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Velodyne Lidar (VLDR)

Filed: 17 May 21, 3:36pm


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________________to ___________________

Commission file number: 001-38703

VELODYNE LIDAR, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware83-1138508
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
5521 Hellyer Avenue
San Jose, CA95138
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (669) 275-2251
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per shareVLDRThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants, each exercisable for three-quarters of one share of common stockVLDRWThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
As of May 5, 2021, the registrant had 189,685,456 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.






VELODYNE LIDAR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Table of Contents

Page
Item 3.Default Upon Senior Securities
Item 6.

1


CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws and particularly in Item 2: “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. These statements are based on the expectations and beliefs of management of Velodyne Lidar, Inc. (Velodyne) in light of historical results and trends, current conditions and potential future developments, and are subject to a number of factors and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include statements about the future performance and opportunities of Velodyne; statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations of Velodyne; and statements regarding future market opportunities, economic conditions or performance. Forward-looking statements may contain words such as “will be,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “continue,” “project,” “believe,” “plan,” “could,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “guidance,” “intend,” “may,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “pursue,” “should,” “target,” “likely” or similar expressions, and include the assumptions that underlie such statements.

The following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements:

Velodyne’s future performance, including Velodyne’s revenue, costs of revenue, gross profit or gross margin, and operating expenses;
the sufficiency of Velodyne’s cash and cash equivalents to meet its operating requirements;
Velodyne’s ability to sell its products to new customers;
the success of Velodyne’s customers in developing and commercializing products using Velodyne’s solutions, and the market acceptance of those products;
the amount and timing of future sales;
Velodyne’s future market share;
competition from existing or future businesses and technologies;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Velodyne’s business and the business of its customers;
the market for and adoption of lidar and related technology;
Velodyne’s ability to effectively manage its growth and future expenses;
Velodyne’s ability to compete in a market that is rapidly evolving and subject to technological developments;
Velodyne’s ability to maintain, protect, and enhance its intellectual property;
Velodyne’s ability to comply with modified or new laws and regulations applying to its business;
the attraction and retention of qualified employees and key personnel;
Velodyne’s ability to introduce new products that meet its customers’ requirements and to continue successfully transitioning the manufacturing of its products to third-party manufacturers;
Velodyne’s anticipated investments in and results from sales and marketing and research and development; and
the increased expenses associated with Velodyne being a public company.
The foregoing review of important factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other risk factors herein discussed under Item 1A: “Risk Factors.” Forward-looking statements reflect current views about Velodyne’s plans, strategies and prospects, which are based on information available as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Except to the extent required by applicable law, Velodyne undertakes no obligation (and expressly disclaims any such obligation) to update or revise any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from these statements. Therefore, you should not place undue reliance on those statements, which speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
.

2



PART I. Financial Information

Item 1. Consolidated Financial Statements

VELODYNE LIDAR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
March 31,December 31,
20212020
(Unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$155,205 $204,648 
Short-term investments228,408 145,636 
Accounts receivable, net13,469 13,979 
Inventories, net20,894 18,132 
Prepaid and other current assets12,043 22,319 
Total current assets430,019 404,714 
Property, plant and equipment, net15,541 16,805 
Goodwill1,189 1,189 
Intangible assets, net531 627 
Contract assets10,378 8,440 
Other assets19,934 937 
Total assets$477,592 $432,712 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$3,815 $7,721 
Accrued expense and other current liabilities30,187 50,349 
Contract liabilities9,388 7,323 
Total current liabilities43,390 65,393 
Long-term tax liabilities566 569 
Other long-term liabilities41,959 25,927 
Total liabilities85,915 91,889 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 15)00
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock
Common stock19 18 
Additional paid-in capital746,824 656,717 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(252)(230)
Accumulated deficit(354,914)(315,682)
Total stockholders’ equity391,677 340,823 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$477,592 $432,712 





See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


VELODYNE LIDAR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Revenue:
Product$10,593 $16,422 
License and services7,133 609 
Total revenue17,726 17,031 
Cost of revenue:
Product15,629 15,126 
License and services179 303 
Total cost of revenue15,808 15,429 
Gross profit1,918 1,602 
Operating expenses:
Research and development18,378 14,527 
Sales and marketing7,075 5,299 
General and administrative17,036 10,733 
Restructuring1,046 
Total operating expenses42,489 31,605 
Operating loss(40,571)(30,003)
Interest income103 112 
Interest expense(36)(6)
Other expense, net(17)(165)
Loss before income taxes(40,521)(30,062)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes296 (6,677)
Net loss$(40,817)$(23,385)
Net loss per share:
Basic and diluted$(0.22)$(0.17)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share:
Basic and diluted189,222,807 137,911,975 






See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
4


VELODYNE LIDAR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Net loss$(40,817)$(23,385)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Changes in unrealized gain on available for sale securities(11)
Foreign currency translation adjustments(11)(2)
Total other comprehensive loss, net of tax(22)(2)
Comprehensive loss$(40,839)$(23,387)



















































See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


VELODYNE LIDAR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)



Series A Convertible Preferred Stock
(Pre-Combination)
Series B Convertible Preferred Stock
(Pre-Combination)
Series B-1 Convertible Preferred Stock
(Pre-Combination)
Common Stock
(Pre-Combination)
Common Stock
(Post-Combination)
Additional Paid in CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive LossAccumulated DeficitTotal Stockholders' Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2020$$$$175,912,194 $18 $656,717 $(230)$(315,682)$340,823 
Issuance of common stock under warrant exercises— — — — — — — — 6,973,882 80,199 — — 80,200 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock award plans, net of taxes— — — — — — — — 6,798,504 (37)— — (37)
Share-based compensation— — — — — — — — — — 11,530 — — 11,530 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — — — — — — — (22)— (22)
Adjustment for previously issued warrants (Note 9)— — — — — — — — — — (1,585)— 1,585 
Net loss— — — — — — — — — — — — (40,817)(40,817)
Balance at March 31, 20210$0$0$0$189,684,580 $19 $746,824 $(252)$(354,914)$391,677 
Balance at December 31, 2019, as previously reported8,772,852 $1,375,440 $1,375,440 $34,252,578 $$$240,474 $(216)$(164,016)$76,246 
Retroactive application of the recapitalization(8,772,852)(1)(1,375,440)(1,375,440)(34,252,578)(3)137,911,975 14 (10)
Balance at December 31, 2019, as adjusted137,911,975 14 240,464 (216)(164,016)76,246 
Share-based compensation— — — — — — — — — — 21 — — 21 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — — — — — — — (2)— (2)
Net loss— — — — — — — — — — — — (23,385)(23,385)
Balance at March 31, 20200$0$0$0$137,911,975 $14 $240,485 $(218)$(187,401)$52,880 


See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
6


VELODYNE LIDAR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(40,817)$(23,385)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization2,053 2,171 
Reduction in carrying amount of ROU assets787 
Stock-based compensation11,530 21 
Provision for doubtful accounts1,682 314 
Other161 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net(1,172)191 
Inventories, net(2,762)(154)
Prepaid and other current assets1,702 (4,676)
Contract assets(2,438)
Other assets(2)98 
Accounts payable(3,856)4,591 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(3,867)(6,227)
Contract liabilities1,892 (6,232)
Net cash used in operating activities(35,107)(33,288)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchase of property, plant and equipment(601)(829)
Proceeds from sales of short-term investments2,000 
Proceeds from maturities of short-term investments7,000 2,200 
Purchase of short-term investments(91,932)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(83,533)1,371 
Cash flows from financing activities:
Payment of transaction costs related to Business Combination(20,006)(25)
Proceeds from warrant exercises89,222 
Tax withholding payment for vested equity awards(37)
Cash paid for IPO costs(634)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities69,179 (659)
Effect of exchange rate fluctuations on cash and cash equivalents18 (23)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(49,443)(32,599)
Beginning cash and cash equivalents204,648 60,004 
Ending cash and cash equivalents$155,205 $27,405 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest$36 $
Cash paid for income taxes, net333 13 
Cash paid for operating leases1,119 
Supplemental disclosure of noncash investing and financing activities:
Changes in accrued purchases of property, plant and equipment$105 $103 
Assets held for sale reclassification4,746 
ROU assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities340 
Transaction costs included in accrued liabilities5,000 592 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
7


VELODYNE LIDAR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Description of Business, Background and Nature of Operations

Velodyne Lidar, Inc. (the Company, Velodyne or Velodyne Lidar) provides smart vision solutions that are advancing the development of safe automated systems throughout the world. The Company’s technology, which is used in various automotive and non- automotive applications, is empowering the autonomous revolution by allowing machines to see their surroundings in real-time and in 3D.

Graf Industrial Corp. (Graf), the Company’s predecessor, was originally incorporated in Delaware as a special purpose acquisition company (SPAC). On September 29, 2020 (the Closing Date), Graf consummated a business combination (the Business Combination) with Velodyne Lidar, Inc. (the pre-combination Velodyne). Immediately upon the consummation of the Business Combination, Graf merged into the pre-combination Velodyne, with the pre-combination Velodyne surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. Graf changed its name to Velodyne Lidar, Inc. and the pre-combination Velodyne changed its name to Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc.

On September 30, 2020, Velodyne Lidar’s common stock and warrants began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “VLDR” and “VLDRW,” respectively. Unless the context otherwise requires, “we,” “us,” “our,” “Velodyne,” “Velodyne Lidar” and the “Company” refers to Velodyne Lidar Inc., the combined company and its subsidiaries following the Business Combination. Refer to Note 2 for further discussion of the Business Combination.

The Company has evaluated how it is organized and managed and has identified only 1 operating segment.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, and have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ( GAAP) for interim financial information. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. The financial information included herein is unaudited, and reflects all adjustments which are, in the opinion of management, of a normal recurring nature and necessary for the fair presentation of the company’s financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss, cash flows and stockholders’ equity for the interim periods presented, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for any future annual or interim period. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in its amended Annual Report on Form 10-K for 2020.

The Business Combination is accounted for as a reverse recapitalization as the pre-combination Velodyne was determined to be the accounting acquirer under Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)’s Accounting Standards Codification Topic 805, Business Combinations (ASC 805). In connection with the Business Combination, outstanding capital stock of the pre-combination Velodyne was converted into common stock of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share, representing a recapitalization, and the net assets of the Company were acquired at historical cost, with no goodwill or intangible assets recorded. The pre-combination Velodyne was deemed to be the predecessor of the Company, and the consolidated assets and liabilities and results of operations prior to the Closing Date are those of the pre-combination Velodyne. The shares and corresponding capital amounts and net loss per share available to common stockholders, prior to the Business Combination, have been retroactively restated as shares reflecting the exchange ratio established in the Merger Agreement. The number of shares of preferred stock was also retroactively restated in shares reflecting the exchange ratio, and the carrying amounts of preferred stock are based on the fair value of its redemption amount on each reporting date. All preferred stock was converted into shares of the Company’s common stock on the Closing Date. Refer to Note 9, Stockholders’ Equity, and Note 11, Net Loss Per Share, for further discussion of the recapitalization and share adjustments.

Liquidity

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The Company has funded its operations primarily through the Business Combination, PIPE offering, private placements of the pre-combination Velodyne convertible preferred stock and sales to customers. As of March 31, 2021, the Company’s existing sources of liquidity included cash and cash equivalents of $383.6 million and available borrowing capacity of $25.0 million under a revolving credit facility. The Company has incurred losses and negative cash flows from operations. If the Company incurs additional losses in the future, it may need to raise additional capital through issuances of equity and debt. However, management believes that the Company’s existing sources of liquidity are adequate to fund its operations for at least one year from the date the audited consolidated financial statements were available for issuance.

Emerging Growth Company

The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act), as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the JOBS Act), and it may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in its periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has opted to take advantage of such extended transition period available to emerging growth companies which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of the Company’s financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

Concentration of Risk
Financial instruments that subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, and accounts receivable. The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents, and short-term investments with high-quality financial institutes with investment-grade ratings. A majority of the cash balances are with U.S. banks and are insured to the extent defined by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
The Company’s accounts receivable are derived from customers located both inside and outside the U.S. The Company mitigates its credit risks by performing ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial conditions and requires customer advance payments in certain circumstances. The Company does not require collateral.

The Company’s concentration of risk related to accounts receivable and accounts payable was as follows:

March 31,December 31,
20212020
Number of customers accounted for 10% or more of accounts receivable23
Number of vendors accounted for 10% or more of accounts payable23

Two customers accounted for 45% and 47%, respectively, of the Company’s accounts receivable as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020. One vendor accounted for 32% and 34%, respectively, of accounts payable as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.

Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include standalone selling price (SSP) for each distinct

9


performance obligation in its customer contracts, total estimated future patents and their corresponding estimated development costs, total estimated costs and related progress towards complete satisfaction of performance obligation in certain services arrangements, allowances for doubtful accounts, inventory reserves, warranty reserves, valuation allowance for deferred tax assets, stock-based compensation, useful lives of property, plant, and equipment and intangible assets, income tax uncertainties, and other loss contingencies. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and also on assumptions that it believes are reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

Significant Accounting Policies
Except for the change in certain policies upon adoption of the accounting standards described below, there have been no material changes to the Company's significant accounting policies, compared to the accounting policies described in Note 1, Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal year 2020.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which supersedes FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 840, Leases (Topic 840), and provides principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both lessees and lessors. Among its provisions, this standard requires lessees to recognize right-of-use (ROU) assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheets for operating leases, and also requires additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures about lease arrangements. The Company adopted the new standard in the first quarter of 2021 using the modified retrospective method, under which the Company applies Topic 842 to existing and new leases as of January 1, 2021, but prior periods are not restated and continue to be reported under Topic 840 guidance in effect during those periods. Upon adoption, the Company recorded net ROU assets of $19.4 million and lease liabilities of $20.4 million and there were no cumulative effect adjustments as of January 1, 2021. The standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows. See Note 6. “Leases” for further information.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. This standard simplifies the accounting for income taxes by, among other things, eliminating certain exceptions related to the approach for intra-period tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. ASU 2019-12 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the Company must apply certain aspects of this standard retrospectively for all periods presented while other aspects are applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2021. The adoption of this new standard did not have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.

Leases

The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. The Company evaluates classification of leases at
commencement and, as necessary, at modification. As of March 31, 2021, all leases are classified as operating leases except for certain immaterial equipment finance leases. Operating leases, consisting primarily office leases, are included in operating lease ROU assets, other current liabilities, and operating lease liabilities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease.

Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized on the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made prior to lease commencement and excludes lease incentives. Variable lease payments not dependent on an index or a rate, are expensed as incurred and are not included within the ROU asset and lease liability calculation. Variable lease payments primarily include reimbursements of costs incurred by lessors for common area maintenance and utilities. The Company's lease terms are the noncancelable period, including any rent-free periods provided by the lessor, and include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that it will exercise that option. At lease inception, and in subsequent periods as necessary, the Company estimates the lease term based on its assessment of extension and termination options that are reasonably certain to be exercised. As the Company's leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments over the

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lease term. The incremental borrowing rate is a hypothetical rate based on the Company's understanding of what its credit rating would be for a secured borrowing where the lease was executed. Lease costs are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

The Company does not recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases, which have a lease term of twelve months or less and do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise.


Note 2. Business Combination and Related Transactions
On September 29, 2020, the Company consummated a business combination with the pre-combination Velodyne. Pursuant to ASC 805, for financial accounting and reporting purposes, the pre-combination Velodyne was deemed the accounting acquirer and the Company was treated as the accounting acquiree, and the Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization. Accordingly, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of the pre-combination Velodyne issuing stock for the net assets of Graf, accompanied by a recapitalization. Under this method of accounting, the consolidated financial statements of the Company are the historical financial statements of the pre-combination Velodyne. The net assets of Graf were stated at historical costs, with 0 goodwill or other intangible assets recorded, and are consolidated with the pre-combination Velodyne's financial statements on the Closing date. The shares and net income (loss) per share available to holders of the Company’s common stock, prior to the Business Combination, have been retroactively restated as shares reflecting the exchange ratio established in the Merger Agreement.

In connection with the Business Combination, Graf entered into subscription agreements with certain investors (the PIPE Investors), whereby it issued 15,000,000 shares of common stock at $10.00 per share (the Private Placement Shares) for an aggregate purchase price of $150.0 million (the Private Placement), which closed simultaneously with the consummation of the Business Combination. Upon the closing of the Business Combination, the Private Placement Shares were automatically converted into shares of the Company's common stock on a one-for-one basis.

The aggregate consideration for the Business Combination and proceeds from the Private Placement was approximately $1.8 billion, consisting of (i) $222.1 million in cash at the closing of the Business Combination, net of transaction expenses, and (ii) 150,277,532 shares of common stock valued at $10.25 per share, totaling $1,540.3 million. The common stock consideration consists of up to (1) 143,575,763 shares of Company common stock, including shares issuable in respect of vested equity awards of the pre-combination Velodyne, plus (2) 2,000,000 shares of Company common stock earned due to the satisfaction of the Earnout Condition on July 30, 2020, including 187,861 Earnout RSUs, which are subject to a six-month service condition and are not legally issued and outstanding shares of Company common stock at Closing, plus (3) 4,702,304 shares of Company common stock that were issued to Velodyne equity holders that did not opt to have their respective shares repurchased by the pre-combination Velodyne for cash in a pre-closing tender offer conducted by the pre-combination Velodyne (the Pre-Closing Tender Offer). The Company used $1.8 million of the proceeds to repurchase and retire 175,744 shares of Company common stock from certain stockholders in the Pre-Closing Tender Offer.

In connection with the Business Combination, the Company incurred direct and incremental costs of approximately $29.1 million related to the equity issuance, consisting primarily of investment banking, legal, accounting and other professional fees, which were recorded to additional paid-in capital as a reduction of proceeds. As of March 31, 2021, the Company has $5.0 million of accrued transaction costs, consisting primarily of investment banking fees, in accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheet.


Note 3. Revenue

Disaggregation of Revenues
The Company disaggregates its revenue from contracts with customers by geographic region based on the shipping location of the customer, type of good or service and timing of transfer of goods or services to customers (point-in-time or over time), as it believes it best depicts how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of its revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
Total revenue based on the disaggregation criteria described above is as follows (dollar in thousands):


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Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
% of Revenue% of Revenue
RevenueRevenue
Revenue by geography:
North America$5,044 28 %$9,253 54 %
Asia Pacific9,506 54 %5,624 33 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa3,176 18 %2,154 13 %
Total$17,726 100 %$17,031 100 %
Revenue by products and services:
Products$10,593 60 %$16,422 96 %
License and services7,133 40 %609 %
Total$17,726 100 %$17,031 100 %
Revenue by timing of recognition:
Goods transferred at a point in time$16,670 94 %$16,724 98 %
Goods and services transferred over time1,056 %307 %
Total$17,726 100 %$17,031 100 %



In June 2020, the Company entered into a patent cross-license agreement related to its litigation settlement with a customer in Asia Pacific. Under the terms of the arrangement, the customer agreed to make a one-time license payment upon settlement, will make annual fixed royalty payments through 2023, and thereafter, will make product sales royalty payments through February 2030. In September 2020, Velodyne entered into another patent cross-license agreement related to its litigation with a different customer in Asia Pacific. The Company recorded license revenue of $6.4 million related to these patent cross-license agreements for the three months ended March 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company recorded $3.6 million and $3.4 million, respectively, in current deferred revenue, and $13.9 million and $13.7 million, respectively, in long-term deferred revenue associated with the rights granted as part of these patent cross-license agreements to receive future patents as they represent stand ready obligations. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company also recorded $13.7 million and $11.3 million, respectively, of contract assets related to these patent cross-license agreements.

Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities
Contract assets primarily relates to unbilled accounts receivable. Unbilled amounts arise when the timing of billing differs from the timing of revenue recognized, such as when revenue recognized on the guaranteed minimums at the inception of the contract when there is not yet a right to invoice in accordance with contract terms. Unbilled amounts are recorded as a contract asset when the revenue associated with the contract is recognized prior to billing and reclassified to accounts receivable when billed in accordance with the terms of the contract.
Contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue, customer advanced payments and customer deposits. Deferred revenue includes billings in excess of revenue recognized related to product sales, licenses, extended warranty and other services revenue, and is recognized as revenue when the Company performs under the contract. The long-term portion of deferred revenue, mostly related to obligations under license arrangements and extended warranty, is classified as non-current contract liabilities and is included in other long-term liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. Customer advanced payments represent required customer payments in advance of product shipments according to customer’s payment term. Customer advance payments are recognized as revenue when control of the performance obligation is transferred to the customer. Customer deposits represent consideration received from a customer which can be applied to future product or service purchases, or refunded.
Contract assets and contract liabilities consisted of the following as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 (in thousands):


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March 31,December 31,
20212020
Contract assets, current
Unbilled accounts receivable$3,313 $2,813 
Contract assets, long-term
Unbilled accounts receivable10,378 8,440 
Total contract assets$13,691 $11,253 
Contract liabilities, current
Deferred revenue, current$8,904 $7,143 
Customer advance payment484 180 
Customer deposit
Total9,388 7,323 
Contract liabilities, long-term
Deferred revenue, long-term14,560 14,732 
Total contract liabilities$23,948 $22,055 

The following table shows the significant changes in contract assets and contract liabilities balances (in thousands):

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Contract assets:
Beginning balance$11,253 $
Transferred to receivables from contract assets recognized at the beginning of the period(2,813)
Increase due to unbilled and recognized as revenue in excess of billings during the period, net of amounts transferred to receivables5,251 
Ending balance$13,691 $
Contract liabilities:
Beginning balance$22,055 $19,164 
Revenue recognized that was included in the contract liabilities beginning balance(1,434)(561)
Increase due to cash received and not recognized as revenue and billings in excess of revenue recognized during the period3,327 412 
Customer deposits reclassified to refund liabilities(6,083)
Ending balance$23,948 $12,932 
During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company reclassified customer deposit of $6.1 million to refund liabilities and refunded the entire amount to a customer.

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Note 4. Fair Value Measurement
The Company categorizes assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on the consolidated balance sheet based on the level of judgment associated with inputs used to measure their fair value. For assets and liabilities measured at fair value, fair value is the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining fair value, the Company considers the principal or most advantageous market in which the Company would transact, and the Company considers assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability.
The three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are:
Level 1 — Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 — Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or quoted prices in less active market. All significant inputs used in the valuations are observable or can be directly or indirectly through market corroboration, for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs are based on assumptions used to measure assets and liabilities at fair value. The inputs require significant management judgment or estimation. The Company monitors and review the inputs to ensure the fair value measurements are reasonable and consistent with market experience in similar asset classes.

The following table summarize the Company’s assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis, by level, within the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):
March 31, 2021
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Cash equivalents:
Money market fund$56,101 $$$56,101 
Commercial paper1,400 1,400 
Total cash equivalents56,101 1,400 57,501 
Short-term investments:
Commercial paper174,039 174,039 
Corporate debt securities54,369 54,369 
Total short-term investments228,408 228,408 
Total assets measured at fair value$56,101 $229,808 $$285,909 

December 31, 2020
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Cash equivalents:
Money market fund$74,107 $$$74,107 
Treasury bill and U.S. government and agency securities19,999 19,999 
Corporate debt securities2,003 2,003 
Commercial paper33,295 33,295 
Total cash equivalents94,106 35,298 129,404 
Short-term investments:
Commercial paper122,265 122,265 
Corporate debt securities23,371 23,371 
Total short-term investments145,636 145,636 
Total assets measured at fair value$94,106 $180,934 $$275,040 

Cash equivalents consist primarily of money market funds with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase, and the carrying amount is a reasonable estimate of fair value. Short-term investments represent highly liquid commercial paper and corporate debt securities with maturities greater than 90 days at the date of purchase. Marketable securities with maturities greater than one year are classified as current assets because management considers all marketable securities to be available for current operations.


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Note 5. Balance Sheet Components

Accounts Receivables, Net
Accounts receivables, net consist of the following (in thousands):

March 31,December 31,
20212020
Accounts receivable$16,027 $14,855 
Allowance for doubtful accounts(2,558)(876)
Accounts receivable, net$13,469 $13,979 

Inventories, Net
Inventories, net of reserve, consist of the following (in thousands):

March 31,December 31,
20212020
Raw materials$6,927 $6,876 
Work-in-process2,735 4,347 
Finished goods11,232 6,909 
Total inventories$20,894 $18,132 

Prepaid and Other Current Assets
Prepaid and other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Prepaid expenses and deposits$4,912 $5,698 
Due from contract manufacturers and vendors2,468 2,944 
Prepaid taxes957 1,612 
Contract assets3,313 2,813 
Receivable from warrant exercises9,074 
Other393 178 
Total prepaid and other current assets$12,043 $22,319 


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Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Property, plant and equipment, at cost, consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Machinery and equipment$33,023 $32,688 
Leasehold improvements5,806 5,905 
Furniture and fixtures1,481 1,479 
Vehicles360 360 
Software1,357 1,357 
Assets under construction919 641 
42,946 42,430 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization(27,405)(25,625)
Property, plant and equipment, net$15,541 $16,805 
Finance lease equipment$888 $888 
Less: accumulated depreciation(425)(381)
Finance lease equipment, net$463 $507 

The aggregate depreciation and amortization related to property, plant and equipment was as follows (in thousands):

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Depreciation and amortization on property, plant and equipment$1,957 $2,075 
Depreciation on finance lease equipment44 44 

Intangible Assets, Net
Intangible assets, net, consist of the following (in thousands):
Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Book Value
As of March 31, 2021:
Developed technology$1,200 $669 $531 
As of December 31, 2020:
Developed technology$1,200 $573 $627 

Amortization of intangible assets is as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Amortization of intangible assets$96 $96 

Other Assets
Other assets, non-current, consist of the following (in thousands):

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March 31,December 31,
20212020
Operating lease ROU assets$18,993 $— 
Other941 937 
Total other assets$19,934 $937 

Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):

March 31,December 31,
20212020
Accrued payroll expenses$7,162 $11,877 
Accrued manufacturing costs8,219 8,003 
Accrued transaction costs5,000 25,057 
Accrued professional and consulting fees3,228 965 
Accrued warranty costs1,592 2,204 
Accrued taxes1,002 1,074 
Lease liabilities2,956 — 
Other1,028 1,169 
Total accrued expense and other current liabilities$30,187 $50,349 


Long-Term Liabilities
Long-term liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
PPP Loan$10,000 $10,000 
Contract liabilities, long-term14,560 14,732 
Lease liabilities, long-term16,984 — 
Other415 1,195 
Total long-term liabilities$41,959 $25,927 

Note 6. Leases

The Company leases real estate, equipment and automobiles in the U.S. and internationally. The Company leases office facilities under non-cancelable operating leases that expire on various dates through December 2027, including office and manufacturing space in San Jose, California used as its corporate headquarters. The lessor entity is owned by one of the Company’s former officers. Please see Note 17, Related Party Transactions. The leases do not contain any material residual value guarantees or restrictive covenants.

Lease cost, which consisted primarily of operating lease cost, was $1.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Under ASC 840, the previous lease standard, total rent expense under operating leases during the three months ended March 31, 2020 was $1.1 million.

Other information related to leases were as follows (in thousands, except years and percentages):


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Three Months Ended
March 31, 2021
Supplemental cash flow information:
Cash paid for operating leases included in operating cash flows$1,119 
ROU assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities$340 
March 31, 2021
Supplemental balance sheet information:
Other assets$18,993 
Total operating ROU assets$18,993 
Other current liabilities$2,956 
Other long-term liabilities16,984 
Total lease liabilities$19,940 
Weighted average remaining lease term (years)6.48
Weighted average discount rate6.35 %

As of March 31, 2021, maturities of lease liabilities were as follows:

Years Ending December 31,Finance LeasesOperating Leases
2021 (remaining nine months)$145 $3,153 
202214 3,463 
20233,358 
20243,459 
20253,563 
Thereafter7,450 
Total lease payments159 $24,446 
Less amount representing interest(4)(4,506)
Present value of lease liabilities$155 $19,940 



Note 7. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
Accumulated other comprehensive loss was comprised of the following as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20212020
Foreign currency translation loss$(181)$(170)
Unrealized loss on investments(71)(60)
Total accumulated other comprehensive loss$(252)$(230)

During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, there were no significant amounts related to foreign currency translation loss or realized gains or loss on investments reclassified to net loss from accumulated other comprehensive loss.


Note 8. Credit Facilities and Notes Payable

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In January 2020, the Company entered into a loan and security agreement with a financial institution (the 2020 Revolving Line), as amended in September 2020, December 2020 and March 2021, which provides a revolving line of credit of $25.0 million, with an option to increase the credit limit up to additional $15.0 million with the bank’s approval. As part of the Revolving Line, there is a letters of credit sub-limit of $5.0 million. The advances under the Revolving Line bear interest at a rate per annum equal to prime rate plus an applicable margin of 1.5% for prime rate advances, or LIBOR rate plus an applicable margin of 2.5% for LIBOR advances. Unused revolving line facility fee is 0.15% per annum of average unused portion of the Revolving Line. In addition, there is a $50,000 non-refundable commitment fee if the Company exercises the Incremental Revolving Line option. The Revolving Line is secured by certain assets of the Company. The 2020 Revolving Line expired on February 27, 2021 and was extended to February 26, 2022. The Company had 0 outstanding borrowings and was in compliance with the financial covenants associated with the facility as of March 31, 2021.
On April 8, 2020, the Company received loan proceeds of $10.0 million under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) Paycheck Protection Program (PPP). The principal and accrued interest are forgivable after 24 weeks as long as the borrower uses the loan proceeds for eligible purposes, including payroll, benefits, rent and utilities, and maintains its payroll levels and that approval is received from the relevant government entity. The unforgiven portion of the PPP loan is payable in two years at an interest rate of 1% per annum, with a deferral of interest payments for ten months after the expiration of the 24-week covered period. The PPP loan balance of $10.0 million was included in other long-term liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2021.


Note 9. Stockholders’ Equity

Common Stock

As of March 31, 2021, the Company had 189,684,580 shares of common stock outstanding, which excludes 4,183,624 restricted stock award (RSA) shares issued and outstanding that are subject to certain lock-up and forfeiture arrangements. The following summarizes the Company’s common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021:

Shares%
Converted pre-combination Velodyne common stock outstanding, net of shares
   repurchased as part of the tender offer
101,849,24753.7 %
Converted pre-combination Velodyne preferred stock outstanding24,772,75913.1 %
Public stockholders53,489,07028.1 %
Graf Founder shares2,575,0001.4 %
PIPE shares200,0000.1 %
Common shares issued under employee stock award plans6,798,5043.6 %
Total common stock issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2021189,684,580100.0 %


Preferred Stock

The Company is authorized to issue up to 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock, each with a par value of $0.0001 per share. As of March 31, 2021, 0 shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.

Warrants

Upon the closing of the Business Combination, there were 24,876,512 outstanding warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock that were issued by Graf prior to the Business Combination. Each whole warrant entitles the holder to purchase three-quarters of one share of the Company’s common stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustments. The warrants are exercisable at any time commencing 30 days after the completion of the Business Combination and expire five years after the completion of the Business Combination. The Company may redeem the outstanding warrants in whole and not in part at a price of $0.01 per warrant at any time after they become exercisable, provided that the last sale price of the Company’s common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share, subject to adjustments, for any 20-trading days within a 30-trading day period ending three business days prior to the date on which the Company sends the notice of redemption to the warrant holders.


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In connection with the Business Combination, on October 19, 2020, the Company registered the issuance of an aggregate of up to 18,657,384 shares of its common stock that are issuable upon the exercise of its warrants including up to 375,000 shares of its common stock issuable upon exercise of its working capital warrants issued to Graf LLC. The exercise price of the warrants is $11.50 per share. The following summarizes the Company’s common stock issuance related to the warrant exercises:

March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Warrants outstanding upon Closing24,876,512 24,876,512
Warrants exercised to date18,897,0709,598,538
Warrants outstanding5,979,44215,277,974
Aggregated common shares issuable upon exercise of warrants18,657,38418,657,384
Common shares issued upon exercise of warrants14,172,7807,198,898
Remaining common shares issuable upon exercise of warrants4,484,60411,458,486

On April 12, 2021, the Acting Director of the Division of Corporation Finance and Acting Chief Accountant of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) issued a statement regarding accounting and reporting considerations for warrants issued by SPACs. In light of the issues raised by the SEC, the Company re-evaluated its accounting position for the warrants and concluded that certain warrants should have been classified as a liability measured at fair value for the 30-day period from September 29, 2020 to October 29, 2020.

Accounting for these warrants as a liability instead of equity would have reduced non-operating expense and net loss by $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Additionally, a corresponding $1.6 million adjustment would have been made to reduce its accumulated deficit with an offsetting adjustment to additional paid in capital in its equity accounts at December 31, 2020. Accounting for these warrants as a liability instead of equity would not have any effect on Velodyne’s previously reported revenues, assets, liabilities, total equity, or cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2020. Velodyne has concluded the effects of accounting for the warrants as a liability instead of equity were immaterial to the previously issued financial statements. The Company has made an immaterial adjustment to its equity accounts for the effects of the accounting for the warrants in its condensed consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity and balance sheet at March 31, 2021 by decreasing its accumulated deficit by $1.6 million with an offsetting decrease to its additional paid in capital.

Dividends

The Company has not paid any cash dividends on the common stock to date. The Company may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and has no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend on, among other things, the Company’s results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, the Company’s ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness the Company or its subsidiaries incur.


Note 10. Stock-Based Compensation

2020 Equity Incentive Plans

In connection with the Business Combination, on September 29, 2020, the Company's stockholders approved the 2020 Equity Plan and the 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the 2020 ESPP).

The 2020 Equity Plan provides for the grant of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units (RSUs) and other stock or cash-based awards. The Company initially reserved 27,733,888, approximately 16% of the number of shares of its common stock outstanding upon the Closing, as the “Initial Limit” for the issuance of awards under the 2020 Equity Plan. The number of shares reserved and available for issuance under the plan will automatically increase each January 1, beginning on January 1, 2021 and ending on (and including) January 1, 2030, by a number equal to the least of (a) 5% of the total number of Common Shares actually issued and outstanding on the last day of the preceding fiscal year, (b) 10,000,000 Common Shares, or (c) a number of Common Shares determined by the Board. This limit is subject to adjustment in the

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event of a stock split, stock dividend or other change in the Company’s capitalization. The number of shares reserved was 36,738,678 and the remaining shares available for issuance under the 2020 Equity Plan was 18,036,298 as of March 31, 2021.

Under the 2020 ESPP, there are initially 3,492,097 authorized but unissued or reacquired shares of common stock reserved for issuance, plus an additional number of shares to be reserved annually on the first day of each fiscal year for a period of not more than 20 years, beginning on January 1, 2021, in an amount equal to the least of (i) one percent (1%) of the outstanding shares of our common stock on such date, (ii) 2,500,000 shares of our common stock or (iii) a lesser amount determined by the Compensation Committee or the Board. The number of shares reserved and available for issuance under the ESPP was 5,293,055 as of March 31, 2021.

The Board has approved the sell-to-cover method as the tax withholding method for stock awards upon settlement, pursuant to which shares with a market value equivalent to the tax withholding obligation are sold on behalf of the holder of the awards to cover the tax withholding liability and the cash proceeds from such sales are remitted by the Company to taxing authorities.

Stock Incentive Awards

As of March 31, 2021, the Company has certain equity incentive awards outstanding, which include stock options, RSAs and RSUs under its 2020 Stock Plan. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company granted RSUs to certain employees and directors pursuant to its 2020 Stock Plan. The RSUs are subject to time-based vesting criteria and vest on a quarterly basis over a four-year period, or 25 percent upon the one-year anniversary date from initial vesting date, with the remainder vesting quarterly over the following three years.

A summary of stock option activities is as follows:
Shares

Weighted Average Exercise Price
Weighted Average Remaining Contractual LifeAggregate Intrinsic Value
(Years)(In thousands)
Option:
Options outstanding as of December 31, 2020597,3545.86 
Granted0
Options outstanding as of March 31, 2021597,3545.86 7.05$3,311 
Options exercisable as of March 31, 2021285,2115.99 4.741,542
Options vested and expected to vest as of March 31, 2021597,3545.86 7.053,311

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A summary of RSA and RSU activities is as follows:
SharesWeighted Average Grant Date Fair Value per Share
RSA:
RSAs outstanding as of December 31, 20204,183,624$1.37
Forfeited0
RSAs outstanding as of March 31, 20214,183,624$1.37
RSU:
RSUs outstanding as of December 31, 202011,983,636$12.43
Granted1,372,632$12.58
Released(6,801,635)$12.23
Forfeited(533,418)$12.23
RSUs outstanding as of March 31, 20216,021,215$12.31
PRSU:
PRSUs outstanding as of December 31, 20201,101,683$6.72
Granted0
PRSUs outstanding as of March 31, 20211,101,683$6.72

The Company uses primarily the sell-to-cover method as the tax withholding method for stock awards upon settlement, pursuant to which shares with a market value equivalent to the tax withholding obligation are sold on behalf of the holder of the awards to cover the tax withholding liability and the cash proceeds from such sales are remitted by the Company to taxing authorities.

Stock-Based Compensation Expense

The following table presents stock-based compensation expense included in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Cost of revenue$536 $
Research and development4,910 21 
Sales and marketing1,986 
General and administrative4,098 
Total stock-based compensation expense$11,530 $21 

The Company recognizes forfeitures as they occur. As of March 31, 2021, unrecognized compensation cost related to RSUs and stock options was $64.1 million and $0.6 million, respectively, which was expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.5 years and 2.7 years, respectively.


Note 11. Net Loss Per Share
Pursuant to the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and as a result of the Business Combination and reverse recapitalization, the Company has retrospectively adjusted the weighted average shares outstanding prior to September 29, 2020 to give effect to the exchange ratio used to determine the number of shares of common stock into which the pre-combination Velodyne common and preferred stock converted.

Basic net income (loss) per share is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the

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treasury stock method. During the periods when there is a net loss, potentially dilutive common stock equivalents have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share as their effect is anti-dilutive.

Warrants to purchase 24,876,512 shares of common stock at $11.50 per share were issued during Graf’s initial public offering. As of March 31, 2021, there were 18,897,070 warrants exercised and 14,172,780 shares of common stocks issued under warrant exercises. The 5,979,442 outstanding warrants were excluded from the basic and diluted net loss per share as they were anti-dilutive given the Company had a net loss for all periods presented.

The following common stock equivalents have also been excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because including them would have been antidilutive (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Stock options597 157 
RSAs4,184 4,184 
RSUs (non-vested)6,050 9,120 
Total10,831 13,461 


Note 12. Retirement Plan
The Company has a 401(k) savings and profit-sharing plan (the 401(k) Plan), which is intended to be a tax-qualified defined contribution plan that covers all eligible employees, as defined in the applicable plan documents. Under the 401(k) Plan, eligible employees may elect salary deferral contributions, not to exceed limitations established annually by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The Company matches 25% of employees’ eligible contributions. The Company’s matching contributions were $0.2 million and $0.3 million, respectively, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020.


Note 13. Restructuring
In March 2020, the Company initiated a restructuring plan to downsize the manufacturing function and related engineering and administrative functions in its California locations. The purposes of this plan are to align resource requirements with the Company’s initiatives to lower the Company’s cost structure and to increase its production capacity by outsourcing a majority of its manufacturing activities. The Company’s restructuring expenses incurred primarily related to employee termination costs. The Company incurred restructuring costs of $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The restructuring plan was completed in 2020.


Note 14. Income Taxes

The following table summarizes the Company's loss before income taxes and provision for (benefit from) income taxes (in thousands):

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Loss before income taxes$(40,521)$(30,062)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes296 (6,677)
Effective tax rate(0.7)%22.2 %

The quarterly income tax provision reflects an estimate of the corresponding year’s annual effective tax rate and includes, when applicable, adjustments for discrete items. The tax provision for the periods presented primarily relates to income taxes of non-U.S. operations as the U.S. operations were in a loss position and the Company maintains a full valuation allowance against its U.S. deferred tax assets.


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The Company is subject to income taxes in the United States, China and Germany. The Company’s effective tax rate changed from 22.2% in the three months ended March 31, 2020 to (0.7)% in the three months ended March 31, 2021. This change was primarily due to the $6.7 million tax benefit related to the release of a valuation allowance associated with carrying back a portion of our 2019 net operating losses to 2017 that is allowed by the CARES Act.

Enacted on March 27, 2020, the CARES Act provides emergency assistance and health care response for businesses affected by the coronavirus pandemic. The CARES Act, among other things, permits net operating loss carryovers and carrybacks to offset 100% of taxable income for taxable years beginning before 2021. Additionally, the CARES Act allows net operating losses incurred in 2018, 2019 and 2020 to be carried back to each of the five preceding taxable years to generate a refund of previously paid income taxes. In May 2020, the Company received a $7.1 million tax refund related to the carryback of a portion of its 2019 net operating losses to 2017. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $173.5 million of U.S. federal and $105.5 million of state net operating loss carryforwards available to reduce future taxable income, which will be carried forward indefinitely for U.S. federal tax purposes and will expire beginning in 2028 through 2040 for state tax purposes.


Note 15. Commitments and Contingencies

Purchase and Other Commitments
The following table summarizes contractual obligations and commitments as of March 31, 2021 (in thousands):

Years Ending December 31,Purchase CommitmentsOther Contractual Commitments
2021 (remaining nine months)$31,496 $1,465 
2022805 
202351 
Total$31,496 $2,321 


Purchase commitments represent outstanding purchase orders or commitments for goods or services with contract manufacturers and vendors that range mostly from one month up to a year. The Company uses several contract manufacturers to manufacture components, subassemblies and products. The Company provides these contract manufacturers with demand information and they use this information to acquire components and build products. Contract manufacturer commitments consist of obligations for on-hand inventories and non-cancelable purchase orders with contract manufactures. If the Company cancels all or part of the orders, it may still be liable to the contract manufacturers for the cost of the materials and components purchased by the subcontractors to manufacture the Company’s products. The Company also obtains individual components for its products from a wide variety of individual suppliers. In addition, the Company has other contractual obligations for goods or services associated with its ordinary course of business.

Legal Proceedings
From time to time, the Company is involved in actions, claims, suits and other proceedings in the ordinary course of business, including assertions by third parties relating to intellectual property infringement, breaches of contract or warranties or employment-related matters. The Company is defending all current litigation matters. Although there can be no assurances and the outcome of these matters is currently not determinable (except as specifically described below), the Company currently believes that none of these claims or proceedings are likely to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position.

Quanergy Litigation
In September 2016, Quanergy Systems, Inc. (Quanergy) filed a complaint against the Company and one of its customers in the Northern District of California (the District Court litigation), seeking a declaratory judgment of non-infringement of 1 of the Company’s patents, U.S. Patent No. 7,969,558 (the ‘558 patent) and asserting state and federal trade secret misappropriation claims against the Company and its customer and breach of contract and constructive fraud claims against its customer. In November 2016, Quanergy filed an amended complaint, removing its trade secret misappropriation claims against the Company, dropping its customer from the suit and dropping the related claims of breach and constructive fraud. The amended complaint maintained only the declaratory judgment of non-infringement action against the Company. In

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December 2016, the Company filed an answer generally denying the allegations and relief requested in Quanergy’s amended complaint. The Company’s answer also included counterclaims against Quanergy asserting direct, indirect, and willful infringement of the ‘558 patent. In January 2017, Quanergy filed an answer generally denying the allegations in the Company’s patent infringement counterclaims and requesting relief. The court held a claim construction hearing on September 13, 2017 and issued a claim construction order on October 4, 2017, which adopted the majority of the Company’s proposed constructions. In June 2018, the district court entered an order granting a joint stipulation to stay the litigation.
Quanergy filed 2 petitions for inter partes review with the U.S. Patent Office’s Patent Trials and Appeal Board (PTAB) in November 2017, challenging all claims of the ‘558 patent that we asserted. The Company filed its Patent Owner Preliminary Response to Quanergy’s petitions on March 7, 2018. The PTAB issued an institution decision on May 25, 2018, instituting review of all challenged claims. The Company subsequently filed its Patent Owner Response and a Contingent Motion to amend the claims. The PTAB held oral argument on February 27, 2019. On May 23, 2019, the PTAB issued a Final Written Decision upholding the validity of all the challenged claims, finding that Quanergy did not prove by a preponderance of the evidence that any of the challenged claims of the ‘558 patent were unpatentable, and denying the Company’s contingent motion as moot. In June 2019, Quanergy filed a request for rehearing. On July 21, 2020, Quanergy filed a Notice of Appeal, appealing the PTAB decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Quanergy’s opening appeal brief was filed on January 22, 2021. The Company’s responsive appeal brief was filed on April 2, 2021. Quanergy filed its reply brief on April 23, 2021. The Company believes the allegations in the actions are without merit, and intends to defend the actions vigorously.

Employment Matters
On June 8, 2020, a former employee filed a class action lawsuit in the Santa Clara County Superior Court of the State of California. The complaint alleges that, among other things, the Company failed to pay minimum and overtime wages, final wages at termination, and other claims based on meal periods and rest breaks. The plaintiff is bringing this lawsuit on behalf of herself and other similarly situated plaintiffs who have not been identified and is seeking to certify the action as a class action. The plaintiff has now filed a First Amended Complaint that adds a claim pursuant to California’s Private Attorneys General Act. The First Amended Complaint does not specify the amount the plaintiff seeks to recover. Velodyne’s response to the First Amended Complaint was filed on November 16, 2020 and the parties are in the process of beginning discovery concerning class certification issues. The Court has scheduled a Case Management Conference for May 26, 2021. The Company believes the allegations in the actions are without merit, and intends to defend the actions vigorously.

Securities Litigation Matters

On March 3, 2021, a purported shareholder of Velodyne filed a complaint for a putative class action against Velodyne, Anand Gopalan and Andrew Hamer in the United States District Court, Northern District of California, entitled Moradpour v. Velodyne Lidar, Inc., et al., No. 3:21-cv-01486-SI. The complaint alleges purported violations of the federal securities laws and that, among other things, the defendants made materially false and/or misleading statements and failed to disclose material facts about the Company’s business, operations and prospects. The complaint alleges that purported class members have suffered losses. The complaint seeks, among other things, an award of compensatory damages on behalf of a putative class of persons who purchased or otherwise acquired the Company’s securities between November 9, 2020 and February 19, 2021. On March 12, 2021, a putative class action entitled Reese v. Velodyne Lidar, Inc., et al., No. 3:21-cv-01736-VC, was filed against the Company, Mr. Gopalan and Mr. Hamer in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, based on allegations similar to those in the earlier class action and seeking recovery on behalf of the same putative class. On March 19, 2021, another putative class action entitled Nick v. Velodyne Lidar, Inc., et al., No. 4:21-cv-01950-JST, was filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, against the Company, Mr. Gopalan, Mr. Hamer, two current or former directors, and three other entities. The complaint alleges purported violations of the federal securities laws and that, among other things, the defendants made materially false and/or misleading statements and failed to disclose material facts about the Company’s business, operations, controls and prospects and seeks, among other things, an award of compensatory damages on behalf of a putative class of persons who purchased or otherwise acquired the Company’s securities between July 2, 2020 and March 17, 2021. The Company believes that the putative class actions are likely to be consolidated and proceed as a single litigation. The Company believes the allegations in the actions are without merit, and intends to defend the actions vigorously.

On March 12, 2021, a putative shareholder derivative lawsuit entitled D’Arcy v. Gopalan, et al., No. 1:21-cv-00369-MN, was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware against current and former directors and/or officers Anand Gopalan, Andrew Hamer, David S. Hall, Marta Thoma Hall, Joseph B. Culkin, Michael E. Dee, James A. Graf, Barbara Samardzich, and Christopher A. Thomas, and names the Company as a nominal defendant. The complaint asserts claims for breach of fiduciary duty, unjust enrichment, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, and waste of corporate assets

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against all of the individual defendants, and asserts a contribution claim under the federal securities laws against Mr. Gopalan and Mr. Hamer. On March 16, 2021, a second shareholder derivative lawsuit entitled Kondner, et al. v. Culkin, et al., No. 1:21-cv-00391-MN, was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware against most of the same defendants named in the earlier derivative complaint, and asserts claims against the individual defendants for alleged breaches of fiduciary duty and waste of corporate assets. Both derivative actions are based on allegations similar to those in the class actions discussed above, and have now been consolidated.

Contingency Assessment

The Company records accruals for outstanding legal proceedings, investigations or claims when it is probable that a liability will be incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company evaluated developments in legal proceedings, investigations or claims that could affect the amount of any accrual, as well as any developments that would result in a loss contingency to become both probable and reasonably estimable. As of March 31, 2021, the Company has not recorded any significant accrual for loss contingencies associated with such legal claims or litigation discussed above.


Note 16. Segment, Geographic and Customer Concentration Information
The Company conducts its business in 1 operating segment that develops and produces Lidar sensors for use in industrial, 3D mapping, drones and auto applications. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer is the chief operating decision maker (CODM). The CODM allocates resources and makes operating decisions based on financial information presented on a consolidated basis, accompanied by disaggregated information about sales and gross margin by product group. The profitability of the Company’s product group is not a determining factor in allocating resources and the CODM does not evaluate profitability below the level of the consolidated company.

The Company reports revenue by region and country based on the location where its customers accept delivery of its products and services. Revenue by region was as follows (dollar amount in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
% of Revenue% of Revenue
RevenueRevenue
Revenue by geography:
North America$5,044 28 %$9,253 54 %
Asia Pacific9,506 54 %5,624 33 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa3,176 18 %2,154 13 %
Total$17,726 100 %$17,031 100 %


Revenue by countries and customers accounted for more than 10% of revenue was as follows:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Countries over 10% of Revenue:
U.S.26 %31 %
China45 %13 %
Sweden13 %*
Canada*23 %
Number of Customers accounted for over 10% of Revenue:22
The Company’s long-lived assets, consisting primarily of property, plant and equipment, were primarily located in the United States as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.


Note 17. Related Party Transactions

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Certain holders of the pre-combination Velodyne's convertible preferred stock (which converted into common stock of the Company upon the Business Combination) purchased products and services, directly or through a third party, from the Company. Revenue and accounts receivable for these holders were as follows (in thousands):

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Revenue:
Stockholder A$39 $243 
Stockholder B(1)
(56)3,544 

March 31,December 31,
20212020
Accounts receivable:
Stockholder B(1)
1,288 3,085 

(1) The revenue amount for the three months ended March 31, 2021 included a $71,000 credit taken against future payments. In addition, during the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company reserved approximately $1.7 million allowance for doubtful account related to accounts receivable balance from a third party that was purchasing goods from the Company on behalf of Stockholder B.

In April 2019, the Company entered into a manufacturing agreement with one of its Series B Preferred Stockholders (Stockholder D), and the Company has one product that is currently being manufactured by Stockholder D. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had $3.2 million and $6.3 million, respectively, of payable and accrued purchases and $8.5 million and $15.0 million, respectively, of outstanding purchase commitments for products with this stockholder. The Company procures equipment, materials and components for Stockholder D to build the product and had $0.2 million and $1.5 million, respectively, of receivables from this stockholder which was included in other current assets as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020. The Company also loaned to Stockholder D manufacturing equipment with a net book value of $0.5 million and $0.4 million, respectively, as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, which was included in the Company’s balance sheet within property, plant and equipment, net.
The Company currently rents its corporate headquarters facility in San Jose, California from a company owned by one of its former officers. The lease was executed in January 2017 and expires in December 2027, as amended. As of March 31, 2021, future minimum lease payments totaled $23.5 million related to this facility. Lease cost and rent expense under this lease was $0.8 million and $0.8 million, respectively, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion of Velodyne’s results of operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with the information set forth in Velodyne’s financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon our current expectations, estimates and projections that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements due to, among other considerations, the matters discussed under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Item 1A: “Risk Factors.”


Overview

Velodyne, the first pure-play lidar company, is a global leader in lidar technology providing real-time 3D vision for autonomous systems. Our lidar solutions are advancing the development of safe automated systems throughout the world, thereby empowering the autonomous revolution by allowing machines to see their surroundings. Our lidar-based smart vision solutions are also deployed in many non-automotive applications, including autonomous mobile robots, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), drones, last-mile delivery, precision agriculture, advanced security systems, and smart city initiatives.

We also license our technology and provide development services to customers and business partners. Of the more than 300 customers that purchased smart vision solutions from us and our distributors in the last two fiscal years, approximately

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200 are using our smart vision solutions for non-automotive applications. In 2020, we generated approximately 40% of our revenue from sales to customers deploying our smart vision solutions in non-automotive applications. In addition, we are transitioning from field programmable gate arrays to ASICs in order to further improve performance of our products, lower costs and reduce reliance on any key suppliers.


Impact of COVID-19

The extensive impact of the pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) has resulted and will likely continue to result in significant disruptions to the global economy, as well as businesses and capital markets around the world. In an effort to halt the outbreak of COVID-19, a number of countries, states, counties and other jurisdictions have imposed, and may impose in the future, various measures, including but not limited to, voluntary and mandatory quarantines, stay-at-home orders, travel restrictions, limitations on gatherings of people, reduced operations and extended closures of businesses.

The timing of customer orders and our ability to fulfill orders we received was impacted by various COVID-19 related government mandates across our worldwide operations. We believe that this reduction in units sold was exacerbated by COVID-19.We have also witnessed certain current and prospective customers delaying purchases based on budget constraints or project delays related to COVID-19. While the broader and long-term implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on our workforce, operations and supply chain, customer demand, results of operations and overall financial performance remain uncertain, we continued to experience disruptions to our business due to the COVID-19 pandemic during the first quarter of 2021.

The impact of COVID-19 and measures to prevent its spread have been impactful and continue to affect our business in several ways.

Our workforce. Employee health and safety is our priority. In response to COVID-19, we established new protocols to help protect the health and safety of our workforce. The actions include a no-touch temperature scan upon entering our premises and a policy requiring full vaccination or a negative Covid-19 test within 72 hours of visiting, and the use of face masks in our facilities. On the production floor of our San Jose, California manufacturing facility, we retain acrylic station barriers to separate and protect our workforce. We continue global travel restrictions and work-from-home policies for employees who can accomplish their work remotely, such as those in the Finance, Marketing, and Communications teams. We remain current with and adhere to county and CDC guidelines for a healthy work environment.

Operations and supply chain. As a result of COVID-19, we experienced some production delays in the second quarter and early in the third quarter of 2020 due to travel restrictions to Thailand, the location of one of our key manufacturing partners. The San Jose factory continued to produce the major lidar products to support customer demand, augmented by our contract manufacturing partners. The San Jose factory confirmed several cases of COVID-19 from external exposure. As part of our COVID-19 mitigation efforts, we perform audits of our supply chain and work with key suppliers to proactively mitigate potential supply constraints. Supply chain disruption due to COVID-19 has been minimal, however, the global supply of certain components, especially in the semiconductor space, requires ongoing vigilance as both lead times and prices reflect demand exceeding industry supply.

Demand for our products. While we continue to engage with current and potential customers, we believe some customers may delay purchases from us because their development programs may also be delayed as a result of COVID-19.

Positive customer trend in the pandemic. The global pandemic accelerated a few key robotic programs, which partially offset the impact of some of our customers’ delayed purchasing decisions. The accelerated programs include robots that disinfect the air and surfaces, providing more sanitized environments, and touchless delivery robots for food and medical supplies.

Liquidity, working capital, and the CARES Act. On March 27, 2020, the U.S. government enacted the CARES Act. On April 8, 2020, we received loan proceeds of $10.0 million under the CARES Act’s Paycheck Protection Program to help us offset delays in production and customer purchases. The principal and accrued interest are forgivable after 24 weeks as long as the borrower uses the loan proceeds for eligible purposes, including payroll, benefits, rent and

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utilities, and maintains its payroll levels and that approval is received from the relevant government entity. The unforgiven portion of the PPP loan is payable over two years at an interest rate of 1% per annum, with a deferral of interest payments for ten months after the expiration of the 24-week covered period.

See Item 1A: “Risk Factors” for further discussion of the possible impact of COVID-19 on our business.


Factors Affecting Our Performance

Design wins. We are developing our smart vision solutions as a key enabling technology for OEMs in automotive and other applications. Because our solutions must be integrated into a broader platform by the OEM, it is critical that we achieve design wins with these customers. The time necessary to achieve design wins varies based on the market and application. The design cycle in the automotive market tends to be substantially longer and more onerous than in other markets. Even within the automotive market, achieving a design win with an automotive OEM takes considerably longer than a design cycle for an aftermarket application. We consider design wins to be critical to our future success, although the revenue generated by each design win and the time necessary to achieve such a win can vary significantly making it difficult to predict our financial performance.

Pricing, product cost and margins. Our pricing and margins will depend on the volumes and the features of the solutions we provide to our customers. To date, most of our revenue has been generated by selling our smart vision solutions into pre-commercial development phase projects. In general, solutions incorporated into development-phase products require more complex configurations, have higher prices and higher gross margins. As our markets reach maturity and commercialization, we expect prices and margins will generally decrease. Our commercial-stage customers will require that our smart vision solutions be manufactured and sold at per-unit prices that enable mass market adoption. To meet the technological and pricing needs of customers reaching commercial scale, we are making significant investments in new solutions for both cost improvements and new features. Our ability to compete in key markets will depend on the success of these investments and our efforts to efficiently and reliably produce cost-effective smart vision solutions for our commercial-stage customers. We have customers with technologies in various stages of development. We anticipate that our prices will vary by market and application due to market-specific supply and demand dynamics and product lifecycles.

Commercialization of lidar-based applications. Our revenue has been subject to significant fluctuations. Our customers in pre-commercial development phase may have purchased their requirements of our products in earlier periods and are not expected to begin purchasing again in volume unless and until they reach commercial deployments. As a number of our target markets reach commercialization, we expect there to be a shift towards higher unit volume at lower per-unit prices, with more predictable customer demand. We expect that our results of operations, including revenue and gross margins, will continue to fluctuate on a quarterly basis for the foreseeable future as our customers continue research and development projects and begin to commercialize autonomous solutions that rely on lidar technology. As more customers reach the commercialization phase and as the market for lidar solutions matures, these fluctuations in our operating results may become less pronounced. However, in the near term, our revenue may not grow as we expect until more customers commercialize their products.

End market concentration. Historically, our revenue has been from a small number of end markets. For example, in the three months ended March 31, 2021, and the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, approximately 53%, 57% and 45%, respectively, of our revenue came from the automotive market, although we had more than half of our customers from non-automotive markets. We believe our entry into new markets will continue to facilitate revenue growth and customer diversification. While we will continue to expand the end markets we serve, we anticipate that sales to a limited number of end markets will continue to account for a significant portion of our total revenue for the foreseeable future. Our end market concentration may cause our financial performance to fluctuate significantly from period to period based on the success or failure of the markets in which we compete. Success in an end market, or commercialization, is uncertain and may develop differently in each case, with unique pricing, volume and cost dynamics. Additionally, as production scales in order to meet the demands of commercialization, pricing pressure increases and the amount of that pressure is expected to vary by market.

Sales volume. A typical design win can generate a wide range of sales volumes for our solutions, depending on the end market demand for our customers’ products. This can depend on several factors, including the reputation of the end customer, market penetration, product capabilities, size of the end market that the product addresses and our end customers’ ability to sell their products. In addition to end market demand, sales volumes also depend on whether our customer is in the development, commercialization or production phase. In certain cases, we may provide volume discounts on sales of our solutions, which may or may not be offset by lower manufacturing costs related to higher volumes.

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Continued investment and innovation. We believe that we are the industry-leading lidar provider with proven designs, extensive product offerings and advanced manufacturing capabilities. Our financial performance is significantly dependent on our ability to maintain this leading position. This is further dependent on the investments we make in research and development. It is essential that we continually identify and respond to rapidly evolving customer requirements, develop and introduce innovative new products, enhance and service existing products and generate active market demand for our products. If we fail to do this, our leading market position and revenue may be adversely affected, and our investments in that area will not be recovered.


Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

The majority of our revenue comes from the sale of our lidar sensors directly to end users and through our network of U.S. and international distributors. Product revenue is recognized when control of the products is transferred to the customer, which is generally upon shipment. For custom products that require engineering and development based on customer requirements, revenue is recognized over time using an output method based on units of product shipped to date relative to total production units under the contract. We also generate a portion of our revenue from intellectual property licensing, royalties and the sale of services related to product development, validation, extended warranty and product repair services. License revenue is recognized upon delivery of the intellectual property if there are no substantive future obligations to perform under the arrangement. Royalties are recognized at the later of the period the sales occur or the satisfaction of the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalties have been allocated. As our manufacturing partners to whom we have licensed our technology start selling to customers we expect royalty revenue to increase as a percentage of total revenue. Service revenue is recognized as the services are performed.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue includes the manufacturing cost of our lidar sensors, which primarily consists of personnel-related costs directly associated with our manufacturing organization, and amounts paid to our third-party contract manufacturers and vendors. Our cost of revenue also includes depreciation and amortization, cost of component inventory, product testing costs, costs of providing services, an allocated portion of overhead, facility and IT costs, warranty costs, excess and obsolete inventory and shipping costs. We expect cost of revenue to increase in absolute dollars in future periods.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Our gross profit in future periods will depend on a variety of factors, including: market conditions that may impact our pricing; product mix changes between established products and new products and licenses; excess and obsolete inventories; our cost structure for manufacturing operations, including third-party manufacturers, relative to volume; and product support obligations. Additionally, we believe our transition to an outsourced manufacturing model will favorably impact our gross profit over time. Our gross margin varies by product. In addition, our license revenue has lower cost, and therefore it contributes to higher gross margin. We expect our gross margins to fluctuate over time, depending on the factors described above.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs directly associated with our research and development organization, with the remainder being prototype expenses, third-party engineering and contractor costs, an allocated portion of facility and IT costs and depreciation. Our research and development efforts are focused on enhancing and developing additional functionality for our existing products and on new product development, including new releases and upgrades to our lidar sensors. We expense research and development costs as incurred. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we increase our investment in software development to broaden the capabilities of our solutions and introduce new products and features.

Sales and Marketing Expenses

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Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs directly associated with our sales and marketing activities. These include the cost of sales commissions, marketing programs, trade shows, consulting services, promotional materials, demonstration equipment, an allocated portion of facility and IT costs and depreciation. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will increase in absolute dollars over time as we hire additional sales and marketing personnel, increase our marketing activities, grow our domestic and international operations, and build brand awareness.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel-related expenses associated with our general and administrative organization, professional fees for legal, accounting, and other consulting services, an allocated portion of facility and IT costs and depreciation. We expect to incur additional general and administrative expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including expenses related to compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC and stock exchange listing standards, additional insurance expenses (including directors’ and officers’ insurance), investor relations activities and other administrative and professional services. We also expect to increase the size of our general and administrative function to support the growth of our business.

Restructuring Expenses

Restructuring expenses primarily consist of costs of employee termination benefits incurred in connection with our restructuring plan to downsize the manufacturing function and related engineering and administrative functions in our California locations in March 2020. The purposes of this plan are to align resource requirements with our initiatives to lower our cost structure and to increase our production capacity by outsourcing a majority of manufacturing activities. The plan included a reduction of workforce and has been completed as of December 31, 2020.

Stock-Based Compensation

Prior to the Business Combination, our stock-based compensation expense primarily related to our stock options. Compensation expense related to RSAs and RSUs granted under the pre-combination Velodyne’s stock incentive plans remained unrecognized because the liquidity event vesting condition, which is (i) an initial public offering, or (ii) a Company sale event, was not probable of being satisfied. The liquidity-event vesting condition was not satisfied upon the completion of the Business Combination. However, on October 30, 2020, the Board waived such condition applicable to the pre-combination Velodyne RSUs in order to provide the holders of such awards with the treatment that they would have received if the pre-combination Velodyne had completed an initial public offering. As a result of this determination, our outstanding RSUs vested to the extent the applicable service condition was satisfied as of such date. The vesting of these outstanding RSUs on October 30, 2020 resulted in approximately $77.5 million of incremental stock-based compensation expense in the fourth quarter of 2020. It is anticipated that the Board will waive the liquidity event condition applicable to the RSAs in 2021. If such determination were to occur with respect to the outstanding RSAs before the end of 2021, it is expected that the vesting of such outstanding RSAs would result in approximately $50.9 million of incremental stock-based compensation expense in the quarter when the determination is made based on the closing price of our common stock on May 5, 2021.

Interest Income and Expense

Interest income consists primarily of income earned on our cash equivalents and investments in marketable securities. These amounts will vary based on our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investment balances, and also with market rates. Interest expense consists primarily of interest on our equipment capital leases and credit facility.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net consists primarily of foreign currency transaction gains and losses related to the impact of transactions denominated in a foreign currency other than the U.S. Dollar. As we have expanded our international operations, our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currencies has increased, and we expect this to continue.

Provision for Income Taxes


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Our provision for income taxes consists of federal, state and foreign current and deferred income taxes. As we expand the scale and scope of our international business activities, any changes in the United States and foreign taxation of such activities may increase our overall provision for income taxes in the future.

We have a full valuation allowance for our net deferred tax assets, including federal and state net operating loss carryforwards and research and development credit carryforwards. We expect to maintain this valuation allowance until it becomes more likely than not that the benefit of our federal and state deferred tax assets will be realized by way of expected future taxable income.

We believe that we have adequately reserved for our uncertain tax positions, although we can provide no assurance that the final outcome of these matters will not be materially different. To the extent that the final outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will affect the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made and could have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that can significantly impact the amounts we report as assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses and the related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions. We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance as these policies involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity.

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, there were no significant changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates as compared to those previously disclosed in “Critical Accounting Estimates” in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which has subsequently been amended by ASU No. 2018-19, ASU No. 2019-04, ASU No. 2019-05, and ASU No. 2019-11. The objective of the guidance in ASU 2016-13 is to allow entities to recognize estimated credit losses in the period that the change in valuation occurs. ASU 2016-13 requires an entity to present financial assets measured on an amortized cost basis on the balance sheet net of an allowance for credit losses. Available for sale and held to maturity debt securities are also required to be held net of an allowance for credit losses. For emerging growth companies, the standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We expect to adopt the new standard in the first quarter of 2023 and are currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.


In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-10, Codification Improvements, which updates various codification topics by clarifying or improving disclosure requirements to align with the SEC’s regulations. ASU 2020-10 is effective for public companies, other than smaller reporting companies, for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. For all other entities, ASU 2020-10 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2022. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2020-10 on our consolidated financial statements and related footnote disclosures.


Results of Operations

The results of operations presented below should be reviewed in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following table sets forth our consolidated results of operations data and as a percentage of revenue for the periods presented:

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Three Months Ended March 31,Three Months Ended March 31,
2021202020212020
(In thousands)(As a percentage of total revenue)
Revenue:
Product$10,593 $16,422 60 %96 %
License and services7,133 609 40 %%
Total revenue17,726 17,031 100 %100 %
Cost of revenue:
Product15,629 15,126 89 %90 %
License and services179 303 %%
Total cost of revenue (1)
15,808 15,429 90 %92 %
Gross profit1,918 1,602 10 %%
Operating expenses (1):
Research and development18,378 14,527 104 %85 %
Sales and marketing7,075 5,299 40 %31 %
General and administrative17,036 10,733 96 %63 %
Restructuring— 1,046 — %%
Total operating expense42,489 31,605 240 %185 %
Operating loss(40,571)(30,003)(230)%(177)%
Interest income103 112 %%
Interest expenses(36)(6)— %— %
Other income (expense), net(17)(165)— %(1)%
Loss before income taxes(40,521)(30,062)(229)%(177)%
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes296 (6,677)%(39)%
Net loss$(40,817)$(23,385)(231)%(138)%


(1) Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
(In thousands)
Cost of revenue$536 $— 
Research and Development4,910 21 
Sales and Marketing1,986 — 
General and administrative4,098 — 
Total stock-based compensation expense$11,530 $21 

Prior to the Business Combination, compensation expense related to RSAs and RSUs granted under the pre-combination Velodyne’s stock incentive plans remained unrecognized because the performance vesting condition, which is (i) an initial public offering, or (ii) a Company sale event, was not probable of being met. As a result of the Business Combination, on October 30, 2020, the Board waived the liquidity event vesting condition applicable to the pre-combination Velodyne's RSUs. Therefore, our outstanding RSUs vested to the extent the applicable service condition was satisfied as of such date. The vesting of these outstanding RSUs on October 30, 2020 resulted in approximately $77.5 million of incremental stock-based compensation expense in the fourth quarter of 2020. It is anticipated that the Board will waive the liquidity event condition applicable to the RSAs in 2021. If such determination were to occur with respect to the outstanding RSAs, it is expected that the vesting of such outstanding RSAs would result in significant incremental stock-based compensation expense in the quarter when the determination is made based on the closing price of our common stock as of such date.


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Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 and 2020

Revenue
Three Months Ended March 31,Change
$
Change
%
20212020
(Dollars in thousands)
Revenue:
Products$10,593 $16,422 $(5,829)(35)%
License and services7,133 609 6,524 1,071 
Total$17,726 $17,031 $695 
Revenue by geographic location:
North America$5,044 $9,253 $(4,209)(45)%
Asia and Pacific9,506 5,624 3,882 69 
Europe, Middle East and Africa3,176 2,154 1,022 47 
Total$17,726 $17,031 $695 
    
Total revenue increased by $0.7 million, or 4%, to $17.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $17.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The $5.8 million decrease in product revenue reflected a decrease of $6.9 million related to reduction in average selling price for lidar sensors and an increase of approximately $1.3 million related to the mix of sensors sold. The timing of customer orders and our ability to fulfill orders we received was impacted by various COVID-19 related government mandates across our worldwide operations. The reduction in average selling price reflected our continued objective to drive additional adoption of our smart vision solutions in multiple end markets. Our revenue has been subject to significant fluctuations. Our customers in pre-commercial development phase may have purchased their requirements of our products in earlier periods and are not expected to begin purchasing again in volume unless and until they reach commercial deployments. As a number of our target markets reach commercialization, we expect there to be a shift towards higher unit volume at lower per-unit prices, with more predictable customer demand. The $6.5 million increase in license and service revenue was primarily driven by license revenue from the patent cross-license agreements entered into during the second and third quarter of 2020.

The $4.2 million decrease in North America revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was due to a decrease of $1.5 million related to reduction of average selling price of units sold, a decrease of $3.1 million as a result of the mix of units sold, partially offset by an increase of $0.5 million in volume. The $3.9 million increase in Asia-Pacific revenue was primarily due to a $6.4 million increase in license revenue from our recent patent cross license agreements, an increase of approximately $2.3 million related to mix of units sold, partially offset by a decrease of approximately $2.5 million due to reduction of average selling price of units sold and a $2.3 million decrease related to volume. The $1.0 million decrease in Europe, Middle East and Africa revenue was due to a decrease of $3.0 million due to reduction of average selling price, partially offset by an increase of $2.4 million related to volume and a $1.5 million increase related to the mix of sensors sold.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin
Three Months Ended March 31,Change
$
Change
%
20212020
(Dollars in thousands)
Cost of revenue:
Product$15,629 $15,126 $503 %
License and services179 303 (124)(41)%
Total cost of revenue$15,808 $15,429 $379 %
Gross margin11 %%
    
Cost of revenue increased by $0.4 million, or 2%, to $15.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $15.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The $0.5 million product cost increase was primarily driven by

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increases of $0.5 million in stock-based compensation, material costs and purchase price variance, partially offset by lower scrap and warranty expense. License and services cost of revenue decreased due to a decrease in repair services cost.

Gross margin increased from 9% for the three months ended March 31, 2020 to 11% for the three months ended March 31, 2021. We expect to decrease manufacturing labor and overhead costs as we outsource production to our contract manufacturing partners, with the objective of reducing the per unit cost of revenue.

Operating Expenses    
Three Months Ended March 31,Change
$
Change
%
20212020
(Dollars in thousands)
Research and development$18,378 $14,527 $3,851 27 %
Sales and marketing7,075 5,299 1,776 34 
General and administrative17,036 10,733 6,303 59 
Restructuring— 1,046 (1,046)N/A
Total operating expenses$42,489 $31,605 $10,884 34 
    
Research and Development

Research and development expenses increased by $3.9 million, or 27%, to $18.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $14.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to increases of $4.9 million in stock-based compensation expense, $0.2 million in depreciation expense, partially offset by decreases of $0.5 million in allocated facility and IT expenses, $0.4 million in prototype product development costs, $0.2 million in travel expenses, and $0.1 million in personnel related costs.
Sales and Marketing

Sales and marketing expenses increased by $1.8 million, or 34%, to $7.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $5.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to $2.0 million stock-based compensation expense and $0.7 million increase in personnel related expense, partially offset by a decrease of $0.9 million in travel and trade show expenses and a decrease of $0.1 million in commission expenses.
General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses increased by $6.3 million, or 59%, to $17.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $10.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to increases of $4.1 million in stock-based compensation expense, $1.6 million in personnel-related costs and $1.4 million in bad debt, partially offset by $2.2 million decrease in legal and professional services.
Restructuring
In March 2020, we initiated a restructuring plan to downsize the manufacturing function and related engineering and administrative functions in our California locations. The plan included a reduction in our workforce and has been completed in 2020. As a result of the restructuring program, we incurred restructuring charges totaling $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily related to employee severance related costs.

Interest Income, Interest Expense and Other Expense, Net
Three Months Ended March 31,Change
$
Change
%
20212020
(Dollars in thousands)
Interest income$103 $112 $(9)(8)%
Interest expense(36)(6)(30)500 
Other expense, net(17)(165)148 (90)

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Interest income was primarily related to our short-term investments and was insignificant for the three months ended March 2021 and 2020.  

Interest expense was primarily related to our capital leases and was insignificant for the three months ended March 2021 and 2020.

Other expense, net was insignificant for all periods presented. The changes were primarily related to foreign exchange gain or loss resulting from foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

Income Taxes
Three Months Ended March 31,Change
$
Change
%
20212020
(Dollars in thousands)
Loss before income taxes$(40,521)$(30,062)$(10,459)35 %
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes296 (6,677)6,973 (104)%
Effective tax rate(0.7)%22.2 %
    
We are subject to income taxes in the United States, China and Germany. Our effective tax rate changed from 22.2% in the three months ended March 31, 2020 to (0.7)% in the three months ended March 31, 2021. This change was primarily due to the $6.7 million tax benefit related to the release of a valuation allowance associated with carrying back a portion of our 2019 net operating losses to 2017 that is allowed by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act.

Enacted on March 27, 2020, the CARES Act provides emergency assistance and health care response for businesses affected by the coronavirus pandemic. The CARES Act, among other things, permits net operating loss carryovers and carrybacks to offset 100% of taxable income for taxable years beginning before 2021. Additionally, the CARES Act allows net operating losses incurred in 2018, 2019 and 2020 to be carried back to each of the five preceding taxable years to generate a refund of previously paid income taxes. In May 2020, we received a $7.1 million tax refund related to the carryback of a portion of our 2019 net operating losses to 2017. As of December 31, 2020, we had $173.5 million of U.S. federal and $105.5 million of state net operating loss carryforwards available to reduce future taxable income, which will be carried forward indefinitely for U.S. federal tax purposes and will expire beginning in 2028 through 2040 for state tax purposes.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources of Liquidity

As of March 31, 2021, we had cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments totaling $383.6 million, which were held for working capital purposes. Our cash equivalents and short-term investments are comprised of money market funds, U.S. government and agency securities, corporate debt securities and commercial paper. To date, our principal sources of liquidity have been payments received from sales to customers and the net proceeds we received through the Business Combination, PIPE offering and private placements of the pre-combination Velodyne convertible preferred stock. As of March 31, 2021, we received $227.0 million in net proceeds from the Business Combination and PIPE offering on September 29, 2020 and $162.9 million in net proceeds from the exercises of our public warrants.

In January 2020, we entered into a loan and security agreement with a financial institution which provides a $25.0 million revolving line of credit (the “2020 Revolving Line”), as amended in September 2020, December 2020 and March 2021, with an option to increase the credit limit up to an additional $15.0 million with the bank’s approval (Incremental Revolving Line). As part of the 2020 Revolving Line, there is a letter of credit sublimit of $5.0 million. The advances under the 2020 Revolving Line bear interest at a rate per annum equal to the prime rate plus an applicable margin of 1.5% for prime rate advances, or LIBOR rate plus an applicable margin of 2.5% for LIBOR advances. The unused revolving line facility fee is 0.15% per annum of the average unused portion of the Revolving Line. In addition, there is a $50,000 non-refundable commitment fee if we exercise the Incremental Revolving Line option. The revolving line of credit is secured by certain of our assets. The 2020 Revolving Line matured on February 27, 2021 and was extended to February 26, 2022. There were no outstanding borrowings under the 2020 Revolving Line as of March 31, 2021.

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On April 8, 2020, we received loan proceeds of $10.0 million under the CARES Act’s Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”). The principal and accrued interest are forgivable after 24 weeks as long as the borrower uses the loan proceeds for eligible purposes, including payroll, benefits, rent and utilities, and maintains its payroll levels and that approval is received from the relevant government entity. The unforgiven portion of the PPP loan is payable over two years at an interest rate of 1% per annum, with a deferral of interest payments for ten months after the expiration of the 24-week covered period.

We have incurred negative cash flows from operating activities and significant losses from operations in the past as reflected in our accumulated deficit of $354.9 million as of March 31, 2021. We expect to continue to incur operating losses at least for the next 12 months due to the investments that we intend to make in our business and, as a result, we may require additional capital resources to grow our business. We believe that current cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and available borrowing capacity under the revolving credit facility will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements, however, will depend on many factors, including our lidar sales volume, the timing and extent of spending to support our research and development efforts in smart vision technology, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, and market adoption of new and enhanced products and features. We may in the future enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services, and technologies, including intellectual property rights. From time to time, we may seek to raise additional funds through equity and debt. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired and on reasonable terms, our business, results of operations, and financial condition be adversely affected.

Cash Flow Summary

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
(In thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$(35,107)$(33,288)
Investing activities(83,533)1,371 
Financing activities69,179 (659)

Operating Activities

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, operating activities used $35.1 million in cash. The primary factors affecting our operating cash flows during this period were our net loss of $40.8 million, impacted by our non-cash net expense of $16.2 million primarily consisting of stock-based compensation of $11.5 million, depreciation and amortization of $2.1 million, reduction in carrying amount of the ROU assets of $0.8 million and provision for doubtful accounts of $1.7 million. The cash used in changes in our operating assets and liabilities of $14.1 million which primarily consists of an increase of $1.2 million in accounts receivable, an increase of $2.8 million in inventories due to increased sales volume of certain products, an increase of $2.4 million in unbilled receivables from a licensing arrangement with a customer, a decrease of $3.9 million in accounts payable and a decrease of $3.9 million in accrued expenses and other liabilities primarily due to timing of payments. These amounts were partially offset by cash provided from changes in our operating assets and liabilities of $3.6 million was primarily due to an increase of $1.9 million in contract liabilities primarily due to billings in excess of revenue recognition related to product sales and licensing arrangement, and a decrease of $1.7 million in prepaid and other current assets.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, operating activities used $33.3 million in cash. The primary factors affecting our operating cash flows during this period were our net loss of $23.4 million, impacted by our non-cash charges of $2.5 million primarily consisting of depreciation and amortization of $2.2 million and provision for doubtful accounts of $0.3 million. The cash used in changes in our operating assets and liabilities of $17.3 million was primarily due to a decrease of $4.7 million in prepaid expenses and other current assets, an increase of $6.2 million in accrued expenses and other liabilities due to timing of payments, and an increase of $6.2 million in contract liabilities due to the timing of billings and cash received in advance of revenue. These amounts were partially offset by cash provided from changes in our operating assets and liabilities of $4.9 million which primarily consists of a decrease of $4.6 million in accounts payable due to timing of payments and an increase of $0.2 million in accounts receivable.

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Investing Activities

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, cash used in investing activities was $83.5 million, which was primarily used to purchase short-term investments of $91.9 million and purchase property, plant and equipment of $0.6 million, partially offset by proceeds from sales and maturities of short-term investments of $9.0 million.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, cash provided by investing activities was $1.4 million, which was primarily from sales and maturities of short-term investments of $2.2 million, partially offset by cash used to purchase property, plant and equipment of $0.8 million.

Our machinery and equipment is depreciated over a useful life of approximately five years.

Financing Activities

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, cash provided by financing activities was $69.2 million, consisting primarily of net proceeds of $89.2 million from exercises of public warrants, partially offset by $20.0 million cash paid for transaction costs related to the Business Combination.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, cash used in financing activities was $0.7 million consisting primarily of cash paid for IPO costs.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

As of March 31, 2021, we have not entered into any off-balance sheet arrangements and do not have any holdings in variable interest entities.


Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily the result of fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.

We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Nonetheless, if our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Interest Rate Risk

As of March 31, 2021, we had cash, cash equivalents, short-term and long-term investments of approximately $383.6 million, which are comprised of money market funds, U.S. government and agency securities, corporate debt securities and commercial paper, which carries a degree of interest rate risk. A hypothetical 10% change in interest rates would not have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations due to the short-term nature of our investment portfolio.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

Our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Substantially all of our revenue is generated in U.S. dollars. Our expenses are generally denominated in the currencies of the jurisdictions in which we conduct our operations, which are primarily in the U.S. and to a lesser extent in Asia and Europe. Our results of operations and cash flows are, therefore, subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and may be adversely affected in the future due to changes in foreign exchange rates. The effect of a hypothetical 10% change in foreign currency exchange rates applicable to our business would not have a material impact on our historical consolidated financial statements. To date, we have not engaged in any hedging strategies. As our international operations grow, we will continue to reassess our approach to manage our risk relating to fluctuations in currency rates.

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Item 4. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management, with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the Exchange Act), means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. In making this assessment, our management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013). Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of such date because of the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting identified as of December 31, 2020 in connection with our failure to adequately review revenue schedules associated with nonstandard revenue arrangements, and subsequent to that evaluation, an additional material weakness was identified related to the accounting for complex financial instruments such as our warrants, which required us to classify certain of our warrants as a liability measured at fair value, for the 30-day period from September 29, 2020 to October 29, 2020. The additional material weakness was identified as a result of a statement issued by the Acting Director of the Division of Corporation Finance and Acting Chief Accountant of the SEC in April 2021 regarding the accounting and reporting considerations for warrants issued by SPACs (the SEC Statement). Based on the SEC Statement, management re-evaluated the accounting treatment for its warrants and concluded that there was an immaterial error in its previous accounting and the error resulted from a control deficiency that management has determined to be a material weakness.

Remediation Plan and Status

We are currently in the process of remediating the remaining material weaknesses and have taken and continue to take steps that we believe will address the underlying causes of the material weaknesses, which includes the following steps:

We have implemented additional supervision and technical accounting review by qualified personnel;
We have enhanced the review process surrounding the quarterly and annual assessment of the ongoing status of standard and non-standard agreements and schedules;
We have designed new controls and procedures associated with non-standard agreements and schedules, which requires incremental levels of accounting review; and
We intend to hire additional resources with the relevant experience to strengthen our contract review processes.

The material weaknesses will not be considered fully remediated until all aspects of the controls operate for a sufficient period of time to allow management to conclude that these controls are operating effectively. We will monitor the effectiveness of our remediation plan and steps and will refine the remediation plan as appropriate.

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) or 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act during the quarter ended March 31, 2021 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting other than the identification of an additional material weakness related to the accounting for our warrants, which required us to classify certain of our warrants as a liability measured at fair value, for the 30-day period from September 29, 2020 to October 29, 2020.



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PART II. Other Information
Item 1. Legal Proceedings    

The information set forth under the “Legal Proceedings” section in Note 15, Commitments and Contingencies, in Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 1 of Part I of this Report, is incorporated herein by reference.


Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the risks described below in addition to the other information set forth in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including Item 2: Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations section and the consolidated financial statements and related notes. Our business, prospects, financial condition, operating results or the trading price of our securities could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not known to us or that we consider immaterial.

Summary of Principal Risk Factors

Our business could be materially and adversely affected by the current global COVID-19 pandemic.
Since many of the markets in which we compete are new and rapidly evolving, it is difficult to forecast long-term end-customer adoption rates and demand for our products.
Despite the actions we are taking to defend and protect our intellectual property, we may not be able to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions. Our efforts to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating our rights may be costly.
We continue to implement strategic initiatives designed to grow our business. These initiatives may prove more costly than anticipated and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue in an amount sufficient to offset the costs of these initiatives and to achieve and maintain profitability.
Because our sales have been primarily to customers making purchases for research and development projects and our orders are project-based, we expect our results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.
Our transition to an outsourced manufacturing business model may not be successful, which could harm our ability to deliver products and recognize revenue.
Adverse conditions in the automotive industry or the global economy more generally could have adverse effects on our results of operations.
Although we believe that lidar is the industry standard for autonomous vehicles and other emerging markets, market adoption of lidar is uncertain. If market adoption of lidar does not continue to develop, or develops more slowly than we expect, our business will be adversely affected.
Our investments in educating our customers and potential customers about the advantages of lidar and our applications may not result in sales of our products.
We depend on our ability to attract and retain key management and technical personnel.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and the failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could harm our business and negatively impact the market price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Business

Our business could be materially and adversely affected by the current global COVID-19 pandemic.

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted and affected our business. For example, from March until June of 2020, due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, our manufacturing facility in San Jose, California was not able to operate at our full capacity.

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Additionally, we observed delayed customer purchases and longer sales cycles with customers that are addressing budget constraints, delayed projects or other hardships related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We have a global customer base operating in a wide range of industries that has been impacted in different ways by the pandemic. We also depend on suppliers and manufacturers worldwide. Depending upon the duration of the pandemic, the associated business interruptions and the recovery, our customers, suppliers, manufacturers and partners may suspend or delay their engagement with us. If the pandemic worsens, if the economic recovery is delayed or if there are further business interruptions or changes in customer purchasing behavior, our business, results of operations and ability to raise capital may be materially and adversely affected. Our response to the COVID-19 pandemic may prove to be inadequate and we may be unable to continue our operations in the manner it had prior to the outbreak, and may endure further interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our product development and shipments, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, when the pandemic subsides, we cannot assure you as to the timing of any economic recovery, which could continue to have a material adverse effect on our target markets and our business.

Any projections we may provide about our business or expected future results may differ significantly from actual results.

From time to time we have shared our views in press releases or SEC filings, on public conference calls and in other contexts about current business conditions and our expectations as to our future results of operations, including our previously announced projected revenues for years subsequent to 2020. Correctly identifying the key factors affecting business conditions and predicting future events is inherently an uncertain process. Given the complexity and volatility of our business, the impact of the recurring COVID-19 pandemic on our business and that of our customers and partners, uncertainty related to the transition of the United States government and overall global economic conditions, it is likely that our prior forecasts for periods subsequent to 2020 will prove to be incorrect. In particular, in January 2021, as a result of these uncertainties, we withdrew our previously announced financial guidance for 2021. We offer no assurance that such predictions or analysis will ultimately be accurate, and investors should treat any such predictions or analysis with appropriate caution. If any analysis or forecast that we make ultimately proves to be inaccurate, our stock price may be adversely affected.

Any financial projections we have provided, including projections related to our future revenues, reflect numerous qualitative estimates and assumptions including assumptions with respect to general business, economic, market, regulatory and financial conditions and various other factors, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. The projections are not predictive of our actual future results and should not be construed as financial guidance for any future period. In addition, any projections should be read in conjunction with the accounting policies included in Note 1, Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal year 2020.

Since many of the markets in which we compete are new and rapidly evolving, it is difficult to forecast long-term end-customer adoption rates and demand for our products.

We are pursuing opportunities in markets that are undergoing rapid changes, including technological and regulatory changes, and it is difficult to predict the timing and size of the opportunities. For example, autonomous driving and lidar-based ADAS applications require complex technology. Because these automotive systems depend on technology from many companies, commercialization of autonomous driving or ADAS products could be delayed or impaired on account of certain technological components of Velodyne or others not being ready to be deployed in vehicles. Although some companies have released systems and vehicles using our products, others may not be able to commercialize this technology immediately, or at all. Regulatory, safety or reliability developments, many of which are outside of our control, could also cause delays or otherwise impair commercial adoption of these new technologies, which will adversely affect our growth. Our future financial performance will depend on our ability to make timely investments in the correct market opportunities. If one or more of these markets experience a shift in customer or prospective customer demand, our products may not compete as effectively, if at all, and they may not be designed into commercialized products. Given the evolving nature of the markets in which we operate, it is difficult to predict customer demand or adoption rates for our products or the future growth of the markets in which we operate. As a result, the financial projections we have made or may in the future make necessarily reflect various estimates and assumptions that may not prove accurate. If demand does not develop or if we cannot accurately forecast customer demand, the size of our markets, inventory requirements or our future financial results, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected.


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We continue to implement strategic initiatives designed to grow our business. These initiatives may prove more costly than it currently anticipates and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue in an amount sufficient to offset the costs of these initiatives and to achieve and maintain profitability.

We continue to make investments and implement initiatives designed to grow our business, including:

investing in research and development;
expanding our sales and marketing efforts to attract new customers across industries;
investing in new applications and markets for our products;
further enhancing our manufacturing processes and partnerships;
pursuing litigation to protect our intellectual property; and
investing in legal, accounting, and other administrative functions necessary to support our operations as a public company.
These initiatives may prove more expensive than it currently anticipates, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue, if at all, in an amount sufficient to offset these higher expenses and to achieve and maintain profitability. Although we generated net income of $15.8 million for 2017, we have incurred net losses in the past, including net losses of $40.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, $149.9 million for 2020, $67.2 million for 2019 and $62.3 million for 2018. The market opportunities we are pursuing are at an early stage of development, and it may be many years before the end markets we expect to serve generate demand for our products at scale, if at all. Our revenue may be adversely affected for a number of reasons, including the development and/or market acceptance of new technology that competes with our lidar products, if certain automotive OEMs or other market participants change their autonomous vehicle technology, failure of our customers to commercialize autonomous systems that include our smart vision solutions, our inability to effectively manage our inventory or manufacture products at scale, our inability to enter new markets or help our customers adapt our products for new applications or our failure to attract new customers or expand orders from existing customers or increasing competition. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict the size and growth rate of our target markets, customer demand for our products, commercialization timelines, developments in autonomous sensing and related technology, the entry of competitive products, or the success of existing competitive products and services. For these reasons, we do not expect to achieve profitability over the near term. If our revenue does not grow over the long term, our ability to achieve and maintain profitability may be adversely affected, and the value of our business may significantly decrease.

Because our sales have been primarily to customers making purchases for research and development projects and our orders are project-based, we expect our results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.

Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may vary significantly in the future, and our revenue has declined in three consecutive years. As such, historical comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. In particular, because our sales to date have primarily been to customers making purchases for research and development, sales in any given quarter can fluctuate based on the timing and success of our customers’ development projects. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. These fluctuations could adversely affect our ability to meet our expectations or those of securities analysts or investors. If we do not meet these expectations for any period, the value of our business and our stock price could fluctuate or decline significantly. Factors that may cause these quarterly fluctuations include, without limitation, those listed below:

The timing and magnitude of orders and shipments of our products in any quarter.
Pricing changes we may adopt to drive market adoption or in response to competitive pressure.
Our ability to retain our existing customers and attract new customers.
Our ability to develop, introduce, manufacture and ship in a timely manner products that meet customer requirements.
Disruptions in our sales channels or termination of our relationship with important channel partners.

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Delays in customers’ purchasing cycles or deferments of customers’ purchases in anticipation of new products or updates from us or our competitors.
Fluctuations in demand pressures for our products.
The mix of products sold in any quarter.
The duration of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the time it takes for economic recovery.
The timing and rate of broader market adoption of autonomous systems utilizing our smart vision solutions across the automotive and other market sectors.
Market acceptance of lidar and further technological advancements by our competitors and other market participants.
The ability of our customers to commercialize systems that incorporate our products.
Any change in the competitive dynamics of our markets, including consolidation of competitors, regulatory developments and new market entrants.
Our ability to effectively manage our inventory.
Changes in the source, cost, availability of and regulations pertaining to materials we use.
Adverse litigation, judgments, settlements or other litigation-related costs, or claims that may give rise to such costs.
General economic, industry and market conditions, including trade disputes.
Our transition to an outsourced manufacturing business model may not be successful, which could harm our ability to deliver products and recognize revenue.

We are transitioning from a manufacturing model in which we primarily manufactured and assembled our products at our California location, to one where we rely on third-party manufacturers in Europe and Asia. We currently have agreements with Fabrinet, Nikon and Veoneer to provide contract manufacturing of certain of our products. We believes the use of third-party manufacturers will have benefits, but in the near term, while we are beginning manufacturing with new partners, we may lose revenue, incur increased costs and harm our customer relationships.

Reliance on third-party manufacturers reduces our control over the manufacturing process, including reduced control over quality, product costs and product supply and timing. We may experience delays in shipments or issues concerning product quality from our third-party manufacturers. If any of our third-party manufacturers experience interruptions, delays or disruptions in supplying our products, including by natural disasters, the global COVID-19 pandemic or work stoppages or capacity constraints, our ability to ship products to distributors and customers would be delayed. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused interruptions in our manufacturing operations and production delays. For example, our personnel have not be able to travel to Thailand to meet with a key manufacturing partner. Additionally, if any of our third-party manufacturers experience quality control problems in their manufacturing operations and our products do not meet customer or regulatory requirements, we could be required to cover the cost of repair or replacement of any defective products. These delays or product quality issues could have an immediate and material adverse effect on our ability to fulfill orders and could have a negative effect on our operating results. In addition, such delays or issues with product quality could adversely affect our reputation and our relationship with our channel partners. If third-party manufacturers experience financial, operational, manufacturing capacity or other difficulties, or experience shortages in required components, or if they are otherwise unable or unwilling to continue to manufacture our products in required volumes or at all, our supply may be disrupted, we may be required to seek alternate manufacturers and we may be required to re-design our products. It would be time-consuming, and could be costly and impracticable, to begin to use new manufacturers and designs and such changes could cause significant interruptions in supply and could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries and may subsequently lead to the loss of sales. While we take measures to protect our trade secrets, the use of third-party manufacturers may also risk disclosure of our innovative and proprietary manufacturing methodologies, which could adversely affect our business.

In addition, we currently rely on third-party manufacturers to produce our custom ASICs. We have made considerable investments to develop our proprietary ASICs and our smart vision solutions depend on them. If third-party manufacturers of our custom ASICs experience interruptions, delays or disruptions in supplying our ASICs or if there are work stoppages, production delays or facility closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our ability to ship our smart vision solutions will be delayed and we may be unable to meet customer demand. Our ASICs may have defects or other issues if our third-party

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manufacturers have quality control or other problems in their operations. These defects may delay our ability to fulfill customer orders, which would have a negative effect on our brand and operating results. If we need to change manufacturers of our ASICs for any reason, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to find a replacement manufacturer willing to produce our custom ASICs at a price it deems appropriate, or at all.

Adverse conditions in the automotive industry or the global economy more generally could have adverse effects on our results of operations.

While we make our strategic planning decisions based on the assumption that the markets we are targeting will grow, our business is dependent, in large part on, and directly affected by, business cycles and other factors affecting the global automobile industry and global economy generally. Automotive production and sales are highly cyclical and depend on general economic conditions and other factors, including consumer spending and preferences, changes in interest rates and credit availability, consumer confidence, fuel costs, fuel availability, environmental impact, governmental incentives and regulatory requirements, and political volatility, especially in energy-producing countries and growth markets. In addition, automotive production and sales can be affected by our automotive OEM customers’ ability to continue operating in response to challenging economic conditions and in response to labor relations issues, regulatory requirements, trade agreements and other factors. The volume of automotive production in North America, Europe and the rest of the world has fluctuated, sometimes significantly, from year to year, and we expect such fluctuations to give rise to fluctuations in the demand for our products. Any significant adverse change in any of these factors may result in a reduction in automotive sales and production by our automotive OEM customers and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Although we believe that lidar is the industry standard for autonomous vehicles and other emerging markets, market adoption of lidar is uncertain. If market adoption of lidar does not continue to develop, or develops more slowly than we expect, our business will be adversely affected.

While our lidar-based smart vision solutions can be applied to different use cases across end markets, approximately 53% of our revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2021, 57% and 45% of our revenue during 2020 and 2019, respectively, was generated from automotive applications. Despite the fact that the automotive industry has engaged in considerable effort to research and test lidar products for ADAS and autonomous driving applications, the automotive industry may not introduce lidar products in commercially available vehicles. We continually study emerging and competing sensing technologies and methodologies and we may add new sensing technologies such as radar and cameras to our offering to, for example, address lidar’s relative deficiencies in detecting colors and low reflectivity objects and performing in extreme weather conditions. However, lidar products remain relatively new and it is possible that other sensing modalities, or a new disruptive modality based on new or existing technology, including a combination of technology, will achieve acceptance or leadership in the ADAS and autonomous driving industries. Even if lidar products are used in initial generations of autonomous driving technology and certain ADAS products, we cannot guarantee that lidar products will be designed into or included in subsequent generations of such commercialized technology. In addition, we expect that initial generations of autonomous vehicles will be focused on limited applications, such as robo-taxis, and that mass market adoption of autonomous technology may lag behind these initial applications significantly. The speed of market growth for ADAS or autonomous vehicles is difficult if not impossible to predict, and it is more difficult to predict this market’s future growth in light of the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although it currently believes it has the lead in lidar-based systems for the autonomous market, by the time mass market adoption of autonomous vehicle technology is achieved, we expect competition among providers of sensing technology based on lidar and other modalities to increase substantially. If commercialization of lidar products is not successful, or not as successful as we or the market expects, or if other sensing modalities gain acceptance by developers of autonomous driving systems or ADAS, automotive OEMs, regulators and safety organizations or other market participants by the time autonomous vehicle technology achieves mass market adoption, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

We are investing in and pursuing market opportunities outside of the automotive markets, including in UAVs, self-driving rovers, industrial and security robots, mapping applications for topography and surveying and smart city initiatives. We believe that our future revenue growth, if any, will depend in part on our ability to expand within new markets such as these and to enter new markets as they emerge. Each of these markets presents distinct risks and, in many cases, requires us to address the particular requirements of that market.

Addressing these requirements can be time-consuming and costly. The market for lidar technology outside of automotive applications is relatively new, rapidly developing and unproven in many markets or industries. Many of our customers

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outside of the automotive industry are still in the testing and development phases and it cannot be certain that they will commercialize products or systems with our lidar products or at all. We cannot be certain that lidar will be sold into these markets, or any market outside of automotive market, at scale. Adoption of lidar products, including our products, outside of the automotive industry will depend on numerous factors, including: whether the technological capabilities of lidar and lidar- based products meet users’ current or anticipated needs, whether the benefits of designing lidar into larger sensing systems outweigh the costs, complexity and time needed to deploy such technology or replace or modify existing systems that may have used other modalities such as cameras and radar, whether users in other applications can move beyond the testing and development phases and proceed to commercializing systems supported by lidar technology and whether lidar developers such as Velodyne can keep pace with rapid technological change in certain developing markets and the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the length of any associated work stoppages. If lidar technology does not achieve commercial success outside of the automotive industry, or if the market develops at a pace slower than we expect, our business, results of operation and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

Our investments in educating our customers and potential customers about the advantages of lidar and our applications may not result in sales of our products.

Educating our prospective customers, and to a lesser extent, our existing customers, about lidar, our advantages over other sensing technologies and lidar’s ability to convey value in different industries and deployments is an integral part of developing new business and the lidar market generally. If prospective customers have a negative perception of, or experience with, lidar or a competitor’s lidar products they may be reluctant to adopt lidar in general or specifically our products. Adverse statements about lidar by influential market participants may also deter adoption. Some of our competitors have significant financial or marketing resources that may allow them to engage in public marketing campaigns about their alternative technology, lidar or our solutions. Our efforts to educate potential customers and the market generally and to counter any adverse statements made by competitors or other market participants will require significant financial and personnel resources. These educational efforts may not be successful and we may not offset the costs of such efforts with revenue from the new customers. If we are unable to acquire new customers to offset these expenses or if the market accepts such adverse statements, our financial condition will be adversely affected.

The markets in which we compete are characterized by rapid technological change, which requires us to continue to develop new products and product innovations, and could adversely affect market adoption of our products.

While we intend to invest substantial resources to remain on the forefront of technological development, continuing technological changes in sensing technology, lidar and the markets for these products, including the ADAS and autonomous driving industries, could adversely affect adoption of lidar and/or our products, either generally or for particular applications. Our future success will depend upon our ability to develop and introduce a variety of new capabilities and innovations to our existing product offerings, as well as introduce a variety of new product offerings, to address the changing needs of the markets in which we offer our products. For example, we are currently working on developing our Vella software, which is a data curation software platform, as well as several other new lidar products. We cannot guarantee that the Vella software or the new products will be released in a timely manner, or at all, or achieve market acceptance. For example, in 2019 we experienced delays in acceptance of certain of our new lidar products as it worked with our customers to identify, define and meet product requirements, and we may be unable to sell these or future products at scale until these issues are resolved. Delays in delivering new products that meet customer requirements could damage our relationships with customers and lead them to seek alternative sources of supply. In addition, our success to date has been based on the delivery of our smart vision solutions to research and development programs in which developers are investing substantial capital to develop new systems. Our continued success relies on the success of the research and development phase of these customers as they expand into commercialized projects. While some customers already have achieved commercialization, most of our automotive customers are just beginning on the path to commercialization. As autonomous technology reaches the stage of large scale commercialization we will be required to develop and deliver smart vision solutions at price points that enable wider and ultimately mass-market adoption. Delays in introducing products and innovations, the failure to choose correctly among technical alternatives or the failure to offer innovative products or configurations at competitive prices may cause existing and potential customers to purchase our competitors’ products or turn to alternative sensing technology.

If we are unable to devote adequate resources to develop products or cannot otherwise successfully develop products or system configurations that meet customer requirements on a timely basis or that remain competitive with technological alternatives, our products could lose market share, our revenue will decline, we may experience operating losses and our business and prospects will be adversely affected.


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We operate in a highly competitive market and some market participants have substantially greater resources. We compete against a large number of both established competitors and new market entrants.

The markets for sensing technology applicable to autonomous and other solutions across numerous industries are highly competitive. Our future success will depend on our ability to maintain our lead by continuing to develop and protect from infringement advanced lidar technology in a timely manner and to stay ahead of existing and new competitors. Our competitors are numerous and they compete with us directly by offering lidar products and indirectly by attempting to solve some of the same challenges with different technology. We face competition from camera and radar companies, other developers of lidar products, Tier 1 suppliers and other technology and automotive supply companies, some of which have significantly greater resources than we do. Some examples of our competitors include DENSO Corporation, Hesai, Ibeo Automotive Systems, LeddarTech, Innoviz, Luminar, Quanergy, Magna International, Valeo SA, Bosch, Continental and ZF Friedrichshafen AG. In the automotive market, our competitors have commercialized non-lidar-based ADAS technology which has achieved market adoption, strong brand recognition and may continue to improve. Other competitors are working towards commercializing autonomous driving technology and either by themselves, or with a publicly announced partner, have substantial financial, marketing, research and development and other resources. Some of our customers in the autonomous vehicle and ADAS markets have announced development efforts or made acquisitions directed at creating their own lidar-based or other sensing technologies, which would compete with our smart vision solutions. We do not know how close these competitors are to commercializing autonomous driving systems or novel ADAS applications. In markets outside of the automotive industry, our competitors, like Velodyne, seek to develop new sensing applications across industries. Even in these emerging markets, we face substantial competition from numerous competitors seeking to prove the value of their technology. Additionally, increased competition may result in pricing pressure and reduced margins and may impede our ability to increase the sales of our products or cause it to lose market share, any of which will adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We expect to incur substantial research and development costs and devote significant resources to identifying and commercializing new products, which could significantly reduce our profitability and may never result in revenue to us.

Our future growth depends on penetrating new markets, adapting existing products to new applications and customer requirements, and introducing new products that achieve market acceptance. We plan to incur substantial and potentially increasing, research and development costs as part of our efforts to design, develop, manufacture and commercialize new products and enhance existing products. Our research and development expenses were $18.4 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021, $88.1 million and $56.9 million during 2020 and 2019, respectively, and are likely to grow in the future. Because we account for research and development as an operating expense, these expenditures will adversely affect our results to operations in the future. Further, our research and development program may not produce successful results, and our new products may not achieve market acceptance, create additional revenue or become profitable.

The completion of the Business Combination did not automatically result in the satisfaction of the liquidity event vesting condition applicable to our outstanding RSUs and RSAs. The liquidity event vesting condition applicable to the pre-combination Velodyne’s RSUs was waived by the Board, and we anticipate that it will be waived by the Board with respect to the RSAs, at which time we will be required to record a significant stock-based compensation expense.

Prior to the Business Combination, compensation expense related to RSAs and RSUs granted under the pre-combination our stock incentive plans remained unrecognized because the performance vesting condition, which is (i) an initial public offering, or (ii) a Company sale event, was not probable of being met. As a result of the Business Combination, on October 30, 2020, the Velodyne Board waived the liquidity event vesting condition applicable to the pre-combination Velodyne's RSUs. Therefore, our outstanding RSUs vested to the extent the applicable service condition was satisfied as of such date. The vesting of these outstanding RSUs on October 30, 2020 resulted in approximately $77.5 million of incremental stock-based compensation expense in the fourth quarter of 2020. It is anticipated that the Board will waive the liquidity event condition applicable to the RSAs in 2021. If such determination were to occur with respect to the outstanding RSAs, it is expected that the vesting of such outstanding RSAs would result in significant incremental stock-based compensation expense in the quarter when the determination is made based on the closing price of our common stock as of such date.

As part of growing our business, we may make acquisitions. If we fail to successfully select, execute or integrate our acquisitions, then our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected and our stock price could decline.


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From time to time, we may undertake acquisitions to add new products and technologies, acquire talent, gain new sales channels or enter into new markets or sales territories. Acquisitions involve numerous risks and challenges, including relating to the successful integration of the acquired business and our key personnel, entering into new territories or markets with which we have limited or no prior experience, establishing or maintaining business relationships with new customers, channel partners, vendors and suppliers, unexpected liabilities and potential post-closing disputes.

To date, we have limited experience with acquisitions and the integration of acquired technology and personnel. Failure to successfully identify, complete, manage and integrate acquisitions could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and could cause our stock price to decline.

We may need to raise additional capital in the future in order to execute our business plan, which may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to technological advancements, competitive dynamics or technologies, customer demands, business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances and we may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities for other reasons. In order to further business relationships with current or potential customers or partners, we may issue equity or equity-linked securities to such current or potential customers or partners. We may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt or other equity- linked securities or if it issues equity or equity-linked securities to current or potential customers to further business relationships, our existing stockholders could experience significant dilution. Any debt financing obtained by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.

We currently have and target many customers that are large corporations with substantial negotiating power, exacting product standards and potentially competitive internal solutions. If we are unable to sell our products to these customers, our prospects and results of operations will be adversely affected.

Many of our customers and potential customers are large, multinational corporations with substantial negotiating power relative to us and, in some instances, may have internal solutions that are competitive to our products. These large, multinational corporations also have significant development resources, which may allow them to acquire or develop independently, or in partnership with others, competitive technologies. Meeting the technical requirements and securing design wins with any of these companies will require a substantial investment of our time and resources. We cannot assure you that our products will secure design wins from these or other companies or that we will generate meaningful revenue from the sales of our products to these key potential customers. If our products are not selected by these large corporations or if these corporations develop or acquire competitive technology, it will have an adverse effect on our business.

If our lidar products are not selected for inclusion in autonomous driving systems or ADAS by automotive OEMs or their suppliers, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

Automotive OEMs and their suppliers design and develop autonomous driving and ADAS technology over several years. These automotive OEMs and suppliers undertake extensive testing or qualification processes prior to placing orders for large quantities of products because our lidar products will function as part of a larger system or platform and must meet certain other specifications. We spend significant time and resources to have our products selected by automotive OEMs and their suppliers, which is known as a design win. In the case of autonomous driving and ADAS technology, a design win means our lidar product has been selected for use in a particular vehicle model. If we do not achieve a design win with respect to a particular vehicle model, we may not have an opportunity to supply our products to the automotive OEM for that vehicle model for a period of many years. In many cases, this period can be as long as five to seven or more years. If our products are not selected by an automotive OEM or our suppliers for one vehicle model or if our products are not successful in that vehicle model, it is unlikely that our product will be deployed in other vehicle models of that OEM. If we fail to win a significant number of vehicle models from one or more of automotive OEMs or their suppliers, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

The discontinuation, lack of commercial success, or loss of business with respect to a particular vehicle model or technology package for which we are a significant supplier could reduce our sales and adversely affect our profitability.

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If we are able to secure design wins and our smart vision solutions are included in these autonomous driving and ADAS products, we expect to enter into supply agreements with the relevant customer. Market practice dictates that these supply agreements typically require us to supply a customer’s requirements for a particular vehicle model or autonomous driving or ADAS product, rather than supply a set number of products. These contracts can have short terms and/or can be subject to renegotiation, sometimes as frequently as annually, all of which may affect product pricing, and may be terminated by our customers at any time. Therefore, even if we are successful in obtaining design wins and the systems into which our products are built are commercialized, the discontinuation of, the loss of business with respect to, or a lack of commercial success of a particular vehicle model or technology package for which we are a significant supplier could mean that the expected sales of our products will not materialize, materially and adversely affecting our business.

Continued pricing pressures, automotive OEM cost reduction initiatives and the ability of automotive OEMs to re-source or cancel vehicle or technology programs may result in lower than anticipated margins, or losses, which may adversely affect our business.

Cost-cutting initiatives adopted by our customers often result in increased downward pressure on pricing. We expect that our agreements with automotive OEMs may require step-downs in pricing over the term of the agreement or, if commercialized, over the period of production. In addition, our automotive OEM customers often reserve the right to terminate their supply contracts for convenience, which enhances their ability to obtain price reductions. Automotive OEMs also possess significant leverage over their suppliers, including us, because the automotive component supply industry is highly competitive, serves a limited number of customers and has a high fixed cost base. Accordingly, we expect to be subject to substantial continuing pressure from automotive OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers to reduce the price of our products. It is possible that pricing pressures beyond our expectations could intensify as automotive OEMs pursue restructuring, consolidation and cost- cutting initiatives. If we are unable to generate sufficient production cost savings in the future to offset price reductions, our gross margin and profitability would be adversely affected.

Our business could be materially and adversely affected if we lost any of our largest customers or if they were unable to pay their invoices.

Although we have and continue to pursue a broad customer base, we are dependent on a collection of large customers with strong purchasing power. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, fiscal 2020 and 2019, our top 20 customers represented 89%, 81% and 83% of our revenue, respectively. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, year 2020 and 2019, there were two customers each accounted for more than 10% of our revenue. The loss of business from any of our major customers (whether by lower overall demand for our products, cancellation of existing contracts or product orders or the failure to design in our products or award us new business) could have a material adverse effect on our business.

To the extent autonomous vehicle and ADAS systems become accepted by major automotive OEMs, we expect that we will rely increasingly for our revenue on Tier 1 suppliers through which automotive OEMs procure components. We expect that these Tier 1 suppliers will be responsible for certain hardpoint and software configuration activities specific to each OEM, and they may not exclusively carry our smart vision solutions.

There is also a risk that one or more of our major customers could be unable to pay our invoices as they become due or that a customer will simply refuse to make such payments if it experiences financial difficulties. If a major customer were to enter into bankruptcy proceedings or similar proceedings whereby contractual commitments are subject to stay of execution and the possibility of legal or other modification, we could be forced to record a substantial loss.

The period of time from a design win to implementation is long and we are subject to the risks of cancellation or postponement of the contract or unsuccessful implementation.

Prospective customers, including those in the automotive industry, generally must make significant commitments of resources to test and validate our products and confirm that they can integrate with other technologies before including them in any particular system, product or model. The development cycles of our products with new customers varies widely depending on the application, market, customer and the complexity of the product. In the automotive market, for example, this development cycle can be five to seven or more years. The development cycle in certain other markets can be months to one or two years. These development cycles result in us investing our resources prior to realizing any revenue from the commercialization. Further, we are subject to the risk that customers cancel or postpone implementation of our technology, as well as that we will not be able to integrate our technology successfully into a larger system with other sensing modalities.

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Further, our revenue could be less than forecasted if the system, product or vehicle model that includes our lidar products is unsuccessful, including for reasons unrelated to our technology. Long development cycles and product cancellations or postponements may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We depend on our ability to attract and retain key management and technical personnel.

For our business to be successful, we need to attract and retain highly qualified key management and technical personnel. Competition for highly-skilled personnel is often intense, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area where we are located, and we may incur significant costs to attract them. We had in the past been dependent on David Hall, our former executive chairman. Mr. Hall resigned as executive chairman in January 2021 and as a member of our Board in March 2021. We have been expanding our management team as well as other key areas of our business, including product development. The resignation of Mr. Hall could adversely affect our business as it might make it more difficult to, among other things, compete with other market participants, manage our research and development activities and retain existing customers or cultivate new ones. Furthermore, subsequent to the removal of Mr. Hall as the chair of our Board and these resignations, Mr. Hall has made statements to the press in a Schedule 13D. This publicity could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain key personnel. Any actual or perceived uncertainties as to our relationship with Mr. Hall, who as of May 5, 2021 holds voting rights with respect to a majority of our voting stock, or persons aligned with Mr. Hall, may make it more difficult to attract and retain our qualified personnel and directors. We also may not be successful in attracting, integrating, or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs. We have, from time to time, experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled employees with appropriate qualifications. In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity is not higher than other companies with which we compete for employees, it may adversely affect our ability to retain highly skilled employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be adversely affected.

The complexity of our products could result in unforeseen delays or expenses from undetected defects, errors or bugs in hardware or software which could reduce the market adoption of our new products, damage our reputation with current or prospective customers, result in product returns or expose us to product liability and other claims and adversely affect our operating costs.

Our products are highly technical and very complex and require high standards to manufacture. These products have in the past and will likely in the future experience defects, errors or bugs at various stages of development. We may be unable to timely release new products, manufacture existing products, correct problems that have arisen or correct such problems to our customers’ satisfaction. Additionally, undetected errors, defects or security vulnerabilities, especially as new products are introduced or as new versions are released, could result in serious injury to the end users of technology incorporating our products, or those in the surrounding area; our customers never being able to commercialize technology incorporating our products; litigation against us; negative publicity and other consequences. These risks are particularly prevalent in the highly competitive autonomous driving and ADAS markets. Some errors or defects in our products may only be discovered after they have been tested, commercialized and deployed by customers. If that is the case, we may incur significant additional development costs and product recall, repair or replacement costs. Furthermore, we could also experience higher levels of product returns in such cases, which could adversely affect our financial results in a particular quarter. These problems may also result in claims against us by our customers or others. Our reputation or brand may be damaged as a result of these problems and customers may be reluctant to buy our products, which could adversely affect our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers, and could adversely affect our financial results.

In addition, we could face material legal claims for breach of contract, product liability, tort or breach of warranty as a result of these problems. Defending a lawsuit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and may divert management’s attention and adversely affect the market’s perception of Velodyne and our products. In addition, our business liability insurance coverage could prove inadequate with respect to a claim and future coverage may be unavailable on acceptable terms or at all. These product-related issues could result in claims against us and our business could be adversely affected.

If we do not maintain sufficient inventory or if we do not adequately manage our inventory, we could lose sales or incur higher inventory-related expenses, which could negatively affect our operating results.

To ensure adequate inventory supply, we must forecast inventory needs and expenses, place orders sufficiently in advance with our suppliers and manufacturing partners and manufacture products based on our estimates of future demand for particular products. Fluctuations in the adoption of lidar products may affect our ability to forecast our future operating

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results, including revenue, gross margins, cash flows and profitability. Our ability to accurately forecast demand for our products could be affected by many factors, including the rapidly changing nature of the markets in which we operate, including the autonomous driving, ADAS and mapping markets, the uncertainty surrounding the market acceptance and commercialization of lidar technology, the emergence of new markets, an increase or decrease in customer demand for our products or for products and services of our competitors, product introductions by competitors, the COVID-19 pandemic and any associated work stoppages or interruptions, unanticipated changes in general market conditions and the weakening of economic conditions or consumer confidence in future economic conditions. If our lidar products are commercialized in autonomous driving, ADAS or other applications experiencing rapid growth in demand, we may face challenges acquiring adequate supplies to manufacture our products and/or we and our manufacturing partners may not be able to manufacture our products at a rate necessary to satisfy the levels of demand, which would negatively affect our revenue. This risk may be exacerbated by the fact that we may not carry or be able to obtain for our manufacturers a significant amount of inventory to satisfy short-term demand increases. If we fail to accurately forecast customer demand, we may experience excess inventory levels or a shortage of products available for sale.

Inventory levels in excess of customer demand may result in inventory write-downs or write-offs and the sale of excess inventory at discounted prices, which would adversely affect our financial results, including our gross margin, and have a negative effect on our brand. Conversely, if we underestimate customer demand for our products, we, or our manufacturing partners, may not be able to deliver products to meet our requirements, and this could result in damage to our brand and customer relationships and adversely affect our revenue and operating results.

We rely on third-party suppliers and because some of the raw materials and key components in our products come from limited or sole sources of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages, long lead times for components, and supply changes, any of which could disrupt our supply chain and could delay deliveries of our products to customers.

All of the components that go into the manufacture of our smart vision solutions are sourced from third-party suppliers. To date, we have produced our products in relatively limited quantities for use in research and development programs. We do not have any experience in managing our supply chain to manufacture and deliver our products at scale. Some of the key components used to manufacture our products come from limited or sole sources of supply. We are therefore subject to the risk of shortages and long lead times in the supply of these components and the risk that our suppliers discontinue or modify components used in our products. We have a global supply chain and the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely affect our ability to source components in a timely or cost effective manner from our third-party suppliers due to, among other things, work stoppages or interruptions. For example, our products depend on lasers and we currently consume a substantial portion of the available market. Any shortage of these lasers could materially and adversely affect our ability to manufacture our smart vision solutions. In addition, the lead times associated with certain components are lengthy and preclude rapid changes in quantities and delivery schedules. We have in the past experienced and may in the future experience component shortages and price fluctuations of certain key components and materials, and the predictability of the availability and pricing of these components may be limited. Component shortages or pricing fluctuations could be material in the future. In the event of a component shortage, supply interruption or material pricing change from suppliers of these components, we may not be able to develop alternate sources in a timely manner or at all in the case of sole or limited sources. Developing alternate sources of supply for these components may be time-consuming, difficult, and costly and we may not be able to source these components on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, which may undermine our ability to meet our requirements or to fill customer orders in a timely manner. Any interruption or delay in the supply of any of these parts or components, or the inability to obtain these parts or components from alternate sources at acceptable prices and within a reasonable amount of time, would adversely affect our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our customers. This could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and channel partners and could cause delays in shipment of our products and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, increased component costs could result in lower gross margins. Even where we are able to pass increased component costs along to our customers, there may be a lapse of time before we are able to do so such that we must absorb the increased cost. If we are unable to buy these components in quantities sufficient to meet our requirements on a timely basis, we will not be able to deliver products to our customers, which may result in such customers using competitive products instead of Velodyne’s.

The average selling prices of our products could decrease rapidly over the life of the product, which may negatively affect our revenue and gross margin.

In the past we have substantially reduced the price of certain of our products to accelerate market adoption and solidify our position as a market leader. We expect the average selling prices of our products generally to continue to decline as our customers seek to commercialize autonomous systems at prices low enough to achieve market acceptance. In order to sell

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products that have a falling average unit selling price and maintain margins at the same time, we will need to continually reduce product and manufacturing costs. To manage manufacturing costs, we must engineer the most cost-effective design for our products. In addition, we continuously drive initiatives to reduce labor cost, improve worker efficiency, reduce the cost of materials, use fewer materials and further lower overall product costs by carefully managing component prices, inventory and shipping cost.

We also need to continually introduce new products with higher sales prices and gross margin in order to maintain our overall gross margin. If we are unable to manage the cost of older products or successfully introduce new products with higher gross margin, our revenue and overall gross margin would likely decline.

Changes in our product mix may impact our financial performance.

Our financial performance can be affected by the mix of products it sells during a given period. If our sales include more of the lower gross margin products than higher gross margin products, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. There can be no guarantees that we will be able to successfully alter our product mix so that we are selling more of our high gross margin products. If actual results vary from this projected product mix of sales, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.

Most of the members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly- traded company, interacting with public company investors, and complying with the increasingly-complex laws pertaining to public companies. Additionally, many members of our management team were recently hired or assumed new roles, including our chief executive officer, Dr. Anand Gopalan, who was promoted from chief technology officer in January 2020. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage their new roles and responsibilities, our transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. In addition, we will need to implement and continue to operationalize many of the policies and controls needed to operate as a public company. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We may experience difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations.

We expect to experience significant growth in the scope and nature of our operations. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, compliance programs and reporting systems. We are currently in the process of strengthening our compliance programs, including our compliance programs related to export controls, privacy and cybersecurity and anti-corruption, as well as controls related to human resources. We may not be able to implement improvements in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing controls, programs, systems and procedures, which could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and financial results.

Our sales and operations in international markets expose us to operational, financial and regulatory risks.

International sales comprise a significant amount of our overall revenue. Sales to international customers accounted for 74% of our revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2021, 54% and 41% of our revenue during 2020 and 2019, respectively. We are committed to growing our international sales, and while we have committed resources to expanding our international operations and sales channels, these efforts may not be successful. International operations are subject to a number of other risks, including:

Exchange rate fluctuations.
Political and economic instability, international terrorism and anti-American sentiment, particularly in emerging markets.
Global or regional health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Potential for violations of anti-corruption laws and regulations, such as those related to bribery and fraud.
Preference for locally branded products, and laws and business practices favoring local competition.

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Potential consequences of, and uncertainty related to, the “Brexit” process in the United Kingdom, which could lead to additional expense and complexity in doing business there.
Increased difficulty in managing inventory.
Delayed revenue recognition.
Less effective protection of intellectual property.
Stringent regulation of the autonomous or other systems or products using our products and stringent consumer protection and product compliance regulations, including but not limited to General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union, European competition law, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive, the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment directive and the European Ecodesign directive that are costly to comply with and may vary from country to country.
Difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations.
Import and export laws and the impact of tariffs.
Changes in local tax and customs duty laws or changes in the enforcement, application or interpretation of such laws.
The occurrence of any of these risks could negatively affect our international business and consequently our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods and other natural catastrophic events, global pandemics, and interruptions by man-made problems, such as network security breaches, computer viruses or terrorism. Material disruptions of our business or information systems resulting from these events could adversely affect our operating results.

A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, flood or significant power outage or other similar events, such as infectious disease outbreaks or pandemic events, including the COVID-19 pandemic, could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. The COVID-19 pandemic has produced meaningful operational challenges and we expect to continue to experience disruptions in our business during 2021. COVID-19 has heightened many of the other risks described herein, such as the demand for our products, our ability to achieve or maintain profitability and our ability to raise additional capital in the future. Despite the implementation of network security measures, our networks and lidar products also may be vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our solutions. Both our corporate headquarters and manufacturing facility are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity. In addition, natural disasters, acts of terrorism or war could cause disruptions in our remaining manufacturing operations, our or our customers’ or channel partners’ businesses, our suppliers’ or the economy as a whole. We also rely on information technology systems to communicate among our workforce and with third parties. Any disruption to our communications, whether caused by a natural disaster or by manmade problems, such as power disruptions, could adversely affect our business. We do not have a formal disaster recovery plan or policy in place and does not currently require that our suppliers’ partners have such plans or policies in place. To the extent that any such disruptions result in delays or cancellations of orders or impede our suppliers’ ability to timely deliver product components, or the deployment of our products, our business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters
Changes to trade policy, tariffs and import/export regulations may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in global political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development and investment in the territories or countries where we currently purchase our components, sell our products or conduct our business could adversely affect our business. The U.S. has recently instituted or proposed changes in trade policies that include the negotiation or termination of trade agreements, the imposition of higher tariffs on imports into the U.S., economic sanctions on individuals, corporations or countries, and other government regulations affecting trade between the United States and other countries where we conduct our business. A number of other nations have proposed or instituted similar measures directed at trade with the U.S. in response. As a result of these developments, there may be greater restrictions and economic disincentives on international trade that could adversely affect our business. For example, such changes could adversely affect the automotive market, our ability to access key components or raw materials

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needed to manufacture our products (including, but not limited to, rare-earth metals), our ability to sell our products to customers outside of the U.S. and the demand for our products. It may be time-consuming and expensive for us to alter our business operations to adapt to or comply with any such changes, and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have in the past and may become involved in legal and regulatory proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability and consolidated financial position.

We may be, from time to time, involved in litigation, regulatory proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes that may be significant. These matters may include, without limitation, disputes with our suppliers and customers, intellectual property claims, stockholder litigation, government investigations, class action lawsuits, personal injury claims, environmental issues, customs and VAT disputes and employment and tax issues. In addition, we have in the past and could face in the future a variety of labor and employment claims against it, which could include but is not limited to general discrimination, wage and hour, privacy, ERISA or disability claims. In such matters, government agencies or private parties may seek to recover from us very large, indeterminate amounts in penalties or monetary damages (including, in some cases, treble or punitive damages) or seek to limit our operations in some way. These types of lawsuits could require significant management time and attention or could involve substantial legal liability, adverse regulatory outcomes, and/or substantial expenses to defend. Often these cases raise complex factual and legal issues and create risks and uncertainties. No assurances can be given that any proceedings and claims will not have a material adverse impact on our operating results and consolidated financial position or that our established reserves or our available insurance will mitigate this impact.

We are subject to, and must remain in compliance with, numerous laws and governmental regulations concerning the manufacturing, use, distribution and sale of our products. Some of our customers also require that we comply with their own unique requirements relating to these matters.

We manufacture and sell products that contain electronic components, and such components may contain materials that are subject to government regulation in both the locations where we manufacture and assemble our products, as well as the locations where we sell our products. For example, certain regulations limit the use of lead in electronic components. Since we operate on a global basis, this is a complex process which requires continual monitoring of regulations and an ongoing compliance process to ensure that we and our suppliers are in compliance with all existing regulations. If there is an unanticipated new regulation that significantly impacts our use of various components or requires more expensive components, that regulation could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our products are also used for autonomous driving and ADAS applications, which are subject to complicated regulatory schemes that vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. These are rapidly evolving areas where new regulations could impose limitations on the use of lidar generally or our products specifically. If we fail to adhere to these new regulations or fails to continually monitor the updates, we may be subject to litigation, loss of customers or negative publicity and our business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected.

Concerns over environmental pollution and climate change have produced significant legislative and regulatory efforts on a global basis, and we believe this will continue both in scope and in the number of countries participating. These changes could directly increase the cost of energy, which may have an effect on the way we manufacture products or utilize energy to produce our products. In addition, any new regulations or laws in the environmental area might increase the cost of raw materials or key components we use in our products. Environmental regulations require us to reduce product energy usage, monitor and exclude an expanding list of restricted substances and to participate in required recovery and recycling of our products. We are unable to predict how any future changes will impact it and if such impacts will be material to our business.

Our business may be adversely affected by changes in automotive safety regulations or concerns that drive further regulation of the automobile safety market.

Government vehicle safety regulations are an important factor for our business. Historically, these regulations have imposed ever-more stringent safety regulations for vehicles. These safety regulations often require, or customers demand that, vehicles have more safety features per vehicle and more advanced safety products.

While we believe increasing automotive safety standards will present a market opportunity for our products, government safety regulations are subject to change based on a number of factors that are not within our control, including new scientific or technological data, adverse publicity regarding the industry recalls and safety risks of autonomous driving and ADAS,

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accidents involving our products, domestic and foreign political developments or considerations, and litigation relating to our products and our competitors’ products. Changes in government regulations, especially in the autonomous driving and ADAS industries could adversely affect our business. If government priorities shift and we are unable to adapt to changing regulations, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Federal and local regulators impose more stringent compliance and reporting requirements in response to product recalls and safety issues in the automotive industry. As the cars that carry our sensors go into production, we are subject to existing stringent requirements under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, or the Vehicle Safety Act, including a duty to report, subject to strict timing requirements, safety defects with our products. The Vehicle Safety Act imposes potentially significant civil penalties for violations including the failure to comply with such reporting actions. We are also subject to the existing U.S. Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act, or TREAD, which requires equipment manufacturers, such as Velodyne, to comply with “Early Warning” requirements by reporting certain information to the NHTSA, such as information related to defects or reports of injury related to our products. TREAD imposes criminal liability for violating such requirements if a defect subsequently causes death or bodily injury. In addition, the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act authorizes NHTSA to require a manufacturer to recall and repair vehicles that contain safety defects or fail to comply with U.S. federal motor vehicle safety standards. Sales into foreign countries may be subject to similar regulations. If we cannot rapidly address any safety concerns or defects with our products, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

The U.S. Department of Transportation issued regulations in 2016 that require manufacturers of certain autonomous vehicles to provide documentation covering specific topics to regulators, such as how automated systems detect objects on the road, how information is displayed to drivers, what cybersecurity measures are in place and the methods used to test the design and validation of autonomous driving systems. As cars that carry our sensors go into production, the obligations of complying with safety regulations could increase and it could require increased resources and adversely affect our business.

Failures, or perceived failures, to comply with privacy, data protection, and information security requirements in the variety of jurisdictions in which we operate may adversely impact our business, and such legal requirements are evolving, uncertain and may require improvements in, or changes to, our policies and operations.

Our current and potential future operations and sales subject it to laws and regulations addressing privacy and the collection, use, storage, disclosure, transfer and protection of a variety of types of data. For example, the European Commission has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation and California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, both of which provide for potentially material penalties for non-compliance. These regimes may, among other things, impose data security requirements, disclosure requirements, and restrictions on data collection, uses, and sharing that may impact our operations and the development of our business. While, generally, we do not have access to, collect, store, process, or share information collected by our solutions unless our customers choose to proactively provide such information to us, our products may evolve both to address potential customer requirements and to add new features and functionality. Therefore, the full impact of these privacy regimes on our business is rapidly evolving across jurisdictions and remains uncertain at this time.

We may also be affected by cyber attacks and other means of gaining unauthorized access to our products, systems, and data. For instance, cyber criminals or insiders may target us or third-parties with which we have business relationships in an effort to obtain data, or in a manner that disrupts our operations or compromises our products or the systems into which our products are integrated.

We are assessing the continually evolving privacy and data security regimes and measures it believes are appropriate in response. Since these data security regimes are evolving, uncertain and complex, especially for a global business like ours, we may need to update or enhance our compliance measures as our products, markets and customer demands further develop and these updates or enhancements may require implementation costs. The compliance measures we do adopt may prove ineffective. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with current and future regulatory or customer-driven privacy, data protection, and information security requirements, or to prevent or mitigate security breaches, cyber attacks, or improper access to, use of, or disclosure of data, or any security issues or cyber attacks affecting us, could result in significant liability, costs (including the costs of mitigation and recovery), and a material loss of revenue resulting from the adverse impact on our reputation and brand, loss of proprietary information and data, disruption to our business and relationships, and diminished ability to retain or attract customers and business partners. Such events may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, and could cause customers and business partners to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.

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Regulations related to conflict minerals may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the costs of certain metals used in the manufacturing of our products.

We are subject to the requirements under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, or the Dodd-Frank Act, that will require it to determine, disclose and report whether our products contain conflict minerals. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of the materials used in the manufacture of components used in our products. In addition, we will incur additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to conducting diligence procedures to determine the sources of conflict minerals that may be used in or necessary to the production of our products and, if applicable, potential changes to products, processes or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. It is also possible that our reputation may be adversely affected if we determine that certain of our products contain minerals not determined to be conflict-free or if we are unable to alter our products, processes or sources of supply to avoid use of such materials.

We may be subject to product liability or warranty claims that could result in significant direct or indirect costs, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our customers use our smart vision solutions in autonomous driving, ADAS and other applications that present the risk of significant injury, including fatalities. We may be subject to claims if a product using our lidar technology is involved in an accident and persons are injured or purport to be injured. Any insurance that we carry may not be sufficient or it may not apply to all situations. Similarly, our customers could be subjected to claims as a result of such accidents and bring legal claims against us to attempt to hold it liable. In addition, if lawmakers or governmental agencies were to determine that the use of our products or autonomous driving or certain ADAS increased the risk of injury to all or a subset of our customers, they may pass laws or adopt regulations that limit the use of our products or increase our liability associated with the use of our products or that regulate the use of or delay the deployment of autonomous driving and ADAS technology. Any of these events could adversely affect our brand, relationships with customers, operating results or financial condition.

We typically provide a limited-time warranty on our products. The occurrence of any material defects in our products could make us liable for damages and warranty claims. In addition, we could incur significant costs to correct any defects, warranty claims or other problems, including costs related to product recalls. Any negative publicity related to the perceived quality of our products could affect our brand image, partner and customer demand, and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Also, warranty, recall and product liability claims may result in litigation, the occurrence of which could be costly, lengthy and distracting and adversely affect our business and operating results.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property
Despite the actions we are taking to defend and protect our intellectual property, we may not be able to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights or prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions. Our efforts to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights and prevent third parties from violating our rights may be costly.

The success of our products and our business depends in part on our ability to obtain patents and other intellectual property rights and maintain adequate legal protection for our products in the United States and other international jurisdictions. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, service mark, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our proprietary rights, all of which provide only limited protection. We cannot assure you that any patents will be issued with respect to our currently pending patent applications or that any trademarks will be registered with respect to our currently pending applications in a manner that gives us adequate defensive protection or competitive advantages, if at all, or that any patents issued to us or any trademarks registered by us will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. We have filed for patents and trademarks in the United States and in certain international jurisdictions, but such protections may not be available in all countries in which we operate or in which we seek to enforce our intellectual property rights, or may be difficult to enforce in practice. Our currently issued patents and trademarks and any patents and trademarks that may be issued or registered, as applicable, in the future with respect to pending or future applications may not provide sufficiently broad protection or may not prove to be enforceable in actions against alleged infringers. We cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology or the reverse engineering of our technology. Moreover, others may independently develop technologies that are competitive to us or infringe our intellectual property.


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Protecting against the unauthorized use of our intellectual property, products and other proprietary rights is expensive and difficult, particularly internationally. We believe that our patents are foundational in the area of lidar products and intends to enforce the intellectual property portfolio we have built over the years. Unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or reverse engineer our smart vision solutions or certain aspects of our solutions that it considers proprietary. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to prevent unauthorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our solutions, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to block the importation of infringing products into the U.S.

For example, we recently achieved a favorable result in two proceedings before the U.S. Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB”) where the PTAB upheld the validity of our patent claims that were being challenged as unpatentable by one of our competitors. Our competitor filed a request for rehearing that was denied by the PTAB. The matter may proceed to an appeal in the future. In addition, that same competitor initiated a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, and while that case is stayed pending PTAB proceedings, we cannot guarantee a favorable outcome in the litigation.

Additionally, to protect our intellectual property, we filed patent infringement cases in August 2019 with the U.S. International Trade Commission (“ITC”) and the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against Hesai Photonics Technology Co., Ltd. (“Hesai”) and Suteng Innovation Technology Co., Ltd. (“RoboSense”). We resolved our disputes with Hesai in June 2020 and resolved our disputes with RoboSense in September 2020.

Any such litigation, whether initiated by us or a third party, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Even if it obtains favorable outcomes in litigation, we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies, especially in the context of unauthorized parties copying or reverse engineering our smart vision solutions. Further, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to defending intellectual property infringement claims and to enforcing their intellectual property rights than we have. Attempts to enforce our rights against third parties could also provoke these third parties to assert their own intellectual property or other rights against us, or result in a holding that invalidates or narrows the scope of our rights, in whole or in part. Effective patent, trademark, service mark, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our products are available and competitors based in other countries may sell infringing products in one or more markets. An inability to adequately protect and enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights or an inability to prevent authorized parties from copying or reverse engineering our smart vision solutions or certain aspects of our solutions that we consider proprietary could seriously adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.

In addition to patented technology, we rely on our unpatented proprietary technology, trade secrets, processes and know-how.

We rely on proprietary information (such as trade secrets, know-how and confidential information) to protect intellectual property that may not be patentable or subject to copyright, trademark, trade dress or service mark protection, or that we believe is best protected by means that do not require public disclosure. We generally seek to protect this proprietary information by entering into confidentiality agreements, or consulting, services or employment agreements that contain non-disclosure and non-use provisions with our employees, consultants, contractors and third parties. However, we may fail to enter into the necessary agreements, and even if entered into, these agreements may be breached or may otherwise fail to prevent disclosure, third-party infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary information, may be limited as to their term and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure or use of proprietary information. We have limited control over the protection of trade secrets used by our current or future manufacturing partners and suppliers and could lose future trade secret protection if any unauthorized disclosure of such information occurs. In addition, our proprietary information may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors or other third parties. To the extent that our employees, consultants, contractors, advisors and other third parties use intellectual property owned by others in their work for Velodyne, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting know-how and inventions. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain protection for our proprietary information could adversely affect our competitive business position. Furthermore, laws regarding trade secret rights in certain markets where we operate may afford little or no protection to our trade secrets. We also rely on physical and electronic security measures to protect our proprietary information, but it cannot provide assurance that these security measures will not be breached or provide adequate protection for our property. There is a risk that third parties may obtain and improperly utilize our proprietary information to our

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competitive disadvantage. We may not be able to detect or prevent the unauthorized use of such information or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce our intellectual property rights.

Third-party claims that we are infringing intellectual property, whether successful or not, could subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses, and our business could be adversely affected.

Although we hold key patents related to our products, a number of companies, both within and outside of the lidar industry, hold other patents covering aspects of lidar products. In addition to these patents, participants in this industry typically also protect their technology, especially embedded software, through copyrights and trade secrets. As a result, there is frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have received, and in the future may receive, inquiries from other intellectual property holders and may become subject to claims that it infringes their intellectual property rights, particularly as we expand our presence in the market, expands to new use cases and faces increasing competition. In addition, parties may claim that the names and branding of our products infringe their trademark rights in certain countries or territories. If such a claim were to prevail, we may have to change the names and branding of our products in the affected territories and we could incur other costs.

We currently have a number of agreements in effect pursuant to which we have agreed to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our customers, suppliers, and channel partners and other partners from damages and costs which may arise from the infringement by our products of third-party patents or other intellectual property rights. The scope of these indemnity obligations varies, but may, in some instances, include indemnification for damages and expenses, including attorneys’ fees. Our insurance may not cover all intellectual property infringement claims. A claim that our products infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, even if untrue, could adversely affect our relationships with our customers, may deter future customers from purchasing our products and could expose us to costly litigation and settlement expenses. Even if we are not a party to any litigation between a customer and a third party relating to infringement by our products, an adverse outcome in any such litigation could make it more difficult for us to defend our products against intellectual property infringement claims in any subsequent litigation in which we are a named party. Any of these results could adversely affect our brand and operating results.

Our defense of intellectual property rights claims brought against it or our customers, suppliers and channel partners, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, expensive to litigate or settle, divert management resources and attention and force us to acquire intellectual property rights and licenses, which may involve substantial royalty or other payments and may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. Further, a party making such a claim, if successful, could secure a judgment that requires us to pay substantial damages or obtain an injunction. An adverse determination also could invalidate our intellectual property rights and adversely affect our ability to offer our products to our customers and may require that we procure or develop substitute products that do not infringe, which could require significant effort and expense. Any of these events could adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.
Risks Related to Tax and Accounting Matters
Changes in tax laws or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our future profitability.

Factors that could materially affect our future effective tax rates include but are not limited to:

Changes in tax laws or the regulatory environment.
Changes in accounting and tax standards or practices.
Changes in the composition of operating income by tax jurisdiction.
Our operating results before taxes.

Because we do not have a long history of operating at our present scale and we have significant expansion plans, our effective tax rate may fluctuate in the future. Future effective tax rates could be affected by operating losses in jurisdictions where no tax benefit can be recorded under GAAP, changes in the composition of earnings in countries with differing tax rates, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.


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As of December 31, 2020, we had $173.5 million of U.S. federal and $105.5 million of state net operating loss carryforwards available to reduce future taxable income, which will be carried forward indefinitely for U.S. federal tax purposes and will expire beginning in 2028 through 2040 for state tax purposes. It is possible that we will not generate taxable income in time to use these net operating loss carryforwards before their expiration or at all. In addition, the federal and state net operating loss carryforwards and certain tax credits may be subject to significant limitations under Section 382 and Section 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), respectively, and similar provisions of state law. Under those sections of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset our post-change income or tax may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” will occur if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “5% shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We completed an analysis and determined that the Business Combination did not result in an “ownership change” for purposes of Section 382 and Section 383 of the Code. 

Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and other jurisdictions, and our tax liabilities will be subject to the allocation of expenses in differing jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;
expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances;
tax effects of stock-based compensation;
costs related to intercompany restructurings;
changes in tax laws, regulations or interpretations thereof; or
lower than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory tax rates.

In addition, we may be subject to audits of our income, sales and other transaction taxes by taxing authorities. Outcomes from these audits could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and the failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could harm our business and negatively impact the market price of our common stock.

On April 12, 2021, the Acting Director of the Division of Corporation Finance and Acting Chief Accountant of the SEC together issued a statement regarding the accounting and reporting considerations for warrants issued by SPACs entitled “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies.” As a result of the SEC Statement, we re-evaluated the accounting treatment of our warrants and concluded that certain warrants should have been classified as a liability measured at fair value, for the 30-day period from September 29, 2020 to October 29, 2020. As part of the re-evaluation process, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting related to the accounting for certain of our warrants. Accounting for these warrants as a liability instead of equity would have reduced non-operating expense and net loss by $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Additionally, a corresponding $1.6 million adjustment would have been made to reduce our accumulated deficit with an offsetting adjustment to additional paid in capital in our equity accounts at December 31, 2020. Accounting for these warrants as a liability instead of equity would not have any effect on Velodyne’s previously reported revenues, assets, liabilities, total equity, or cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2020. We have concluded the effects of accounting for the warrants as a liability instead of equity were immaterial to the previously issued financial statements. We have made an immaterial adjustment to our equity accounts for the effects of the accounting for the warrants in our condensed consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity and balance sheet at March 31, 2021 by decreasing our accumulated deficit by $1.6 million with an offsetting decrease to our additional paid in capital.

As of December 31, 2020, our management determined that we did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as a result of identifying a material weakness related to our process and controls over tracking and reporting whistleblower complaints and litigation matters, which was remediated in the fourth quarter of 2020. In addition,

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management identified a material weakness in connection with our failure to adequately review revenue schedules associated with non-standard revenue arrangements, which resulted in misstatements of revenue and deferred revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2020. These misstatements have been corrected as of the end of 2020.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented, or detected and corrected on a timely basis.

We are working to remediate the remaining material weaknesses and have taken and continue to take steps that we believe will address the underlying causes, including the following:

We have implemented additional supervision and technical accounting review by qualified personnel;
We have enhanced the review process surrounding the quarterly and annual assessment of the ongoing status of standard and non-standard agreements and schedules;
We have designed new controls and procedures associated with non-standard agreements and schedules, which requires incremental levels of accounting review; and
We intend to hire additional resources with the relevant experience to strengthen our contract review processes.

While we have made progress to enhance our internal control over financial reporting, additional time is required to complete implementation and to assess and ensure the sustainability of these procedures. We will continue to devote time and attention to these remedial efforts. However, the remaining material weaknesses cannot be considered remediated until the applicable controls operate for a sufficient period of time and management has concluded, through testing, that these controls are operating effectively.

We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken to date will be sufficient to remediate the remaining material weaknesses we identified or prevent additional material weaknesses in the future. Although we plan to complete this remediation, if the steps we take do not remediate the remaining material weaknesses in a timely or sufficient manner, there could continue to be a reasonable possibility that these control deficiencies or others could result in a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements that would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. This could cause investors to lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

We may face litigation and other risks as a result of the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.

Following the issuance of the SEC Statement, after consultation with our independent registered public accounting firm, we concluded that it was appropriate to re-evaluate certain of our warrants as liability measured at fair value, for the 30-day period from September 29, 2020 to October 29, 2020. As part of the re-evaluation process, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting related to the accounting for certain of our warrants. As of December 31, 2020, our management determined that we did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as a result of identifying a material weakness related to our process and controls over tracking and reporting whistleblower complaints and litigation matters, which was remediated in the fourth quarter of 2020. In addition, management identified a material weakness in connection with our failure to adequately review revenue schedules associated with non-standard revenue arrangements, which resulted in misstatements of revenue and deferred revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2020. These misstatements have been corrected as of the end of 2020.

As a result of such material weaknesses, the change in accounting for our warrants, the failure to adequately review revenue schedules associated with non-standard revenue arrangements, track and report whistleblower complaints and litigation matters and other matters raised or that may in the future be raised by the SEC, we face the potential for litigation or other disputes which may include, among others, claims invoking federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from the re-evaluation of our warrants, the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements. We can provide no assurance that such litigation or dispute will not arise in the future. Any such litigation or dispute, whether successful or not, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.


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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be adversely affected.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), and the rules and regulations of Nasdaq. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems and resources.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls, internal control over financial reporting and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms, and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers.

Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. Further, we have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and additional such weaknesses may be discovered in the future. See “—We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and the failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could harm our business and negatively impact the market price of our common stock.” Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls, or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement, could adversely affect our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we are required to include in our periodic reports we will file with the SEC under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information.

In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended and anticipate that we will continue to expend significant resources, including accounting-related costs, and provide significant management oversight. Any failure to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and could materially and adversely affect our ability to operate our business. In the event that our internal controls are perceived as inadequate or that we are unable to produce timely or accurate financial statements, investors may lose confidence in our operating results and our stock price could decline. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, we may not be able to maintain our listing on Nasdaq.

Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until after we are no longer an emerging growth company. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could have a material and adverse effect on our business and operating results.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock

Resales of the shares of common stock could depress the market price of our common stock.

We had approximately 189.7 million shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021, and there may be a large number of shares of common stock sold in the market. The shares held by our public stockholders are freely tradable, and the shares of common stock held by the PIPE Investors are also freely tradable. In addition, the shares of common stock issued as merger consideration, will become available for resale following the expiration of any applicable lock-up period, including any early release of such lock-up period. These resales could have the effect of decreasing the price of our common stock, particularly if stockholders or groups of stockholders were to seek to sell large blocks of shares in short periods of time. We also expect that Rule 144 will become available for the resale of shares of our common stock that are not registered for resale on October 5, 2021, the one year anniversary from the date that we filed the Current Report on Form 8-K following the closing of the Business Combination that included the required Form 10 information that reflects we were no longer a shell company. Such sales of shares of common stock or the perception of such sales may depress the market price of our

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common stock. If the market price of our common stock declines for any reason, including due to resales of shares of our common stock in the open market, it is possible that we may become subject to securities class action litigation. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.

Our only significant asset is our ownership interest in our Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. subsidiary and such ownership may not be sufficient to pay dividends or make distributions or loans to enable us to pay any dividends on our common stock.

We are a holding company with no direct operations and no significant assets other than our ownership of Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. We will depend on Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. for distributions, loans and other payments to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations, including our expenses as a publicly traded company and pay any dividends with respect to our common stock. The financial condition and operating requirements of Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. may limit our ability to obtain cash from Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. The earnings from, or other available assets of, Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. may not be sufficient to pay dividends or make distributions or loans to enable us to pay any dividends on our common stock or satisfy our other financial obligations.

The ability of Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. to make distributions, loans and other payments to us for the purposes described above and for any other purpose may be limited by credit agreements to which Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. is party from time to time, including the existing loan and security agreement described in Item 2: “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, and will be subject to the negative covenants set forth therein. Any loans or other extensions of credit to us from Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. will be permitted only to the extent there is an applicable exception to the investment covenants under these credit agreements. Similarly, any dividends, distributions or similar payments to us from Velodyne Lidar USA, Inc. will be permitted only to the extent there is an applicable exception to the dividends and distributions covenants under these credit agreements.

A market for our securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

The price of our securities may fluctuate significantly due to the market’s reaction to the developments in our business and general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for our securities may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports. You may be unable to sell your securities when desired or at an acceptable price unless an active trading market can be sustained.

If we do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.

If we do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of our securities may decline. In addition, fluctuations in the price of our securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. If an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
speculation in the press or investment community;
announcements of technological innovation, new products, acquisitions, strategic alliances, significant agreements by us or competitors;
success of competitors;

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our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning us or the market in general;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
our ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale;
any major change in our Board or management;
sales of substantial amounts of common stock by our directors, officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur;
the expiration of existing market stand-off or contractual lock-up agreements;
the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q;
additions or departures of key personnel;
failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;
failure to comply with SOX or other laws or regulations;
actual, potential or perceived control, accounting or reporting problems;
changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines; and
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, COVID-19, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general and Nasdaq have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, and could also require us to make substantial payments to satisfy judgments or to settle litigation.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, then the price and trading volume of our common stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on Velodyne. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of Velodyne, our stock price and trading volume would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

We may redeem unexpired Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making their public warrants worthless.


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We have the ability to redeem outstanding public warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per public warrant; provided that the last reported sales price of our common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we give notice of such redemption to the warrant holders. Redemption of the outstanding Warrants could force the Warrant holders: (i) to exercise their Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for them to do so; (ii) to sell their Warrants at the then-current market price when they might otherwise wish to hold their Warrants; or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of their Warrants.

Warrants and other shares underlying equity awards could increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders.

As of March 31, 2021, we had outstanding warrants exercisable for 11,458,486 shares of common stock at $11.50 per share. The shares of our common stock issued upon exercise of our Warrants will result in dilution to the then existing holders of common stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation contains provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. We are also subject to anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together, these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities. These provisions include:

no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of the Board;
the requirement that directors may only be removed from the Board for cause;
the right of our Board to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our Board or the resignation, death or removal of a director in certain circumstances, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our Board;
a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;
a prohibition on stockholders calling a special meeting and the requirement that a meeting of stockholders may only be called by a majority of the Board, the chairman of the Board or the chief executive office and may not be called by any other person, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;
the requirement that changes or amendments to certain provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation must be approved by holders of at least two-thirds of our common stock;
advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our Board or to propose matters to be acted upon at a meeting of stockholders, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of Velodyne; and
an opt out from Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the DGCL) and, instead, inclusion of a provision in the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation that is substantially similar to Section 203 of the DGCL.

The JOBS Act permits “emerging growth companies” like us to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

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We currently qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. As such, we take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, including: (i) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of SOX; (ii) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements; and (iii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information they deem important. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year: (a) following October 18, 2023, the fifth anniversary of our IPO; (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion; or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th, and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three- year period.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as we are an emerging growth company. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected to avail ourselves of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and we have different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company that is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

David Hall will have control over key decision making because he holds voting rights with respect to a majority of our voting stock.

David Hall, our former chairman and CEO, holds voting rights with respect to an aggregate of approximately 98.4 million and 98.5 million, respectively, shares of common stock, which represented approximately 50.8% and 52.3%, respectively, of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock as of March 31, 2021 and May 5, 2021. In addition to the approximately 59.8 million shares of common stock currently held by Mr. Hall, which represented approximately 30.8% and 31.7%, respectively, of the voting power of our capital stock as of March 31, 2021 and May 5, 2021, stockholders holding approximately 38.6 million shares of common stock, including Joseph Culkin, Chairman of our Board, Marta Hall, a member of our Board, and certain other family members of Mr. Hall, have entered into agreements granting Mr. Hall an irrevocable proxy to vote such stockholders’ shares at Mr. Hall’s discretion on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders.

As a result, Mr. Hall will have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, Mr. Hall could have the ability to control our affairs as a result of his ability to control the election of our directors. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, and, as a result, the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.

As a stockholder, even as a controlling stockholder, Mr. Hall is entitled to vote his shares in his own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally and could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Compliance obligations under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act may require substantial financial and management resources.

As a public company, we are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of SOX, which require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we have undertaken and expect to continue to undertake various actions, such as implementing additional internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff. Additionally, we have

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identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. We remediated one material weakness in the fourth quarter of 2020 and have put in place a remediation plan with respect to the remaining material weaknesses. See “—We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and the failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could harm our business and negatively impact the market price of our common stock.” Our management has devoted significant time, attention and resources to these remedial efforts and intends to hire additional personnel as part of our remediation plan.

The standards required for a public company under Section 404 of SOX are significantly more stringent than those required of Velodyne as a privately-held company. Further, as an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event that it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating, or if the remaining material weaknesses have not been remediated or additional material weaknesses have been identified.

Testing and maintaining these controls can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. If our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting when we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and federal court within the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that stockholders may initiate, which could limit a stockholder’s ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that, subject to limited exceptions, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and federal court within the State of Delaware will be exclusive forums for any:

derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;
action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to Velodyne or our stockholders;
action asserting a claim against Velodyne arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or bylaws; or
other action asserting a claim against Velodyne that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
This choice of forum provision does not apply to actions brought to enforce a duty or liability created under the Exchange Act. Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation also provides that the federal district courts of the United States are the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. We intend for this provision to apply to any complaints asserting a cause of action under the Securities Act despite the fact that Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for the federal and state courts over all actions brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such a provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act, and stockholders will not be deemed to have waived compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the provisions of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation described above.

These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.


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Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

None.


Item 3. Default Upon Senior Securities

None.


Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

None.


Item 5. Other Information

None.


Item 6. Exhibits

(a) Exhibits.

Exhibit No.Description
Certification of Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification of Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Certification Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
101.INSXBRL Instance Document
101.SCHXBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
101.CALXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.DEFXBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
101.LABXBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
101.PREXBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
104Cover Page Interactive Data File - The cover page from this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q is formatted in iXBRL.

(^) In accordance with Item 601(b)(32)(ii) of Regulation S-K and SEC Release No. 34-47986, the certifications furnished in Exhibits 32.1 and 32.2 hereto are deemed to accompany this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and will not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act except to the extent that the registrant specifically incorporates it by reference.

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

Date:May 17, 2021VELODYNE LIDAR, INC.
/s/ Anand Gopalan
Anand Gopalan
Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
/s/ Andrew Hamer
Andrew Hamer
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)




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