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DNLI Denali Therapeutics

Filed: 4 Nov 21, 4:07pm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-38311
Denali Therapeutics Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware46-3872213
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
161 Oyster Point Blvd.
South San Francisco, CA, 94080
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(650) 866-8548
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
_______________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareDNLINASDAQ Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock as of October 29, 2021 was 122,125,581.




TABLE OF CONTENTS


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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Denali Therapeutics Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share amounts)

September 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$394,553 $507,144 
Short-term marketable securities644,622 962,553 
Cost sharing reimbursements due from related party1,194 5,674 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets15,140 20,284 
Total current assets1,055,509 1,495,655 
Long-term marketable securities319,472 32,699 
Property and equipment, net40,012 40,846 
Operating lease right-of-use asset31,196 32,618 
Other non-current assets3,777 2,462 
Total assets$1,449,966 $1,604,280 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$4,817 $1,071 
Accrued compensation10,534 20,503 
Accrued manufacturing costs13,142 7,140 
Accrued clinical and other research & development costs13,380 11,775 
Other accrued costs and current liabilities2,364 3,037 
Operating lease liability, current5,252 4,690 
Related party contract liability, current3,438 3,569 
Contract liabilities, current1,324 19,914 
Total current liabilities54,251 71,699 
Related party contract liability, less current portion291,434 293,849 
Contract liabilities, less current portion31,313 23,325 
Operating lease liability, less current portion59,990 64,175 
Other non-current liabilities701 701 
Total liabilities437,689 453,749 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 7)00
Stockholders' equity:
Convertible preferred stock, $0.01 par value; 40,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 0 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020— — 
Common stock, $0.01 par value; 400,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 122,011,151 shares and 120,531,333 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively1,545 1,531 
Additional paid-in capital1,580,988 1,503,660 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(521)(245)
Accumulated deficit(569,735)(354,415)
Total stockholders' equity1,012,277 1,150,531 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,449,966 $1,604,280 
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Denali Therapeutics Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021202020212020
Collaboration revenue:
Collaboration revenue from customers(1)
$5,285 $9,388 $36,143 $18,751 
Other collaboration revenue— 93 
Total collaboration revenue5,285 9,393 36,147 18,844 
Operating expenses:
Research and development(2)
71,559 53,704 197,477 157,872 
General and administrative19,319 15,805 57,300 42,332 
Total operating expenses90,878 69,509 254,777 200,204 
Loss from operations(85,593)(60,116)(218,630)(181,360)
Interest and other income, net1,005 1,944 3,310 7,611 
Loss before income taxes(84,588)(58,172)(215,320)(173,749)
Income tax expense— (56)— — 
Net loss(84,588)(58,228)(215,320)(173,749)
Other comprehensive loss:
Net unrealized loss on marketable securities, net of tax(153)(540)(276)(339)
Comprehensive loss$(84,741)$(58,768)$(215,596)$(174,088)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.69)$(0.54)$(1.77)$(1.65)
Weighted average number of shares outstanding, basic and diluted121,742,067107,490,702121,309,197105,217,770
__________________________________________________
(1)Includes related party collaboration revenue from a customer of $0.9 million and $2.5 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively.
(2)Includes an offset to expense from related party cost reimbursement of $1.2 million and $5.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively.

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 

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Denali Therapeutics Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share amounts)    
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Accumulated DeficitTotal Stockholders' Equity
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2020120,531,333 $1,531 $1,503,660 $(245)$(354,415)$1,150,531 
Issuances under equity incentive plans880,560 14,172 — — 14,180 
Vesting of restricted stock units599,258 (6)— — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 63,162 — — 63,162 
Net loss— — — — (215,320)(215,320)
Other comprehensive loss— — — (276)— (276)
Balance at September 30, 2021122,011,151 $1,545 $1,580,988 $(521)$(569,735)$1,012,277 
Balance at June 30, 2021121,531,952 $1,541 $1,556,679 $(368)$(485,147)$1,072,705 
Issuances under equity incentive plans228,048 3,313 — — 3,315 
Vesting of restricted stock units251,151 (2)— — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 20,998 — — 20,998 
Net loss— — — — (84,588)(84,588)
Other comprehensive loss— — — (153)— (153)
Balance at September 30, 2021122,011,151 $1,545 $1,580,988 $(521)$(569,735)$1,012,277 
Balance at December 31, 201996,189,935 $1,288 $818,803 $350 $(425,551)$394,890 
Issuance of common stock upon public offering, net of issuance costs of $6329,000,000 90 193,858 — — 193,948 
Issuance of common stock in connection with the Biogen Stock Purchase Agreement13,310,243 133 420,013 — — 420,146 
Issuances under equity incentive plans1,001,905 10 11,123 — — 11,133 
Vesting of restricted stock units293,133 (3)— — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 36,521 — — 36,521 
Net loss— — — — (173,749)(173,749)
Other comprehensive loss— — — (339)— (339)
Balance at September 30, 2020119,795,216 $1,524 $1,480,315 $11 $(599,300)$882,550 
Balance at June 30, 2020105,897,872 $1,385 $1,041,303 $551 $(541,072)$502,167 
Issuance of common stock in connection with the Biogen Stock Purchase Agreement13,310,243 133 420,013 — — 420,146 
Issuances under equity incentive plans412,389 5,749 — — 5,753 
Vesting of restricted stock units174,712 (2)— — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 13,252 — — 13,252 
Net loss— — — — (58,228)(58,228)
Other comprehensive loss— — — (540)— (540)
Balance at September 30, 2020119,795,216 $1,524 $1,480,315 $11 $(599,300)$882,550 
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Denali Therapeutics Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
(In thousands)
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
20212020
Operating activities
Net loss$(215,320)$(173,749)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization6,499 6,410 
Stock–based compensation expense63,162 36,521 
Net amortization of premiums (discounts) on marketable securities6,316 (1,074)
Non-cash adjustment to operating lease expense(2,201)(1,669)
Other non-cash items— 18 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Prepaid expenses and other assets8,049 3,819 
Accounts payable3,783 147 
Accruals and other current liabilities(3,036)4,880 
Contract liabilities(10,601)(17,920)
Related party contract liability(2,546)44,854 
Net cash used in operating activities(145,895)(97,763)
Investing activities
Purchases of marketable securities(1,191,491)(687,523)
Purchases of property and equipment(5,447)(1,900)
Maturities and sales of marketable securities1,216,062 433,557 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities19,124 (255,866)
Financing activities
Proceeds from issuance of common stock in connection with Collaboration Agreements— 420,146 
Proceeds from public offering of common stock, net of issuance costs— 193,948 
Proceeds from exercise of awards under equity incentive plans14,180 11,133 
Net cash provided by financing activities14,180 625,227 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(112,591)271,598 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period508,644 80,949 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$396,053 $352,547 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Property and equipment purchases accrued but not yet paid$29 $32 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Denali Therapeutics Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
1.    Significant Accounting Policies
Organization and Description of Business

Denali Therapeutics Inc. ("Denali" or the “Company”) is a biopharmaceutical company, incorporated in Delaware, that discovers and develops therapeutics to defeat neurodegenerative diseases. The Company is headquartered in South San Francisco, California.
Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of SEC Regulation S-X for interim financial information.

These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 26, 2021 (the "2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K"). The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2020 was derived from the audited annual consolidated financial statements as of and for the period then ended. Certain information and footnote disclosures typically included in the Company's annual consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments that, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair statement of the results of the interim periods presented. All such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature except for the impacts of adopting new accounting standards, if any, discussed below. These interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for the full fiscal year or for any subsequent interim period.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, except as discussed below in the section titled "Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncement," there were no material changes to the Company's significant accounting and financial reporting policies from those reflected in the 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. For further information with regard to the Company’s Significant Accounting Policies, please refer to Note 1, "Significant Accounting Policies," to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements included in the 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Principles of Consolidation

These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. For the Company and its subsidiaries, the functional currency has been determined to be U.S. dollars. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are remeasured at period-end exchange rates. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are remeasured at historical rates. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses resulting from remeasurement are recognized in interest and other income, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
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Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
Reclassifications

Certain amounts in prior period financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. Such reclassifications have not materially affected previously reported amounts.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and forward foreign currency exchange contracts. Substantially all of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited in accounts with financial institutions that management believes are of high credit quality. Such deposits have and will continue to exceed federally insured limits. The Company maintains its cash with accredited financial institutions and accordingly, such funds are subject to minimal credit risk.

The Company’s investment policy limits investments to certain types of securities issued by the U.S. government, its agencies and institutions with investment-grade credit ratings and places restrictions on maturities and concentration by type and issuer. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of a default by the financial institutions holding its cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and issuers of marketable securities to the extent recorded on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had no off balance sheet concentrations of credit risk.

The Company is exposed to counterparty credit risk on all of its derivative financial instruments. The Company has established and maintains strict counterparty credit guidelines and enters into hedges only with financial institutions that are investment grade or better to minimize the Company’s exposure to potential defaults. The Company does not require collateral to be pledged under these agreements.

The Company is subject to a number of risks similar to other early-stage biopharmaceutical companies, including, but not limited to, the need to obtain adequate additional funding, possible failure of current or future preclinical testing or clinical trials, its reliance on third parties to conduct its clinical trials, the need to obtain regulatory and marketing approvals for its product candidates, competitors developing new technological innovations, the need to successfully commercialize and gain market acceptance of the Company’s product candidates, its right to develop and commercialize its product candidates pursuant to the terms and conditions of the licenses granted to the Company, protection of proprietary technology, the ability to make milestone, royalty or other payments due under any license or collaboration agreements, and the need to secure and maintain adequate manufacturing arrangements with third parties. If the Company does not successfully commercialize or partner any of its product candidates, it will be unable to generate product revenue or achieve profitability.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused increased risk and uncertainty for the Company. Credit risk associated with investments in securities may increase if any institution with which the Company has an investment is significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. As of September 30, 2021, the Company has not realized any losses on its cash deposits or investments. COVID-19 may impact the timelines and progress of the Company's preclinical activities and clinical trials, and may impact its ability to raise capital in the near term.
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Segments

The Company has 1 operating segment. The Company’s chief operating decision maker, its Chief Executive Officer, manages the Company’s operations on a consolidated basis for the purposes of allocating resources.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase to be cash and cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are reported at fair value.

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows is composed of Cash and Cash equivalents reported in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and $1.5 million of restricted cash for the letter of credit for the Company’s headquarters building lease, which is included within other non-current assets in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Marketable Securities

The Company generally invests its excess cash in money market funds and investment grade short to intermediate-term fixed income securities. Such investments are included in cash and cash equivalents, short-term marketable securities, or long-term marketable securities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, are considered available-for-sale, and reported at fair value with net unrealized gains and losses included as a component of stockholders’ equity.

The Company classifies investments in securities with remaining maturities of less than one year, or where its intent is to use the investments to fund current operations or to make them available for current operations, as short-term investments. The Company classifies investments in securities with remaining maturities of over one year as long-term investments. The amortized cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity, which is included in interest and other income, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. Realized gains and losses and declines in value determined to be due to credit losses on marketable securities, if any, are included in interest and other income, net.

The Company periodically evaluates the need for an allowance for credit losses. This evaluation includes consideration of several qualitative and quantitative factors, including whether it has plans to sell the security, whether it is more likely than not it will be required to sell any marketable securities before recovery of its amortized cost basis, and if the entity has the ability and intent to hold the security to maturity, and the portion of any unrealized loss that is the result of a credit loss. Factors considered in making these evaluations include quoted market prices, recent financial results and operating trends, implied values from any recent transactions or offers of investee securities, credit quality of debt instrument issuers, expected cash flows from securities, other publicly available information that may affect the value of the marketable security, duration and severity of the decline in value, and the Company's strategy and intentions for holding the marketable security.
Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable are included within prepaid expenses and other current assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The accounts receivable balance represents amounts receivable from the Company's collaboration partners, excluding related parties, net of an allowance for credit losses, if required.
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Derivatives and Hedging Activities
The Company measures its derivative instruments at fair value, and accounts for them as either assets or liabilities included within Prepaid expenses and other current assets and Other accruals and other current liabilities, respectively, on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Derivatives are adjusted to fair value through interest and other income, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
Leases

The Company leases real estate, and certain equipment for use in its operations. A determination is made as to whether an arrangement is a lease at inception. A right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and operating lease liability is recognized for identified operating leases in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The changes in operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are presented net within non-cash adjustment to operating lease expense in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments due over the lease term, with the ROU assets adjusted for lease incentives received. When determining the present value of lease payments, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate on the date of lease commencement, or the rate implicit in the lease, if known. The Company does not assume renewals in its determination of the lease term unless the renewals are deemed by management to be reasonably certain at lease inception.

Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet, unless they include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise. The Company recognizes lease expenses on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has leases with lease and non-lease components, which the Company has elected to account for as a single lease component.
Revenue Recognition

License and Collaboration Revenue

The Company analyzes its collaboration arrangements to assess whether they are within the scope of ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements (“ASC 808”) to determine whether such arrangements involve joint operating activities performed by parties that are both active participants in the activities and exposed to significant risks and rewards dependent on the commercial success of such activities. This assessment is performed throughout the life of the arrangement based on changes in the responsibilities of all parties in the arrangement. For collaboration arrangements within the scope of ASC 808 that contain multiple elements, the Company first determines which elements of the collaboration are deemed to be within the scope of ASC 808 and those that are more reflective of a vendor-customer relationship and, therefore, within the scope of Topic 606. For elements of collaboration arrangements that are accounted for pursuant to ASC 808, an appropriate recognition method is determined and applied consistently, generally by analogy to Topic 606. The accounting treatment pursuant to Topic 606 is outlined below.
10

The terms of licensing and collaboration agreements entered into typically include payment of one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; payments for manufacturing supply and research and development services and royalties on net sales of licensed products. Each of these payments results in license, collaboration and other revenue, except for revenues from royalties on net sales of licensed products, which are classified as royalty revenue. The core principle of Topic 606 is to recognize revenue when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. The Company may also receive reimbursement or make payments to a collaboration partner to satisfy cost sharing requirements. These payments are accounted for pursuant to ASC 808 and are recorded as an offset or increase to research and development expenses, respectively.

In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as the Company fulfills its obligations under each of its agreements, the Company performs the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated selling prices; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.

Amounts received prior to satisfying the revenue recognition criteria are recorded as contract liabilities in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. If the related performance obligation is expected to be satisfied within the next twelve months this will be classified in current liabilities. Amounts recognized as revenue prior to the Company having an unconditional right (other than a right that is conditioned only on the passage of time) to receipt are recorded as contract assets in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. If the Company expects to have an unconditional right to receive the consideration in the next twelve months, this will be classified in current assets. A net contract asset or liability is presented for each contract with a customer.

At contract inception, the Company assesses the goods or services promised in a contract with a customer and identifies those distinct goods and services that represent a performance obligation. A promised good or service may not be identified as a performance obligation if it is immaterial in the context of the contract with the customer, if it is not separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (either because it is not capable of being separated or because it is not separable in the context of the contract), or if the promised good or service does not provide the customer with a material right.

The Company considers the terms of the contract to determine the transaction price. The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer. The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. Variable consideration will only be included in the transaction price when it is not considered constrained, which is when it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur.

If it is determined that multiple performance obligations exist, the transaction price is allocated at the inception of the agreement to all identified performance obligations based on the relative standalone selling prices ("SSP"). The relative SSP for each deliverable is estimated using external sourced evidence if it is available. If external sourced evidence is not available, the Company uses its best estimate of the SSP for the deliverable.

Revenue is recognized when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service to a customer. An asset is transferred when, or as, the customer obtains control of that asset, which for a service is considered to be as the services are received and used. The Company recognizes revenue over time by measuring the progress toward complete satisfaction of the relevant performance obligation using an appropriate input or output method based on the nature of the service promised to the customer.
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After contract inception, the transaction price is reassessed at every period end and updated for changes such as resolution of uncertain events. Any change in the transaction price is allocated to the performance obligations on the same basis as at contract inception, or to a single performance obligation as applicable.

Management may be required to exercise considerable judgment in estimating revenue to be recognized. Judgment is required in identifying performance obligations, estimating the transaction price, estimating the SSP of identified performance obligations, which may include forecasted revenue, development timelines, reimbursement rates for personnel costs, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success, and estimating the progress towards satisfaction of performance obligations.
Comprehensive Loss

Comprehensive loss is composed of net loss and certain changes in stockholders’ equity that are excluded from net loss, primarily unrealized gains or losses on the Company’s marketable securities.
Net Loss per Share

Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share, since the effects of potentially dilutive securities are antidilutive given the net loss for each period presented.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncement

In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740) Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. ASU No. 2019-12 modifies ASC 740 to simplify several aspects of accounting for income taxes, including eliminating certain exceptions to the guidance in ASC 740 related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020 and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted, and is required to be adopted prospectively, with the exception of certain specific amendments, which were not applicable to the Company. The Company adopted this standard as of January 1, 2021 using a prospective approach. Adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on its Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
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2.    Fair Value Measurements
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value at each balance sheet date are as follows (in thousands):
September 30, 2021
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets:
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$350,803 $— $— $350,803 
U.S. government treasuries24,998 — — 24,998 
Short-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries472,214 — — 472,214 
U.S. government agency securities— 15,003 — 15,003 
Corporate debt securities— 61,182 — 61,182 
Commercial paper— 96,223 — 96,223 
Long-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries299,069 — — 299,069 
Corporate debt securities— 20,403 — 20,403 
Total$1,147,084 $192,811 $— $1,339,895 
Liabilities:
Foreign currency derivative contracts$— $201 $— $201 
Total$— $201 $— $201 
December 31, 2020
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets:
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$335,284 $— $— $335,284 
U.S. government treasuries149,997 — — 149,997 
Short-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries878,938 — — 878,938 
U.S. government agency securities— 25,217 — 25,217 
Corporate debt securities— 27,180 — 27,180 
Commercial paper— 31,218 — 31,218 
Long-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries2,561 — — 2,561 
Corporate debt securities— 30,138 — 30,138 
Foreign currency derivative contracts— 185 — 185 
Total$1,366,780 $113,938 $— $1,480,718 
Liabilities:
Foreign currency derivative contracts$— $11 $— $11 
Total$— $11 $— $11 
The carrying amounts of cost sharing reimbursements due from related party, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities.

The Company’s Level 2 securities are valued using third-party pricing sources. The pricing services utilize industry standard valuation models, including both income and market-based approaches, for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
The company has not transferred any assets or liabilities between the fair value measurement levels.
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3.    Marketable Securities
All marketable securities were considered available-for-sale at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020. On a recurring basis, the Company records its marketable securities at fair value using Level 1 or Level 2 inputs as discussed in Note 2, "Fair Value Measurements". The amortized cost, gross unrealized holding gains or losses, and fair value of the Company’s marketable securities by major security type at each balance sheet date are summarized in the tables below (in thousands):
September 30, 2021
Amortized CostUnrealized Holding GainsUnrealized Holding LossesAggregate Fair Value
Short-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries(1)
$472,214 $13 $(13)$472,214 
U.S. government agency securities15,003 — — 15,003 
Corporate debt securities(2)
61,187 (10)61,182 
Commercial paper96,223 — — 96,223 
Total short-term marketable securities644,627 18 (23)644,622 
Long-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries(3)
299,225 17 (173)299,069 
Corporate debt securities(4)
20,413 (12)20,403 
Total long-term marketable securities319,638 19 (185)319,472 
Total$964,265 $37 $(208)$964,094 
__________________________________________________
(1)Unrealized holding losses on 7 securities with an aggregate fair value of $271.8 million.
(2)Unrealized holding losses on 8 securities with an aggregate fair value of $27.8 million.
(3)Unrealized holding losses on 11 securities with an aggregate fair value of $251.5 million.
(4)Unrealized holding losses on 5 securities with an aggregate fair value of $16.8 million.

December 31, 2020
Amortized CostUnrealized Holding GainsUnrealized Holding LossesAggregate Fair Value
Short-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries(1)
$878,906 $44 $(12)$878,938 
U.S. government agency securities(2)
25,214 (2)25,217 
Corporate debt securities27,101 79 — 27,180 
Commercial paper31,218 — — 31,218 
Total short-term marketable securities962,439 128 (14)962,553 
Long-term marketable securities:
U.S. government treasuries2,561 — — 2,561 
Corporate debt securities(3)
30,147 (11)30,138 
Total long-term marketable securities32,708 (11)32,699 
Total$995,147 $130 $(25)$995,252 
__________________________________________________
(1)Unrealized holding losses on 19 securities with an aggregate fair value of $369.9 million.
(2)Unrealized holding losses on 2 securities with an aggregate fair value of $10.1 million.
(3)Unrealized holding losses on 1 security with an aggregate fair value of $20.1 million.

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As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, some of the Company's marketable securities were in an unrealized loss position. The Company has not recognized an allowance for credit losses as of September 30, 2021 or December 31, 2020. The Company determined that it had the ability and intent to hold all marketable securities that have been in a continuous loss position until maturity or recovery. Further, these marketable securities were initially, and continue to be, held with investment grade, high credit quality institutions. All marketable securities with unrealized losses as of each balance sheet date have been in a loss position for less than twelve months or the loss is not material.

All of the Company’s marketable securities have an effective maturity of less than two years.
4.    Derivative Financial Instruments
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Exposure

The Company uses forward foreign currency exchange contracts to hedge certain operational exposures resulting from potential changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Such exposures result from portions of the Company’s forecasted cash flows being denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, primarily the Euro and British Pound. The derivative instruments the Company uses to hedge this exposure are not designated as cash flow hedges, and as a result, changes in their fair value are recorded in interest and other income, net, on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.

The fair values of forward foreign currency exchange contracts are estimated using current exchange rates and interest rates and take into consideration the current creditworthiness of the counterparties. Information regarding the specific instruments used by the Company to hedge its exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations is provided below.
The following table summarizes the Company’s forward foreign currency exchange contracts outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively (notional amounts in thousands):
Foreign Exchange ContractsNumber of Contracts
Aggregate Notional(1) Amount in Foreign Currency
Maturity
Euros12 1,700 Oct 2021 - Jun 2022
British Pounds11 1,725 Oct 2021 - Jun 2022
Total at September 30, 202123 
Euros26 3,855 Jan 2021 - Nov 2021
British Pounds21 2,658 Jan 2021 - Nov 2021
Total at December 31, 202047 
_________________________________________________
(1) The notional amount represents the net amount of foreign currency that will be received upon maturity of the forward contracts.
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5.    Collaboration Agreements
Biogen

On August 5, 2020, the Company entered into a binding Provisional Collaboration and License Agreement (“Provisional Biogen Collaboration Agreement”) with Biogen Inc.’s subsidiaries, Biogen MA Inc. (“BIMA”) and Biogen International GmbH (“BIG”) (BIMA and BIG, collectively, “Biogen”), which expired in October 2020 upon the execution of a Definitive LRRK2 Collaboration and License Agreement (“LRRK2 Agreement”) with Biogen on October 4, 2020 and a Right of First Negotiation, Option and License Agreement (the “ROFN and Option Agreement”) on October 6, 2020 (collectively, the "Biogen Collaboration Agreement"). The details of the Provisional Biogen Collaboration Agreement and the Biogen Collaboration Agreement and the payments the Company has received, and is entitled to receive, are further described in Note 6, Collaboration Agreements, to the consolidated financial statements in the Company's 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. During the third quarter of 2021, there were no changes to the terms of the Company’s collaboration agreement with Biogen, and no change in the transaction price for the Biogen Collaboration Agreement has been recorded during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
A related party contract liability of $294.9 million was recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2021. Approximately $288.9 million of this contract liability relates to the revenue allocated to the material right for an option under the ROFN and Option Agreement which is being deferred until resolution of the option, which is expected to be at least a year from the balance sheet date, and $6.0 million of this contract liability relates to the portion of the Option Research Services performance obligation yet to be satisfied, with such amount to be recognized over the estimated period of the services, which is expected to be several years. The Company recorded $1.2 million and $5.3 million of cost sharing reimbursements for LRRK2 Development Activities as an offset to research and development expenses in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively. The Company recorded cost sharing reimbursements due from related party on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 of $1.2 million and $5.7 million, respectively.

As of September 30, 2021, the Company had not achieved any milestones or recorded any product sales under the Biogen Collaboration Agreement.
Sanofi

In October 2018, the Company entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement ("Sanofi Collaboration Agreement") with Genzyme Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sanofi S.A. ("Sanofi"). The details of the Sanofi Collaboration Agreement and the payments the Company has received, and is entitled to receive, are further described in Note 6, Collaboration Agreements, to the consolidated financial statements in the Company's 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. During the third quarter of 2021, there were no changes to the terms of the Company’s collaboration agreement with Sanofi.

The transaction price of the Sanofi Collaboration Agreement did not change in the three months ended September 30, 2021, and increased by $15.0 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2021. This increase related to the $15.0 million milestone triggered in June 2021 upon first patient in a Phase 2 study of DNL758 (SAR443122) in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus. The transaction price increased by $0.1 million and $0.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, related to costs incurred for Retained Activities that were no longer constrained.

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A contract liability of $3.4 million was recorded on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of both September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020. This contract liability relates to the portion of the Alzheimer's Disease Services performance obligation yet to be satisfied, with such amounts to be recognized over the estimated period of the services, which is expected to be several years. The Company recorded no receivable and a receivable of $44,303 associated with the Sanofi Collaboration Agreement on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

Through September 30, 2021, the Company has earned milestone payments of $25.0 million, and the Company has not recorded any product sales under the Sanofi Collaboration Agreement.
Takeda

In January 2018, the Company entered into a Collaboration and Option Agreement ("Takeda Collaboration Agreement") with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited ("Takeda"). The details of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement and the payments the Company has received, and is entitled to receive, are further described in Note 6, Collaboration Agreements, to the consolidated financial statements in the Company's 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. During the third quarter of 2021, there were no changes to the terms of the Company’s collaboration agreement with Takeda, and no change in the transaction price for the Takeda Collaboration Agreement has been recorded during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.

Revenue is recognized under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement when, or as, the Company satisfies its performance obligations by transferring the promised services to Takeda. Revenue is being recognized over time using the input method, based on costs incurred to perform the research services, since the level of costs incurred over time is thought to best reflect the transfer of services to Takeda. There were no material changes in estimates during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 or September 30, 2020.

A contract liability of $29.2 million and $39.8 million was recorded on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. This contract liability relates to the 3 performance obligations identified, with such amounts to be recognized over the estimated period of the pre-IND research services, which is expected to be up to several years. There was no receivable as of September 30, 2021 and a receivable of $8.0 million for a preclinical milestone as of December 31, 2020.

Through September 30, 2021, the Company has earned $31.0 million in preclinical milestone payments from Takeda, and has not recorded any product sales under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement.
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Collaboration Revenue
Revenue disaggregated by collaboration agreement and performance obligation is as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021202020212020
Takeda Collaboration Agreement(1)
$4,425 $9,271 $18,597 $17,826 
Sanofi Collaboration Agreement
Peripheral Program License— — 15,000 — 
   Retained Activities— 117 — 925 
   Alzheimer's Disease Services(2)
— 93 
Total Sanofi Collaboration Revenue— 122 15,004 1,018 
Biogen Collaboration Agreement
Option Research Services(2)
860 — 2,546 — 
Total Biogen Collaboration Revenue$860 $— $2,546 $— 
Total Collaboration Revenue$5,285 $9,393 $36,147 $18,844 
_________________________________________________
(1)$15.6 million of revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 was included in the contract liability balance at the beginning of the period. All revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 was included in the contract liability balance at the beginning of the period.
(2)Revenue for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and September 30, 2020, where applicable, represent amounts that were included in the contract liability balance at the beginning of the respective period.
6.     License Agreements
Genentech
In June 2016, the Company entered into an Exclusive License Agreement with Genentech, Inc. (“Genentech”). The details of the Genentech License Agreement are further described in Note 7, License Agreements, to the consolidated financial statements in the Company's 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. No expenses were recorded associated with the Genentech License Agreement in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 or 2020.
7.    Commitments and Contingencies
Lease Obligations
In May 2018, the Company entered into an operating lease for its corporate headquarters in South San Francisco (the "Headquarters Lease"). The details of the Headquarters Lease are further described in Note 9, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements in the Company's 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. During the third quarter of 2021, there were no changes to the terms of the Headquarters Lease.
In August 2021, the Company entered into an operating lease for approximately 50,000 square feet of laboratory, office and warehouse premises in Salt Lake City, Utah (“SLC Lease”), with a contractual term of approximately 8.4 years which will commence upon completion of certain improvements by the landlord and the Company, and future undiscounted lease payments totaling approximately $12.5 million. For accounting purposes, the lease has not yet commenced as the landlord has not yet made the underlying asset available for use by Denali, and as such, no lease liability or ROU asset is recorded on the condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2021, and no operating lease expense has been recorded for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
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Management exercised judgment in applying the requirements of ASC 842, including the determination as to whether certain contracts contain a lease and for the headquarters lease, the discount rate used to determine the measurement of the lease liability. The discount rate of our headquarters lease is an approximation of the Company's incremental borrowing rate and is dependent upon the term and economics of the agreement. To estimate the incremental borrowing rate, management considered observable debt yields of comparable market instruments, as well as benchmarks within the headquarters lease agreement that may be indicative of the rate implicit in the lease.
The following table contains a summary of the lease costs recognized under ASC 842 and other information pertaining to the Company’s operating leases for the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021202020212020
Operating lease cost (1)
$2,863 $2,833 $8,429 $8,341 
Cash paid for amounts included in measurement of lease liability$2,618 $2,536 $7,717 $7,202 
As of September 30,
20212020
Weighted average remaining lease term7.6 years8.6 years
Weighted average discount rate%%
__________________________________________________
(1)Including variable and short-term lease costs
The following table reconciles the undiscounted cash flows for the next five years and total of the remaining years to the operating lease liability recorded in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2021 (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31:
2021 (three months)$2,618 
202210,702 
202311,053 
202411,417 
202511,793 
Thereafter42,148 
Total undiscounted lease payments89,731 
Present value adjustment(24,489)
Net operating lease liabilities$65,242 
Sublease
In October 2018, the Company entered into a sublease agreement ("Sublease Agreement") for space in the corporate headquarters. The details of the Sublease Agreement are further described in Note 9, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements in the Company's 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. During the third quarter of 2021, there were no changes to the terms of the Sublease Agreement. Total sublease income, including rent and variable sublease cost reimbursements, was $1.0 million and $0.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $2.9 million and $2.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
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The following table details the future undiscounted cash inflows relating to the Sublease Agreement as of September 30, 2021 (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31:
2021 (three months)$737 
20223,009 
20233,096 
2024876 
Total undiscounted sublease receipts$7,718 
Indemnification
In the ordinary course of business, the Company may provide indemnifications of varying scope and terms to vendors, lessors, business partners, board members, officers, and other parties with respect to certain matters, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of breach of such agreements, services to be provided by the Company, negligence or willful misconduct of the Company, violations of law by the Company, or from intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties. In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with directors and certain officers and employees that will require the Company, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors, officers or employees. No demands have been made upon the Company to provide indemnification under such agreements, and thus, there are no claims that the Company is aware of that could have a material effect on the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss, or Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Commitments
Effective September 2017, the Company entered into a Development and Manufacturing Services Agreement as amended (“DMSA”) with Lonza Sales AG (“Lonza”) for the development and manufacture of biologic products. Under the DMSA, the Company will execute purchase orders based on project plans authorizing Lonza to provide development and manufacturing services with respect to certain of the Company's antibody and enzyme products, and will pay for the services provided and batches delivered in accordance with the DMSA and project plan. Unless earlier terminated, the DMSA will expire on September 6, 2022.
As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had open purchase orders for biological product development and manufacturing costs totaling $42.0 million and $33.0 million, respectively. The activities under these purchase orders are expected to be completed by July 2027. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had total non-cancellable purchase commitments under the DMSA of $27.6 million and $27.1 million, respectively, under the DMSA.
During the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company incurred costs of $5.8 million and $1.4 million, respectively, and made payments of $4.0 million and $0.8 million, respectively, for the development and manufacturing services rendered under the DMSA. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company incurred costs of $14.2 million and $6.2 million, respectively, and made payments of $10.4 million and $6.0 million, respectively, for the development and manufacturing services rendered under the DMSA.
Contingencies
From time to time, the Company may be involved in lawsuits, arbitration, claims, investigations and proceedings consisting of intellectual property, employment and other matters which arise in the ordinary course of business. The Company records accruals for loss contingencies to the extent that the Company concludes that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the related loss can be reasonably estimated.
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8.    Stock-Based Awards
The Company has issued stock-based awards from various equity incentive and stock purchase plans, as more fully described in Note 10, "Stock-Based Awards" to the consolidated financial statements in the Company's 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Stock Option Activity
The following table summarizes stock option activity for the nine months ended September 30, 2021:
Number of Options
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price
Balance at December 31, 202012,959,926 $16.31 
Granted1,944,717 73.31 
Exercised(831,207)14.27 
Forfeited(259,060)34.89 
Balance at September 30, 202113,814,376 $24.11 
Vested and expected to vest at September 30, 202112,078,689 $27.48 
Exercisable at September 30, 20217,856,046 $15.22 

The estimated fair value of stock options granted to employees were calculated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model using the following assumptions:

Nine Months Ended September 30,
20212020
Expected term (in years)5.50 - 6.085.50 - 6.08
Volatility62.2% - 63.7%65.2% - 67.1%
Risk-free interest rate0.5% - 1.2%0.3% - 1.7%
Dividend yield
Restricted Stock Activity
The following table summarizes restricted stock unit ("RSU") activity for the nine months ended September 30, 2021:
Number of RSU sharesWeighted-Average Fair Value at Date of Grant per Share
Unvested at December 31, 20202,301,679 $27.08 
Granted1,046,259 69.50 
Vested and released(599,258)25.63 
Forfeited(126,827)60.92 
Unvested at September 30, 20212,621,853 $43.83 
Expected to vest at September 30, 20212,621,853 $43.83 

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Stock-Based Compensation Expense
The Company’s results of operations include expenses relating to stock-based compensation as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021202020212020
Research and development$12,174 $7,781 $36,997 $20,981 
General and administrative8,824 5,471 26,165 15,540 
Total$20,998 $13,252 $63,162 $36,521 
9.    Net Loss Per Share
Since the Company was in a loss position for all periods presented, basic net loss per share is the same as diluted net loss per share for all periods as the inclusion of all potential shares of common stock outstanding would have been anti-dilutive.

Potentially dilutive securities that were not included in the diluted per share calculations because they would be anti-dilutive were as follows:
Three and Nine Months Ended September 30,
20212020
Options issued and outstanding and ESPP shares issuable13,877,115 13,680,889 
Restricted shares subject to future vesting2,621,853 2,269,897 
Total16,498,968 15,950,786 
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ITEM 2.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion and analysis and other parts of this report contain forward-looking statements based upon current beliefs, plans and expectations related to future events and our future financial performance that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, such as statements regarding our intentions, plans, objectives, expectations, forecasts and projections. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those set forth under the section titled “Risk Factors” included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the success, cost and timing of our development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials, including the enrollment in such trials, and in particular the development of our blood-brain barrier (“BBB”) platform technology, programs and biomarkers;

the extent to which any dosing limitations that we have been subject to, and/or may be subject to in the future, may affect the success of our product candidates;

the impact of preclinical findings on our ability to achieve exposures of our product candidates that allow us to explore a robust pharmacodynamic range of these candidates in humans;

the expected potential benefits and potential revenue resulting from strategic collaborations with third parties and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of any approved product candidate;

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology;

the terms and conditions of licenses granted to us and our ability to license and/or acquire additional intellectual property relating to our product candidates and BBB platform technology;

our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to develop and commercialize our current and potential future product candidates;

our plans and ability to establish sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any product candidates for which we obtain approval;

future agreements with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates;

the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates, if approved for commercial use, and our ability to serve those markets;

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;

existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

potential claims relating to our intellectual property and third-party intellectual property;
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our ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;

our potential plans and ability to develop our own manufacturing facilities;

the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved and commercialized;

the success of competing products or platform technologies that are or may become available;

our ability to attract and retain key managerial, scientific and medical personnel;

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

our ability to enhance operational, financial and information management systems;

our financial performance; and

our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID -19 pandemic on our business.


These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including those described in “Risk Factors”. In some cases, you can identify these statements by terms such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expects,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” or the negative of those terms, and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes. These forward-looking statements reflect our beliefs and views with respect to future events and are based on estimates and assumptions as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and are subject to risks and uncertainties. We discuss many of these risks in greater detail in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included in Part II, Item 1A and elsewhere in this report. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q by these cautionary statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
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Overview

Our goal is to discover, develop and deliver therapeutics to defeat degeneration.

Our strategy is guided by three overarching principles that we believe will significantly increase the probability of success and will accelerate the timing to bring effective therapeutics to patients with neurodegenerative diseases:
 
Genetic Pathway Potential: We select our therapeutic targets and disease pathways based on genes that, when mutated, cause, or are major risk factors for, neurodegenerative diseases. We refer to these genes as degenogenes;

Engineering Brain Delivery: We engineer our product candidates to cross the BBB and act directly in the brain; and

Biomarker-Driven Development: We discover, develop and utilize biomarkers to select the right patient population and demonstrate target engagement, pathway engagement and impact on disease progression of our product candidates. 

By executing this strategy with a team of experienced and passionately dedicated scientists and drug developers, we believe we can succeed in a field that has seen limited progress over the past several decades. We have a focused yet diversified portfolio with five clinical programs and more than fifteen programs in the preclinical development stage.

We have also developed a proprietary BBB platform technology, our transport vehicle ("TV"), which enables multiple modality-based platforms to deliver a wide range of large-molecule therapeutics across the BBB, including enzymes, antibodies, proteins and oligonucleotides. This technology is designed to engage specific BBB transport receptors, which are ubiquitously expressed in brain capillaries and facilitate transport of proteins into the brain. We are currently optimizing and broadening this platform technology.

Our five clinical-stage programs are:
our leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ("LRRK2") inhibitor program, to be developed in collaboration with Biogen, to address Parkinson’s disease;

our ETV:IDS program, our lead brain-penetrant enzyme replacement therapy ("ERT"), enabled by our enzyme transport vehicle ("ETV"), which is designed to restore iduronate 2-sulfatase ("IDS"), and reduce glycosaminoglycans ("GAGs"), both peripherally and in the brain, in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis II ("MPS II", or "Hunter syndrome");

our eukaryotic initiation factor 2 B ("eIF2B") activator program to address diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ("ALS") and frontotemporal dementia ("FTD");

our CNS-penetrant receptor interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 ("RIPK1") inhibitor program, partnered with Sanofi, to address neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and ALS as well as multiple sclerosis ("MS"); and
a second non-CNS penetrant RIPK1 inhibitor, partnered with Sanofi, to address peripheral inflammatory diseases such as cutaneous lupus erythematosus ("CLE").

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The following table summarizes key information about our clinical stage programs:
ProgramProduct Candidate(s)Clinical PhaseIndication(s)Operational Control
LRRK2DNL151 (BIIB122)Ph 1 and Ph 1b completeParkinson's diseaseJoint with Biogen
ETV:IDSDNL310Ph1/2Hunter syndrome (MPS II)Denali
eIF2BDNL343Ph 1b (in ALS)ALS and FTDDenali
RIPK1 (CNS-penetrant)DNL788 (SAR443820)Ph 1Neurological diseasesSanofi
RIPK1 (Peripheral)DNL758 (SAR443122)Ph 2CLESanofi
To complement our internal capabilities, we have entered into arrangements with biopharmaceutical companies, patient-focused data companies, numerous leading academic institutions and foundations to gain access to new product candidates, enable and accelerate the development of our existing programs and deepen our scientific understanding of certain areas of biology. We currently rely on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture and supply our preclinical and clinical materials to be used during the development of our product candidates. We currently do not need commercial manufacturing capacity.
Since we commenced operations, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to discovering, acquiring and developing product candidates, building our BBB platform technology and assembling our core capabilities in understanding key neurodegenerative disease pathways.

Key operational and financing milestones in 2021 to date include:

In December 2020 and January 2021, GLP toxicology studies were initiated for DNL593 ("PTV:PGRN") and DNL919 ("ATV:TREM2"), respectively, triggering the second preclinical milestone payments under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement of $8.0 million for each program. The milestone payment for PTV:PGRN was received in January 2021 and ATV:TREM2 was received in March 2021;

In January 2021, we announced completion of the DNL151 (BIIB122) Phase 1b study in Parkinson’s patients. In March 2021, we completed our Phase 1 study of DNL151 (BIIB122). In May 2021, we presented results from both studies at the International Association of Parkinsonism and Related Disorders Virtual Congress held on May 1-4. DNL151 (BIIB122) was generally well tolerated, and target engagement and pathway engagement biomarker goals were met;

In January 2021, following achievement of human biomarker proof of concept with DNL310 for Hunter syndrome, we announced the addition of five new brain-penetrant ERT programs in our ETV portfolio including: (1) ETV:GBA for Gaucher disease and Parkinson’s disease; (2) ETV:GAA for Pompe disease; (3) ETV:IDUA for MPS I; (4) ETV:NAGLU for MPS IIIB; and (5) ETV:ARSA for metachromatic leukodystrophy ("MLD");

In February 2021, we reported three-month data from Cohort A (n=5) in a Phase 1/2 study of DNL310 in patients with Hunter syndrome. The data showed that DNL310 treatment resulted in normalization of GAG levels in cerebrospinal fluid and a safety and tolerability profile consistent with standard of care ERT. In March 2021, we announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") granted Fast Track designation to DNL310 for the treatment of patients with Hunter syndrome;

In June 2021, we announced that our collaboration partner Sanofi commenced dosing in a Phase 2 study of DNL758 (SAR443122), a peripherally-restricted small molecule inhibitor of RIPK1, in patients with CLE, triggering a $15.0 million milestone which was received in July 2021;
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In July 2021, we reported positive interim data from the Phase 1/2 study of ETV:IDS (DNL310) in patients with Hunter syndrome (MPS II). The data demonstrated durability of effect with CNS impact, improved peripheral activity after switching from standard of care, and a safety profile consistent with standard of care enzyme replacement therapy. Furthermore, initial indications of improved clinical symptoms and function, assessed as exploratory endpoints, were reported by investigators and parents in all five patients enrolled in Cohort A. We also shared data from Cohort B, which is designed to inform dose selection; exploratory biomarker data demonstrated activity of DNL310 across all dose regimens. Based on these data, we began enrolling Cohort C in the Phase 1/2 study to further investigate clinical endpoints, and we plan to initiate a pivotal Phase 2/3 study of DNL310 in the first half of 2022;

In August 2021 we entered into a lease for approximately 50,000 square feet of laboratory, office and warehouse premises in Salt Lake City, Utah. We have initiated the build-out of the Utah site to expand our clinical manufacturing capabilities for biologic therapeutics (large molecules) with the goal of increasing flexibility and speed in advancing new investigational therapies into clinical trials;

In September, at Biogen’s R&D Day event, we provided a progress update on our collaboration with Biogen to develop DNL151 (BIIB122) for PD. Together with Biogen, we highlighted data supporting the advancement to late-stage clinical development and ongoing start-up activities for DNL151 (BIIB122) in preparation to commence PD studies. As previously announced, two studies are planned: one in participants with PD who do not carry a LRRK2 mutation and another in PD participants with LRRK2 mutations. Biogen will lead operationalization and conduct of these studies;

In October 2021, we presented results from a Phase 1 healthy volunteer study demonstrating that DNL343 met safety and biomarker goals. The Phase 1 data supported initiation of a Phase 1b study in participants with ALS, which commenced dosing in August 2021; and

In October 2021, we announced that our collaboration partner Sanofi advanced development of DNL788 (SAR443820) in ALS and that the U.S. FDA granted DNL788 (SAR443820) Fast Track designation for the potential treatment of ALS. Results from a Phase 1 study of DNL788 (SAR443820) in healthy volunteers demonstrated robust target engagement at doses that were generally well tolerated. Sanofi plans to initiate the Phase 2 study, named HIMALAYA, in the first quarter of 2022.

We do not have any products approved for sale and have not generated any product revenue since our inception. We have funded our operations primarily from the issuance and sale of convertible preferred stock, the sale of common stock in public offerings, and payments received from our collaboration agreements with Takeda, Sanofi and Biogen.

We have incurred significant operating losses to date and expect to continue to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future. Our ability to generate product revenue will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our product candidates. Our net losses were $84.6 million and $215.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, and $58.2 million and $173.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively. As of September 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $569.7 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses as we advance our current clinical stage programs through healthy volunteer and patient trials; broaden and improve our BBB platform technology; acquire, discover, validate and develop additional product candidates; obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property portfolio; and hire additional personnel.
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Components of Operating Results
Collaboration Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from product sales for the foreseeable future. All revenue recognized to date has been collaboration and license revenue from our collaboration agreements with Takeda, Sanofi and Biogen.
In the future, we will continue to recognize revenue from the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, Sanofi Collaboration Agreement, and Biogen Collaboration Agreement, and may generate revenue from product sales or milestones, royalties and cost reimbursement from other collaboration agreements, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements. We expect that our revenue will fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year as a result of the timing and amount of license fees, milestones, reimbursement of costs incurred and other payments and product sales, to the extent any are successfully commercialized. If we fail to complete the development of our product candidates in a timely manner or obtain regulatory approval for them, our ability to generate future revenue, and our results of operations and financial position, would be materially adversely affected.
Operating Expenses

Research and Development

Research and development activities account for a significant portion of our operating expenses. We record research and development expenses as incurred. Research and development expenses incurred by us for the discovery and development of our product candidates and BBB platform technology include:
 
external research and development expenses, including:

expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as contract research organizations ("CROs"), preclinical testing organizations, contract development and manufacturing organizations ("CDMOs"), academic and non-profit institutions and consultants;

expenses to acquire technologies to be used in research and development that have not reached technological feasibility and have no alternative future use;

fees related to our license and collaboration agreements;

personnel related expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense; and

other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for laboratory, facilities and other costs.

A portion of our research and development expenses are direct external expenses, which we track on a program-specific basis once a program has commenced late-stage IND-enabling studies.
 
Program expenses include expenses associated with our most advanced product candidates and the discovery and development of backup or next-generation molecules. We also track external expenses associated with our TV platform. These expenses include those incurred by us relating to our Takeda Collaboration Agreement, Sanofi Collaboration Agreement and Biogen Collaboration Agreement. All external costs associated with earlier stage programs, or that benefit the entire portfolio, are tracked as a group. We do not track personnel or other operating expenses incurred for our research and development programs on a program-specific basis. These expenses primarily relate to salaries and benefits, stock-based compensation, facility expenses including rent and depreciation, and lab consumables.

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Where we share costs with our collaboration partners, such as in our Biogen Collaboration Agreement, research and development expenses may include cost sharing reimbursements from or payments to our partner, respectively.

It is challenging to predict the nature, timing and estimated long-range costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the development of, and obtain regulatory approval for, any of our product candidates. This is made more challenging by events outside of our control, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic. We are also unable to predict when, if ever, material net cash inflows will commence from sales or licensing of our product candidates. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with drug development, including the uncertainty of:
 
our ability to add and retain key research and development personnel;

our ability to establish an appropriate safety profile with IND-enabling toxicology studies;

our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize, our product candidates;

our successful enrollment in and completion of clinical trials;

the costs associated with the development of any additional product candidates we identify in-house or acquire through collaborations;

our ability to discover, develop and utilize biomarkers to demonstrate target engagement, pathway engagement and the impact on disease progression of our molecules;

our ability to establish agreements with third-party manufacturers for clinical supply for our clinical trials and commercial manufacturing, if our product candidates are approved;

the terms and timing of any collaboration, license or other arrangement, including the terms and timing of any milestone payments thereunder;

our ability to obtain and maintain patent, trade secret and other intellectual property protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates if and when approved;

our receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

our ability to commercialize products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others; and

the continued acceptable safety profiles of the product candidates following approval.

A change in any of these variables with respect to the development of any of our product candidates would significantly change the costs, timing and viability associated with the development of that product candidate. We expect our research and development expenses to increase at least over the next several years as we continue to implement our business strategy, advance our current programs, expand our research and development efforts, seek regulatory approvals for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, access and develop additional product candidates and incur expenses associated with hiring additional personnel to support our research and development efforts. In addition, product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally incur higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials.
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General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses include personnel-related expenses, such as salaries, benefits, travel and stock-based compensation expense, expenses for outside professional services and allocated expenses. Outside professional services consist of legal, accounting and audit services and other consulting fees. Allocated expenses consist of rent, depreciation and other expenses related to our office and research and development facility not otherwise included in research and development expenses. We expect to increase our administrative headcount as we advance our product candidates through clinical development, which will increase our general and administrative expenses.

Interest and Other Income, Net

Interest and other income, net, consists primarily of interest income and investment income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, gains and losses on foreign currency hedges, and sublease income.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020

The following table sets forth the significant components of our results of operations (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20212020$%
Collaboration revenue:
Collaboration revenue from customers$5,285 $9,388 $(4,103)(44)%
Other collaboration revenue— (5)(100)
Total collaboration revenue5,285 9,393 (4,108)(44)
Operating expenses:
Research and development71,559 53,704 17,855 33 
General and administrative19,319 15,805 3,514 22 
Total operating expenses90,878 69,509 21,369 31 
Loss from operations(85,593)(60,116)(25,477)42 
Interest and other income, net1,005 1,944 (939)(48)
Loss before income taxes(84,588)(58,172)(26,416)45 
Income tax expense— (56)56 (100)
Net loss$(84,588)$(58,228)$(26,360)45 %

Nine Months Ended September 30,Change
20212020$%
Collaboration revenue:
Collaboration revenue from customers$36,143 $18,751 $17,392 93 %
Other collaboration revenue93 (89)(96)
Total collaboration revenue36,147 18,844 17,303 92 
Operating expenses:
Research and development197,477 157,872 39,605 25 
General and administrative57,300 42,332 14,968 35 
Total operating expenses254,777 200,204 54,573 27 
Loss from operations(218,630)(181,360)(37,270)21 
Interest and other income, net3,310 7,611 (4,301)(57)
Loss before income taxes(215,320)(173,749)(41,571)24 
Net loss$(215,320)$(173,749)$(41,571)24 %

Collaboration revenue. Collaboration revenue was $5.3 million and $36.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, and $9.4 million and $18.8 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively. The decrease in collaboration revenue of $4.1 million for the three months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020 was primarily due to a decrease in revenue from our collaboration with Takeda driven by decreased costs incurred in the underlying partnered programs. The increase of $17.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the nine months ended September 30, 2020 was primarily due to the recognition of a $15.0 million milestone payment in June 2021 under our collaboration with Sanofi related to the initiation of the Phase 2 study of DNL758 (SAR443122) and revenue of $2.5 million from our collaboration with Biogen.

Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses were $71.6 million and $197.5 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, compared to $53.7 million and $157.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively.

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The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by program and category (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021202020212020
LRRK2 program external expenses$3,231 $6,497 $8,383 $22,263 
eIF2B program external expenses3,531 3,433 12,623 6,739 
ETV:IDS program external expenses8,272 2,786 22,025 11,136 
TV platform and other program external expenses10,388 5,902 25,530 12,088 
Other external research and development expenses8,988 5,638 22,222 20,812 
Personnel-related expenses(1)
28,931 21,176 85,050 60,298 
Other unallocated research and development expenses9,412 8,272 26,916 24,536 
Cost sharing reimbursements from related party(2)
(1,194)— (5,272)— 
Total research and development expenses$71,559 $53,704 $197,477 $157,872 
__________________________________________________
(1)Personnel-related expenses include stock-based compensation expense of $12.2 million and $37.0 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, and $7.8 million and $21.0 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, reflecting an increase of $4.4 million and $16.0 million, respectively.
(2)Cost sharing reimbursements from Biogen during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 are for LRRK2 program external expenses and LRRK2 program internal expenses which are included within Personnel-related expenses.


The increase in research and development expenses of approximately $17.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020, was primarily attributable to the following:
An increase of $7.8 million in personnel-related expenses, consisting of a $4.4 million increase in stock-based compensation expense primarily attributable to additional equity award grants, and a $3.4 million increase in salaries and related expenses attributable to an increase in our research and development headcount;
An increase of $5.5 million in ETV:IDS program external expenses reflecting the continued progress of this program in clinical trials during 2021;
Increases of $4.5 million and $3.4 million in TV platform and other program external expenses, and other external research and development expenses, respectively, reflecting the progress in our TV platform PTV:PGRN and ATV:TREM2 programs as well our continued investment in developing a robust pipeline;
An increase of $1.1 million in other unallocated research and development expenses, primarily due to an increase of $0.8 million in lab consumable expenses, an increase in facilities-related expenses of $0.3 million including depreciation expense, both due to our increased research and development headcount.
These increases were partially offset by a decrease in external expenses related to the LRRK2 program primarily due to completion of the phase 1 and 1b trials of DNL151 (BIIB122) of $3.3 million and by cost sharing reimbursements under our collaboration with Biogen of $1.2 million.
The increase in research and development expenses of approximately $39.6 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the nine months ended September 30, 2020, was primarily attributable to the following:
An increase of $24.8 million in personnel-related expenses, consisting of a $16.0 million increase in stock-based compensation expense primarily attributable to additional equity award grants and our increased market price, and a $8.8 million increase in salaries and related expenses attributable to an increase in our research and development headcount;
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An increase of $13.4 million in TV platform and other program external expenses, reflecting our increased investment in our pipeline, including the progress in our PTV:PGRN and ATV:TREM2 programs as well as our continued investment in developing a robust pipeline;
Increases of $5.9 million and $10.9 million in eIF2B and ETV:IDS program external expenses, respectively, reflecting the progress of these programs in clinical trials during 2021;
An increase of $2.4 million in other unallocated research and development expenses, which is primarily due to an increase in facilities-related expenses of $1.3 million including depreciation expense and certain costs associated with COVID-19 safety protocols and an increase in lab consumable expenses of $1.3 million, partially offset by a $0.2 million decrease in other general costs, primarily due to a decrease in travel related expenses attributable to our research and development departments due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and
An increase of $1.4 million in other external research and development expenses primarily due to increased investment in our pipeline.
These increases were partially offset by a decrease in external expenses related to the LRRK2 program primarily due to completion of the phase 1 and 1b trials of DNL151 (BIIB122) of $13.9 million, cost sharing reimbursements under our collaboration with Biogen of $5.3 million.
General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses were $19.3 million for the three months ended September 30, 2021 compared to $15.8 million for the three months ended September 30, 2020. The increase of $3.5 million was primarily attributable to the following:
$4.5 million of increased personnel-related expenses, driven by higher general and administrative headcount and stock-based compensation expense associated with additional equity award grants;
$0.5 million of increased other general costs, including insurance, tax and IT related expenses; and
$0.2 million of increased facilities related expenses, including depreciation expense.
These increases were partially offset by a decrease of $1.7 million in legal and other professional services expenses due to costs incurred in 2020 associated with the execution of the Biogen Collaboration Agreement.
General and administrative expenses were $57.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 compared to $42.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020. The increase of $15.0 million was primarily attributable to the following:
$13.5 million of increased personnel-related expenses, driven by higher general and administrative headcount and stock-based compensation expense associated with additional equity award grants and our increased market price;
$2.2 million of increased other general costs, including insurance, tax and IT related expenses; and
$0.5 million of increased facilities related expenses, including depreciation expense and certain costs associated with COVID-19 safety protocols.
These increases were partially offset by a decrease of $1.2 million in legal and other professional services expenses due to costs incurred in 2020 associated with the execution of the Biogen Collaboration Agreement.
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Interest and other income, net. Interest and other income, net was $1.0 million and $3.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, compared to $1.9 million and $7.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively. The decreases of $0.9 million and $4.3 million, respectively, were primarily due to decreased interest income earned on our investments due to declining interest rates.
Income tax expense. There was an income tax expense of $0.1 million for the three months ended September 30, 2020 associated with a decrease in unrealized gains on marketable securities in other comprehensive income. There was no income tax expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 or for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity

We fund our operations primarily with the proceeds from the sale of common stock in public offerings and payments received from our collaboration agreements with Takeda, Sanofi, and Biogen. In January 2020, we sold 9.0 million shares of common stock (inclusive of shares sold pursuant to an overallotment option granted to the underwriters in connection with the offering) through an underwritten public offering at a price of $23.00 per share for aggregate net proceeds of approximately $193.9 million.

Pursuant to the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, we have received $71.0 million related to upfront and milestone payments through September 30, 2021. Further, under the associated Stock Purchase Agreement we received $110.0 million in February 2018 for the sale and issuance of 4,214,559 shares of our common stock.

Pursuant to the Sanofi Collaboration Agreement, we have received $150.0 million related to upfront and milestone payments through September 30, 2021. We have also received $13.7 million for performance of Retained Activities.

Pursuant to the common stock purchase agreement between us and BIMA (the "Biogen Stock Purchase Agreement"), we received $465.0 million in September 2020 for the sale and issuance of 13,310,243 shares of our common stock. In October 2020, we received $560.0 million from Biogen in upfront payments associated with the Biogen Collaboration Agreement. We have received cost sharing reimbursements of $13.3 million from Biogen through September 30, 2021.

As of September 30, 2021, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities in the amount of $1.36 billion.
Future Funding Requirements

To date, we have not generated any product revenue. We do not expect to generate any product revenue unless and until we obtain regulatory approval of and commercialize any of our product candidates, and we do not know when, or if, either will occur.
We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect the losses to increase as we expand our research and development activities and continue the development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our product candidates, and begin to commercialize any approved products. Further, we expect general and administrative expenses to increase as we continue to incur additional costs associated with supporting our growing operations. We are subject to all of the risks typically related to the development of new product candidates, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business. We anticipate that we will need substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations.
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Until we can generate a sufficient amount of revenue from the commercialization of our product candidates or from our existing collaboration agreements, or future agreements with other third parties, if ever, we expect to finance our future cash needs through public or private equity or debt financings. Additional capital may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our product candidates. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of additional debt or equity securities, it could result in dilution to our existing stockholders, increased fixed payment obligations and the existence of securities with rights that may be senior to those of our common stock. If we incur indebtedness, we could become subject to covenants that would restrict our operations and potentially impair our competitiveness, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. Additionally, any future collaborations we enter into with third parties may provide capital in the near term but limit our potential cash flow and revenue in the future. Any of the foregoing could significantly harm our business, financial condition and prospects.

Since our inception, we have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations. We have an accumulated deficit of $569.7 million through September 30, 2021. We expect to incur substantial additional losses in the future as we conduct and expand our research and development activities. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to enable us to fund our projected operations through at least the 12 months following the filling date of this Form 10-Q. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:

the timing and progress of preclinical and clinical development activities;

the number and scope of preclinical and clinical programs we decide to pursue;

the progress of the development efforts of third parties with whom we have entered into license and collaboration agreements;

our ability to maintain our current research and development programs and to establish new research and development, license or collaboration arrangements;

our ability and success in securing manufacturing relationships with third parties or in establishing and operating a manufacturing facility;

the costs involved in prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property claims;

the cost and timing of regulatory approvals;

our efforts to enhance operational, financial and information management systems and hire additional personnel, including personnel to support development of our product candidates; and

the costs and ongoing investments to in-license and/or acquire additional technologies.

A change in the outcome of any of these or other variables with respect to the development of any of our product candidates could significantly change the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. Furthermore, our operating plans may change in the future, and we may need additional funds to meet operational needs and capital requirements associated with such operating plans.
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Cash Flows

The following table sets forth a summary of the primary sources and uses of cash for each of the periods presented below (in thousands):
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20212020
Net cash used in operating activities$(145,895)$(97,763)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities19,124 (255,866)
Net cash provided by financing activities14,180 625,227 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(112,591)$271,598 
Net Cash Used In Operating Activities

During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, cash used in operating activities was $145.9 million, which consisted of a net loss of $215.3 million, adjusted by non-cash items primarily related to stock-based compensation and depreciation, net amortization of discounts on marketable securities and non-cash rent expenses. Cash used in operating activities was also driven by changes in our operating assets and liabilities.
Net Cash Provided By Investing Activities

During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, cash provided by investing activities was $19.1 million, which consisted of $1.22 billion in proceeds from the maturity of marketable securities, partially offset by $1.19 billion of purchases of marketable securities and $5.4 million of capital expenditures to purchase property and equipment.
Net Cash Provided By Financing Activities

During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, cash provided by financing activities was $14.2 million in proceeds from the exercise of options to purchase common stock and the purchase of ESPP shares.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We have not entered into any off-balance sheet arrangements.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Except as discussed in Note 7, Commitments and Contingencies, in the notes to condensed consolidated financial statements, there have been no material changes to our contractual obligations and commitments as included in our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K, which was filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021.
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Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported revenues recognized and expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 from those described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Except as described in Note 1 to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements under the heading "Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncement," there have been no new accounting pronouncements or changes to accounting pronouncements during the nine months ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the recent accounting pronouncements described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021, that are of significance or potential significance to us.
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ITEM 3.     QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business, primarily related to interest rate and foreign currency sensitivities.
Interest Rate Sensitivity

We are exposed to market risk related to changes in interest rates. We had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $1.36 billion as of September 30, 2021, which consisted primarily of money market funds and marketable securities, largely composed of investment grade, short to intermediate term fixed income securities.

The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve capital to fund our operations. We also seek to maximize income from our investments without assuming significant risk. To achieve our objectives, we maintain a portfolio of investments in a variety of securities of high credit quality and short-term duration, according to our board-approved investment policy. Our investments are subject to interest rate risk and could fall in value if market interest rates increase. A hypothetical 10% relative change in interest rates during any of the periods presented would not have had a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Foreign Currency Sensitivity

The majority of our transactions occur in U.S. dollars. However, we do have certain transactions that are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, primarily the Euro, Swiss francs and British Pound, and we therefore are subject to foreign exchange risk. The fluctuation in the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies affects the reported amounts of expenses, assets and liabilities primarily associated with a limited number of preclinical, clinical and manufacturing activities.

We seek to mitigate the impact of changes in currency exchange rates on cash flows from certain foreign currency denominated operating expenses by entering into forward foreign currency exchange contracts. Generally, the market risks of these contracts are offset by the corresponding gains and losses on the transactions being hedged.

We do not use derivative financial instruments for speculative trading purposes, nor do we hedge foreign currency exchange rate exposure in a manner that entirely offsets the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The counterparties to these forward foreign currency exchange contracts are creditworthy multinational commercial banks, which minimizes the risk of counterparty nonperformance. We regularly review our hedging program and may, as part of this review, make changes to the program.

As of September 30, 2021, we had open forward foreign currency exchange contracts with notional amounts of $4.5 million. A hypothetical 10% strengthening in foreign currency compared with the U.S. dollar at September 30, 2021 would have resulted in an increase in the value received over the remaining life of these contracts of approximately $0.4 million and, if realized, would positively affect earnings during the remaining life of the contracts. This analysis does not consider the impact of the hypothetical changes in foreign currency rates would have on the forecasted transactions that these foreign currency sensitive instruments were designated to offset.
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ITEM 4.     CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

As of September 30, 2021, management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, performed an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

Any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objective and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of September 30, 2021, the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at a reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the quarter ended September 30, 2021 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, we may become involved in litigation or other legal proceedings. We are not currently a party to any litigation or legal proceedings that, in the opinion of our management, are likely to have a material adverse effect on our business. Regardless of outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including our financial statements and the related notes and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and the market price of our common stock. The risk factors set forth below are substantially the same as the risk factors included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 26, 2021.

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Risk Factor Summary

The summary of risks below provides an overview of the principal risks we are exposed to. These risks are described more fully in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-Q.

Risks Related to Our Business, Financial Condition and Capital Requirements

We are in the early stages of clinical drug development and have a very limited operating history and no products approved for commercial sale.
We have incurred significant net losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future.
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, or the perception of its effects, may materially and adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.
Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking. We have never generated any revenue from product sales, and may never do so.
Due to the significant resources required for the development of our programs, and depending on our ability to access capital, we must prioritize development of certain product candidates.

Risks Related to the Discovery, Development and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates

We are heavily dependent on the successful development of our BBB technology and the programs currently in our pipeline, which are in the early stages of development. There’s no assurance that any of our product candidates will receive regulatory approval.
We may not be successful in our efforts to continue to create a pipeline of product candidates or to develop commercially successful products.
We have concentrated a substantial portion of our efforts on the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, a field that has seen limited success in drug development.
We may encounter substantial delays in our clinical trials, or may not be able to conduct or complete our clinical trials on the timelines we expect, if at all.
We may encounter difficulties enrolling and/or retaining patients in our clinical trials, and our clinical development activities could thereby be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.
Our clinical trials may fail to demonstrate evidence of the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, which would delay or limit the scope of regulatory approval and commercialization.
We face significant competition and there is a possibility that our competitors may achieve regulatory approval before us or develop therapies that are safer or more effective than ours.
The manufacture of our product candidates, particularly those that utilize our BBB platform technology, is complex and we may encounter difficulties in production.
If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties, we may not be successful in commercializing product candidates if and when they are approved.
If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates.

Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Other Legal Compliance Matters

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, European Medicines Agency ("EMA") and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue.
We may in the future conduct clinical trials outside the United States, and the FDA, EMA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from such trials.
Healthcare legislative measures aimed at reducing healthcare costs may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our business is subject to complex and evolving U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, information security policies and contractual obligations relating to privacy and data protection.
Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties
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We depend on collaborations with third parties for the research, development and commercialization of certain product candidates. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to realize the market potential of those product candidates.
We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and some aspects of our research and preclinical testing, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily.
We contract with third parties for the manufacture of materials for our research programs, preclinical studies and clinical trials. This reliance on third parties may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of such materials or product candidates.
We depend on third-party suppliers for key raw materials used in our manufacturing, and the loss of these suppliers or their inability to supply us with adequate materials could harm our business.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our product candidates or our BBB technology, our competitors could develop and commercialize products or technology similar or identical to ours, and adversely affect our ability to commercialize any product candidates.
If any of our owned or in-licensed patent applications do not issue as patents in any jurisdiction, we may not be able to compete effectively.
Our rights to develop and commercialize our BBB technology and product candidates are subject to the terms of licenses granted to us by others or licenses granted by us to others.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property throughout the world.
Changes in U.S. patent law could impair our ability to protect our products.
Issued patents covering our BBB technology, product candidates and other technologies could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged.
We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our intellectual property.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business would be harmed.
We may not be successful in obtaining, through acquisitions, in-licenses or otherwise, necessary rights to our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies.
We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants, or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their current or former employers.
Third party intellectual property claims against us, our licensors or our collaborators may delay the development our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies.

Risks Related to Our Operations

If we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.
We have engaged in and may in the future engage in acquisitions or strategic partnerships, which may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, or cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities.
Our internal computer systems, or those used by our collaborators, CROs or other contractors, may fail or suffer security breaches that could compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of such systems and data and expose us to liability.
Our business is subject to risks associated with international operations.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock and trading volume could decline.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.
Delaware law and provisions in our charter documents might prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management, depressing the trading price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides exclusive forums for disputes between us and our stockholders, limiting their ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum.
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Risks Related to Our Business, Financial Condition and Capital Requirements
We are in the early stages of clinical drug development and have a very limited operating history and no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future success and viability.

We are an early clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a very limited operating history, focused on developing therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and ALS. We commenced operations in May 2015, have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We are in Phase 1, 1b or 1/2 clinical trials for our LRRK2, eIF2B, ETV:IDS and RIPK1 programs and have not initiated clinical trials for any of our other current product candidates. To date, we have not initiated or completed a pivotal clinical trial, obtained marketing approval for any product candidates, manufactured a commercial scale product, or arranged for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conducted sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Our short operating history as a company makes any assessment of our future success and viability subject to significant uncertainty. We will encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by early-stage biopharmaceutical companies in rapidly evolving fields, and we have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome such risks and difficulties. If we do not address these risks and difficulties successfully, our business will suffer.
We have incurred significant net losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future.

We have incurred significant net losses since our inception, including net losses of $84.6 million and $215.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, and $58.2 million and $173.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively. As of September 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $569.7 million.

We have invested significant financial resources in research and development activities, including for our preclinical and clinical product candidates and our TV platform. We do not expect to generate revenue from product sales for several years, if at all. The amount of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the level of our future expenditures and revenue. Moreover, our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasingly higher operating losses for the foreseeable future. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:
 
continue our research and discovery activities;

progress our current and any future product candidates through preclinical and clinical development;

initiate and conduct additional preclinical, clinical or other studies for our product candidates;

work with our contract manufacturers to scale up the manufacturing processes for our product candidates or, in the future, establish and operate a manufacturing facility;

change or add additional contract manufacturers or suppliers;

seek regulatory approvals and marketing authorizations for our product candidates;

establish sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we obtain approval;

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acquire or in-license product candidates, intellectual property and technologies;

make milestone, royalty or other payments due under any license or collaboration agreements;

obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property portfolio, including intellectual property obtained through license agreements;

attract, hire and retain qualified personnel;

provide additional internal infrastructure to support our continued research and development operations and any planned commercialization efforts in the future;

experience any delays or encounter other issues related to our operations;

meet the requirements and demands of being a public company; and

defend against any product liability claims or other lawsuits related to our products.

Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. In any particular quarter or quarters, our operating results could be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, or the perception of its effects, may materially and adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.

Public health outbreaks, such as epidemics or pandemics involving infectious or contagious diseases, such as COVID-19, may significantly disrupt our business. Such outbreaks pose the risk that we or our employees, contractors, suppliers, and other partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time due to the spread of the disease, due to shutdowns that may be requested or mandated by federal, state and local governmental authorities or certain employers, or due to the economic consequences associated with the pandemic. Business disruptions could include disruptions or restrictions on our ability to travel, as well as temporary closures of our facilities and the facilities of our partners, clinical trial sites, service providers, suppliers or contract manufacturers. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic caused a temporary disruption in our ability to recruit participants for our clinical trials in the calendar year 2020 and the first quarter of 2021, though recruitment has now returned to pre-pandemic levels. While it is not possible at this time to predict whether another pandemic, epidemic or infectious disease outbreak similar to COVID-19 will materialize, any measures taken by the governments of countries and local authorities in response to such future health crises have the potential to disrupt and delay the initiation of new clinical trials, the progress of our ongoing clinical trials, and could disrupt and delay our preclinical activities, and potentially the manufacture or shipment of both drug substance and finished drug product of our product candidates for preclinical testing and clinical trials and adversely impact our business, financial condition or operating results.
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The continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may materially and adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.
We are actively monitoring, evaluating and responding to developments relating to COVID-19, including new strains of the disease that have emerged in certain locations such as the Delta variant, vaccination status both locally and globally, and other COVID-19 and Delta variant-related protocols and travel restrictions as set forth by the CDC and other state, local and government authorities. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, we implemented policies that enabled some of our employees to work remotely, and such policies may continue for an indefinite period. We also implemented various safety protocols for all on-site personnel, including COVID-19 testing procedures and compliance measures for social distancing and use of personal protective equipment and continue to maintain appropriate protocols in accordance with federal, state and local regulation. Our priority is to protect the health and safety of our employees, community, partners and clinical trial participants, while working to ensure the sustainability of our business operations.

Although restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic were relaxed in many locations in which we do business for a period of time, some of those restrictions have been put back into place as a result of the Delta variant and the associated resurgence in COVID-19 cases. Additional resurgences could occur at any time, which may cause new disruptions to our business going forward. Examples of disruptions to our business from COVID-19 have included:

delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials, particularly elderly subjects, who are at a higher risk of complications from COVID-19;

difficulties interpreting data from our clinical trials due to the possible effects of COVID-19 on subjects enrolled in our clinical trials that contract COVID-19;

delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;

diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of clinical trials;

interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others;

delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities to initiate our planned clinical trials;

interruption of, or delays in receiving, supplies of our product candidates from our contract manufacturing organizations due to staffing shortages, production slowdowns or stoppages;

delays or difficulties in furthering our preclinical and clinical programs, due to interruptions or limitations in our third party service providers’ business operations;

interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials, such as investigational drug product used in our clinical trials;

changes in clinical trial site procedures and requirements as well as regulatory requirements for conducting clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic;

delays or interruptions in the operations of or necessary interactions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") or other regulators; and

limitations on employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our nonclinical studies and clinical trials, either because of sickness of employees and their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people.
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Our business is located in the state of California, which was more severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic than some other parts of the country. On June 11, 2021, the Executive Department of the State of California issued Executive Orders N-07-21 and N-08-21, rescinding previous executive orders requiring various pandemic-related restrictions. Should COVID-19 cases in California significantly increase, however, the relevant counties or state may re-institute a "shelter in place" order at any time or implement other restrictions. Our primary operations are located in South San Francisco and prior to the rescinding of such California state orders, many of our employees have chosen to telecommute. Due to telecommuting patterns, modified schedules and work protocols to enable adequate physical distancing, our laboratory operations have operated with decreased efficiency, which may impact certain of our operations over the near term and long term. Should these developments continue or worsen, our operations and program timelines may be negatively impacted and could result in the incurrence of additional costs.

We have clinical trial sites for our clinical studies in the United States, Europe and New Zealand, certain of which may be affected by the Delta variant and any subsequent variants of the coronavirus, and the availability of vaccines at the clinical trial site locations. If healthcare facilities and offices are required to focus limited resources on non-clinical trial matters such as treatment of COVID-19 patients, patient screening, new patient enrollment, and monitoring and data collection could be affected. For example, in 2020, we experienced a pause in enrollment in our DNL151 (BIIB122) Phase 1 and Phase 1b trials, our DNL343 Phase 1 trial, and our ETV:IDS program observational biomarker study. In all cases, recruitment resumed within several months; however, further pauses or delays could occur depending on the success of the vaccine rollout, the efficacy of vaccination, which is not yet fully understood, and any lingering social or economic unrest that continues to result from the COVID-19 pandemic.

In June 2020, the FDA issued guidance on manufacturing practice considerations for responding to COVID-19 infection in employees in drug and biologic products manufacturing, including recommendations for manufacturing controls to prevent contamination of the products. Should the FDA issue additional guidance with respect to COVID-19 protocols as relates to the implementation of our clinical trials, the costs of such clinical trials may increase. Further, we may be required to develop and implement additional clinical trial policies and procedures designed to help protect subjects from the COVID-19 virus, the Delta variant, and any new variants of the coronavirus that may emerge in the future.

To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We have never generated any revenue from product sales, and we may never generate product revenue or be profitable.

We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. To obtain revenue from the sales of our product candidates that are significant or large enough to achieve profitability, we must succeed, either alone or with third parties, in developing, obtaining regulatory approval for, manufacturing and marketing therapies with significant commercial success.

Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on many factors, including:
 
successfully completing research and preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates;
 
obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing authorizations for product candidates for which we successfully complete clinical development and clinical trials;
 
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developing a sustainable and scalable manufacturing process for our product candidates, including those that utilize our TV platform, as well as establishing and maintaining commercially viable supply relationships with third parties that can provide adequate products and services to support clinical activities and commercial demand of our product candidates;

identifying, assessing, acquiring and/or developing new product candidates;

negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter;

launching and successfully commercializing product candidates for which we obtain regulatory and marketing approval, either by collaborating with a partner or, if launched independently, by establishing a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure;

obtaining and maintaining an adequate price for our product candidates, both in the United States and in foreign countries where our products are commercialized;

obtaining adequate reimbursement for our product candidates from payors;

obtaining market acceptance of our product candidates as viable treatment options;

addressing any competing technological and market developments;

maintaining, protecting, expanding and enforcing our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how; and

attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with drug development, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of our expenses, or when we will be able to generate any meaningful revenue or achieve or maintain profitability, if ever. In addition, our expenses could increase beyond our current expectations if we are required by the FDA, or foreign regulatory agencies, to perform studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate, or if there are any delays in any of our or our future collaborators’ clinical trials or the development of any of our product candidates. Even if one or more of our product candidates is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate and ongoing compliance efforts.

Even if we are able to generate revenue from the sale of any approved products, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations. Revenue from the sale of any product candidate for which regulatory approval is obtained will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which we gain regulatory approval, the accepted price for the product, the ability to get reimbursement at any price and whether we own the commercial rights for that territory. If the number of addressable patients is not as significant as we anticipate, the indication approved by regulatory authorities is narrower than we expect, or the reasonably accepted population for treatment is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenue from sales of such products, even if approved. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts, diversify our pipeline of product candidates or continue our operations and cause a decline in the value of our common stock, all or any of which may adversely affect our viability.
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If we fail to obtain additional financing, we may be unable to complete the development and, if approved, commercialization of our product candidates.

Our operations have required substantial amounts of cash since inception. We currently fund our operations primarily with the proceeds from our follow-on offering completed in January 2020, and payments received from our Takeda Collaboration Agreement, Sanofi Collaboration Agreement and Biogen Collaboration Agreement. We currently have five clinical-stage programs, DNL151 (BIIB122), DNL343, DNL310, DNL758 (SAR443122) and DNL788 (SAR443820), and have several other product candidates in preclinical development, as well as early-stage research projects. Developing our product candidates is expensive, and we expect to continue to spend substantial amounts as we fund our early-stage research projects, and continue to advance our programs through preclinical and clinical development. Even if we are successful in developing our product candidates, obtaining regulatory approvals and launching and commercializing any product candidate will require substantial additional funding.

As of September 30, 2021, we had $1.36 billion in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to fund our projected operations through at least the next 12 months. Our estimate as to how long we expect our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities to be available to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may be proved inaccurate, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. In addition, changing circumstances may cause us to increase our spending significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of circumstances beyond our control. We may need to raise additional funds sooner than we anticipate if we choose to expand more rapidly than we presently anticipate.

We will require additional capital for the further development and, if approved, commercialization of our product candidates. Additional capital may not be available when we need it, on terms acceptable to us or at all. We have no committed source of additional capital. If adequate capital is not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue our research and development programs or the commercialization of any product candidates, if approved, or be unable to continue or expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, growth prospects and cause the price of our common stock to decline.
Due to the significant resources required for the development of our programs, and depending on our ability to access capital, we must prioritize development of certain product candidates. Moreover, we may expend our limited resources on programs that do not yield a successful product candidate and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

We have a diversified portfolio with more than fifteen programs. These programs require significant capital investment. Our programs are at various stages of research, discovery, preclinical and early clinical development. We seek to maintain a process of prioritization and resource allocation to maintain an optimal balance between aggressively advancing lead programs and ensuring replenishment of our portfolio. We regularly review the programs in our portfolio, and terminate those programs which do not meet our development criteria, which we have done a number of times in the past.
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Due to the significant resources required for the development of our programs, we must focus our programs on specific diseases and disease pathways and decide which product candidates to pursue and advance and the amount of resources to allocate to each. Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, development, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular product candidates or therapeutic areas may not lead to the development of any viable commercial product and may divert resources away from better opportunities. Similarly, our potential decisions to delay, terminate or collaborate with third parties in respect of certain programs may subsequently also prove to be suboptimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. If we make incorrect determinations regarding the viability or market potential of any of our programs or product candidates or misread trends in the biopharmaceutical industry, in particular for neurodegenerative diseases, our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be materially adversely affected. As a result, we may fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities, be required to forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or other diseases and disease pathways that may later prove to have greater commercial potential than those we choose to pursue, or relinquish valuable rights to such product candidates through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been advantageous for us to invest additional resources to retain sole development and commercialization rights.
Risks Related to the Discovery, Development and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates
Research and development of biopharmaceutical products is inherently risky. We are heavily dependent on the successful development of our BBB platform technology and the programs currently in our pipeline, which are in the early stages of preclinical and clinical development. We cannot give any assurance that any of our product candidates will receive regulatory, including marketing approval, which is necessary before they can be commercialized.

We are at an early stage of development of the product candidates currently in our programs and are further developing our BBB platform technology. To date, we have invested substantially all of our efforts and financial resources to identify, acquire intellectual property for, and develop our BBB platform technology and our programs, including conducting preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials, and providing general and administrative support for these operations. Our future success is dependent on our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize our product candidates, and we may fail to do so for many reasons, including the following:
 
our product candidates may not successfully complete preclinical studies or clinical trials;

our drug delivery platform technology designed to deliver large molecule therapeutics across the BBB may not be clinically viable;

a product candidate may on further study be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate it is unlikely to be effective or otherwise does not meet applicable regulatory criteria;

our competitors may develop therapeutics that render our product candidates obsolete or less attractive;

our competitors may develop platform technologies to deliver large molecule therapeutics across the BBB that render our platform technology obsolete or less attractive;

the product candidates and BBB platform technology that we develop may not be sufficiently covered by intellectual property for which we hold exclusive rights;

the product candidates and BBB platform technology that we develop may be covered by third parties’ patents or other intellectual property or exclusive rights;

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the market for a product candidate may change so that the continued development of that product candidate is no longer reasonable or commercially attractive;

a product candidate may not be capable of being produced in commercial quantities at an acceptable cost, or at all;

if a product candidate obtains regulatory approval, we may be unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities, or successfully market such approved product candidate, to gain market acceptance; and

a product candidate may not be accepted as safe and effective by patients, the medical community or third-party payors, if applicable.

If any of these events occur, we may be forced to abandon our development efforts for a program or programs, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and could potentially cause us to cease operations.

We may not be successful in our efforts to further develop our BBB platform technology and current product candidates. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our product candidates before we receive regulatory approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. Each of our product candidates is in the early stages of development and will require significant additional clinical development, management of preclinical, clinical, and manufacturing activities, regulatory approval, adequate manufacturing supply, a commercial organization, and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenue from product sales, if at all.

We have never completed a clinical development program. We have previously discontinued the development of certain molecules prior to completion of preclinical development because we did not believe they met our criteria for potential clinical success. None of our product candidates have advanced into late-stage development or a pivotal clinical trial and it may be years before any such trial is initiated, if at all. Further, we cannot be certain that any of our product candidates will be successful in clinical trials. For instance, in June 2020, together with our collaboration partner Sanofi, we paused clinical activities with DNL747 to accelerate development of DNL788 (SAR443820), in part due to DNL747 preclinical chronic toxicity studies. We may in the future advance product candidates into clinical trials and terminate such trials prior to their completion.

If any of our product candidates successfully complete clinical trials, we generally plan to seek regulatory approval to market our product candidates in the United States, the European Union ("EU"), and in additional foreign countries where we believe there is a viable commercial opportunity. We have never commenced, compiled or submitted an application seeking regulatory approval to market any product candidate. We may never receive regulatory approval to market any product candidates even if such product candidates successfully complete clinical trials, which would adversely affect our viability. To obtain regulatory approval in countries outside the United States, we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such other countries regarding safety, efficacy or potency, purity, chemistry, manufacturing and controls, clinical trials, commercial sales, pricing, and distribution of our product candidates. We may also rely on our collaborators or partners to conduct the required activities to support an application for regulatory approval, and to seek approval, for one or more of our product candidates. We cannot be sure that our collaborators or partners will conduct these activities or do so within the time frame we desire. Even if we (or our collaborators or partners) are successful in obtaining approval in one jurisdiction, we cannot ensure that we will obtain approval in any other jurisdictions. If we are unable to obtain approval for our product candidates in multiple jurisdictions, our revenue, business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be negatively affected.

Even if we receive regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, whether for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or other diseases, we cannot assure you that any such product candidate will be successfully commercialized, widely accepted in the marketplace or more effective than other commercially available alternatives.
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Investment in biopharmaceutical product development involves significant risk that any product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate efficacy or potency, or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval, and become commercially viable. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to successfully advance any of our product candidates through the development process or, if approved, successfully commercialize any of our product candidates.
We may not be successful in our efforts to continue to create a pipeline of product candidates or to develop commercially successful products. If we fail to successfully identify and develop additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity may be limited.

One of our strategies is to identify and pursue clinical development of additional product candidates. We currently have several programs in the research, discovery and preclinical stages of development. Identifying, developing, obtaining regulatory approval and commercializing additional product candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases will require substantial additional funding and is prone to the risks of failure inherent in drug development. We cannot provide you any assurance that we will be able to successfully identify or acquire additional product candidates, advance any of these additional product candidates through the development process, successfully commercialize any such additional product candidates, if approved, or assemble sufficient resources to identify, acquire, develop or, if approved, commercialize additional product candidates. If we are unable to successfully identify, acquire, develop and commercialize additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity may be limited.
We have concentrated a substantial portion of our research and development efforts on the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, a field that has seen limited success in drug development. Further, our product candidates are based on new approaches and novel technology, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of product candidate development and subsequently obtaining regulatory approval.

We have focused our research and development efforts on addressing neurodegenerative diseases. Collectively, efforts by biopharmaceutical companies in the field of neurodegenerative diseases have seen limited success in drug development. There are few effective therapeutic options available for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. Our future success is highly dependent on the successful development of our BBB platform technology and our product candidates for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Developing and, if approved, commercializing our product candidates for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases subjects us to a number of challenges, including engineering product candidates to cross the BBB to enable optimal concentration of the therapeutic in the brain and obtaining regulatory approval from the FDA and other regulatory authorities who have only a limited set of precedents to rely on.

Our approach to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases aims to identify and select targets with a genetic link to neurodegenerative diseases, identify and develop molecules that engage the intended target, identify and develop biomarkers, which are biological molecules found in blood, other bodily fluids or tissues that are signs of a normal or abnormal process or of a condition or disease, to select the right patient population and demonstrate target engagement, pathway engagement and impact on disease progression of our molecules, and engineer our molecules to cross the BBB and act directly in the brain. This strategy may not prove to be successful. We may not be able to discover, develop and utilize biomarkers to demonstrate target engagement, pathway engagement and the impact on disease progression of our molecules. We cannot be sure that our approach will yield satisfactory therapeutic products that are safe and effective, scalable, or profitable. Moreover, public perception of drug safety issues, including adoption of new therapeutics or novel approaches to treatment, may adversely influence the willingness of subjects to participate in clinical trials, or if approved, of physicians to subscribe to novel treatments.
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We may encounter substantial delays in our clinical trials, or may not be able to conduct or complete our clinical trials on the timelines we expect, if at all.
Clinical testing is expensive, time consuming, and subject to uncertainty. We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. We cannot be sure that submission of an investigational new drug application ("IND"), or a clinical trial application ("CTA"), will result in the FDA or EMA, as applicable, allowing clinical trials to begin in a timely manner, if at all. Moreover, even if these trials begin, issues may arise that could suspend or terminate such clinical trials. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing, and our future clinical trials may not be successful. Events that may prevent successful or timely initiation or completion of clinical trials include:
 
inability to generate sufficient preclinical, toxicology, or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation or continuation of clinical trials;

delays in confirming target engagement, patient selection or other relevant biomarkers to be utilized in preclinical and clinical product candidate development;

delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory agencies on trial design;

delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and clinical trial sites;

delays in identifying, recruiting and training suitable clinical investigators;

delays in obtaining required Institutional Review Board ("IRB") approval at each clinical trial site;

imposition of a temporary or permanent clinical hold by regulatory agencies for a number of reasons, including after review of an IND or amendment, CTA or amendment, or equivalent application or amendment; as a result of a new safety finding that presents unreasonable risk to clinical trial participants; a negative finding from an inspection of our clinical trial operations or trial sites; developments on trials conducted by competitors for related technology that raises FDA or EMA concerns about risk to patients of the technology broadly; or if the FDA or EMA finds that the investigational protocol or plan is clearly deficient to meet its stated objectives;

delays in identifying, recruiting and enrolling suitable patients to participate in our clinical trials, and delays caused by patients withdrawing from clinical trials or failing to return for post-treatment follow-up;

difficulty collaborating with patient groups and investigators;

failure by our CROs, other third parties, or us to adhere to clinical trial requirements;

failure to perform in accordance with the FDA’s or any other regulatory authority’s current good clinical practices ("cGCPs") requirements, or applicable EMA or other regulatory guidelines in other countries;

occurrence of adverse events associated with the product candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits;

changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols;

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changes in the standard of care on which a clinical development plan was based, which may require new or additional trials;

the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates being greater than we anticipate;

clinical trials of our product candidates producing negative or inconclusive results, which may result in our deciding, or regulators requiring us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon product development programs;

transfer of manufacturing processes from our academic collaborators to larger-scale facilities operated by a CDMO or by us, and delays or failure by our CDMOs or us to make any necessary changes to such manufacturing process;

delays in manufacturing, testing, releasing, validating, or importing/exporting sufficient stable quantities of our product candidates for use in clinical trials or the inability to do any of the foregoing; and

delays associated with the COVID-19 global pandemic.

Any inability to successfully initiate or complete clinical trials could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenue. In addition, if we make manufacturing or formulation changes to our product candidates, we may be required to or we may elect to conduct additional studies to bridge our modified product candidates to earlier versions. Clinical trial delays could also shorten any periods during which our products have patent protection and may allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business and results of operations.

We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the data safety monitoring board for such trial or by the FDA, EMA or any other regulatory authority, or if the IRBs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted suspend or terminate the participation of their clinical investigators and sites subject to their review. Such authorities may suspend or terminate a clinical trial due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a product candidate, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

DNL201, a former LRRK2 inhibitor product candidate, completed a Phase 1b clinical trial in Parkinson's disease patients with and without the genetic LRRK2 mutation. This program was previously subject to a partial clinical hold due to preclinical toxicity data. The partial clinical hold was removed in December 2017 based on additional clinical and preclinical data provided to the FDA. In our completed Phase 1b clinical trial of DNL201 in patients with Parkinson’s disease, there was one SAE considered unrelated to drug, and at the high dose, there was one severe AE (headache) leading to dose reduction and one study withdrawal (headache and nausea). Our clinical-stage product candidates are DNL151 (BIIB122) for Parkinson's disease, DNL343 for ALS and FTD, DNL310 for Hunter syndrome, DNL758 (SAR443122) for system inflammatory diseases and DNL788 (SAR443820) for neurological diseases. In the nonclinical safety studies for these product candidates, toxicities were observed at high doses in rat and/or cynomolgus monkey above doses and exposures that will be tested in the clinic. We cannot assure you that DNL151 (BIIB122), DNL343, DNL310, DNL758 (SAR443122) and DNL788 (SAR443820), or our other product candidates will not be subject to new, partial or full clinical holds in the future.

We may in the future advance product candidates into clinical trials and terminate such trials prior to their completion, which could adversely affect our business. Further, after the commencement of clinical trials, we may pause the advancement of lead molecules in favor of a backup molecule with a superior safety or efficacy profile, such as we did in our RIPK1 program, switching our focus from DNL747 to DNL788 (SAR443820).
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Delays in the completion of any clinical trial of our product candidates will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and delay or potentially jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenue. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates.
We may encounter difficulties enrolling and/or retaining patients in our clinical trials, and our clinical development activities could thereby be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the trial until its conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment and retention in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including:
 
inability or delay in enrollment of patients due to a variety of reasons, including outbreaks and public health crises, such as the COVID-19 global pandemic;

the size and nature of the patient population;

the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol, including biomarker-driven identification and/or certain highly-specific criteria related to stage of disease progression, which may limit the patient populations eligible for our clinical trials to a greater extent than competing clinical trials for the same indication that do not have biomarker-driven patient eligibility criteria;

the size of the study population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

the proximity of patients to a trial site;

the design of the trial;

our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;

competing clinical trials for similar therapies or targeting patient populations meeting our patient eligibility criteria;

clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages and side effects of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies and product candidates;

our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents; and

the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will not complete such trials, for any reason, including the risk of higher drop-out rates if participants become infected with the COVID-19 virus or other infectious diseases that impact their participation in our trials.

Our inability to enroll and retain a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our product candidates and jeopardize our ability to obtain marketing approval for the sale of our product candidates. Furthermore, even if we are able to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials, we may have difficulty maintaining participation in our clinical trials through the treatment and any follow-up periods, which could delay or negatively impact the anticipated readouts from our clinical trials, delay our regulatory submissions, and increase the costs of the clinical trials.
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Our clinical trials may reveal significant adverse events, toxicities, or other side effects and may fail to demonstrate substantial evidence of the safety and efficacy or potency of our product candidates, which would prevent, delay or limit the scope of regulatory approval and commercialization.

Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate through lengthy, complex and expensive preclinical studies and clinical trials that our product candidates are both safe and effective for use in each target indication. For those product candidates that are subject to regulation as biological drug products, we will need to demonstrate that they are safe, pure, and potent for use in their target indications. Each product candidate must demonstrate an adequate risk versus benefit profile in its intended patient population and for its intended use.

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. The results of preclinical studies of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of early-stage or later-stage clinical trials, and results of early clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. The results of clinical trials in one set of patients or disease indications may not be predictive of those obtained in another. In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety or efficacy or potency results between different clinical trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial procedures set forth in protocols, differences in the size and type of the patient populations, changes in and adherence to the dosing regimen and other clinical trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Open-label extension studies may also extend the timing and increase the cost of clinical development substantially. Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy or potency profile despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or potency or unacceptable safety issues, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials. This is particularly true in neurodegenerative diseases, where failure rates historically have been higher than in many other disease areas. Most product candidates that begin clinical trials are never approved by regulatory authorities for commercialization.

We have limited experience in designing clinical trials and may be unable to design and execute a clinical trial to support marketing approval. We cannot be certain that our current clinical trials or any other future clinical trials will be successful. Additionally, any safety concerns observed in any one of our clinical trials in our targeted indications could limit the prospects for regulatory approval of our product candidates in those and other indications, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

In addition, even if such clinical trials are successfully completed, we cannot guarantee that the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities will interpret the results as we do, or that the product candidates will be approved for the currently proposed indications, and more trials could be required before we submit our product candidates for approval. To the extent that the results of the trials are not satisfactory to the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities for support of a marketing application, we may be required to expend significant resources, which may not be available to us, to conduct additional trials in support of potential approval of our product candidates. Even if regulatory approval is secured for any of our product candidates, the terms of such approval, such as requiring us to narrow our indications to smaller subset of patient population, may limit the scope and use of our product candidate, which may also limit its commercial potential.
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Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available, and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.
From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary, interim or topline data from our nonclinical studies and clinical trials. These interim updates are based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the topline results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. In addition, we may report interim analyses of only certain endpoints rather than all endpoints. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Adverse changes between interim data and final data could significantly harm our business and prospects. Further, additional disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors in the future could result in volatility in the price of our common stock.

Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular product candidate and our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is typically selected from a more extensive amount of available information. You or others may not agree with what we determine is the material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure, and any information we determine not to disclose may ultimately be deemed significant with respect to future decisions, conclusions, views, activities or otherwise regarding a particular product candidate or our business. If the preliminary or topline data that we report differ from late, final or actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize our product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We face significant competition in an environment of rapid technological and scientific change, and there is a possibility that our competitors may achieve regulatory approval before us or develop therapies that are safer, more advanced or more effective than ours, which may negatively impact our ability to successfully market or commercialize any product candidates we may develop and ultimately harm our financial condition.

The development and commercialization of new drug products is highly competitive. Moreover, the neurodegenerative field is characterized by strong and increasing competition, and a strong emphasis on intellectual property. We may face competition with respect to any product candidates that we seek to develop or commercialize in the future from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology companies worldwide. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies, and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection, and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing, and commercialization.

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There are a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are currently pursuing the development of products for the treatment of the neurodegenerative disease indications for which we have research programs, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and ALS. Companies that we are aware are developing therapeutics in the neurodegenerative disease area include companies with significant financial resources, such as AbbVie, Alector, AstraZeneca, Biogen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, E-Scape Bio, GlaxoSmithKline, Ionis, JCR Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Novartis, Prevail Therapeutics, Roche, Sanofi and Takeda. In addition to competition from other companies targeting neurodegenerative indications, any products we may develop may also face competition from other types of therapies, such as gene-editing therapies.
Many of our current or potential competitors, either alone or with their strategic partners, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient, or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Furthermore, currently approved products could be discovered to have application for treatment of neurodegenerative disease indications, which could give such products significant regulatory and market timing advantages over any of our product candidates. Our competitors also may obtain FDA, EMA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours and may obtain orphan product exclusivity from the FDA for indications our product candidates are targeting, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Additionally, products or technologies developed by our competitors may render our potential product candidates uneconomical or obsolete, and we may not be successful in marketing any product candidates we may develop against competitors.

In addition, we could face litigation or other proceedings with respect to the scope, ownership, validity and/or enforceability of our patents relating to our competitors’ products and our competitors may allege that our products infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their intellectual property. The availability of our competitors’ products could limit the demand, and the price we are able to charge, for any products that we may develop and commercialize. See “Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
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The manufacture of our product candidates, particularly those that utilize our BBB platform technology, is complex and we may encounter difficulties in production. If we or any of our third-party manufacturers encounter such difficulties, or fail to meet rigorously enforced regulatory standards, our ability to provide supply of our product candidates for clinical trials or our products for patients, if approved, could be delayed or stopped, or we may be unable to maintain a commercially viable cost structure.

The processes involved in manufacturing our drug and biological product candidates, particularly those that utilize our BBB platform technology, are complex, expensive, highly regulated and subject to multiple risks. Additionally, the manufacture of biologics involves complex processes, including developing cells or cell systems to produce the biologic, growing large quantities of such cells, and harvesting and purifying the biologic produced by them. As a result, the cost to manufacture a biologic is generally far higher than traditional small molecule chemical compounds, and the biologics manufacturing process is less reliable and is difficult to reproduce. Manufacturing biologics is highly susceptible to product loss due to contamination, equipment failure, improper installation or operation of equipment, vendor or operator error, inconsistency in yields, variability in product characteristics and difficulties in scaling the production process. Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. Further, as product candidates are developed through preclinical studies to late-stage clinical trials towards approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize processes and results. Such changes carry the risk that they will not achieve these intended objectives, and any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or other future clinical trials.
In order to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates, or supply commercial products, if approved, we will need to manufacture them in small and large quantities. Our manufacturing partners may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any of our product candidates in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, quality issues may arise during scale-up activities. If our manufacturing partners are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our product candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing and clinical trials of that product candidate may be delayed or become infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting product may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business. The same risks would apply to our internal manufacturing facilities and capabilities, which we are actively building. In addition, building internal manufacturing capacity carries significant risks in terms of being able to plan, design and execute on a complex project to build manufacturing facilities in a timely and cost-efficient manner, and our efforts to scale our internal manufacturing capabilities may not succeed.

In addition, the manufacturing process, including any material modifications in the manufacturing process for any products that we may develop is subject to FDA, EMA and foreign regulatory authority approval processes, and continuous oversight, and we will need to contract with manufacturers who can meet all applicable FDA, EMA and foreign regulatory authority requirements, including complying with current good manufacturing practices ("cGMPs"), on an ongoing basis. If we or our third-party manufacturers are unable to reliably produce products to specifications acceptable to the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities, we may not obtain or maintain the approvals we need to commercialize such products. Even if we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, there is no assurance that either we or our CDMOs will be able to manufacture the approved product to specifications acceptable to the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities, to produce it in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements for the potential launch of the product, or to meet potential future demand. Any of these challenges could delay completion of clinical trials, require bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidate, impair commercialization efforts, increase our cost of goods, and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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If, in the future, we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to sell and market any product candidates we may develop, we may not be successful in commercializing those product candidates if and when they are approved.

We do not have a sales or marketing infrastructure and have no experience in the sale, marketing, or distribution of pharmaceutical products. To achieve commercial success for any approved product for which we retain sales and marketing responsibilities, we must either develop a sales and marketing organization or outsource these functions to third parties. In the future, we may choose to build a focused sales, marketing, and commercial support infrastructure to sell, or participate in sales activities with our collaborators for, some of our product candidates if and when they are approved.

There are risks involved with both establishing our own commercial capabilities and entering into arrangements with third parties to perform these services. For example, recruiting and training a sales force or reimbursement specialists is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a product candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing and other commercialization capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our commercialization personnel.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize any approved product on our own include:
 
our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales, marketing, reimbursement, customer service, medical affairs, and other support personnel;

the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future approved products;

the inability of reimbursement professionals to negotiate arrangements for formulary access, reimbursement, and other acceptance by payors;

the inability to price our products at a sufficient price point to ensure an adequate and attractive level of profitability;

restricted or closed distribution channels that make it difficult to distribute our products to segments of the patient population;

the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and

unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent commercialization organization.

If we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing, commercial support, and distribution services, our product revenue or the profitability of product revenue may be lower than if we were to market and sell any products we may develop ourselves. In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to commercialize our product candidates or may be unable to do so on terms that are favorable to us. We may have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our products effectively. If we do not establish commercialization capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing our product candidates if approved.
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Even if any product candidates we develop receive marketing approval, they may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors, and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

The commercial success of any of our product candidates will depend upon its degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors, and others in the medical community. Even if any product candidates we may develop receive marketing approval, they may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors, and others in the medical community. The degree of market acceptance of any product candidates we may develop, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:
 
the efficacy or potency and safety of such product candidates as demonstrated in pivotal clinical trials and published in peer-reviewed journals;

the potential and perceived advantages compared to alternative treatments;

the ability to offer our products for sale at competitive prices;

the ability to offer appropriate patient access programs, such as co-pay assistance;

the extent to which physicians recommend our products to their patients;

convenience and ease of dosing and administration compared to alternative treatments;

the clinical indications for which the product candidate is approved by FDA, EMA or other regulatory agencies;

product labeling or product insert requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including any limitations, contraindications or warnings contained in a product’s approved labeling;

restrictions on how the product is distributed;

the timing of market introduction of competitive products;

publicity concerning our products or competing products and treatments;

the strength of marketing and distribution support;

sufficient third-party coverage or reimbursement; and

the prevalence and severity of any side effects.

If any product candidates we develop do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenue, and we may not become profitable.
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Even if we are able to commercialize any product candidates, such products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party reimbursement practices, or healthcare reform initiatives, which would harm our business.

The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, and reimbursement for new drugs vary widely from country to country. In the United States, recently enacted legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact the revenue we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more product candidates, even if any product candidates we may develop obtain marketing approval.
Our ability to successfully commercialize any products that we may develop also will depend in part on the extent to which reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers, and other organizations. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Government authorities currently impose mandatory discounts for certain patient groups, such as Medicare, Medicaid and Veterans Affairs ("VA"), hospitals, and may seek to increase such discounts at any time. Future regulation may negatively impact the price of our products, if approved. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. We cannot be sure that reimbursement will be available for any product candidate that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, the level of reimbursement. Reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. In order to get reimbursement, physicians may need to show that patients have superior treatment outcomes with our products compared to standard of care drugs, including lower-priced generic versions of standard of care drugs. If reimbursement is not available or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors and coverage and reimbursement levels for products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time consuming and costly process that may require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.

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There may be significant delays in obtaining reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the medicine is approved by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale, and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and profitable payment rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved products we may develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize product candidates, and our overall financial condition.
If any of our small molecule product candidates obtain regulatory approval, additional competitors could enter the market with generic versions of such drugs, which may result in a material decline in sales of affected products.

Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (the "Hatch-Waxman Act"), a pharmaceutical manufacturer may file an abbreviated new drug application ("ANDA") seeking approval of a generic copy of an approved, small molecule innovator product. Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, a manufacturer may also submit a new drug application ("NDA") under section 505(b)(2) that references the FDA’s prior approval of the small molecule innovator product. A 505(b)(2) NDA product may be for a new or improved version of the original innovator product. The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides for certain periods of regulatory exclusivity, which preclude FDA approval (or in some circumstances, FDA filing and reviewing) of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA. These include, subject to certain exceptions, the period during which an FDA-approved drug is subject to orphan drug exclusivity. In addition to the benefits of regulatory exclusivity, an innovator NDA holder may have patents claiming the active ingredient, product formulation or an approved use of the drug, which would be listed with the product in the FDA publication, “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” known as the “Orange Book.” If there are patents listed in the Orange Book, a generic or 505(b)(2) applicant that seeks to market its product before expiration of the patents must include in the ANDA a “Paragraph IV certification,” challenging the validity or enforceability of, or claiming non-infringement of, the listed patent or patents. Notice of the certification must be given to the innovator, too, and if within 45 days of receiving notice the innovator sues to protect its patents, approval of the ANDA is stayed for 30 months, or as lengthened or shortened by the court.

Accordingly, if any of our small molecule product candidates are approved, competitors could file ANDAs for generic versions of our small molecule drug products or 505(b)(2) NDAs that reference our small molecule drug products, respectively. If there are patents listed for our small molecule drug products in the Orange Book, those ANDAs and 505(b)(2) NDAs would be required to include a certification as to each listed patent indicating whether the ANDA applicant does or does not intend to challenge the patent. We cannot predict which, if any, patents in our current portfolio or patents we may obtain in the future will be eligible for listing in the Orange Book, how any generic competitor would address such patents, whether we would sue on any such patents, or the outcome of any such suit.

We may not be successful in securing or maintaining proprietary patent protection for products and technologies we develop or license. Moreover, if any of our owned or in-licensed patents that are listed in the Orange Book are successfully challenged by way of a Paragraph IV certification and subsequent litigation, the affected product could immediately face generic competition and its sales would likely decline rapidly and materially. Should sales decline, we may have to write off a portion or all of the intangible assets associated with the affected product and our results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. See “Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
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Our biologic, or large molecule, product candidates for which we intend to seek approval may face competition sooner than anticipated.

Even if we are successful in achieving regulatory approval to commercialize a product candidate faster than our competitors, our large molecule product candidates may face competition from biosimilar products. In the United States, our large molecule product candidates are regulated by the FDA as biologic products and we intend to seek approval for these product candidates pursuant to the biologics license application ("BLA"), pathway. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (the "BPCIA"), created an abbreviated pathway for the approval of biosimilar and interchangeable biologic products. The abbreviated regulatory pathway establishes legal authority for the FDA to review and approve biosimilar biologics, including the possible designation of a biosimilar as “interchangeable” based on its similarity to an existing brand product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product cannot be approved by the FDA until 12 years after the original branded product was approved under a BLA. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty. While it is uncertain when such processes intended to implement BPCIA may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our large molecule product candidates.

We believe that any of our large molecule product candidates approved as a biologic product under a BLA should qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider our product candidates to be reference products for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for generic competition sooner than anticipated. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar product, once approved, will be substituted for any one of our reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biologic products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing. In addition, a competitor could decide to forego the biosimilar approval path and submit a full BLA after completing its own preclinical studies and clinical trials. In such cases, any exclusivity to which we may be eligible under the BPCIA would not prevent the competitor from marketing its product as soon as it is approved.

In Europe, the European Commission has granted marketing authorizations for several biosimilar products pursuant to a set of general and product class-specific guidelines for biosimilar approvals issued over the past few years. In Europe, a competitor may reference data supporting approval of an innovative biological product, but will not be able to get it on the market until 10 years after the time of approval of the innovative product. This 10-year marketing exclusivity period will be extended to 11 years if, during the first eight of those 10 years, the marketing authorization holder obtains an approval for one or more new therapeutic indications that bring significant clinical benefits compared with existing therapies. In addition, companies may be developing biosimilar products in other countries that could compete with our products, if approved.

If competitors are able to obtain marketing approval for biosimilars referencing our large molecule product candidates, if approved, such products may become subject to competition from such biosimilars, with the attendant competitive pressure and potential adverse consequences. Such competitive products may be able to immediately compete with us in each indication for which our product candidates may have received approval.
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If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates.

We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the clinical testing of our product candidates and will face an even greater risk when and if we commercialize any products. For example, we may be sued if our product candidates cause or are perceived to cause injury or are found to be otherwise unsuitable during clinical testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit testing and commercialization of our product candidates. Even successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:
 
decreased or interrupted demand for our products;

injury to our reputation;

withdrawal of clinical trial participants and inability to continue clinical trials;

initiation of investigations by regulators;

costs to defend the related litigation;

a diversion of management’s time and our resources;

substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

loss of revenue;

exhaustion of any available insurance and our capital resources;

the inability to commercialize any product candidate; and

a decline in our share price.

Our inability to obtain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of products we develop, alone or with collaborators. Our insurance policies may have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts. Even if our agreements with any future corporate collaborators entitle us to indemnification against losses, such indemnification may not be available or adequate should any claim arise.
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Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Other Legal Compliance Matters
The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming, and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.
The time required to obtain approval by the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable, typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials, and depends upon numerous factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions, which may cause delays in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. Moreover, the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities may fail to approve companion diagnostics that we contemplate using with our therapeutic product candidates. We have not submitted for, or obtained regulatory approval for any product candidate, and it is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any product candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.

Applications for our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval in an initial or subsequent indication for many reasons, including but not limited to the following:
 
the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation or results of our clinical trials;

the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may determine that our product candidates are not safe and effective, only moderately effective or have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use;

the population studied in the clinical program may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure efficacy or potency and safety in the full population for which we seek approval;

we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio when compared to the standard of care is acceptable;

the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA, BLA, or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio for its proposed indication is acceptable;

the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes, test procedures and specifications, or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

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This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of the results of clinical trials, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations, and prospects.
Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could halt their clinical development, prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercial potential, or result in significant negative consequences.

Adverse events or other undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay, or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

Our most advanced product candidates, DNL151 (BIIB122), DNL343, DNL310, DNL758 (SAR443122) and DNL788 (SAR443820) are currently our only clinical stage product candidates. In our completed Phase 1b clinical trial of former product candidate DNL201 in patients with Parkinson’s disease, there was one SAE considered unrelated to drug, and at the high dose, there was one severe AE (headache) leading to dose reduction and one study withdrawal (headache and nausea). Adverse events and other side effects may result from higher dosing, repeated dosing and/or longer-term exposure to DNL151 (BIIB122), DNL343 and/or DNL310 and could lead to delays and/or termination of the development of these product candidates.

In 2020, we paused clinical studies with DNL747 in our RIPK1 program. Chronic toxicity studies with DNL747 in cynomolgus monkeys showed dose- and duration-dependent adverse preclinical findings at exposures higher than those tested in the clinic. These findings, which are considered off-target and molecule-specific, may impact the ability to increase the dose of DNL747 and achieve higher levels of target inhibition without time consuming additional clinical safety studies in patients to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability.

Drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment, the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial, and/or result in potential product liability claims. We are required to maintain product liability insurance pursuant to certain of our license agreements. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our stock price to decline and, if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could adversely affect our results of operations and business. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in impairment of our business reputation, withdrawal of clinical trial participants, costs due to related litigation, distraction of management’s attention from our primary business, initiation of investigations by regulators, substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants, the inability to commercialize our product candidates, and decreased demand for our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale.

Additionally, if one or more of our product candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects or adverse events caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including but not limited to:
 
regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such product and cause us to recall our product;

regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label;

we may be required to change the way the product is administered or conduct additional clinical trials or post-approval studies;

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we may be required to create a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy plan, which could include a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients, a communication plan for healthcare providers, and/or other elements, such as boxed warning on the packaging, to assure safe use;

 we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

our reputation may suffer.
Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects. We cannot predict whether our product candidates will cause toxicities in humans that would preclude or lead to the revocation of regulatory approval based on nonclinical studies or early-stage clinical trials.
We may in the future conduct clinical trials for our product candidates outside the United States, and the FDA, EMA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from such trials.

We may in the future choose to conduct one or more of our clinical trials outside the United States, including in Europe. The acceptance of data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States or another jurisdiction by the FDA, EMA or applicable foreign regulatory authority may be subject to certain conditions. In cases where data from foreign clinical trials are intended to serve as the basis for marketing approval in the United States, the FDA will generally not approve the application on the basis of foreign data alone unless (i) the data are applicable to the United States population and United States medical practice; and (ii) the trials were performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence and pursuant to cGCP regulations. Additionally, the FDA’s clinical trial requirements, including sufficient size of patient populations and statistical powering, must be met. Many foreign regulatory bodies have similar approval requirements. In addition, such foreign trials would be subject to the applicable local laws of the foreign jurisdictions where the trials are conducted. There can be no assurance that the FDA, EMA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States or the applicable jurisdiction. If the FDA, EMA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority does not accept such data, it would result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay aspects of our business plan, and which may result in our product candidates not receiving approval or clearance for commercialization in the applicable jurisdiction.
Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in other jurisdictions.

Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain regulatory approval in any other jurisdiction, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one jurisdiction may have a negative effect on the regulatory approval process in others. For example, even if the FDA or EMA grants marketing approval of a product candidate, comparable regulatory authorities in foreign jurisdictions must also approve the manufacturing, marketing and promotion of the product candidate in those countries. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from those in the United States, including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials as clinical trials conducted in one jurisdiction may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. In many jurisdictions outside the United States, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that jurisdiction. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for our products is also subject to approval.

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Obtaining foreign regulatory approvals and compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. If we or any partner we work with fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets or fail to receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our product candidates will be harmed.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, our products will remain subject to extensive regulatory scrutiny.

If any of our product candidates are approved, they will be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping, conduct of post-marketing studies, and submission of safety, efficacy or potency, and other post-market information, including both federal and state requirements in the United States and requirements of comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

While healthcare professionals are free to use and prescribe drug products for off-label uses, FDA strictly regulates manufacturers’ promotional claims of drug products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the FDA-approved labeling. The FDA, the Department of Justice, the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, among other government agencies, actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability, including large civil and criminal fines, penalties, and enforcement actions. If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of our approved product candidates, we could become subject to significant liability, which would materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Manufacturers and manufacturers’ facilities are required to comply with extensive requirements imposed by the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMP regulations. As such, we and our contract manufacturers will be subject to continual review and inspections to assess compliance with cGMP and adherence to commitments made in any NDA, BLA or marketing authorization application ("MAA"). Accordingly, we and others with whom we work must continue to expend time, money, and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production and quality control.

Any regulatory approvals that we receive for our product candidates will be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed and promoted or to the conditions of approval (including the requirement to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy) or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing. We will be required to report certain adverse reactions and production problems, if any, to the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Any new legislation addressing drug safety issues could result in delays in product development or commercialization, or increased costs to assure compliance. The FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure that they are manufactured, marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. We will have to comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for our products. Promotional communications with respect to prescription drugs are subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions and must be consistent with the information in the product’s approved label. As such, we may not promote our products for indications or uses for which they do not have approval. The holder of an approved NDA, BLA, or MAA must submit new or supplemental applications and obtain approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling, or manufacturing process. We could also be asked to conduct post-marketing clinical trials to verify the safety and efficacy of our non-biologic products or safety, purity, and potency for our biologic products, in general or in specific patient subsets. If original marketing approval was obtained via the accelerated approval pathway, we could be required to conduct a successful post-marketing clinical trial to confirm clinical benefit for our products. An unsuccessful post-marketing study or failure to complete such a study could result in the withdrawal of marketing approval.

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If a regulatory agency discovers previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, or disagrees with the promotion, marketing or labeling of a product, such regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product or us, including requiring withdrawal of the product from the market. If we fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency or enforcement authority may, among other things:
 
issue warning letters that would result in adverse publicity;

impose civil or criminal penalties;

suspend or withdraw regulatory approvals;

suspend any of our ongoing clinical trials;

refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications submitted by us;

impose restrictions on our operations, including closing our contract manufacturers’ facilities;

seize or detain products; and/or

require a product recall.

Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response, and could generate negative publicity. Any failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements may significantly and adversely affect our ability to commercialize and generate revenue from our products. If regulatory sanctions are applied or if regulatory approval is withdrawn, the value of our company and our operating results will be adversely affected.
We plan to seek orphan drug designation for some product candidates, but we may be unable to obtain such designations or to maintain the benefits associated with orphan drug status, including market exclusivity, which may cause our revenue, if any, to be reduced.

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biologic intended to treat a rare disease or condition, defined as a disease or condition with a patient population of fewer than 200,000 in the United States, or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the United States when there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available the drug or biologic in the United States will be recovered from sales in the United States for that drug or biologic. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA or BLA. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and user-fee waivers. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process. In February 2019, the FDA granted orphan drug designation for our DNL310 program in Hunter syndrome. We plan to seek orphan drug designations for some other product candidates, but we may be unable to obtain such designations.

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If a product that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for a particular active ingredient for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity, which means that the FDA may not approve any other NDA or BLA applications to market the same drug or biologic for the same indication for seven years, except in limited circumstances such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity or if FDA finds that the holder of the orphan exclusivity has not shown that it can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan product to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated. As a result, even though DNL310 has been granted orphan drug designation and even if one of our product candidates receives orphan exclusivity, the FDA can still approve other drugs that have a different active ingredient for use in treating the same indication or disease. Furthermore, the FDA can waive orphan exclusivity if we are unable to manufacture sufficient supply of our product.

We may seek Fast Track designation from the FDA for one or more of our product candidates. Even if one or more of our product candidates receive Fast Track designation, we may be unable to obtain or maintain the benefits associated with the Fast Track designation.

Recently, the FDA granted Fast Track designation to DNL788 (SAR443820). Fast Track designation is designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of therapies to treat serious conditions and fill an unmet medical need. Programs with Fast Track designation may benefit from early and frequent communications with the FDA, potential priority review and the ability to submit a rolling application for regulatory review. Fast Track designation applies to both the product candidate and the specific indication for which it is being studied. However, if we do not continue to meet the criteria of the Fast Track designation, or if our clinical trials are delayed, suspended or terminated, or put on clinical hold due to unexpected adverse events or issues with clinical supply, we will not receive the benefits associated with the Fast Track program. Furthermore, Fast Track designation does not change the standards for approval. Fast Track designation alone does not guarantee qualification for the FDA’s priority review procedures. Fast track designation also does not guarantee our product candidate will be approved in a timely manner, if at all.

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Healthcare legislative measures aimed at reducing healthcare costs may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We may face difficulties from changes to current regulations and future legislation. Current and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to commercialize our drugs, if approved, and affect the prices we may obtain, including changes in coverage and reimbursement policies in certain market segments for our product candidates, which could make it difficult for us to sell our product candidates, if approved, profitably. Third-party payors, whether domestic or foreign, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the health care system that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably. In particular, in 2010, the Affordable Care Act ("ACA"), was enacted, which, among other things, subjected biologic products to potential competition by lower-cost biosimilars, addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected, increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, subjected manufacturers to new annual fees and taxes for certain branded prescription drugs, and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research. Under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, effective January 1, 2024, the statutory cap on Medicaid Drug Rebate Program rebates that manufacturers pay to state Medicaid programs will be eliminated. Elimination of this cap may require pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay more in rebates than it receives on the sale of products, which could have a material impact on our business. In July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order, "Promoting Competition in the American Economy," with multiple provisions aimed at increasing competition for prescription drugs. In response to this executive order, the Department of Health and Human Services ("HHS") has released a Comprehensive Plan for Addressing High Drug Prices that outlines principles for drug pricing reform and potential legislative policies that Congress could pursue to advance these principles. In addition, Congress is considering legislation that, if passed, could have significant impact on prices of prescription drugs covered by Medicare, including limitations on drug price increases, which may adversely affect our profitability. At the state level, a number of states are considering or have recently enacted state drug price transparency and reporting laws that could substantially increase our compliance burdens and expose us to greater liability under such state laws once we begin commercialization after obtaining regulatory approval for any of our products.

Since its enactment, there have been executive, judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. In June 2021, the United States Supreme Court held that Texas and other challengers had no legal standing to challenge the ACA, dismissing the case without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Accordingly, the ACA remains in effect in its current form. It is unclear how this Supreme Court decision, future litigation, or healthcare measures promulgated by the Biden administration will impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Complying with any new legislation or changes in healthcare regulation could be time-intensive and expensive, resulting in material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in 2013, and will remain in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension implemented under various COVID-19 relief legislation from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021, unless additional Congressional action is taken. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 further reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

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There have been, and likely will continue to be, legislative and regulatory proposals at the foreign, federal and state levels directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. We cannot predict the initiatives that may be adopted in the future. The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of healthcare and/or impose price controls may adversely affect:
 
the demand for our product candidates, if we obtain regulatory approval;

our ability to receive or set a price that we believe is fair for our products;

our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability;

the level of taxes that we are required to pay; and

the availability of capital. 
 
We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, lower reimbursement, and new payment methodologies. This could lower the price that we receive for any approved product. Any denial in coverage or reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar denial or reduction in payments from private payors, which may prevent us from being able to generate sufficient revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our product candidates, if approved.
Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud, misconduct or other illegal activity by our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners and vendors. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless and negligent conduct that fails to: comply with the laws of the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities; provide true, complete and accurate information to the FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities; comply with manufacturing standards we have established; comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws in the United States and similar foreign fraudulent misconduct laws; or report financial information or data accurately or to disclose unauthorized activities to us. If we obtain FDA approval of any of our product candidates and begin commercializing those products in the United States, our potential exposure under such laws will increase significantly, and our costs associated with compliance with such laws are also likely to increase. In particular, research, sales, marketing, education and other business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws designed to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, educating, marketing and promotion, sales and commission, certain customer incentive programs and other business arrangements generally. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of patient recruitment for clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics, but it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.
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If we fail to comply with healthcare laws, we could face substantial penalties and our business, operations and financial conditions could be adversely affected.

If we obtain FDA approval for any of our product candidates and begin commercializing those products in the United States, our operations will be subject to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws. The laws that may impact our operations include:
 
the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce, or in return for, either the referral of an individual, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of any good, facility, item or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The intent standard under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute was amended by the ACA to eliminate the need to prove specific intent and actual knowledge to establish an Anti-Kickback Statute violation. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act;

federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the False Claims Act, which can be enforced through civil “qui tam” or “whistleblower” actions, and civil monetary penalty laws generally prohibit individuals or entities, among other things, from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment or approval from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent or knowingly making a false statement to improperly avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of these statutes or specific intent to violate them in order to have committed a violation;

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA"), which created new federal criminal statutes that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters;

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 ("HITECH"), and their respective implementing regulations, which impose requirements on certain covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses as well as their respective business associates that perform services for them that involve the use, or disclosure of, individually identifiable health information, relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization;

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the federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act, created under the ACA, and its implementing regulations, which require manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologicals and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the Open Payments Program, information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians, as defined by law, and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Effective January 1, 2022, for data collected in 2021 and reported to CMS in 2022, these reporting and transparency requirements have been extended to include payments and transfers of value made during the previous year to certain non-physician covered recipients, including physician assistants, nurse practitioners and other mid-level practitioners;

federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers; and

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state and foreign anti-kickback, false claims, consumer protection and unfair competition laws which may apply to pharmaceutical business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements as well as submitting claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payer, including commercial insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government that otherwise restricts payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require drug manufacturers to file reports with states regarding pricing and marketing information, such as the tracking and reporting of gifts, compensations and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could, despite our efforts to comply, be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements will comply with applicable healthcare laws may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental and enforcement authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law interpreting applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, disgorgement, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. In addition, the approval and commercialization of any of our product candidates outside the United States will also likely subject us to foreign equivalents of the healthcare laws mentioned above, among other foreign laws.
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Our business is subject to complex and evolving U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, information security policies and contractual obligations relating to privacy and data protection, including the use, processing, and cross-border transfer of personal information. These laws and regulations are subject to change and uncertain interpretation, and could result in claims, changes to our business practices, or monetary penalties, and otherwise may harm our business.

We receive, generate and store significant and increasing volumes of sensitive information and business-critical information, including employee and personal data (including protected health information), research and development information, commercial information, and business and financial information. We heavily rely on external security and infrastructure vendors to manage our information technology systems and data centers. We face a number of risks relative to protecting this critical information, including loss of access risk, inappropriate use or disclosure, inappropriate modification, and the risk of our being unable to adequately monitor, audit and modify our controls over our critical information. This risk extends to the third-party vendors and subcontractors we use to manage this sensitive data.
A wide variety of provincial, state, national, and international laws, and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal data. These data protection and privacy-related laws and regulations are evolving and may result in ever-increasing regulatory and public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions. For example, the collection and use of personal data in the EU are governed by the EU General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"), which became fully effective on May 25, 2018. The GDPR imposes stringent data protection requirements, including, for example, more robust disclosures to individuals and a strengthened individual data rights regime, shortened timelines for data breach notifications, limitations on retention of information, increased requirements pertaining to special categories of data, such as health data, and additional obligations when we contract with third-party processors in connection with the processing of the personal data. The GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the EU to the United States and other third countries and in the context of clinical trials, we currently rely on patient informed consent as the legal basis for such transfers. In addition, the GDPR provides that EU member states may make their own further laws and regulations limiting the processing of personal data, including genetic, biometric or health data. The GDPR provides for penalties for noncompliance of up to the greater of €20 million or four percent of worldwide annual revenues. The GDPR applies extraterritorially, and we may be subject to the GDPR because of our data processing activities that involve the personal data of individuals located in the EU, such as in connection with any EU clinical trials. GDPR regulations may impose additional responsibility and liability in relation to the personal data that we process and we may be required to put in place additional mechanisms to ensure compliance with the new data protection rules. Beginning in 2021, the UK will be a “third country” under the GDPR. We may, however, incur liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses under GDPR as well as applicable EU Member States and the United Kingdom privacy laws. This may be onerous and may interrupt or delay our development activities, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Further, various states, such as California and Massachusetts, have implemented similar privacy laws and regulations that impose restrictive requirements regulating the use and disclosure of health information and other personally identifiable information. These laws and regulations are not necessarily preempted by HIPAA, particularly if a state affords greater protection to individuals than HIPAA. Where state laws are more protective, we have to comply with the stricter provisions. In addition to fines and penalties imposed upon violators, some of these state laws also afford private rights of action to individuals who believe their personal information has been misused. For example, California recently enacted legislation, the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"), that will, among other things, require covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers, and afford such consumers new abilities to opt-out of certain sales of personal information, that became effective on January 1, 2020. The CCPA was amended several times throughout 2018 and 2019, and it is unclear whether further modifications will be made to this legislation or how it will be interpreted. Some observers have noted the CCPA could be the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation throughout the United States, as evidenced by the recent Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, enacted March 2021, and the Colorado Privacy Act, enacted June 2021. The CCPA, as amended and expanded by the California Privacy Rights Act ("CPRA"), requires covered companies to provide new disclosures to individuals and consumers in California, and afford such individuals and consumers new data protection rights, including the ability to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The GDPR, CCPA, CPRA and many other federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection are still being tested in courts, and they are subject to new and differing interpretations by courts and regulatory officials. Additionally, the interplay of federal and state laws may be subject to varying interpretations by courts and government agencies, creating complex compliance issues for us and data we receive, use and share, potentially exposing us to additional expense, adverse publicity and liability. We are working to comply with the GDPR, CCPA and other privacy and data protection laws and regulations that apply to us, and we anticipate needing to devote significant additional resources to complying with these laws and regulations. These and future laws and regulations may increase our compliance costs and potential liability.
It is possible that the GDPR, CCPA or other laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction or inconsistent with our current policies and practices and compliance with such laws and regulations could require us to change our business practices and compliance procedures in a manner adverse to our business. We cannot guarantee that we are in compliance with all such applicable data protection laws and regulations and we cannot be sure how these regulations will be interpreted, enforced or applied to our operations. Furthermore, other jurisdictions outside the EU are similarly introducing or enhancing privacy and data security laws, rules, and regulations, which could increase our compliance costs and the risks associated with noncompliance. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices and our efforts to comply with the evolving data protection rules may be unsuccessful. We cannot guarantee that we or our vendors may be in compliance with all applicable international laws and regulations as they are enforced now or as they evolve. For example, our privacy policies may be insufficient to protect any personal information we collect, or may not comply with applicable laws. Our non-compliance could result in government-imposed fines or orders requiring that we change our practices, which could adversely affect our business. In addition to the risks associated with enforcement activities and potential contractual liabilities, our ongoing efforts to comply with evolving laws and regulations at the federal and state level may be costly and require ongoing modifications to our policies, procedures and systems. In addition, if we are unable to properly protect the privacy and security of protected health information, we could be found to have breached our contracts.

Our actual or perceived failure to adequately comply with applicable laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection, or to protect personal data and other data we process or maintain, could result in regulatory enforcement actions against us, including fines, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, claims for damages by affected individuals, other lawsuits or reputational and damage, all of which could materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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If we or any contract manufacturers and suppliers we engage fail to comply with environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

We and any contract manufacturers and suppliers we engage are subject to numerous federal, state, and local environmental, health, and safety laws, regulations, and permitting requirements, including those governing laboratory procedures; the generation, handling, use, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous and regulated materials and wastes; the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air, and water; and employee health and safety. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological and radioactive materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. Under certain environmental laws, we could be held responsible for costs relating to any contamination at our current or past facilities and at third-party facilities. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.
Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations may be expensive, and current or future environmental laws and regulations may impair our research, product development and manufacturing efforts. In addition, we cannot entirely eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from these materials or wastes. Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not carry specific biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage, and our property, casualty, and general liability insurance policies specifically exclude coverage for damages and fines arising from biological or hazardous waste exposure or contamination. Accordingly, in the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for damages or be penalized with fines in an amount exceeding our resources, and our clinical trials or regulatory approvals could be suspended, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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Our business activities may be subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, as well as U.S. and certain foreign export controls, trade sanctions, and import laws and regulations.

Our business activities may be subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the "FCPA"), and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate, including the U.K. Bribery Act. The FCPA generally prohibits offering, promising, giving, or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to a non-U.S. government official in order to influence official action, or otherwise obtain or retain business. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with public officials, including officials of non-U.S. governments. Additionally, in many other countries, the health care providers who prescribe pharmaceuticals are employed by their government, and the purchasers of pharmaceuticals are government entities; therefore, our dealings with these prescribers and purchasers are subject to regulation under the FCPA. Recently the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), and Department of Justice have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. There is no certainty that all of our employees, agents, contractors, or collaborators, or those of our affiliates, will comply with all applicable laws and regulations, particularly given the high level of complexity of these laws. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, the closing down of our facilities, requirements to obtain export licenses, cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries, implementation of compliance programs, and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could include prohibitions on our ability to offer our products in one or more countries and could materially damage our reputation, our brand, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, and our business, prospects, operating results, and financial condition.

In addition, in the future once we enter a commercialization phase, our products may be subject to U.S. and foreign export controls, trade sanctions and import laws and regulations. Governmental regulation of the import or export of our products, or our failure to obtain any required import or export authorization for our products, when applicable, could harm our international sales and adversely affect our revenue. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the export of our products may create delays in the introduction of our products in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export of our products to some countries altogether. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to countries, governments, and persons targeted by U.S. sanctions. If we fail to comply with export and import regulations and such economic sanctions, we may be fined or other penalties could be imposed, including a denial of certain export privileges. Moreover, any new export or import restrictions, new legislation or shifting approaches in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or in the countries, persons, or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export our products to existing or potential customers with international operations. Any limitation on our ability to export or sell access to our products would likely adversely affect our business.
Inadequate funding for the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

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The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the FDA have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the SEC and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable. Disruptions at the FDA and other government agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including from December 22, 2018 until January 25, 2019, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, have had to furlough critical FDA, SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, in our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain the funding necessary to properly capitalize and continue our operations.
Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties
We expect to depend on collaborations with third parties for the research, development and commercialization of certain of the product candidates we may develop. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to realize the market potential of those product candidates.

We anticipate seeking third-party collaborators for the research, development, and commercialization of certain of the product candidates we may develop. For example, we have collaborations with F-star, Takeda, Sanofi, Biogen and others, to further our development of product candidates and to enhance our research efforts directed to better understanding neurodegenerative diseases. Our likely collaborators for any other collaboration arrangements include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies and academic institutions. If we enter into any such arrangements with any third parties, we will likely have shared or limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or potential commercialization of any product candidates we may seek to develop with them. Our ability to generate revenue from these arrangements with commercial entities will depend on our collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. We cannot predict the success of any collaboration that we enter into.

Collaborations involving our research programs, or any product candidates we may develop, pose the following risks to us:
 
collaborators generally have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;

collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, enforce, or defend intellectual property or proprietary rights relating to our product candidates or research programs or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to expose us to potential litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings, including proceedings challenging the scope, ownership, validity and enforceability of our intellectual property;

collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property covering our product candidates or research programs that results from our collaboration with them, and in such cases, we may not have the exclusive right to commercialize such intellectual property or such product candidates or research programs;

we may need the cooperation of our collaborators to enforce or defend any intellectual property we contribute to or that arises out of our collaborations, which may not be provided to us;
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collaborators may control certain interactions with regulatory authorities, which may impact on our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our products candidates;

disputes may arise between the collaborators and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development, or commercialization of our product candidates or research programs or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;

collaborators may decide to not pursue development and commercialization of any product candidates we develop or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborator’s strategic focus or available funding or external factors such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials, or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates or research programs if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;

collaborators may restrict us from researching, developing or commercializing certain products or technologies without their involvement;

collaborators with marketing and distribution rights to one or more product candidates may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product candidates;

we may lose certain valuable rights under circumstances identified in our collaborations, including if we undergo a change of control;

collaborators may grant sublicenses to our technology or product candidates or undergo a change of control and the sublicensees or new owners may decide to take the collaboration in a direction which is not in our best interest;

collaborators may become bankrupt, which may significantly delay our research or development programs, or may cause us to lose access to valuable technology, know-how or intellectual property of the collaborator relating to our products, product candidates or research programs;

key personnel at our collaborators may leave, which could negatively impact our ability to productively work with our collaborators;

collaborations may require us to incur short and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our stockholders, or disrupt our management and business;

if our collaborators do not satisfy their obligations under our agreements with them, or if they terminate our collaborations with them, we may not be able to develop or commercialize product candidates as planned;

collaborations may require us to share in development and commercialization costs pursuant to budgets that we do not fully control and our failure to share in such costs could have a detrimental impact on the collaboration or our ability to share in revenue generated under the collaboration;

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collaborations may be terminated in their entirety or with respect to certain product candidates or technologies and, if so terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates or technologies, including our BBB platform technology; and

collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates in the most efficient manner or at all. If a present or future collaborator of ours were to be involved in a business combination, the continued pursuit and emphasis on our development or commercialization program under such collaboration could be delayed, diminished, or terminated.

We may face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborations. Recent business combinations among biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have resulted in a reduced number of potential collaborators. In addition, the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex, and we may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of the product candidate for which we are seeking to collaborate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop product candidates or bring them to market and generate product revenue.

If we enter into collaborations to develop and potentially commercialize any product candidates, we may not be able to realize the benefit of such transactions if we or our collaborator elects not to exercise the rights granted under the agreement or if we or our collaborator are unable to successfully integrate a product candidate into existing operations and company culture. The failure to develop and commercialize a product candidate pursuant to our agreements with our current or future collaborators could prevent us from receiving future payments under such agreements, which could negatively impact our revenues. In addition, if our agreement with any of our collaborators terminates, our access to technology and intellectual property licensed to us by that collaborator may be restricted or terminate entirely, which may delay our continued development of our product candidates utilizing the collaborator’s technology or intellectual property or require us to stop development of those product candidates completely. We may also find it more difficult to find a suitable replacement collaborator or attract new collaborators, and our development programs may be delayed or the perception of us in the business and financial communities could be adversely affected. Many of the risks relating to product development, regulatory approval, and commercialization described in this “Risk Factors” section also apply to the activities of our collaborators and any negative impact on our collaborators may adversely affect us.
We expect to rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and some aspects of our research and preclinical testing, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials, research, or testing
We currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions, and clinical investigators, to conduct some aspects of our research and preclinical testing and our clinical trials. Any of these third parties may terminate their engagements with us or be unable to fulfill their contractual obligations. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements, it would delay our product development activities.

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Our reliance on these third parties for research and development activities reduces our control over these activities but does not relieve us of our responsibilities. For example, we remain responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with cGCPs for conducting, recording, and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible, reproducible and accurate and that the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. We also are required to register ongoing clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database within certain time frames. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity, and civil and criminal sanctions.

Our third-party service providers are not our employees, and we are therefore unable to directly monitor whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our clinical and nonclinical programs. These third-party service providers may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other drug development activities that could harm our competitive position. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines, or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for any product candidates we may develop and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our medicines.

We also expect to rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors, including with the shipment of any drug supplies, could delay clinical development or marketing approval of any product candidates we may develop or commercialization of our medicines, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.
We currently contract with third parties for the manufacture of materials for our research programs, preclinical studies and clinical trials and expect to continue to do so for commercialization of some or all product candidates that we may develop. This reliance on third parties may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of such materials, product candidates, or any medicines that we may develop and commercialize, or that such supply will not be available to us at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent, or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We do not have any operational manufacturing facilities. We currently rely on third-party manufacturers for the manufacture of our materials for preclinical studies and clinical trials and expect to continue to do so for some or all of our materials for preclinical studies, clinical trials and for commercial supply of any product candidates that we may develop.

We may be unable to establish any further agreements with third-party manufacturers or to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:

the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party;

the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us;

reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance, quality assurance, safety, and pharmacovigilance and related reporting; and

the inability to produce required volume in a timely manner and to quality standards.
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Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside the United States. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in clinical holds on our trials, sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocations, seizures or recalls of product candidates or medicines, operating restrictions, and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our medicines and harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

Any medicines that we may develop may compete with other product candidates and products for access to manufacturing facilities. There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under cGMP regulations and that might be capable of manufacturing for us.

Any performance failure on the part of our existing or future manufacturers could delay clinical development or marketing approval. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply for any of our product candidates. If any one of our current contract manufacturers cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace that manufacturer and may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacement. Furthermore, securing and reserving production capacity with contract manufacturers may result in significant costs.

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of any product candidates we may develop or medicines may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any medicines that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.
We depend on third-party suppliers for key raw materials used in our manufacturing processes, and the loss of these third-party suppliers or their inability to supply us with adequate raw materials could harm our business.

We rely on third-party suppliers for the raw materials required for the production of our product candidates. Our dependence on these third-party suppliers and the challenges we may face in obtaining adequate supplies of raw materials involve several risks, including limited control over pricing, availability, quality and delivery schedules. As a small company, our negotiation leverage is limited and we are likely to get lower priority than our competitors who are larger than we are. We cannot be certain that our suppliers will continue to provide us with the quantities of these raw materials that we require or satisfy our anticipated specifications and quality requirements. Any supply interruption in limited or sole sourced raw materials could materially harm our ability to manufacture our product candidates until a new source of supply, if any, could be identified and qualified. We may be unable to find a sufficient alternative supply channel in a reasonable time or on commercially reasonable terms. Any performance failure on the part of our suppliers could delay the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates, including limiting supplies necessary for clinical trials and regulatory approvals, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.
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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for any product candidates we develop or for our BBB platform technology, our competitors could develop and commercialize products or technology similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidates we may develop, and our technology may be adversely affected.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our BBB platform technology and any proprietary product candidates and other technologies we may develop. We seek to protect our proprietary position by in-licensing intellectual property and filing patent applications in the United States and abroad relating to our BBB platform technology, programs and product candidates, as well as other technologies that are important to our business. Given that the development of our technology and product candidates is at an early stage, our intellectual property portfolio with respect to certain aspects of our technology and product candidates is also at an early stage. In addition, we cannot be certain that any patents we own or in-license in the United States adequately cover the Fc domain portion of our BBB platform technology that binds to transferrin receptor, or adequately cover the antibodies, enzymes or proteins being developed in our ATV:TREM2, ETV:IDS or PTV:PGRN programs. We have filed or intend to file patent applications on these aspects of our technology and product candidates; however, there can be no assurance that any such patent applications will issue as granted patents. Furthermore, in some cases, we have only filed provisional patent applications on certain aspects of our technology and product candidates and each of these provisional patent applications is not eligible to become an issued patent until, among other things, we file a non-provisional patent application within 12 months of the filing date of the applicable provisional patent application. Any failure to file a non-provisional patent application within this timeline could cause us to lose the ability to obtain patent protection for the inventions disclosed in the associated provisional patent applications. Furthermore, in some cases, we may not be able to obtain issued claims covering compositions relating to our BBB platform technology, programs and product candidates, as well as other technologies that are important to our business, and instead may need to rely on filing patent applications with claims covering a method of use and/or method of manufacture for protection of such BBB platform technology, programs, product candidates and other technologies. There can be no assurance that any such patent applications will issue as granted patents, and even if they do issue, such patent claims may be insufficient to prevent third parties, such as our competitors, from utilizing our technology. Any failure to obtain or maintain patent protection with respect to our BBB platform technology, programs and product candidates could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
If any of our owned or in-licensed patent applications do not issue as patents in any jurisdiction, we may not be able to compete effectively.

Changes in either the patent laws or their interpretation in the United States and other countries may diminish our ability to protect our inventions, obtain, maintain, and enforce our intellectual property rights and, more generally, could affect the value of our intellectual property or narrow the scope of our owned and licensed patents. With respect to both in-licensed and owned intellectual property, we cannot predict whether the patent applications we and our licensors are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any issued patents will provide sufficient protection from competitors or other third parties.

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The patent prosecution process is expensive, time-consuming, and complex, and we may not be able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce, or license all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output in time to obtain patent protection. Although we enter into nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors, and other third parties, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection. In addition, our ability to obtain and maintain valid and enforceable patents depends on whether the differences between our inventions and the prior art allow our inventions to be patentable over the prior art. Furthermore, publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors were the first to make the inventions claimed in any of our owned or licensed patents or pending patent applications, or that we or our licensors were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions.
If the scope of any patent protection we obtain is not sufficiently broad, or if we lose any of our patent protection, our ability to prevent our competitors from commercializing similar or identical technology and product candidates would be adversely affected.

The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions, and has been the subject of much litigation in recent years. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability, and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our owned or in-licensed pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued which protect our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and product candidates.

Moreover, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance. Even if patent applications we license or own currently or in the future issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors or other third parties from competing with us, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Any patents that we own or in-license may be challenged, narrowed, circumvented, or invalidated by third parties. Consequently, we do not know whether our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies will be protectable or remain protected by valid and enforceable patents. Our competitors or other third parties may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

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The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity, or enforceability, and our patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. We or our licensors may be subject to a third-party preissuance submission of prior art to the USPTO, or become involved in opposition, derivation, revocation, reexamination, post-grant and inter partes review, or interference proceedings or other similar proceedings challenging our owned or licensed patent rights. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate or render unenforceable, our owned or in-licensed patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party patent rights. Moreover, we, or one of our licensors, may have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the USPTO to determine priority of invention or in post-grant challenge proceedings, such as oppositions in a foreign patent office, that challenge our or our licensor’s priority of invention or other features of patentability with respect to our owned or in-licensed patents and patent applications. Such challenges may result in loss of patent rights, loss of exclusivity, or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated, or held unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies. Such proceedings also may result in substantial cost and require significant time from our scientists and management, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us. If we or our collaborators are unsuccessful in any such proceeding or other priority or inventorship dispute, we may be required to obtain and maintain licenses from third parties, including parties involved in any such interference proceedings or other priority or inventorship disputes. Such licenses may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or may be non-exclusive. If we are unable to obtain and maintain such licenses, we may need to cease the development, manufacture, and commercialization of one or more of the product candidates we may develop. The loss of exclusivity or the narrowing of our owned and licensed patent claims could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products.

In addition, given the amount of time required for the development, testing, and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such product candidates might expire before or shortly after such product candidates are commercialized. As a result, our intellectual property may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.
Some of our owned and in-licensed patents and patent applications are, and may in the future be, co-owned with third parties. For example, we may currently, and may in the future, co-own certain patents and patent applications relating to our BBB platform technology with F-star. In addition, certain of our licensors co-own the patents and patent applications we in-license with other third parties with whom we do not have a direct relationship. Our exclusive rights to certain of these patents and patent applications are dependent, in part, on inter-institutional or other operating agreements between the joint owners of such patents and patent applications, who are not parties to our license agreements. If our licensors do not have exclusive control of the grant of licenses under any such third-party co-owners’ interest in such patents or patent applications or we are otherwise unable to secure such exclusive rights, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners of our patents in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our rights to develop and commercialize our BBB platform technology and product candidates are subject, in part, to the terms and conditions of licenses granted to us by others or licenses granted by us to others.

We are heavily reliant upon licenses to certain patent rights and proprietary technology from third parties that are important or necessary to the development of our BBB platform technology and product candidates. For example, in June 2016, we entered into a license agreement with Genentech pursuant to which we received an exclusive license to certain of Genentech’s intellectual property relating to our LRRK2 program, including our DNL151 (BIIB122) product candidate.
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Our agreements with F-star and other license agreements may not provide exclusive rights to use certain licensed intellectual property and technology in all relevant fields of use and in all territories in which we may wish to develop or commercialize our technology and products in the future. For example, F-star retains the right to use itself, and to license to others, its modular antibody technology for any purpose other than the targets which we have agreed with F-star would or may be exclusively available to us. As a result, we may not be able to prevent competitors or other third parties from developing and commercializing competitive products that also utilizes technology that we have in-licensed.

In addition, subject to the terms of any such license agreements, we do not have the right to control the preparation, filing, prosecution and maintenance, and we may not have the right to control the enforcement, and defense of patents and patent applications covering the technology that we license from third parties. For example, under our agreements with F-star and Genentech, the licensors control prosecution and, in the case of F-star and in specified circumstances, enforcement of certain of the patents and patent applications licensed to us. Also, under our agreements with Takeda, Sanofi and Biogen, they control prosecution, and in specified circumstances, enforcement of certain of the patents and patent applications licensed to them. We cannot be certain that our in-licensed or out-licensed patents and patent applications that are controlled by our licensors or licensees will be prepared, filed, prosecuted, maintained, enforced, and defended in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. If our licensors or licensees fail to prosecute, maintain, enforce, and defend such patents, or lose rights to those patents or patent applications, the rights we have licensed may be reduced or eliminated, our right to develop and commercialize our BBB platform technology and any of our product candidates that are subject of such licensed rights could be adversely affected, and we may not be able to prevent competitors from making, using and selling competing products. In addition, even where we have the right to control patent prosecution of patents and patent applications we have licensed to and from third parties, we may still be adversely affected or prejudiced by actions or inactions of our licensees, our licensors and their counsel that took place prior to the date upon which we assumed control over patent prosecution.
Furthermore, our owned and in-licensed patents may be subject to a reservation of rights by one or more third parties. For example, our license to certain intellectual property owned by Genentech is subject to certain research rights Genentech granted to third parties prior to our license agreement. In addition, certain of our in-licensed intellectual property relating to RIPK1 was funded in part by the U.S. government. As a result, the U.S. government may have certain rights to such intellectual property. When new technologies are developed with U.S. government funding, the U.S. government generally obtains certain rights in any resulting patents, including a non-exclusive license authorizing the U.S. government to use the invention or to have others use the invention on its behalf. The U.S. government’s rights may also permit it to disclose the funded inventions and technology to third parties and to exercise march-in rights to use or allow third parties to use the technology we have licensed that was developed using U.S. government funding. The U.S. government may exercise its march-in rights if it determines that action is necessary because we fail to achieve practical application of the government-funded technology, or because action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs, to meet requirements of federal regulations, or to give preference to U.S. industry. In addition, our rights in such inventions may be subject to certain requirements to manufacture products embodying such inventions in the United States in certain circumstances and if this requirement is not waived. Any exercise by the U.S. government of such rights or by any third party of its reserved rights could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights from third parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.
We have entered into license agreements with third parties and may need to obtain additional licenses from others to advance our research or allow commercialization of product candidates we may develop or our BBB platform technology. It is possible that we may be unable to obtain additional licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to redesign our technology, product candidates, or the methods for manufacturing them or to develop or license replacement technology, all of which may not be feasible on a technical or commercial basis. If we are unable to do so, we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected product candidates or continue to utilize our existing BBB platform technology, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects significantly. We cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist which might be enforced against our current technology, including our BBB platform technology, manufacturing methods, product candidates, or future methods or products resulting in either an injunction prohibiting our manufacture or future sales, or, with respect to our future sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation to third parties, which could be significant.

In addition, each of our license agreements, and we expect our future agreements, will impose various development, diligence, commercialization, and other obligations on us. Certain of our license agreements also require us to meet development timelines, or to exercise commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize licensed products, in order to maintain the licenses. In spite of our efforts, our licensors might conclude that we have materially breached our obligations under such license agreements and might therefore terminate the license agreements, thereby removing or limiting our ability to develop and commercialize products and technology covered by these license agreements. If these in-licenses are terminated, or if the underlying patents fail to provide the intended exclusivity, competitors or other third parties would have the freedom to seek regulatory approval of, and to market, products identical to ours and we may be required to cease our development and commercialization of certain of our product candidates or of our current BBB platform technology. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations and growth prospects.
Moreover, disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a licensing agreement, including:

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;

the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;

the sublicensing of patent and other rights under our collaborative development relationships;

our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;

the inventorship and ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners; and

the priority of invention of patented technology.

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In addition, the agreements under which we currently license intellectual property or technology from third parties are complex, and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what we believe to be the scope of our rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or increase what we believe to be our financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. Moreover, if disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on commercially acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected product candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations and growth prospects.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting, and defending patents on our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Further, our ability to pursue patents throughout the world may be delayed or affected due to the COVID-19 global pandemic. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products, and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.
Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors is forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects may be adversely affected.
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Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment, and other requirements imposed by government patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, and various other government fees on patents and applications will be due to be paid to the USPTO and various government patent agencies outside of the United States over the lifetime of our owned or licensed patents and applications. In certain circumstances, we rely on our licensing partners to pay these fees due to U.S. and non-U.S. patent agencies. The USPTO and various non-U.S. government agencies require compliance with several procedural, documentary, fee payment, and other similar provisions during the patent application process. We are also dependent on our licensors to take the necessary action to comply with these requirements with respect to our licensed intellectual property. In some cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules. There are situations, however, in which non-compliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in a partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, potential competitors might be able to enter the market with similar or identical products or technology, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Changes in U.S. patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our products.

Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. Assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent. After March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the "America Invents Act"), enacted in September 2011, the United States transitioned to a first inventor to file system in which, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. A third party that files a patent application in the USPTO after March 2013, but before us could therefore be awarded a patent covering an invention of ours even if we had made the invention before it was made by such third party. This will require us to be cognizant going forward of the time from invention to filing of a patent application. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing or until issuance, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors were the first to either (i) file any patent application related to our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies or (ii) invent any of the inventions claimed in our or our licensor’s patents or patent applications.

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The America Invents Act also includes a number of significant changes that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and also may affect patent litigation. These include allowing third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to attack the validity of a patent by USPTO administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter partes review, and derivation proceedings. Because of a lower evidentiary standard in USPTO proceedings compared to the evidentiary standard in United States federal courts necessary to invalidate a patent claim, a third party could potentially provide evidence in a USPTO proceeding sufficient for the USPTO to hold a claim invalid even though the same evidence would be insufficient to invalidate the claim if first presented in a district court action. Accordingly, a third party may attempt to use the USPTO procedures to invalidate our patent claims that would not have been invalidated if first challenged by the third party as a defendant in a district court action. Therefore, the America Invents Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our owned or in-licensed patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our owned or in-licensed issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

In addition, the patent positions of companies in the development and commercialization of biologics and pharmaceuticals are particularly uncertain. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. This combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents, once obtained. Depending on future actions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could have a material adverse effect on our existing patent portfolio and our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property in the future.
Issued patents covering our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court or before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad.
If we or one of our licensors initiated legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies, the defendant could counterclaim that such patent is invalid or unenforceable or raise a defense to infringement. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of subject matter eligibility for patenting, novelty, obviousness, or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Grounds for defenses to infringement include statutory exemptions to patent infringement for uses related to submitting information to regulatory authorities to seek certain regulatory approvals. Third parties may raise claims challenging the validity or enforceability of our owned or in-licensed patents before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings, and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). Such proceedings could result in the revocation of, cancellation of, or amendment to our patents in such a way that they no longer cover our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, a judge or jury could find that our patent claims laws of nature or are otherwise ineligible for patenting, and we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we or our licensing partners and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a third party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies. Such a loss of patent protection would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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If we do not obtain patent term extension and data exclusivity for any product candidates we may develop, our business may be materially harmed.

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of any FDA marketing approval of any product candidates we may develop, one or more of our owned or in-licensed U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. The Hatch-Waxman Act permit a patent term extension of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Similar extensions as compensation for patent term lost during regulatory review processes are also available in certain foreign countries and territories, such as in Europe under a Supplementary Patent Certificate. However, we may not be granted an extension in the United States and/or foreign countries and territories because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents, or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the applicable time period or the scope of patent protection afforded could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or the term of any such extension is shorter than what we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be materially harmed.
We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our patents and other intellectual property.

We or our licensors may be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our owned or in-licensed patents, trade secrets, or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. For example, we or our licensors may have inventorship disputes arise from conflicting obligations of employees, consultants or others who are involved in developing our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or our or our licensors’ ownership of our owned or in-licensed patents, trade secrets or other intellectual property. If we or our licensors fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, intellectual property that is important to our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to seeking patents for our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies, we also rely on trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect our unpatented know-how, technology, and other proprietary information and to maintain our competitive position. Trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. We expect our trade secrets and know-how to over time be disseminated within the industry through independent development, the publication of journal articles describing the methodology, and the movement of personnel from academic to industry scientific positions.

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We seek to protect these trade secrets and other proprietary technology, in part, by entering into nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors, and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants as well as train our employees not to bring or use proprietary information or technology from former employers to us or in their work, and remind former employees when they leave their employment of their confidentiality obligations. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes. Despite our efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, our competitive position would be materially and adversely harmed.
We may not be successful in obtaining, through acquisitions, in-licenses or otherwise, necessary rights to our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies.

We currently have rights to intellectual property, through licenses from third parties, to identify and develop our BBB platform technology and product candidates. Many pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, and academic institutions are competing with us in the field of neurodegeneration and BBB technology and may have patents and have filed and are likely filing patent applications potentially relevant to our business. In order to avoid infringing these third-party patents, we may find it necessary or prudent to obtain licenses to such patents from such third-party intellectual property holders. We may also require licenses from third parties for certain BBB technologies that we are evaluating for use with our current or future product candidates. In addition, with respect to any patents we co-own with third parties, we may require licenses to such co-owners’ interest to such patents. However, we may be unable to secure such licenses or otherwise acquire or in-license any compositions, methods of use, processes, or other intellectual property rights from third parties that we identify as necessary for our current or future product candidates and our BBB platform technology. The licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and several more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment or at all. If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property rights or maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may have to abandon development of the relevant program or product candidate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants, or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their current or former employers or claims asserting ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our employees, consultants, and advisors are currently or were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our licensors, competitors and potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants, and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the conception or development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who, in fact, conceives or develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. The assignment of intellectual property rights may not be self-executing, or the assignment agreements may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims that they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Such claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Third-party claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other violation against us, our licensors or our collaborators may prevent or delay the development and commercialization of our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies.

The field of discovering treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, especially using BBB technology, is highly competitive and dynamic. Due to the focused research and development that is taking place by several companies, including us and our competitors, in this field, the intellectual property landscape is in flux, and it may remain uncertain in the future. As such, there may be significant intellectual property litigation and proceedings relating to our owned and in-licensed, and other third-party intellectual property and proprietary rights in the future.

Our commercial success depends in part on our, our licensors’ and our collaborators’ ability to avoid infringing, misappropriating and otherwise violating the patents and other intellectual property rights of third parties. There is a substantial amount of complex litigation involving patents and other intellectual property rights in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, as well as administrative proceedings for challenging patents, including interference, derivation and reexamination proceedings before the USPTO or oppositions and other comparable proceedings in foreign jurisdictions. As discussed above, recently, due to changes in U.S. law referred to as patent reform, new procedures including inter partes review and post-grant review have been implemented. As stated above, this reform adds uncertainty to the possibility of challenge to our patents in the future.

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Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties exist relating to BBB technology and in the fields in which we are developing our product candidates. As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies may give rise to claims of infringement of the patent rights of others. We cannot assure you that our BBB platform technology, product candidates and other technologies that we have developed, are developing or may develop in the future will not infringe existing or future patents owned by third parties. We may not be aware of patents that have already been issued and that a third party, for example, a competitor in the fields in which we are developing our BBB platform technology, product candidates, and other technologies might assert are infringed by our current or future BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies, including claims to compositions, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods of use or treatment that cover our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies. It is also possible that patents owned by third parties of which we are aware, but which we do not believe are relevant to our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies, could be found to be infringed by our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies. In addition, because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications that may later result in issued patents that our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies may infringe.

Third parties may have patents or obtain patents in the future and claim that the manufacture, use or sale of our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies infringes upon these patents. In the event that any third-party claims that we infringe their patents or that we are otherwise employing their proprietary technology without authorization and initiates litigation against us, even if we believe such claims are without merit, a court of competent jurisdiction could hold that such patents are valid, enforceable and infringed by our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies. In this case, the holders of such patents may be able to block our ability to commercialize the applicable product candidate or technology unless we obtain a license under the applicable patents, or until such patents expire or are finally determined to be held invalid or unenforceable. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, the license would likely obligate us to pay license fees or royalties or both, and the rights granted to us might be nonexclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property. If we are unable to obtain a necessary license to a third-party patent on commercially reasonable terms, we may be unable to commercialize our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies, or such commercialization efforts may be significantly delayed, which could in turn significantly harm our business.
Defense of infringement claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of management and other employee resources from our business, and may impact our reputation. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be enjoined from further developing or commercializing our infringing BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies. In addition, we may have to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees for willful infringement, obtain one or more licenses from third parties, pay royalties and/or redesign our infringing product candidates or technologies, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize our BBB platform technology, product candidates or other technologies, which could harm our business significantly.

Engaging in litigation to defend against third parties alleging that we have infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated their patents or other intellectual property rights is very expensive, particularly for a company of our size, and time-consuming. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of litigation or administrative proceedings more effectively than we can because of greater financial resources. Patent litigation and other proceedings may also absorb significant management time. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings against us could impair our ability to compete in the marketplace. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations or growth prospects.
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We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time consuming, and unsuccessful.

Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our licensing partners, or we may be required to defend against claims of infringement. In addition, our patents or the patents of our licensing partners also may become involved in inventorship, priority or validity disputes. To counter or defend against such claims can be expensive and time consuming. In an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent in which we have an interest is invalid or unenforceable, the other party’s use of our patented technology falls under the safe harbor to patent infringement under 35 U.S.C. §271(e)(1), or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our owned and in-licensed patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our owned or in-licensed patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing, or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.
If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition among potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. At times, competitors or other third parties may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

others may be able to make products that are similar to our product candidates or utilize similar technology but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we license or may own;

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we, or our current or future licensors or collaborators, might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent application that we license or own now or in the future;

we, or our current or future licensors or collaborators, might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;

others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our owned or licensed intellectual property rights;

it is possible that our current or future pending owned or licensed patent applications will not lead to issued patents;

issued patents that we hold rights to may be held invalid or unenforceable, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors or other third parties;

our competitors or other third parties might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;

we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

the patents of others may harm our business; and

we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property.

Should any of these events occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Risks Related to Our Operations
We are highly dependent on our key personnel, and if we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

Our ability to compete in the highly competitive biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries depends upon our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel. We are highly dependent on our management, particularly our Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Ryan Watts, and our scientific and medical personnel. The loss of the services provided by any of our executive officers, other key employees, and other scientific and medical advisors, and our inability to find suitable replacements, could result in delays in the development of our product candidates and harm our business.

We primarily conduct our operations at our facility in South San Francisco, California, in a region that is headquarters to many other biopharmaceutical companies and many academic and research institutions. Competition for skilled personnel is intense and the turnover rate can be high, which may limit our ability to hire and retain highly qualified personnel on acceptable terms or at all. We expect that we may need to recruit talent from outside of our region, and doing so may be costly and difficult.

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To induce valuable employees to remain at our company, in addition to salary and cash incentives, we have provided restricted stock and stock option grants that vest over time. The value to employees of these equity grants that vest over time may be significantly affected by movements in our stock price that are beyond our control, and may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies. Although we have employment agreements with our key employees, these employment agreements provide for at-will employment, which means that any of our employees could leave our employment at any time, with or without notice. We do not maintain “key man” insurance policies on the lives of all of these individuals or the lives of any of our other employees. If we are unable to attract and incentivize quality personnel on acceptable terms, or at all, it may cause our business and operating results to suffer.
We will need to grow the size and capabilities of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

As of September 30, 2021, we had 360 employees, all of whom were full-time. As our development plans and strategies develop, we must add a significant number of additional managerial, operational, financial, and other personnel. Future growth will impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:
 
identifying, recruiting, integrating, retaining, and motivating additional employees;

managing our internal development efforts effectively, including the clinical and FDA review process for our current and future product candidates, while complying with our contractual obligations to contractors and other third parties;

expanding our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems, and procedures; and

managing increasing operational and managerial complexity.
Our future financial performance and our ability to continue to develop and, if approved, commercialize our product candidates will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth. Our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities in order to manage these growth activities. Our ability to successfully manage our expected growth is uncertain given the fact that all of our executive officers have joined us since February 2015. This lack of long-term experience working together as a company may adversely impact our senior management team’s ability to effectively manage our business and growth.

We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services. There can be no assurance that the services of these independent organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed, or that we can find qualified replacements. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by consultants is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed, or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates or otherwise advance our business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our existing consultants or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, if at all.

If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and expanding our groups of consultants and contractors, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop our product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development, and commercialization goals.
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We have engaged in and may in the future engage in acquisitions or strategic partnerships, which may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities, and subject us to other risks.

We have in the past engaged in acquisitions and strategic partnerships, and we may engage in various acquisitions and strategic partnerships in the future, including licensing or acquiring complementary products, intellectual property rights, technologies, or businesses. For instance, in January 2018 we entered into the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, as amended in February 2019, and in connection therewith we issued and sold to Takeda 4,214,559 shares of our common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $110.0 million in February 2018. On May 30, 2018, we exercised our buy-out option in connection with the F-star Collaboration Agreement and entered into a Purchase Agreement pursuant to which we acquired all of the outstanding shares of F-star Gamma. Further, on October 29, 2018, we entered into the Sanofi Collaboration Agreement. In August 2020, we entered into the Provisional Biogen Collaboration Agreement, and in connection therewith we sold 13,310,243 shares of our common stock to Biogen in September 2020 for an aggregate purchase price of $465.0 million. Any acquisition or strategic partnership may entail numerous risks, including:

increased operating expenses and cash requirements;

the assumption of indebtedness or contingent liabilities;

the issuance of our equity securities which would result in dilution to our stockholders;

assimilation of operations, intellectual property, products and product candidates of an acquired company, including difficulties associated with integrating new personnel;

the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing product programs and initiatives in pursuing such an acquisition or strategic partnership;

retention of key employees, the loss of key personnel, and uncertainties in our ability to maintain key business relationships;

risks and uncertainties associated with the other party to such a transaction, including the prospects of that party and their existing products or product candidates and regulatory approvals; and

our inability to generate revenue from acquired intellectual property, technology and/or products sufficient to meet our objectives or even to offset the associated transaction and maintenance costs.

In addition, if we undertake such a transaction, we may issue dilutive securities, assume or incur debt obligations, incur large one-time expenses and acquire intangible assets that could result in significant future amortization expense.

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Our internal computer systems, or those used by our third-party research institution collaborators, CROs or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer other breakdowns, cyberattacks or information security breaches that could compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of such systems and data, expose us to liability, and affect our reputation.

We are increasingly dependent upon information technology systems, infrastructure, and data to operate our business. We also rely on third-party vendors and their information technology systems. Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our CROs and other contractors and consultants may be vulnerable to damage from computer viruses or unauthorized access, or breached due to operator error, malfeasance or other system disruptions. As the cyber-threat landscape evolves, these attacks are growing in frequency, sophistication and intensity, and are becoming increasingly difficult to detect. These threats can come from a variety of sources, ranging in sophistication from an individual hacker to a state-sponsored attack. Cyber threats may be generic, or they may be custom-crafted against our information systems. Over the past few years, cyber-attacks have become more prevalent, intense, sophisticated and much harder to detect and defend against. Such attacks could include the use of key loggers or other harmful and virulent malware, including ransomware or other denials of service, and can be deployed through malicious websites, the use of social engineering and/or other means. We and our third-party vendors may not be able to anticipate all types of security threats, and we may not be able to implement preventive measures effective against all such security threats. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched, and can originate from a wide variety of sources. Although to our knowledge we and our vendors have not experienced any such material system failure or security breach to date, if a breakdown, cyberattack or other information security breach were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations , whether due to a loss of trade secrets or other proprietary information or other similar disruption and we could incur liability and reputational damage. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed, ongoing or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Likewise, we rely on our third-party research institution collaborators for research and development of our product candidates and other third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates and to conduct clinical trials, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business.
Cyber-attacks, breaches, interruptions or other data security incidents could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under federal or state laws that protect the privacy of personal information, regulatory penal-ties, significant remediation costs, disrupt key business operations and divert attention of management and key information technology resources. In the United States, notice of breaches must be made to affected individuals, the U.S. Secretary of the HHS, and for extensive breaches, notice may need to be made to the media or U.S. state attorneys general. Such a notice could harm our reputation and our ability to compete. The HHS has the discretion to impose penalties without attempting to resolve violations through informal means. In addition, U.S. state attorneys general are authorized to bring civil actions seeking either injunctions or damages in response to violations that threaten the privacy of state residents. There can be no assurance that we, our collaborators, CROs, vendors, and any other business counterparties will be successful in efforts to detect, prevent, protect against or fully recover systems or data from all break-downs, service interruptions, attacks or breaches of systems. In addition, we do not maintain standalone cyber-security insurance and have limited insurance coverage in the event of any breach or disruption of our or our collaborators’, CROs’, or vendors’ systems, including any unauthorized access or loss of any personal data that we may collect, store or otherwise process. The costs related to significant security breaches or disruptions could be material and exceed the limits of any insurance coverage we may have. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or systems, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, including data related to our personnel, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed and our business and operations could be adversely affected and/or could result in the loss or disclosure of critical or sensitive data, which could result in financial, legal, business or reputational harm to us.
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Business disruptions could seriously harm our future revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Our operations, and those of our third-party research institution collaborators, CROs, CDMOs, suppliers, and other contractors and consultants, could be subject to earthquakes, power shortages, telecommunications failures, water shortages, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, medical epidemics such as COVID-19, and other natural or man-made disasters or business interruptions, for which we are partly uninsured. In addition, we rely on our third-party research institution collaborators for conducting research and development of our product candidates, and they may be affected by government shutdowns or withdrawn funding. The occurrence of any of these business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. We rely on third-party manufacturers to produce and process our product candidates. Our ability to obtain clinical supplies of our product candidates could be disrupted if the operations of these suppliers are affected by a man-made or natural disaster or other business interruption.

All of our operations including our corporate headquarters are located in a single facility in South San Francisco, California. Damage or extended periods of interruption to our corporate, development or research facilities due to fire, natural disaster, power loss, communications failure, unauthorized entry or other events could cause us to cease or delay development of some or all of our product candidates. Although we maintain property damage and business interruption insurance coverage on these facilities, our insurance might not cover all losses under such circumstances and our business may be seriously harmed by such delays and interruption.
Our business is subject to economic, political, regulatory and other risks associated with international operations.

Our business is subject to risks associated with conducting business internationally. Some of our suppliers and collaborative relationships are located outside the United States. Accordingly, our future results could be harmed by a variety of factors, including:

economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular non-U.S. economies and markets;

differing and changing regulatory requirements in non-U.S. countries;

challenges enforcing our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the United States;

difficulties in compliance with non-U.S. laws and regulations;

changes in non-U.S. regulations and customs, tariffs and trade barriers;

changes in non-U.S. currency exchange rates and currency controls;

changes in a specific country’s or region’s political or economic environment;

trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements or other restrictive actions by U.S. or non-U.S. governments;

negative consequences from changes in tax laws;

compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;

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workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;

difficulties associated with staffing and managing international operations, including differing labor relations;

potential liability under the FCPA, UK Bribery Act or comparable foreign laws;

business interruptions resulting from geo-political actions, including war and terrorism, natural disasters including earthquakes, typhoons, floods and fires, or health epidemics such as COVID-19; and

cyberattacks, which are growing in frequency, sophistication and intensity, and are becoming increasingly difficult to detect.

These and other risks associated with our planned international operations may materially adversely affect our ability to attain profitable operations.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2020, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $212.7 million, federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $20.4 million, and orphan tax credit carryforwards of approximately $3.3 million, some of which will begin to expire in 2035. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (the "Code"), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a greater than 50-percentage-point cumulative change (by value) in the equity ownership of certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change taxable income or taxes may be limited. As a result of our IPO in December 2017, our follow-on offering in January 2020, and private placements and other transactions that have occurred since our incorporation, we may have experienced such an ownership change. We may also experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which are outside our control. As a result, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset post-change taxable income or taxes may be subject to limitation.
We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could negatively impact our financial condition.

The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect our stockholders or us. In recent years, many such changes have been made and changes are likely to continue to occur in the future. For example, in December 2017, Congress passed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which made broad and complex changes to the tax laws. We cannot predict whether, when, in what form, or with what effective dates, tax laws, regulations and rulings may be enacted, promulgated or decided, which could result in an increase in our, or our stockholders’, tax liability or require changes in the manner in which we operate in order to minimize increases in our tax liability.
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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors.
The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition to the factors discussed in this "Risk Factors" section and elsewhere in this report, these factors include: 

the success of existing or new competitive products or technologies;

the timing and results of clinical trials for our current product candidates and any future product candidates that we may develop;

commencement or termination of collaborations for our product development and research programs;

failure to achieve development, regulatory or commercialization milestones under our collaborations;

failure or discontinuation of any of our product development and research programs;

failure to develop our BBB platform technology;

results of preclinical studies, clinical trials, or regulatory approvals of product candidates of our competitors, or announcements about new research programs or product candidates of our competitors;

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents, or other proprietary rights;

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

the level of expenses related to any of our research programs, clinical development programs, or product candidates that we may develop;

the results of our efforts to develop additional product candidates or products;

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines, or recommendations by securities analysts;

announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;

sales of our common stock by us, our insiders, or other stockholders;

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, that cover our stock;

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

adoption of new accounting standards or changes in accounting standards;

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ineffectiveness of our internal controls;

significant lawsuits, including patent or stockholder litigation;

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors; and

general economic, industry, and market conditions, including those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

In recent years, the stock market in general, and the market for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in particular, has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to changes in the operating performance of the companies whose stock is experiencing those price and volume fluctuations. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. If any of our stockholders were to bring a lawsuit against us, the defense and disposition of any such lawsuits could be costly and divert the time and attention of our management and harm our operating results, regardless of the merits of such a claim.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock relies in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts covering our business downgrade their evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover our stock, we could lose visibility in the market for our stock, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales might occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock.

Sales of our common stock by current stockholders may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem reasonable or appropriate, and make it more difficult for you to sell shares of our common stock.

Certain holders of shares of our common stock have rights, subject to conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradeable in the public market, subject to the restrictions of Rule 144 in the case of our affiliates. Any sales of securities by these stockholders could have a material adverse effect on the market price for our common stock.

We have registered on Form S-8 all shares of common stock that are issuable under our 2017 Equity Incentive Plan and 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. As a consequence, these shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates.
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Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

We may seek additional capital through a combination of public and private equity offerings, debt financings, strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements. For example, in August 2020, we entered into the Provisional Biogen Collaboration Agreement, and in connection therewith issued and sold 13,310,243 shares of our common stock to Biogen in September 2020 for an aggregate purchase price of $465.0 million. We, and indirectly, our stockholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing all such securities.
Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any future offerings. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a stockholder. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and could involve restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business.

On March 12, 2019, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-230232) with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which became effective upon filing. In January 2020, we sold 9.0 million shares of common stock in a follow-on offering pursuant to this registration statement. The shelf registration continues to allow us to sell, from time to time, an unspecified number of shares of common stock; shares of preferred stock; debt securities; warrants to purchase shares of common stock, preferred stock, or other securities; purchase contracts; and units representing two or more of the foregoing securities. Additionally, collaborations we enter into with third parties may provide capital in the near term but limit our potential cash flow and revenue in the future. If we raise additional funds through strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies or product candidates, or grant licenses on terms unfavorable to us.
Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exercise significant influence over matters subject to stockholder approval.

Our directors, executive officers, holders of more than 5% of our outstanding stock and their respective affiliates beneficially own a significant percentage of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders, if they act together, may significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company that our other stockholders may believe is in their best interests. This in turn could have a material adverse effect on our stock price and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove the board of directors or management.
If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, our business, financial position and results of operations and growth prospects could be adversely affected.

As a public company, we are subject to reporting and other obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the "Exchange Act"), including the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.

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The rules governing the standards that must be met for management and our auditors to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation to meet the detailed standards under the rules. During the course of its testing, our management or auditors may identify material weaknesses or deficiencies which may not be remedied in time to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. These reporting and other obligations place significant demands on our management and administrative and operational resources, including accounting resources.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Any failure to maintain effective internal controls could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.

We are subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. We designed our disclosure controls and procedures to reasonably assure that information we must disclose in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, and recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well-conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met.

These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
We have not paid and do not expect to pay any dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return on investment may be limited to the value of our common stock. Investors may never obtain a return on their investment.

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate that we will pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to maintain and expand our existing operations. If we do not pay dividends, our common stock may be less valuable because a return on your investment will only occur if our stock price appreciates, which may never occur.
Delaware law and provisions in our charter documents might discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay, or prevent a merger, acquisition, or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, our charter documents:

establish that our board of directors is divided into three classes, Class I, Class II and Class III, with each class serving staggered three-year terms;

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provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;

provide that our directors may only be removed for cause;

eliminate cumulative voting in the election of directors;

authorize our board of directors to issues shares of preferred stock and determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval;

provide our board of directors with the exclusive right to elect a director to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship;

permit stockholders to only take actions at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;

prohibit stockholders from calling a special meeting of stockholders;

require that stockholders give advance notice to nominate directors or submit proposals for consideration at stockholder meetings;

authorize our board of directors, by a majority vote, to amend the bylaws; and

require the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% or more of the outstanding shares of common stock to amend many of the provisions described above.

In addition, Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, (the "DGCL"), prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person which together with its affiliates owns, or within the last three years has owned, 15.0% of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner.

Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws, or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our capital stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for:

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty;

any action asserting a claim against us arising under the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws; and

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.
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Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

These exclusive-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. If a court were to find either exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action or we do not enforce such provision, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could seriously harm our business.
ITEM 2.    UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.
Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
On January 28, 2020, we sold 9.0 million shares of common stock (inclusive of shares sold pursuant to an overallotment option granted to the underwriters in connection with the offering) through an underwritten public offering at a price of $23.00 per share for aggregate net proceeds of $193.9 million. There has been no material change in the planned use of the net proceeds from the follow-on public offering as described in our final prospectus supplement filed with the SEC on January 29, 2020. We invested the funds received in short-term, interest-bearing investment-grade securities and government securities.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Not applicable.
ITEM 3.    DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES
Not applicable.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
ITEM 5.    OTHER INFORMATION
None.
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ITEM 6.     EXHIBITS

EXHIBIT INDEX
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit
Number
DescriptionFormFile No.NumberFiling Date
31.1Filed herewith
31.2Filed herewith
32.1*Furnished herewith
32.2*Furnished herewith
101.INSXBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Incline XBRL documentFurnished herewith
101.SCHInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.Furnished herewith
101.CALInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.Furnished herewith
101.DEFInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.Furnished herewith
101.LABInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.Furnished herewith
101.PREInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.Furnished herewith
104The cover page from the Company's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended September 30, 2021, formatted in Inline XBRL (contained in Exhibit 101)Furnished herewith
*The certifications attached as Exhibits 32.1 and 32.2 that accompany this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are not deemed filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Denali Therapeutics Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date of this Form 10-Q, irrespective of any general incorporation language contained in such filing.


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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
 
DENALI THERAPEUTICS INC.
Date:November 4, 2021By:/s/ Ryan J. Watts
Ryan J. Watts, Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Date:November 4, 2021By:/s/ Steve E. Krognes
Steve E. Krognes
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)




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