amounts paid or payable. The amount of our credit exposure in any of these instances could be material. To mitigate these risks, we closely and frequently monitor our exposure compared to our collateral held, and we request additional collateral when our analysis indicates that we have uncollateralized exposure.

22

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


8.    Segment Information
The Company has four reportable segments: the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment, the Casualty Reinsurance segment, and the Corporate and Other segment. Segment profit (loss) is measured by underwriting profit (loss), which is generally defined as net earned premiums less loss and loss adjustment expenses and other operating expenses of the operating segments. Gross fee income of the Excess and Surplus Lines segment is included in that segment’s underwriting profit. Gross fee income of $2.3 million and $3.7 million was included in underwriting profit for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively ($5.0 million and $8.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively). Segment results are reported prior to the effects of intercompany reinsurance agreements among the Company’s insurance subsidiaries.
The following table summarizes the Company’s segment results:
 
Excess and
Surplus
Lines
 
Specialty
Admitted
Insurance
 
Casualty
Reinsurance
 
Corporate
and
Other
 Total
 (in thousands)
Three Months Ended June 30, 2019         
Gross written premiums$260,277
 $89,472
 $30,254
 $
 $380,003
Net earned premiums150,921
 13,086
 35,107
 
 199,114
Underwriting profit (loss) of insurance segments15,810
 1,298
 (100) 
 17,008
Net investment income4,229
 918
 11,986
 402
 17,535
Interest expense
 
 
 2,684
 2,684
Segment revenues158,574
 14,940
 46,318
 542
 220,374
Segment goodwill181,831
 
 
 
 181,831
Segment assets1,122,080
 721,506
 1,544,565
 62,956
 3,451,107
          
Three Months Ended June 30, 2018         
Gross written premiums$165,398
 $97,100
 $30,880
 $
 $293,378
Net earned premiums139,127
 14,266
 54,817
 
 208,210
Underwriting profit of insurance segments10,117
 988
 1,729
 
 12,834
Net investment income4,350
 839
 9,662
 1,284
 16,135
Interest expense
 
 
 2,946
 2,946
Segment revenues147,012
 15,436
 64,254
 1,339
 228,041
Segment goodwill181,831
 
 
 
 181,831
Segment assets907,314
 566,196
 1,378,305
 85,561
 2,937,376


23

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


 Excess and
Surplus
Lines
 Specialty
Admitted
Insurance
 Casualty
Reinsurance
 Corporate
and
Other
 Total
 (in thousands)
Six Months Ended June 30, 2019         
Gross written premiums$446,826
 $192,425
 $68,086
 $
 $707,337
Net earned premiums292,593
 25,446
 71,227
 
 389,266
Underwriting profit of insurance segments28,912
 2,921
 227
 
 32,060
Net investment income9,773
 1,815
 23,158
 2,220
 36,966
Interest expense
 
 
 5,492
 5,492
Segment revenues311,011
 28,676
 92,328
 2,486
 434,501
Segment goodwill181,831
 
 
 
 181,831
Segment assets1,122,080
 721,506
 1,544,565
 62,956
 3,451,107
          
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018 
  
  
  
  
Gross written premiums$332,884
 $184,501
 $74,109
 $
 $591,494
Net earned premiums269,098
 27,606
 112,448
 
 409,152
Underwriting profit of insurance segments21,416
 2,611
 3,473
 
 27,500
Net investment income7,392
 1,550
 17,679
 2,770
 29,391
Interest expense
 
 
 5,468
 5,468
Segment revenues284,339
 29,391
 129,780
 2,875
 446,385
Segment goodwill181,831
 
 
 
 181,831
Segment assets907,314
 566,196
 1,378,305
 85,561
 2,937,376

  
The following table reconciles the underwriting profit (loss) of the operating segments by individual segment to consolidated income before taxes:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Underwriting profit (loss) of the insurance segments: 
  
  
  
Excess and Surplus Lines$15,810
 $10,117
 $28,912
 $21,416
Specialty Admitted Insurance1,298
 988
 2,921
 2,611
Casualty Reinsurance(100) 1,729
 227
 3,473
Total underwriting profit of insurance segments17,008
 12,834
 32,060
 27,500
Other operating expenses of the Corporate and Other segment(7,433) (7,307) (15,339) (14,738)
Underwriting profit9,575
 5,527
 16,721
 12,762
Net investment income17,535
 16,135
 36,966
 29,391
Net realized and unrealized gains (losses) on investments1,063
 (64) 2,688
 (874)
Amortization of intangible assets(149) (149) (298) (298)
Other income and expenses(378) 4
 (132) 108
Interest expense(2,684) (2,946) (5,492) (5,468)
Income before taxes$24,962
 $18,507
 $50,453
 $35,621


24

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


9.    Other Operating Expenses and Other Expenses
Other operating expenses consist of the following:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Amortization of policy acquisition costs$23,150
 $28,672
 $41,771
 $58,870
Other underwriting expenses of the operating segments14,260
 15,772
 33,485
 32,926
Other operating expenses of the Corporate and Other segment7,433
 7,307
 15,339
 14,738
Total$44,843
 $51,751
 $90,595
 $106,534

Other expenses of $683,000 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 consist of employee severance costs. Other expenses of $93,000 and $97,000 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 primarily consist of legal and professional services and other costs related to secondary share offerings.
10.    Fair Value Measurements
Three levels of inputs are used to measure fair value of financial instruments: (1) Level 1: quoted price (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets, (2) Level 2: inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the instrument, and (3) Level 3: inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable for the asset or liability.
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date.
To measure fair value, the Company obtains quoted market prices for its investment securities from its outside investment managers. If a quoted market price is not available, the Company uses prices of similar securities. Values for U.S. Treasury and publicly-traded equity securities are generally based on Level 1 inputs which use the market approach valuation technique. The values for all other fixed maturity securities (including state and municipal securities and obligations of U.S. government corporations and agencies) generally incorporate significant Level 2 inputs, and in some cases, Level 3 inputs, using the market approach and income approach valuation techniques. There have been no changes in the Company’s use of valuation techniques since December 31, 2017.
The Company reviews fair value prices provided by its outside investment managers for reasonableness by comparing the fair values provided by the managers to those provided by its investment custodian. The Company also reviews and monitors changes in unrealized gains and losses. The Company has not historically adjusted security prices. The Company obtains an understanding of the methods, models and inputs used by the investment managers and independent pricing services, and controls are in place to validate that prices provided represent fair values. The Company’s control process includes, but is not limited to, initial and ongoing evaluation of the methodologies used, a review of specific securities and an assessment for proper classification within the fair value hierarchy, and obtaining and reviewing internal control reports for our investment manager that obtains fair values from independent pricing services.

25

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


Assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of June 30, 2019 are summarized below:
 Fair Value Measurements Using
 Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for
Identical
Assets
Level 1
 Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
Level 2
 Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
Level 3
 Total
 (in thousands)
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale: 
  
  
  
State and municipal$
 $138,250
 $
 $138,250
Residential mortgage-backed
 249,758
 
 249,758
Corporate
 606,274
 
 606,274
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed
 220,076
 
 220,076
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government115,094
 539
 
 115,633
Redeemable preferred stock
 2,051
 
 2,051
Total fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$115,094
 $1,216,948
 $
 $1,332,042
Equity securities: 
  
  
  
Preferred stock
 67,255
 
 67,255
Common stock15,413
 1,761
 3,099
 20,273
Total equity securities$15,413
 $69,016
 $3,099
 $87,528
Short-term investments$
 $24,463
 $
 $24,463
  
Assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2018 are summarized below:
 Fair Value Measurements Using
 Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for
Identical
Assets
Level 1
 Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
Level 2
 Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
Level 3
 Total
 (in thousands)
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale: 
  
  
  
State and municipal$
 $149,295
 $
 $149,295
Residential mortgage-backed
 204,109
 
 204,109
Corporate
 524,768
 
 524,768
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed
 192,797
 4,228
 197,025
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government106,651
 542
 
 107,193
Redeemable preferred stock
 1,812
 
 1,812
Total fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$106,651
 $1,073,323
 $4,228
 $1,184,202
Equity securities: 
  
  
  
Preferred stock
 60,740
 
 60,740
Common stock16,674
 757
 214
 17,645
Total equity securities$16,674
 $61,497
 $214
 $78,385
Short-term investments$1,250
 $80,716
 $
 $81,966

 
The Company held one available-for-sale fixed maturity security at December 31, 2018 for which the fair value was determined using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3). A market approach using prices in trades of comparable securities was utilized to determine a fair value of $4.2 million for the security at December 31, 2018. A principal payment of $456,000 was received on the available-for-sale fixed maturity security in the three months ended March 31, 2019. The Company was able to obtain a quoted price from a pricing vendor for the available-for-sale fixed maturity security at March 31, 2019 and it was transferred to Level 2.

26

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company held equity securities for which the fair value was determined using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3). In the three months ended June 30, 2019, one equity security was transferred from Level 1 to Level 3 as the security was no longer actively traded. A market approach using prices in trades of comparable securities was utilized to determine a fair value for the equity securities of $3.1 million at June 30, 2019 and $214,000 at December 31, 2018. There were no purchases or sales of Level 3 securities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 or 2018. There were no transfers involving Level 3 securities for the six months ended June 30, 2018.
Transfers out of Level 3 occur when the Company is able to obtain reliable prices from pricing vendors for securities for which the Company was previously unable to obtain reliable prices. Transfers in to Level 3 occur when the Company is unable to obtain reliable prices for securities from pricing vendors and instead must use broker price quotes to value the securities.
There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 during the six months ended June 30, 2019 or 2018. The Company recognizes transfers between levels at the beginning of the reporting period.
There were no realized gains or losses included in earnings for the six months ended June 30, 2019 attributable to the change in unrealized gains or losses relating to Level 3 assets valued at fair value on a recurring basis that are still held at June 30, 2019.
The Company measures certain bank loan participations at fair value on a non-recurring basis during the year as part of the Company’s impairment evaluation when loans are determined by management to be impaired.
Assets measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis are summarized below:
 Fair Value Measurements Using
 Quoted Prices
In Active
Markets for
Identical Assets
Level 1
 Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
Level 2
 Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
Level 3
 Total
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2019 
  
  
  
Bank loan participations held-for-investment$
 $
 $3,359
 $3,359
December 31, 2018 
  
  
  
Bank loan participations held-for-investment$
 $
 $
 $
 
Bank loan participations held-for-investment that were determined to be impaired were written down to their fair value of $3.4 million at June 30, 2019. Management concluded that none of the bank loan participations held-for-investment were impaired as of December 31, 2018.
In the determination of the fair value for bank loan participations and certain high yield bonds, the Company’s investment manager endeavors to obtain data from multiple external pricing sources. External pricing sources may include brokers, dealers and price data vendors that provide a composite price based on prices from multiple dealers. Such external pricing sources typically provide valuations for normal institutional size trading units of such securities using methods based on market transactions for comparable securities, and various relationships between securities, as generally recognized by institutional dealers. For investments in which the investment manager determines that only one external pricing source is appropriate or if only one external price is available, the relevant investment is generally recorded at fair value based on such price.
Investments for which external sources are not available or are determined by the investment manager not to be representative of fair value are recorded at fair value as determined by the Company, with input from its investment managers and valuation specialists as considered necessary. In determining the fair value of such investments, the Company considers one or more of the following factors: type of security held, convertibility or exchangeability of the security, redeemability of the security (including the timing of redemptions), application of industry accepted valuation models, recent trading activity, liquidity, estimates of liquidation value, purchase cost, and prices received for securities with similar terms of the same issuer or similar issuers. At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, there were no investments for which external sources were unavailable to determine fair value.

27

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


The carrying values and fair values of financial instruments are summarized below:
 June 30, 2019 December 31, 2018
 Carrying
Value
 Fair Value Carrying
Value
 Fair Value
 (in thousands)
Assets 
  
  
  
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$1,332,042
 $1,332,042
 $1,184,202
 $1,184,202
Equity securities87,528
 87,528
 78,385
 78,385
Bank loan participations held-for-investment251,472
 243,962
 260,972
 250,697
Cash and cash equivalents169,125
 169,125
 172,457
 172,457
Short-term investments24,463
 24,463
 81,966
 81,966
Other invested assets – notes receivable13,250
 18,785
 13,250
 18,687
Liabilities 
  
  
  
Senior debt98,300
 100,459
 118,300
 118,317
Junior subordinated debt104,055
 122,807
 104,055
 117,057

 
The fair values of fixed maturity securities and equity securities have been determined using quoted market prices for securities traded in the public market or prices using bid or closing prices for securities not traded in the public marketplace. The fair values of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments approximate their carrying values due to their short-term maturity.
The fair values of other invested assets-notes receivable, senior debt, and junior subordinated debt at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 were determined by calculating the present value of expected future cash flows under the terms of the note agreements or debt agreements, as applicable, discounted at an estimated market rate of interest at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.
The fair values of bank loan participations held-for-investment, senior debt, and junior subordinated debt at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 were determined using inputs to the valuation methodology that are unobservable (Level 3).
11.    Capital Stock and Equity Awards
The Company issued 342,215 common shares in the six months ended June 30, 2019 with 265,938 of the new shares related to stock option exercises and 76,277 of the new shares related to vesting of RSUs. The total common shares outstanding increased from 29,988,460 at December 31, 2018 to 30,330,675 at June 30, 2019.
The Company declared the following dividends during the first six months of 2019 and 2018:
Date of Declaration Dividend per Common Share Payable to Shareholders of Record on Payment Date Total Amount
         
2019        
February 20, 2019 $0.30
 March 11, 2019 March 29, 2019 $9,146,357
April 30, 2019 $0.30
 June 10, 2019 June 28, 2019 $9,204,804
  $0.60
     $18,351,161
         
2018        
February 22, 2018 $0.30
 March 12, 2018 March 30, 2018 $9,049,476
May 1, 2018 $0.30
 June 11, 2018 June 29, 2018 $9,066,023
  $0.60
     $18,115,499

Included in the total dividends for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 are $216,000 and $197,000, respectively, of dividend equivalents on unvested RSUs. The balance of dividends payable on unvested RSUs was $554,000 at June 30, 2019 and $557,000 at December 31, 2018.

28

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


Equity Incentive Plans
The Company’s shareholders have approved various equity incentive plans, including the Amended and Restated 2009 Equity Incentive Plan (the “Legacy Plan”), the 2014 Long Term Incentive Plan (“2014 LTIP”), and the 2014 Non-Employee Director Incentive Plan (“2014 Director Plan”) (collectively, the “Plans”). All awards issued under the Plans are issued at the discretion of the Board of Directors. Under the Legacy Plan, employees received non-qualified stock options. Options are outstanding under the Legacy Plan; however, no additional awards may be granted.
Employees are eligible to receive non-qualified stock options, incentive stock options, share appreciation rights, performance shares, restricted shares, RSUs, and other awards under the 2014 LTIP. The maximum number of shares available for issuance under the 2014 LTIP is 4,171,150, and at June 30, 2019, 1,573,528 shares are available for grant.
Non-employee directors of the Company are eligible to receive non-qualified stock options, share appreciation rights, performance shares, restricted shares, RSUs, and other awards under the 2014 Director Plan. At the 2019 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of the Company held on April 30, 2019, the Company's shareholders approved an amendment to the 2014 Director Plan. The Board of Directors of the Company had previously approved the amendment. The amendment increased the number of the Company's common shares authorized for issuance under the 2014 Director Plan by 100,000 shares. The maximum number of shares available for issuance under the 2014 Director Plan is 150,000, and at June 30, 2019, 108,594 shares are available for grant.
Generally, awards issued under the 2014 LTIP and 2014 Director Plan vest immediately in the event that an award recipient is terminated without Cause (as defined in the applicable plans), and in the case of the 2014 LTIP for Good Reason (as defined in the applicable plans), at any time following a Change in Control (as defined in the applicable plans).
Options
The following table summarizes option activity:
 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
Outstanding: 
  
  
  
Beginning of period1,115,324
 $29.02
 1,479,236
 $27.81
Granted
 $
 
 $
Exercised(336,350) $26.22
 (255,609) $21.14
Forfeited(5,395) $38.13
 (29,446) $36.26
End of period773,579
 $30.18
 1,194,181
 $29.04
Exercisable, end of period717,610
 $29.24
 876,816
 $26.59


All of the outstanding options vest over three to four years and have a contractual life of seven years from the original date of grant. All of the outstanding options have an exercise price equal to the fair value of the underlying shares at the date of grant. The weighted-average remaining contractual life of the options outstanding and options exercisable at June 30, 2019 was 3.4 years and 3.3 years, respectively.

29

JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDING, LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)


RSUs
The following table summarizes RSU activity:
 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
      
  
Unvested, beginning of period300,142
 $39.22
 178,882
 $37.93
Granted178,556
 $42.08
 214,907
 $39.81
Vested(111,212) $39.90
 (63,191) $40.92
Forfeited(9,555) $40.84
 (4,454) $41.04
Unvested, end of period357,931
 $40.39
 326,144
 $38.55

The vesting period of RSUs granted to employees range from one to five years and vest ratably over the respective vesting period, and the majority vest in three years. All RSUs granted to date to non-employee directors had a one year vesting period. The holders of RSUs are entitled to dividend equivalents. The dividend equivalents are settled in cash at the same time that the underlying RSUs vest and are subject to the same risk of forfeiture as the underlying shares. The fair value of the RSUs granted is based on the market price of the underlying shares at the date of grant.
Compensation Expense
Share based compensation expense is recognized on a straight line basis over the vesting period. The amount of expense and related tax benefit is summarized below:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Share based compensation expense$1,810
 $1,660
 $3,484
 $3,115
U.S. tax benefit on share based compensation expense220
 198
 420
 371

As of June 30, 2019, the Company had $12.0 million of unrecognized share based compensation expense expected to be charged to earnings over a weighted-average period of 2.0 years.
12.    Subsequent Events
On July 30, 2019, the Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.30 per common share. The dividend is payable on September 30, 2019 to shareholders of record on September 16, 2019.
On July 30, 2019, the Board of Directors granted awards under the 2014 LTIP to the Company’s employees. RSUs for 522 shares were awarded with a fair value on the date of grant of $47.89 per share. The RSUs vest over three years.








30


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors. Factors that could cause such differences are discussed in the sections entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or “Quarterly Report”, and Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2019, or for any other future period. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report, and in conjunction with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
 The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with United States (“U.S.”) generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and include the accounts of James River Group Holdings, Ltd. and its subsidiaries. Unless the context indicates or suggests otherwise, references to “the Company”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to James River Group Holdings, Ltd. and its subsidiaries.
Our Business
James River Group Holdings, Ltd. is a Bermuda-based holding company. We own and operate a group of specialty insurance and reinsurance companies with the objective of generating compelling returns on tangible equity while limiting underwriting and investment volatility. We seek to accomplish this by consistently earning profits from insurance and reinsurance underwriting and generating meaningful risk-adjusted investment returns while managing our capital opportunistically.
Our underwriting profit for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 was $9.6 million and $16.7 million, respectively. In the prior year, for the same periods, we had an underwriting profit of $5.5 million and $12.8 million, respectively.
We are organized into four reportable segments, which are separately managed business units:
The Excess and Surplus Lines segment offers commercial excess and surplus lines liability and property insurance in every U.S. state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands through James River Insurance Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, James River Casualty Company;
The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment focuses on niche classes within the standard insurance markets, such as workers’ compensation coverage for residential contractors, light manufacturing operations, transportation workers and healthcare workers and fronting business, where we retain a small percentage of the risk and seek to earn fee income by allowing other carriers and producers to use our licensure, ratings and infrastructure. This segment has admitted licenses and the authority to write excess and surplus lines insurance in 49 states and the District of Columbia;
The Casualty Reinsurance segment primarily provides proportional and working layer casualty reinsurance to third parties (primarily through reinsurance intermediaries) and stop loss reinsurance to Carolina Re Ltd (“Carolina Re”), through JRG Reinsurance Company Ltd. (“JRG Re”), both Bermuda-based reinsurance companies. JRG Re has also in the past provided reinsurance to the Company's U.S. based insurance subsidiaries through a quota-share reinsurance agreement; Carolina Re was formed in 2018 to do this as well; and
The Corporate and Other segment consists of the management and treasury activities of our holding companies, interest expense associated with our debt, and expenses of our holding companies, including public company expenses, that are not reimbursed by our insurance segments.
All of our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries have financial strength ratings of “A” (Excellent) from A.M. Best Company.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
In preparing the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, we are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the reporting period. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates.
The most critical accounting policies involve significant estimates and include those used in determining the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses, investment valuation and impairment, and assumed reinsurance premiums. For a detailed discussion of each of these policies, refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. There have been no significant changes to any of these policies during the current year. 

31


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table summarizes our results:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 % Six Months Ended
June 30,
 %
 2019 2018 Change 2019 2018 Change
 ($ in thousands)  
Gross written premiums$380,003
 $293,378
 29.5 % $707,337
 $591,494
 19.6 %
Net retention (1)
63.1% 64.3%  
 63.3% 67.6%  
Net written premiums$239,910
 $188,606
 27.2 % $447,651
 $399,584
 12.0 %
Net earned premiums$199,114
 $208,210
 (4.4)% $389,266
 $409,152
 (4.9)%
Losses and loss adjustment expenses(147,053) (154,595) (4.9)% (286,980) (298,367) (3.8)%
Other operating expenses(42,486) (48,088) (11.6)% (85,565) (98,023) (12.7)%
Underwriting profit (2), (3)
9,575
 5,527
 73.2 % 16,721
 12,762
 31.0 %
Net investment income17,535
 16,135
 8.7 % 36,966
 29,391
 25.8 %
Net realized and unrealized gains (losses) on investments1,063
 (64) 
 2,688
 (874) 
Other income and expense(378) 4
 
 (132) 108
 
Interest expense(2,684) (2,946) (8.9)% (5,492) (5,468) 0.4 %
Amortization of intangible assets(149) (149) 
 (298) (298) 
Income before taxes24,962
 18,507
 34.9 % 50,453
 35,621
 41.6 %
Income tax expense4,655
 1,523
 205.6 % 7,418
 3,004
 146.9 %
Net income$20,307
 $16,984
 19.6 % $43,035
 $32,617
 31.9 %
Adjusted net operating income (4)
$20,177
 $17,569
 14.8 % $41,890
 $34,138
 22.7 %
Ratios: 
  
  
  
  
  
Loss ratio73.9% 74.2%  
 73.7% 72.9%  
Expense ratio21.3% 23.1%  
 22.0% 24.0%  
Combined ratio95.2% 97.3%  
 95.7% 96.9%  
(1)Net retention is defined as the ratio of net written premiums to gross written premiums.
(2)Underwriting profit is a non-GAAP measure. See “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures” for a reconciliation to income before tax and for additional information.
(3)Included in underwriting results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 is gross fee income of $6.2 million and $12.6 million, respectively ($7.4 million and $15.6 million for the same periods in the prior year).
(4)Adjusted net operating income is a non-GAAP measure. See “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures” for reconciliation to net income and for additional information.
Three Months Ended June 30, 2019 and 2018
The Company had an underwriting profit of $9.6 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019. This compares to an underwriting profit of $5.5 million for the same period in the prior year.
The results for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 include certain non-operating items that are significant to the Company. These items (on a pre-tax basis) include:
Net realized and unrealized investment gains (losses) of $1.1 million and $(64,000) for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. See “— Investing Results" for more information on these realized and unrealized investment gains (losses).
Interest expense of $457,000 for the three months ended June 30, 2018 relating to finance expenses in connection with a minority interest in a real estate partnership pursuant to which we were previously deemed an owner for accounting purposes. Effective with the Company's adoption of ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) on January 1, 2019, the Company is no longer deemed the owner for accounting purposes and there is no comparable expense for the three months ended June 30, 2019.

32


We define adjusted net operating income as net income excluding certain non-operating expenses such as net realized and unrealized investment gains and losses on investments, expenses related to due diligence costs for various merger and acquisition activities, professional service fees related to the filing of registration statements for the offering of securities, severance costs associated with terminated employees, and interest expense and other income and expenses on a leased building that we were previously deemed to own for accounting purposes. We use adjusted net operating income as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Adjusted net operating income should not be viewed as a substitute for net income calculated in accordance with GAAP, and our definition of adjusted net operating income may not be comparable to that of other companies.
Our income before taxes and net income reconcile to our adjusted net operating income as follows:
 Three Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 Income
Before
Taxes
 Net
Income
 Income
Before
Taxes
 Net
Income
 ($ in thousands)
Income as reported$24,962
 $20,307
 $18,507
 $16,984
Net realized and unrealized investment (gains) losses(1,063) (670) 64
 98
Other expenses683
 540
 93
 126
Interest expense on leased building the Company was previously deemed to own for accounting purposes
 
 457
 361
Adjusted net operating income$24,582
 $20,177
 $19,121
 $17,569

Combined Ratios
The combined ratio is a measure of underwriting performance and represents the relationship of incurred losses, loss adjustment expenses and other operating expenses to net earned premiums. Our combined ratio for the three months ended June 30, 2019 was 95.2%. A combined ratio of less than 100% indicates an underwriting profit, while a combined ratio greater than 100% reflects an underwriting loss. The combined ratio for the three months ended June 30, 2019 includes $2.3 million, or 1.2 percentage points, of net adverse reserve development on prior accident years, including $1.2 million of net adverse reserve development from the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, $1.2 million of net favorable reserve development from the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment, and $2.4 million of net adverse reserve development from the Casualty Reinsurance segment.
The combined ratio for the three months ended June 30, 2018 was 97.3%. The combined ratio for the three months ended June 30, 2018 includes $2.2 million, or 1.1 percentage points, of net adverse reserve development on prior accident years, including $58,000 of net favorable reserve development from the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, $167,000 of net favorable reserve development from the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment, and $2.4 million of net adverse reserve development from the Casualty Reinsurance segment.
All of the Company’s U.S.-domiciled insurance subsidiaries are party to an intercompany pooling agreement that distributes the net underwriting results among the group companies based on their approximate pro-rata level of statutory capital and surplus to the total Company statutory capital and surplus. Additionally, each of the Company’s U.S.-domiciled insurance subsidiaries is a party to a quota share reinsurance agreement that in periods prior to January 1, 2018 ceded 70% of their premiums and losses to JRG Re, and starting January 1, 2018, ceded 70% of their premiums and losses to Carolina Re, an entity domiciled in Bermuda that made an irrevocable election to be taxed as a U.S. domestic corporation under Section 953(d) of the Code effective January 1, 2018. JRG Re also provides stop loss reinsurance to Carolina Re. We report all segment information in this ‘‘Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations’’ prior to the effects of intercompany reinsurance, consistent with the manner in which we evaluate the operating performance of our reportable segments.
Expense Ratios
Our expense ratio improved from 23.1% for the three months ended June 30, 2018 to 21.3% for the three months ended June 30, 2019. The improvement is due to an 8.5% increase in the net earned premiums of the Excess and Surplus Lines segment including in lines of business which carry relatively low expenses or that have meaningful ceding commissions. Our Excess and Surplus Lines segment has significant scale and produces a lower expense ratio than our other operating segments. The Excess and Surplus Lines segment is our largest segment and makes up 75.8% of consolidated net earned premiums for the three months ended June 30, 2019 compared to 66.8% for three months ended June 30, 2018. Gross fee income for the Company declined from $7.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2018 to $6.2 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019.

33


Six Months Ended June 30, 2019 and 2018
The Company had an underwriting profit of $16.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019. This compares to an underwriting profit of $12.8 million for the same period in the prior year.
The results for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 include certain non-operating items that are significant to the Company. These items (on a pre-tax basis) include: 
Net realized and unrealized investment gains (losses) of $2.7 million and $(874,000) for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. See “— Investing Results" for more information on these realized and unrealized investment gains (losses).
Interest expense of $775,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 relating to finance expenses in connection with a minority interest in a real estate partnership pursuant to which we were previously deemed an owner for accounting purposes. Effective with the Company's adoption of ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) on January 1, 2019, the Company is no longer deemed the owner for accounting purposes and there is no comparable expense for the six months ended June 30, 2019.
Our income before taxes and net income reconcile to our adjusted net operating income as follows:
 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 Income
Before
Taxes
 Net
Income
 Income
Before
Taxes
 Net
Income
 ($ in thousands)
Income as reported$50,453
 $43,035
 $35,621
 $32,617
Net realized and unrealized investment (gains) losses(2,688) (1,685) 874
 763
Other expenses683
 540
 97
 146
Interest expense on leased building the Company was previously deemed to own for accounting purposes
 
 775
 612
Adjusted net operating income$48,448
 $41,890
 $37,367
 $34,138

Combined Ratios
Our combined ratio for the six months ended June 30, 2019 was 95.7%. The combined ratio for the six months ended June 30, 2019 includes $3.3 million, or 0.8 percentage points, of net adverse reserve development on prior accident years, including $1.2 million of net adverse reserve development from the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, $3.3 million of net favorable reserve development from the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment, and $5.3 million of net adverse reserve development from the Casualty Reinsurance segment.
The combined ratio for the six months ended June 30, 2018 was 96.9%. The combined ratio for the six months ended June 30, 2018 includes $386,000, or 0.1 percentage points, of net favorable reserve development on prior accident years, including $1.2 million of net favorable reserve development from the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, $1.5 million of net favorable reserve development from the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment, and $2.3 million of net adverse reserve development from the Casualty Reinsurance segment.
Expense Ratios
Our expense ratio improved from 24.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 22.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2019. The improvement is due to an 8.7% increase in the net earned premiums of the Excess and Surplus Lines segment including in lines of business which carry relatively low expenses or that have meaningful ceding commissions. Our Excess and Surplus Lines segment has significant scale and produces a lower expense ratio than our other operating segments. The Excess and Surplus Lines segment is our largest segment and makes up 75.2% of consolidated net earned premiums for the six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to 65.8% for the six months ended June 30, 2018. Gross fee income for the Company declined from $15.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to $12.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019.

34


Premiums
Insurance premiums are earned ratably over the terms of our insurance policies, generally twelve months. Reinsurance premiums assumed are earned over the terms of the underlying policies or reinsurance contracts. Reinsurance contracts written on a “losses occurring” basis cover claims that may occur during the term of the contract or underlying insurance policy, which is typically twelve months. Reinsurance contracts which are written on a “risks attaching” basis cover claims which attach to the underlying insurance policies written during the terms of such contracts. Premiums earned on such contracts usually extend beyond the original term of the reinsurance contract, typically resulting in recognition of premiums earned over a 24-month period in proportion to the level of underlying exposure.
The following table summarizes the change in premium volume by component and business segment:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 % Six Months Ended
June 30,
 %
 2019 2018 Change 2019 2018 Change
 ($ in thousands)  
Gross written premiums: 
  
  
  
  
  
Excess and Surplus Lines$260,277
 $165,398
 57.4 % $446,826
 $332,884
 34.2 %
Specialty Admitted Insurance89,472
 97,100
 (7.9)% 192,425
 184,501
 4.3 %
Casualty Reinsurance30,254
 30,880
 (2.0)% 68,086
 74,109
 (8.1)%
 $380,003
 $293,378
 29.5 % $707,337
 $591,494
 19.6 %
Net written premiums: 
  
  
  
  
  
Excess and Surplus Lines$195,624
 $143,235
 36.6 % $350,485
 $297,166
 17.9 %
Specialty Admitted Insurance14,034
 14,487
 (3.1)% 29,055
 28,305
 2.6 %
Casualty Reinsurance30,252
 30,884
 (2.0)% 68,111
 74,113
 (8.1)%
 $239,910
 $188,606
 27.2 % $447,651
 $399,584
 12.0 %
Net earned premiums: 
  
  
  
  
  
Excess and Surplus Lines$150,921
 $139,127
 8.5 % $292,593
 $269,098
 8.7 %
Specialty Admitted Insurance13,086
 14,266
 (8.3)% 25,446
 27,606
 (7.8)%
Casualty Reinsurance35,107
 54,817
 (36.0)% 71,227
 112,448
 (36.7)%
 $199,114
 $208,210
 (4.4)% $389,266
 $409,152
 (4.9)%
 
Gross written premiums for the Excess and Surplus Lines segment (which represents 63.2% of our consolidated gross written premiums in the six months ended June 30, 2019) increased 57.4% and 34.2% over the corresponding three and six month periods in the prior year. Excluding commercial auto policies, gross written premiums increased 81.2% and 41.7% over the corresponding three and six month periods in the prior year. Policy submissions excluding commercial auto policies were 18.7% higher and 22.9% more policies were bound in the six months ended June 30, 2019 than in the six months ended June 30, 2018. Rates for the Excess and Surplus Lines segment were up 4.2% compared to the six months ended June 30, 2018. The change in gross written premiums compared to the same periods in 2018 was notable in several divisions as shown below:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 % Six Months Ended
June 30,
 %
 2019 2018 Change 2019 2018 Change
 ($ in thousands)
Commercial Auto$107,543
 $81,127
 32.6% $199,545
 $158,339
 26.0 %
General Casualty43,697
 16,726
 161.3% 64,980
 31,278
 107.7 %
Manufacturers & Contractors28,026
 22,034
 27.2% 51,537
 39,634
 30.0 %
Excess Casualty31,476
 14,870
 111.7% 46,646
 24,666
 89.1 %
Excess Property12,483
 6,116
 104.1% 17,260
 9,535
 81.0 %
Energy10,712
 6,607
 62.1% 17,119
 18,127
 (5.6)%
Allied Health5,377
 2,421
 122.1% 14,633
 23,543
 (37.8)%
All other divisions20,963
 15,497
 35.3% 35,106
 27,762
 26.5 %
Excess and Surplus Lines gross written premium$260,277
 $165,398
 57.4% $446,826
 $332,884
 34.2 %

35


The Commercial Auto division is focused on underwriting the hired and non-owned auto liability exposures for a variety of industry segments with a particular niche for insuring organizations that operate networks connecting independent contractors with customers.
The components of gross written premiums for the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment (which represents 27.2% of our consolidated gross written premiums for the six months ended June 30, 2019) are as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 % Six Months Ended
June 30,
 %
 2019 2018 Change 2019 2018 Change
 ($ in thousands)
Individual risk workers’ compensation premium$15,988
 $12,808
 24.8 % $32,981
 $25,395
 29.9%
Fronting and program premium73,484
 84,292
 (12.8)% 159,444
 159,106
 0.2%
Specialty Admitted gross written premium$89,472

$97,100
 (7.9)% $192,425
 $184,501
 4.3%
Individual risk workers’ compensation premium growth was driven by exposure growth from higher payrolls of our insureds in a strong economy and increased submission flow.
Our fronting business saw growth in three new fronting relationships that generated $21.7 million and $49.6 million of gross written premium in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, compared to $3.8 million for both the three and six months ended June 30, 2018. Our largest agency relationship experienced a decline in production in 2019 producing $37.5 million and $77.7 million of gross written premium for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, (down from $57.9 million and $106.7 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018) and representing 40.4% of the segment's gross written premium in the six months ended June 30, 2019 down from 57.8% in the six months ended June 30, 2018.
Gross written premiums for the Casualty Reinsurance segment (which represents 9.6% of our consolidated gross written premiums in the first six months of 2019) decreased 2.0% and 8.1% from the corresponding three and six month periods in the prior year. The reduction in gross written premium in this segment was in line with our expectations and is consistent with our planned reductions for the Casualty Reinsurance segment as we redeploy our capital to where we believe we can make the highest operating returns on tangible equity. The Casualty Reinsurance segment generally writes large casualty-focused treaties that are expected to have lower volatility relative to property and catastrophe treaties. We rarely write stand-alone property reinsurance. When treaties that include property exposure are written, we utilize property occurrence caps, inuring reinsurance protection and low individual risk limits to minimize exposure.
Net Retention
The ratio of net written premiums to gross written premiums is referred to as our net premium retention. Our net premium retention is summarized by segment as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
Excess and Surplus Lines75.2% 86.6% 78.4% 89.3%
Specialty Admitted Insurance15.7% 14.9% 15.1% 15.3%
Casualty Reinsurance100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Total63.1% 64.3% 63.3% 67.6%
The net premium retention for the Excess and Surplus Lines segment decreased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 as compared to the prior year periods due to growth in written premium in the Excess Casualty and Excess Property underwriting divisions, which have higher percentages of ceded premium than our other divisions, and due to the segment ceding $26.5 million and $37.6 million of commercial auto written premium in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, compared to $2.3 million in both the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.
The net premium retention for the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment has been relatively stable for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 as compared to the respective periods in the prior year. The fronting business generally has much lower net premium retention than our workers’ compensation business. The net retention on the segment’s fronting business was 9.4% and 9.0% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively (9.9% and 10.2% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively), while the net retention on the workers’ compensation business was 44.5% for both the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 (48.0% and 47.4% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively).

36



Underwriting Results
The following table compares our combined ratios by segment:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
Excess and Surplus Lines89.5% 92.7% 90.1% 92.0%
Specialty Admitted Insurance90.1% 93.1% 88.5% 90.5%
Casualty Reinsurance100.3% 96.8% 99.7% 96.9%
Total95.2% 97.3% 95.7% 96.9%
Excess and Surplus Lines Segment
Results for the Excess and Surplus Lines segment are as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 % Six Months Ended
June 30,
 %
 2019 2018 Change 2019 2018 Change
 ($ in thousands)
Gross written premiums$260,277
 $165,398
 57.4% $446,826
 $332,884
 34.2%
Net written premiums$195,624
 $143,235
 36.6% $350,485
 $297,166
 17.9%
Net earned premiums$150,921
 $139,127
 8.5% $292,593
 $269,098
 8.7%
Losses and loss adjustment expenses(115,637) (109,607) 5.5% (223,842) (210,226) 6.5%
Underwriting expenses(19,474) (19,403) 0.4% (39,839) (37,456) 6.4%
Underwriting profit (1), (2)
$15,810
 $10,117
 56.3% $28,912
 $21,416
 35.0%
Ratios: 
  
  
  
  
  
Loss ratio76.6% 78.8% 

 76.5% 78.1%  
Expense ratio12.9% 13.9% 

 13.6% 13.9%  
Combined ratio89.5% 92.7% 

 90.1% 92.0%  
(1)Underwriting Profit is a non-GAAP Measure. See “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures” for a reconciliation to income before tax and for additional information.
(2)Underwriting results include gross fee income of $2.3 million and $5.0 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively ($3.7 million and $8.5 million for the same periods in the prior year).
The loss ratio of 76.6% and 76.5% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 each include $1.2 million (0.8 and 0.4 percentage points, respectively) of net adverse development in our loss estimates for prior accident years. The loss ratio of 78.8% and 78.1% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 includes $58,000 and $1.2 million (0.0 and 0.4 percentage points), respectively, of net favorable reserve development in our loss estimates for prior accident years.
The expense ratio for this segment decreased from 13.9% for both the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 to 12.9% and 13.6% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, as the growth in net earned premium in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 exceeded the growth in underwriting expenses. Gross fee income contributed to a reduction in the expense ratio of 1.5 and 1.7 percentage points for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively (2.6 and 3.2 percentage points for the same periods in the prior year).
Our commercial auto business generally has a lower expense ratio and higher loss ratio than the other underwriting divisions in the segment. Commercial auto made up 53.1% and 54.6% of the segment’s net earned premiums for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively (57.3% and 57.0% for the same periods in the prior year).
As a result of the items discussed above, the underwriting profit of the Excess and Surplus Lines segment increased 56.3% and 35.0%, from $10.1 million and $21.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively, to $15.8 million and $28.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively.
 

37


Specialty Admitted Insurance Segment
Results for the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment are as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 % Six Months Ended
June 30,
 %
 2019 2018 Change 2019 2018 Change
 ($ in thousands)
Gross written premiums$89,472
 $97,100
 (7.9)% $192,425
 $184,501
 4.3 %
Net written premiums$14,034
 $14,487
 (3.1)% $29,055
 $28,305
 2.6 %
Net earned premiums$13,086
 $14,266
 (8.3)% $25,446
 $27,606
 (7.8)%
Losses and loss adjustment expenses(8,402) (9,426) (10.9)% (15,604) (17,037) (8.4)%
Underwriting expenses(3,386) (3,852) (12.1)% (6,921) (7,958) (13.0)%
Underwriting profit (1), (2)
$1,298
 $988
 31.4 % $2,921
 $2,611
 11.9 %
Ratios: 
  
  
  
  
  
Loss ratio64.2% 66.1%   61.3% 61.7%  
Expense ratio25.9% 27.0%   27.2% 28.8%  
Combined ratio90.1% 93.1%   88.5% 90.5%  
(1)Underwriting Profit is a non-GAAP Measure. See “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures” for a reconciliation to income before tax and for additional information.
(2)
Underwriting results include gross fee income of $3.8 million and $7.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively ($3.7 million and $7.1 million for the same periods in the prior year).
The loss ratio of 64.2% and 61.3% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 includes $1.2 million and $3.3 million (9.5 and 12.8 percentage points), respectively, of net favorable development in our loss estimates for prior accident years. The favorable reserve development in 2019 reflects the fact that actual loss emergence of the workers’ compensation book has been better than expected. The loss ratio of 66.1% and 61.7% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 includes $167,000 and $1.5 million (1.2 and 5.4 percentage points), respectively, of net favorable reserve development in our loss estimates for prior accident years.
The expense ratio of the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment was 25.9% and 27.2% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the prior year ratios of 27.0% and 28.8%, respectively. Gross fee income from the fronting business increased 2.9% and 7.8% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the same periods in the prior year.
As a result of the items discussed above, the underwriting profit of the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment increased 31.4% and 11.9% from $988,000 and $2.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively, to $1.3 million and $2.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively.
Casualty Reinsurance Segment
Results for the Casualty Reinsurance segment are as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 % Six Months Ended
June 30,
 %
 2019 2018 Change 2019 2018 Change
 ($ in thousands)
Gross written premiums$30,254
 $30,880
 (2.0)% $68,086
 $74,109
 (8.1)%
Net written premiums$30,252
 $30,884
 (2.0)% $68,111
 $74,113
 (8.1)%
Net earned premiums$35,107
 $54,817
 (36.0)% $71,227
 $112,448
 (36.7)%
Losses and loss adjustment expenses(23,014) (35,562) (35.3)% (47,534) (71,104) (33.1)%
Underwriting expenses(12,193) (17,526) (30.4)% (23,466) (37,871) (38.0)%
Underwriting (loss) profit (1)
$(100) $1,729
 
 $227
 $3,473
 (93.5)%
Ratios: 
  
  
  
  
  
Loss ratio65.6% 64.9%   66.7% 63.2%  
Expense ratio34.7% 31.9%   33.0% 33.7%  
Combined ratio100.3% 96.8%   99.7% 96.9%  

38


(1)Underwriting Profit is a non-GAAP Measure. See “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures” for a reconciliation to income before tax and for additional information.
The Casualty Reinsurance segment focuses on lower volatility, proportional reinsurance which requires larger ceding commissions resulting in a higher commission expense than in our other segments.
The loss ratio of 65.6% and 66.7% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 includes $2.4 million and $5.3 million (6.7 and 7.5 percentage points), respectively, of net adverse development in our loss estimates for prior accident years. The adverse reserve development was primarily related to losses from risk profiles and treaty structures that we no longer underwrite. The loss ratio of 64.9% and 63.2% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 includes $2.4 million and $2.3 million (4.5 and 2.0 percentage points), respectively, of net adverse reserve development in our loss estimates for prior accident years.
The expense ratio of the Casualty Reinsurance segment was 34.7% and 33.0% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, compared to the prior year ratios of 31.9% and 33.7%, respectively.
As a result of the items discussed above, underwriting (loss) profit for the Casualty Reinsurance segment was $(100,000) and $227,000 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to $1.7 million and $3.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.
Reserves
An indicator of reserve strength that we monitor closely is the percentage of our gross and net loss reserves that are comprised of incurred but not reported (“IBNR”) reserves.
The Company’s gross reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses at June 30, 2019 was $1,783.3 million. Of this amount, 62.5% relates to amounts that are IBNR. This amount was 62.4% at December 31, 2018. The Company’s gross reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses by segment are summarized as follows:

Gross Reserves at June 30, 2019
 Case IBNR Total
 ($ in thousands)
Excess and Surplus Lines$393,962
 $651,291
 $1,045,253
Specialty Admitted Insurance167,970
 297,180
 465,150
Casualty Reinsurance106,538
 166,393
 272,931
Total$668,470
 $1,114,864
 $1,783,334
At June 30, 2019, the amount of net reserves of $1,237.9 million that related to IBNR was 59.4%. This amount was 61.5% at December 31, 2018. The Company’s net reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses by segment are summarized as follows:
 Net Reserves at June 30, 2019
 Case IBNR Total
 ($ in thousands)
Excess and Surplus Lines$364,208
 $514,965
 $879,173
Specialty Admitted Insurance34,549
 55,281
 89,830
Casualty Reinsurance103,539
 165,388
 268,927
Total$502,296
 $735,634
 $1,237,930
Other Operating Expenses
In addition to the underwriting, acquisition, and insurance expenses of the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment, and the Casualty Reinsurance segment discussed previously, other operating expenses also include the expenses of the Corporate and Other segment.
Corporate and Other Segment
Other operating expenses for the Corporate and Other segment include personnel costs associated with the Bermuda and U.S. holding companies, professional fees, and various other corporate expenses that are included in our calculation of our expense ratio and our combined ratio. Other operating expenses of the Corporate and Other segment represent the expenses of both the Bermuda and U.S. holding companies that were not reimbursed by our subsidiaries, including costs associated with our internal quota share, rating agencies and strategic initiatives. These costs vary from period-to-period based on the status of these initiatives.
Total operating expenses of the Corporate and Other segment were $7.4 million and $15.3 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively, representing increases of 1.7% and 4.1% over the $7.3 million and $14.7 million of operating

39


expenses in the comparable prior year periods. The increases were largely driven by compensation costs, including share-based compensation expenses, associated with increases in headcount, partially offset by a decline in professional fees resulting from bringing certain legal and tax functions that were previously outsourced in-house.
Investing Results
Net investment income was $17.5 million and $37.0 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to $16.1 million and $29.4 million for the same periods in the prior year. The change in our net investment income is as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
   Six Months Ended
June 30,
  
 2019 2018 % Change 2019 2018 % Change
 ($ in thousands)  
Renewable energy LLCs$(13) $530
 
 $908
 $1,741
 (47.8)%
Other private investments1,142
 1,506
 (24.2)% 3,625
 2,116
 71.3 %
Other invested assets1,129
 2,036
 (44.5)% 4,533
 3,857
 17.5 %
All other net investment income16,406
 14,099
 16.4 % 32,433
 25,534
 27.0 %
Total net investment income$17,535
 $16,135
 8.7 % $36,966
 $29,391
 25.8 %
The Company's private investments generated income of $1.1 million and $4.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively (compared to income of $2.0 million and $3.9 million in the respective prior year periods). Excluding private investments, our net investment income increased by 16.4% and 27.0% for the three and six months ending June 30, 2019 over the same periods in the prior year. This increase in net investment income reflects growth in our fixed income portfolio of bonds and bank loans and higher investment yields. The average duration of our fixed maturity portfolio was 3.5 years at June 30, 2019.
Major categories of the Company’s net investment income are summarized as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 ($ in thousands)
Fixed maturity securities$10,157
 $7,733
 $19,647
 $15,101
Bank loan participations5,162
 5,435
 10,226
 8,552
Equity securities1,295
 1,346
 2,632
 2,674
Other invested assets1,129
 2,036
 4,533
 3,857
Cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments, and other992
 639
 2,306
 1,228
Gross investment income18,735
 17,189
 39,344
 31,412
Investment expense(1,200) (1,054) (2,378) (2,021)
Net investment income$17,535
 $16,135
 $36,966
 $29,391
The following table summarizes our investment returns:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
Annualized gross investment yield on: 
  
  
  
Average cash and invested assets3.9% 4.1% 4.2% 3.8%
Average fixed maturity securities3.8% 4.0% 3.9% 3.7%
Of our total cash and invested assets of $1,935.0 million at June 30, 2019, $169.1 million represents the cash and cash equivalents portion of the portfolio. The majority of the portfolio, or $1,332.0 million, is comprised of fixed maturity securities that are classified as available-for-sale and carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses on these securities reported, net of applicable taxes, as a separate component of accumulated comprehensive income or loss. Also included in our investments are $251.5 million of bank loan participations, $87.5 million of equity securities, $24.5 million of short-term investments, and $70.4 million of other invested assets.
The $251.5 million of bank loan participations in our investment portfolio are classified as held-for-investment and reported at amortized cost, net of any allowance for credit losses. Changes in this credit allowance are included in realized gains or losses.

40


At June 30, 2019, there was a $231,000 allowance for credit losses. These bank loan participations are primarily senior, secured floating-rate debt rated “BB”, “B”, or “CCC” by Standard & Poor’s or an equivalent rating from another nationally recognized statistical rating organization, and are therefore below investment grade. Bank loans include assignments of and participations in, performing and non-performing senior corporate debt generally acquired through primary bank syndications and in secondary markets. They consist of, but are not limited to, term loans, the funded and unfunded portions of revolving credit loans, and similar loans and investments. At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the fair market value of these securities was $244.0 million and $250.7 million, respectively.
For the six months ended June 30, 2019, the Company recognized net realized and unrealized investment gains of $2.7 million ($1.1 million of realized and unrealized investment gains for the three months ended June 30, 2019) including $5.4 million of gains for the change in the fair value of equity securities, $1.8 million of realized losses for changes in the allowance for credit losses on impaired bank loans, $1.1 million of net realized investment losses on the sale of bank loan securities, and $374,000 of net realized investment gains on the sale of fixed maturity securities.
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recognized net realized and unrealized investment losses of $874,000 ($64,000 of realized and unrealized investment losses for the three months ended June 30, 2018), including $1.2 million of losses for the change in the fair value of equity securities and $893,000 of net realized investment losses for changes in the allowance for credit losses on impaired bank loans, partially offset by $1.4 million of net realized investment gains on the sale of bank loan securities (including an $807,000 realized gain on the repayment of the loan to the producer and supplier of power in Puerto Rico described below).
In conjunction with its outside investment managers, the Company performs quarterly reviews of all securities within its investment portfolio to determine whether any impairment has occurred.
Management concluded that two loans from one issuer in the Company's bank loan portfolio were impaired as of June 30, 2019. At June 30, 2019, the impaired loans had a carrying value of $3.4 million, unpaid principal of $3.6 million, and an allowance for credit losses of $231,000. Management concluded that none of the loans in the Company's bank loan portfolio were impaired at December 31, 2018.
At December 31, 2017, the Company held a participation in a loan issued by a company that produces and supplies power to Puerto Rico through a power purchase agreement with Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, a public corporation and governmental agency of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Management concluded that the loan was impaired at December 31, 2017 and established an allowance for credit losses on the loan to reduce the loan's carrying value to zero at December 31, 2017. The unpaid principal on the loan was $807,000 at December 31, 2017. In the first quarter of 2018, the full outstanding principal on the loan was repaid and the Company recognized a realized gain of $807,000 on the repayment.
At June 30, 2019, 99.6% of the Company’s fixed maturity security portfolio was rated “BBB-” or better (“investment grade”) by Standard & Poor’s or received an equivalent rating from another nationally recognized rating agency.
Management does not intend to sell other available-for-sale securities in an unrealized loss position, and it is not “more likely than not” that the Company will be required to sell these other securities before a recovery in their value to their amortized cost basis occurs.

41


The amortized cost and fair value of our available-for-sale fixed maturity securities were as follows:
 June 30, 2019 December 31, 2018
 Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 Fair
Value
 % of
Total
Fair Value
 Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 Fair
Value
 % of
Total
Fair Value
 ($ in thousands)
Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale: 
  
  
  
  
  
State and municipal$130,215
 $138,250
 10.4% $147,160
 $149,295
 12.6%
Residential mortgage-backed249,452
 249,758
 18.8% 208,869
 204,109
 17.2%
Corporate590,233
 606,274
 45.4% 534,024
 524,768
 44.3%
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed216,771
 220,076
 16.5% 199,528
 197,025
 16.6%
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations guaranteed by the U.S. government114,250
 115,633
 8.7% 107,803
 107,193
 9.1%
Redeemable preferred stock2,025
 2,051
 0.2% 2,025
 1,812
 0.2%
Total fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale$1,302,946
 $1,332,042
 100.0% $1,199,409
 $1,184,202
 100.0%
The following table sets forth the composition of the Company’s portfolio of available-for-sale fixed maturity securities by rating as of June 30, 2019:
Standard & Poor’s or Equivalent DesignationFair Value % of Total
 ($ in thousands)
AAA$224,134
 16.8%
AA518,320
 38.9%
A460,757
 34.6%
BBB123,533
 9.3%
Below BB and unrated5,298
 0.4%
Total$1,332,042
 100.0%
At June 30, 2019, our portfolio of fixed maturity securities contained corporate fixed maturity securities (available-for-sale) with a fair value of $606.3 million. A summary of these securities by industry segment is shown below as of June 30, 2019
IndustryFair Value % of Total
 ($ in thousands)
Industrials and Other$141,454
 23.3%
Financial160,736
 26.5%
Consumer Discretionary85,891
 14.2%
Health Care91,673
 15.1%
Consumer Staples63,368
 10.5%
Utilities63,152
 10.4%
Total$606,274
 100.0%
Corporate fixed maturity securities (both available-for-sale and trading) include publicly traded securities and privately placed bonds as shown below as of June 30, 2019:
Public/PrivateFair Value % of Total
 ($ in thousands)
Publicly traded$539,740
 89.0%
Privately placed66,534
 11.0%
Total$606,274
 100.0%
The amortized cost and fair value of our available-for-sale investments in fixed maturity securities summarized by contractual maturity are as follows:

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 June 30, 2019
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Fair
Value
 
% of
Total Value
 ($ in thousands)
Due in: 
  
  
One year or less$46,982
 $47,016
 3.5%
After one year through five years481,646
 490,856
 36.8%
After five years through ten years210,431
 218,335
 16.4%
After ten years95,639
 103,950
 7.8%
Residential mortgage-backed249,452
 249,758
 18.8%
Commercial mortgage and asset-backed216,771
 220,076
 16.5%
Redeemable preferred stock2,025
 2,051
 0.2%
Total$1,302,946
 $1,332,042
 100.0%
At June 30, 2019, the Company had no investments in securitizations of alternative-A mortgages or sub-prime mortgages.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $2.7 million and $2.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively ($5.5 million for each of the respective six month periods). See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and Uses of Funds” for more information regarding our senior bank debt facilities and trust preferred securities.
Amortization of Intangibles
The Company recorded $149,000 and $298,000 of amortization of intangible assets for each of the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Income Tax Expense
Our effective tax rate fluctuates from period to period based on the relative mix of income reported by country and the respective tax rates imposed by each tax jurisdiction. For the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, our U.S. federal income tax expense was 18.6% and 8.2% of income before taxes, respectively (14.7% and 8.4% for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively). The effective tax rates for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 were elevated due to changes in reserve estimates between accident years in the commercial auto business, and the related impact on the mix of income reported by country. For U.S.-sourced income, the Company’s U.S. federal income tax expense differs from the amounts computed by applying the federal statutory income tax rate to income before taxes due primarily to interest income on tax-advantaged state and municipal securities, dividends received income, and excess tax benefits on share based compensation.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Sources and Uses of Funds
Dividends
We are organized as a Bermuda holding company with our operations conducted by our wholly-owned subsidiaries. Accordingly, our holding company may receive cash through loans from banks, issuance of common shares, borrowings on our credit facilities, corporate service fees or dividends received from our subsidiaries, and/or other transactions. Our U.S. holding company may receive cash in a similar manner and also through payments from our subsidiaries pursuant to our U.S. consolidated tax allocation agreement.
The payment of dividends by our subsidiaries to us is limited by statute. In general, the laws and regulations applicable to our domestic insurance subsidiaries limit the aggregate amount of dividends or other distributions that they may declare or pay within any 12-month period without advance regulatory approval. Generally, the limitations are based on the greater of statutory net income for the preceding year or 10.0% of statutory surplus at the end of the preceding year. In addition, insurance regulators have broad powers to prevent the reduction of statutory surplus to inadequate levels and could refuse to permit the payment of dividends calculated under any applicable formula. The maximum amount of dividends available to the U.S. holding company from our U.S. insurance subsidiaries during 2019 without regulatory approval is $24.2 million.
The Bermuda Insurance Act of 1978 prohibits an insurer from declaring or paying a dividend if it is in breach of its minimum solvency margin, its enhanced capital requirement, or its minimum liquidity ratio, or if the declaration or payment of such dividend would cause such a breach. An insurer can declare or pay dividends without prior regulatory approval up to 25% of the total statutory capital and surplus. The maximum combined amount of dividends and return of capital available to us from our Bermuda insurers in 2019 is calculated to be approximately $109.8 million. However, any dividend payment is contingent upon continued compliance with Bermuda regulatory requirements, including but not limited to the enhanced solvency requirement calculations.

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At June 30, 2019, the Bermuda holding company had $2.0 million of cash and cash equivalents. The U.S. holding company had $52.3 million of cash and invested assets, comprised of cash and cash equivalents of $5.0 million and other invested assets of $47.3 million, which are not subject to regulatory restrictions. Additionally, our U.K. intermediate holding company had no invested assets and cash of less than ten thousand dollars at June 30, 2019.
Our net written premium to surplus ratio (defined as the ratio of net written premiums to regulatory capital and surplus) is reviewed by management as well as our rating agency as a measure of leverage and efficiency of deployed capital. For the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, our annualized net written premium to surplus ratio was 1.2 to 1.0 and 1.1 to 1.0, respectively.
Credit Agreements
The Company has a $215.0 million senior revolving credit facility (as amended or amended and restated, the “2013 Facility”). The 2013 Facility is comprised of the following at June 30, 2019:
A $102.5 million secured revolving facility used by JRG Re to issue letters of credit for the benefit of third-party reinsureds. This portion of our credit facility is secured by our investment securities. At June 30, 2019, the Company had $65.8 million of letters of credit issued under the secured facility.
A $112.5 million unsecured revolving facility to meet the working capital needs of the Company. All unpaid principal on the revolver is due at maturity. Interest accrues quarterly and is payable in arrears at 3-month LIBOR plus a margin which is currently 1.5% and is subject to change according to terms in the credit agreement. At June 30, 2019, the Company had a drawn balance of $73.3 million outstanding on the unsecured revolver.
The 2013 Facility has been amended from time to time since its inception in 2013. On December 7, 2016, the Company entered into an Amended and Restated Credit Agreement for the 2013 Facility which, among other things, extended the maturity date of the 2013 Facility until December 7, 2021 and modified other terms including reducing the rate of interest and reducing the number of financial covenants. On June 8, 2017, the Company entered into a First Amendment to the 2013 Facility, which among other things, modified the financial covenants and increased the amount of additional debt the Company may incur under new financings, subject to compliance with certain conditions.
The 2013 Facility contains certain financial and other covenants (including risk-based capital, minimum shareholders’ equity levels, maximum ratios of total debt outstanding to total capitalization and minimum fixed charge coverage ratios) with which the Company is in compliance at June 30, 2019.
On August 2, 2017, the Company, and its wholly-owned subsidiary, JRG Re, together as borrowers, entered into a credit agreement (the "2017 Facility") that provides the Company with a revolving line of credit of up to $100 million, which may be used for loans and letters of credit made or issued, at the borrowers' option, on a secured or unsecured basis. Obligations under the 2017 Facility carry a variable rate of interest subject to terms in the credit agreement and will mature 30 days after notice of termination from the lender. The 2017 Facility contains certain financial and other covenants with which we are in compliance at June 30, 2019. The loans and letters of credit made or issued under the revolving line of credit of the 2017 Facility may be used to finance the borrowers' general corporate purposes. At June 30, 2019, unsecured loans of $10.0 million and secured letters of credit totaling $5.3 million were outstanding on the 2017 Facility.
In May 2004, we issued $15.0 million of senior debt due April 29, 2034. The senior debt is not redeemable by the holder or subject to sinking fund requirements. Interest accrues quarterly and is payable in arrears at a floating rate per annum equal to the 3-month LIBOR plus 3.85%. This senior debt is redeemable at par prior to its stated maturity at our option in whole or in part. The terms of the senior debt contain certain covenants, with which we are in compliance at June 30, 2019, and which, among other things, restrict our ability to assume senior indebtedness secured by our U.S. holding company’s common stock or its subsidiaries’ capital stock or to issue shares of its subsidiaries’ capital stock.
From May 2004 through January 2008, we sold trust preferred securities through five Delaware statutory trusts sponsored and wholly-owned by the Company or its subsidiaries. Each trust used the net proceeds from the sale of its trust preferred securities to purchase our floating-rate junior subordinated debt.

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The following table summarizes the nature and terms of the junior subordinated debt and trust preferred securities outstanding at June 30, 2019 (including the Company’s repurchases of a portion of these trust preferred securities):
 James River
Capital Trust
I
 James River
Capital Trust
II
 James River
Capital Trust
III
 James River
Capital Trust
IV
 Franklin
Holdings II
(Bermuda)
Capital Trust
I
 ($ in thousands)
Issue dateMay 26,
2004
 December 15, 2004 June 15,
2006
 December 11, 2007 January 10,
2008
Principal amount of trust preferred securities$7,000 $15,000 $20,000 $54,000 $30,000
Principal amount of junior subordinated debt$7,217 $15,464 $20,619 $55,670 $30,928
Carrying amount of junior subordinated debt net of repurchases$7,217 $15,464 $20,619 $44,827 $15,928
Maturity date of junior subordinated debt, unless accelerated earlierMay 24,
2034
 December 15,
2034
 June 15,
2036
 December 15,
2037
 March 15,
2038
Trust common stock$217 $464 $619 $1,670 $928
Interest rate, per annumThree-Month LIBOR plus 4.0% Three-Month LIBOR plus
3.4%
 Three-Month LIBOR plus 3.0% Three-Month LIBOR plus 3.1% Three-Month LIBOR plus 4.0%
All of the junior subordinated debt is currently redeemable at 100.0% of the unpaid principal amount at our option.
The junior subordinated debt contains certain covenants with which we are in compliance as of June 30, 2019.
At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the ratio of total debt outstanding, including both senior debt and junior subordinated debt, to total capitalization (defined as total debt plus total stockholders’ equity) was 20.4% and 23.9%, respectively. Having debt as part of our capital structure allows us to generate a higher return on equity and greater book value per share results than we could by using equity capital alone.
Ceded Reinsurance
Our insurance segments enter into reinsurance contracts to limit our exposure to potential losses arising from large risks, to protect against the aggregation of several risks in a common loss occurrence, and to provide additional capacity for growth. Our reinsurance is contracted under excess of loss and quota share reinsurance contracts. In excess of loss reinsurance, the reinsurer agrees to assume all or a portion of the ceding company’s losses in excess of a specified amount. The premiums payable to the reinsurer are negotiated by the parties based on their assessment of the amount of risk being ceded to the reinsurer because the reinsurer does not share proportionately in the ceding company’s losses. In quota share reinsurance, the reinsurer agrees to assume a specified percentage of the ceding company’s losses arising out of a defined class of business in exchange for a corresponding percentage of premiums. For the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, our net premium retention was 63.1% and 64.3%, respectively (63.3% and 67.6% for the six month periods, respectively).
The following is a summary of our Excess and Surplus Lines segment’s net retention after reinsurance as of June 30, 2019:
  Company Retention
Casualty  
Primary Specialty Casualty,  including Professional Liability Up to $1.0 million per occurrence, subject to a $1.0 million aggregate deductible.
Primary Casualty 
Up to $2.0 million per occurrence. (1)
Excess Casualty 
Up to $1.0 million per occurrence. (2)
Property 
Up to $5.0 million per event. (3)
(1)Total exposure to any one claim is generally $1.0 million.
(2)For policies with an occurrence limit up to $10.0 million, the excess casualty treaty is set such that our retention is no more than $1.0 million.
(3)The property catastrophe reinsurance treaty has a limit of $40.0 million with one reinstatement.

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We use catastrophe modeling software to analyze the risk of severe losses from hurricanes and earthquakes on our exposure. We utilize the model in our risk selection, pricing, and to manage our overall portfolio probable maximum loss (“PML”) accumulations. A PML is an estimate of the amount we would expect to pay in any one catastrophe event within a given annual probability of occurrence (i.e. a return period or loss exceedance probability).
In our Excess and Surplus Lines segment, we write a small book of excess property insurance, but we do not write primary property insurance. The Excess and Surplus Lines segment has a surplus share reinsurance treaty in effect that was specifically designed to cover property risks. The surplus share treaty along with facultative reinsurance helps ensure that our net retained limit per risk will be $5.0 million or less.
Based upon the modeling of our Excess and Surplus Lines segment, a $45.0 million gross catastrophe loss would exceed our 1 in 1,000 year PML. In the event of a $45.0 million gross property catastrophe loss to the Excess and Surplus Lines segment, we estimate our pre-tax cost at approximately $7.1 million, including reinstatement premiums and net retentions. In addition to this retention, we would retain any losses in excess of our reinsurance coverage limits.
Effective March 1, 2019, our largest Commercial Auto ride share account is subject to an auto liability quota share reinsurance contract that contains a $10.0 million occurrence cap and an annual aggregate of 200% of subject premium.
The following is a summary of our Specialty Admitted Insurance segment’s ceded reinsurance in place as of June 30, 2019:
Line of Business Coverage
Casualty 
Workers’ Compensation
Quota share coverage for 50% of the first $600,000.(1)(2)
 Excess of loss coverage for $29.4 million in excess of $600,000.(1)(2)
Auto ProgramsQuota share coverage for 85-90% of limits up to $1.5 million liability and $5.0 million physical damage per occurrence
General Liability & Professional Liability – ProgramsQuota share coverage for 90% - 100% of limits up to $2.0 million per occurrence.
Property 
Commercial Property within Package - Programs Quota share coverage for 100% of limits up to $25.0 million per occurrence.
Catastrophe Coverage Excess of Loss coverage for $44.0 million in excess of $1.0 million
(1) Excluding one program which has quota share coverage for 89% of the first $1.0 million per occurrence and excess of loss coverage for $49.0 million in excess of $1.0 million.
(2) Includes any residual market pools.
Our Specialty Admitted Insurance segment purchases reinsurance for at least 50% of the exposed limits on specialty admitted property-casualty business. The segment enters into reinsurance contracts for the individual risk workers’ compensation business as well as fronting and program business. While the segment focuses on casualty business, incidental property risk is incurred in the fronting and program business. The segment is covered for $44.0 million in excess of $1.0 million per occurrence to manage its property exposure to an approximate 1 in 1,000 year PML.
In our Casualty Reinsurance segment, we also have limited property catastrophe exposure, primarily through auto physical damage coverage. In the aggregate, we believe our pre-tax group-wide PML from a 1 in 1,000 year property catastrophe event would not exceed $10.0 million, inclusive of reinstatement premiums payable.
We also have a clash and contingency reinsurance treaty to cover both the Excess and Surplus Lines and Specialty Admitted Insurance segments in the event of a claims incident involving more than one of our insureds. The treaty covers $10.0 million in excess of a $2.0 million retention for loss occurrences within the treaty term. This coverage has two reinstatements in the event we exhaust any of the coverage. As of June 30, 2019, our average net retained limit per risk is $2.5 million.
The Company’s insurance segments remain liable to policyholders if its reinsurers are unable to meet their contractual obligations under applicable reinsurance agreements. We establish allowances for amounts considered uncollectible. At June 30, 2019, there was no allowance for such uncollectible reinsurance recoverables. To minimize exposure to significant losses from reinsurance insolvencies, the Company evaluates the financial condition of its reinsurers and monitors concentrations of credit risk. The Company generally seeks to purchase reinsurance from reinsurers with A.M. Best financial strength ratings of “A-” (Excellent) or better. The Company’s reinsurance contracts generally require reinsurers that are not authorized as reinsurers under U.S. state insurance regulations or that experience rating downgrades from rating agencies below specified levels to fund their share of the Company’s ceded outstanding losses and loss adjustment expense reserves, typically through the use of irrevocable and unconditional letters of credit. In fronting arrangements, which the Company conducts through its Specialty Admitted Insurance

46


segment, we are subject to credit risk with regard to insurance companies who act as reinsurers for us in such arrangements. We customarily require a collateral trust arrangement to secure the obligations of the insurance entity for whom we are fronting.
At June 30, 2019, we had reinsurance recoverables on unpaid losses of $545.4 million and reinsurance recoverables on paid losses of $39.8 million, and all material recoverable amounts were from companies with A.M. Best ratings of “A-” or better or collateral had been posted by the reinsurer for our benefit.
Amounts Recoverable from an Indemnifying Party
The Company is a party to a set of insurance contracts with an insured group of companies under which the Company pays losses and loss adjustment expenses on the contract. The Company has indemnity agreements with this group of insured parties (non-insurance entities) and is contractually entitled to receive reimbursement for a significant portion of the losses and loss adjustment expenses paid on behalf of the insured parties and other expenses incurred by the Company. The insured parties are required to collateralize all amounts currently due to the Company and to provide additional collateral sufficient to cover the amounts that may be recoverable under the indemnity agreements, including, among other things, case loss and loss adjustment expense reserves, IBNR loss and loss adjustment expense reserves, extra contractual obligations and excess of policy limits liabilities. The collateral is currently provided through a collateral trust arrangement established in favor of the Company by a captive insurance company affiliate of the insured group. At June 30, 2019, the cash equivalent collateral held in the collateral trust arrangement was approximately $1,162.7 million, which exceeds the amount of claims receivable and unpaid reported losses and loss adjustment expenses outstanding. The Company has ongoing exposure to estimated losses and expenses on these contracts growing at a faster pace than growth in our collateral balances. In addition, we have credit exposure if our estimates of future losses and loss adjustment expenses and other amounts recoverable, which are the basis for establishing collateral balances, are lower than actual amounts paid or payable. The amount of our credit exposure in any of these instances could be material. To mitigate these risks, we closely and frequently monitor our exposure compared to our collateral held, and we request additional collateral when our analysis indicates that we have uncollateralized exposure.
Cash Flows
Our sources of funds consist primarily of premiums written, investment income, reinsurance recoveries, proceeds from sales and redemptions of investments, borrowings on our credit facilities, and the issuance of common shares. We use operating cash flows primarily to pay operating expenses, losses and loss adjustment expenses, reinsurance premiums, and income taxes. The following table summarizes our cash flows:
 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 ($ in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents provided by (used in): 
  
Operating activities$68,123
 $164,086
Investing activities(37,470) (43,732)
Financing activities(33,985) (16,482)
Change in cash and cash equivalents$(3,332) $103,872
 
Cash provided by operating activities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 reflects the growth in our U.S. segments and the fact that we are collecting premiums receivable at a quicker rate than we are paying loss and loss adjustment expenses. Cash provided by operating activities has declined compared to the prior year due in part to reduced business writings in our Casualty Re segment.
Cash used in investing activities reflects our efforts to enhance the yield in our investment portfolio by investing available cash and cash equivalents into higher yielding fixed maturity securities and bank loan participations. Cash and cash equivalents comprised 8.7% and 15.5% of total cash and invested assets at June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Cash used in financing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 included $18.3 million and $18.0 million of dividends paid to shareholders, respectively. In addition, we repaid $20.0 million on our 2017 Facility in the six months ended June 30, 2019.
Ratings
The A.M. Best financial strength rating for our group’s regulated insurance subsidiaries is “A” (Excellent). This rating reflects A.M. Best’s opinion of our insurance subsidiaries’ financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet obligations to policyholders and is not an evaluation directed towards the protection of investors. The rating for our operating insurance and

47


reinsurance companies of “A” (Excellent) is the third highest rating of the thirteen ratings issued by A.M. Best and is assigned to insurers that have, in A.M. Best’s opinion, an excellent ability to meet their ongoing obligations to policyholders.
The financial strength ratings assigned by A.M. Best have an impact on the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to attract and retain agents and brokers and on the risk profiles of the submissions for insurance that our subsidiaries receive. The “A” (Excellent) ratings assigned to our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries are consistent with our business plans and we believe allow our subsidiaries to actively pursue relationships with the agents and brokers identified in their marketing plans.
EQUITY
The Company issued 342,215 common shares in the six months ended June 30, 2019 with 265,938 of the new shares related to stock option exercises and 76,277 of the new shares related to vesting of RSUs. The total common shares outstanding increased from 29,988,460 at December 31, 2018 to 30,330,675 at June 30, 2019.
Share Based Compensation Expense
For the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, the Company recognized $1.8 million and $1.7 million, respectively, of share based compensation expense ($3.5 million and $3.1 million for the respective six month periods). As of June 30, 2019, the Company had $12.0 million of unrecognized share based compensation expense expected to be charged to earnings over a weighted-average period of 2.0 years.
Equity Incentive Plans
Options
The following table summarizes option activity:
 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
Outstanding: 
  
  
  
Beginning of period1,115,324
 $29.02
 1,479,236
 $27.81
Granted
 $
 
 $
Exercised(336,350) $26.22
 (255,609) $21.14
Forfeited(5,395) $38.13
 (29,446) $36.26
End of period773,579
 $30.18
 1,194,181
 $29.04
Exercisable, end of period717,610
 $29.24
 876,816
 $26.59

All of the outstanding options vest over three or four years and have a contractual life of seven years from the original date of grant.
RSUs
The following table summarizes RSU activity:
 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
 Shares Weighted-
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
      
  
Unvested, beginning of period300,142
 $39.22
 178,882
 $37.93
Granted178,556
 $42.08
 214,907
 $39.81
Vested(111,212) $39.90
 (63,191) $40.92
Forfeited(9,555) $40.84
 (4,454) $41.04
Unvested, end of period357,931
 $40.39
 326,144
 $38.55
The vesting period of RSUs granted to employees range from one to five years and vest ratably over the respective vesting period, and the majority vest in three years. All RSUs granted to date to non-employee directors had a one year vesting period.

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RECONCILIATION OF NON-GAAP MEASURES
Reconciliation of Underwriting Profit
We believe that the disclosure of underwriting profit by individual segment and of the Company as a whole is useful to investors, analysts, rating agencies and other users of our financial information in evaluating our performance because our objective is to consistently earn underwriting profits. We evaluate the performance of our segments and allocate resources based primarily on underwriting profit. Our definition of underwriting profit may not be comparable to that of other companies.
The following table reconciles the underwriting profit by individual segment and for the entire Company to consolidated income before U.S. Federal income taxes:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2019 2018 2019 2018
 (in thousands)
Underwriting profit (loss) of the insurance segments: 
  
  
  
Excess and Surplus Lines$15,810
 $10,117
 $28,912
 $21,416
Specialty Admitted Insurance1,298
 988
 2,921
 2,611
Casualty Reinsurance(100) 1,729
 227
 3,473
Total underwriting profit of insurance segments17,008
 12,834
 32,060
 27,500
Other operating expenses of the Corporate and Other segment(7,433) (7,307) (15,339) (14,738)
Underwriting profit (1)
9,575
 5,527
 16,721
 12,762
Net investment income17,535
 16,135
 36,966
 29,391
Net realized and unrealized gains (losses) on investments1,063
 (64) 2,688
 (874)
Amortization of intangible assets(149) (149) (298) (298)
Other income and expenses(378) 4
 (132) 108
Interest expense(2,684) (2,946) (5,492) (5,468)
Income before taxes$24,962
 $18,507
 $50,453
 $35,621
(1)
Included in underwriting results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 is gross fee income of $6.2 million and $12.6 million, respectively ($7.4 million and $15.6 million for the same periods in the prior year).
Reconciliation of Adjusted Net Operating Income
We define adjusted net operating income as net income excluding certain non-operating expenses such as net realized and unrealized investment gains and losses, expenses related to due diligence costs for various merger and acquisition activities, professional service fees related to the filing of registration statements for the offering of securities, severance costs associated with terminated employees and interest expense and other income and expenses on a leased building that we were previously deemed to own for accounting purposes. We use adjusted net operating income as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Adjusted net operating income should not be viewed as a substitute for net income calculated in accordance with GAAP, and our definition of adjusted net operating income may not be comparable to that of other companies.
Our income before taxes and net income reconcile to our adjusted net operating income as follows:
 Three Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 Income
Before
Taxes
 Net
Income
 Income
Before
Taxes
 Net
Income
 ($ in thousands)
Income as reported$24,962
 $20,307
 $18,507
 $16,984
Net realized and unrealized investment (gains) losses(1,063) (670) 64
 98
Other expenses683
 540
 93
 126
Interest expense on leased building the Company was previously deemed to own for accounting purposes
 
 457
 361
Adjusted net operating income$24,582
 $20,177
 $19,121
 $17,569

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 Six Months Ended June 30,
 2019 2018
 
Income
Before
Taxes
 
Net
Income
 
Income
Before
Taxes
 
Net
Income
 ($ in thousands)
Income as reported$50,453
 $43,035
 $35,621
 $32,617
Net realized and unrealized investment (gains) losses(2,688) (1,685) 874
 763
Other expenses683
 540
 97
 146
Interest expense on leased building the Company was previously deemed to own for accounting purposes
 
 775
 612
Adjusted net operating income$48,448
 $41,890
 $37,367
 $34,138
Tangible Equity (per Share) and Pre Dividend Tangible Equity (per Share)
Key financial measures that we use to assess our longer term financial performance include the percentage growth in our tangible equity per share and our return on tangible equity. We believe tangible equity is a good measure to evaluate the strength of our balance sheet and to compare returns relative to this measure. For the six months ended June 30, 2019, our tangible equity per share increased by 15.4%. Absent the $18.3 million in dividends to shareholders in the six months ended June 30, 2019, our tangible equity per share increased by 19.1% for the six months ended June 30, 2019. Our operating return on tangible shareholders’ equity was 15.7% for the six months ended June 30, 2019.
We define tangible equity as the sum of shareholders’ equity less goodwill and intangible assets (net of amortization). Our definition of tangible equity may not be comparable to that of other companies, and it should not be viewed as a substitute for shareholders’ equity calculated in accordance with GAAP. The following table reconciles shareholders’ equity to tangible equity as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 and reconciles tangible equity to tangible equity before dividends as of June 30, 2019:
 June 30, 2019 December 31, 2018
 Equity Equity per
Share
 Equity Equity per
Share
 ($ in thousands, except share amounts)
Shareholders’ equity$791,050
 $26.08
 $709,241
 $23.65
Less: 
  
  
  
Goodwill181,831
 5.99
 181,831
 6.06
Intangible assets37,239
 1.23
 37,537
 1.25
Tangible equity$571,980
 $18.86
 $489,873
 $16.34
Dividends to shareholders for the six months ended June 30, 201918,339
 0.60
    
Pre-dividend tangible equity$590,319
 $19.46
    


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Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market risk is the risk of economic losses due to adverse changes in the estimated fair value of a financial instrument as the result of changes in equity prices, interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices. Our consolidated balance sheets include assets and liabilities with estimated fair values that are subject to market risk. Our primary market risks have been interest rate risk associated with investments in fixed maturities and equity price risk associated with investments in equity securities. We do not have material exposure to foreign currency exchange rate risk or commodity risk.
There have been no material changes in market risk from the information provided in Item 7A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports we file under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required financial disclosure. In connection with the preparation of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, our management carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including the CEO and CFO, as of June 30, 2019, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as such term is defined under Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act. Based upon this evaluation, our CEO and CFO concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of June 30, 2019.
Changes in Internal Controls over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during our quarter ended June 30, 2019 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Inherent Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls
The effectiveness of any system of controls and procedures is subject to certain limitations, and, as a result, there can be no assurance that our controls and procedures will detect all errors or fraud. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system will be attained.
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
We are party to legal proceedings which arise in the ordinary course of business. We believe that the outcome of such matters, individually and in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
There have been no material changes in our risk factors in the quarter ended June 30, 2019 from those disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
None.
Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities.
None.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
Item 5. Other information
None.

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Item 6. Exhibits
Exhibit
Number
 Description
3.1 
   
3.2 
   
3.3 
   
3.4 
   
3.5 
   
3.6 
   
10.1 
   
31.1 
   
31.2 
   
32 
   
101.INS XBRL Instance Document
   
101.SCH XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
   
101.CAL XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
   
101.DEF XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
   
101.LAB XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
   
101.PRE XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
   
* Denotes a management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.

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Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
  James River Group Holdings, Ltd.
    
Date:August 2, 2019By:/s/ Robert P. Myron
   Robert P. Myron
   President and Chief Executive Officer
   (Principal Executive Officer)
    
Date:August 2, 2019By:/s/ Sarah C. Doran
   Sarah C. Doran
   Chief Financial Officer
   (Principal Financial Officer)

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