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CDLX Cardlytics

Filed: 4 May 21, 4:32pm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________________ to _________________
Commission File Number: 001-38386
cdlx-20210331_g1.jpg
CARDLYTICS, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware26-3039436
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
675 Ponce de Leon Ave. NE, Ste 6000AtlantaGeorgia30308
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(888)792-5802
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common StockCDLXNASDAQ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  ☒    No  ☐  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No 
As of April 30, 2021, there were 32,876,077 shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.0001.


CARDLYTICS, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
TABLE OF CONTENTS

RISK FACTORS SUMMARY
Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those risks discussed at-length in the section below titled “Risk Factors.” These risks include, among others, the following:
Risks Related to our Business and Industry
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Unfavorable conditions in the global economy or the industries we serve could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results.
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated and may continue to vary from period to period, which could result in our failure to meet expectations with respect to operating results and cause the trading price of our stock to decline
We may not be able to sustain our revenue and billings growth rate in the future.
We are dependent upon the Cardlytics platform.
We are substantially dependent on Chase, Bank of America and a limited number of other FI partners.
The market in which we participate is competitive and we may not be able to compete successfully with our current or future competitors.
If our proposed acquisition of Bridg is not completed, we will have incurred substantial costs that may adversely affect our financial results and operations and the market price of our common stock.
If we are unable to successfully integrate Dosh’s and Bridg’s business and employees, it could have an adverse effect on our future results and the market price of our common stock.
Risks Related to our Outstanding Convertible Senior Notes
Servicing our debt may require a significant amount of cash. We may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our indebtedness, and we may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle for cash conversions of the Notes or to repurchase the Notes for cash upon a fundamental change, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the Capped Calls.

1

Risks Related to Regulatory and Intellectual Property Matters
Regulatory, legislative or self-regulatory developments regarding Internet privacy matters could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.
Legislation and regulation of online businesses, including privacy and data protection regimes, is expansive, not clearly defined and rapidly evolving. Such regulation could create unexpected costs, subject us to enforcement actions for compliance failures, or restrict portions of our business or cause us to change our business model.
Failure to protect our proprietary technology and intellectual property rights could substantially harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock has been and is likely to continue to be volatile.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make acquiring us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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CARDLYTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (UNAUDITED)
(Amounts in thousands, except share, per share and par value amounts)
December 31, 2020March 31, 2021
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$293,239 $613,548 
Restricted cash110 111 
Accounts receivable, net81,249 75,334 
Other receivables5,306 5,911 
Prepaid expenses and other assets5,687 7,669 
Total current assets385,591 702,573 
Long-term assets:
Property and equipment, net13,865 14,118 
Right-of-use assets under operating leases, net10,764 10,810 
Intangible assets, net447 78,981 
Goodwill203,181 
Capitalized software development costs, net6,299 7,788 
Deferred implementation costs, net3,785 2,903 
Other long-term assets, net1,786 2,681 
Total assets$422,537 $1,023,035 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$1,363 $3,249 
Accrued liabilities:
Accrued compensation7,582 8,334 
Accrued expenses5,502 8,714 
Partner Share liability37,457 30,708 
Consumer Incentive liability24,290 35,318 
Deferred revenue349 259 
Current operating lease liabilities4,718 5,448 
Current finance lease liabilities13 
Total current liabilities81,274 92,037 
Long-term liabilities:
Convertible senior notes, net174,011 176,540 
Long-term operating lease liabilities9,381 8,887 
Other long-term liabilities679 679 
Total liabilities265,345 278,143 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value—100,000 shares authorized and 27,861 and 31,770 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, respectively.
Additional paid-in capital551,429 1,164,320 
Accumulated other comprehensive income(192)(488)
Accumulated deficit(394,053)(418,948)
Total stockholders’ equity157,192 744,892 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$422,537 $1,023,035 
See notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements

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CARDLYTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (UNAUDITED)
(Amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Revenue$45,509 $53,230 
Costs and expenses:
Partner Share and other third-party costs26,138 29,771 
Delivery costs3,406 3,938 
Sales and marketing expense10,968 13,202 
Research and development expense3,851 6,218 
General and administration expense10,744 12,175 
Acquisition and integration costs7,030 
Depreciation and amortization expense2,331 3,065 
Total costs and expenses57,438 75,399 
Operating loss(11,929)(22,169)
Other (expense) income:
Interest income (expense), net284 (3,045)
Foreign currency (loss) gain(1,886)319 
Total other expense(1,602)(2,726)
Loss before income taxes(13,531)(24,895)
Income tax benefit
Net loss(13,531)(24,895)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(13,531)$(24,895)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted$(0.51)$(0.85)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted26,725 29,313 
See notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements

4

CARDLYTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS (UNAUDITED)
(Amounts in thousands)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Net loss$(13,531)$(24,895)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation adjustments1,297 (296)
Total comprehensive loss$(12,234)$(25,191)
See notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements

5

CARDLYTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (UNAUDITED)
(Amounts in thousands)

Three Months Ended March 31, 2021:
  Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
 Common Stock
 SharesAmount
Balance – December 31, 202027,861 $$551,429 $(192)$(394,053)$157,192 
Exercise of common stock options31 — 507 — — 507 
Stock-based compensation— — 7,394 — — 7,394 
Issuance of restricted stock28 — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock3,850 — 484,043 — — 484,043 
Common stock purchase consideration for the acquisition of Dosh— — 117,354 — — 117,354 
Fair value of assumed Dosh options attributable to pre-combination service— — 3,593 — — 3,593 
Other comprehensive loss— — — (296)— (296)
Net loss— — — — (24,895)(24,895)
Balance – March 31, 202131,770 $$1,164,320 $(488)$(418,948)$744,892 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2020:
  Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
 Common Stock
 SharesAmount
Balance – December 31, 201926,547 $$480,578 $1,312 $(338,631)$143,267 
Exercise of common stock options161 — 3,145 — — 3,145 
Exercise of common stock warrants— — — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 4,180 — — 4,180 
Settlement of restricted stock107 — — — — — 
Other comprehensive income— — — 1,297 — 1,297 
Net loss— — — — (13,531)(13,531)
Balance – March 31, 202026,824 $$487,903 $2,609 $(352,162)$138,358 





See notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements

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CARDLYTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)
(Amounts in thousands)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Operating activities
Net loss$(13,531)$(24,895)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Credit loss expense1,477 1,004 
Depreciation and amortization2,349 3,065 
Amortization of financing costs charged to interest expense24 219 
Accretion of debt discount and non-cash interest expense2,321 
Amortization of right-of-use assets879 1,073 
Stock-based compensation expense4,125 7,248 
Other non-cash expense (income), net1,905 (141)
Amortization of deferred implementation costs1,008 882 
Change in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable22,149 7,867 
Prepaid expenses and other assets(509)(1,845)
Accounts payable252 495 
Other accrued expenses(6,988)996 
Partner Share liability(10,908)(6,749)
Consumer Incentive liability(5,638)(4,072)
Net cash used in operating activities(3,406)(12,532)
Investing activities
Acquisition of property and equipment(492)(1,377)
Acquisition of patents(23)(28)
Capitalized software development costs(922)(1,923)
Business acquisition, net of cash acquired(148,634)
Net cash used in investing activities(1,437)(151,962)
Financing activities
Principal payments of debt(6)(6)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock3,145 484,713 
Debt issuance costs(42)
Net cash received from financing activities3,139 484,665 
Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(588)139 
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(2,292)320,310 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash — Beginning of period104,587 293,349 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash — End of period$102,295 $613,659 






See notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements

7

CARDLYTICS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)
(Amounts in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash to the condensed consolidated balance sheet:
Cash and cash equivalents$102,174 $613,548 
Restricted cash121 111 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash — End of period$102,295 $613,659 
Supplemental schedule of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Cash paid for interest$16 $1,120 
Cash paid for income taxes$$
Amounts accrued for issuance costs of equity$$190 
Common stock purchase consideration for the acquisition of Dosh$$117,354 
Amounts accrued for property and equipment and capitalized software development costs$13 $102 

See notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements

8

CARDLYTICS, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
1.OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Cardlytics, Inc. (“we,” “our,” “us,” the “Company,” or “Cardlytics”) is a Delaware corporation and was formed on June 26, 2008. We operate an advertising platform within our partners' digital channels, which include online, mobile, email, mobile applications, and various real-time notifications. Our partners predominantly include financial institution ("FI") partners which provide us with access to their anonymized purchase data and digital banking customers. By applying advanced analytics to this aggregation of purchase data, we make it actionable, helping marketers identify, reach and influence likely buyers at scale, and measure the true sales impact of their marketing spend. We have strong relationships with leading marketers across a variety of industries, including retail, restaurant, travel and entertainment, telecommunications, subscription services, direct-to-consumer and grocery. Using our purchase intelligence we present customers with offers to save money at a time when they are thinking of their finances.
We also operate through Dosh Holdings, LLC, a wholly owned and operated subsidiary in the United States, through Cardlytics UK Limited, a wholly owned and operated subsidiary registered as a private limited company in England and Wales, and through Cardlytics Services India Private Limited, a wholly owned and operated subsidiary registered as a private limited company in India.
Unaudited Interim Results
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and information have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) and in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and disclosures required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, these financial statements contain all normal and recurring adjustments considered necessary to present fairly the financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the periods presented. The results for interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year due to the seasonality of our business, which has been historically impacted by higher consumer spending during the fourth quarter. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included on our Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Annual Report") for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
Acquisition of Dosh
On March 5, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Dosh Holdings, Inc., a personalized cash-back offers platform ("Dosh”). The Company acquired Dosh for purchase consideration of $276.9 million in a combination of cash and common stock. The total purchase price consisted of $150.0 million of cash, subject to $5.9 million of adjustments and escrows; and $125.0 million of shares of our common stock at an agreed-upon price of $136.33 per share, subject to $7.6 million of fair value adjustments based upon our close date, for an acquisition date fair value of $117.4 million. In addition, we assumed unvested options to purchase Dosh’s common stock and attributed $3.6 million of their fair value to the pre-combination service period. Refer to Note 3 - Business Combinations to our condensed consolidated financial statements for further information.                                            
Public Offering of Common Stock
On March 5, 2021, we closed a public equity offering in which we sold 3,850,000 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $130.00 per share for total gross proceeds of $500.5 million. We received total net proceeds of $484.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $16.3 million and offering costs of $0.2 million.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include revenue recognition, internal-use software development costs, income taxes, stock-based compensation, allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation of acquired intangible assets of Dosh, income tax valuation allowance and contingencies. We base our estimates on historical experience and on assumptions that we believe are reasonable. Changes in facts or circumstances may cause us to change our assumptions and estimates in future periods and it is possible that actual results could differ from our current or revised future estimates.

9

Internal-Use Software Development Costs
During 2019, we began capitalizing costs related to the development of new technology for building and launching marketing campaigns. In March 2020, we redesigned certain elements of this project and wrote off development costs totaling $0.8 million recognized in depreciation and amortization expense on our condensed consolidated statement of operations.
Restructuring
During the first quarter of 2020, we began a strategic shift within our organization to increase productivity and optimize performance. This plan resulted in severance and medical benefits totaling $0.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. We recognize these costs when we determine the extent of our actions and can estimate the costs. These charges are reflected in sales and marketing on our condensed consolidated statement of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020. No severance and medical benefits were paid to former employees as of March 31, 2020.
Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID–19 pandemic resulted in a global slowdown of economic activity that decreased demand for a broad variety of goods and services and consumer discretionary spending, including spending by consumers with our marketers. Estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty and therefore require the exercise of judgment. Actual results could differ from those estimates and any such differences may be material to our financial statements.
Revenue growth for the three months ended March 31, 2020 was unfavorably affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on both consumer discretionary spending and marketers' ability to spend advertising budgets on our solution. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 we deferred $0.7 million of revenue and recorded credit losses expense of $1.5 million associated with billings to marketers that we believe are likely to be materially and adversely affected by the slowdown in economic activity resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. During the first quarter of 2021, we saw continued recovery of both consumer spending as well as the advertising budgets of our clients. Due to continuing uncertainty regarding the severity and duration of the impacts of COVID-19 on the global economy, we will continue to monitor this situation and the potential impacts to our business.
2.     SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND RECENT ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
Significant Accounting Policies
Business Combinations
We apply the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations. Under this method of accounting, all assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their respective fair values at the date of the acquisition. We allocate the purchase consideration to the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets. Determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management’s judgment and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. These estimates can include, but are not limited to, the cash flows that an asset is expected to generate in the future, the appropriate weighted-average cost of capital, and the cost savings expected to be derived from acquiring an asset. These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable.
Acquired Intangible Assets and Goodwill
Acquired intangible assets consist of identifiable intangible assets resulting from our business acquisition. Intangible assets are recorded at fair value on the date of acquisition and amortized over their estimated useful lives.
Goodwill represents the purchase consideration of an acquired business that exceeds the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment by reporting unit annually in the fourth quarter, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. Triggering events that may indicate impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate or a significant decrease in expected cash flows. No impairment charges were recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
There have been no changes to our accounting policies except for the significant policies noted above arising from our acquisition of Dosh. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a basis consistent with that used to prepare our audited annual consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, and include, in the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring items, necessary for the fair statement of the condensed consolidated financial statements.

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Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion Options (“Subtopic 470-20”) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (“Subtopic 815-40”), which simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts on an entity's own equity. ASU 2020-06 also improves and amends the related Earnings Per Share guidance for both Subtopics. The ASU is part of the FASB's simplification initiative, which aims to reduce unnecessary complexity in U.S. GAAP. ASU 2020-06 will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021. We are currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
3.     BUSINESS COMBINATIONS
On March 5, 2021, we completed our acquisition of Dosh for purchase consideration of $276.9 million.
March 5, 2021
(in thousands)
Cash paid to common and preferred stockholders, warrant holders and vested option holders$136,164 
Cash paid to extinguish acquiree debt16,574 
Cash paid to settle pre-acquisition liabilities and acquiree deal-related costs3,218 
Fair value of common stock transferred117,354 
Fair value of assumed options attributable to pre-combination service3,593 
Total purchase consideration$276,903 
During the three months ended March 31, 2021 we incurred $7.0 million of costs in connection with the acquisition of Dosh and the planned acquisition of Bridg. These costs are included in acquisition and integration costs on our condensed consolidated statements of operations. Acquisition costs primarily represent diligence efforts, advisory costs, and transaction fees. Integration costs primarily represent integration employee compensation, change management and other advisors, and technology-related costs.
The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination and the total purchase consideration was allocated to the net tangible and intangible assets and liabilities based on their fair values on the acquisition date with the remaining amount recorded as goodwill. The values assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are based on preliminary estimates of fair value available as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and may be adjusted during the measurement period of up to 12 months from the date of acquisition as further information becomes available. Any changes in the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed during the measurement period may result in adjustments to goodwill.
The following table presents the preliminary purchase consideration allocation recorded on our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of the acquisition date (in thousands):
March 5, 2021
Cash and cash equivalents$7,323 
Accounts receivable and other assets6,146 
Intangible assets79,500 
Goodwill203,181 
Accounts payable and other liabilities(4,146)
Consumer incentive liability(15,101)
Total purchase consideration$276,903 
The goodwill was primarily attributed to the value of future growth expected from the labor force of Dosh and of synergies created with the Company’s current and future offerings. Goodwill is not expected to be deductible for income tax purposes.

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The following table sets forth the components of identifiable intangible assets acquired and their estimated useful lives as of the date of acquisition (dollars in thousands):
Fair ValueUseful life (in years)
Trade name$2,500 3.0
Developed technology37,000 6.0
Merchant relationships21,000 5.0
Partner relationships2,000 7.0
Card-linked subscriber user base$17,000 5.0
The estimated fair values of merchant relationships, partner relationships, and the card-linked subscriber user base were determined using the replacement cost method and lost profits, which required us to estimate the costs to recreate an asset of equivalent utility at prices available at the time of the valuation analysis and the lost profits over the period of time to recreate the asset. Trade names were valued using the "relief-from-royalty" approach. This method assumes that trademarks and trade names have value to the extent that their owner is relieved of the obligation to pay royalties for the benefits received from them. This method required us to estimate the future revenues for the related brand, the appropriate royalty rate and the weighted-average cost of capital. Developed technology was valued using the excess earnings method, an income approach. Under the excess earnings method, the fair value of an intangible asset is equal to the present value of the asset’s projected incremental after-tax cash flows (excess earnings) remaining after deducting the market rates of return on the estimated value of contributory assets (contributory charge) over its remaining useful life.
The results of Dosh have been included in the consolidated financial statements since the date of acquisition. For three months ended March 31, 2021, Dosh’s consolidated revenue and net loss included in the consolidated statement of operations from the acquisition date were $0.5 million and $2.4 million, respectively
Pro forma consolidated results of operations
The following unaudited pro forma financial information presents combined results of operations for each of the periods presented as if the acquisition of Dosh had completed on January 1, 2020. The pro forma information includes adjustments to depreciation expense for property and equipment acquired, to amortize expense for the intangible assets acquired, and to eliminate the acquisition transaction expenses recognized in the period. The pro forma financial information is for informational purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the consolidated results of operations or the combined business had the acquisition of Dosh actually occurred on January 1, 2020, or the results of future operations of the combined business. For instance, planned or expected operational synergies following the acquisition are not reflected in the pro forma information. Consequently, actual results will differ from the unaudited pro forma information presented below.
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202021
Revenue$47,653 $57,019 
Net loss$(23,886)$(29,283)
                                            

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4.     GOODWILL AND ACQUIRED INTANGIBLES
The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are as follows (in thousands):
Balance as of December 31, 2020$
Goodwill additions203,181 
Balance as of March 31, 2021$203,181 
Other intangible assets subject to amortization as of March 31, 2021 were as follows:
CostAccumulated AmortizationNetWeighted Average
Remaining Useful Life
(in thousands)(in years)
Trade name$2,500 $(59)$2,441 3.0
Developed technology37,000 (475)36,525 6.0
Merchant relationships21,000 (285)20,715 5.0
Partner relationships2,000 (20)1,980 7.0
Card-linked subscriber user base$17,000 (150)$16,850 5.0
Amortization expense of acquired intangibles for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $1.0 million.
As of March 31, 2021, we expect amortization expense in future periods to be as follows (in thousands):
Amount
2021 (remainder of year)$11,287 
202214,886 
202314,886 
202414,198 
202514,052 
Thereafter9,202 
Total expected future amortization expense$78,511 
5.     REVENUE
Our advertising channel enables marketers to reach consumers through our partners' trusted and frequently visited online and mobile platform channels. Working with the marketer, we design a campaign that targets customers based on their purchase history. The consumer is offered an incentive to make a purchase from the marketer within a specified period. We use a portion of the fees that we collect from marketers to provide these consumer incentives to our partners’ customers after they make qualifying purchases ("Consumer Incentives"). Leveraging our powerful purchase intelligence platform, we are able to create compelling Consumer Incentives that have the potential to increase return on advertising spend for marketers and measure the effectiveness of the advertising. Consumer Incentives totaled $22.3 million and $23.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We pay certain partners a negotiated and fixed percentage of our billings to marketers less any Consumer Incentives that we pay to partners’ customers and certain third-party data costs ("Partner Share"). Revenue on our condensed consolidated statements of operation is presented net of Consumer Incentives and gross of Partner Share. Prior to March 31, 2021, we referred to Partner Share as FI Share.

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We price our advertising campaigns predominantly in two ways: (1) Cost per Served Sale (“CPS”), and (2) Cost per Redemption (“CPR”).
CPS. Our primary pricing model is CPS, which we created to meet the media buying preferences of marketers. We generate revenue by charging a percentage of all purchases from the marketer by consumers (1) who are served marketing and (2) subsequently make a purchase from the marketer during the campaign period, regardless of whether consumers select the marketing and thereby becomes eligible to earn the applicable Consumer Incentive. We set CPS rates for marketers based on our expectation of the marketer’s return on advertising spend for the relevant campaign. Additionally, we set the amount of the Consumer Incentives payable for each campaign based on our estimation of our ability to drive incremental sales for the marketer.
CPR. Under our CPR pricing model, marketers generally specify and fund the Consumer Incentive and pay us a separate negotiated, fixed marketing fee for each purchase that we generate. We generally generate revenue if the consumer (1) is served marketing, (2) selects the marketing and thereby becomes eligible to earn the applicable Consumer Incentive and (3) makes a qualifying purchase from the marketer during the campaign period. We set the CPR fee for marketers based on our estimation of the marketers’ return on spend for the relevant campaign.
The following table summarizes revenue by pricing model (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Cost per Served Sale$30,846 $37,572 
Cost per Redemption14,068 15,307 
Other595 351 
Revenue$45,509 $53,230 
6.     LEASES
We have entered into various non-cancellable operating leases for our office and data center spaces with lease periods expiring between 2021 and 2025. The operating lease agreements generally provide for rental payments on a graduated basis and for options to renew, which could increase future minimum lease payments if exercised. We consider a termination or renewal option in the determination of the lease term when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Lease right-of-use assets and liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As our leases generally do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The incremental borrowing rate used is a fully collateralized rate that considers our credit rating, market conditions and the term of the lease at the lease commencement date. The lease right-of-use assets also include any lease payments made and exclude lease incentives such as tenant improvement allowances. Our operating leases typically include non-lease components such as common-area maintenance costs. We have elected to include non-lease components with lease payments for the purpose of calculating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities, to the extent that they are fixed. Non-lease components that are not fixed are expensed as incurred as variable lease payments. Leases with a term of one year or less are not recognized on our condensed consolidated balance sheet. We recognize lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
During the first quarter of 2021, we recognized additional right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $1.1 million and $1.5 million, respectively, which includes $0.2 million of new lease agreements related to data center expansion. Additionally, right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $0.9 million and $1.3 million, respectively, were recorded upon the acquisition of Dosh and assumption of Dosh's existing lease agreements.
During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, we made cash payments of $0.9 million and $1.4 million, respectively, for operating leases which are included in cash flows used in operating activities in our condensed consolidated statement of cash flows.
The following table summarizes activity related to our leases (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
 20202021
Operating lease expense$1,027 $1,191 
Variable lease expense297 200 
Short-term lease expense112 25 

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The following table presents our weighted average borrowing rate and weighted average lease term:
 March 31, 2020March 31, 2021
Weighted average borrowing rate3.4 %3.4 %
Weighted average remaining lease term (years)4.03.0

The following table summarizes future maturities of lease liabilities as of March 31, 2021 (in thousands):
Amount
2021 (remainder of year)$4,230 
20225,263 
20233,164 
20241,807 
Thereafter611 
Total lease payments15,075 
Imputed interest740 
Total operating lease liabilities$14,335 
7.     DEBT AND FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS
2020 Convertible Senior Notes
On September 22, 2020, we issued convertible senior notes with an aggregate principal amount of $230.0 million bearing an interest rate of 1.00% due in 2025 (the “Notes”), including the exercise in full of the initial purchasers’ option to purchase up to an additional $30.0 million principal amount of the Notes. The Notes were issued pursuant to an indenture, dated September 22, 2020 (the “Indenture”), between us and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee.
The net proceeds from this offering were $222.7 million, after deducting the initial purchasers’ discounts and commissions and the offering expenses payable by us. We used $26.5 million of the net proceeds to pay the cost of the capped call transactions described below.
The Notes are general senior, unsecured obligations and will mature on September 15, 2025, unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased. The Notes bear interest at a rate of 1.00% per year, payable semiannually in arrears on March 15 and September 15 of each year, beginning on March 15, 2021. Cash paid for interest on the Notes totaled $1.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021. The Notes are convertible at the option of the holders at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding June 15, 2025, only under the following circumstances: (1) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ending on December 31, 2020 (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price of our common stock, for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price for the Notes on each applicable trading day; (2) during the 5 business day period after any 10 consecutive trading day period (the “measurement period”) in which the trading price (as defined in the Indenture) per $1,000 principal amount of the Notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of common stock and the conversion rate for the Notes on each such trading day; (3) if we call such Notes for redemption, at any time prior to the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the redemption date; or (4) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events as set forth in the Indenture. The closing trading price of our common stock was in excess of 130% of the conversion price for more than 20 trading days during the preceding 30 consecutive trading days as of March 31, 2021, thus making the Notes convertible at the option of the holders during the quarter ending June 30, 2021. The Notes may be convertible thereafter if one or more of the conversion conditions is satisfied during future measurement periods. On or after June 15, 2025 until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, holders of the Notes may convert all or any portion of their Notes at any time, regardless of the foregoing circumstances. Upon conversion, we may satisfy our conversion obligation by paying and/or delivering, as the case may be, cash, shares of common stock or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, at our election, in the manner and subject to the terms and conditions provided in the Indenture. We currently intend to settle the principal amount of the Notes with cash.

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The conversion rate for the Notes will initially be 11.7457 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $85.14 per share of common stock. The conversion rate for the Notes is subject to adjustment under certain circumstances in accordance with the terms of the Indenture. In addition, following certain corporate events that occur prior to the maturity date of the Notes or if we deliver a notice of redemption in respect of the Notes, we will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate of the Notes for a holder who elects to convert its Notes in connection with such a corporate event or convert its notes called for redemption during the related redemption period (as defined in the Indenture), as the case may be.
We may not redeem the Notes prior to September 20, 2023. We may redeem for cash all or any portion of the Notes, at our option, on or after September 20, 2023 and prior to the 36th scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, if the last reported sale price of our common stock has been at least 130% of the conversion price for the Notes then in effect for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during any 30 consecutive trading day period (including the last trading day of such period) ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date on which we provide notice of redemption at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date. No sinking fund is provided for the Notes. If we elect to redeem less than all of the Notes, at least $75.0 million aggregate principal amount of Notes must be outstanding and not subject to redemption as of the relevant redemption notice date.
If we undergo a Fundamental Change (as defined in the Indenture), then, except as set forth in the Indenture, holders may require, subject to certain exceptions, us to repurchase for cash all or any portion of their Notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date.
The Indenture includes customary covenants and sets forth certain events of default after which the Notes may be declared immediately due and payable and sets forth certain types of bankruptcy or insolvency events of default involving us after which the Notes become automatically due and payable. The following events are considered “events of default” under the Indenture:
default in any payment of interest on any Note when due and payable and the default continues for a period of 30 days;
default in the payment of principal of any Note when due and payable at its stated maturity, upon optional redemption, upon any required repurchase, upon declaration of acceleration or otherwise;
failure by us to comply with our obligation to convert the Notes in accordance with the Indenture upon exercise of a holder’s conversion right, and such failure continues for three business days;
failure by us to give a fundamental change notice, notice of a make-whole fundamental change or notice of a specified corporate event, in each case when due and such failure continues for one business day;
failure by us to comply with its obligations in respect of any consolidation, merger or sale of assets;    
failure by us to comply with any of our other agreements in the Notes or the Indenture for 60 days after written notice of such failure from the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Notes then outstanding;
default by us or any of our significant subsidiaries (as defined in the Indenture) with respect to any mortgage, agreement or other instrument under which there may be outstanding, or by which there may be secured or evidenced, any indebtedness for money borrowed in excess of $35,000,000 (or its foreign currency equivalent), in the aggregate of us and/or any such significant subsidiary, whether such indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created, (i) resulting in such indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable prior to its stated maturity date or (ii) constituting a failure to pay the principal of any such indebtedness when due and payable (after the expiration of all applicable grace periods) at its stated maturity, upon required repurchase, upon declaration of acceleration or otherwise, and in the cases of clauses (i) and (ii), such acceleration shall not have been rescinded or annulled or such failure to pay or default shall not have been cured or waived, or such indebtedness is not paid or discharged, as the case may be, within 30 days after written notice to us by the trustee or to us and the trustee by holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Notes then outstanding in accordance with the Indenture; and
certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us or any of our significant subsidiaries.

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If certain bankruptcy and insolvency-related events of default with respect to us occur, the principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on, all of the then outstanding Notes shall automatically become due and payable. If an event of default with respect to the Notes, other than certain bankruptcy and insolvency-related events of default with respect to us, occurs and is continuing, the trustee by notice to us or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Notes by notice to us and the trustee, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal of, and accrued and unpaid interest on, all of the then-outstanding Notes to be due and payable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Indenture provides that, to the extent we so elect, the sole remedy for an event of default relating to certain failures by us to comply with certain reporting covenants in the Indenture will, for the first 365 days after the occurrence of such event of default, consist exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the Notes at a rate equal to 0.25% per annum of the principal amount of the Notes outstanding for each day during the first 180 days after the occurrence of such an event of default and 0.50% per annum of the principal amount of the Notes outstanding from the 181st day to, and including, the 365th day following the occurrence of such event of default, as long as such event of default is continuing (in addition to any additional interest that may accrue as a result of a registration default (as set forth in the Indenture).
The Indenture provides that we shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or sell, convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of the consolidated properties and assets of our subsidiaries, taken as a whole, to, another person (other than any such sale, conveyance, transfer or lease to one or more of our direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiaries), unless: (i) the resulting, surviving or transferee person (if not us) is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia, and such corporation (if not us) expressly assumes by supplemental indenture all of our obligations under the Notes and the Indenture; and (ii) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no default or event of default has occurred and is continuing under the Indenture.
The Notes are accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Subtopic 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options. Pursuant to ASC Subtopic 470-20, issuers of certain convertible debt instruments, such as the Notes, that have a net settlement feature and may be settled wholly or partially in cash upon conversion are required to separately account for the liability (debt) and equity (conversion option) components of the instrument. The carrying amount of the liability component of the instrument was computed using a discount rate of 6.50%, which was determined by estimating the fair value of a similar liability without the conversion option. The amount of the equity component is then calculated by deducting the fair value of the liability component from the principal amount of the instrument. The difference between the principal amount and the liability component represents a debt discount that is amortized to interest expense over the respective term of the Notes using the effective interest rate method. The equity component is not remeasured as long as it continues to meet the conditions for equity classification. In accounting for the issuance costs related to the Notes, the allocation of issuance costs incurred between the liability and equity components was based on their relative values.
The net carrying amount of the liability component of the Notes was as follows (in thousands):

March 31, 2021
Principal$230,000 
Minus: Unamortized debt discount(48,288)
Minus: Unamortized issuance costs(5,172)
Net carrying amount of the liability component$176,540 


The net carrying amount of the equity component of the Notes was as follows (in thousands):
March 31, 2021
Proceeds allocated to the conversion options (debt discount)$53,096 
Minus: Issuance costs(1,680)
Net carrying amount of the equity component$51,416 


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Interest expense recognized related to the Notes is as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Contractual interest expense (due in cash)$575 
Amortization of debt discount2,321 
Amortization of debt issuance costs207 
Total interest expense related to the Notes$3,103 
Capped Call Transactions
In connection with the issuance of the Notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions (the "Capped Calls") with an affiliate of one of the initial Note purchasers and certain other financial institutions. The Capped Calls are intended to reduce potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of Notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted Notes, as the case may be. The Capped Calls are recorded in stockholders' equity and are not accounted for as derivatives. The cost of $26.5 million incurred to purchase the Capped Calls was recorded as a reduction to additional paid-in capital in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet.
The Capped Calls each have an initial strike price of $85.14 per share, subject to certain adjustments, which corresponds to the initial conversion price of the Notes. The Capped Calls have an initial cap price of $128.51 per share, subject to certain adjustments.
2018 Loan Facility
In December 2020, we amended our loan facility with Pacific Western Bank ("2018 Loan Facility") to increase the capacity of our asset-backed revolving line of credit ("2018 Line of Credit") from $40.0 million to $50.0 million. This amendment also extended the maturity date of the 2018 Loan Facility from May 14, 2021 to December 31, 2022. Prior to the December 2020 amendment, the 2018 Loan Facility contained moving trailing 12-month billing covenants, which ranged from $210.0 million to $255.0 million, during the term of the facility. The former terms of the 2018 Loan Facility also required us to maintain a total cash balance plus liquidity under the 2018 Line of Credit of not less than $5.0 million. Effective with the December 2020 amendment, the former billings and liquidity covenants were removed and were replaced with a requirement to maintain a cash to funded senior debt ratio under the 2018 Line of Credit of 1.25:1.00.
We have made no borrowings or repayments on the 2018 Line of Credit during the three months ended March 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2021, we had 0 outstanding borrowings on our 2018 Line of Credit and had $50.0 million of unused borrowings available. Under the terms of the 2018 Line of Credit, we are able to borrow up to the lesser of $50.0 million or 85% of the amount of our eligible accounts receivable. Interest on advances bears an interest rate equal to the prime rate minus 0.50%, or 2.75% as of March 31, 2021. In addition, we are required to pay an unused line fee of 0.15% per annum on the average daily unused amount of the $50.0 million revolving commitment. We believe that we compliant with all financial covenants as of March 31, 2021.
8.     STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
Our board of directors has adopted and our stockholders have approved our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan ("2018 Plan"). Our 2018 Plan became effective on February 8, 2018, the date our registration statement in connection with our initial public offering ("IPO") was declared effective. We do not expect to grant any additional awards under our 2008 Stock Plan ("2008 Plan"). Any awards granted under the 2008 Plan will remain subject to the terms of our 2008 Plan and applicable award agreements.
Initially, the aggregate number of shares of our common stock that may be issued pursuant to stock awards under the 2018 Plan is the sum of (i) 1,875,000 shares plus (ii) 61,247 shares reserved, and remaining available for issuance, under our 2008 Plan at the time our 2018 Plan became effective and (iii) the number of shares subject to stock options or other stock awards granted under our 2008 Plan that would have otherwise returned to our 2008 Plan (such as upon the expiration or termination of a stock award prior to vesting). As of December 31, 2020, there were 1,222,316 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Plan. The number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Plan will automatically increase on January 1 of each year, beginning on January 1, 2019 and continuing through and including January 1, 2028, by 5% of the total number of shares of our capital stock outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year, or a lesser number of shares determined by our board of directors. Accordingly, the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Plan increased by 1,393,040 shares on January 1, 2021.

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The following table summarizes the allocation of stock-based compensation in the condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Delivery costs$175 $309 
Sales and marketing expense1,269 2,432 
Research and development expense603 1,514 
General and administration expense2,078 2,993 
Total stock-based compensation expense$4,125 $7,248 
During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021 we capitalized less than $0.1 million and $0.1 million of stock-based compensation expense for software development, respectively.
Common Stock Options
Options to purchase shares of common stock generally vest over four years and expire 10 years following the date of grant. The following table summarizes changes in common stock options:
Shares
(in thousands)
Weighted-Average Exercise PriceWeighted Average Contractual Life (in years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value(1)
(in thousands)
Options outstanding — December 31, 2020513 $23.91 
Granted
Exercised(31)16.11 $3,734 
Forfeited
Canceled
Options outstanding — March 31, 2021482 24.42 5.51$41,043 
Exercisable — March 31, 2021471 $24.38 5.53$40,220 
(1)For options exercised during the period, the aggregate intrinsic value represents the total pre-tax intrinsic value received by option holders based on the closing price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market on the exercise date. For options outstanding and exercisable at March 31, 2021, the aggregate intrinsic value represents the total pre-tax intrinsic value based on the $109.70 per share closing price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market on March 31, 2021, that would have been received by option holders had all in-the-money options been exercised on that date.
The total fair value of options vested during the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $0.3 million. As of March 31, 2021, unamortized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested common stock options were less than $0.1 million, and the weighted-average period over which such stock-based compensation expense will be recognized was 0.5 years.
Common Stock Options from Dosh Acquisition
In connection with the acquisition of Dosh, each unvested option to purchase shares of Dosh common stock outstanding as of the acquisition date was converted to unvested options to purchase shares of our common stock. These awards were granted under the Dosh Holdings, Inc. 2017 Stock Incentive Plan ("Dosh Plan") and were separately registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission on Form S-8 on April 9, 2021. The maximum aggregate number of shares of our common stock that may be issued upon exercise of these awards is 104,098 shares, and we do not expect to grant any additional awards under the Dosh Plan. The converted awards retain the same terms and conditions as the awards granted by Dosh prior to the acquisition. The awards have remaining vesting periods ranging from less than one year to four years.

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The following table summarizes changes in common stock options:
Shares
(in thousands)
Weighted-Average Exercise PriceWeighted Average Contractual Life (in years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Options outstanding — December 31, 2020$
Assumed104 3.06 
Exercised— 
Forfeited(8)3.06 
Canceled
Options outstanding — March 31, 202196 3.06 8.60$10,221 
Exercisable — March 31, 2021$3.06 8.00$450 
(1)For options exercised during the period, the aggregate intrinsic value represents the total pre-tax intrinsic value received by option holders based on the closing price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market on the exercise date. For options outstanding and exercisable at March 31, 2021, the aggregate intrinsic value represents the total pre-tax intrinsic value based on the $109.70 per share closing price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market on March 31, 2021, that would have been received by option holders had all in-the-money options been exercised on that date.
The total fair value of options vested during the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $0.2 million. As of March 31, 2021, unamortized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested common stock options was $5.6 million, and the weighted-average period over which such stock-based compensation expense will be recognized was 2.78 years.
The acquisition date fair value of the converted options was determined using the Black-Scholes options pricing model. The fair value identified was then allocated between pre-combination service, attributed to purchase consideration net of a 20% anticipated forfeiture rate, and post-combination service, to be recognized as stock-based compensation expense over the remaining vesting term.
The Black-Scholes options pricing model is affected by the estimated fair value of our common stock as well as the following significant inputs:
March 5, 2021
Value of Common Stock$128.06 
Expected Term7.00
Volatility54.6 %
Risk-free interest rate1.1 %
Exercise Price$3.06 
Dividend Rate%
Restricted Stock Units
We grant restricted stock units ("RSUs") to employees and our non-employee directors. The following table summarizes changes in RSUs, inclusive of performance-based RSUs:
Shares
(in thousands)
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair ValueWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (in years)Unamortized Compensation Costs
(in thousands)
Unvested — December 31, 20202,434 $32.49 
Granted52 123.07 
Vested(28)21.49 
Forfeited(5)33.76 
Unvested — March 31, 20212,453 $34.55 2.69$61,430 
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we granted 52,322 RSUs to employees, which have annual vesting periods of four years.

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Subsequent to March 31, 2021, we granted 368,529 RSUs to employees and executives, which have vested periods vesting from six months to four years and a weighted average vesting period of 3.4 years. Unamortized stock-based compensation expense related to these RSUs totaled $45.3 million.
Performance-based RSUs
In April 2019, we granted 1,252,500 performance-based restricted stock units (“2019 PSUs”). The 2019 PSUs are composed of 4 equal tranches, each of which have an independent performance-based vesting condition. The vesting criteria for the 4 tranches are as follows:
a minimum growth rate in adjusted contribution over a trailing 12-month period,
a minimum number of advertisers that are billed above a specified amount over a trailing 12-month period,
a minimum cumulative adjusted EBITDA target over a trailing 12-month period, and
a minimum trailing 30-day average closing price of our common stock.
The vesting conditions of each of the four tranches must be achieved within four years of the grant date. Upon a vesting event, 50% of the related tranche vests immediately, 25% of the related tranche vests six months after the achievement date and 25% of the related tranche vests 12 months after the achievement date. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted contribution are performance metrics defined within Item 2. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." In August and November 2019, the compensation committee of our board of directors certified that the target minimum trailing 30-day average closing price of our common stock and target minimum cumulative adjusted EBITDA target over a trailing 12-month period, respectively, were achieved resulting in the immediate vesting of 50% of the related PSU tranches. In February 2020, 25% of the 30-day average closing price of our common stock PSU tranche vested upon the six-month anniversary of the tranche's achievement date and the remaining 25% of the tranche vested in August 2020 upon the twelve-month anniversary of the tranche's achievement date. In May 2020, 25% of the adjusted EBITDA tranche vested upon the six-month anniversary of the tranche's achievement date, and the remaining 25% of the tranche will vested in November 2020 upon the twelve-month anniversary of the tranche's achievement date.
In April 2020, we granted 476,608 performance-based restricted stock units ("2020 PSUs"), of which 443,276 units have a performance-based vesting condition based on a minimum average revenue per user ("ARPU") target over a trailing 12-month period and 33,332 units have the same performance-based vesting conditions as those that remain unmet under the 2019 PSUs described above. ARPU is a performance metric defined within Item 2. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." The ARPU vesting condition must be achieved within four years of the grant date. Upon the vesting event, 50% of the award vests immediately, 25% of the award vests six months after achievement date and 25% of the award vests 12 months after the achievement date.
In April 2021, we granted 110,236 performance-based restricted stock units ("2021 PSUs") consisting of 2 tranches. The first tranche consists of 55,118 units that have a performance-based vesting condition based on a minimum revenue target over a trailing 12-month period. The units in this first tranche fully vest upon achievement. The second tranche consists of 55,118 units with a performance-based vesting condition based on a different minimum revenue target over a trailing 12-month period. Half of the units in the second tranche vest upon achievement and the remaining units vest six months after the achievement date, subject to continued service. Each performance-based vesting condition within the 2 tranches must be achieved within four years of the grant date and are subject to certification by the compensation committee of our board of directors.
Additionally, in April 2021, we granted 10,000 performance-based restricted stock units which have the same unmet vesting condition as the 2020 PSUs based on a minimum ARPU target over a trailing 12-month period as described above.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
Our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan ("2018 ESPP") enables eligible employees to purchase shares of our common stock at a discount. Purchases are accomplished through participation in discrete offering periods. On each purchase date, participating employees purchase our common stock at a price per share equal to 85% of the lesser of the fair market value of our common stock on the first trading day of the offering period or the date of purchase.
As of December 31, 2020, 474,120 shares of common stock were reserved for issuance pursuant to our 2018 ESPP. Additionally, the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 ESPP will automatically increase on January 1 of each year, which began on January 1, 2019 and will continue through and including January 1, 2026, by the lesser of (i) 1% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year, (ii) 500,000 shares of our common stock or (iii) such lesser number of shares of common stock as determined by our board of directors. Accordingly, the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 ESPP increased by 278,608 shares on January 1, 2021. Shares subject to purchase rights granted under our 2018 ESPP that terminate without having been issued in full will not reduce the number of shares available for issuance under our 2018 ESPP. No shares were issued under the 2018 ESPP in the three months ended March 31, 2021.

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9.     COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Implementation Costs
Agreements with certain partners have historically required us to fund the development of specific enhancements, pay for certain implementation fees, or make milestone payments upon the deployment of our solution. Amounts paid to our partners are included in deferred implementation costs on our condensed consolidated balance sheets the earlier of when paid or earned and are amortized over the remaining term of the related contractual arrangements. Amortization is included in Partner Share and other third-party costs on our condensed consolidated statements of operations and is presented in deferred implementation costs on our condensed consolidated statement of cash flows. Prior to March 31, 2021, we referred to deferred implementation costs as deferred FI implementation costs.
The following table summarizes changes in deferred implementation costs (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Beginning balance$8,383 $3,785 
Amortization(1,008)(882)
Ending balance$7,375 $2,903 
We have a minimum Partner Share commitment to a certain FI partner totaling $10.0 million over a 12-month period following the completion of certain milestones by the partner, which were not met as of March 31, 2021. Any expected shortfall penalty will be accrued during the 12-month period following the completion of the milestones.
Litigation
From time to time, we may become involved in legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business including, but not limited to, intellectual property infringement and collection matters. We make assumptions and estimates concerning the likelihood and amount of any potential loss relating to these matters using the latest information available. We record a liability for litigation if an unfavorable outcome is probable and the amount of loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated. If an unfavorable outcome is probable and a reasonable estimate of the loss is a range, we accrue the best estimate within the range. If no amount within the range is a better estimate than any other amount, we accrue the minimum amount within the range. If an unfavorable outcome is probable but the amount of the loss cannot be reasonably estimated, we disclose the nature of the litigation and indicates that an estimate of the loss or range of loss cannot be made. If an unfavorable outcome is reasonably possible and the estimated loss is material, we disclose the nature and estimate of the possible loss of the litigation. We do not disclose information with respect to litigation where an unfavorable outcome is considered to be remote or where the estimated loss would not be material. Based on current expectations, such matters, both individually and in the aggregate, are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, results of operations, business or financial condition.

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10.     EARNINGS PER SHARE
Diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021 because the effects of potentially dilutive items were anti-dilutive, given our net loss during these periods. The following securities as of March 31, 2020 and 2021 have been excluded from the calculation of diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding because the effect is anti-dilutive (in thousands):
 March 31,
 20202021
Common stock options837 578 
Convertible Senior Notes2,701 
Unvested restricted stock units1,730 2,453 
Common stock issuable pursuant to the ESPP34 13 
11.     SEGMENTS
As of March 31, 2021, we have 2 operating segments: the Cardlytics platform in the U.S. and U.K., as determined by the information that our Chief Executive Officer, who we consider our chief operating decision-maker ("CODM"), uses to make strategic goals and operating decisions. Our Cardlytics platform operating segments in the U.S. and U.K. represent our proprietary advertising channels and are aggregated into one reportable segment given their similar economic characteristics, nature of service, types of customers and method of distribution. Subsequent to the acquisition of Dosh, our CODM began reviewing Dosh revenue, however all Dosh operating expenses are reviewed on a combined basis with the operating expenses of the Cardlytics platform in the U.S. Therefore, we do not consider Dosh to be a separate operating segment. Our CODM allocates resources to, and evaluates the performance of, our operating segments based on revenue and adjusted contribution.
The following table provides information regarding our reportable segment (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Adjusted contribution$20,379 $24,341 
Plus: Adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs(1)
25,130 28,889 
Revenue$45,509 $53,230 
(1)Adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs presented above represents GAAP Partner Share and other third-party data costs less deferred implementation costs, which is detailed below in our reconciliation of GAAP loss before income taxes to adjusted contribution.
Adjusted Contribution
Adjusted contribution measures the degree by which revenue generated from our marketers exceeds the cost to obtain the purchase data and the digital advertising space from our partners. Adjusted contribution demonstrates how incremental marketing spend on our platform generates incremental amounts to support our sales and marketing, research and development, general and administration and other investments. Adjusted contribution is calculated by taking our total revenue less our Partner Share and other third-party costs exclusive of deferred implementation costs, which is a non-cash cost. Adjusted contribution does not take into account all costs associated with generating revenue from advertising campaigns, including sales and marketing expenses, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses and other expenses, which we do not take into consideration when making decisions on how to manage our advertising campaigns.

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The following table presents a reconciliation of loss before income taxes presented in accordance with GAAP to adjusted contribution (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Adjusted contribution$20,379 $24,341 
Minus:
Deferred implementation costs(1)
1,008 882 
Delivery costs3,406 3,938 
Sales and marketing expense10,968 13,202 
Research and development expense3,851 6,218 
General and administration expense10,744 12,175 
Acquisition and integration costs7,030 
Depreciation and amortization expense2,331 3,065 
Total other expense (income)1,602 2,726 
Loss before income taxes$(13,531)$(24,895)
(1)Deferred implementation costs is excluded from adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs, which is shown above in our reconciliation of GAAP revenue to adjusted contribution.
The following tables provide geographical information (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Revenue:
United States$40,028 $49,117 
United Kingdom5,481 4,113 
Total$45,509 $53,230 
December 31, 2020March 31, 2021
Property and equipment, net:
United States$9,549 $9,528 
United Kingdom4,162 4,456 
India154 134 
Total$13,865 $14,118 
Capital expenditures within the United Kingdom and India totaled less than $0.1 million and $0.6 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively.
Concentrations of Risk
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. A significant portion of our cash and cash equivalents are held in fully FDIC–insured demand deposit accounts that distribute funds, and credit risk, over a vast number of financial institutions. Our remaining cash and cash equivalents are held with four financial institutions, which we believe are of high credit quality.

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Marketers
Our revenue and accounts receivable are diversified among a large number of marketers segregated by both geography and industry. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our top five marketers accounted for 32% and 38% of our revenue, respectively, with one marketer accounting for over 10% during each period. As of March 31, 2020 our top five marketers accounted for 32% of our accounts receivable with two different marketers representing over 10%. As of March 31, 2021 our top five marketers accounted for 40% of our accounts receivable with two different marketers each representing over 10%.
FI Partners
Our business is substantially dependent on a limited number of FI partners. We require participation from our FI partners in the Cardlytics platform and access to their purchase data in order to offer our solutions to marketers and their agencies. We must have FI partners with a sufficient number of customers and levels of customer engagement to ensure that we have robust purchase data and marketing space to support a broad array of incentive programs for marketers. Our agreements with a substantial majority of our FI partners have terms of three to seven years but are generally terminable by the FI partner on 90 days or less prior notice. If an FI partner terminates its agreement with us, we would lose that FI as a source of purchase data and online banking customers.
During both the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, Bank of America, National Association (“Bank of America”) and JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (“Chase”) combined to account for over 75% of the total Partner Share we paid to all partners, with each representing over 30%. No other partner accounted for over 10% of Partner Share during these periods.
12.     SUBSEQUENT EVENTS
On April 12, 2021, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with Bridg, Inc. (“Bridg”), Mr. T Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of us (“Merger Sub”), and Shareholder Representative Services LLC, solely in its capacity as the representative of the security holders of Bridg. The Merger Agreement provides for Merger Sub to merge with and into Bridg ( “Merger”), with Bridg surviving the Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of us, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement.
Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, and upon the terms and subject to the conditions thereof, at the closing (the “Closing”), we have agreed to pay the former equityholders of Bridg (other than former holders of unvested options to purchase Bridg’s common stock) (collectively, the “Bridg Equityholders”), a cash payment equal to $350.0 million, subject to adjustments as specified in the Merger Agreement. In addition, we have agreed to make an additional payment within 30 days of the first anniversary of the Closing (the “First Anniversary Payment”) equal to 20 times the U.S. annualized run rate revenue based on the month preceding the anniversary, less $12.5 million. We have also agreed to make an additional payment within 30 days of the second anniversary of the Closing (the “Second Anniversary Payment”) equal to 15 times the U.S. annualized run rate revenue for customers as of the first anniversary based on the month preceding the second anniversary, less the prior annualized run rate revenue at the first anniversary. The Second Anniversary Payment is subject to a specified cap. We have agreed to pay at least 30% of the First Anniversary Payment and the Second Anniversary Payment in cash, with the remainder to be paid in cash or our common stock, at our option. If we choose to pay a portion of the First Anniversary Payment or Second Anniversary Payment in common stock, the number of shares will be determined by dividing the amount of the payment by the trailing 20-day VWAP (as reported by Bloomberg) ending on the first anniversary date or second anniversary date, as applicable. In addition, we will assume the unvested options held by the holders of unvested options to purchase Bridg’s common stock.
The Merger Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and indemnities of each of the Company and Bridg. During the period from the date of the Merger Agreement to the Closing, we and Bridg have agreed to carry on our respective businesses in the ordinary course and consistent with past practices and have agreed to certain other operating covenants.
The closing of the Merger is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of a number of customary closing conditions in the Merger Agreement, including, among others, the receipt of regulatory approval, the absence of certain governmental restraints and the absence of a material adverse effect on Bridg.
The Merger Agreement may be terminated prior to the closing date by mutual written agreement between us and Bridg. In addition, the Merger Agreement may be terminated by either party in certain circumstances, including if the Acquisition has not been closed on or before June 30, 2021 (or August 31, 2021 in the event that the only closing condition that has not been met is regulatory approval), or if the other party has materially breached any representation, warranty, covenant, obligation or agreement such that certain of the conditions to closing cannot be satisfied.

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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with (1) our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10–Q and (2) the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 1, 2021.
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements are often identified by the use of words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “will,” “would” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions or variations, and such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to our business strategy, plans and objectives for future operations, including our expectations regarding our expenses; continued enhancements of our platform and new product offerings; our future financial and business performance; the closing of our acquisition of Bridg, Inc.; anticipated benefits of our acquisitions of Dosh and Bridg; potential payments under the Merger Agreement with Bridg; anticipated Partner Share commitment shortfall penalty; and the uncertain negative impacts that COVID–19 may have on our business, financial condition, results of operations and changes in overall level of spending and volatility in the global economy. The events described in these forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified herein, and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors,” set forth in Part II, Item 1A of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our other SEC filings. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
Overview
We operate an advertising platform within our partners' digital channels, which include online, mobile, email, mobile applications, and various real-time notifications. Our partners predominantly include financial institution ("FI") partners which provide us with access to their anonymized purchase data and digital banking customers. By applying advanced analytics to this aggregation of purchase data, we make it actionable, helping marketers identify, reach and influence likely buyers at scale, and measure the true sales impact of their marketing spend. We have strong relationships with leading marketers across a variety of industries, including retail, restaurant, travel and entertainment, telecommunications, subscription services, direct to consumer, and grocery. Using our purchase intelligence, we present customers with offers to save money at a time when they are thinking of their finances.
Working with a marketer, we design a campaign that targets consumers based on their purchase history. The consumer is offered an incentive to make a purchase from the marketer within a specified period. We use a portion of the fees that we collect from marketers to provide these consumer incentives to customers after they make qualifying purchases ("Consumer Incentives"). We report our revenue on our condensed consolidated statements of operations net of Consumer Incentives since we do not provide the goods or services that are purchased by customers from the marketers to which the Consumer Incentives relate.
We pay certain partners a negotiated and fixed percentage of our billings to marketers less any Consumer Incentives that we pay to customers and certain third-party data costs ("Partner Share"). We report our revenue gross of Partner Share. Partner Share costs are included in Partner Share and other third-party costs in our consolidated statements of operations, rather than as a reduction of revenue, because we and not our partners act as the principal in our arrangements with marketers. Prior to March 31, 2021, we referred to Partner Share as FI Share.
We run campaigns offering compelling Consumer Incentives to drive an expected rate of return on advertising spend for marketers. At times, we may collaborate with a partner to enhance the level of Consumer Incentives to their respective customers, funded by their Partner Share. We believe that these investments by our partners positively impact our platform by making their customers more highly engaged with our platform. However, these investments negatively impact our GAAP revenue, which is reported net of Consumer Incentives.

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Revenue, which is reported net of Consumer Incentives and gross of Partner Share and other third-party costs, was $45.5 million and $53.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively, representing an increase of 17%. Billings, a non-GAAP measure that represents the gross amount billed to marketers and is reported gross of both Consumer Incentives and Partner Share, was $67.8 million and $76.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively, representing an increase of 13%. Gross profit, which represents revenue less Partner Share and other third-party costs and less delivery costs, was $16.0 million and $19.5 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively, representing an increase of 22%. Adjusted contribution, a non-GAAP measure that represents our revenue less our adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs, was $20.4 million and $24.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively, representing an increase of 19%.
Billings and adjusted contribution are further defined under the heading "Non-GAAP Measures and Other Performance Metrics" below. We believe these non-GAAP measures, alongside our GAAP revenue and GAAP gross profit, provide useful information to investors for period-to-period comparisons of our core business and in understanding and evaluating our results of operations in the same manner as our management and board of directors.
The following table summarizes our results (dollars in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
Change
 20202021$%
Billings(1)
$67,776 $76,317 $8,541 13 %
Consumer Incentives22,267 23,087 820 
Revenue45,509 53,230 7,721 17 
Adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs(1)
25,130 28,889 3,759 15 
Adjusted contribution(1)
20,379 24,341 3,962 19 
Delivery costs3,406 3,938 532 16 
Deferred implementation costs1,008 882 (126)(13)
Gross profit$15,965 $19,521 $3,556 22 %
(1)Billings, adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs and adjusted contribution are non-GAAP measures, as detailed below in our reconciliations of GAAP revenue to billings and GAAP gross profit to adjusted contribution.
During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our net loss was $13.5 million and $24.9 million, respectively. Our historical losses have been driven by our substantial investments in our purchase intelligence platform and infrastructure, which we believe will enable us to expand the use of our platform by both our partners and marketers. On March 5, 2021, we acquired Dosh Holdings, Inc., and on April 12, 2012, we announced the planned acquisition of Bridg. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we incurred $7.0 million of costs in connection with these acquisitions. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our net loss included stock-based compensation expense of $4.1 million and $7.2 million,
Public Offering of Common Stock
On March 5, 2021, we closed a public equity offering in which we sold 3,850,000 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $130.00 per share for total gross proceeds of $500.5 million. We received total net proceeds of $484.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $16.3 million and offering costs of $0.2 million.
Acquisition of Dosh
On March 5, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Dosh Holdings, Inc., a personalized cash-back offers platform ("Dosh”). The Company acquired Dosh for purchase consideration of $276.9 million in a combination of cash and common stock. The total purchase price consisted of $150.0 million of cash, subject to $5.9 million of adjustments and escrows; and $125.0 million of shares of our common stock at an agreed-upon price of $136.33 per share, subject to $7.6 million of fair value adjustments based upon our close date, for an acquisition date fair value of $117.4 million. In addition, we assumed unvested options to purchase Dosh’s common stock and attributed $3.6 million of their fair value to the pre-combination service period. Refer to Note 3 - Business Combinations to our condensed consolidated financial statements for further information.                                                    
Acquisition of Bridg
On April 12, 2021, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with Bridg, Inc. (“Bridg”), Mr. T Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of us (“Merger Sub”), and Shareholder Representative Services LLC, solely in its capacity as the representative of the security holders of Bridg. The Merger Agreement provides for Merger Sub to merge with and into Bridg ( “Merger”), with Bridg surviving the Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of us, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement.

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Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, and upon the terms and subject to the conditions thereof, at the closing (the “Closing”), we have agreed to pay the former equityholders of Bridg (other than former holders of unvested options to purchase Bridg’s common stock) (collectively, the “Bridg Equityholders”), a cash payment equal to $350.0 million, subject to adjustments as specified in the Merger Agreement. In addition, we have agreed to make an additional payment within 30 days of the first anniversary of the Closing (the “First Anniversary Payment”) equal to 20 times the U.S. annualized run rate revenue based on the month preceding the anniversary, less $12.5 million. We have also agreed to make an additional payment within 30 days of the second anniversary of the Closing (the “Second Anniversary Payment”) equal to 15 times the U.S. annualized run rate revenue for customers as of the first anniversary based on the month preceding the second anniversary, less the prior annualized run rate revenue at the first anniversary. The Second Anniversary Payment is subject to a specified cap. We have agreed to pay at least 30% of the First Anniversary Payment and the Second Anniversary Payment in cash, with the remainder to be paid in cash or our common stock, at our option. If we choose to pay a portion of the First Anniversary Payment or Second Anniversary Payment in common stock, the number of shares will be determined by dividing the amount of the payment by the trailing 20-day VWAP (as reported by Bloomberg) ending on the first anniversary date or second anniversary date, as applicable. In addition, we will assume the unvested options held by the holders of unvested options to purchase Bridg’s common stock.
The Merger Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and indemnities of each of the Company and Bridg. During the period from the date of the Merger Agreement to the Closing, we and Bridg have agreed to carry on our respective businesses in the ordinary course and consistent with past practices and have agreed to certain other operating covenants.
The closing of the Merger is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of a number of customary closing conditions in the Merger Agreement, including, among others, the receipt of regulatory approval, the absence of certain governmental restraints and the absence of a material adverse effect on Bridg.
The Merger Agreement may be terminated prior to the closing date by mutual written agreement between us and Bridg. In addition, the Merger Agreement may be terminated by either party in certain circumstances, including if the Acquisition has not been closed on or before June 30, 2021 (or August 31, 2021 in the event that the only closing condition that has not been met is regulatory approval), or if the other party has materially breached any representation, warranty, covenant, obligation or agreement such that certain of the conditions to closing cannot be satisfied.
FI Partners
Our FI partners include Bank of America, National Association ("Bank of America"), JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (“Chase”) and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association (“Wells Fargo”), as well as many other national and regional financial institutions, including several of the largest bank processors and digital banking providers to reach customers of small and mid-sized FIs. Wells Fargo began a phased launch of our platform in the fourth quarter of 2019 that was completed in the second quarter of 2020. Additionally, we have begun a phased national rollout of our platform with U.S. Bank, National Association.
For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our average monthly active users ("MAUs") were 140.8 million and 168.6 million, respectively, and our average revenue per user ("ARPU") for each period was $0.32, respectively. MAUs and ARPU are performance metrics defined under the heading "Non-GAAP Measures and Other Performance Metrics" below. The increase in MAUs is largely due to Wells Fargo completing their phased launch in the second quarter of 2020.
Partner Commitments
We have a minimum Partner Share commitment with a certain FI partner totaling $10.0 million over a 12-month period following the completion of certain milestones by the FI partner, which were not met as of March 31, 2021. Any expected shortfall penalty will be accrued during the 12-month period following the completion of the milestones.

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Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID–19 pandemic resulted in a global slowdown of economic activity that decreased demand for a broad variety of goods and services and consumer discretionary spending, including spending by consumers with our marketers. Estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty and therefore require the exercise of judgment. Actual results could differ from those estimates and any such differences may be material to our financial statements.
Revenue growth for the three months ended March 31, 2020 was unfavorably affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on both consumer discretionary spending and marketers' ability to spend advertising budgets on our solution. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 we deferred $0.7 million of revenue and recorded credit losses expense of $1.5 million associated with billings to marketers that we believe are likely to be materially and adversely affected by the slowdown in economic activity resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. During the first quarter of 2021, we saw continued recovery of both consumer spending as well as the advertising budgets of our clients. Due to continuing uncertainty regarding the severity and duration of the impacts of COVID-19 on the global economy, we will continue to monitor this situation and the potential impacts to our business.
Non-GAAP Measures and Other Performance Metrics
We regularly monitor a number of financial and operating metrics in order to measure our current performance and estimate our future performance. Our metrics may be calculated in a manner different than similar metrics used by other companies.
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
 (in thousands, except ARPU)
MAUs140,779 168,620 
ARPU$0.32 $0.32 
Billings$67,776 $76,317 
Adjusted contribution$20,379 $24,341 
Adjusted EBITDA$(3,982)$(3,944)
Monthly Active Users
We define MAUs as targetable customers or accounts that have logged in and visited online or mobile applications containing offers from, opened an email containing offers from, or redeemed an offer from the Cardlytics platform during a monthly period. We then calculate a monthly average of these MAUs for the periods presented. We believe that MAUs is an indicator of our platform’s ability to drive engagement and is reflective of the marketing base that we offer to marketers. Prior to March 31, 2021, we referred to MAUs as FI MAUs.
Average Revenue per User
We define ARPU as the total revenue generated in the applicable period calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP"), divided by the average number of MAUs in the applicable period. We believe that ARPU is an indicator of the value of our relationships with our partners with respect to the Cardlytics platform.
Billings
Billings represents the gross amount billed to marketers for advertising campaigns in order to generate revenue. Billings is reported gross of both Consumer Incentives and Partner Share. Our GAAP revenue is recognized net of Consumer Incentives and gross of Partner Share.
We review billings for internal management purposes. We believe that billings provides useful information to investors for period-to-period comparisons of our core business and in understanding and evaluating our results of operations in the same manner as our management and board of directors. Nevertheless, our use of billings has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our financial results as reported under GAAP. Other companies, including companies in our industry that have similar business arrangements, may address the impact of Consumer Incentives differently. You should consider billings alongside our other GAAP financial results.

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The following table presents a reconciliation of billings to revenue, the most directly comparable GAAP measure (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Revenue$45,509 $53,230 
Plus:
Consumer Incentives22,267 23,087 
Billings$67,776 $76,317 
Adjusted Contribution
Adjusted contribution measures the degree by which revenue generated from our marketers exceeds the cost to obtain the purchase data and the digital advertising space from our partners. Adjusted contribution demonstrates how incremental marketing spend on our platform generates incremental amounts to support our sales and marketing, research and development, general and administration and other investments. Adjusted contribution is calculated by taking our total revenue less our Partner Share and other third-party costs exclusive of deferred implementation costs, which is a non-cash cost. Adjusted contribution does not take into account all costs associated with generating revenue from advertising campaigns, including sales and marketing expenses, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses and other expenses, which we do not take into consideration when making decisions on how to manage our advertising campaigns.
We use adjusted contribution extensively to measure the efficiency of our advertising platform, make decisions to manage advertising campaigns and evaluate our operational performance. Adjusted contribution is also used to determine the vesting of performance-based equity awards and is used to determine the achievement of quarterly and annual bonuses across our entire global employee base, including executives. We view adjusted contribution as an important operating measure of our financial results. We believe that adjusted contribution provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our results of operations in the same manner as our management and board of directors. Adjusted contribution should not be considered in isolation from, or as an alternative to, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. Adjusted contribution should be considered together with other operating and financial performance measures presented in accordance with GAAP. Also, adjusted contribution may not necessarily be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies. Refer to Note 11—Segments to our condensed consolidated financial statements for further details on our adjusted contribution.
The following table presents a reconciliation of adjusted contribution to gross profit, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for each of the periods indicated (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Revenue$45,509 $53,230 
Minus:
Partner Share and other third-party costs26,138 29,771 
Delivery costs(1)
3,406 3,938 
Gross profit15,965 19,521 
Plus:
Delivery costs(1)
3,406 3,938 
Deferred implementation costs(2)
1,008 882 
Adjusted contribution$20,379 $24,341 
(1)Stock-based compensation expense recognized in delivery costs totaled $0.2 million and $0.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively.

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(2)Prior to March 31, 2021, we referred to deferred implementation costs as deferred FI implementation costs. Deferred implementation costs is excluded from adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs as follows (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Partner Share and other third-party costs$26,138 $29,771 
Minus:
Deferred implementation costs1,008 882 
Adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs$25,130 $28,889 
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA represents our net loss before income tax benefit; interest expense, net; depreciation and amortization expense; stock-based compensation expense; foreign currency (loss) gain; deferred implementation costs; restructuring costs and acquisition and integration costs. We do not consider these excluded items to be indicative of our core operating performance. The items that are non-cash include foreign currency loss, deferred implementation costs, depreciation and amortization expense and stock-based compensation expense. Notably, any impacts related to minimum Partner Share commitments in connection with agreements with certain partners are not added back to net loss in order to calculate adjusted EBITDA. Adjusted EBITDA is a key measure used by management to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends and to generate future operating plans, make strategic decisions regarding the allocation of capital and invest in initiatives that are focused on cultivating new markets for our solution. In particular, the exclusion of certain expenses in calculating adjusted EBITDA facilitates comparisons of our operating performance on a period-to-period basis. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure calculated in accordance with GAAP.
We believe that adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management and board of directors. Nevertheless, use of adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our financial results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are: (1) adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs; (2) adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the potentially dilutive impact of stock-based compensation and equity instruments issued to our partners; (3) adjusted EBITDA does not reflect tax payments or receipts that may represent a reduction or increase in cash available to us; and (4) other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate adjusted EBITDA or similarly titled measures differently, which reduces the usefulness of the metric as a comparative measure. Because of these and other limitations, you should consider adjusted EBITDA alongside our net loss and other GAAP financial results.
The following table presents a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP measure (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Net loss$(13,531)$(24,895)
Plus:
Interest (income) expense, net(284)3,045 
Depreciation and amortization expense2,331 3,065 
Stock-based compensation expense4,126 7,248 
Foreign currency loss (gain)1,886 (319)
Deferred implementation costs1,008 882 
Restructuring costs482 — 
Acquisition and integration costs— 7,030 
Adjusted EBITDA$(3,982)$(3,944)

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Results of Operations
The following table presents our condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Revenue$45,509 $53,230 
Costs and expenses:
Partner Share and other third-party costs26,138 29,771 
Delivery costs3,406 3,938 
Sales and marketing expense10,968 13,202 
Research and development expense3,851 6,218 
General and administrative expense10,744 12,175 
Acquisition and integration costs— 7,030 
Depreciation and amortization expense2,331 3,065 
Total costs and expenses57,438 75,399 
Operating loss(11,929)(22,169)
Other (expense) income:
Interest income (expense), net284 (3,045)
Foreign currency (loss) gain(1,886)319 
Total other expense(1,602)(2,726)
Loss before income taxes(13,531)(24,895)
Income tax benefit— — 
Net loss$(13,531)$(24,895)
Comparison of Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2021
Revenue
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
(dollars in thousands)
Billings$67,776 $76,317 $8,541 13 %
Consumer incentives22,267 23,087 820 
Revenue$45,509 $53,230 $7,721 17 %
% of billings67 %70 %
The $7.7 million increase in revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 was comprised of a $8.5 million increase in billings and $0.8 million increase in Consumer Incentives. The billings increase was comprised of $6.1 million increase in sales to existing marketers and a $2.4 million increase in sales to new marketers. Consumer incentives grew less than billings during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily as a result of changes in advertiser mix. Revenue, consumer incentives and billings contributed by Dosh between March 5, 2021, when the acquisition was closed, and March 31,2021 was $0.5 million, $0.8 million and $1.3 million, respectively.

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Costs and Expenses
Partner Share and Other Third-Party Costs
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
Partner Share and other third-party costs:
Adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs$25,130 $28,889 $3,759 15 %
Deferred implementation costs1,008 882 (126)(13)
Total Partner Share and other third-party costs$26,138 $29,771 $3,633 14 %
% of revenue58 %56 %

Adjusted Partner Share and other third-party costs increased by $3.8 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to increased revenue from sales of the Cardlytics platform. Deferred implementation costs decreased by $0.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to a decrease in the amortization of certain platform features that reached the end of their estimated useful life.
Delivery Costs
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
Delivery costs$3,406 $3,938 $532 16 %
% of revenue%%
Delivery costs increased by $0.5 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily due to a $0.2 million increase in personnel costs associated with headcount, a $0.2 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, and a $0.1 million increase in costs associated with hosting the Cardlytics platform for certain partners.
Sales and Marketing Expense
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
Sales and marketing expense$10,968 $13,202 $2,234 20 %
% of revenue24 %25 %
Sales and marketing expense increased by $2.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to a $1.2 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, a $1.1 million increase in personnel costs associated with additional headcount, a $0.2 million increase in personnel training and a $0.2 million increase in professional fees, partially offset by a $0.5 million decrease in travel and entertainment.

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Research and Development Expense
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
Research and development expense$3,851 $6,218 $2,367 61 %
% of revenue%12 %
Research and development expense increased by $2.4 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to a $2.3 million increase in personnel costs due to additional headcount and a $0.9 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, partially offset by a $0.8 million increase in the amount of personnel costs capitalized in connection with developing internal-use software.
General and Administrative Expense
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
General and administrative expense$10,744 $12,175 $1,431 13 %
% of revenue24 %23 %
General and administrative expense increased by $1.4 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to a $0.9 million increase in stock-based compensation expense, a $0.5 million increase in personnel costs associated with additional headcount, a $0.2 million increase in professional fees and a $0.1 million increase in software licensing costs, partially offset by a $0.3 million decrease in travel and entertainment costs.
Stock-based Compensation Expense
The following table summarizes the allocation of stock-based compensation in the consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
Delivery costs$175 $309 $134 77 %
Sales and marketing expense1,269 2,432 1,163 92 
Research and development expense603 1,514 911 151 
General and administrative expense2,078 2,993 915 44 
Total stock-based compensation expense$4,125 $7,248 $3,123 76 %
% of revenue%14 %
Stock-based compensation expense increased by $3.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to the impact of RSUs and PSUs granted in April 2020.

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Acquisition and integration costs
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
(dollars in thousands)
Acquisition and integration costs$— 7,030 7,030 n/a
% of revenue— %13 %
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we incurred $7.0 million of costs in connection with the acquisition of Dosh and the planned acquisition of Bridg. Refer to Note 3 - Business Combinations to our condensed consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding these acquisitions.
Depreciation and Amortization Expense
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
Depreciation and amortization expense$2,331 $3,065 $734 31 %
% of revenue%%
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $0.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, driven by the increase of amortization of intangible assets related to the Dosh acquisition.
Interest Income (Expense), Net
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
Interest expense$(40)$(3,135)$(3,095)n/a
Interest income324 90 (234)(72)
Interest income (expense), net$284 $(3,045)$(3,329)n/a
% of revenue— %(6)%
Interest income (expense), net increased $3.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, driven by interest expense related to the Notes which were issued on September 22, 2020 and have an aggregate principal amount of $230.0 million bearing interest of 1.00%.
Foreign Currency (Loss) Gain
 Three Months Ended March 31,Change
 20202021$%
 (dollars in thousands)
Foreign currency (loss) gain$(1,886)$319 $2,205 (117)%
% of revenue(4)%%
Foreign currency (loss) gain improved by $2.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to an increase in the value of the British pound relative to the U.S. dollar.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table summarizes our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, working capital and unused available borrowings (in thousands):
December 31, 2020March 31, 2021
Cash and cash equivalents$293,239 $613,548 
Accounts receivable, net81,249 75,334 
Working capital(1)
304,317 610,536 
Unused available borrowings50,000 50,000 
(1)We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities. See our consolidated financial statements for further details regarding our current assets and current liabilities.
Our cash and cash equivalents are available for working capital purposes. We do not enter into investments for trading purposes, and our investment policy is to invest any excess cash in short-term, highly liquid investments that limit the risk of principal loss. Currently, the majority of our cash and cash equivalents are held in money market accounts and fully FDIC-insured demand deposit accounts. As of March 31, 2021, our demand deposit accounts earned up to a 0.50% annual rate of interest. As of March 31, 2021, $2.3 million of our cash and cash equivalents were in the United Kingdom. While our investment in Cardlytics UK Limited is not considered indefinitely invested, we do not plan to repatriate these funds.
Through March 31, 2021, we have incurred accumulated net losses of $418.9 million since inception, including net losses of $13.5 million and $24.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We expect to incur additional operating losses as we continue our efforts to grow our business. We have historically financed our operations and capital expenditures through convertible note financings, private placements of preferred stock, public offerings of our common stock, lines of credit, term loans and convertible senior notes. Through March 31, 2021, we have received net proceeds of $222.7 million from the issuance of convertible senior notes, net proceeds of $196.2 million from the issuance of preferred stock and convertible promissory notes and net proceeds of $611.1 million from public equity offerings.
On April 12, 2021, we entered into the Merger Agreement with Bridg, pursuant to which, at the Closing, we have agreed to pay the Bridg equityholders, a cash payment equal to $350.0 million, subject to adjustments as specified in the Merger Agreement. In addition, we have agreed to make a First Anniversary Payment equal to 20 times the U.S. annualized run rate revenue based on the month preceding the anniversary, less $12.5 million, and a Second Anniversary Payment equal to 15 times the U.S. annualized run rate revenue for customers as of the first anniversary based on the month preceding the second anniversary, less the prior annualized run rate revenues at the first anniversary. The Second Anniversary Payment is subject to a specified cap. We have agreed to pay at least 30% of the First Anniversary Payment and the Second Anniversary Payment in cash, with the remainder to be paid in cash or our common stock, at our option.
Our other future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our growth rate, the timing and extent of spending to support research and development efforts, our merger and acquisition efforts, the continued expansion of sales and marketing activities, the enhancement of our platform, the introduction of new solutions, the continued market acceptance of our solutions and the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our operational and financial performance. We expect to continue to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future and may require additional capital resources to continue to grow our business. We believe that current cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations and capital requirements for at least the next 12 months following the date our consolidated financial statements were issued. However, if our access to capital is restricted or our borrowing costs increase, our operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise such financing on terms acceptable to us or at all.

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The following table summarizes our cash flows (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202021
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash — Beginning of period$104,587 $293,349 
Net cash used in operating activities(3,406)(12,532)
Net cash used in investing activities(1,437)(151,962)
Net cash received from financing activities3,139 484,665 
Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(588)139 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash — End of period$102,295 $613,659 
Sources of Funds
Proceeds from Issuance of Common Stock
On March 5, 2021, we closed a public equity offering in which we sold 3,850,000 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $130.00 per share. We received total net proceeds of $484.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $16.3 million and offering costs of $0.2 million.
2020 Convertible Senior Notes
In September 2020, we issued convertible senior notes with an aggregate principal amount of $230.0 million bearing an interest rate of 1.00% due in 2025 (the "Notes"). The net proceeds from this offering were $222.7 million, after deducting the initial purchasers' discounts and commissions and the estimated offering expenses payable by us. We used $26.5 million of the net proceeds to pay the cost of capped call transactions. We intend to use the remainder of the net proceeds for working capital or other general corporate purposes, which may include potential acquisitions and strategic transactions.
2018 Loan Facility
In December 2020, we amended our loan facility with Pacific Western Bank ("2018 Loan Facility") to increase the capacity of our asset-backed revolving line of credit ("2018 Line of Credit") from $40.0 million to $50.0 million. This amendment also extended the maturity date of the 2018 Loan Facility from May 14, 2021 to December 31, 2022. Prior to the December 2020 amendment, the 2018 Loan Facility contained moving trailing 12-month billing covenants, which ranged from $210.0 million to $255.0 million, during the term of the facility. The former terms of the 2018 Loan Facility also required us to maintain a total cash balance plus liquidity under the 2018 Line of Credit of not less than $5.0 million. Effective with the December 2020 amendment, the former billings and liquidity covenants were removed and were replaced with a requirement to maintain a cash to funded senior debt ratio under the 2018 Line of Credit of 1.25:1.00. In September 2020, we amended the 2018 Loan Facility to allow for the issuance of the Notes.
We have made no borrowings or repayments on the 2018 Line of Credit during the three months ended March 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2021, we had no outstanding borrowings on our 2018 Line of Credit and had $50.0 million of unused borrowings available. Under the terms of the 2018 Line of Credit, we are able to borrow up to the lesser of $50.0 million or 85% of the amount of our eligible accounts receivable. Interest on advances bears an interest rate equal to the prime rate minus 0.50%, or 2.75% as of March 31, 2021. In addition, we are required to pay an unused line fee of 0.15% per annum on the average daily unused amount of the $50.0 million revolving commitment. We believe that we were in compliance with all financial covenants as of March 31, 2021.
Uses of Funds
Our collection cycles can vary from period to period based on the payment practices of our marketers and their agencies. We are generally obligated to pay Consumer Incentives with respect to the Cardlytics platform solution between one and three months following redemption, regardless of whether we have collected payment from a marketer or its agency. We are generally obligated to pay Partner Share either three months following marketer billings, regardless of whether we have collected payment from a marketer or its agency, or by the end of the month following our collection of payment from the applicable marketer or its agency. As a result, timing of cash receipts from our marketers can significantly impact our operating cash flows for any period. Further, the timing of payment of commitments and implementation fees to our partners may also result in variability of our operating cash flows for any period.

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Our operating cash flows also vary from quarter to quarter due to the seasonal nature of our marketers’ advertising spending. Many marketers tend to devote a significant portion of their marketing budgets to the fourth quarter of the calendar year to coincide with consumer holiday spending and reduce marketing spend in the first quarter of the calendar year. Any lag between the timing of our payment of Consumer Incentives and our receipt of payment from marketers and their agencies can exacerbate our need for working capital during the first quarter of the calendar year.
Operating Activities
Cash used in operating activities is primarily driven by our operating losses and changes in working capital. We expect that we will continue to use cash in operating activities in 2021 as we invest in our business.
Operating activities used $12.5 million of cash during the three months ended March 31, 2021, which reflected our net loss of $24.9 million and a $3.3 million change in our net operating assets and liabilities, partially offset by $15.7 million of non-cash charges. The non-cash charges primarily related to stock-based compensation expense, depreciation and amortization expense, amortization of right–of–use assets, deferred implementation costs and credit losses expense. The change in our net operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to a $7.9 million decrease in accounts receivable, partially offset by a $6.7 million decrease in Partner Share liability and a $4.1 million decrease in our Consumer Incentive liability. These decreases were primarily a result of significantly lower sales during the first quarter of 2021, primarily caused by seasonality, compared to the fourth quarter of 2020.
Operating activities used $3.4 million of cash during the three months ended March 31, 2020, which reflected our net loss of $13.5 million and a $1.6 million change in our net operating assets and liabilities, partially offset by $11.7 million of non–cash charges. The non-cash charges primarily related to stock-based compensation expense and depreciation and amortization expense, which included $0.9 million amortization of right-of-use assets and a $0.8 million charge related to the write off of certain development costs previously capitalized related to the development of new technology for building and launching marketing campaigns. The change in our net operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to a $22.1 million decrease in accounts receivable, offset by a $10.9 million decrease in Partner Share liability and a $5.6 million decrease in our Consumer Incentive liability as a result of seasonally lower sales during the first quarter of 2020 compared to the fourth quarter of 2019.
Investing Activities
Our cash flows from investing activities are primarily driven by our investments in, and purchases of, property and equipment and costs to develop internal-use software. We expect that we will continue to use cash for investing activities in 2021 as we continue to invest in and grow our business.
Investing activities used $1.4 million and $152.0 million in cash during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Our investing cash flows during the three months ended March 31, 2021 primarily consisted of funds used for the acquisition of Dosh, purchases of technology hardware and the capitalization of costs to develop internal-use software. Our investing cash flows during three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily consisted of purchases of technology hardware and the capitalization of costs to develop internal-use software.
Financing Activities
Our cash flows from financing activities have primarily been composed of net proceeds from our borrowings under our debt facilities, the issuance of the Notes and the issuance of common stock.
Financing activities provided $484.7 million in cash during the three months ended March 31, 2021. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we raised total gross proceeds of $500.5 million, or net proceeds of $484.0 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $16.3 million and offering costs of $0.2 million from our public equity offering in which we sold 3,850,000 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $130.00 per share.
Financing activities provided $3.1 million in cash during the three months ended March 31, 2020. Our financing activities during this period primarily consisted of proceeds from the exercise of options to purchase shares of common stock.

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Contractual Obligations & Commitments
During the first quarter of 2021, we recognized additional right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $1.1 million and $1.5 million, respectively, which includes $0.2 million of new lease agreements related to data center expansion. Additionally, right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $0.9 million and $1.3 million, respectively, were recorded upon the acquisition of Dosh and assumption of Dosh's existing lease agreements.
Aside from the aforementioned lease agreements and the entry into our Merger Agreement with Bridg, there have been no material changes in our contractual obligations and commitments from those disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on March 1, 2021.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis.
We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated with the evaluation of revenue recognition criteria, including the determination of revenue recognition as net versus gross in our revenue arrangements, the assumptions used in the valuation models to determine the fair value of equity awards and stock-based compensation expense, valuation of acquired intangible assets of Dosh and the assumptions required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets have the greatest potential impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Therefore, we consider these to be our critical accounting policies and estimates. By their nature, estimates are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates. There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates from those disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 except as it relates to policies arising from our acquisition of Dosh. Refer to Note 2—Significant Account Policies and Recent Accounting Standards to our condensed consolidated financial statements for a description of our critical accounting policies arising from our acquisition of Dosh.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Refer to Note 2—Significant Account Policies and Recent Accounting Standards to our condensed consolidated financial statements for a description of recent accounting pronouncements.
ITEM 3. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily the result of fluctuations in interest rates and foreign exchange rates.
Interest Rate Risk
The interest rates under the 2018 Line of Credit are variable. Interest on advances under the 2018 Line of Credit bears an interest rate of the prime rate minus 0.50%, or 2.75%. As of March 31, 2021, the prime rate was 3.25% and a 10% increase in the current prime rate would, for example, result in a $0.1 million annual increase in interest expense if the maximum borrowable amount under the 2018 Line of Credit were outstanding for an entire year. The interest rate on the 2020 Convertible Senior Notes is fixed at 1.00%.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Both revenue and operating expense of Cardlytics UK Limited are denominated in British pounds, and we bear foreign currency risks related to these amounts. For example, if the average value of the British pound had been 10% higher relative to the U.S. dollar during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our operating expense would have increased by $0.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. If our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), as of March 31, 2021. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on such evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer have concluded that as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. We completed our acquisition of Dosh on March 5, 2021. As a result of the acquisition, we have incorporated internal controls over significant processes specific to the acquisition that we believe to be appropriate and necessary in consideration of the level of related integration. In accordance with our integration efforts, we plan to incorporate Dosh's operations into our internal control over financial reporting program within the time provided by the applicable rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently a party to any legal proceedings that, if determined adversely to us, would individually or taken together have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this report, and in our other public filings in evaluating our business. Our business, financial condition, operating results, cash flow, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks or uncertainties. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment.

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Risks Related to our Business and Industry
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic, which continues to spread throughout the United States and the world and has resulted in authorities implementing numerous measures to contain the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, and business limitations and shutdowns. While we are unable to accurately predict the full impact that COVID-19 will have on our results from operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows due to numerous uncertainties, including the duration and severity of the pandemic and containment measures, our compliance with these measures has impacted our day-to-day operations and could disrupt our business and operations, as well as that of our marketers, partners, suppliers and others with whom we work, for an indefinite period of time. To support the health and well-being of our employees, marketers, partners and communities, our employees began working remotely in March 2020 and are still working from home. In addition, many of our marketers and prospective marketers, as well as our partners, are working remotely. The disruptions to our operations caused by COVID-19 may result in inefficiencies, delays and additional costs that we cannot fully mitigate through remote or other alternative work arrangements. In addition, given the economic uncertainty created by COVID-19, we have and may continue to see delays in our sales cycle, failures of marketers to renew at all or to renew at a reduced scope their agreements with us, requests from marketers for payment term deferrals as well as pricing concessions, which, if significant, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our operational and financial performance will depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, its impact on industry events, and its effect on consumer spending, our marketers, partners, suppliers and vendors and other parties with whom we do business, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time. To the extent possible, we are conducting business as usual, with necessary or advisable modifications to employee travel, employee work locations, and cancellation of marketing events. We will continue to actively monitor the rapidly evolving situation related to COVID-19 and may take actions that alter our business operations, including those that may be required by federal, foreign, state or local authorities, or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, marketers, partners, suppliers, vendors and stockholders. At this point, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business, results of operations and financial condition is uncertain.
More generally, the pandemic raises the possibility of an extended global economic downturn and has caused volatility in financial markets, which could materially and adversely affect demand for our solution and materially and adversely impact our results and financial condition even after the pandemic is contained and the shelter-in-place orders are lifted. For example, we may be unable to collect receivables from those marketers significantly impacted by COVID-19, which may be more pronounced in each industry more directly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including risks associated with our guidance, our marketers, our potential marketers, our market opportunity, renewals and sales cycle, among others. We will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our business.
The full extent of COVID-19’s impact on our operations and financial performance depends on future developments that are uncertain and unpredictable, including the duration and spread of the pandemic, a possible resurgence or mutations of the virus, the effectiveness and rollout of a vaccine or effective therapeutics for the virus, the virus’ impact on capital and financial markets, the timing of an economic recovery and any new information that may emerge concerning the severity of the virus, its spread to other regions as well as the actions taken to contain it, among others. Any of these impacts could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition and ability to execute and capitalize on our strategies. Due to the current uncertainty regarding the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot predict whether our response to date or the actions we may take in the future will be effective in mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

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Unfavorable conditions in the global economy or the industries we serve could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results.
General worldwide economic conditions have experienced significant instability in recent years including the recent global economic uncertainty and financial market conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These conditions make it extremely difficult for marketers and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities and could cause marketers to continue to reduce or delay their marketing spending. For example, there has been an impact from the COVID-19 pandemic on spending by our marketers. We have also seen disruption in consumer spending in our data and it is impossible to predict the duration of the disruption. At this time, the potential impact on marketer spend and consumer spending from the COVID-19 pandemic is difficult to predict and, therefore, it is not possible to fully determine the impact on our future results. Historically, economic downturns have resulted in overall reductions in marketing spending. If macroeconomic conditions deteriorate or are characterized by uncertainty or volatility, marketers may curtail or freeze spending on marketing in general and for services such as ours specifically, which could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.
In addition, our business may be materially and adversely affected by weak economic conditions in the industries that we serve. We have historically generated a substantial majority of our revenue from marketers in the restaurant, brick and mortar retail, telecommunications and cable industries, and have recently entered new industries such as travel and entertainment, subscription services, direct-to-consumer and grocery. All of these industries have been negatively impacted by the pandemic and certain precautions taken to control the pandemic. We cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown or recovery. In addition, we cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown or recovery. In addition, even if the overall economy is robust, we cannot assure you that the market for services such as ours will experience growth or that we will experience growth.
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated and may continue to vary from period to period, which could result in our failure to meet expectations with respect to operating results and cause the trading price of our stock to decline.
Our operating results have historically fluctuated and our future operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Period-to-period comparisons of our operating results should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance. Given our relatively short operating history and the rapidly evolving purchase intelligence industry, our historical operating results may not be useful in predicting our future operating results.
Factors that may impact our quarterly operating results include the factors set forth in this “Risk Factors” section, as well as the following:
our ability to maintain and grow our business in light of the global COVID-19 pandemic and precautions taken to reduce the risk of this virus;
our ability to attract and retain marketers and partners;
the amount and timing of revenue, operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operations and expansion of our business, particularly with respect to our efforts to attract new marketers and partners to our network;
the revenue mix revenue generated from our operations in the U.S. and U.K.;
decisions made by our Partners to increase Consumer Incentives or use their Partners Share to fund their Consumer Incentives;

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changes in the economic prospects of marketers, the industries that we primarily serve, or the economy generally, which could alter marketers’ spending priorities or budgets;
the termination or alteration of relationships with our partners in a manner that impacts ongoing or future marketing campaigns;
reputational harm;
the amount and timing of expenses required to grow our business, including the timing of our payments of Partner Share and Partner Share commitments as compared to the timing of our receipt of payments from our marketers;
changes in demand for our solutions or similar solutions;
seasonal trends in the marketing industry, including concentration of marketer spend in the fourth quarter of the calendar year and declines in marketer spend in the first quarter of the calendar year;
competitive market position, including changes in the pricing policies of our competitors;
exposure related to our international operations and foreign currency exchange rates;
quarantine, private travel limitation, or business disruption in regions affecting our operations, stemming from actual, imminent or perceived outbreak of contagious disease, including the COVID-19 pandemic;
expenses associated with items such as litigation, regulatory changes, cyberattacks or security breaches;
the introduction of new technologies, products or solution offerings by competitors; and
costs related to acquisitions of other businesses or technologies.
Fluctuations in our quarterly operating results, non-GAAP metrics and other metrics and the price of our common stock may be particularly pronounced in the current economic environment due to the uncertainty caused by and the unprecedented nature of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Each factor above or discussed elsewhere in this "Risk Factors" section or the cumulative effect of some of these factors may result in fluctuations in our operating results. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet expectations with respect to operating results, or those of securities analysts or investors, for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed expectations for our operating results for these or any other reasons, the market price of our stock could fall and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.
We may not be able to sustain our revenue and billings growth rate in the future.
Our revenue increased 17% from $45.5 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 to $53.2 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021. Our billings increased 13% from $67.8 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 to $76.3 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021. We may not be able to maintain year-over-year revenue and billings growth in the near term or at all. We expect revenue and billings growth rates will continue to be negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and you should not consider our revenue and billings growth in any specific historical periods as indicative of our future performance. Our revenue and billings may be negatively impacted in future periods due to a number of factors, including slowing demand for our solutions, increasing competition, decreasing growth of our overall market, our inability to engage and retain a sufficient number of marketers or partners, or our failure, for any reason, to capitalize on growth opportunities. If we are unable to maintain consistent revenue, revenue growth or billings growth, our stock price could be volatile, and it may be difficult for us to achieve and maintain profitability.
We are dependent upon the Cardlytics platform.
Substantially, all of our revenue and billings during 2020 and 2021 was derived from sales of advertising via the Cardlytics platform. We have historically derived substantially all of our revenue and billings from our Cardlytics platform and expect to continue to derive substantially all of our future revenue and billings from sales of the Cardlytics platform for the foreseeable future. Our operating results could suffer due to:
lack of continued participation by partners in our network or our failure to attract new partners;
any decline in demand for the Cardlytics platform by marketers or their agencies;
failure by our partners to increase engagement with our solutions within their customer bases, improve their customers’ user experience, increase customer awareness, leverage additional customer outreach channels like email or otherwise promote our incentive programs on their websites and mobile applications, including by making the programs difficult to access or otherwise diminishing their prominence;
our failure to offer compelling incentives to our partners’ customers;
Partners may elect to use their Partner Share to fund their Consumer Incentives;
the introduction by competitors of products and technologies that serve as a replacement or substitute for, or represent an improvement over, the Cardlytics platform;
FIs developing their own technology to support purchase intelligence marketing or other incentive programs;

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technological innovations or new standards that the Cardlytics platform does not address; and
sensitivity to current or future prices offered by us or competing solutions.
In addition, we are required to pay a majority of Consumer Incentives associated with the Cardlytics platform marketing campaigns regardless of whether the amount of such Consumer Incentives exceeds the amount of billings that we are paid by the applicable marketer. Further, we are often required to pay such Consumer Incentives before we receive payment from the applicable marketer. Accordingly, if the amount of Consumer Incentives that we are required to pay materially exceeds the billings that we receive or we encounter any significant failure to ultimately collect payment, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to grow our revenue and billings from sales of the Cardlytics platform, our business and operating results would be harmed.
We are substantially dependent on Chase, Bank of America and a limited number of other FI partners.
We require participation from our FI partners in the Cardlytics platform and access to their purchase data in order to offer our solutions to marketers and their agencies. We must have FI partners with a sufficient number of customers and levels of customer engagement to ensure that we have robust purchase data and marketing space to support a broad array of incentive programs for marketers.
In addition, we pay most of our FI partners a Partner Share, which is a negotiated and fixed percentage of our billings less certain costs. During both the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, Bank of America, National Association (“Bank of America”) and JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (“Chase”) combined to account for over 75% of the total Partner Share we paid to all FIs, with each representing over 30%. No other FI partner accounted for over 10% of Partner Share during these periods.
Our agreements with a substantial majority of our FI partners have three- to seven-year terms but are generally terminable by the FI partner on 90 days or less prior notice. If an FI partner terminates its agreement with us, we would lose that FI as a source of purchase data and online banking customers. Our FI partners may elect to withhold from us or limit the use of their purchase data for many reasons, including:
a change in the business strategy;
if there is a competitive reason to do so;
if new technical requirements arise;
consumer concern over use of purchase data;
if they choose to develop and use in-house solutions or use a competitive solution in lieu of our solutions; and
if legislation is passed restricting the dissemination, or our use, of the data that is currently provided to us or if judicial interpretations result in similar limitations.
To the extent that we breach or are alleged to have breached the terms of our agreement with any FI partner, or a disagreement arises with an FI partner regarding the interpretation of our contractual arrangements, which has occurred in the past and may occur again in the future, such an FI partner may be more likely to cease providing us data or to terminate its agreement with us. The loss of Bank of America, Chase or any other significant FI partner would significantly harm our business, results of operations and financial conditions.
We may fail to meet our publicly announced guidance or other expectations about our business and future operating results, which would cause our stock price to decline.
We have provided and may continue to provide guidance about our business, future operating results and other business metrics. In developing this guidance, our management must make certain assumptions and judgments about our future performance. Some of those key assumptions relate to the impact of COVID-19 and the associated economic uncertainty on our business and the timing and scope of economic recovery globally, which are inherently difficult to predict. Furthermore, analysts and investors may develop and publish their own projections of our business, which may form a consensus about our future performance. Our business results may vary significantly from such guidance or that consensus due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including due to the global economic uncertainty and financial market conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which could adversely affect our operations and operating results. Furthermore, if we make downward revisions of any publicly announced guidance, or if our publicly announced guidance of future operating results fails to meet expectations of securities analysts, investors or other interested parties, the price of our common stock would decline.

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If we fail to maintain our relationships with current FI partners or attract new FI partners, we may not be able to sufficiently grow our revenue, which could significantly harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our ability to grow our revenue depends on our ability to maintain our relationships with current FI partners and attract new FI partners. A significant percentage of consumer credit and debit card spending is concentrated with the 10 largest FIs in the U.S., five of which are currently part of our network, while the balance of card spending is spread across thousands of smaller FIs. Accordingly, our ability to efficiently grow our revenue will specifically depend on our ability to maintain our relationships with the large FIs that are currently part of our network and establish relationships with the large FIs that are not currently part of our network. In addition, we must continue to maintain our relationships with our existing bank processor and digital banking provider partners and attract new such partners because these partners aggregate smaller FIs into our network. We have in the past and may in the future be unsuccessful in attempts to establish and maintain relationships with large FIs. If we are unable to maintain our relationships with current FI partners and attract new FI partners, maintain our relationships with our existing bank processor and digital banking provider partners or attract new bank processor and digital provider partners, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be significantly harmed and we may fail to capture a material portion of the native bank advertising market opportunity.
Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to expand into new industries.
We have historically generated a substantial majority of our revenue from marketers in the restaurant, brick and mortar retail, telecommunications and cable industries, and have recently entered new industries such as travel and entertainment, direct-to-consumer, and grocery, and believe that our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to expand adoption of our solutions in new industries. As we market to a wider group of potential marketers and their agencies, we will need to adapt our marketing strategies to meet the concerns and expectations of customers in these new industries. Our success in expanding sales of our solutions to marketers in new industries will depend on a variety of factors, including our ability to:
tailor our solutions so that they that are attractive to businesses in such industries;
hire personnel with relevant industry experience to lead sales and services teams; and
develop sufficient expertise in such industries so that we can provide effective and meaningful marketing programs and analytics.
If we are unable to successfully market our solutions to appeal to marketers and their agencies in new industries, we may not be able to achieve our growth or business objectives.
We derive a material portion of our revenue from a limited number of marketers, and the loss of one or more of these marketers could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial conditions.
Our marketer base is concentrated with our top five marketers representing 32% and 38% for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively.
Our revenue and accounts receivable are diversified among a large number of marketers segregated by both geography and industry. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our top five marketers accounted for 32% and 38% of our revenue, respectively, with one marketer accounting for over 10% during each period. As of March 31, 2020 our top five marketers accounted for 32% of our accounts receivable with two different marketers representing over 10%. As of March 31, 2021 our top five marketers accounted for 40% of our accounts receivable with two different marketers each representing over 10%.
We do not have long-term commitments from most of these marketers. If we were to lose one or more of our significant marketers, our revenue may significantly decline. In addition, revenue from significant marketers may vary from period-to-period depending on the timing or volume of marketing spend. Further, our credit risk is concentrated among a limited number of marketers. The loss of one or more of our significant marketers could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial conditions.

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If we do not effectively grow and train our sales team, we may be unable to add new marketers or increase sales to our existing marketers and our business will be adversely affected.
We continue to be substantially dependent on our sales team to obtain new marketers and to drive sales with respect to our existing marketers. We believe that the characteristics and skills of the best salespeople for our solutions are still being defined, as our market is relatively new. Further, we believe that there is, and will continue to be, significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, integrating and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth. New hires require significant training and it may take significant time before they achieve full productivity. Our recent hires and planned hires may not become productive as quickly as we expect, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the markets where we do business or plan to do business. In addition, as we continue to grow, a large percentage of our sales team will be new to our company and our solutions. If we are unable to hire and train sufficient numbers of effective sales personnel, or the sales personnel are not successful in obtaining new marketers or increasing sales to our existing marketers, our business will be adversely affected.
A breach of the security of our systems could result in a disruption of our operations, or a third-party’s entry into our FI partners’ systems, which would be detrimental to our business, financial condition and operating results.
We leverage our FI partners’ purchase data and infrastructures to deliver our solutions. We do not currently receive or have access to any personally identifiable information ("PII") from our FI partners, although we may obtain or have access to PII from our FI partners in the future as our business evolves. However, because of the interconnected nature of our infrastructure with that of our FI partners, there is a risk that third parties may attempt to gain access to our systems, or our FI partners’ systems through our systems, for the purpose of stealing sensitive or proprietary data, accessing sensitive information on our network, or disrupting our or their respective operations. Additionally, we receive and have access to PII as a result of other aspects of our business. In turn, we may be a more visible target for cyberattacks and/or physical breaches of our databases or data centers, and we may in the future suffer from such attacks or breaches. Cyberattacks, malicious internet-based activity and online and offline fraud are prevalent and continue to increase. In addition to traditional computer “hackers,” threat actors, software bugs, malicious code (such as viruses and worms), employee theft or misuse, denial-of-service attacks (such as credential stuffing), and ransomware attacks, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors now engage in attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions). We also may be the subject of phishing attacks, viruses, malware installation, server malfunction, software or hardware failures, loss of data or other computer assets, adware or other similar issues.
Current or future criminal capabilities, discovery of existing or new vulnerabilities in our systems and attempts to exploit those vulnerabilities or other developments may compromise or breach the technology protecting our systems. Due to a variety of both internal and external factors, including defects or misconfigurations of our technology, our services could become vulnerable to security incidents (both from intentional attacks and accidental causes) that cause them to fail to secure networks and detect and block attacks. In the event that our protection efforts are unsuccessful, and our systems are compromised such that a third-party gains entry to our or any of our FI partners’ systems, we could suffer substantial harm. In addition, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have transitioned all of our employees to work remotely, which may make us more vulnerable to cyberattacks. A security breach could result in operational or administrative disruptions, or impair our ability to meet our marketers’ requirements, which could result in decreased revenue. Also, our reputation could suffer irreparable harm, causing our current and prospective marketers and FI partners to decline to use our solutions in the future. Further, we could be forced to expend significant financial and operational resources to protect against or in response to a security breach, including repairing system damage, increasing cybersecurity protection costs by deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, dealing with regulatory scrutiny, and litigating and resolving legal claims, all of which could divert resources and the attention of our management and key personnel away from our business operations. In any event, a breach of the security of our systems or data could materially harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
We cannot assure you that any limitations of liability provisions in our contracts would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from any liabilities or damages with respect to any particular claim relating to a security lapse or breach. While we maintain cybersecurity insurance, our insurance may be insufficient or may not cover all liabilities incurred by such attacks. We also cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data handling or data security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceeds available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results and reputation.

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If we fail to generate sufficient revenue to offset our contractual commitments to FIs, our business, results of operations and financial conditions could be harmed.
We have a minimum Partner Share commitment with a certain FI partner totaling $10.0 million over a 12-month period following the completion of certain milestones by the FI partner, which were not met as of March 31, 2021. Any expected shortfall penalty will be accrued during the 12-month period following the completion of the milestones.
To the extent that we are unable to generate revenue from marketers sufficient to offset our Partner Share commitments and other obligations, our business, results of operations and financial conditions could be harmed.
Bringing new FI partners into our network can require considerable time and expense and can be long and unpredictable.
Our FI partners and FI partner prospects engage in highly regulated businesses, are often slow to adopt technological innovation and have rigorous standards with respect to providing third parties, like us, with access to their data. Our operating results depend in part on expanding our FI network to maintain and enhance the scale of our solutions. The length of time that it takes to add an FI partner to our network, from initial evaluation to integration into our network, varies substantially from FI to FI and may take several years. Our sales and integration cycle with respect to our FI partners is long and unpredictable, requires considerable time and expense and may not ultimately be successful. It is difficult to predict exactly when, or even if, a new FI partner will join our network and we may not generate revenue from a new FI partner in the same period as we incurred the costs associated with acquiring such FI partner, or at all. Once an FI partner has agreed to work with us, it may take a lengthy period of time for the implementation of our solutions to be prioritized and integrated into the FI partner’s infrastructure. Because a substantial portion of our expenses are relatively fixed in the short-term, our operating results will suffer if revenue falls below our expectations in a particular quarter, which could cause the price of our stock to decline. Ultimately, if additions to our FI network are not realized in the time period expected or not realized at all, or if an FI partner terminates its agreement with us, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
We have a short operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.
We have a relatively short operating history, which limits our ability to forecast our future operating results and subjects us to a number of uncertainties, including with respect to our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in developing industries. If our assumptions regarding these uncertainties, which we use to manage our business, are incorrect or change in response to changes in our markets, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations, our business could suffer and our stock price could decline. Any success that we may experience in the future will depend in large part on our ability to, among other things:
maintain and expand our network of partners.
build and maintain long-term relationships with marketers and their agencies;
develop and offer competitive solutions that meet the evolving needs of marketers;
expand our relationships with partners to enable us to use their purchase data for new solutions;
improve the performance and capabilities of our solutions;
successfully expand our business;
successfully compete with other companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the markets for our solutions;
increase market awareness of our solutions and enhance our brand;
manage increased operating expenses as we continue to invest in our infrastructure to scale our business and operate as a public company; and
attract, hire, train, integrate and retain qualified and motivated employees.

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Any failure of our partners to effectively deliver and promote the online incentive programs that comprise the Cardlytics platform could materially and adversely affect our business.
We have spent the last several years and significant resources building out technology integrations with our partners to facilitate the delivery of incentive programs to our partners’ customers and measuring those customers subsequent in-store or digital spending. We are also reliant on our network of partners to promote their digital incentive programs, increase customer awareness and leverage additional customer outreach channels like email, all of which can increase customer engagement, as well as expand our network of partners. We believe that key factors in the success and effectiveness of our incentive program include the level of accessibility and prominence of the program on the partners’ website and mobile applications, as well as the user interface through which a customer is presented with marketing content. In certain cases, we have little control over the prominence of the incentive program and design of the user interface that our partners choose to use. To the extent that our partners de-emphasize incentive programs, make incentive programs difficult to locate on their website and/or mobile applications and/or fail to provide a user interface that is appealing to partners' customers, partners' customers may be less likely to engage with the incentive programs, which could negatively impact the amount of fees that we are able to charge our marketer customers in connection with marketing campaigns, and, therefore, our revenue. In addition, a failure by our partners to properly deliver or sufficiently promote marketing campaigns would reduce the efficacy of our solutions and impair our ability to attract and retain marketers and their agencies. As a result, the revenue we generate from our Cardlytics platform solution may be adversely affected, which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business could be adversely affected if marketers or their agencies are not satisfied with our solutions or our systems and infrastructure fail to meet their needs.
We derive nearly all of our revenue from marketers and their agencies. Accordingly, our business depends on our ability to satisfy marketers and their agencies with respect to their marketing needs. With respect to our Cardlytics platform, we rely on our Offer Management System ("OMS") to facilitate the creation of marketing campaigns and evaluate the results of campaigns, and our Offer Placement System ("OPS"), to track impressions, engagement, activation and redemptions and to target consumers and present offers. Further, we are in the process of updating our platform with a self-service tool. Any failure of, or delays in the performance (or in the case of the self-service tool, the rollout) of, our systems, including without limitation our OMS, OPS, or self-service tool, could cause service interruptions or impaired system performance. Such failures in our systems could cause us to maximize our earning potential with respect to any given marketing campaign. Such failures in our systems could also cause us to over-run on campaigns, thus committing us to higher redemptions, which may negatively affect the profitability of the affected campaigns. If sustained or repeated, these performance issues could adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results, and further reduce the attractiveness of our solutions to new and existing marketers and cause existing marketers to reduce or cease using our solutions, which could also adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results. In addition, negative publicity resulting from issues related to our marketer relationships, regardless of accuracy, may damage our business by adversely affecting our ability to attract new marketers or marketing agencies and maintain and expand our relationships with existing marketers.
If the use of our solutions increases, or if marketers or partners demand more advanced features from our solutions, we will need to devote additional resources to improving our solutions, and we also may need to expand our technical infrastructure at a more rapid pace than we have in the past. This may involve purchasing or leasing data center capacity and equipment, upgrading our technology and infrastructure and introducing new or enhanced solutions. It may take a significant amount of time to plan, develop and test changes to our infrastructure, and we may not be able to accurately forecast demand or predict the results we will realize from such improvements. There are inherent risks associated with changing, upgrading, improving and expanding our technical infrastructure. Any failure of our solutions to operate effectively with future infrastructure and technologies could reduce the demand for our solutions, resulting in marketer or partner dissatisfaction and harm to our business. Also, any expansion of our infrastructure would likely require that we appropriately scale our internal business systems and services organization, including without limitation implementation and support services, to serve our growing marketer base. If we are unable to respond to these changes or fully and effectively implement them in a cost-effective and timely manner, our solutions may become ineffective, we may lose marketers and/or partners, and our business, financial condition and operating results may be negatively impacted.

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We generally do not have long-term commitments from marketers, and if we are unable to retain and increase sales of our solutions to marketers and their agencies or attract new marketers and their agencies, our business, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.
Most marketers do business with us by placing insertion orders for particular marketing campaigns, either directly or through marketing agencies that act on their behalf. We often do not have any commitment from a marketer beyond the campaign governed by a particular insertion order, and we frequently must compete to win further business from a marketer. In most circumstances, our insertion orders may be canceled by marketers or their marketing agencies prior to the completion of all the campaigns contemplated in the insertion orders; provided that marketers or their agencies are required to pay us for services performed prior to cancellation. As a result, our success is dependent upon our ability to outperform our competitors and win repeat business from existing marketers, while continually expanding the number of marketers for which we provide services. To maintain and increase our revenue, we must encourage existing marketers and their agencies to increase their use of our solutions and add new marketers. Many marketers and marketing agencies, however, have only just begun using our solutions for a limited number of marketing campaigns, and our future revenue growth will depend heavily on these marketers and marketing agencies expanding their use of our solutions across campaigns and otherwise increasing their spending with us. Even if we are successful in convincing marketers and their agencies to use our solutions, it may take several months or years for them to meaningfully increase the amount that they spend with us. Further, larger marketers with multiple brands typically have individual marketing budgets and marketing decision makers for each of their brands, and we may not be able to leverage our success in securing a portion of the marketing budget of one or more of a marketer’s brands into additional business with other brands. Moreover, marketers may place internal limits on the allocation of their marketing budgets to digital marketing, to particular campaigns, to a particular provider or for other reasons. In addition, we are reliant on our FI network to have sufficient marketing inventory within the Cardlytics platform to place the full volume of advertisements contracted for by our marketers and their agencies. Any failure to meet these demands may hamper the growth of our business and the attractiveness of our solutions.
Our ability to retain and increase sales of our solutions and attract new marketers and their agencies may be adversely affected by competitive offerings, marketing methods that are lower priced or perceived as more effective than our solutions, or a general continued reduction or decline in spending by marketers due to the global economic uncertainty and financial market conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Larger marketers may themselves have a substantial amount of purchase data and they may also seek to augment their own purchase data with additional purchase, impression and/or demographic data acquired from third-party data providers, which may allow them to develop, individually or with partners, internal targeting and measurement capabilities.
Because many of our agreements are not long-term with our marketers or their agencies, we may not be able to accurately predict future revenue streams, and we cannot guarantee that our current marketers will continue to use our solutions, or that we will be able to replace departing marketers with new marketers that provide us with comparable revenue. If we are unable to retain and increase sales of our solutions to existing marketers and their agencies or attract new marketers and their agencies for any of the reasons above or for other reasons, our business, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.
We have a history of losses and may not achieve profitability in the future.
We have incurred net losses since inception and expect to incur net losses in the future. We incurred net losses of $13.5 million and $24.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $418.9 million. We have never achieved profitability on an annual basis, and we do not know if we will be able to achieve or sustain profitability. Although our revenue has increased substantially in recent periods, we also do not expect to maintain this rate of revenue growth. We plan to continue to invest in our research and development and sales and marketing efforts, and we anticipate that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we scale our business and expand our operations. We also expect our general and administrative expense to increase as a result of our growth and operating as a public company. Our ability to achieve and sustain profitability is based on numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. We may never be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability.
If we are unable to successfully integrate Dosh’s and Bridg's business and employees, it could have an adverse effect on our future results and the market price of our common stock.
The success of our acquisition of Dosh and planned acquisition of Bridg will depend, in part, on our ability to integrate Dosh’s and Bridg’s operations and to realize the anticipated benefits, including annual net operating synergies and cost reductions from combining the businesses. These integrations may be complex and time-consuming.
The failure to successfully integrate and manage the challenges presented by the integration processes may result in our failure to achieve some or all of the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions. Potential difficulties that may be encountered in the integration processes, which may be enhanced as a result of our efforts to integrate both businesses concurrently, include the following:
complexities associated with managing the larger combined company;
integrating personnel from Dosh and Bridg with our personnel;

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current and prospective employees may experience uncertainty regarding their future roles with our company, which might adversely affect our ability to retrain, recruit and motivate key personnel;
difficulties ensuring the proper controls and policies are implemented and followed in the acquired and expanded business;
increased cyber threats due to the expanded profile of the enlarged business as well as the challenges associated with ensuring the integrating and protecting the expanded IT footprint with security and prevention, detection and response protocols;
potential lost sales and customer if Dosh's or Bridg's partners or advertising clients decide not to do business with the combined company;
issues associated with running a consumer- facing mobile application including proper notifications, rewards, and charges;
potential lost sales and customers if our FI or advertising clients decide not to do business with the combined company;
potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen expenses associated with the acquisitions; and
performance shortfalls as a result of the diversion of management's attention caused by integrating the companies' operations;.
Legal orand regulatory hurdles regarding privacy or other data rights in the United States and abroad; and
Unanticipated challenges in expanding the businesses in the United States and abroad.
In addition, acquisitions are inherently risky, and our due diligence processes in connection with the acquisition acquisitions may have failed to identify significant problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges of Dosh’s or Bridg's business.
If any of these events were to occur, our ability to maintain relationships with customers, suppliers and employees or our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisition could be adversely affected or could reduce our future earnings or otherwise adversely affect our business and financial results and, as a result, adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We operate in an emerging industry and future demand and market acceptance for our solutions is uncertain.
We believe that our future success will depend in large part on the growth, if any, in the market for purchase intelligence. Utilization of consumer purchase data to inform marketing is an emerging industry and future demand and market acceptance for this type of marketing is uncertain. If the market for purchase intelligence does not continue to develop or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
The market in which we participate is competitive and we may not be able to compete successfully with our current or future competitors.
The market for purchase intelligence is nascent and we believe that there is no one company with which we compete directly across our range of solutions. With respect to the Cardlytics platform, we believe that we are the only company that enables marketing through FI channels at scale. In the future, we may face competition from online retailers, credit card companies, established enterprise software companies, advertising and marketing agencies, digital publishers and mobile pay providers with access to a substantial amount of consumer purchase data. While we may successfully partner with a wide range of companies that are to some extent currently competitive to us, these companies may become more competitive to us in the future. As we introduce new solutions, as our existing solutions evolve and as other companies introduce new products and solutions, we are likely to face additional competition.
Some of our actual and potential competitors may have advantages over us, such as longer operating histories, significantly greater financial, technical, marketing or other resources, stronger brand and recognition, larger intellectual property portfolios and broader global distribution and presence. In addition, our industry is evolving rapidly and is becoming increasingly competitive. Larger and more established companies may focus on purchase intelligence marketing and could directly compete with us. Smaller companies could also launch new products and services that we do not offer and that could gain market acceptance quickly.
Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. Larger competitors are also often in a better position to withstand any significant reduction in capital spending and will therefore not be as susceptible to economic downturns. In addition, current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties with greater available resources. As a result of such relationships and acquisitions, our current or potential competitors might be able to adapt more quickly to new technologies and customer needs, devote greater resources to the promotion or sale of their products and services, initiate or withstand substantial price competition, take advantage of other opportunities more readily or develop and expand their product and service offerings more quickly than we do. For all of these reasons, we may not be able to compete successfully against our current or future competitors.

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If we fail to identify and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology and industry needs, our solutions may become less competitive or obsolete.
Our future success depends on our ability to adapt and innovate. To attract, retain and increase new marketers and partners, we will need to expand and enhance our solutions to meet changing needs, add functionality and address technological advancements. If we are unable to adapt our solutions to evolving trends in the marketing industry, if we are unable to properly identify and prioritize appropriate solution development projects or if we fail to develop and effectively market new solutions or enhance existing solutions to address the needs of existing and new marketers and partners, we may not be able to achieve or maintain adequate market acceptance and penetration of our solutions, and our solutions may become less competitive or obsolete.
In addition, new, more effective or less costly technologies may emerge that use data sources that we do not have access to, that use entirely different analytical methodologies than we do or that use other indicators of purchases by consumers. If existing and new marketers and their agencies perceive greater value in alternative technologies or data sources, our ability to compete for marketers and their agencies could be materially and adversely affected.
A number of factors could impair our ability to collect the significant amounts of data that we use to deliver our solutions.
Our ability to collect and use data may be restricted or prevented by a number of other factors, including:
the failure of our network or software systems, or the network or software systems of our partners;
decisions by our partners to restrict our ability to collect data from them (which decision they may make at their discretion) or to refuse to implement the mechanisms that we request to ensure compliance with our legal obligations or technical requirements;
decisions by our partners to limit our ability to use their purchase data outside of the applicable banking channel;
decisions by our partners’ customers to opt out of the incentive program or to use technology, such as browser settings, that reduces our ability to deliver relevant advertisements;
interruptions, failures or defects in our or our partners’ data collection, mining, analysis and storage systems;
changes in regulations impacting the collection and use of data;
changes in browser or device functionality and settings, and other new technologies, which impact our partners’ ability to collect and/or share data about their customers; and
changes in international laws, rules, regulations and industry standards or increased enforcement of international laws, rules, regulations, and industry standards.
Any of the above-described limitations on our ability to successfully collect, utilize and leverage data could also materially impair the optimal performance of our solutions and severely limit our ability to target consumers or bill marketers for our services, which would harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
The efficacy of some of our solutions depends upon third-party data providers.
We rely on several third parties to assist us in matching our anonymized identifiers, which we call Cardlytics IDs, with third-party identifiers. This matching process enables us to use purchase intelligence to measure in-store and online campaign sales impact or provide marketers with valuable visibility into the behaviors of current or prospective customers both within and outside the context of their marketing efforts. If any of these key data providers were to withdraw or withhold their identifiers from us, our ability to provide our solutions could be adversely affected. Replacements for these third-party identifiers may not be available in a timely manner or under economically beneficial terms, or at all.
Defects, errors or delays in our solutions could harm our reputation, which would harm our operating results.
The technology underlying our solutions may contain material defects or errors that can adversely affect our ability to operate our business and cause significant harm to our reputation. This risk is compounded by the complexity of the technology underlying our solutions and the large amounts of data that we leverage and process. In addition, with regard to the Cardlytics platform, if we are unable to attribute Consumer Incentives to our partners’ customers in a timely manner, our FI partners may limit or discontinue their use of our solutions. Any such error, failure, malfunction, disruption or delay could result in damage to our reputation and could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

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Significant system disruptions or loss of data center capacity could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our business is heavily dependent upon highly complex data processing capabilities. We contract with our primary third-party data center, located in Atlanta, Georgia, and our redundancy data center, located in Suwanee, Georgia, pursuant to agreements that expire in 2023, subject to earlier termination upon material breach and a failure to cure. If for any reason our arrangements with our third-party data centers are terminated, or if we are unable to renew our agreements on commercially reasonable terms, we may be required to transfer that portion of our operations to new data center facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so. Further, protection of our third-party data centers against damage or interruption from fire, flood, tornadoes, power loss, telecommunications or equipment failure or other disasters and events beyond our control is important to our continued success. Any damage to, or failure of, the systems of the data centers that we utilize, or of our own equipment located within such data centers, could result in interruptions to the availability or functionality of our solutions. In addition, the failure of the data centers that we utilize to meet our capacity requirements could result in interruptions in the availability or functionality of our solutions or impede our ability to scale our operations. Any damage to the data centers that we utilize, or to our own equipment located within such data centers, that causes loss of capacity or otherwise causes interruptions in our operations could materially adversely affect our ability to quickly and effectively respond to our marketers’ or partners’ requirements, which could result in loss of their confidence, adversely impact our ability to attract new marketers and/or partners and force us to expend significant resources. The occurrence of any such events could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Seasonal fluctuations in marketing activity could adversely affect our cash flows.
We expect our revenue, operating results, cash flows from operations and other key performance metrics to vary from quarter to quarter in part due to the seasonal nature of our marketers’ spending on digital marketing campaigns. For example, many marketers tend to devote a significant portion of their budgets to the fourth quarter of the calendar year to coincide with consumer holiday spending and to reduce spend in the first quarter of the calendar year. Seasonality could have a material impact on our revenue, operating results, cash flow from operations and other key performance metrics from period to period.
Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks that can adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, we derived 12% and 8% of our revenue outside the U.S., respectively. While substantially all of our operations are located in the U.S., we have an office in the U.K. and a research and development and support office in Visakhapatnam, India and may continue to expand our international operations as part of our growth strategy. Our ability to convince marketers to expand their use of our solutions or renew their agreements with us is directly correlated to our direct engagement with such marketers or their agencies. To the extent that we are unable to engage with non-U.S. marketers and agencies effectively with our limited sales force capacity, we may be unable to grow sales to existing marketers to the same degree we have experienced in the U.S.
Our international operations subject us to a variety of risks and challenges, including:
localization of our solutions, including adaptation for local practices;
increased management, travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with having international operations;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and related effect on our operating results;
longer payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable or satisfying revenue recognition criteria;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
general economic conditions in each country or region;
the global economic uncertainty and financial market conditions caused by the COVID–19 pandemic;
reduction in billings, foreign currency exchange rates, and trade with the European Union;
contractual and legislative restrictions or changes;
economic uncertainty around the world;
compliance with foreign laws and regulations and the risks and costs of non-compliance with such laws and regulations;
compliance with U.S. laws and regulations for foreign operations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, import and export control laws, tariffs, trade barriers, economic sanctions and other regulatory or contractual limitations on our ability to sell our software in certain foreign markets, and the risks and costs of non-compliance;

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heightened risks of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results and result in restatements of financial statements and irregularities in financial statements;
difficulties in repatriating or transferring funds from or converting currencies in certain countries;
cultural differences inhibiting foreign employees from adopting our corporate culture;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries and practical difficulties of enforcing rights abroad; and
compliance with the laws of foreign taxing jurisdictions and overlapping of different tax regimes.
Any of these risks could adversely affect our international operations, reduce our international revenues or increase our operating costs, adversely affecting our business, financial condition and operating results.
If we do not manage our growth effectively, the quality of our solutions may suffer, and our business, financial condition and operating results may be negatively affected.
The recent growth in our business has placed, and is expected to continue to place, a significant strain on our managerial, administrative, operational and financial resources, as well as our infrastructure. We rely heavily on information technology ("IT") systems to manage critical functions such as data storage, data processing, matching and retrieval, revenue recognition, budgeting, forecasting and financial reporting. To manage our growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our infrastructure, including our IT, financial and administrative systems and controls. In particular, we may need to significantly expand our IT infrastructure as the amount of data we store and transmit increases over time, which will require that we both utilize existing IT products and adopt new technologies. If we are not able to scale our IT infrastructure in a cost-effective and secure manner, our ability to offer competitive solutions will be harmed and our business, financial condition and operating results may suffer.
We must also continue to manage our employees, operations, finances, research and development and capital investments efficiently in an environment where nearly all employees are working from home. Our productivity and the quality of our solutions may be adversely affected if we do not integrate and train our new employees quickly and effectively or if we fail to appropriately coordinate across our executive, research and development, technology, service development, analytics, finance, human resources, marketing, sales, operations and customer support teams. If we continue our rapid growth, we will incur additional expenses, and our growth may continue to place a strain on our resources, infrastructure and ability to maintain the quality of our solutions. If we do not adapt to meet these evolving challenges, or if the current and future members of our management team do not effectively manage our growth, the quality of our solutions may suffer and our corporate culture may be harmed. Failure to manage our future growth effectively could cause our business to suffer, which, in turn, could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain it as we grow, or our corporate culture is negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, we could lose the innovation, creativity and teamwork fostered by our culture, and our business may be harmed.
As of March 31, 2021, we had 578 full-time employees. We intend to further expand our overall headcount and operations, with no assurance that we will be able to do so while effectively maintaining our corporate culture. Additionally, our corporate culture may be negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe our corporate culture is one of our fundamental strengths as it enables us to attract and retain top talent and deliver superior results for our customers. As we grow and change, integrate acquired businesses and their employees, and as the COVID-19 pandemic continues, we may find it difficult to preserve our corporate culture, which could reduce our ability to innovate and operate effectively. In turn, the failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our ability to attract, recruit, integrate and retain employees, continue to perform at current levels and effectively execute our business strategy.

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We are dependent on the continued services and performance of our senior management and other key personnel, the loss of any of whom could adversely affect our business.
Our future success depends in large part on the continued contributions of our senior management and other key personnel, including our cofounder and chief executive officer, Lynne Laube. In particular, the leadership of key management personnel is critical to the successful management of our company, the development of our solutions and our strategic direction. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any member of our senior management team or any of our other key employees. Our senior management and key personnel are all employed on an at-will basis, which means that they could terminate their employment with us at any time, for any reason and without notice. The loss of any of our key management personnel could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives and adversely affect our business. Further, if members of our management and other key personnel in critical functions across our organization are unable to perform their duties or have limited availability due to COVID-19, we may not be able to execute on our business strategy and/or our operations may be negatively impacted.
If we are unable to attract, integrate and retain additional qualified personnel, including top technical talent, our business could be adversely affected.
Our future success depends in part on our ability to identify, attract, integrate and retain highly skilled technical, managerial, sales and other personnel, including top technical talent from the industry and top research institutions. We face intense competition for qualified individuals from numerous other companies, including other software and technology companies, many of whom have greater financial and other resources than we do. These companies also may provide more diverse opportunities and better chances for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates than those we have to offer. In addition, new hires often require significant training and, in many cases, take significant time before they achieve full productivity. We may incur significant costs to attract and retain qualified personnel, including significant expenditures related to salaries and benefits and compensation expenses related to equity awards and we may lose new employees to our competitors or other companies before we realize the benefit of our investment in recruiting and training them. Moreover, new employees may not be or become as productive as we expect, as we may face challenges in adequately or appropriately integrating them into our workforce and culture. In addition, as we move into new geographies, we will need to attract and recruit skilled personnel in those areas. We have little experience with recruiting in geographies outside of the U.S., and may face additional challenges in attracting, integrating and retaining international employees. If we are unable to attract, integrate and retain suitably qualified individuals who are capable of meeting our growing technical, operational and managerial requirements, on a timely basis or at all, our business will be adversely affected.
If currency exchange rates fluctuate substantially in the future, the results of our operations could be adversely affected.
Due to our international operations, we may be exposed to the effects of fluctuations in currency exchange rates. We generate revenue and incur expenses for employee compensation and other operating expenses at our U.K. and Indian offices in the local currency. Fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar, British pound and Indian rupee could result in the dollar equivalent of such revenue and expenses being lower, which could have a negative net impact on our reported operating results. Although we may in the future decide to undertake foreign exchange hedging transactions to cover a portion of our foreign currency exchange exposure, we currently do not hedge our exposure to foreign currency exchange risks.
Our ability to use net operating losses and certain other tax attributes to offset future taxable income may be limited.
Our net operating loss ("NOL"), carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future tax liabilities because of their limited duration or because of restrictions under U.S. tax law. As of December 31, 2020, we had U.S. federal and state NOLs of $371.2 million and $155.8 million, respectively. Our NOLs generated in tax years ending on or prior to December 31, 2017 are only permitted to be carried forward for 20 years under applicable U.S. tax law. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("the Tax Act"), as modified by the CARES Act, our federal NOLs generated in tax years ending after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of federal NOLs, particularly for tax years beginning after December 31, 2020, may be limited. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act and the CARES Act.

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In addition, under Section 382 and Section 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, ("the Code") and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. We have experienced “ownership changes” under IRC Section 382 in the past, and future changes in ownership of our stock, including by reason of future offerings, as well as other changes that may be outside of our control, could result in future ownership changes under IRC Section 382. If we are or become subject to limitations on our use of NOLs under IRC Section 382, our NOLs could expire unutilized or underutilized, even if we earn taxable income against which our NOLs could otherwise be offset. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply to limit our use of accumulated state tax attributes. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of NOLs is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed.
Future acquisitions could disrupt our business and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We may choose to expand by making acquisitions that could be material to our business, financial condition or operating results. Our ability as an organization to successfully acquire and integrate technologies or businesses is unproven. Acquisitions involve many risks, including the following:
an acquisition may negatively affect our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flows because it may require us to incur charges or assume substantial debt or other liabilities, may cause adverse tax consequences or unfavorable accounting treatment, may expose us to claims and disputes by third parties, including intellectual property claims and disputes, or may not generate sufficient financial return to offset additional costs and expenses related to the acquisition;
we may encounter difficulties or unforeseen expenditures in integrating the business, technologies, products, personnel or operations of any company that we acquire, particularly if key personnel of the acquired company decide not to work for us;
an acquisition, whether or not consummated, may disrupt our ongoing business, divert resources, increase our expenses and distract our management;
an acquisition may result in a delay or reduction of purchases for both us and the company that we acquired due to uncertainty about continuity and effectiveness of solution from either company;
we may encounter difficulties in, or may be unable to, successfully sell any acquired products or solutions;
an acquisition may involve the entry into geographic or business markets in which we have little or no prior experience or where competitors have stronger market positions;
challenges inherent in effectively managing an increased number of employees in diverse locations;
the potential strain on our financial and managerial controls and reporting systems and procedures;
potential known and unknown liabilities associated with an acquired company;
our use of cash to pay for acquisitions would limit other potential uses for our cash;
if we incur debt to fund such acquisitions, such debt may subject us to material restrictions on our ability to conduct our business as well as financial maintenance covenants;
the risk of impairment charges related to potential write-downs of acquired assets or goodwill in future acquisitions; and
to the extent that we issue a significant amount of equity or convertible debt securities in connection with future acquisitions, existing stockholders may be diluted and earnings (loss) per share may decrease (increase).
We may not succeed in addressing these or other risks or any other problems encountered in connection with the integration of any acquired business. The inability to integrate successfully the business, technologies, products, personnel or operations of any acquired business, or any significant delay in achieving integration, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

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If our proposed acquisition of Bridg is not completed, we will have incurred substantial costs that may adversely affect our financial results and operations and the market price of our common stock.
If our acquisition of Bridg is not completed, the price of our common stock may decline to the extent that the current market price of our common stock reflects a market assumption that the acquisition will be completed. In addition, we have incurred and will incur substantial costs in connection with the proposed acquisition. These costs are primarily associated with the fees of attorneys, accountants and our financial advisors. In addition, we diverted significant management resources in an effort to complete the acquisition and are subject to restrictions contained in the Merger Agreement on the conduct of our business during the pendency of the acquisition. If the acquisition is not completed, we will have received little or no benefit in respect of such costs incurred. Also, if the acquisition is not completed under certain circumstances that resulted in litigation, we may be exposed to monetary damages.
Further, if the acquisition is not completed, we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets and our FIs, marketers, and employees. Each of these factors may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock and our financial results and operations.
Charges to earnings resulting from our acquisitions may cause our operating results to suffer.
Under accounting principles, we have and will allocate the total purchase price of Dosh’s and Bridg’s net tangible assets and intangible assets based on their fair values as of the date of the acquisitions, and we have and will record the excess of the purchase price over those fair values as goodwill. Our management’s estimates of fair value will be based upon assumptions that they believe to be reasonable but that are inherently uncertain. The following factors, among others, could result in material charges that would cause our financial results to be negatively impacted:
impairment of goodwill;
charges for the amortization of identifiable intangible assets and for stock-based compensation; and
accrual of newly identified pre-acquisition contingent liabilities that are identified subsequent to the finalization of the purchase price allocation.
Additional costs may include costs of employee redeployment, relocation and retention, including salary increases or bonuses, taxes and termination of contracts that provide redundant or conflicting services. Some of these costs may have to be accounted for as expenses that would negatively impact our results of operations.
We may in the future may become involved in securities class action litigation that could divert management's attention and harm our business and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all costs and damages.
It is common for securities class-action litigation to follow acquisitions. Responding to any litigation could divert management's attention and harm our business. Moreover, insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all costs and damages we incur in connection with the litigation.
We may require additional capital to support growth, and such capital might not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all, which may in turn hamper our growth and adversely affect our business.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new solutions or enhance our solutions, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity, equity-linked or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or equity-linked securities, including convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities that we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any debt financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, including the ability to pay dividends or repurchase shares of our capital stock. This may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital, to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions, or to return capital to our stockholders. We also may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. For example, while the potential impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and our business in particular may be difficult to assess or predict, the pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth, service our indebtedness and respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business may be adversely affected. Regulatory, legislative or self-regulatory developments regarding Internet privacy matters could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.

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Through our consumer application, users accumulate rewards that could be deemed subject to abandoned property laws and/or could be deemed to constitute stored value subject to certain legal requirements under applicable state and federal laws and regulations.
The Dosh application enables consumers to accumulate non-monetary rewards (“Dosh Rewards”) within the application, which may be converted to U.S. dollars only when certain requirements are met. Dosh Rewards have no cash value until but users are able to receive U.S. dollar payouts from Dosh based on Dosh Rewards provided that certain requirements are met. State regulators could deem Dosh Rewards to constitute property subject to state as abandoned property laws, which could potentially create a large liability for us as well as legal and related compliance obligations and costs to manage escheatment of any Dosh Rewards constituting abandoned property. Additionally, state and/or federal regulators could conclude that Dosh Rewards constitute monetary value or money and therefore subject to regulation pursuant to laws regulating the issuance, sale, redemption, and maintenance of stored value, prepaid access, or gift cards (or similar terminology). Such laws and regulations may include, but are not necessarily limited to, U.S. state money-transmitter licensing laws and the federal Bank Secrecy Act (including registration requirements), and our failure to comply with applicable laws could expose us to monetary penalties or damages and adversely affect our ability to operate our business in its current form.
Bringing new FI partners into our network may impede our ability to accurately forecast the performance of our network.
Bringing new FI partners into our network may impede our ability to accurately predict how certain marketing campaigns will perform, and thus may impede our ability to accurately forecast the performance of our network. Such inaccurate predictions could result in marketing campaigns underperforming, which impact the total fees we can collect from marketers, or over performing, which may result is us paying certain Consumer Incentives to consumers without adequate compensation from the marketers. The amount of time it will take us to be able to understand the impact of a new FI partner on our network is uncertain and difficult to predict. Additionally, our understanding of the impact of any given FI is subject to change at any time, as such understanding can be impacted by factors such as changes to an FI’s business strategy, changes to an FI’s user interface, or changes in the behavior or makeup of an FI's consumer base.
If we are not able to maintain and enhance our brand, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
We believe that developing and maintaining awareness of the Cardlytics brand in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our existing solutions and future solutions and is an important element in attracting new marketers and partners. Furthermore, we believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and on our ability to deliver valuable solutions for our marketers, their agencies and our partners. In the past, our efforts to build our brand have involved significant expense. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue and billings, and even if they do, any increased revenue and billings may not offset the expenses that we incurred in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand or incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract enough new marketers or partners or retain our existing marketers or partners and our business could suffer.
Risks Related to our Outstanding Convertible Senior Notes
Servicing our debt may require a significant amount of cash. We may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our indebtedness, and we may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle for cash conversions of the Notes or to repurchase the Notes for cash upon a fundamental change, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In September 2020, we issued convertible senior notes with an aggregate principal amount of $230.0 million bearing an interest rate of 1.00% due in 2025 (the "Notes"). The interest rate is fixed at 1.00% per annum and is payable semi-annually in arrears on March 15 and September 15 of each year, beginning on March 15, 2021. Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flows from operations in the future that are sufficient to service our debt. If we are unable to generate such cash flows, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional debt financing or equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance any future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations. In addition, any of our future debt agreements may contain restrictive covenants that may prohibit us from adopting any of these alternatives. Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of our debt.

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Holders of the Notes have the right to require us to repurchase their Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture governing the Notes) at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. Upon conversion, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the Notes being converted. We may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases in connection with such conversion and our ability to pay may additionally be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our existing and future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase the Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture governing the Notes or to pay any cash payable on future conversions as required by such indenture would constitute a default under such indenture. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our existing and future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.
In addition, our indebtedness, combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments, could have other important consequences. For example, it could:
make us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general U.S. and worldwide economic, industry, and
competitive conditions and adverse changes in government regulation;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry;
place us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors who have less debt;
limit our ability to borrow additional amounts for funding acquisitions, for working capital, and for other general corporate purposes; and
make an acquisition of our company less attractive or more difficult.
Any of these factors could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, if we incur additional indebtedness, the risks related to our business and our ability to service or repay our indebtedness would increase.
The conditional conversion feature of the Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Notes is triggered, holders of Notes will be entitled to convert the Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
Transactions relating to our Notes may affect the value of our common stock.
The conversion of some or all of the Notes would dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders to the extent we satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering shares of our common stock upon any conversion of such Notes. Our Notes may become in the future convertible at the option of their holders under certain circumstances. If holders of our Notes elect to convert their Notes, we may settle our conversion obligation by delivering to them a significant number of shares of our common stock, which would cause dilution to our existing stockholders.
In addition, in connection with the pricing of the Notes, we entered into capped call transactions (the "Capped Calls") with certain financial institutions (the "Option Counterparties"). The Capped Calls are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion or settlement of the Notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted Notes, as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap.
In connection with establishing their initial hedges of the Capped Calls, the Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates entered into various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock and/or purchased shares of our common stock concurrently with or shortly after the pricing of the Notes.
From time to time, the Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the Notes (and are likely to do so following any conversion of the Notes, any repurchase of the Notes by us on any fundamental change repurchase date, any redemption date, or any other date on which the Notes are retired by us, in each case, if we exercise our option to terminate the relevant portion of the Capped Calls). This activity could cause a decrease and/or increased volatility in the market price of our common stock.

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We do not make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any potential effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the Notes or our common stock. In addition, we do not make any representation that the Option Counterparties will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the Capped Calls.
The Option Counterparties are financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the Capped Calls. Our exposure to the credit risk of the Option Counterparties will not be secured by any collateral. Past global economic conditions have resulted in the actual or perceived failure or financial difficulties of many financial institutions. If an Option Counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the Capped Calls with such Option Counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated to an increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an Option Counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the Option Counterparties.
The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the Notes, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.
The accounting method for reflecting the notes on our balance sheet, accruing interest expense for the notes and reflecting the underlying shares of our common stock in our reported diluted earnings per share may adversely affect our reported earnings and financial condition. We expect that, under applicable accounting principles, the initial liability carrying amount of the notes will be the fair value of a similar debt instrument that does not have a conversion feature, valued using our cost of capital for straight, unconvertible debt. We expect to reflect the difference between the net proceeds from this offering and the initial carrying amount as a debt discount for accounting purposes, which will be amortized into interest expense over the term of the notes. As a result of this amortization, the interest expense that we expect to recognize for the notes for accounting purposes will be greater than the cash interest payments we will pay on the notes, which will result in lower reported income or higher reported loss. The lower reported income or higher reported loss resulting from this accounting treatment could depress the trading price of our common stock and the notes. However, in August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board published an Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2020-06, eliminating the separate accounting for the debt and equity components as described above. ASU 2020-06 will be effective for SEC-reporting entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 (or, in the case of smaller reporting companies, December 15, 2023), including interim periods within those fiscal years. However, early adoption is permitted in certain circumstances for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. When effective, we expect the elimination of the separate accounting described above to reduce the interest expense that we expect to recognize for the notes for accounting purposes.
If accounting standards change in the future and we are not permitted to use the treasury stock method, then our diluted earnings per share may decline. For example, the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s ASU described above amends these accounting standards, effective as of the dates referred to above, to eliminate the treasury stock method for convertible instruments that can be settled in whole or in part with equity and instead require application of the “if-converted” method. Under that method, diluted earnings per share would generally be calculated assuming that all the notes were converted solely into shares of common stock at the beginning of the reporting period, unless the result would be anti-dilutive. The application of the if-converted method may reduce our reported diluted earnings per share.
Furthermore, if any of the conditions to the convertibility of the notes is satisfied, then we may be required under applicable accounting standards to reclassify the liability carrying value of the notes as a current, rather than a long-term, liability. This reclassification could be required even if no noteholders convert their notes and could materially reduce our reported working capital.
Risks Related to Regulatory and Intellectual Property Matters
We and our partners are subject to stringent and changing privacy and data security laws, contractual obligations, self-regulatory schemes, government regulation, and standards related to data privacy and security. The actual or perceived failure by us, our customers, our partners, or other third parties upon whom we rely to comply with such obligations could harm our reputation, result in significant expense, subject us to significant fines and liability or otherwise adversely affect our business.
We collect, receive, store, process, use, generate, transfer, disclose, make accessible, protect and share personal information and other information (“Process” or “Processing”) necessary to operate our business, for legal and marketing purposes, and for other business-related purposes.

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We, our partners, our marketers and other third parties upon whom we rely are subject to a number of domestic and international privacy and security laws, rules, regulations and guidance regarding privacy, information security and Processing (“Data Protection Laws”) as well as laws and regulations regarding online services and the Internet generally. In the U.S., the rules and regulations to which we, directly or contractually through our partners, or our marketers may be subject include those promulgated under the authority of the Federal Trade Commission, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and state cybersecurity and breach notification laws, as well as regulator enforcement positions and expectations reflected in federal and state regulatory actions, settlements, consent decrees and guidance documents.
The regulatory framework for online services and data privacy and security issues worldwide can vary substantially from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Many of these obligations conflict with each other, and interpretation of these laws, rules and regulations and their application to our solutions in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions is ongoing and cannot be fully determined at this time. A number of existing bills are pending in the U.S. Congress that contain provisions that would regulate how companies can use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect and utilize user information. Additionally, new legislation proposed or enacted in various other states will continue to shape the data privacy environment nationally.
U.S. and non-U.S. regulators also may implement “Do-Not-Track” legislation, particularly if the industry does not implement a standard. Effective January 1, 2014, the California Governor signed into law an amendment to the California Online Privacy Protection Act of 2003. Such amendment requires operators of commercial websites and online service providers, under certain circumstances, to disclose in their privacy policies how such operators and providers respond to browser “do not track” signals. In addition, the regulatory environment for the collection and use of consumer data by marketers is evolving in the U.S. and internationally and is currently, in part, a self-regulatory framework, which relies on market participants to ensure self-compliance. The voluntary nature of this self-regulatory framework may change.
The California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020, is an example of the increasingly comprehensive privacy legislation being introduced in the United States. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to request access to and deletion of their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA also increases the privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal information, which is broadly defined under the law. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches, and includes statutorily defined damages of up to $750 per citizen, which is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA also imposes requirements on businesses that “sell” information (which is defined broadly under the CCPA); there is significant ambiguity regarding what constitutes a sale and many of our or our partner’s business practices may qualify. Further, California voters approved a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), in the November 3, 2020 election. Effective starting on January 1, 2023, the CPRA will significantly modify the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive personal information. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA.
Internationally, virtually every jurisdiction in which we operate has established its own data security and privacy legal frameworks with which we, directly or contractually through our partners, our marketers or other third parties upon whom we rely may be required to comply, even if we are not established or based in such jurisdictions. An example of the type of international regulation to which we may be subject is the U.K.’s Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations 2011 (“PECR”), which implements the requirements of Directive 2009/136/EC (which amended Directive 2002/58/EC), which is known as the ePrivacy Directive. The PECR regulates various types of electronic direct marketing that use cookies and similar technologies. The PECR also imposes sector-specific breach reporting requirements, but only as applicable to providers of particular public electronic communications services. Additional EU member state laws of this type may follow.
The European General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"), which went into effect in May 2018, is another example of the type of data protection legislation that may present a risk to our business. The GDPR imposes additional obligations and risk upon our business and increases substantially the penalties to which we could be subject in the event of any non–compliance. The GDPR imposes more stringent data protection requirements and requires us and our customers to give more detailed disclosures about how we collect, use and share personal information; contractually commit to data protection measures in our contracts with clients; maintain adequate data security measures; notify regulators and affected individuals of certain data breaches; meet extensive privacy governance and documentation requirements; and honor individuals’ data protection rights, including their rights to access, correct and delete their personal information. The GDPR provides greater penalties for noncompliance than previous data protection laws. Administrative fines under the GDPR can amount up to 20 million Euros or four percent of the group’s annual global turnover, whichever is highest. We may also be obligated to assist our customers, partners, and vendors with their own compliance obligations under the GDPR, which could require expenditure of significant resources. Assisting our customers, partners, and vendors in complying with the GDPR, or complying with the GDPR ourselves, may cause us to incur substantial operational costs or require us to change our business practices.

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In addition, the GDPR includes restrictions on cross-border data transfers. A recent decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union (the “Schrems II” ruling), however, has invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework, which was one of the primary mechanisms used by U.S. Companies to import personal information from Europe, and raised questions about whether the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses (“SCCs”), one of the primary alternatives to the Privacy Shield, can lawfully be used for personal information transfers from Europe to the United States or most other countries. Similarly, the Swiss Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner recently opined that the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield is inadequate for transfers of data from Switzerland to the U.S. The United Kingdom, whose data protection laws are similar to those of the European Union, may similarly determine that the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield is not a valid mechanism for lawfully transferring personal information from the UK to the United States. The European Commission recently proposed updates to the SCCs, and additional regulatory guidance has been released that seeks to impose additional obligations on companies seeking to rely on the SCCs. Given that, at present, there are few, if any, viable alternatives to the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and the SCCs, any transfers by us or our vendors of personal data from Europe may not comply with European data protection law, which may increase our exposure to the GDPR’s heightened sanctions for violations of its cross-border data transfer restrictions and may require further expenditures on local infrastructure, changes to internal business processes, or may otherwise affect or restrict sales and operations.
Additionally, Brexit took effect in January 2020, which will lead to further legislative and regulatory changes. While the Data Protection Act of 2018, which “implements” and complements the GDPR achieved Royal Assent on May 23, 2018 and is now effective in the United Kingdom, it is still unclear whether transfer of data from the EEA to the United Kingdom will remain lawful in the long term under the GDPR. With the expiry of the transition period on December 31, 2020, companies will have to comply with the GDPR and the GDPR as incorporated into United Kingdom national law, which has the ability to separately fine up to the greater of £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. The relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains unclear, for example around how data can lawfully be transferred between each jurisdiction, which exposes us to further compliance risk. We may incur liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses under the GDPR and under privacy laws of applicable EU Member States and the United Kingdom in connection with any measures we take to comply with them.
In addition to governmental regulation, we are also subject to the terms of our external and internal privacy and security policies, representations, certifications, standards, publications and frameworks, and contractual obligations to third parties related to privacy, information security and Processing (“Data Protection Obligations”), including without limitation, operating rules and standards imposed by industry organizations. Government regulation and industry standards may increase the costs of doing business online.
Given that existing and proposed Data Protection Laws, industry standards and Data Protection Obligations can impose increasingly complex and burdensome obligations, and with substantial uncertainty over the interpretation and application of these requirements, we and our partners have faced and may face additional challenges in addressing and complying with them, and making necessary changes to our privacy policies and practices. In particular, there has been increasing public and regulatory concern and public scrutiny about the use of personally identifiable information. Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws are still uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices. To comply with our data protection and privacy obligations, we may be required to: fundamentally change our business models or practices, including, changing the information we collect or share; incur material costs and expenses; or divert management’s time and attention. Any of these effects could materially adversely affect our business operations and financial results, and may limit the adoption and use of, and reduce the overall demand for, our products, which could have an adverse impact on our business. Additionally, our partners may choose to alter or discontinue our program in light of the CCPA or other laws or regulations, which could adversely affect our financial condition.
We may, for example, be required to, or otherwise may determine that it is advisable to, develop or obtain additional tools and technologies for validation of certain of our limited sales related to online purchases to compensate for a potential lack of cookie data. Even if we are able to do so, such additional tools may be subject to further regulation, time consuming to develop or costly to obtain, and less effective than our current use of cookies.

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While we strive to comply with applicable Data Protection Laws and Data Protection Obligations to the extent possible, we may at times fail to do so, or may be perceived to have failed to do so. For example, if we were to gain knowledge that we inadvertently received personal information from our partners, we may not comply with applicable Data Protection Laws and Data Protection Obligations with respect to that personal information. Moreover, despite our efforts, we may not be successful in achieving compliance if our personnel or vendors do not comply with applicable Data Protection Laws and Data Protection Obligations. Additionally, in many cases we or our partners take steps to anonymize information such that it no longer constitutes personal information; we may fail, or be accused of failing, to properly anonymize such information. We may also be subject to claims of liability or responsibility for the actions of third parties with whom we interact or upon whom we rely in relation to various solutions, including but not limited to our marketers and their agencies and partners. If we, or our business associates or other third parties upon whom we rely fail, or are perceived to have failed, to address or comply with applicable data protection laws, privacy policies and data protection obligations, or if our privacy policies are, in whole or part, found to be inaccurate, incomplete, deceptive, unfair or misrepresentative of our actual practices, it could: increase our compliance and operational costs; expose us to regulatory scrutiny, actions, fines and penalties; result in reputational harm; lead to a loss of consumers; reduce the use of our products by end users or our customers; affect our ability to attract new marketers and partners and maintain relationships with our existing marketers and partners; lead to special, compensatory punitive and statutory damages, litigation, injunctive relief, or consent orders regarding our privacy and security practices; introduce requirements that we provide notices, credit monitoring services and/or credit restoration services or other relevant services to impacted individuals; lead to an inability to Process data; lead to other adverse actions against our licenses to do business; or otherwise adversely affect our business.
If the use of matching technologies, such as cookies, pixels and device identifiers, is rejected by Internet users, restricted or otherwise subject to unfavorable terms, such as by non-governmental entities, our validation methodologies could be impacted and we may lose customers and revenue.
Our solution can be utilized by in-store and online marketers; however, a large majority of consumer purchases continue to be made in-store. For validation of certain of these limited online purchases, our solutions may use digital matching technologies, such as mobile advertising identifiers, pixels and cookies to match the Cardlytics IDs we have assigned to our FIs’ customers with their digital presence outside of the FI partners’ websites and mobile applications. In most cases, the matching technologies we use relate to mobile advertising identifiers that we use in limited cases to validate that we influenced an online purchase. If our access to matching technology data is reduced, our ability to validate certain online purchases in the current manner may be affected and thus undermine the effectiveness of our solutions.
On occasion, “third-party cookies” may be placed through an Internet browser to validate online purchases. Internet users may easily block and/or delete cookies (e.g., through their browsers or “ad blocking” software). The most commonly used Internet browsers allow Internet users to modify their browser settings to prevent cookies from being accepted by their browsers or are set to block third-party cookies by default. Further, Google recently announced its plans to eliminate third-party cookies from its browser in 2022. If more browser providers and Internet users adopt these settings or delete their cookies more frequently than they currently do, our practices related to the validation of limited online purchases could be impacted, which could result in us needing to implement other available methodologies. Some government regulators and privacy advocates have suggested creating a “Do Not Track” standard that would allow Internet users to express a preference, independent of cookie settings in their browser, not to have website browsing recorded. If Internet users adopt a “Do Not Track” browser setting and the standard either gets imposed by state or federal legislation or agreed upon by standard-setting groups, it may curtail or prohibit us from using non-personal data as we currently do. This could hinder growth of marketing on the Internet generally and cause us to change our business practices and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, browser manufacturers could replace cookies with their own product and require us to negotiate and pay them for use of such product to record information about Internet users’ interactions with our marketers, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Failure to protect our proprietary technology and intellectual property rights could substantially harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our future success and competitive position depend in part on our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technologies. To safeguard these rights, we rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws and contractual protections in the U.S. and other jurisdictions, all of which provide only limited protection and may not now or in the future provide us with a competitive advantage.

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As of March 31, 2021, we had four issued patents and are pursuing sixteen additional patents. We cannot assure you that any patents will issue from any patent applications, that patents that issue from such applications will give us the protection that we seek or that any such patents will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented. Any patents that may issue in the future from our pending or future patent applications may not provide sufficiently broad protection and may not be enforceable in actions against alleged infringers. We have registered the “Cardlytics” name and logo in the U.S. and certain other countries. We have registrations and/or pending applications for additional marks in the U.S. and other countries; however, we cannot assure you that any future trademark registrations will be issued for pending or future applications or that any registered trademarks will be enforceable or provide adequate protection of our proprietary rights. We also license software from third parties for integration into our products, including open source software and other software available on commercially reasonable terms. We cannot assure you that such third parties will maintain such software or continue to make it available.
In order to protect our unpatented proprietary technologies and processes, we rely on trade secret laws and confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, vendors and others. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary technology and trade secrets, unauthorized parties may attempt to misappropriate, reverse engineer or otherwise obtain and use them. Bank of America also has a right to purchase some of the source code underlying the Cardlytics platform upon the occurrence of specified events, which could compromise the proprietary nature of our platform and/or allow Bank of America to discontinue the use of our solutions. Additionally, other FIs have a right to obtain the source code underlying Cardlytics OPS through the release of source code held in escrow upon the occurrence of specified events, which could compromise the proprietary nature of our platform and/or allow these FIs to discontinue the use of our solutions.
In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets, in which case we would not be able to assert trade secret rights or develop similar technologies and processes. Further, the contractual provisions that we enter into may not prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary technology or intellectual property rights and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary technology or intellectual property rights. Moreover, policing unauthorized use of our technologies, trade secrets and intellectual property is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the U.S. and where mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be weak. We may be unable to determine the extent of any unauthorized use or infringement of our solutions, technologies or intellectual property rights.
From time to time, legal action by us may be necessary to enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the intellectual property rights of others or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such legal action could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could negatively affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights, whether or not correct, could result in significant costs and harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Patent and other intellectual property disputes are common in our industry. We have in the past and may in the future be subject to claims alleging that we have misappropriated, misused, or infringed other parties’ intellectual property rights. Some companies, including certain of our competitors, own larger numbers of patents, copyrights and trademarks than we do, which they may use to assert claims against us. Third parties may also assert claims of intellectual property rights infringement against our partners, whom we are typically required to indemnify. As the numbers of solutions and competitors in our market increases and overlap occurs, claims of infringement, misappropriation and other violations of intellectual property rights may increase. Any claim of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of intellectual property rights by a third-party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against the claim and could distract our management from our business.
The patent portfolios of our most significant competitors are larger than ours. This disparity may increase the risk that they may sue us for patent infringement and may limit our ability to counterclaim for patent infringement or settle through patent cross-licenses. In addition, future assertions of patent rights by third parties, and any resulting litigation, may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenues and against whom our own patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence or protection. There can be no assurance that we will not be found to infringe or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights or to have done so in the past.
An adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to:
pay substantial damages, including treble damages, if we are found to have willfully infringed a third-party’s patents or copyrights;
cease developing or selling solutions that rely on technology that is alleged to infringe or misappropriate the intellectual property of others;
expend additional development resources to attempt to redesign our solutions or otherwise develop non-infringing technology, which may not be successful;

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enter into potentially unfavorable royalty or license agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies or intellectual property rights; and
indemnify our partners and other third parties.
In addition, royalty or licensing agreements, if required or desirable, may be unavailable on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may require significant royalty payments and other expenditures. Some licenses may also be non-exclusive, and therefore our competitors may have access to the same technology licensed to us. Any of the foregoing events could seriously harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our use of open source software could negatively affect our ability to sell our solutions and subject us to possible litigation.
We use open source software to deliver our solutions and expect to continue to use open source software in the future. Some of these open source licenses may require that source code subject to the license be made available to the public and that any modifications or derivative works to open source software continue to be licensed under open source licenses. This may require that we make certain proprietary code available under an open source license. We may face claims from others claiming ownership of, or seeking to enforce the license terms applicable to such open source software, including by demanding release of the open source software, derivative works or our proprietary source code that was developed using such software. Few of the licenses applicable to open source software have been interpreted by courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. These claims could also result in litigation, require us to purchase costly licenses or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change the software underlying our solutions, any of which would have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and operating results and may not be possible in a timely manner. We and our customers may also be subject to suits by parties claiming infringement due to the reliance by our solutions on certain open source software, and such litigation could be costly for us to defend or subject us to an injunction. In addition, if the license terms for the open source code change, we may be forced to re-engineer our software or incur additional costs. Finally, we cannot assure you that we have not incorporated open source software into the software underlying our solutions in a manner that may subject our proprietary software to an open source license that requires disclosure, to customers or the public, of the source code to such proprietary software. In the event that portions of our proprietary technology are determined to be subject to an open source license, we could be required to publicly release portions of our source code, re-engineer all or a portion of our technologies, or otherwise be limited in the licensing of our technologies, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our solutions and technologies and materially and adversely affect our ability to sustain and grow our business. Many open source licenses also limit our ability to bring patent infringement lawsuits against open source software that we use without losing our right to use such open source software. Therefore, the use of open source software may limit our ability to bring patent infringement lawsuits, to the extent we ever have any patents that cover open source software that we use.
We are subject to government regulation, including import, export, economic sanctions and anti-corruption laws and regulations that may expose us to liability and increase our costs.
Various of our products are subject to U.S. export controls, including the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Export Administration Regulations and economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. These regulations may limit the export of our products and provision of our solutions outside of the U.S., or may require export authorizations, including by license, a license exception or other appropriate government authorizations, including annual or semi-annual reporting. Export control and economic sanctions laws may also include prohibitions on the sale or supply of certain of our products to embargoed or sanctioned countries, regions, governments, persons and entities. In addition, various countries regulate the importation of certain products, through import permitting and licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products. The exportation, reexportation, and importation of our products and the provision of solutions, including by our partners, must comply with these laws or else we may be adversely affected, through reputational harm, government investigations, penalties and a denial or curtailment of our ability to export our products or provide solutions. Complying with export control and sanctions laws may be time consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Although we take precautions to prevent our products from being provided in violation of such laws, our products may have previously been, and could in the future be, provided inadvertently in violation of such laws, despite the precautions we take. If we are found to be in violation of U.S. sanctions or export control laws, it could result in substantial fines and penalties for us and for the individuals working for us. Changes in export or import laws or corresponding sanctions, may delay the introduction and sale of our products in international markets, or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products to certain countries, regions, governments, persons or entities altogether, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We are also subject to various domestic and international anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, as well as other similar anti-bribery and anti-kickback laws and regulations. These laws and regulations generally prohibit companies and their employees and intermediaries from authorizing, offering or providing improper payments or benefits to officials and other recipients for improper purposes. We rely on certain third parties to support our sales and regulatory compliance efforts and can be held liable for their corrupt or other illegal activities, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities. Although we take precautions to prevent violations of these laws, our exposure for violating these laws increases as our international presence expands and as we increase sales and operations in foreign jurisdictions.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock has been and is likely to continue to be volatile.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and may fluctuate substantially as a result of a variety of factors, some of which are related in complex ways. Since shares of our common stock were sold in our initial public offering in February 2018 at a price of $13.00 per share, our stock price has ranged from an intraday low of $9.80 to an intraday high of $161.47 through April 30, 2021. Factors that may affect the market price of our common stock include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;
variance in our financial performance from expectations of securities analysts or investors;
changes in the prices of our solutions;
changes in laws or regulations applicable to our solutions;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, acquisitions or new offerings;
our involvement in litigation;
our sale of our common stock or other securities in the future;
changes in senior management or key personnel;
trading volume of our common stock;
changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market; and
general economic, regulatory and market conditions.
Recently, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies due to, among other factors, the actions of market participants or other actions outside of our control, including general market volatility caused by the COVID–19 pandemic. These fluctuations have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, regulatory and market conditions, may negatively impact the market price of our common stock. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future, which could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention.
We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future and, as a result, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings for use in the development of our business and for general corporate purposes. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.

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Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:
authorize our board of directors to issue preferred stock without further stockholder action and with voting liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to our common stock;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent, and limit the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for director nominees;
establish that our board of directors is divided into three classes, with directors in each class serving three-year staggered terms;
require the approval of holders of two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote at an election of directors to adopt, amend or repeal our amended and restated bylaws or amend or repeal the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation regarding the election and removal of directors and the ability of stockholders to take action by written consent or call a special meeting;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors; and
provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum.
These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, and they could deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you would receive a premium for your shares of our common stock in an acquisition.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.
Pursuant to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law. (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. However, this exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. The forum selection clause in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.

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General Risk Factors
Natural or man-made disasters, pandemics and other similar events may significantly disrupt our business, and negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results.
A significant public health crisis, epidemic or pandemic (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), or a natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire or a flood, or a significant power outage could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. A significant portion of our employee base, operating facilities and infrastructure are centralized in Atlanta, Georgia. Any of our facilities may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, floods, nuclear disasters, acts of terrorism or other criminal activities, infectious disease outbreaks and power outages, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to operate our business for some period of time. Our facilities would likely be costly to repair or replace, and any such efforts would likely require substantial time. Any disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results, and harm our reputation. In addition, we may not carry business insurance or may not carry sufficient business insurance to compensate for losses that may occur. Any such losses or damages could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, the facilities of significant marketers, partners or third-party data providers may be harmed or rendered inoperable by such natural or man-made disasters, which may cause disruptions, difficulties or material adverse effects on our business.
An active trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained.
Although our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our shares will be sustained. If an active market for our common stock is not sustained, it may be difficult for investors in our common stock to sell shares without depressing the market price for the shares or to sell the shares at all.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause our share price to decline.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that sales, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers, and significant stockholders, may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock. All of our outstanding shares of common stock are available for sale in the public market, subject only to the restrictions of Rule 144 under the Securities Act in the case of our affiliates. In addition, the shares of common stock subject to outstanding options under our equity incentive plans and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans, as well as shares issuable upon vesting of restricted stock unit awards, will become eligible for sale in the public market in the future, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. In addition, certain holders of our common stock have the right, subject to various conditions and limitations, to request we include their shares of our common stock in registration statements we may file relating to our securities.
We may issue common stock or other securities if we need to raise additional capital. The number of new shares of our common stock issued in connection with raising additional capital could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of our common stock.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or publish negative reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If our financial performance fails to meet analyst estimates or one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or change their opinion of our business or market value, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease providing coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S.
Generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB"), the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.

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We have incurred and will continue to incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.
As a public company, and particularly as we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we have incurred and we will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. We expect that compliance with these requirements will continue to increase certain of our expenses and make some activities more time-consuming than they have been in the past when we were a private company. Such additional costs going forward could negatively affect our financial results.
ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Recent Issuances of Unregistered Securities
In connection with our acquisition of Dosh described above, we have authorized the issuance of 916,398 shares of our common stock to former equityholders of Dosh who were “accredited investors,” as that term is defined in the Securities Act in reliance on the exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act and Rule 506 of Regulation D promulgated under the Securities Act and corresponding provisions of state securities or “blue sky” laws. Of the shares of common stock authorized for the Dosh acquisition, 897,489 shares have been issued through the date of filing. Each of the Dosh equityholders receiving shares as part of the acquisition represented that they were acquiring such shares for investment only and not with a view towards, or for resale in connection with, the public sale or distribution thereof. Such shares have not been registered under the Securities Act and such securities may not be offered or sold in the United States absent registration or an exemption from registration under the Securities Act and any applicable state securities laws.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.

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ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
The exhibits listed below are filed or incorporated by reference into this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
  Incorporated by Reference 
ExhibitExhibit DescriptionSchedule
/Form
File
Number
ExhibitFiling DateFiled
Herewith
10.1X
31.1X
31.2X
32.1*X
101.insXBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.X
101.schXBRL Taxonomy Schema Linkbase DocumentX
101.calXBRL Taxonomy Calculation Linkbase DocumentX
101.defXBRL Taxonomy Definition Linkbase DocumentX
101.labXBRL Taxonomy Label Linkbase DocumentX
101.preXBRL Taxonomy Presentation Linkbase DocumentX
104Cover page formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101X
* The certifications furnished in Exhibit 32.1 hereto are deemed to accompany this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and will not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that the registrant specifically incorporates it by reference.

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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
 Cardlytics, Inc.
   
Date:May 4, 2021By:/s/ Lynne M. Laube
  Lynne M. Laube
  
Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
   
Date:May 4, 2021By:/s/ Andrew Christiansen
  Andrew Christiansen
  
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

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