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INMB INmune Bio

Filed: 5 May 21, 4:16pm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

þ QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2021

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

INMUNE BIO INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Nevada 47-5205835
(State of incorporation) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

David Moss

1200 Prospect Street, Suite 525

La Jolla, CA 92037

(Address of principal executive office) (Zip code)

 

(858) 964-3720

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period than the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 

 

Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company  

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes ☐ No ☒

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share INMB The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

 

As of May 5, 2021, there were 14,932,638 shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

INMUNE BIO INC.

FORM 10-Q

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2021

 

INDEX

 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION1
   
Item 1.Financial Statements1
   
Item 2.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations16
   
Item 3.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk24
   
Item 4.Controls and Procedures24
   
PART II – OTHER INFORMATION25
   
Item 1.Legal Proceedings25
   
Item 1A.Risk Factors25
   
Item 2.Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities25
   
Item 3.Defaults Upon Senior Securities25
   
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures25
   
Item 5.Other Information25
   
Item 6.Exhibits25

 

i

 

 

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1. Financial Statements 

INMUNE BIO, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

(Unaudited)

 

  

March 31,

2021

  

December 31,

2020

 
ASSETS      
CURRENT ASSETS      
Cash and cash equivalents $45,340  $21,967 
Research and development tax credit receivable  2,190   1,686 
Other tax receivable  154   113 
Prepaid expenses  1,514   220 
Prepaid expenses – related party  15   - 
         
TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS  49,213   23,986 
         
Operating lease – right of use asset – related party  147   156 
Acquired in-process research and development intangible assets  16,514   16,514 
         
TOTAL ASSETS $65,874  $40,656 
         
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY        
         
CURRENT LIABILITIES        
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities $1,572  $1,518 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities – related parties  10   34 
Deferred liabilities  591   190 
Operating lease, current liability – related party  23   34 
TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES  2,196   1,776 
         
Long-term operating lease liability – related party  116   126 
TOTAL LIABILITIES  2,312   1,902 
         
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES        
         
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY        
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 10,000,000 shares authorized, 0 shares issued and outstanding  -   - 
Common stock, $0.001 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized, 14,932,638 and 13,481,283 shares issued and outstanding, respectively  15   13 
Additional paid-in capital  101,466   72,105 
Accumulated other comprehensive income  12   11 
Accumulated deficit  (37,931)  (33,375)
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  63,562   38,754 
         
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY $65,874  $40,656 

  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

1

 

 

INMUNE BIO, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

(Unaudited)

 

  Three months ended
March 31,
 
  2021  2020 
       
REVENUE $4  $- 
         
OPERATING EXPENSES        
General and administrative  2,061   1,299 
Research and development  2,491   793 
Total operating expenses  4,552   2,092 
         
LOSS FROM OPERATIONS  (4,548)  (2,092)
         
OTHER (EXPENSE) INCOME        
Other (expense) income  (8)  22 
Total other (expense) income  (8)  22 
         
NET LOSS $(4,556) $(2,070)
         
Net loss per common share – basic and diluted $(0.32) $(0.19)
         
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding – basic and diluted  14,322,659   10,747,300 
         
COMPREHENSIVE LOSS        
Net loss $(4,556) $(2,070)
Other comprehensive income (loss) – foreign currency translation  1   (21)
Total comprehensive loss $(4,555) $(2,091)

  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

2

 

  

INMUNE BIO, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2021 

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

(Unaudited) 

 

           Accumulated       
        Additional  Other     Total 
  Common Stock  Paid-In  Comprehensive  Accumulated  Stockholders’ 
  Shares  Amount  Capital  Income  Deficit  Equity 
Balance as of December 31, 2020  13,481,283  $13  $72,105  $            11  $(33,375) $38,754 
Issuance of common stock for cash  1,439,480   2   28,444   -   -   28,446 
Exercise of warrants for cash  11,875   -   18   -   -   18 
Stock-based compensation  -   -   899   -   -   899 
Gain on foreign currency translation  -   -   -   1   -   1 
Net loss  -   -   -   -   (4,556)  (4,556)
Balance as of March 31, 2021  14,932,638  $15  $101,466  $12  $(37,931) $63,562 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

3

 

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2020 

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

(Unaudited)

 

              Accumulated       
        Additional  Common  Other     Total 
  Common Stock  Paid-In  Stock  Comprehensive  Accumulated  Stockholders’ 
  Shares  Amount  Capital  Issuable  Loss  Deficit  Equity 
Balance as of December 31, 2019  10,770,948  $    11  $44,834  $50  $              (9) $(21,276) $23,610 
Issuance of common stock and warrants for cash, net  196,000   -   1,003   -   -   -   1,003 
Acquisition and retirement of common stock  (220,000)  -   (1,012)  -   -   -   (1,012)
Capital contribution  -   -   216   -   -   -   216 
Stock-based compensation  -   -   682   -   -   -   682 
Loss on foreign currency translation  -   -   -   -   (21)  -   (21)
Net loss  -   -   -   -   -   (2,070)  (2,070)
Balance as of March 31, 2020  10,746,948  $11  $45,723  $50  $(30) $(23,346) $22,408 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

4

 

 

INMUNE BIO, INC.

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS 

(In thousands)

 

(Unaudited)

 

  For the Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
  2021  2020 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:      
Net loss $(4,556) $(2,070)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:        
Stock-based compensation  899   682 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:        
Research and development tax credit receivable  (504)  (145)
Other tax receivable  (41)  6 
Prepaid expenses  (1,294)  (170)
Prepaid expenses – related party  (15)  26 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities  54   294 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities – related parties  (24)  29 
Deferred liabilities  401   300 
Operating lease liability – related party  (12)  13 
Net cash used in operating activities  (5,092)  (1,035)
         
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:        
Net proceeds from sale of common stock  28,446   1,003 
Net proceeds from the exercise of warrants  18   - 
Purchase of common stock  -   (1,012)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities  28,464   (9)
         
Impact on cash from foreign currency translation  1   (21)
         
NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH  23,373   (1,065)
         
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT BEGINNING OF PERIOD  21,967   6,996 
         
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT END OF PERIOD $45,340  $5,931 
         
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOWS INFORMATION:        
Cash paid for income taxes $-  $- 
Cash paid for interest expense $-  $- 
         
NONCASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES:        
Capital contribution $-  $216 

  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

5

 

 

INMUNE BIO, INC.

 

NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  

NOTE 1 – ORGANIZATION AND DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS

 

INmune Bio, Inc. (the “Company” or “INmune Bio”) was organized in the State of Nevada on September 25, 2015, and is a clinical stage biotechnology pharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing its product candidates to treat diseases where the innate immune system is not functioning normally and contributing to the patient’s disease. INmune Bio has two product platforms. The DN-TNF product platform utilizes dominant-negative technology to selectively neutralize soluble TNF, a key driver of innate immune dysfunction and mechanistic target of many diseases. DN-TNF is currently being developed for COVID-19 complications (Quellor), cancer (INB03), Alzheimer’s and treatment resistant depression (XPro595), and NASH (LIVNate). The Natural Killer Cell Priming Platform includes INKmune aimed at priming the patient’s NK cells to eliminate minimal residual disease in patients with cancer. INmune Bio’s product platforms utilize a precision medicine approach for the treatment of a wide variety of hematologic malignancies, solid tumors and chronic inflammation.

  

NOTE 2 – LIQUIDITY

 

As of March 31, 2021, the Company had an accumulated deficit of approximately $37.9 million and experienced losses since its inception. Losses have principally occurred as a result of non-cash stock-based compensation expense and the substantial resources required for research and development of the Company’s products, which included the general and administrative expenses associated with its organization and product development as well as the lack of sources of revenues until such time as the Company’s products are commercialized.

 

To meet its current and future obligations the Company has taken the following steps to capitalize the business and achieve its business plan:

  

 During March 2021, the Company entered into a sales agreement with BTIG, LLC (“BTIG”), as sales agent, to establish an At-The-Market (“ATM”) offering program of up to $45 million of common stock (the “2021 ATM”), subject to certain limitations on the amount of common stock that may be offered and sold by the Company set forth in the sales agreement. The Company is required to pay BTIG a commission of 3% of the gross proceeds from the sale of shares. There have been no sales of the Company’s common stock pursuant to the 2021 ATM.

 

 

During July 2020, the Company completed an underwritten public offering in which it sold 2,500,000 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $10.00 per share. Aggregate net proceeds from the underwritten public offering were approximately $23.1 million, net of $1.9 million in underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses. 

 

 

During April 2020, the Company entered into a sales agreement with BTIG, as sales agent, to establish an ATM offering program to sell up to $10.0 million of the Company’s common stock (the “2020 ATM”). In August 2020, the sales agreement was amended whereby the aggregate offering was increased from $10.0 million to $30.0 million. From April 2020 through December 2020, the Company sold 178,600 shares of common stock at an average price of $5.45 per share for net proceeds of approximately $0.8 million. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company sold in aggregate 1,439,480 shares on common stock at an average price of $20.17 per share for net proceeds of $28.4 million. As of March 31, 2021, sales of our common stock pursuant to the 2020 ATM have been completed. 

 

Although it is difficult to predict the Company’s liquidity requirements, as of March 31, 2021, and based upon the Company’s current operating plan, the Company believes that it will have sufficient cash to meet its projected operating requirements for at least the next 12 months following the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q based on the balance of cash available as of March 31, 2021. The Company anticipates that it will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future as it continues the development of its clinical drug candidates and preclinical programs and incurs additional costs associated with being a public company.

 

6

 

 

NOTE 3 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”), and pursuant to the accounting and disclosure rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of INmune Bio, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.

 

In the opinion of management, the interim financial information includes all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the results for the interim periods. These unaudited consolidated interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2020 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 4, 2021.

 

Risks and Uncertainties

 

The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business is highly uncertain and difficult to predict. Also, economies worldwide have also been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, however policymakers around the globe have responded with fiscal policy actions to support the healthcare industry and economy as a whole. The magnitude and overall effectiveness of these actions remain uncertain.

 

In addition, the Company’s clinical trials have been affected by and may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical site initiation and patient enrollment have and may continue to be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic. Some patients have not and others may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, the ability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19, may adversely impact the Company’s clinical trial operations.

 

The severity of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of the pandemic and the extent and severity of the impact on the Company’s service providers, suppliers, contract research organizations (“CROs”) and the Company’s clinical trials, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. As of the date of issuance of Company’s financial statements, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact the Company’s financial condition, liquidity or results of operations is uncertain.

 

Use of Estimates

 

Preparing financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses. Actual results and outcomes may differ from management’s estimates and assumptions.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

The Company considers all short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity at the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash balances that may be uninsured or in deposit accounts that exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation limits. The Company maintains its cash deposits with major financial institutions.

 

7

 

 

Research and Development Tax Incentive Receivable

 

The Company, through its wholly-owned subsidiary in Australia (“AUS”), participates in the Australian research and development tax incentive program, such that a percentage of our qualifying research and development expenditures are reimbursed by the Australian government, and such incentives are reflected as a reduction of research and development expense. The Australian research and development tax incentive is recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the incentive will be received, the relevant expenditure has been incurred and the amount of the consideration can be reliably measured. At each period end, management estimates the reimbursement available to the Company based on available information at the time.

 

The Company, through its wholly-owned subsidiary in the United Kingdom (“UK”), participates in the research and development program provided by the United Kingdom tax relief program, such that a percentage of our qualifying research and development expenditures are reimbursed by the United Kingdom government, and such incentives are reflected as a reduction of research and development expense. The United Kingdom research and development tax incentive is recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the incentive will be received, the relevant expenditure has been incurred and the amount of the consideration can be reliably measured. At each period end, management estimates the reimbursement available to the Company based on available information at the time.

 

Intangible Assets

 

The Company capitalizes costs incurred in connection with in-process research and development purchased from others if the asset has alternative uses and such uses are not restricted under applicable license agreements; patent applications (principally legal fees), patent purchases, and trademarks related to its cell line as intangible assets. Acquired in-process research and development costs that do not have alternative uses are expensed as incurred. Amortization is initiated for acquired in-process research and development intangible assets when their useful lives have been determined. These acquired in-process research and development intangible assets are tested at least annually or when a triggering event occurs that could indicate a potential impairment.

   

Basic and Diluted Loss per Share

 

Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of outstanding common shares during the period. Diluted loss per share gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. Dilutive loss per share excludes all potential common shares if their effect is anti-dilutive. For all periods presented, there is no difference in the number of shares used to calculate basic and diluted shares outstanding due to the Company’s net loss position.

 

At March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had potentially issuable shares as follows:

 

  March 31, 
 2021  2020 
Stock options  3,655,549   3,417,000 
Warrants  2,126,047   1,658,199 
Total  5,781,596   5,075,199 

 

 Revenue Recognition

 

The Company recognizes revenue when the customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenue following the five-step model prescribed under ASC Topic 606: (1) identify contract(s) with a customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognize revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligations. The Company records the expenses related to revenue in research and development expense, in the periods such expenses were incurred.

 

The Company records deferred revenues when cash payments are received or due in advance of performance, including amounts which are refundable.

 

8

 

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock option awards at the date of grant, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including expected volatility and expected life. Changes in these inputs and assumptions can materially affect the measure of estimated fair value of our share-based compensation. These assumptions are subjective and generally require significant analysis and judgment to develop. When estimating fair value, some of the assumptions will be based on, or determined from, external data and other assumptions may be derived from our historical experience with stock-based payment arrangements. The appropriate weight to place on historical experience is a matter of judgment, based on relevant facts and circumstances. The Company accounts for forfeitures of stock options as they occur.

 

Research and Development

 

Research and development (“R&D”) costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development credits are recorded by the Company as a reduction of research and development costs. Major components of research and development costs include cash compensation, stock-based compensation, costs of preclinical studies, clinical trials and related clinical manufacturing, costs of drug development, costs of materials and supplies, facilities cost, overhead costs, regulatory and compliance costs, and fees paid to consultants and other entities that conduct certain research and development activities on the Company’s behalf.

 

The Company recognizes grants as contra research and development expense in the consolidated statement of operations on a systematic basis over the periods in which the entity recognizes as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company follows the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying values and their respective income tax basis (temporary differences). The effect on deferred income tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

Foreign Currency Translation

 

The Company’s financial statements are presented in the U.S. dollar (“$”), which is the Company’s reporting currency, while its functional currencies are the U.S. Dollar for its U.S. based operations, British Pound (“GBP”) for its United Kingdom-based operations and Australian Dollars (“AUD”) for its Australian-based operations. All assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date, stockholders’ equity is translated at historical rates and statement of operations items are translated at the weighted average exchange rate for the period. The resulting translation adjustments are reported under other comprehensive income. Gains and losses resulting from the translations of foreign currency transactions and balances are reflected in the statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

 

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

 

There were various accounting standards and interpretations issued recently, none of which are expected to a have a material impact on the Company´s consolidated financial position, operations or cash flows.

 

Subsequent Events

 

The Company evaluates events that have occurred after the balance sheet date of March 31, 2021, through the date which the financial statements are issued.

 

9

 

 

NOTE 4 – RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY

 

According to UK tax law, the Company is allowed an R&D tax credit that reduces a company’s tax bill in the UK for expenses incurred in R&D subject to certain requirements. The Company’s UK subsidiary submits R&D tax credit requests annually for research and development expenses incurred. At March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company recorded a research and development tax credit receivable in the amount of $1,104,000 and $833,000, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company received $0 of R&D tax credit reimbursements from the UK.

 

According to AUS tax law, the Company is allowed an R&D tax credit that reduces a company’s tax bill in AUS for expenses incurred in R&D subject to certain requirements. The Company’s Australian subsidiary submits R&D tax credit requests annually for research and development expenses incurred. At March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company recorded a research and development tax credit receivable of $1,086,000 and $853,000, respectively, for R&D expenses incurred in Australia. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company received $0 R&D tax credit reimbursements from Australia.

 

Xencor, Inc. License Agreement

 

On October 3, 2017, the Company entered into a license agreement (“Xencor License Agreement”) with Xencor, Inc. (“Xencor”), which has discovered and developed a proprietary biological molecule that inhibits soluble tumor necrosis factor. Pursuant to the license agreement, Xencor granted the Company an exclusive worldwide, royalty-bearing license in licensed patent rights, licensed know-how and licensed materials (as defined in the license agreement) to make, develop, use, sell and import any pharmaceutical product that comprises, contains, or incorporates Xencor’s proprietary protein known as “XPro1595” that inhibits soluble tumor necrosis factor (or all modifications, formulations and variants of the licensed protein that specifically bind soluble tumor necrosis factor) alone or in combination with one or more active ingredients, in any dosage or formulation (“Licensed Products”). The Company believes the protein has numerous medical applications. Such additional alternative applications of the technology are available under the Xencor License Agreement. In connection with the Xencor License Agreement, the Company paid Xencor a one-time non-creditable and non-refundable fee of $100,000 and issued Xencor 1,585,000 shares of the Company’s common stock with a fair value of $12,221,000. In addition, the Company issued Xencor fully vested warrants with a fair value of $4,193,000 to purchase an additional number of shares of common stock equal to 10% of the fully diluted company shares immediately following such purchase. The aggregate purchase price for the full exercise of the option is $10,000,000 which purchase price shall be pro-rated for any partial exercise of the warrant. In August 2018, the Company entered into a First Amendment to Stock Issuance Agreement. Pursuant to the amendment, the purchase price for the additional shares may only be paid by cash. The warrants expire on October 3, 2023.

 

The Company recorded $16,514,000 for the acquisition of intangible assets for the in-process research and development as the fair value of the cash, stock and warrants on the date of the License Agreement acquisition in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 730 – Research and Development. The Company has the license rights to pursue alternative applications of the technology as part of its future development plans.

 

The Company also agreed to pay Xencor a royalty on Net Sales of all Licensed Products in a given calendar year, which are payable on a country-by- country and licensed product by licensed product basis until the date that is the later of (a) the expiration of the last to expire valid claim covering such Licensed Product in such country or (b) ten years following the first sale to a third party of the licensed product in such country.

 

Under the Xencor License Agreement, the Company also agreed to pay Xencor a percentage of any sublicensing revenue that it receives.

 

INKmune License Agreement

 

On October 29, 2015, the Company entered into an exclusive license agreement (the “INKmune License Agreement”) with Immune Ventures, LLC (“Immune Ventures”). Pursuant to the INKmune License Agreement, the Company was granted exclusive worldwide rights to the patents, including rights to incorporate any improvements or additions to the patents that may be developed in the future. In consideration for the patent rights, the Company agreed to the following milestone payments (of which none have been met as of March 31, 2021):

 

(in thousands)

Each Phase I initiation $25 
Each Phase II initiation $250 
Each Phase III initiation $350 
Each NDA/EMA filing $1,000 
Each NDA/EMA awarded $9,000 

 

10

 

 

In addition, the Company agreed to pay Immune Ventures a royalty of 1% of net sales during the life of each patent granted to the Company. RJ Tesi, the Company’s President and a member of our Board of Directors, David Moss, its Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer and Mark Lowdell, its Chief Scientific Officer, are the owners of Immune Ventures. As of March 31, 2021, no sales had occurred under this license.

 

The term of the agreement began on October 29, 2015 and, if not terminated sooner pursuant to the agreement, ends on a country-by-country basis on the date of the expiration of the last to expire patent rights where patent rights exists. Upon the termination of the agreement, we shall have a fully paid up, perpetual, royalty-free license without further obligation to Immune Ventures. The agreement can be terminated by Immune Ventures if, after 60 days from the Company’s receipt of notice that the Company has not made a payment under the agreement, and the Company still does not make this payment. On July 20, 2018, the parties amended the agreement under which the Company was required achieve milestones pursuant to the agreement. On October 30, 2020, the parties executed an additional amendment to the agreement under which the Company is required to achieve the following milestones:

 

Initiation of Phase 1 clinical or equivalent trials by October 29, 2021

 

Initiation of Phase II clinical trials or equivalent by October 29, 2023

 

Initiation of Phase III clinical trials or equivalent by October 29, 2025

 

Filing of NDA or equivalent by October 29, 2026 or equivalent

 

If the Company doesn’t achieve the above milestones, it is required to negotiate in good faith with Immune Ventures to determine how it can either remedy the failure or achieve an alternate development. If the Company fails to make any required efforts, or if the efforts do not remedy the situation within 60 days of written notice by Immune Ventures, then Immune Ventures may provide notice to terminate the license or convert it to a non-exclusive license.

 

University of Pittsburg License Agreement

 

On October 3, 2017, the Company entered into an Assignment and Assumption Agreement with Immune Ventures related to intellectual property licensed from the University of Pittsburgh. Pursuant to the Assignment and Assumption Agreement (“Assignment Agreement”), Immune Ventures assigned all of its rights, obligations and liabilities under an Exclusive License Agreement between the University of Pittsburgh – Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education (“Licensor”) and Immune Ventures to INmune Bio (“Licensee”), (the “PITT Agreement”).

 

Consideration under the PITT Agreement includes: (i) annual maintenance fees, (ii) royalty payments based on the sale of products making use of the licensed technology, and (iii) milestone payments.

  

Annual maintenance fees under the PITT Agreement include the following:

 

(in thousands)

June 26 of each year 2021-2022 $5 
June 26 of each year 2023-2024 $10 
June 26 of each year 2025 until first commercial sale $25 

 

Upon first commercial sale of a product making use of the licensed technology under the PITT Agreement, the Licensee is required to pay royalties equal to 2.5% of Net Sales each calendar quarter.

 

Moreover, under the PITT Agreement the Licensee is required to make milestone payments as follows:

 

(in thousands)

Each Phase I initiation

 $50 
Each Phase III initiation $500 
First commercial sale of product making use of licensed technology $1,250 

 

The Company had no amounts owed pursuant to the PITT Agreement as of March 31, 2021.

 

The PITT Agreement expires upon the earlier of: (i) expiration of the last claim of the Patent Rights (as defined in the PITT Agreement) forming the subject matter of the PITT Agreement; or (ii) the date that is 20 years from the effective date of the agreement (June 26, 2037).

 

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The Licensee may terminate the PITT Agreement upon 3 months prior written notice provided all payments under the license are current. The Licensor may terminate the PITT Agreement upon written notice if: (i) Licensee defaults as to performance of material obligations which have not been cured within 60 days after receiving written notice; or (ii) Licensee ceases to carry out its business, becomes bankrupt or insolvent, applies for or consents to the appointment of a trustee, receiver or liquidator of its assets or seeks relief under any law for the aid of debtors.

 

University College London License Agreement – MSC

 

On July 19, 2019, the Company entered into license agreement with UCL Business PLC (“UCLB”) with a ten (10) year term. Pursuant to the license agreement, the Company acquired an exclusive license (and a right to sub-license) to the technology and know-how relating to an isolation and commercial scale expansion methodology of GMP grade human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (“MSC”).

 

In exchange for the license agreement, the Company paid UCLB an initial license fee of $10,000 and shall pay annual licensing fees of approximately $13,000 per year for the remaining term of the agreement. The Company will pay UCLB a royalty of 3-3.5%% of the net sales value (as defined in the agreement) of all licensed products sold or used by the Company. In the event the Company sub-licenses the technology and know-how, the Company will pay UCLB a royalty of twelve (12) percent of consideration (cash or non-cash) received by the Company in relation to the development or sub-licensing of any of the technology and know-how.

 

NOTE 5 – LEASE 

 

In May 2019, the Company signed a sublease agreement with a related party for office space in La Jolla, California, which serves as the new headquarters of the Company. The lease has a 61-month term, which corresponds to the lease term of the lessor. The lessor is CTI Clinical Trial & Consulting Services (“CTI”). CTI is majority-owned by a member of the Company’s Board of Directors. The lessor may extend its lease for an additional 5 years, and, if it does, the Company may also extend its sublease for 5 years. The Company did not include the option to extend in the calculation of the lease liabilities as such extension is not reasonably certain to occur. Variable lease costs for the Company’s lease consists of operating expenses for the spaces. Below is a summary of the Company’s right-of-use assets and liabilities as of March 31, 2021:

 

(in thousands, except years and rate)  

Right-of-use asset – related party $147 
     
Operating lease, current liability – related party $23 
Long-term operating lease liability – related party  116 
Total lease liability $139 
     
Weighted-average remaining lease term  3.2 years 
     
Weighted-average discount rate  10.00%

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company recognized $13,000 in operating lease expense, which is included in general and administrative expenses in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations.

 

NOTE 6 – RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

UCL

 

At March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company owed UCL Consultants Limited (“UCL”) $10,000 and $34,000, respectively, in connection with medical research performed on behalf of the Company. At March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company recorded prepaid expenses of $15,000 and $0, respectively, for medical research to be performed on behalf of the Company by UCL. During the three months ending March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company paid UCL $88,000 and $0, respectively, for medical research performed on behalf of the Company. UCL is a wholly owned subsidiary of the University of London. The Company’s Chief Scientific and Manufacturing Officer is a professor at the University of London.

 

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CTI

 

During the three months ending March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company paid CTI $0 and $79,000, respectively, for medical research performed on behalf of the Company. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company recorded a capital contribution of $216,000 for the forgiveness of certain accounts payable due to CTI. The Company had no amounts payable to CTI as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.

 

NOTE 7 – STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

  

Lincoln Park

 

On May 15, 2019, the Company entered into both a securities purchase agreement and registration rights agreement with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (“Lincoln Park”). Under the terms and subject to the conditions of the securities purchase agreement, the Company had the right to sell to Lincoln Park, and Lincoln Park was obligated to purchase, up to $20.0 million in shares of the Company’s common stock, subject to certain limitations, over the 24-month period that commenced on May 15, 2019. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company issued 196,000 shares of its common stock to Lincoln Park for approximately $1.0 million of cash.

 

During April 2021, the Company terminated the securities purchase agreement with Lincoln Park.

 

Purchase and retirement of common stock

 

During January 2020, the Company purchased and cancelled 220,000 shares of its common stock from a shareholder in exchange for approximately $1.0 million of cash.

 

Common Stock – At the Market Offering

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company sold 1,439,480 shares of its common stock for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $29.0 million (net proceeds of approximately $28.4 million) under the 2020 ATM program. The Company paid BTIG commissions and fees of $582,000 in connection with the sale of these shares.

  

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Stock options

 

During January 2021, the Company granted certain employees and directors options to purchase 198,549 shares of its common stock pursuant to the 2017 and 2019 Incentive Stock Plans. The stock options have a fair value of approximately $4.2 million that was calculated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Variables used in the Black-Scholes option-pricing model include: (1) discount rate of 0.78% based on the applicable US Treasury bill rate (2) expected life of 6.0 - 6.25 years, (3) expected volatility of approximately 113% - 114% based on the trading history of similar companies, and (4) zero expected dividends.

 

The following table summarizes stock option activity during the three months ended March 31, 2021:

 

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts) 

Number of

Shares

  

Weighted- average

Exercise

Price

  

Weighted-average

Remaining

Contractual

Term (years)

  

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value

 
Outstanding at January 1, 2021  3,457,000  $5.82   8.05  $39,405 
Options granted  198,549  $24.82   -   - 
Options exercised  -  $-   -   - 
Options cancelled  -  $-   -   - 
Outstanding at March 31, 2021  3,655,549  $6.85   7.91  $20,945 
Exercisable at March 31, 2021  2,415,889  $6.54   7.42  $12,906 

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company recognized stock-based compensation expense of approximately $0.9 million and $0.7 million, respectively, related to the vesting of stock options. As of March 31, 2021, there was approximately $7.3 million of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested stock options which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.72 years.

 

Warrants

 

In connection with the Company’s initial public offering in February 2019, the Company issued warrants to the placement agents to purchase the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $9.60 per common share, which warrants are exercisable until December 19, 2023. At March 31, 2021, 34,835 of these warrants are outstanding and the intrinsic value is $79,000.

 

In October 2017, in connection with the Xencor License Agreement, the Company issued fully vested warrants to purchase an additional number of shares of common stock equal to 10% of the fully diluted Company shares immediately following such purchase. See Note 4. These warrants had an intrinsic value of approximately $14.6 million as of March 31, 2021.

 

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On June 30, 2017, the Company issued fully vested warrants to purchase 31,667 shares of the Company’s common stock to a third party in conjunction with the common stock sold for cash. The warrants have a $1.50 exercise price and expire on June 30, 2022. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, 11,875 of these warrants were exercised for cash proceeds of $18,000. At March 31, 2021, 19,792 of these warrants are outstanding, with an intrinsic value of $205,000.

 

Stock-based Compensation by Class of Expense

 

The following summarizes the components of stock-based compensation expense in the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 respectively:

 

(in thousands) Three
Months
Ended
March 31,
2021
  Three
Months
Ended
March 31,
2020
 
Research and development $186  $139 
General and administrative  713   543 
Total $899  $682 

 

Shareholder Rights Agreement

 

On December 30, 2020, the Board of Directors (the “Board”) of the Company approved and adopted a Rights Agreement, dated as of December 30, 2020, by and between the Company and VStock Transfer, LLC, as rights agent, pursuant to which the Board declared a dividend of one preferred share purchase right (each, a “Right”) for each outstanding share of the Company’s common stock held by stockholders as of the close of business on January 11, 2021. When exercisable, each right initially would represent the right to purchase from the Company one one-thousandth of a share of a newly designated series of preferred stock, Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Company, at an exercise price of $300.00 per one one-thousandth of a Series A Junior Participating Preferred Share, subject to adjustment. Subject to various exceptions, the Rights become exercisable in the event any person (excluding certain exempted or grandfathered persons) becomes the beneficial owner of twenty percent or more of the Company’s common stock without the approval of the Board. The Rights are scheduled to expire on December 30, 2021.

 

NOTE 8 – COLLABORATIVE AGREEMENTS

  

During 2020, the Company was awarded a $0.5 million grant from the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (“ALS”) Association to fund a study of the efficacy of XPro1595 to reverse ALS in vitro and to fund a study of the efficacy of XPro1595 to protect against ALS model phenotypes in vivo. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company received $0.1 million and $0.3 million, respectively, of cash proceeds pursuant to this grant which the Company recorded as deferred liabilities. The Company offsets costs incurred related to this research against the grants. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company recorded approximately $0.2 million and $0.1 million, respectively, as deferred liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet related to the ALS grant.

 

During September 2020, the Company was awarded a grant of up to $2.9 million from the National Institutes of Health (“NIH”). The grant will support a Phase 2 study of XPro1595 in patients with treatment resistant depression. As of March 31, 2021, the Company has not received any proceeds pursuant to this grant. 

 

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

This Form 10-Q contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. For this purpose, any statements contained in this Form 10-Q that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate” or “continue” or comparable terminology are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements by their nature involve substantial risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially depending on a variety of factors, many of which are not within our control. These factors include but are not limited to economic conditions generally and in the industries in which we may participate; competition within our chosen industry, including competition from much larger competitors; technological advances and failure to successfully develop business relationships.

 

Description of Business

 

Overview

 

We are a clinical-stage immunotherapy company focused on developing drugs that may reprogram the patient’s innate immune system to treat disease. We believe this may be done by targeting cells of the innate immune system that cause acute and chronic inflammation and are involved in the immune dysfunction associated with chronic diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative, metabolic and infectious diseases. The Company has two therapeutic platforms – dominant-negative TNF platform (“DN-TNF”) and the Natural Killer (“NK”) platform. The DN-TNF platform neutralizes soluble TNF (“sTNF”) without affecting trans-membrane TNF (“tmTNF”) or the receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2. This unique biologic mechanism differentiates the DN-TNF drugs from currently approved non-selective TNF inhibitors that inhibit the function of both sTNF and tmTNF. Protecting the function of tmTNF while neutralizing the function of sTNF is a potent anti-inflammatory drug that does not cause immunosuppression or demyelination. Currently approved non-selective TNF inhibitors are approved to treat autoimmune disease, however they are contraindicated in patients with infection, cancer and neurologic diseases because they increase the risk of infection, cancer and demyelinating neurologic diseases, respectively, because of off-target effects on inhibiting tmTNF. The NK platform targets the dysfunctional natural killer cells (“NK cells”) in patients with cancer. NK cells are part of the normal immunologic response to cancer with important roles in immunosurveillance to prevent cancer and in preventing relapse by clearing residual disease. Residual disease is the cancer left behind, often undetected, that can grow and cause relapse. The NK cells of cancer patients have the ability to kill cancer cells but are not effective because cancer cells mutate to evade NK cell immune surveillance. INKmune provides the missing signals needed to prime NK cells to overcome the immune evasion mutation to allow NK cells to kill the cancer cell. We believe INKmune is best used to eliminate residual disease after the patient has completed other cancer therapies. Both the DN-TNF platform and the INKmune platform can be used to treat multiple diseases. The DN-TNF platform will be used as an immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer, neurodegenerative, metabolic and infectious diseases. INKmune is being developed to treat NK sensitive hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

 

We believe our DN-TNF platform can be used to reverse resistance in immunotherapy, to target glial activation to prevent progression of Alzheimer’s disease (“AD”), to target neuroinflammation in treatment resistant depression (“TRD”), to target intestinal leak and inflammation to treat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (“NASH”) and to treat complications of the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19 infection. The drug is named differently for each indication; INB03, XPro1595, LIVNate and Quellor, respectively, but it is the same drug product. In each case, we believe neutralizing sTNF is a cornerstone to the treatment of each of these diseases. As an immunotherapy for cancer, we are using INB03 to neutralize sTNF produced by HER2+ trastuzumab resistant breast cancers to reverse resistance to therapy. sTNF causes an up-regulation of MUC4 expression that causes steric hindrance of trastuzumab binding to the HER2/Neu receptor on HER2+ breast cancer cells. Without binding, trastuzumab is not effective. In addition, INB03 changes the immunobiology of the tumor microenvironment by decreasing the number of immunosuppressive myeloid cells, both myeloid derived suppressor cells and tumor active macrophages, and increasing the number of cytotoxic lymphocytes in the TME. The Company has completed an open label dose escalation trial in cancer patients with metastatic solid tumors that have failed multiple lines of therapy. The trial informs the design of the Phase II trial by demonstrating that INB03 was safe and well tolerated, defined the dose of INB03 to carry into Phase II trials, and demonstrated a pharmacodynamic end-point. A Phase II trial is planned in women with advanced HER2+ breast cancer with metastasis. 

 

Likewise, we believe the DN-TNF platform can be used to treat selected neurodegenerative diseases. XPro1595 is being used to treat patients with Alzheimer’s disease in a Phase I trial partially funded by a Part-the-Clouds Award from the Alzheimer’s Association. XPro1595 targets activated microglia and astrocytes of the brain that produce sTNF that promotes nerve cell loss and synaptic dysfunction, key elements in the development of dementia. In animal models, elimination of sTNF prevents nerve cell dysfunction and reverses synaptic pruning. The Phase I trial in patients with biomarkers of inflammation with AD is enrolling patients. The open label, dose escalation trial is designed to demonstrate that XPro1595 decreases neuroinflammation in patients with AD. This end-points of the trial are measures of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in blood and cerebral spinal fluid, measures of neuroinflammation by MRI by measuring white matter free water and breath by measuring volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and by monitoring neuropsychiatric symptoms known to be associated with neuroinflammation including depression, apathy, aggression, hallucinations and sleep disorders. 

 

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In addition, we believe the DN-TNF platform can be used to treat selected metabolic diseases. LIVNate is being developed to treat NASH. NASH is a pleiotropic disease caused by a complex mix of metabolic, inflammatory and fibrotic pathophysiology. We believe targeting inflammation caused by intestinal leak, mesenteric and peripheral fat will prevent lipotoxicity, hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatocyte death that causes fibrosis and liver dysfunction associated with advanced disease. sTNF is elevated in obesity and is believed to cause intestinal leak. Intestinal leak combined with cytokines coming from mesenteric fat may dramatically increase the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in portal blood destined for the liver. The cytokine load contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (“NAFLD”) and progression to NASH. LIVNate, by neutralizing sTNF improves insulin sensitivity, decreases the inflammation in peripheral and mesenteric fat and may also seal the intestinal leak. This combination prevents development of NAFLD or NASH in animal models. The Company is planning a Phase II open label randomized study using non-invasive measures to enroll patients with NASH in a study using a fixed dose of LIVNate delivered as a once a week sub-cutaneous injection.

 

We also believe the DN-TNF platform may be used to treat the complications associated with the cytokine storm caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (“COVID-19”). Three inflammatory cytokines make up the cytokine storm associated with COVID19 infection – sTNF, IL-6 and IL-1β. Targeting sTNF with Quellor may have advantages because IL-6 and IL-1 expression occur after sTNF expression; sTNF promotes endothelial activation causing expression of proteins that promote trafficking of immune cells from the blood vessel to the tissue and expression of Tissue Factor that stimulates the coagulopathy that is a prominent pathology of COVID-19 infection. The Company plans a Phase II trial in patients with symptomatic COVID-19 infection and hypoxia. The goal of the study is to prevent the catastrophic complications of advanced COVID-19 infection including one or more of the need for mechanical ventilation, new onset of cardiovascular, neurologic or thromboembolic disease, admission to an intensive care unit or death. The randomized trial will treat patients requiring hospitalization because of their disease.

 

Effective therapy for treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a large unmet need. Twenty percent of patients with a Major Depressive Disorder have TRD. Once third of TRD patients have peripheral biomarkers to inflammation (elevated CRP). This is a large patient population. The role of TNF and anti-TNF therapeutics was explored in a small open label clinical trial by Prof. Andrew Miller, MD of Emory University demonstrated the patients have elevated TNF levels and treatment with infliximab treated their depression (Miller, 2011). The Company received a $2.9M USD award from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to treat TRD with XPro1595. The blinded, randomized Phase II trial will use a biomarkers of peripheral inflammation to select patients with TRD for enrollment. Patients will be treated for 6 weeks. Primary end-points include both clinical and neuroimaging measures. The final trial design has is ongoing and discussions with the FDA are not complete. The Company anticipates receiving authorization to initiate the clinical trial in the second half of 2021.

 

We believe that INKmune improves the ability of the patient’s own NK cells to attack their tumor. INKmune interacts with the patient’s NK cells to convert them from inert resting NK cells that ignores the cancer into primed NK cells that kill the cancer cell. INKmune is a replication incompetent proprietary cell line we have named INB16 that is given to the patient after determining that i) the patient has adequate NK cells in their circulation and ii) those NK cells are functional when exposed to INKmune in vitro. INKmune is designed to be given to patients after their immune system has recovered after cytotoxic chemotherapy to target the residual disease the remains after treatment with cytotoxic therapy. INKmune can be used to treat numerous hematologic malignancies and solid tumors including leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, lung, ovary, breast, renal and prostate cancer. The Company plans Phase I trials using INKmune to treat patients with high risk MDS, a form of leukemia and women with relapsed refractory ovarian.

 

Since our inception in 2015, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to the discovery and development of our product candidates, including clinical trials and preclinical studies as well as general and administrative support for these operations. To date, we have generated no significant revenue. We have incurred net losses in each year since our inception and, as of March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $37.9 million. Our net losses were $4,556,000 and $2,070,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Substantially all of our net losses resulted from costs incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations, including stock-based compensation. 

 

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The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business is highly uncertain and difficult to predict. Also, economies worldwide have also been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, however policymakers around the globe have responded with fiscal policy actions to support the healthcare industry and economy as a whole. The magnitude and overall effectiveness of these actions remain uncertain.

 

In addition, the Company’s clinical trials have been affected by and may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical site initiation and patient enrollment have and may continue to be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic. Some patients have not and others may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, the ability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19, may adversely impact the Company’s clinical trial operations.

 

The severity of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of the pandemic and the extent and severity of the impact on the Company’s service providers, suppliers, contract research organizations (“CROs”) and the Company’s clinical trials, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. As of the date of issuance of Company’s financial statements, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may materially impact the Company’s financial condition, liquidity or results of operations is uncertain.

 

We classify our operating expenses into two categories: research and development; and general and administrative expenses. Personnel costs including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense comprise a significant component of our research and development and general and administrative expense categories.

 

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

 

 only two years of audited financial statements in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;
   
 reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements;
   
 no non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements;
   
 exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting; and
   
 delaying the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies.

 

We have elected to take advantage of the above-referenced exemptions and we may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues, we have more than $700 million in market value of our stock held by non-affiliates, or we issue more than $1 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced burdens.

 

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Research and Development

 

Research and development expense consists of expenses incurred while performing research and development activities to discover and develop our product candidates. This includes conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, manufacturing development efforts and activities related to regulatory filings for product candidates. We recognize research and development expenses as they are incurred. Our research and development expense primarily consist of:

 

 clinical trial and regulatory-related costs;

 

 expenses incurred under agreements with investigative sites and consultants that conduct our clinical trials;
   
 manufacturing and testing costs and related supplies and materials; and
   
 employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel and stock-based compensation.

 

We typically use our employee, consultant and infrastructure resources across our development programs. We track outsourced development costs by product candidate or development program, but we do not allocate personnel costs, other internal costs or external consultant costs to specific product candidates or development programs.

 

We participate, through our wholly-owned subsidiary in Australia, in the Australian research and development tax incentive program, such that a percentage of our qualifying research and development expenditures are reimbursed by the Australian government, and such incentives are reflected as a reduction of research and development expense. The Australian research and development tax incentive is recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the incentive will be received, the relevant expenditure has been incurred and the amount of the consideration can be reliably measured. In the future, the Company may elect to cease to perform research and development in Australia at which point the Company may not participate the Australian research and development tax incentive program.

 

We participate, through our wholly-owned subsidiary in the United Kingdom, in the research and development program provided by the United Kingdom tax relief program, such that a percentage of our qualifying research and development expenditures are reimbursed by the United Kingdom government, and such incentives are reflected as a reduction of research and development expense. The United Kingdom research and development tax incentive is recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the incentive will be received, the relevant expenditure has been incurred and the amount of the consideration can be reliably measured. In the future, the Company may elect to cease to perform research and development in the United Kingdom at which point the Company may not participate in the United Kingdom tax relief program.

 

Substantially all of our research and development expenses to date have been incurred in connection with our current and future product candidates. We expect our research and development expenses to increase significantly for the foreseeable future as we advance an increased number of our product candidates through clinical development, including the conduct of our planned clinical trials and manufacturing drug to be used in those clinical trials. The process of conducting clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time consuming. The successful development of product candidates is highly uncertain. At this time, we cannot reasonably estimate the nature, timing or costs required to complete the remaining development of any product candidates. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development of product candidates. 

 

The costs of clinical trials may vary significantly over the life of a project owing to, but not limited to, the following:

 

 per patient trial costs;
   
 the number of sites included in the clinical trials;
   
 the countries in which the clinical trials are conducted;
   
 the length of time required to enroll eligible patients;
   
 the number of patients that participate in the clinical trials;
   
 the number of doses that patients receive;
   
 the cost of comparative agents used in clinical trials;
   
 the drop-out or discontinuation rates of patients;

 

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 potential additional safety monitoring or other studies requested by regulatory agencies;
   
 the duration of patient follow-up;
   
 the efficacy and safety profile of the product candidate; and
   
 the cost of manufacturing, finishing, labelling and storage drug used in the clinical trial.

 

We do not expect any of our product candidates to be commercially available for at least the next several years, if ever. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future, which may fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

 

 continue research and development, including preclinical and clinical development of our existing product candidates;
   
 potentially seek regulatory approval for our product candidates;
   
 seek to discover and develop additional product candidates;
   
 establish a commercialization infrastructure and scale up our manufacturing and distribution capabilities to commercialize any of our product candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval;

 

 seek to comply with regulatory standards and laws;
   
 maintain, leverage and expand our intellectual property portfolio;
   
 hire clinical, manufacturing, scientific and other personnel to support our product candidates development and future commercialization efforts;
   
 add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel; and
   
 incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses in operating as a public company.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses consist principally of payroll and personnel expenses, including stock-based compensation; professional fees for legal, consulting, accounting and tax services; overhead, including rent and utilities; and other general operating expenses not otherwise classified as research and development expenses.

 

Other income (expense)

 

Other income primarily consists of interest income on money market accounts and foreign currency exchange gains and losses.

 

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Results of Operations

 

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 and 2020

 

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods indicated:

  

  

Three Months Ended

March 31,

    
(in thousands) 2021  2020  Change 
Revenues $4   -   4 
Operating expenses:            
Research and development $2,491  $793  $1,698 
General and administrative  2,061   1,299   762 
Total operating expenses  4,552   2,092   2,460 
Loss from operations  (4,548)  (2,092)  (2,456)
Other (expense) income  (8)  22   (30)
Net loss $(4,556) $(2,070) $(2,486)

   

Revenues

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company sold MSC’s to one third-party and recognized $4,000 of revenues. There were no revenues during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

 

General and Administrative

 

General and administrative expenses were approximately $2.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to approximately $1.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase in general and administrative expenses is largely due to higher professional fees ($0.5 million higher during the three months ended March 31, 2021) and higher stock-based compensation ($0.2 million higher during the three months ended March 31, 2021).

 

Research and Development

 

Research and development expenses were approximately $2.5 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to approximately $0.8 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020.   The increase in research and development expenses during the three months ending March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ending March 31, 2020 is largely due to additional amounts incurred related to manufacturing additional drugs and amounts incurred in connection with the Company’s COVID-19 clinical trial.

 

Other Income (Expense)

 

The Company’s other income (expense) is mainly interest earned from money market accounts and foreign exchange gains and losses.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Liquidity is the ability of a company to generate funds to support its current and future operations, satisfy its obligations and otherwise operate on an ongoing basis.

 

We incurred a net loss of $4,556,000 and $2,070,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Net cash used in operating activities was $5,092,000 and $1,035,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Since inception, we have funded our operations primarily with proceeds from the sales of our common stock. As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $45.3 million. We anticipate that operating losses and net cash used in operating activities will increase over the next few years as we advance our products under development.

 

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Our primary uses of capital are, and we expect will continue to be, third-party clinical and preclinical research and development services, compensation and related expenses, professional fees, patent and other regulatory expenses and general overhead costs. We believe our use of CROs provides us with flexibility in managing our spending.

 

The Company incurs the majority of its research and development expenses in Australia and the United Kingdom. Fluctuations in the rate of exchange between the United States dollar and the pound sterling as well as the Australian dollar could adversely affect our financial results, including our expenses as well as assets and liabilities. We currently do not hedge foreign currencies but will continue to assess whether that strategy is appropriate. As of March 31, 2021, the cash balance held by our foreign subsidiaries with currencies other than the United States dollar was approximately $0.3 million. We do not have any material financial exposure to one customer or one country that would significantly hinder our liquidity.

 

As a publicly traded company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules adopted by the SEC and The Nasdaq Stock Market, require public companies to implement specified corporate governance practices that were inapplicable to us as a private company. We expect these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly.

  

As of March 31, 2021, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $37,931,000 and working capital of $47,017,000. Losses have principally occurred as a result of stock-based compensation expense as well as the substantial resources required for research and development of the Company’s products which included the general and administrative expenses associated with its organization and product development, as well as the lack of sources of revenues until such time as the Company’s products are commercialized. As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $45.3 million. We believe our cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months following the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q based on the balance of cash available as of March 31, 2021.

   

ATM Sales Agreement

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we issued and sold 1,439,480 shares of common stock at an average price of $20.17 per share under the 2020 ATM program. The aggregate net proceeds were approximately $28.4 million after BTIG’s commission and other offering expenses.

 

During March 2021, the Company entered into the 2021 ATM program with BTIG, as sales agent, to establish an ATM offering program of up to $45 million of common stock. There have been no sales of the Company’s common stock pursuant to 2021 ATM.

 

The Lincoln Park Transaction

 

On May 15, 2019, the Company and Lincoln Park entered a purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) pursuant to which the Company had the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to $20.0 million in shares of the Company’s common stock, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company issued 196,000 shares of the Company’s common stock to Lincoln Park for gross proceeds of $1,003,000. During April 2021, the Company terminated the Purchase Agreement.

 

Grants

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company was awarded a $500,000 grant from the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association (“ALS”) to fund a study of the efficacy of XPro1595 to reverse ALS in vitro and to fund a study of the efficacy of XPro1595 to protect against ALS model phenotypes in vivo. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company received $100,000 and $300,000, respectively, of cash proceeds pursuant to this grant which the Company recorded within deferred liabilities. The Company records costs incurred related to the ALS study as a reduction of deferred liabilities. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company recorded $222,000 and $122,000, respectively, as deferred liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets related to the ALS grant.

 

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Cash Flows

 

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

  

Three Months Ended

March 31,

 
(in thousands) 2021  2020 
Net cash and cash equivalents (used in) provided by:      
Operating activities $(5,092) $(1,035)
Financing activities  28,464   (9)
Change in cash and cash equivalents  23,372   (1,044)
Impact on cash from foreign currency translation  1   (21)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period  21,967   6,996 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period $45,340  $5,931 

  

Operating Activities

 

Our cash used in operating activities was primarily driven by our net loss.

 

Operating activities used approximately $5.1 million of cash during the three months ended March 31, 2021, resulting from our loss of $4.6 million and changes in our net operating assets and liabilities of $1.4 million, partially offset by non-cash stock-based compensation of $0.9 million. The change in our net operating assets and liabilities was mainly due to an increase in prepaid expenses of approximately $1.3 million, and an increase in research and development tax credit receivable of $0.5 million, partially offset by an increase in deferred liabilities of approximately $0.4 million.

 

Operating activities used approximately $1.0 million of cash for the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily resulting from our net loss of approximately $2.1 million, a net cash inflow of approximately $0.4 million for changes in our net operating assets and liabilities, and non-cash stock-based compensation charges of approximately $0.7 million. The change in our net operating assets and liabilities was primarily driven by an increase in accounts payable and accrued liabilities of approximately $0.3 million and an increase in deferred grant of $0.3 million, partially offset by an increase in prepaid expenses of approximately $0.2 million, and an increase in research and development tax credit receivable of approximately $0.1 million.

  

Financing Activities

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company sold 1,439,480 shares of its common stock under its 2020 ATM program for net proceeds of approximately $28.4 million.

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company purchased 220,000 shares from an investor for approximately $1.0 million. In addition, the Company sold 196,000 shares of its common stock to Lincoln Park for cash proceeds of approximately $1.0 million.

 

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Critical Accounting Policies

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our unaudited consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Our critical accounting policies and estimates are discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 and there have been no material changes during the three months ended March 31, 2021.

   

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

Pursuant to Item 305(e) of Regulation S-K (§ 229.305(e)), the Company is not required to provide the information required by this Item as it is a “smaller reporting company,” as defined by Rule 229.10(f)(1). 

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) at the end of the period covered by this quarterly report.

 

Based on this evaluation, we concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that the information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

We recognize that any controls system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving its objectives, and our management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.

 

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the period covered by this quarterly report that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act).

 

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PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

We are not currently a party to any pending legal proceedings that we believe will have a material adverse effect on our business or financial conditions. We may, however, be subject to various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business from time to time.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

Not required for smaller reporting companies.

 

Item 2. Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities

 

None.

 

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 5. Other Information

 

Not applicable.

  

Item 6. Exhibits

 

No. Description 
31.1 Rule 13a-14(a)/ 15d-14(a) Certification of Chief Executive Officer*
   
31.2 Rule 13a-14(a)/ 15d-14(a) Certification of Chief Financial Officer*
   
32.1 Section 1350 Certification of Chief Executive Officer**
   
32.2 Section 1350 Certification of Chief Financial Officer**
   
101.INS XBRL Instance Document
101.SCH XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema
101.CAL XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase
101.DEF XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase
101.LAB XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase
101.PRE XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase

 

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SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

  

 INmune Bio Inc.
   
Date: May 5, 2021By:/s/ Raymond J. Tesi
  Raymond J. Tesi
  Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)

 

Date: May 5, 2021By:/s/ David J. Moss
  David J. Moss
  

Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer, Secretary

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

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