Docoh
Loading...

TXG 10x Genomics

Filed: 7 May 21, 4:07pm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________
FORM 10-Q
_____________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________ to ___________
Commission File Number: 001-39035

txg-20210331_g1.jpg
10x Genomics, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware45-5614458
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
6230 Stoneridge Mall Road
Pleasanton, California94588
(Address of principle executive offices)(Zip Code)
(925) 401-7300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
_____________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading
Symbol
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.00001 per shareTXGThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  ☐   No  ☒
As of April 30, 2021, the registrant had 87,267,824 shares of Class A common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, outstanding and 22,531,465 shares of Class B common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, outstanding.


Table of Contents


10x Genomics, Inc.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (this “Quarterly Report”) contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. All statements, other than statements of historical facts included in this Quarterly Report, including statements concerning our plans, objectives, goals, beliefs, business strategies, results of operations, financial position and business outlook, future events, business conditions, uncertainties related to the global COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of our and our customers' and suppliers' responses to it, business trends and other information, may be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negatives of these terms or variations of them or similar terminology. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot provide any assurance that these expectations will prove to be correct and actual results may vary materially from what is expressed in or indicated by the forward-looking statement. Such statements reflect the current views of our management with respect to our business, results of operations and future financial performance.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report. We cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. For a more detailed discussion of the risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ, please refer to the “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report, as such risk factors may be updated from time to time in our periodic filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Our periodic filings are accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Quarterly Report or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. Further, as the COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented and continuously evolving, our forward-looking statements may not accurately or fully reflect the potential impact that the COVID-19 pandemic may have on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise indicates, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company,” “10x” and similar references refer to 10x Genomics, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Channels for Disclosure of Information
Investors and others should note that we may announce material information to the public through filings with the SEC, our website (https://www.10xGenomics.com), press releases, public conference calls, public webcasts and our social media accounts, (https://twitter.com/10xGenomics, https://www.facebook.com/10xGenomics and
https://www.linkedin.com/company/10xgenomics). We use these channels to communicate with our customers and the public about the Company, our products, our services and other matters. We encourage our investors, the media and others to review the information disclosed through such channels as such information could be deemed to be material information. The information on
1

such channels, including on our website and our social media accounts, is not incorporated by reference in this Quarterly Report and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any other filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except as expressly set forth by specific reference in such a filing. Please note that this list of disclosure channels may be updated from time to time.
2

10x Genomics, Inc.
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.    Financial Statements.
10x Genomics, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
(Unaudited)(Note 1)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$617,195 $663,603 
Restricted cash18,164 16,567 
Accounts receivable, net57,408 51,208 
Inventory38,507 29,959 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets14,442 13,029 
Total current assets745,716 774,366 
Property and equipment, net107,313 72,840 
Restricted cash8,598 8,474 
Operating lease right-of-use assets56,353 46,983 
Goodwill4,511 
Other assets31,542 26,678 
Total assets$954,033 $929,341 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accrued contingent liabilities$44,849 $44,173 
Accounts payable15,578 4,709 
Accrued compensation and related benefits16,820 15,383 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities32,665 43,453 
Deferred revenue4,481 4,472 
Operating lease liabilities6,156 5,936 
Total current liabilities120,549 118,126 
Accrued license fee, noncurrent5,814 11,171 
Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent66,344 57,042 
Other noncurrent liabilities8,866 3,930 
Total liabilities201,573 190,269 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)


0
0Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.00001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized, 0 shares issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020
Common stock, $0.00001 par value; 1,100,000,000 shares authorized, 109,588,527 and 108,485,909 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020
Additional paid-in capital1,569,059 1,544,218 
Accumulated deficit(816,649)(805,098)
Accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss)48 (50)
Total stockholders’ equity752,460 739,072 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$954,033 $929,341 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

10x Genomics, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Revenue$105,821 $71,905 
Cost of revenue17,060 15,108 
Gross profit88,761 56,797 
Operating expenses:
Research and development41,883 25,992 
Selling, general and administrative56,904 50,387 
Accrued contingent liabilities190 302 
Total operating expenses98,977 76,681 
Loss from operations(10,216)(19,884)
Other income (expense):
Interest income50 1,318 
Interest expense(221)(662)
Other expense, net(729)(96)
Loss on extinguishment of debt(1,521)
Total other expense(900)(961)
Loss before provision for income taxes(11,116)(20,845)
Provision for income taxes435 298 
Net loss$(11,551)$(21,143)
Other comprehensive income:
Foreign currency translation adjustment98 
Comprehensive loss$(11,453)$(21,138)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.11)$(0.22)
Weighted-average shares of common stock used in computing net loss per share, basic and diluted108,714,027 96,829,093 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

10x Genomics, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share data)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Common StockAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2020108,485,909 $$1,544,218 $(805,098)$(50)$739,072 
Issuance of Class A common stock upon exercise of stock options1,102,618 — 8,546 — — 8,546 
Vesting of shares subject to repurchase, including early exercised options— — 42 — — 42 
Stock-based compensation— — 16,253 — — 16,253 
Net loss— — — (11,551)— (11,551)
Other comprehensive income— — — — 98 98 
Balance as of March 31, 2021109,588,527 $$1,569,059 $(816,649)$48 $752,460 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Common StockAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 201996,241,596 $$682,494 $(262,367)$(46)$420,083 
Issuance of Class A common stock upon exercise of stock options1,903,612 — 3,283 — — 3,283 
Vesting of shares subject to repurchase, including early exercised options— — 122 — — 122 
Stock-based compensation— — 6,718 — — 6,718 
Net loss— — — (21,143)— (21,143)
Other comprehensive income— — — — 
Balance as of March 31, 202098,145,208 $$692,617 $(283,510)$(41)$409,068 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

10x Genomics, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
(In thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Operating activities:
Net loss$(11,551)$(21,143)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization4,752 3,189 
Stock-based compensation expense16,176 6,718 
Loss on disposal of property and equipment30 
Loss on extinguishment of debt1,521 
Accretion of discount on term loan17 
Amortization of right-of-use assets1,716 1,071 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(6,189)2,521 
Inventory(8,614)(4,087)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(1,584)601 
Other assets165 (1,210)
Accounts payable10,885 (653)
Accrued compensation and other related benefits1,302 6,191 
Deferred revenue348 471 
Accrued contingent liabilities676 4,656 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities(7,232)4,585 
Operating lease liability(1,424)(1,282)
Other noncurrent liabilities(3,538)(5,742)
Net cash used in operating activities(4,082)(2,576)
Investing activities:
Acquisition of business, net of cash acquired(5,451)
Purchases of property and equipment(38,865)(8,079)
Net cash used in investing activities(44,316)(8,079)
Financing activities:
Payments on financing arrangement(5,028)(5,846)
Payments on term loans(31,256)
Issuance of common stock from exercise of stock options and employee stock purchase plan purchases8,546 3,283 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities3,518 (33,819)
Effect of exchange rates on changes in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash193 (116)
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(44,687)(44,590)
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period688,644 476,493 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$643,957 $431,903 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest$1,222 $1,670 
Cash paid for taxes$6,822 $117 




6

10x Genomics, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Continued)
(Unaudited)
(In thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Noncash investing and financing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities$2,816 $2,811 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities$11,237 $7,634 
Contingent consideration payable from business acquisition$1,500 $
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
7

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
o
1.    Description of Business and Basis of Presentation
Organization and Description of Business
10x Genomics, Inc. (the “Company”) was incorporated in the state of Delaware on July 2, 2012 and is a life sciences technology company focused on building innovative products and solutions to interrogate, understand and master biological systems at resolution and scale that matches the complexity of biology. The Company’s integrated solutions include the Company’s Chromium and Chromium Connect instruments, which the Company refers to as “instruments,” and the Company’s proprietary microfluidic chips, slides, reagents and other consumables for both the Company’s Visium and Chromium solutions, which the Company refers to as “consumables.” The Company bundles its software with these products to guide customers through the workflow, from sample preparation through analysis and visualization. The Company began commercial and manufacturing operations and selling its instruments and consumables in 2015. The Company is headquartered in Pleasanton, California and has wholly-owned subsidiaries in China, Germany, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements, which include the Company’s accounts and the accounts of its wholly-owned subsidiaries, are unaudited and have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The condensed consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2020 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of the Company at that date. Certain information and footnote disclosures typically included in the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss and cash flows for the periods presented, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for any future annual or interim period. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The inputs into our judgments and estimates consider the economic implications of COVID-19 on our critical and significant accounting estimates.
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2020 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021 (our "Annual Report").
2.    Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Cash and cash equivalents are comprised of money market funds and cash which are classified as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy. Money market funds are highly liquid investments which are actively traded. The pricing information for the Company’s money market funds are readily available and can be independently validated as of the measurement date. This approach results in the classification of these securities as Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company held $547.8 million and $600.9 million in money market funds, respectively, with 0 unrealized gains or losses.
Revenue Recognition
The Company generates revenue from sales of products and services. The Company’s products consist of instruments and consumables. The Company began shipping its Chromium Connect instrument during the first quarter of 2020.
The Company recognizes revenue when control of the products and services is transferred to its customers in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive from its customers in exchange for those products and services. This process involves identifying the contract with a customer, determining the performance obligations in the contract, determining the contract price, allocating the contract price to the distinct performance obligations in the contract and recognizing revenue when
8

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
the performance obligations have been satisfied. A performance obligation is considered distinct from other obligations in a contract when it provides a benefit to the customer either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and is separately identified in the contract. The Company considers a performance obligation satisfied once it has transferred control of a good or service to the customer, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the good or service.
Revenue from product sales is recognized when control of the product is transferred, which is generally upon shipment to the customer. In instances where right of payment or transfer of title is contingent upon the customer’s acceptance of the product, revenue is deferred until all acceptance criteria have been met. Instrument service agreements, which relate to extended warranties, are typically entered into for one-year terms, following the expiration of the standard one-year warranty period. Revenue for extended warranties is recognized ratably over the term of the extended warranty period as a stand ready performance obligation. Revenue is recorded net of discounts, distributor commissions and sales taxes collected on behalf of governmental authorities. Customers are invoiced generally upon shipment, or upon order for services, and payment is typically due within 45 days. Cash received from customers in advance of product shipment or providing services is recorded as a contract liability. The Company’s contracts with its customers generally do not include rights of return or a significant financing component.
The Company regularly enters into contracts that include various combinations of products and services which are generally distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation in proportion to its standalone selling price. The Company determines standalone selling price using average selling prices with consideration of current market conditions. If the product or service has no history of sales or if the sales volume is not sufficient, the Company relies upon prices set by management, adjusted for applicable discounts.
Net Loss Per Share
Net loss per share is computed using the two-class method required for multiple classes of common stock and participating securities. The rights, including the liquidation and dividend rights and sharing of losses, of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, other than voting rights. As the liquidation and dividend rights and sharing of losses are identical, the undistributed earnings are allocated on a proportionate basis and the resulting net loss per share will, therefore, be the same for both Class A and Class B common stock on an individual or combined basis.
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period, adjusted for outstanding shares that are subject to repurchase.
For the calculation of diluted net loss per share, basic net loss per share is adjusted by the effect of dilutive securities, including convertible preferred stock, awards under the Company’s equity compensation plan and common stock warrants. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding. For periods in which the Company reports net losses, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share because potentially dilutive shares of common stock are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive.
3.    Acquisition
On January 8, 2021 (the "acquisition date"), the Company purchased 100% of the outstanding shares of Tetramer Shop ApS (“Tetramer Shop”), a privately held company based in Copenhagen, Denmark, for a total cash consideration of $8.5 million, net of cash acquired of $0.2 million and including $1.5 million of estimated fair value of contingent consideration. The contingent consideration is recorded as a liability and is payable upon the successful transfer of Tetramer Shop's technology to the Company within two years of the acquisition date.
Tetramer Shop is a life sciences technology company which develops and provides reagents for precise monitoring of antigen-specific T-cells in research and development. The Company acquired Tetramer Shop for its expertise in building empty, loadable major histocompatability complex molecules that will accelerate the development of T-cell receptor-based therapeutics and diagnostics.
The acquisition was accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting, with Tetramer Shop treated as the acquiree. The acquired assets and liabilities were recorded at their respective fair values including an amount for goodwill representing the difference between the acquisition consideration and the fair value of the identifiable net assets.
9

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Our condensed consolidated statements of income include the financial results of Tetramer Shop subsequent to the acquisition date. Revenue related to Tetramer Shop since the acquisition date was included in our condensed consolidated statements of income and was not material.
The acquisition price was allocated to the tangible and identified intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date based upon their respective fair values. The fair values assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed were based on management’s assumptions as of the reporting date.
The estimated fair value of assets acquired, including goodwill and intangibles, and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date were as follows (in thousands):
Amount
Cash and cash equivalents$224 
Other current assets45 
Property and equipment, net38 
Tangible assets acquired307 
Accrued expenses(555)
Other current liabilities(97)
Deferred tax liability - non-current(1,131)
Total net tangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed(1,476)
Intangible assets5,640 
Goodwill4,511 
Net assets acquired$8,675 

The intangible assets as of the acquisition date included (in thousands):
AmountWeighted Average Useful Life (in years)
Developed technology$5,500 10
Customer relationships140 3
$5,640 
The fair value of the intangible assets acquired in connection with the acquisition was determined using either the income or replacement cost methodologies. The developed technology and customer relationships will be amortized over ten years and three years, respectively.

Identifiable Intangible Assets
Valuation of intangible assets involves multiple assumptions. The key assumptions are described below.

Developed technology acquired primarily consists of existing technology related to developing reagents for precise monitoring of antigen-specific T cells in research and development, enabling the Company to strengthen its efforts in immunology. The Company valued the developed technology using the multi-period excess earnings method under the income approach. Using this approach, the estimated fair values were calculated using expected future cash flows discounted to their net present values at an appropriate risk-adjusted rate of return.

Goodwill
The excess of purchase price over the fair value assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed represents the amount of goodwill resulting from the acquisition. We do not expect any portion of this goodwill to be deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill attributable to the acquisition was recorded as a non-current asset and is not amortized, but is subject to an annual review for impairment.
10

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
4.    Other Financial Statement Information
Inventory
Inventory was comprised of the following as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Purchased materials$14,749 $9,930 
Work in progress11,752 9,312 
Finished goods12,006 10,717 
Inventory$38,507 $29,959 
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Land$29,145 $— 
Laboratory equipment and machinery33,628 30,010 
Computer equipment and software10,882 5,783 
Furniture and fixtures5,721 5,887 
Leasehold improvements49,217 42,068 
Construction in progress13,469 19,594 
Total property and equipment142,062 103,342 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization(34,749)(30,502)
Property and equipment, net$107,313 $72,840 
Intangible Assets, Net
Intangible assets, net, which are recorded within other assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets, consisted of the following (dollars in thousands):
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Remaining Useful Life in YearsGross
Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Intangibles,
Net
Remaining Useful Life in YearsGross
Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Intangibles,
Net
Technology licenses13.5$22,503 $(2,356)$20,147 13.7$22,504 $(1,973)$20,531 
Developed technology9.85,500 (138)5,362 — 
Customer relationships3.5945 (167)778 3.9805 (111)694 
Trademarks0.6204 (159)45 0.9204 (142)62 
Assembled workforce4.51,128 (118)1,010 4.81,128 (61)1,067 
Total intangible assets, net$30,280 $(2,938)$27,342 $24,641 $(2,287)$22,354 





11

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
The estimated annual amortization of intangible assets for the next five years is shown below (in thousands):
Estimated
Annual
Amortization
2021 (excluding the three months ended March 31, 2021)$1,946 
20222,535 
20232,506 
20242,378 
20252,214 
Thereafter15,763 
Total$27,342 
Actual amortization expense to be reported in future periods could differ from these estimates as a result of acquisitions, divestitures and asset impairments, among other factors.
Accrued Compensation and Related Benefits
Accrued compensation and related benefits were comprised of the following as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Accrued payroll and related costs$5,354 $2,506 
Employee stock purchase program liability3,020 1,258 
Accrued bonus3,728 5,058 
Accrued commissions2,171 3,038 
Accrued acquisition-related compensation744 2,213 
Accrued vacation1,118 1,035 
Other685 275 
Accrued compensation and related benefits$16,820 $15,383 
Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities were comprised of the following as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Accrued legal and related costs$5,030 $5,704 
Accrued license fee5,525 6,198 
Accrued purchase consideration5,046 4,146 
Accrued royalties for licensed technologies2,644 3,160 
Accrued property and equipment2,816 2,983 
Accrued professional services5,418 3,137 
Product warranties452 399 
Customer deposits1,419 1,727 
Taxes payable2,478 8,649 
Accrued lab supplies1,003 1,506 
Other834 5,844 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities$32,665 $43,453 

12

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Product Warranties
Changes in the reserve for product warranties were as follows for the periods indicated (in thousands):
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Beginning of period$399 $467 
Amounts charged to cost of revenue591 796 
Repairs and replacements(538)(864)
End of period$452 $399 
Revenue and Deferred Revenue
As of March 31, 2021, the aggregate amount of remaining performance obligations related to separately sold extended warranty service agreements, or allocated amounts for extended warranty service agreements bundled with sales of Chromium instruments, was $6.1 million, of which approximately 70% is expected to be recognized to revenue in the next 12 months, with the remainder thereafter. The contract liabilities of $6.1 million and $6.2 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, consisted of deferred revenue related to extended warranty service agreements, and as of March 31, 2021, the short-term portion was $4.3 million. Revenue recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2021 included $1.4 million of previously deferred revenue that was included in contract liabilities as of December 31, 2020.
The following table represents revenue by source for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Instruments$11,125 $9,141 
Consumables93,079 61,428 
Services1,617 1,336 
Total revenue$105,821 $71,905 
The following table presents revenue by geography based on the location of the customer for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
North America$51,807 $39,732 
Europe, Middle East and Africa19,170 13,158 
China23,640 10,997 
Asia-Pacific (excluding China)11,204 8,018 
Total revenue$105,821 $71,905 
Revenue for the United States, which is included in North America in the table above, was 48% and 53% of consolidated revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.
5.    Debt
In September 2016, the Company entered into a Second Amended and Restated Loan and Security Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank (as amended and restated in February 2018 and as further amended, restated or supplemented from time to time, the “Loan and Security Agreement”), which included a term loan and revolving line of credit. On February 20, 2020, the Company prepaid the remaining balance of the term loan and all associated costs. The final payment of $30.5 million included $28.3 million for the outstanding principal balance of the term loan, $1.8 million for an end of term payment, $0.3 million for early termination fees and $0.1 million for interest. The prepayment resulted in a loss on extinguishment of debt of $1.5 million. The non-accreted portion of the end of term payment, unamortized discounts and early termination fees were included in the calculation of the loss on extinguishment of debt.
13

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
6.    Commitments and Contingencies
Lease Agreements
The Company leases office, laboratory, manufacturing, distribution and server space with lease terms up to 12 years. These leases require monthly lease payments that may be subject to annual increases throughout the lease term. Certain of these leases also include renewal options at the election of the Company to renew or extend the lease. The Company evaluates renewal options at lease inception and on an ongoing basis, and includes renewal options that it is reasonably certain to exercise in its expected lease terms when classifying leases and measuring lease liabilities.
For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company incurred $2.7 million and $1.9 million, respectively, of operating lease costs. The Company also incurred $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively, of variable lease costs for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. The variable lease cost is comprised primarily of the Company’s proportionate share of operating expenses, property taxes and insurance and is classified as lease cost due to the Company’s election to not separate lease and non-lease components.
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of operating lease liabilities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $2.5 million and $1.3 million and were included in net cash used in operating activities in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Future lease payments related to the Company’s operating lease liabilities as of March 31, 2021 is as follows (in thousands):
Operating Leases
2021 (excluding the three months ended March 31, 2021)$3,845 
202210,731 
202310,404 
20249,671 
20259,844 
Thereafter48,733 
Total lease payments$93,228 
Less: imputed interest(20,728)
Present value of operating lease liabilities$72,500 
Operating lease liabilities, current$6,156 
Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent$66,344 
The following table summarizes additional information related to operating leases as of March 31, 2021:
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Weighted-average remaining lease term:
Operating leases8.8 years8.4 years
Weighted-average discount rate:
Operating leases5.3 %4.5 %
On November 6, 2020, the Company entered into a Master Lease Agreement ("MLA") to lease additional office building space near the Company's Pleasanton, California headquarters. The Company intends to utilize the leased space of approximately 145,000 square feet to accommodate its future growth requirements. The MLA consists of various lease components expected to commence on various dates between 2021 and 2023 and is expected to terminate on June 30, 2033 with total lease payments over the lease term expected to amount to approximately $60.8 million, net of a tenant improvement allowance of approximately $10.0 million to be received in 2021. None of this tenant improvement allowance has been received as of March 31, 2021. Certain lease components of the MLA commenced on January 1, 2021. The tables above do not include payments, lease term, or discount rates relating to lease components that have not yet commenced as of March 31, 2021. The Company will determine the
14

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
classification for each lease component at the individual component's commencement date. All lease components are expected to be classified as operating leases.
Lease payments for leases not yet Commenced
2021 (excluding the three months ended March 31, 2021)$
2022603 
20232,993 
20244,389 
20254,519 
Thereafter37,994 
Total undiscounted lease payments$50,498 
Litigation
The Company is regularly subject to lawsuits, claims, arbitration proceedings, administrative actions and other legal and regulatory proceedings involving intellectual property disputes, commercial disputes, competition and other matters, and the Company may become subject to additional types of lawsuits, claims, arbitration proceedings, administrative actions, government investigations and legal and regulatory proceedings in the future. Amongst other matters, the Company is currently a defendant in the lawsuits and proceedings described below. In these matters, the plaintiffs are seeking damages and injunctions of sales of the Company's products amongst other remedies. Other than with respect to the 2015 Delaware Action, losses are not probable or estimable for the lawsuits and proceedings described below.
The 2015 Delaware Action
In February 2015, Raindance Technologies, Inc. (“Raindance”) and the University of Chicago filed suit against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware (the “Delaware Court”), accusing the Company’s legacy GEM products of infringing certain U.S. patents owned by or exclusively licensed to Raindance (the “2015 Delaware Action”). In May 2017, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (“Bio-Rad”) was substituted as the plaintiff following its acquisition of Raindance. A jury trial was held in November 2018. The jury found that the accused legacy GEM products infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,304,193, 8,329,407 and 8,889,083. The jury also concluded that the Company's infringement was willful and awarded Bio-Rad approximately $24 million in damages through June 30, 2018. The Company appealed the jury verdict. Post-trial, Bio-Rad moved for a permanent injunction, treble damages for willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, supplemental damages for the period from the second quarter of 2018 through the end of the trial as well as pre- and post-judgment interest.
In response to the jury award, the Company established an accrual of $30.6 million as of December 31, 2018, which was recorded as an operating expense on the condensed consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018. Additionally, beginning in the fourth quarter of 2018, the Company also began recording an accrual for estimated royalties to Bio-Rad as a cost of revenue on the condensed consolidated statements of operations based on an estimated royalty rate of 15% of sales of the Company’s Chromium instruments operating its legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables. As a result, the Company recorded $7.4 million of royalties for the fourth quarter of 2018. As of December 31, 2018, the Company recorded a total accrual of $38.0 million related to this matter which represented the jury award plus the Company’s estimate of additional damages for the period from June 30, 2018 to the trial date in November 2018 and the royalties accrued in the fourth quarter of 2018.
In July 2019, the Court awarded supplemental damages for the period from June 30, 2018 through the end of the trial in November 2018 and established the interest rates for pre- and post-judgment interest, which when combined with the original award, resulted in a $35 million preliminary judgment in favor of Bio-Rad for damages through November 2018 and interest. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company recorded royalties of $0.5 million and $4.4 million, respectively, as a cost of revenue and an additional $0.2 million and $0.3 million, respectively, during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, as an operating expense for estimated pre- and post-judgment interest. The Company’s accrual of $44.8 million as of March 31, 2021 includes estimates of additional royalties and interest for the period from November 2018 through March 31, 2021. The Company’s accrual of $68.7 million as of December 31, 2019 was comprised of the preliminary judgment, along with the Company’s estimate of additional royalties and interest for the period from November 2018 through December 31,
15

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
2019. In July 2019, the Court denied Bio-Rad’s other post-trial requests such as attorneys’ fees and enhanced damages for willful infringement.
In July 2019, the Court also granted Bio-Rad a permanent injunction against the Company’s legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables that were found to infringe the Bio-Rad patents, which historically constituted a significant amount of the Company’s product sales. However, under the injunction, the Company is permitted to continue to sell its legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables for use with its historical installed base of instruments provided that the Company pay into escrow a royalty of 15% of the Company’s net revenue related to such sales occurring after August 28, 2019. The amounts will be held in escrow until after the conclusion of the Company’s Federal Circuit appeal and the Delaware Court addresses anticipated motions regarding post-judgment royalties.
In August 2019, the Court ordered that the Company may post a bond in the amount of $52 million in lieu of payment of the final judgment. Bio-Rad subsequently asked the Court to increase the amount of the bond to approximately $61 million. The Company also asked the Court to reconsider its ruling and decrease the potential bond to approximately $35 million. On September 13, 2019, the Company posted a $52 million bond (the “Bond”) in lieu of payment of the judgment pending the Company’s ongoing appeal. In connection with the Bond, the Company deposited $45 million as collateral in a segregated cash account.
On October 10, 2019, the Court denied the Company’s motion to decrease the bond amount, and, without addressing Bio-Rad’s request to increase the bond amount, stayed any execution or enforcement of the judgment until the completion of appeal, and for thirty days thereafter. The Company appealed the Court's judgment including the injunction to the Federal Circuit.
In August 2020, the Federal Circuit issued its opinion in the Company's appeal of the 2015 Delaware Action. The Federal Circuit (1) affirmed the judgment of the lower Court with respect to infringement of the '083 patent by the Company's legacy GEM products and (2) vacated the judgment with respect to infringement of the '193 and '407 patents, which are remanded to the lower Court for a new trial on infringement. The Federal Circuit affirmed the damages award including the 15% royalty with respect to the Company's legacy GEM products. The Federal Circuit vacated the injunction with respect to the Company's Single Cell CNV and Linked-Read products but affirmed the injunction with respect to the Company's other legacy GEM products. In October 2020, the Company filed a petition for en banc rehearing with the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit denied the Company's petition for en banc rehearing on November 4, 2020. The Company paid the $34.5 million judgment, plus approximately $0.8 million in post-judgment interest, to Bio-Rad on December 17, 2020. The case was remanded to the Delaware Court for a determination of post-judgment royalties or other amounts, which the Company expects in the second half of 2021. The Company has accrued $44.8 million as of March 31, 2021 related to this matter which is classified within current liabilities in its condensed consolidated balance sheets as of this date. Restricted cash of $17.6 million, classified within current assets in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2021 serves as collateral for a bond and royalties in connection with the Bio-Rad litigation and would be used to partially satisfy this payment.
The ITC 1068 Action
On July 31, 2017, Bio-Rad and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC filed a complaint against the Company in the U.S. International Trade Commission (“ITC”) pursuant to Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, accusing substantially all of the Company’s Chromium products of infringing certain asserted patents (the “ITC 1068 Action”). In September 2018, the judge found that the Company’s legacy GEM microfluidic chips infringe certain of the asserted patents, but also that the Company’s gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chip and Next GEM microfluidic chip do not infringe any claim asserted against them (the “Initial Determination”). The judge recommended entry of an exclusion order preventing the Company from importing its legacy GEM microfluidic chips and a cease and desist order that would prevent the Company from selling such imported chips.
On December 18, 2019, the ITC issued its final determination in the ITC 1068 Action (the “Final Determination”). The Final Determination affirmed the Initial Determination that the Company’s Next GEM microfluidic chips and gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chips do not infringe any of the claims asserted against them. The Final Determination also affirmed the ruling that the Company’s legacy GEM microfluidic chips infringe the ‘664, ‘682 and ‘635 patents but not the ‘160 patent. The ITC issued (1) a limited exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed importation of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips into the United States and (2) a cease and desist order preventing the Company from selling such imported legacy GEM microfluidic chips in the United States. The ITC expressly allowed the importation and sale of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips for use by researchers who were using such chips as of December 18, 2019, and who have a documented need to continue receiving such chips for a specific current ongoing research project for which that need cannot be met by any alternative product. The Final Determination was subject to a 60-day presidential review period. During the presidential review period, the Company was
16

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
permitted to continue importation and sales of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips subject to payment of a bond of three (3) percent of the entered value of the accused microfluidic chips.
The Company and Bio-Rad have appealed the Final Determination to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Bio-Rad has appealed the Final Determination with respect to non-infringement of the Company's gel bead manufacturing chips, but not with respect to non-infringement of the Company's Next GEM microfluidic chips. The Company has appealed the Final Determination with respect to infringement of the Company's legacy GEM microfluidic chips. Oral argument was held on April 7, 2021. The Company expects a decision around the fourth quarter of 2021.
The Northern District of California Action
On July 31, 2017, Bio-Rad and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC also filed suit against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that the Company’s legacy GEM products infringe certain patents in addition to the patents asserted in the ITC 1068 Action. The complaint seeks injunctive relief, unspecified monetary damages, costs and attorneys’ fees. This litigation has been stayed pending resolution of the Federal Circuit appeal of the ITC 1068 Action. In July 2020, Bio-Rad moved to lift the stay with respect to the '059 patent and consolidate the '059 patent with the '115 patent transferred from the District of Massachusetts which is being asserted against the Company's Next GEM products. In August 2020, the Court denied Bio-Rad's motion to lift the stay with respect to both the '059 and '115 patents. In October 2020, we filed 2 petitions for inter partes review (“IPR”) challenging the validity of the ‘115 patent. We expect the Patent Trials and Appeals Board (“PTAB”) to issue a decision on institution of these IPR petitions in the second quarter of 2021. The Company believes that this lawsuit is without merit and intends to vigorously defend itself.
The Germany Action
On July 31, 2017, Bio-Rad filed suit against the Company in Germany in the Munich Region Court alleging that the Company infringed a European patent. Bio-Rad dismissed this action in August 2018.
On February 13, 2018, Bio-Rad filed suit against the Company in Germany in the Munich Region Court alleging that its Chromium instruments, legacy GEM microfluidic chips and certain accessories infringe a German utility model. Bio-Rad seeks unspecified damages and an injunction prohibiting sales of these products in Germany and requiring the Company to recall these products sold in Germany subsequent to February 11, 2018. An initial hearing was held on November 27, 2018, and a subsequent hearing was held on May 15, 2019. The Court issued a ruling on November 20, 2019. The Court ruled that the Company’s legacy GEM microfluidic chips, as well as certain Chromium instruments and accessories used with legacy GEM microfluidic chips, infringed the German Utility Model. The Court issued an injunction with respect to such legacy GEM microfluidic chips, Chromium instruments and accessories used with such systems, prohibiting among other things the sale of these products in Germany and the importation of such products into Germany. The Court found that the Company is obligated to compensate Bio-Rad for unspecified damages and required that these products be recalled from distribution channels in Germany. The Court further found that the Company has to bear the statutory costs of the legal dispute in a minimum amount of at least 61,000 Euros. The Company has accrued the 61,000 Euros for statutory costs in the condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2021. The Company is unable to estimate any additional potential exposure related to the matter beyond the statutory costs that have been accrued. The Court’s ruling did not address the Company’s Next GEM products, which were not accused in this action and which constitute substantially all of the Company’s Chromium sales in Germany. The Company appealed the Court’s ruling.
On April 6, 2020, the Munich Higher Regional Court (the “Higher Court”) issued a ruling staying enforcement of the ruling of the lower Court, including the injunction, subject to the payment of a bond by the Company. The Higher Court found that the lower Court’s claim construction was not justifiable and that the facts did not provide a basis for a finding of infringement. On April 16, 2020, the Company paid a 2.8 million Euro bond to the Higher Court to completely stay enforcement of the ruling. The bond is refundable upon a favorable ruling on the merits by the Higher Court. The Company expects the Higher Court to rule on the merits in 2021. In August 2020, Bio-Rad filed its appeal response arguing for the first time that the Company's Next GEM microfluidic chips and certain accessories infringe the utility model. In its appeal response, Bio-Rad also attempted to add infringement allegations with respect to a new patent, European Patent No. 3 132 844, against the Company's Chromium instruments and Next GEM microfluidic chips. The Company believes it is procedurally improper to attempt to add these new claims at this stage, that the Company's Next GEM products are not covered by the lower court's judgment and are not admissible in the appeal, and that the newly asserted '844 patent is not admissible in the appeal. The Higher Court is not expected to rule on whether Next GEM products or the '844 patent are admissible in the appeal until around the fourth quarter of 2021.
17

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
The 2018 Delaware Action
On October 25, 2018, Bio-Rad filed suit against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that substantially all of the Company’s Chromium products, including our legacy GEM products and Next GEM products, infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 9,562,837 and 9,896,722. Bio-Rad seeks injunctive relief, unspecified monetary damages, costs and attorneys’ fees.
In October 2019, the Company filed 4 petitions for IPR challenging the validity of both asserted patents. On April 27, 2020, the PTAB instituted review on all 4 of these petitions. On April 26, 2021, the PTAB issued final written decisions on all four IPRs invalidating the majority of the asserted claims of the ‘837 and ‘722 patents but maintaining the validity of claim 8 of the '837 patent and claims 15-17 of the '722 patent. The Company expects to seek rehearing of and/or appeal the decision with respect to the claims found to be valid.
In June 2020, the Court completely stayed the District of Delaware litigation pending resolution of the IPRs before the PTAB.
The Massachusetts Action
On September 11, 2019, Bio-Rad filed suit against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that the Company’s Next GEM products infringe certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 8,871,444. On November 5, 2019, Bio-Rad amended the complaint to additionally allege that the Company’s Next GEM products infringe certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 9,919,277 and 10,190,115. The ‘444 and ‘277 patents are exclusively licensed by Bio-Rad from Harvard University, which subsequently joined the suit as a party plaintiff. Bio-Rad is seeking damages and an injunction against the Company's Next GEM products amongst other remedies. The ‘444 and ‘277 patents are projected to expire in October 2024.
On December 18, 2019, Bio-Rad dismissed this action in the District of Delaware and refiled it in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts. The case was assigned to Judge William G. Young. On January 14, 2020, the Court consolidated this case with a separate action, Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc. et al. v. Stilla Technologies, Inc. (“Stilla”), in which Bio-Rad is asserting the ‘444 patent (among other patents) against Stilla’s droplet digital PCR product. On January 23, 2020, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the case and to transfer the ‘115 patent to the Northern District of California, where the related ‘059 patent is stayed.
On January 24, 2020, the Company filed antitrust counterclaims against Bio-Rad alleging violations of (a) Section 7 of the Clayton Act, (b) Section 2 of the Sherman Act and (c) California unfair competition laws, for illegally acquiring Raindance and illegally monopolizing or attempting to monopolize markets relating to droplet digital PCR products, droplet single cell products and droplet genetic analysis technology. On February 19, 2020, Bio-Rad moved to dismiss, or alternatively to stay and sever, the Company’s antitrust claims.
On February 5, 2020, the Company filed additional counterclaims against Bio-Rad alleging that Bio-Rad’s single cell ATAC-seq products infringe U.S. Patent No. 9,029,085 and 9,850,526 that are exclusively licensed to the Company from Harvard University. On February 26, 2020, Bio-Rad moved to sever and stay the patent counterclaims. On March 6, 2020, the Court denied the motion to stay and deferred the motion to sever until prior to trial.
On March 25, 2020, the Court held a hearing with respect to (a) the Company’s motion to dismiss Bio-Rad’s patent claims, (b) the Company’s motion to transfer the ‘115 patent and (c) Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss the Company’s antitrust counterclaims. On April 30, 2020, the Court denied the Company’s motion to dismiss with respect to Bio-Rad’s patent claims and granted the Company’s motion to transfer the ‘115 patent to the Northern District of California. In August 2020, the Court granted Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss (i) the Company's Sherman Act and Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet single cell products and (ii) the Company's Sherman Act counterclaims with respect to droplet genetic analysis technology. The Court denied Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss (i) the Company's Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet genetic analysis technology; (ii) the Company's Sherman Act and Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet digital PCR products; and (iii) the Company's California unfair competition counterclaims.
Discovery is ongoing. A Markman hearing was conducted in September 2020. In December 2020, the Court ordered the parties to be ready for trial for Bio-Rad’s patent claims and our patent counterclaims in July 2021 and for our antitrust counterclaims in September 2021.
18

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
In June 2020, the Company filed 2 petitions for IPR challenging the validity of the '444 patent. In August 2020, the Company filed 2 petitions for IPR challenging the validity of the '277 patent. On January 13, 2021, the PTAB denied institution of IPRs for the '444 patent. On February 22, 2021, the PTAB denied institution of IPRs for the '277 patent.
2019 Becton Dickinson Settlement and Patent Cross License Agreement
On November 15, 2018, Becton, Dickinson and Company (“BD”) and Cellular Research, Inc. filed suit against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, alleging that the Company infringed certain patents. In September 2019, the Company filed counterclaims alleging that BD and Cellular Research, Inc. (together, the “BD Entities”) infringed a number of the Company’s patents.
In October 2019, the Company entered into a settlement and patent cross license agreement (the “BD Agreement”) with the BD Entities. The BD Agreement resolved all outstanding patent litigation between the parties (the “BD Litigation”), which was dismissed with prejudice on October 21, 2019. Under the terms of the BD Agreement, the BD Entities granted the Company and its affiliates, and the Company granted BD and its affiliates, a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, fully paid-up license to certain patents and patent applications relating to molecular barcoding and single cell analysis, including to all the patents asserted in the BD Litigation. The Company is required to make an aggregate payment of $25.0 million to BD in annual amounts of $6.25 million over four years beginning in January 2020 in connection with the BD Agreement. Upon execution of the BD Agreement, the fair value of these payments was recognized as a liability and is classified as accrued expenses and other current liabilities and accrued license fee, noncurrent on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2021. As part of the BD Agreement, each party, on behalf of itself and its affiliates, has also entered into a covenant not to sue in certain fields related to each company’s products. The companies have also agreed on behalf of themselves and their affiliates to refrain from challenging the patents and patent applications licensed under the BD Agreement. The Company considers this matter closed.
For certain of the Company’s litigation matters, the Company is required to make milestone payments to the Company’s legal counsel based on certain litigation outcomes. Based on the occurrence in the first quarter of 2020 of one such milestone in one of the Company’s litigation matters, a milestone payment to the Company’s legal counsel in the amount of $5 million was triggered in the first quarter of 2020. The Company expects to trigger additional such milestone payments during the pendency of litigation, though the timing and amounts of such payments is uncertain.
The ITC 1100 Action

    On January 11, 2018, we filed a complaint against Bio-Rad at the ITC pursuant to Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 alleging that Bio-Rad infringes our U.S. Patent Nos. 9,644,204, 9,689,024, 9,695,468 and 9,856,530 (the “ITC 1100 Action”). The judge issued an Initial Determination on July 12, 2019 finding that Bio-Rad’s ddSEQ products infringe the ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents. The judge also found all of our asserted patents to be valid and rejected Bio-Rad’s claim of ownership in all of the asserted patents.

On February 12, 2020, the ITC issued its Final Determination affirming the judge’s findings with respect to Bio-Rad’s violation of the ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents, including the judge’s findings for those patents with respect to infringement, validity and ownership. The ITC issued an exclusion order prohibiting Bio-Rad from importing into the United States infringing microfluidic devices, components thereof and products containing same, including the ddSEQ products. The ITC also issued a cease and desist order preventing Bio-Rad from selling such imported products in the United States. The ITC’s remedial orders do not identify any ddSEQ assay as exempted from their potential scope. The ITC orders do not prohibit the importation or sale of microfluidic consumables imported into the U.S. for use by researchers who are using such consumables as of February 12, 2020, and who have a documented need to continue receiving such consumables for a specific current ongoing research project for which that need cannot be met by any alternative product. On April 29, 2020, Bio-Rad appealed the Final Determination to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Oral argument was held on March 11, 2021. On April 29, 2021, the Federal Circuit issued its decision completely affirming the Final Determination of the ITC, including its findings with respect to infringement, validity and ownership.

The Nanostring Action

On May 6, 2021, we filed suit against Nanostring Technologies, Inc. ("Nanostring") in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that Nanostring's GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiler and associated instruments and reagents infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 10,472,669, 10,662,467, 10,961,566, 10,983,113, and 10,996,219.

19

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
For further discussion of the risks relating to intellectual property and our pending litigation, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property” under Item 1A below.
7.    Capital Stock
As of March 31, 2021, the number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock issued and outstanding was 87,057,062 and 22,531,465, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, 150,000 and 31,774,013 shares of Class B common stock were converted to shares of Class A common stock upon the election of the holders of such shares.
8.    Equity Incentive Plans
Amended and Restated 2012 Stock Plan
As of March 31, 2021, the number of shares of Class A common stock issuable under the Amended and Restated 2012 Stock Plan which includes shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding awards was 8,573,143. Following the adoption of the 2019 Omnibus Incentive Plan in September 2019, any awards outstanding under the Amended and Restated 2012 Stock Plan continue to be governed by their existing terms but no further awards may be granted under the Amended and Restated 2012 Stock Plan.
2019 Omnibus Incentive Plan
As of March 31, 2021, the number of shares of Class A common stock available for issuance was 3,466,453 shares issuable in connection with outstanding awards and 13,234,261 shares reserved for issuance in connection with grants of future awards.
2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan
A total of 3,084,859 shares of Class A common stock was reserved for issuance under the 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan ("ESPP"). The price at which Class A common stock is purchased under the ESPP is equal to 85% of the fair market value of the common stock on the first day of the offering period or purchase date, whichever is lower. Shares purchased under the ESPP are subject to a one-year holding period following the purchase date.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, 0 shares of Class A common stock were issued under the ESPP. As of March 31, 2021, there were 2,921,132 shares available for issuance in connection under the ESPP.
Stock-based Compensation
The Company recorded stock-based compensation expense in the condensed consolidated statement of operations for the periods presented as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Cost of revenue$464 $247 
Research and development6,796 2,887 
Selling, general and administrative8,916 3,584 
Total stock-based compensation expense$16,176 $6,718 
20

10x Genomics, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Restricted Stock Units
Restricted stock unit activity for the three months ended March 31, 2021 is as follows:
Restricted Stock
Units
Weighted-Average
Grant Date Fair Value
(per share)
Outstanding as of December 31, 2020823,947 $80.97 
Granted229,752 176.65 
Vested(51,087)74.74 
Cancelled(17,226)86.44 
Outstanding as of March 31, 2021985,386 $103.51 
Stock Options
Stock option activity for the three months ended March 31, 2021 is as follows:
Stock OptionsWeighted-Average
Exercise Price
Outstanding as of December 31, 202011,860,844 $18.86 
Granted305,659 177.76 
Exercised(1,051,281)8.12 
Cancelled(60,649)18.76 
Outstanding as of March 31, 202111,054,573 $24.28 
9.    Income Tax
The Company’s provision for income taxes was $0.4 million and $0.3 million, respectively, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. The provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2021 consists primarily of foreign taxes. Deferred tax assets generated from the Company’s domestic net operating losses are fully offset by a valuation allowance as the Company believes it is more likely than not that the benefit will not be realized.
10.    Net Loss Per Share
The following outstanding shares of common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Stock-options to purchase common stock11,054,573 14,528,141 
Shares subject to repurchase53,125 115,625 
Contingent restricted shares236,484 
Restricted stock units985,386 58,254 
Shares committed under ESPP26,271 103,830 
Total12,355,839 14,805,850 
21

Item 2.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our unaudited condensed financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report and our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021. As discussed in the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements,” the following discussion and analysis, in addition to historical financial information, contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” under Part II, Item 1A below.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
We operate on a fiscal year that ends on December 31.
Overview
We are a life sciences technology company focused on building innovative products and solutions to interrogate, understand and master biological systems at resolution and scale that matches the complexity of biology. Our expanding suite of offerings leverages our cross-functional expertise across biology, chemistry, software and hardware to provide a comprehensive, dynamic and high-resolution view of complex biological systems. We have launched multiple products that enable researchers to understand and interrogate biological analytes in their full biological context. Our commercial product portfolio leverages our Chromium and Chromium Connect instruments, which we refer to as “Chromium instruments” or “instruments,” and our proprietary microfluidic chips, slides, reagents and other consumables for both our Visium and Chromium solutions, which we refer to as “consumables.” We bundle our software with these products to guide customers through the workflow, from sample preparation through analysis and visualization.
Our products cover a wide variety of applications and allow researchers to analyze biological systems at fundamental resolutions and on massive scales, such as at the single cell level for millions of cells. Our Chromium instruments and Chromium consumables are designed to work together exclusively. After buying a Chromium instrument, customers purchase consumables from us for use in their experiments. Accordingly, as the installed base of our instruments grows, we expect recurring revenue from consumable sales to become an increasingly important driver of our operating results. As such, our revenue growth is expected to outpace growth in our instrument placements as our business develops. In addition to instrument and consumable sales, we derive revenue from post-warranty service contracts for our Chromium instruments.
The following table represents revenue by source for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Instruments$11,125 11 %$9,141 13 %
Consumables93,079 88 61,428 85 
Services1,617 1,336 
Total revenue$105,821 100 %$71,905 100 %
Since our inception in 2012, we have incurred net losses in each year. Our net losses were $11.6 million and $21.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $816.6 million and cash and cash equivalents totaling $617.2 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses for the foreseeable future and to incur operating losses in the near term. We expect our expenses will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:
attract, hire and retain qualified personnel;
scale our technology platforms and introduce new products and services;
22

protect and defend our intellectual property;
acquire businesses or technologies; and
invest in processes, tools and infrastructure to support the growth of our business.
Operational Effectiveness in the COVID-19 Environment
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the global outbreak of COVID-19 to be a pandemic and we have now operated in this uncertain and disruptive pandemic environment for more than a year. We continue to closely monitor the recent developments surrounding this pandemic and potential resurgence. At the same time, we have successfully maintained our operational effectiveness and continue to provide researchers with our solutions as described below:
Since the commencement of the pandemic, we have quickly placed and continue to place instruments and provide reagents to clinicians and researchers around the world working to understand COVID-19 and develop treatments for the disease. We were designated an essential business because our products are a critical tool for infectious disease research as they allow for a detailed understanding of how the virus causing COVID-19 impacts infected people, how the immune system is mobilized, which immune cells react to pathogens and many other aspects of the disease and potential therapies. Many of our customers have moved our Chromium Controller instruments into Biosafety Level 2 Plus (BSL2+) and 3 (BSL3) facilities, where they can be as close as possible to the front lines of this battle against COVID-19;
We continue to closely monitor the recent developments and progress surrounding the implementation of COVID-19 vaccination programs by various government agencies in the United States and in other countries. Though we currently require the majority of our personnel to work remotely using our designated measures which we implemented in 2020 subsequent to the commencement of the pandemic in order to maintain a safe workplace, we are expecting our employees to return to our offices over the next several months. Given the importance of maintaining continuity of our business and continued access to instruments and consumables by our customers, including researchers engaged in the fight against COVID-19, we continue to adhere to protocols and safety measures at our facilities including social distancing, symptom screening and 10x-provided personal protective equipment to support and safeguard the health and safety of our workforce who remain onsite to support essential operations. Among other efforts, we have also continued with our testing site for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus which causes COVID-19) at our Pleasanton headquarters as we work to regain our pre-COVID-19 levels of manufacturing and research and development activities by bringing additional personnel back onsite. On a weekly basis, we test all employees who access our facilities, and no employee is allowed to access our facilities without a negative test. After having completed thousands of tests to date, our testing program has uncovered only a few, isolated test results indicating the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We believe we were able to successfully isolate these individuals and prevent the spread of the virus within our workforce, but we will continue to monitor and track these developments. As an additional safeguard against SARS-CoV-2 transmission among our onsite employee base, we also use Controlled Air Purifying Respiratory Systems (“CAPRS”) for certain of our onsite employees who need to work in close proximity to each other. CAPRS work to protect 10x personnel by filtering out potentially harmful or infectious materials including SARS-CoV-2 particles. These and other safety measures have facilitated the safe return to work of most of our research and development, manufacturing and other operations personnel;
Our sales and marketing teams have leveraged increased digital marketing and sales activities since the broad emergence of social distancing measures globally, including virtual sales seminars, virtual market development activities, online product training utilizing our library of on-demand tools and literature and an increase in one-on-one communications via emails, phone and video conferencing;
With the implementation of our protocols and safety measures, our production, shipping and customer service functions have been operational and we have been able to maintain a continuous supply of products to our customers. We are communicating regularly with our suppliers, our supply chain remains intact and we have not yet experienced significant supply issues. With respect to equipment and raw material supply, we continue to work to secure sufficient critical equipment and raw materials to meet anticipated future demand and we are carrying higher levels of inventory and monitoring closely whether there will be a material negative impact due to potential future shortages or price increases from suppliers. Our customer service teams around the world are operating remotely and remain available to assist our customers and partners as needed; and
Despite the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including that the majority of 10x personnel worldwide continue to work remotely, these arrangements have not materially affected our ability to maintain our business operations, including the operation of financial reporting systems, internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls
23

and procedures. In addition, we completed the acquisition of Tetramer Shop in January 2021. See Note 3 to the condensed consolidated financial statements for further details.
While the disruption is currently expected to be temporary, there is considerable uncertainty around its duration. We expect these disruptions to continue to impact our operating results, however, the extent of the financial impact and duration cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. For further discussion of the risks relating to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, see the section titled “Risk Factors,” generally, and “Risk Factors—The impacts and potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to create significant uncertainty for our business, financial condition and results of operations,” specifically, under Part II, Item 1A.
Results of Operations
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in thousands)20212020
Revenue$105,821 $71,905 
Cost of revenue17,060 15,108 
Gross profit88,761 56,797 
Operating expenses:
Research and development41,883 25,992 
Selling, general and administrative56,904 50,387 
Accrued contingent liabilities190 302 
Total operating expenses98,977 76,681 
Loss from operations(10,216)(19,884)
Other income (expense):
Interest income50 1,318 
Interest expense(221)(662)
Other expense, net(729)(96)
Loss on extinguishment of debt— (1,521)
Total other expense(900)(961)
Loss before provision for income taxes(11,116)(20,845)
Provision for income taxes435 298 
Net loss$(11,551)$(21,143)










24

The following table sets forth our condensed consolidated results of operations data as a percentage of revenue for the periods presented.
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Revenue100.0%100.0%
Cost of revenue16.121.0
Gross profit83.979.0
Operating expenses:
Research and development39.636.1
Selling, general and administrative53.870.1
Accrued contingent liabilities0.20.4
Total operating expenses93.5106.6
Loss from operations(9.6)(27.6)
Other income (expense):
Interest income1.7
Interest expense(0.2)(0.9)
Other expense, net(0.7)(0.1)
Loss on extinguishment of debt(2.1)
Total other expense(0.9)(1.4)
Loss before provision for income taxes(10.5)(29.0)
Provision for income taxes0.40.4
Net loss(10.9)%(29.4)%
Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 and 2020
Revenue
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Change
(dollars in thousands)20212020$%
Revenue$105,821 $71,905 $33,916 47 %
Revenue increased $33.9 million, or 47%, to $105.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, driven primarily by an increase in consumables revenue. Consumables revenue increased $31.7 million, or 52%, to $93.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase in consumables revenue was primarily driven by growth in the instrument installed base. Instrument revenue increased $2.0 million, or 22%, to $11.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 due to an increase in number of units sold.
We largely rely on research activities in both academic institutions and government laboratories for our revenue. In March 2020, as the impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic intensified, we saw a significant reduction in customer activity other than research related to the virus. By the end of the first quarter of 2020, the vast majority of academic and government labs around the world had suspended or severely reduced operations in compliance with stay-at-home, shelter-in-place and similar orders. These closures and reduced operations significantly impacted our business towards the latter part of the first quarter of 2020. However, beginning in June 2020, we observed a modest re-opening of labs for general research which continued throughout the remainder of 2020 and into the first quarter of 2021 resulting in an uptick in our sales activity for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. Not all labs are able to operate at full capacity and we may encounter delays before labs are able to fully resume their research and we cannot reliably estimate the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our overall demand in the second quarter of 2021 and beyond. Once labs fully re-open and are able to resume normal levels of research activities, we expect to continue to see increased demand for our products.


25

Cost of revenue, gross profit and gross margin
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Change
(dollars in thousands)20212020$%
Cost of revenue$17,060 $15,108 $1,952 13 %
Gross profit$88,761 $56,797 $31,964 56 %
Gross margin84 %79 %
Cost of revenue increased $2.0 million, or 13%, to $17.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $3.4 million from higher sales including newly introduced products, $0.6 million of costs related to our development of a second manufacturing facility, $0.5 million of inventory scrap and excess and obsolete inventory charges, $0.5 million of warranty costs and $0.1 million of amortization of developed technology resulting from the acquisition of Tetramer Shop (see Note 3 to condensed consolidated financial statements for details of the acquisition), partially offset by lower accrued royalties of $3.5 million primarily related to the 2015 Delaware Action.

Gross profit increased $32.0 million, or 56%, to $88.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily due to higher revenue and lower accrued royalties related to the 2015 Delaware Action. Gross margin increased by 5%, to 84% for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily due to lower accrued royalties related to the 2015 Delaware Action.
Towards the end of the first quarter of 2020, the vast majority of academic and government labs around the world suspended or severely reduced operations in compliance with stay-at-home, shelter-in-place and similar orders which resulted in a decrease in overall demand during this period. The decrease in demand resulted in our production facilities running at less than normal capacity which negatively impacted our gross margins. While we experienced higher demand for our products during the second half of 2020 and into the first quarter of 2021 due to partial reopening of our customer's businesses, until and unless demand for our solutions normalizes, our gross profits and gross margins will be negatively impacted. While we cannot reliably estimate the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our overall gross profit and gross margins in the second quarter of 2021 and beyond, we plan to continue to invest in our manufacturing facilities and production efforts and manage our supply chain to ensure the delivery of products to our customers.
Operating expenses
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Change
(dollars in thousands)20212020$%
Research and development$41,883 $25,992 $15,891 61 %
Selling, general and administrative56,904 50,387 6,517 13 %
Accrued contingent liabilities190 302 (112)(37.1)%
Total operating expenses$98,977 $76,681 $22,296 29 %
Research and development expenses increased $15.9 million, or 61%, to $41.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by increased personnel expenses of $10.3 million including $3.9 million in stock-based compensation expense, $2.2 million of higher allocated costs for facilities and information technology to support operational expansion, laboratory materials, supplies and expensed equipment of $1.8 million used to support our research and development efforts, $0.7 million of higher consulting and professional services for product development and $0.4 million of higher depreciation.
During March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a decrease in certain research laboratory activities, and as a result we incurred lower materials spending. While our research and development activities have increased in the second half of 2020 and into the first quarter of 2021, we cannot reliably estimate the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our overall research activities or expenditures in the second quarter of 2021 and beyond.
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $6.5 million, or 13%, to $56.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by increased personnel expenses of $9.9 million, including $5.3 million in stock-based compensation expense, $2.1 million of higher allocated costs for facilities and information technology to support the general expansion of our operations and $1.2 million of costs related
26

to COVID-19 screening, safety equipment purchases and cleaning, partially offset by the decrease in legal expenses of $6.0 million and marketing expenses related to conferences and seminars of $0.9 million.
While certain costs will decline as the underlying activities are restricted by the COVID-19 pandemic, including travel and related expenses, conferences and events, we are taking certain measures to manage our spending while continuing to incur expenses that we believe will further our strategic initiatives.
Other income (expense), net
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Change
(dollars in thousands)20212020$%
Interest income$50 $1,318 $(1,268)(96)%
Interest expense(221)(662)441 (67)%
Other expense(729)(96)(633)659 %
Loss on extinguishment of debt— (1,521)1,521 N/M
Total other expense, net$(900)$(961)$61 (6)%
N/M: result not meaningful.
Interest income decreased by $1.3 million to $50 thousand for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from $1.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 primarily due to lower interest rates in the first quarter of 2021. While we earned interest on the net proceeds from the IPO completed in September 2019 and the follow-on public offering completed in September 2020, interest income was lower primarily due to lower interest rates.
Interest expense decreased for the three months ended March 31, 2021 from the three months ended March 31, 2020. The decrease was driven primarily by the voluntary prepayment of our term loan on February 20, 2020.
The change in other expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020 was driven by realized and unrealized losses from foreign currency rate measurement fluctuations.
Loss on extinguishment of debt was $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. In February 2020, we prepaid the remaining balance on our term loan, an end-of-term payment and prepayment fees.
Provision for Income Taxes
The Company’s provision for income taxes was $0.4 million and $0.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, respectively. The provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2021 consists primarily of foreign taxes. Deferred tax assets generated from the Company’s domestic net operating losses are fully offset by a valuation allowance as the Company believes it is more likely than not that the benefit will not be realized.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of March 31, 2021, we had $617.2 million in cash and cash equivalents which were primarily held in U.S. bank deposit accounts and money market funds, $57.4 million in accounts receivable and an accumulated deficit of $816.6 million. Restricted cash of $17.6 million, classified within current assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets serves as collateral for a bond and royalties in connection with the Bio-Rad litigation. Restricted cash of $8.6 million, classified within noncurrent assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets serves as collateral for outstanding letters of credit for facilities. We have generated negative cumulative cash flows from operations since inception through the three months ended March 31, 2021, and we have generated losses from operations since inception as reflected in our accumulated deficit of $816.6 million. We expect to continue to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future due to investments we intend to make and as a result we may require additional capital resources to execute strategic initiatives to grow our business. On January 8, 2021, we completed our acquisition of Tetramer Shop for a total cash consideration of $8.5 million, net of cash acquired of $0.2 million. See Note 3 to the condensed consolidated financial statements for further details.
In August 2020, the Federal Circuit issued its opinion in our appeal of the 2015 Delaware Action. The Federal Circuit (1) affirmed the judgment of the lower Court with respect to infringement of the '083 patent by our legacy GEM products and (2) vacated the judgment with respect to infringement of the '193 and '407 patents, which are remanded to the lower Court for a new trial on infringement. The Federal Circuit affirmed the damage award including the 15% royalty with respect to our legacy GEM
27

products. The Federal Circuit vacated the injunction with respect to our Single Cell CNV and Linked-Read products but affirmed the injunction with respect to our other legacy GEM products. In October 2020, we filed a petition for en banc rehearing with the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit denied our petition for en banc rehearing on November 4, 2020. We paid the $34.5 million judgment, plus approximately $0.8 million in post-judgment interest, to Bio-Rad in December 2020. The case was remanded to the Delaware Court for a determination of post-judgment royalties or other amounts, which we expect in the second half of 2021. We have accrued $44.8 million as of March 31, 2021 related to this matter which is classified within current liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as of this date. The restricted cash of $17.6 million would be used to partially satisfy this payment.
We currently anticipate making aggregate capital expenditures of between approximately $120 million and $130 million during the next 12 months, which includes the construction costs of facilities on our recently purchased land located in Pleasanton, California as well as other global facilities and equipment to be used for manufacturing and research and development. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors including our revenue growth rate, research and development efforts, the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the timing and extent of additional capital expenditures to invest in existing and new facilities, the expansion of sales and marketing and international activities, and the introduction of new products. We take a long term view in growing and scaling our business and we regularly review acquisition and investment opportunities, and we may in the future enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in businesses, real estate, services and technologies, including intellectual property rights, and any such acquisitions or investments could significantly increase our capital needs. We are continuing to review opportunities that meet our long-term growth objectives.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and cash generated from sales of our products will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months, and this assessment of our liquidity position is informed by our evaluation of a wide range of COVID-19 pandemic recovery scenarios. However, our liquidity assumptions may prove to be incorrect, and we could exhaust our available financial resources sooner than we currently expect. We intend to continue to evaluate market conditions and may in the future pursue various funding alternatives to further enhance our financial position and to help fund our strategic initiatives. In addition, should prevailing economic, financial, business or other factors adversely affect our ability to meet our operating cash requirements, we could be required to obtain funding though traditional or alternative sources of financing. We cannot be certain that additional funds would be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all.
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, resulted in the closure of many of our customers’ facilities, disrupted global supply chains and created significant volatility and disruption of financial markets. While certain of our customers' labs began to re-open in June 2020 and continued to re-open during the second half of 2020 and into the first quarter of 2021, many of those labs are not yet fully operational and an extended period of economic disruption and closure, on-going limitations on operations at customer facilities or re-closure of our customers’ labs could materially affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and access to sources of liquidity. We will continue to monitor the development and control of the COVID-19 pandemic and we believe there will be an increase in business activity upon the loosening of pandemic-related restrictions arising from the success of the vaccination programs by various government agencies in the United States and in other countries, including a resurgence in activity levels at laboratories which were temporarily closed, barring a renewed increase in COVID-19 cases which may lead to further business closures. Although we are currently uncertain as to when this resurgence will occur, we intend to invest in research and development activities and other initiatives while the COVID-19 pandemic is brought under control including accelerated investments in product development and intellectual property to launch new products and continue improving existing 10x solutions. Additionally, we plan to continue to build our commercial organization across key geographies around the world and invest in capabilities to address the interest we are seeing from the pharmaceutical and translational markets.
Sources of liquidity
Since our inception, we have financed our operations and capital expenditures primarily through sales of convertible preferred stock and common stock, revenue from sales and issuances of debt. In September 2019, we completed our IPO for aggregate proceeds of $410.8 million, net of offering costs, underwriter discounts and commissions of $37.7 million. In September 2020, we completed our follow-on public offering for aggregate proceeds of $482.3 million, after deducting offering costs, underwriting discounts and commissions of $23.8 million.



28

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20212020
Net cash (used in) provided by:
Operating activities$(4,082)$(2,576)
Investing activities(44,316)(8,079)
Financing activities3,518 (33,819)
Effect of exchange rates on changes in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash193 (116)
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$(44,687)$(44,590)
Operating activities
The net cash used in operating activities of $4.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was due primarily to a net loss of $11.6 million, net cash outflow from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $15.2 million, partially offset by adjustments for stock-based compensation expense of $16.2 million, depreciation and amortization of $4.8 million and amortization of leased right-of-use assets of $1.7 million. The net cash outflow from operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to an increase in inventory of $8.6 million due to the timing of inventory purchases including advance purchases of inventory due to anticipated demand, a decrease in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $7.2 million, due to the timing of payments including license fees, an increase in accounts receivable of $6.2 million due to timing of collections, a decrease in other noncurrent liabilities of $3.5 million, an increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets of $1.6 million and a decrease of $1.4 million due to payment of operating lease liabilities. The net cash outflow from operating assets and liabilities was partially offset by an increase in accounts payable of $10.9 million due to timing of vendor payments, an increase in accrued compensation and other related benefits of $1.3 million and an increase in accrued contingent liabilities of $0.7 million.
The net cash used in operating activities of $2.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 was due primarily to a net loss of $21.1 million, partially offset by net cash inflow from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $6.1 million, and adjustments for stock-based compensation expense of $6.7 million, depreciation and amortization of $3.2 million, loss on extinguishment of debt of $1.5 million and amortization of leased right-of-use assets of $1.1 million. The net cash inflow from operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to an increase in accrued compensation and other related benefits of $6.2 million as we increased our headcount to support our expanding operations, an increase in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $4.6 million consistent with the growth of our business, an increase in accrued contingent liabilities of $4.7 million, and a decrease in accounts receivable of $2.5 million due to timing of collections, partially offset by a decrease in other noncurrent liabilities of $5.7 million, an increase in inventory of $4.1 million due to the timing of inventory purchases including advance purchases of inventory in anticipation of supply chain disruptions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and a decrease of $1.3 million in payment of operating lease expenses.
Investing activities
The net cash used in investing activities of $44.3 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021 was due to purchases of property and equipment of $38.9 million including the purchase of land for $28.1 million and cash paid for the acquisition of Tetramer Shop of $5.5 million.
The net cash used in investing activities of $8.1 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 was due to purchases of property and equipment.
Financing activities
The net cash provided by financing activities of $3.5 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021 was primarily from proceeds of $8.5 million from the issuance of common stock from the exercise of stock options partially offset by payments on financing arrangements of $5.0 million.
The net cash used in financing activities of $33.8 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 was primarily due to the use of $31.3 million in connection with loan principal payments including the early repayment of the term loan under the Loan and Security Agreement (including fees in connection with the early repayment of the term loan), payments on financing arrangements of $5.9 million and proceeds of $3.3 million from the issuance of common stock from the exercise of stock options.

29

Critical Accounting Policies
Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenues and expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
There have been no significant changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates as compared to the critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021. For additional information, please refer to Note 2 to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in this Quarterly Report.
Item 3.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk. 
For financial market risks related to changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, reference is made to Item 7A “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” contained in Part II of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. Our exposure to market risk has not changed materially since December 31, 2020.
Item 4.    Controls and Procedures.
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures. Any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objective and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at a reasonable assurance level as of March 31, 2021.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There was not any change in our internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the quarter ended March 31, 2021 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
30

10x Genomics, Inc.
PART II—OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1.    Legal Proceedings.
We are regularly subject to claims, lawsuits, arbitration proceedings, administrative actions and other legal and regulatory proceedings involving commercial disputes, competition, intellectual property disputes and other matters, and we may become subject to additional types of claims, lawsuits, arbitration proceedings, administrative actions, government investigations and legal and regulatory proceedings in the future and as our business grows, including proceedings related to product liability or our acquisitions, securities issuances or our business practices, including public disclosures about our business. Our success depends in part on our non-infringement of the patents or proprietary rights of third parties. Third parties have asserted and may in the future assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. We have been involved in multiple patent litigation matters in the past several years and we expect that given the litigious history of our industry and the high profile of operating as a public company, other third parties, in addition to the parties identified herein, may claim that our products infringe their intellectual property rights. There are inherent uncertainties in these legal matters, some of which are beyond management’s control, making the ultimate outcomes difficult to predict. Amongst other matters, we are currently involved in the following litigation matters:
The 2015 Delaware Action
In February 2015, Raindance Technologies, Inc. (“Raindance”) and the University of Chicago filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware (the “Delaware Court”), accusing the Company's legacy GEM products of infringing certain U.S. patents owned by or exclusively licensed to Raindance (the “2015 Delaware Action”). In May 2017, Bio-Rad was substituted as the plaintiff following its acquisition of Raindance. A jury trial was held in November 2018. The jury found that the accused legacy GEM products infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,304,193, 8,329,407 and 8,889,083. The jury also concluded that our infringement was willful and awarded Bio-Rad approximately $24 million in damages through June 30, 2018. We appealed the jury verdict. Post-trial, Bio-Rad moved for a permanent injunction, treble damages for willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, supplemental damages for the period from the second quarter of 2018 through the end of the trial as well as pre- and post-judgment interest.
The Court denied Bio-Rad’s request for attorneys’ fees and enhanced damages for willful infringement. The Court awarded supplemental damages for the period from the second quarter of 2018 through the end of trial as well as pre- and post-judgment interest. The Court entered final judgment against us in the amount of approximately $35 million in August 2019.
In the fourth quarter of 2018, we began recording an accrual for estimated royalties as a cost of revenue. This accrual is based on an estimated royalty rate of 15% of worldwide sales of our Chromium instruments operating our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables. As of March 31, 2021, we had accrued a total of $44.8 million relating to this matter which includes our estimated 15% royalty for subsequent sales through that date.
In July 2019, the Court also granted Bio-Rad a permanent injunction against our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables that were found to infringe the Bio-Rad patents, which historically constituted a significant amount of our product sales. However, under the injunction, we are permitted to continue to sell our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables for use with our historical installed base of instruments provided that we pay into escrow a royalty of 15% of our net revenue related to such sales occurring after August 28, 2019. We appealed the Court's judgment including the injunction to the Federal Circuit.
In August 2020, the Federal Circuit issued its opinion in our appeal of the 2015 Delaware Action. The Federal Circuit (1) affirmed the judgment of the lower Court with respect to infringement of the '083 patent by our legacy GEM products and (2) vacated the judgment with respect to infringement of the '193 and '407 patents, which are remanded to the lower Court for a new trial on infringement. The Federal Circuit affirmed the damages award including the 15% royalty with respect to our legacy GEM products. The Federal Circuit vacated the injunction with respect to our Single Cell CNV and Linked-Read products but affirmed the injunction with respect to our other legacy GEM products. In October 2020, we filed a petition for en banc rehearing with the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit denied our petition for en banc rehearing on November 4, 2020. We paid the $34.5 million judgment, plus approximately $0.8 million in post-judgment interest, to Bio-Rad on December 17, 2020. The case was remanded to the Delaware Court for a determination of post-judgment royalties or other amounts, which we expect in the second half of 2021.
31

Neither the lower Court judgment nor the Federal Circuit opinion in the 2015 Delaware Action implicate our Next GEM products. We have dedicated significant resources to designing and manufacturing our Next GEM microfluidic chips which use fundamentally different physics from our legacy GEM microfluidic chips. Neither the jury verdict nor the injunction relate to our Next GEM microfluidic chips based on our new proprietary design and associated consumables which we launched in May 2019 for three of our single cell solutions - Single Cell Gene Expression, Single Cell Immune Profiling and Single Cell ATAC. Since August 28, 2019, all Chromium instruments that we sell and have sold operate exclusively with our Next GEM solutions and we have substantially completed the transition of our customers to our Next GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables.
The ITC 1068 Action
On July 31, 2017, Bio-Rad and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC filed a complaint against us in the U.S. International Trade Commission (“ITC”) pursuant to Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, alleging that substantially all of our Chromium products infringe U.S. Patents Nos. 9,089,844, 9,126,160, 9,500,664, 9,636,682 and 9,649,635 (the “ITC 1068 Action”). Bio-Rad is seeking an exclusion order preventing us from importing the accused microfluidic chips, including (1) our legacy GEM microfluidic chip, (2) our gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chip and (3) our Next GEM microfluidic chip, into the United States and a cease and desist order preventing us from selling such imported chips. An evidentiary hearing for the ITC 1068 Action was held in May 2018 and the presiding judge issued an Initial Determination in September 2018, finding that our legacy GEM microfluidic chips infringe the ‘664, ‘682 and ‘635 patents but not the ‘160 patent. The judge further found that our gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chip and Next GEM microfluidic chip do not infringe any claim asserted against them (the “Initial Determination”). The judge recommended entry of an exclusion order preventing us from importing our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and a cease and desist order that would prevent us from selling such imported chips.
On December 18, 2019, the ITC issued its final determination in the ITC 1068 Action (the “Final Determination”). The Final Determination affirmed the Initial Determination that our Next GEM microfluidic chips and gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chips do not infringe any of the claims asserted against them. The Final Determination also affirmed the ruling that our legacy GEM microfluidic chips infringe the ‘664, ‘682 and ‘635 patents but not the ‘160 patent. The ITC issued (1) a limited exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed importation of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips into the United States and (2) a cease and desist order preventing us from selling such imported legacy GEM microfluidic chips in the United States. The ITC expressly allowed the importation and sale of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips for use by researchers who were using such chips as of December 18, 2019, and who have a documented need to continue receiving such chips for a specific current ongoing research project for which that need cannot be met by any alternative product. The Final Determination was subject to a 60-day presidential review period. During the presidential review period, we were permitted to continue importation and sales of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips subject to payment of a bond of three (3) percent of the entered value of the accused microfluidic chips.
We and Bio-Rad have appealed the Final Determination to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Bio-Rad has appealed the Final Determination with respect to non-infringement of our gel bead manufacturing chips, but not with respect to non-infringement of our Next GEM microfluidic chips. We have appealed the Final Determination with respect to infringement of our legacy GEM microfluidic chips. Oral argument was held on April 7, 2021. We expect a decision around the fourth quarter of 2021.
In order to allow our customers to continue their important research, we have dedicated significant resources to developing the capabilities to manufacture our microfluidic chips in the United States prior to the entry of the exclusion order or cease and desist order which took effect in February 2020. Prior to the second quarter of 2019, all of our microfluidic chips were manufactured outside of the United States. Our United States manufacturing facilities achieved volume production of certain of our legacy GEM microfluidic chips beginning in the third quarter of 2019.
The Northern District of California Action
On July 31, 2017, Bio-Rad and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC also filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that the Company’s legacy GEM products infringe U.S. Patents Nos. 9,216,392, 9,347,059 and the five patents asserted in the ITC 1068 Action. The complaint seeks injunctive relief, unspecified monetary damages, costs and attorneys’ fees. This litigation has been stayed pending resolution of the Federal Circuit appeal of the ITC 1068 Action. In July 2020, Bio-Rad moved to lift the stay with respect to the '059 patent and consolidate the '059 patent with the '115 patent transferred from the District of Massachusetts which is being asserted against our Next GEM products. In August 2020, the Court denied Bio-Rad's motion to lift the stay with respect to both the '059 and '115 patents. In October 2020, the Company filed two petitions for inter partes review (“IPR”) challenging the validity of the ‘115 patent. The Company expects the Patent Trials and Appeals Board (“PTAB”) to issue a decision on institution of these IPR petitions in the second quarter of 2021.
32

The Germany Action
On February 13, 2018, Bio-Rad filed suit against us in Germany in the Munich Region Court alleging that our Chromium instruments, legacy GEM microfluidic chips and certain accessories infringe German Utility Model No. DE 20 2011 110 979. Bio-Rad seeks unspecified damages and an injunction prohibiting sales of these products in Germany and requiring us to recall these products sold in Germany subsequent to February 11, 2018. An initial hearing was held on November 27, 2018, and a subsequent hearing was held on May 15, 2019. The Court issued a ruling on November 20, 2019. The Court ruled that our legacy GEM microfluidic chips, as well as certain Chromium instruments and accessories used with legacy GEM microfluidic chips, infringed the German Utility Model. The Court issued an injunction with respect to such legacy GEM microfluidic chips, Chromium instruments and accessories used with such systems, prohibiting among other things the sale of these products in Germany and the importation of such products into Germany. The Court found that we are obligated to compensate Bio-Rad for unspecified damages and required that these products be recalled from distribution channels in Germany. The Court further found that we have to bear the statutory costs of the legal dispute in a minimum amount of at least 61,000 Euros. The Court’s ruling did not address our Next GEM products, which were not accused in this action and which constitute substantially all of our Chromium sales in Germany. The Company appealed the Court's ruling.
On April 6, 2020, the Munich Higher Regional Court (the “Higher Court”) issued a ruling staying enforcement of the ruling of the lower Court, including the injunction, subject to the payment of a bond by the Company. The Higher Court found that the lower Court’s claim construction was not justifiable and that the facts did not provide a basis for a finding of infringement. On April 16, 2020, we paid a 2.8 million Euro bond to the Higher Court to completely stay enforcement of the ruling. The bond is refundable upon a favorable ruling on the merits by the Higher Court. We expect the Higher Court to rule on the merits in 2021. In August 2020, Bio-Rad filed its appeal response arguing for the first time that our Next GEM microfluidic chips and certain accessories infringe the utility model. In its appeal response, Bio-Rad also attempted to add infringement allegations with respect to a new patent, European Patent No. 3 132 844, against our Chromium instruments and Next GEM microfluidic chips. We believe it is procedurally improper to attempt to add these new claims at this stage, that our Next GEM products are not covered by the lower court's judgment and are not admissible in the appeal, and that the newly asserted '844 patent is not admissible in the appeal. The Higher Court is not expected to rule on whether Next GEM products or the '844 patent are admissible in the appeal until around the fourth quarter of 2021.
The 2018 Delaware Action
On October 25, 2018, Bio-Rad filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, alleging that substantially all of our Chromium products, including our legacy GEM products and Next GEM products, infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 9,562,837 and 9,896,722. Bio-Rad seeks injunctive relief, unspecified monetary damages, costs and attorneys’ fees.
In October 2019, we filed four petitions for IPR challenging the validity of both asserted patents. On April 27, 2020, the PTAB instituted review on all four of these petitions. On April 26, 2021, the PTAB issued final written decisions on all four IPRs invalidating the majority of the asserted claims of the ‘837 and ‘722 patents but maintaining the validity of claim 8 of the '837 patent and claims 15-17 of the '722 patent. The Company expects to seek rehearing of and/or appeal the decision with respect to the claims found to be valid.
In June 2020, the Court completely stayed the District of Delaware litigation pending resolution of the IPRs before the PTAB.
The Massachusetts Action
On September 11, 2019, Bio-Rad filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, alleging that our Next GEM products infringe certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 8,871,444. On November 5, 2019, Bio-Rad amended the complaint to additionally allege that our Next GEM products infringe certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 9,919,277 and 10,190,115. The ‘444 and ‘277 patents are exclusively licensed by Bio-Rad from Harvard University, which subsequently joined the suit as a party plaintiff. Bio-Rad is seeking damages and an injunction against our Next GEM products amongst other remedies. The ‘444 and ‘277 patents are projected to expire in October 2024.
On December 18, 2019, Bio-Rad dismissed this action in the District of Delaware and refiled it in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts. The case was assigned to Judge William G. Young. On January 14, 2020, the Court consolidated this case with a separate action, Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc. et al. v. Stilla Technologies, Inc. (“Stilla”), in which Bio-Rad is asserting the ‘444 patent (among other patents) against Stilla’s droplet digital PCR product. On January 23, 2020, we filed a motion to dismiss the case and to transfer the ‘115 patent to the Northern District of California, where the related ‘059 patent is stayed.
On January 24, 2020, we filed antitrust counterclaims against Bio-Rad alleging violations of (a) Section 7 of the Clayton Act, (b) Section 2 of the Sherman Act and (c) California unfair competition laws, for illegally acquiring Raindance and illegally
33

monopolizing or attempting to monopolize markets relating to droplet digital PCR products, droplet single cell products and droplet genetic analysis technology. On February 19, 2020, Bio-Rad moved to dismiss, or alternatively to stay and sever, our antitrust claims.
On February 5, 2020, we filed additional counterclaims against Bio-Rad alleging that Bio-Rad’s single cell ATAC-seq products infringe U.S. Patent No. 9,029,085 and 9,850,526 that are exclusively licensed to us from Harvard University. On February 26, 2020, Bio-Rad moved to sever and stay the patent counterclaims. On March 6, 2020, the Court denied the motion to stay and deferred the motion to sever until prior to trial.
On March 25, 2020, the Court held a hearing with respect to (a) our motion to dismiss Bio-Rad’s patent claims, (b) our motion to transfer the ‘115 patent and (c) Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss our antitrust counterclaims. On April 30, 2020, the Court denied our motion to dismiss with respect to Bio-Rad’s patent claims and granted our motion to transfer the ‘115 patent to the Northern District of California. In August 2020, the Court granted Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss (i) our Sherman Act and Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet single cell products and (ii) our Sherman Act counterclaims with respect to droplet genetic analysis technology. The Court denied Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss (i) our Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet genetic analysis technology; (ii) our Sherman Act and Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet digital PCR products; and (iii) our California unfair competition counterclaims.
Discovery is ongoing. A Markman hearing was conducted in September 2020. In December 2020, the Court ordered the parties to be ready for trial for Bio-Rad’s patent claims and our patent counterclaims in July 2021 and for our antitrust counterclaims in September 2021.
In June 2020, we filed two petitions for IPR challenging the validity of the '444 patent. In August 2020, we filed two petitions for IPR challenging the validity of the '277 patent. On January 13, 2021, the PTAB denied institution of IPRs for the '444 patent. On February 22, 2021, the PTAB denied institution of IPRs for the '277 patent.
The ITC 1100 Action
On January 11, 2018, we filed a complaint against Bio-Rad at the ITC pursuant to Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 alleging that Bio-Rad infringes our U.S. Patent Nos. 9,644,204, 9,689,024, 9,695,468 and 9,856,530 (the “ITC 1100 Action”). The judge issued an Initial Determination on July 12, 2019 finding that Bio-Rad’s ddSEQ products infringe the ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents. The judge also found all of our asserted patents to be valid and rejected Bio-Rad’s claim of ownership in all of the asserted patents.
On February 12, 2020, the ITC issued its Final Determination affirming the judge’s findings with respect to Bio-Rad’s violation of the ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents, including the judge’s findings for those patents with respect to infringement, validity and ownership. The ITC issued an exclusion order prohibiting Bio-Rad from importing into the United States infringing microfluidic devices, components thereof and products containing same, including the ddSEQ products. The ITC also issued a cease and desist order preventing Bio-Rad from selling such imported products in the United States. The ITC’s remedial orders do not identify any ddSEQ assay as exempted from their potential scope. The ITC orders do not prohibit the importation or sale of microfluidic consumables imported into the U.S. for use by researchers who are using such consumables as of February 12, 2020, and who have a documented need to continue receiving such consumables for a specific current ongoing research project for which that need cannot be met by any alternative product. On April 29, 2020, Bio-Rad appealed the Final Determination to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Oral argument was held on March 11, 2021. On April 29, 2021, the Federal Circuit issued its decision completely affirming the Final Determination of the ITC, including its findings with respect to infringement, validity and ownership.
The Nanostring Action

On May 6, 2021, we filed suit against Nanostring Technologies, Inc. ("Nanostring") in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that Nanostring's GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiler and associated instruments and reagents infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 10,472,669, 10,662,467, 10,961,566, 10,983,113, and 10,996,219.
For further discussion of the risks relating to intellectual property and our pending litigation, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property” under Item 1A below.

34

Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this Quarterly Report, including our financial statements and the related notes and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Quarterly Report, before deciding whether to invest in our Class A common stock. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. In such an event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and the market price of our Class A common stock. In addition, you should consider the interrelationship and compounding effects of two or more risks occurring simultaneously. Also, the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate the risks described below as well as risks and uncertainties not presently known to us.
Summary Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. These risks are discussed more fully below and include, but are not limited to, risks related to:
Risks related to our business and industry:
Our dependency on research and development spending by research institutions;
The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on our customers and suppliers as well as on our operations
Our ability to generate sufficient revenue to achieve and maintain profitability;
Our ability to compete effectively;
The ability of suppliers to meet our needs and the needs of our customers;
Fluctuations in our operating results due to a variety of factors;
Our products are specialized, complex and difficult to manufacture and we could experience production problems;
Our ability to manufacture our products to the necessary specifications and quantities to meet demand;
Our dependency on the success of our Next GEM microfluidic chip;
Our dependency on revenue generated from the sale of our Chromium solutions;
Our ability to effectively manage product transitions and forecast customer demand;
Our ability to increase penetration into our existing markets;
Our ability to develop new products and enhance the capabilities of our existing products;
The success of our products in achieving and sustaining scientific acceptance;
Our ability to manage growth and anticipated growth; and
The impact of seasonal fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations.
Risks related to our regulatory environment and taxation:
Ethical, legal, privacy and social concerns or governmental restrictions surrounding the use of the genomic and multi-omic information and gene editing could reduce demand for our products;
Our products could become subject to government regulation and the regulatory approval and maintenance process for such products may be expensive, time-consuming and uncertain both in timing and in outcome; and
Enhanced trade tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, Chinese regulations or other trade barriers may materially harm our business.
Risks related to our intellectual property, information technology, and data security:
We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to use. We do not control these technologies and any loss of our rights to them could prevent us from selling our products; and
35

Our solutions contain third-party open source software components and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.
Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property:
Our involvement in lawsuits which would require us to pay significant damages or prevent us from selling our products;
Our involvement in lawsuits to defend our intellectual property rights which are expensive and time consuming and could be unsuccessful; and
Our ability to effectively protect our intellectual property.
Risks related to ownership of our Class A common stock:
The multi-class structure of our common stock; and
The requirement of our bylaws that the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for disputes between us and our shareholders.
For a more complete discussion of the risks affecting our business, see below.
Risks related to our business and industry
Our business currently depends significantly on research and development spending by research institutions and the ability of researchers to access labs and conduct research, a reduction in which could limit demand for our products and materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.
In the near term, we expect that a large portion of our revenue will continue to be derived from sales of Chromium and Visium products, including our instruments and consumables, to research institutions. As a result, the demand for our products will depend upon the ability of customers to access labs and conduct research in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the research and development budgets of these customers and the ability of such customers to receive funding for research, all of which are impacted by factors beyond our control, such as:
reductions in capacity or shutdowns of laboratories and other institutions as well as other impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, such as reduced or delayed spending on instruments or consumables due to reductions in capacity or shutdowns of laboratories and other institutions in which our instruments and solutions are used;
our inability or the inability of our customers to source necessary equipment, components and materials used in our products or used by our customers because of issues with suppliers stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic;
decreases in funding of research and development;
changes to programs that provide funding to research laboratories and institutions, including changes in the amount of funds allocated to different areas of research, changes that have the effect of increasing the length of the funding process or the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our customers and potential customers and their funding sources;
macroeconomic conditions and the political climate;
scientists’ and customers’ opinions of the utility of new products or services;
citation of new products or services in published research;
changes in the regulatory environment;
differences in budgetary cycles;
competitor product offerings or pricing;
market-driven pressures to consolidate operations and reduce costs; and
market acceptance of relatively new technologies, such as ours.
In addition, various state, federal and international agencies that provide grants and other funding may be subject to stringent budgetary constraints that could result in spending reductions, reduced grant making, reduced allocations or budget cutbacks, which could jeopardize the ability of these customers, or the customers to whom they provide funding, to purchase our products. For example, congressional appropriations to the National Institutes of Health (the “NIH”) have generally increased year-over-year in recent years, but the NIH also experiences occasional year-over-year decreases in appropriations. In addition, funding for life sciences research has increased more slowly during the past several years compared to previous years and has actually
36

declined in some countries. There is no guarantee that NIH appropriations will not decrease in the future. A decrease in the amount of, or delay in the approval of, appropriations to NIH or other similar United States or international organizations, such as the Medical Research Council in the United Kingdom, could result in fewer grants benefiting life sciences research. These reductions or delays could also result in a decrease in the aggregate amount of grants awarded for life sciences research or the redirection of existing funding to other projects or priorities, any of which in turn could cause our customers and potential customers to reduce or delay purchases of our products. Our operating results may fluctuate substantially due to any such reductions and delays. Any decrease in our customers’ budgets or expenditures, or in the size, scope or frequency of their capital or operating expenditures, including impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Additionally, the research of our customers often requires long uninterrupted studies performed on a consistent basis over time. Reductions in capacity, lab shutdowns or interruptions in the ability of our customers to complete research projects, including reductions in capacity, shutdowns or interruptions stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, could be particularly damaging to these studies, our customers and our business.
The impacts and potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to create significant uncertainty for our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The extent of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and financial results will continue to depend on numerous evolving factors that we are not able to accurately predict and which will vary by market, including the duration and scope of the pandemic, global economic conditions during and after the pandemic, governmental actions that have been taken, or may be taken in the future, in response to the pandemic, and changes in customer behavior in response to the pandemic, some of which may be more than just temporary. Our global operations expose us to risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, which has continued to result in challenging operating environments. COVID-19 continues to spread across the globe to almost all of the countries and territories in which our products are developed, made, manufactured, distributed or sold. Authorities in many of these markets have implemented numerous measures to stall the spread and reduce the impact of COVID-19, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, curfews, shelter in place and safer-at-home orders, business shutdowns and closures, and have also implemented multi-step polices with the goal of re-opening these markets. These measures have impacted and continue to impact us, our employees, customers, contract manufacturers, distributors, partners, suppliers and other third parties with whom we do business. The countries and territories in which our products are developed, made, manufactured, distributed or sold are in varying stages of restrictions, re-opening and re-closing to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain jurisdictions have begun re-opening only to return to restrictions in the face of increases in new COVID-19 cases. There is considerable uncertainty regarding how the effects of the pandemic, including current and future health and safety measures implemented in response to the pandemic, will impact our business, including whether they will result in further changes in demand for our products, further increases in operating costs (whether as a result of changes to our supply chain or increases in employee costs, operating costs or otherwise), further impact our ability to perform research and development, manufacturing, and shipping of our products, how they will further impact our supply chain and whether they will result in further reduced availability of air or other commercial transport, port closures or border restrictions, each or all of which can impact our ability to make, manufacture, distribute and sell our products. To date, we have incurred increased costs as a result of COVID-19, including increased expenses to implement additional measures to ensure the health and safety of our workforce, such as weekly COVID-19 testing. In addition, measures that impact our ability to access our facilities may continue to impact the availability of our employees, some of whom are not able to perform their job functions remotely. If a significant percentage of our or our business partners’ workforce is unable to work, including because of illness, facility closures, quarantine, curfews, shelter in place orders, travel restrictions, social distancing requirements or other governmental restrictions or voluntarily adopted practices, our operations will be negatively impacted. Any sustained interruption in our or our business partners’ operations, research and development, distribution network or supply chain or any significant continuous shortage of raw materials or other supplies as a result of these measures, restrictions or disruptions, including as a result of increased demand for certain products, can materially impair our ability to develop, make, manufacture, distribute or sell our products.

If the operations of our suppliers or our customers' suppliers are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, we may not be able to source the necessary equipment, components and materials to build our products in sufficient quantities to meet demand or our customers may not be able to source the materials they need to use our products. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the demand for testing globally. This increased demand for testing has impacted, and may continue to impact, our ability and our customers' ability to source equipment, components and materials used in our products or our customers' facilities that are also needed for COVID-19 testing. The risk that we will not be able to source the necessary equipment, components and materials to manufacture our products has led us to carry higher inventory.

37

Compliance with governmental measures imposed in response to COVID-19 has caused and will continue to cause us to incur additional costs, and any inability to comply with such measures can subject us to restrictions on our business activities, fines and other penalties, any of which can adversely affect our business. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a large percentage of our employees working remotely which has amplified certain risks to our business. For example, the increase in remote work has, increased demand on our information technology resources and systems, increased phishing and other malicious activity as cybercriminals try to exploit the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic and led to an increase in the number of points of potential exposure, such as laptops and mobile devices, to be secured, and any failure to effectively manage these risks, including to timely identify and appropriately respond to any security incidents, may adversely affect our business.

Public concern regarding the risk of contracting COVID-19 may impact demand from customers. Even as governmental restrictions are lifted and economies gradually re-open, the ongoing economic impacts and health concerns associated with the pandemic may continue to affect customer behavior. In addition, changes in customer purchasing patterns may increase demand for our products in one quarter, resulting in decreased customer demand for our products in subsequent quarters. In addition, some researchers who would be running experiments using our platforms have instead shifted their resources to COVID-19 experimentation. Furthermore, our growth strategies include capital intensive initiatives, such as significant investments in research and development and the acquisition or licensing of core technologies and associated intellectual property. The continued economic uncertainty associated with the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in volatility in the global capital and credit markets which could impair our ability to access these markets on terms commercially acceptable to us, or at all, and execute our growth strategies.

While we have developed and implemented and continue to develop and implement health and safety protocols, business continuity plans and crisis management protocols in an effort to try to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19 on our employees and our business, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts or that such efforts may not have detrimental unintended consequences, and as a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations and the price of our Class A common stock may be materially and adversely affected.
We are dependent on single source and sole source suppliers for some of the equipment, components and materials used in our products and the loss of any of these suppliers could harm our business. The ability of our suppliers to meet our needs and the needs of our customers could be reduced or eliminated by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We do not have long-term contracts with our suppliers for the significant majority of the services, equipment, materials and components we use for the manufacture and delivery of our products. In certain cases, we also rely on single suppliers for all of our requirements for some of our equipment, materials or components. In most cases we do not have long term contracts with these suppliers, and even in the cases where we do the contracts include significant qualifications that would make it extremely difficult for us to force the supplier to provide us with their services, equipment, materials or components should they choose not to do so. We are therefore subject to the risk that these third-party suppliers will not be able or willing to continue to provide us with equipment, materials and components that meet our specifications, quality standards and delivery schedules. Factors that could impact our suppliers’ willingness and ability to continue to provide us with the required equipment, materials and components include shortages, disruption at or affecting our suppliers’ facilities, such as work stoppages or natural disasters, infectious disease, epidemics or pandemics including COVID-19, outbreaks, adverse weather or other conditions that affect their supply, the financial condition of our suppliers, deterioration in our relationships with these suppliers or the decision by such suppliers to introduce products that compete directly with our solutions. In addition, we cannot be sure that we will be able to obtain equipment, materials or components on satisfactory terms. Any increase in equipment, material and component costs or decrease in availability could reduce our sales and harm our gross margins.
For example, we depend on a limited number of suppliers for enzymes and amplification mixes used in our consumables. In some cases, these manufacturers are the sole source of certain types of enzymes and reagents. We do not have long-term contracts with any of these sole source suppliers. Lead times for some of these components can be several months or more and could be exacerbated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the event that demand increases, a manufacturing ‘lot’ does not meet our specifications or we fail to forecast and place purchase orders sufficiently in advance, this could result in a material shortage. Some of the components and formulations are proprietary to our vendors, thereby making second sourcing and development of a replacement difficult. Furthermore, such vendors may have intellectual property rights that could prevent us from sourcing such reagents from other vendors. Some vendors could choose to use their enzymes, amplification mixes or other components to create products that directly compete with our consumables and end our current supplier-customer relationship. If enzymes and reagents become unavailable from our current suppliers and we are unable to find acceptable substitutes for these suppliers, we may be required to produce them internally or change our product designs.
38

We have not qualified secondary sources for all equipment, materials or components that we source through a single supplier and we cannot assure investors that the qualification of a secondary supplier will prevent future supply issues. Disruption in the supply of equipment, materials or components would impair our ability to sell our products and meet customer demand, and also could delay the launch of new products, any of which could harm our business and results of operations. If we were to have to change suppliers, the new supplier may not be able to provide us equipment, materials or components in a timely manner and in adequate quantities that are consistent with our quality standards and on satisfactory pricing terms. In addition, alternative sources of supply may not be available for equipment or materials that are scarce or components for which there are a limited number of suppliers.
While we have taken steps to mitigate potential supply chain and transportation infrastructure system issues which may result from the COVID-19 pandemic, the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate the risks described in this risk factor and could cause certain of our suppliers to be unable to operate temporarily or go out of business permanently. The realization of any of these risks could prevent us from producing, selling or delivering our products, reduce our sales and harm our gross margins or permanently cause a change in one or more of our products that may not be accepted by our customers or cause us to eliminate that product altogether. In addition, our customers may face difficulties in procuring, or in some cases may be unable to procure, the equipment, materials or components from their own suppliers necessary to conduct experiments using our solutions.
Our operating results have in the past fluctuated significantly and may continue to fluctuate significantly in the future, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or any guidance we may provide.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, but not limited to:
reductions in capacity or shutdowns of laboratories and other institutions as well as other impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, such as reduced or delayed spending on instruments or consumables due to reductions in capacity or shutdowns of laboratories and other institutions in which our instruments and solutions are used;
our inability or the inability of our customers to source necessary equipment, components and materials used in our products or used by our customers because of issues with suppliers stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic;
disruptions in customers’ on-going experiments or interruptions in the ability of our customers to complete research projects as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;
our dependence on single source and sole source suppliers for some of the equipment, components and materials used in our products;
shortages, delays, production problems and quality issues with the materials we purchase for manufacturing, which could impact our ability to manufacture and ship our instruments, consumables and related components;
the level of demand for our products, which may vary significantly and result in excess capacity expenses, and our ability to increase penetration in our existing markets and expand into new markets;
our ability to successfully integrate new personnel, technology and other assets that we acquire into our company;
the timing and amount of expenditures (including success fees) related to litigation, as well as the outcomes of and related rulings in the litigation and administrative proceedings which may vary substantially from quarter to quarter;
our ability to successfully manufacture and transition all our customers to our Next GEM microfluidic chips;
the timing and cost of, and level of investment in, research and development and commercialization activities relating to our products, which may change from time to time;
the volume and mix of our instrument and consumable sales or changes in the manufacturing or sales costs related to our instruments and consumables;
the success of our recently introduced products and new versions of existing products and the introduction of other new products or product enhancements by us or others in our industry;
the timing and amount of expenditures that we may incur to acquire, develop or commercialize additional products and technologies or for other purposes, such as the expansion of our facilities;
changes in governmental funding of life sciences research and development or changes that impact budgets, budget cycles or seasonal spending patterns of our customers;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;
39

the outcome of any future litigation or governmental investigations involving us, our industry or both;
difficulties encountered by our commercial carriers in delivering our instruments or consumables, whether as a result of external factors such as weather or internal issues such as labor disputes;
general market conditions and other factors, including factors unrelated to our operating performance or the operating performance of our competitors;
higher than anticipated warranty costs;
customers accelerating, canceling, reducing or delaying orders as a result of developments related to our litigation or to our transition to Next GEM microfluidic chips;
the impacts of infectious disease, epidemics, pandemics and outbreaks, including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, on our business operations and on the business operations of our customers, manufacturers and suppliers; and
the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
The cumulative effects of the factors discussed above could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance.
This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any guidance we may provide, or if the guidance we provide is below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of our Class A common stock could decline substantially. Such a stock price decline could occur even when we have met or exceeded any previously publicly stated guidance we may provide.
Our instruments, consumables and related components are specialized, complex and difficult to manufacture. We could experience production problems that impact our ability to manufacture and ship our instruments, consumables and related components, which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The manufacturing processes we and our third-party manufacturers use to produce our instruments, consumables and related components are specialized and highly complex and require high-quality components. We may have quality variations, supply issues, backorders, delays, shortages or production difficulties of needed components and may require components that are difficult to obtain or manufacture at the necessary quantities and necessary quality, in a timely manner or in accordance with regulatory requirements.
Such issues, issues with our manufacturing processes or the manufacturing processes of our third-party manufacturers, shipping issues, inaccurate demand forecasts or other production issues (including issues stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic) could result in our inability to supply our products to our customers, backorders, insufficient inventory, excess inventory, shipping delays, product deficiencies or other operational failures. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted air travel in the United States and globally. Such disruptions could reduce or eliminate our ability to receive components or supply our customers. If we cannot supply our products to our customers in a timely manner, our customers may delay or cancel their orders. Furthermore, even if we have inventory, if we do not have adequate inventory of products in the geographic regions in which they are ordered, we may not be able to deliver products to our customers in a timely manner and customers may delay or cancel their orders. Many other factors could cause production or shipping delays or interruptions, including difficulties in transporting materials, equipment, raw material or other shortages, raw material failures, equipment malfunctions, facility contamination, labor problems, natural disasters, infectious disease, conflict, civil unrest, epidemics or pandemics including COVID-19, outbreaks, disruption in utility services, terrorist activities or circumstances beyond our control. Additionally, we and our third-party manufacturers may encounter problems in hiring and retaining the experienced specialized personnel needed to develop and operate our manufacturing processes or the manufacturing processes of our third-party manufacturers, which could result in backorders, shortages, delays in our production or difficulties in maintaining compliance with applicable regulatory requirements.
These issues, or any other problems with the production or timely manufacture and shipment of our instruments, consumables and related components, could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.


40

We may be unable to consistently manufacture our instruments and consumables to the necessary specifications or in quantities necessary to meet demand at an acceptable cost or at an acceptable performance level.
Our products are integrated solutions with many different components that work together. As such, a quality defect in a single component can compromise the performance of the entire solution. Certain of our consumables are manufactured at our Pleasanton, California and Singapore facilities using complex processes, sophisticated equipment and strict adherence to specifications and quality systems procedures. In many cases, the consumables we manufacture are bundled with products or components that we source from third parties and assemble, package and perform quality assurance testing at our Pleasanton facilities. Our Chromium Controllers are manufactured by our third-party manufacturer at their facilities. In order to successfully generate revenue from our products, we need to manufacture products that meet our specifications before we allow them to be shipped and to supply our customers with products that meet their expectations for quality and functionality in accordance with established specifications. In order to ensure we are able to meet these expectations, our Pleasanton, California manufacturing facilities, as well as the facilities of our third-party manufacturers, have obtained International Organization for Standardization (“ISO”) quality management certifications and employ other quality control measures. While customer complaints regarding defects in our products and consumables have historically been low, our customers have experienced quality control and manufacturing defects in the past. For example, a manufacturing defect in certain of our Chromium Controllers resulted in an unacceptable level of LCD screen failures and we launched a free replacement program in 2018 to allow customers to replace affected LCD screens as a result. As we continue to grow and introduce new products, and as our products incorporate increasingly sophisticated technology, it will be increasingly difficult to ensure our products are produced in the necessary quantities without sacrificing quality. There is no assurance that we or our third-party manufacturers will be able to continue to manufacture our products so that they consistently achieve the product specifications and quality that meet our requirements or our customers' expectations. Certain of our consumables are subjected to a shelf life, after which their performance is not ensured. Shipment of consumables that effectively expire early or shipment of defective instruments or consumables to customers may result in recalls and warranty replacements, which would increase our costs, and depending upon current inventory levels and the availability and lead time for additional inventory, could lead to availability issues. Any future design issues, unforeseen manufacturing problems, such as contamination of our or their facilities, equipment malfunctions, aging components, quality issues with components and materials sourced from third-party suppliers, or failures to strictly follow procedures or meet specifications, may have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, financial condition and operating results and could result in us or our third-party manufacturers losing ISO quality management certifications. If we or our third-party manufacturers fail to maintain ISO quality management certifications, our customers might choose not to purchase products from us. Furthermore, we or our third-party manufacturers may not be able to increase manufacturing to meet anticipated demand or may experience downtime.
In addition, as we increase manufacturing capacity, we will also need to make corresponding improvements to other operational functions, such as our customer service and billing systems, compliance programs and our internal quality assurance programs. We will also need additional equipment, manufacturing and warehouse space and trained personnel to process higher volumes of products. We cannot assure you that any increases in scale, related improvements and quality assurance will be successfully implemented or that equipment, manufacturing and warehouse space and appropriate personnel will be available. As we develop additional products, we may need to bring new equipment on-line, implement new systems, technology, controls and procedures and hire personnel with different qualifications. Our ability to increase our manufacturing capacity at our Pleasanton, California and Singapore locations is complicated by the use of our proprietary equipment that is not readily available from third-party manufacturers.
The risk of manufacturing defects or quality control issues is generally higher for new products, whether produced by us or a third-party manufacturer, products that are transitioned from one manufacturer to another, particularly if manufacturing is transitioned or initiated with a manufacturer we have not worked with in the past, and products that are transferred from one manufacturing facility to another. Our current product roadmap calls for the introduction of new instruments and consumables, which may require that we utilize manufacturers with which we have little or no prior manufacturing experience and the risk of manufacturing defects or quality control issues could increase as a result. The expansion of our manufacturing capabilities could increase the risk of manufacturing defects or quality control issues in the consumables we manufacture. We cannot assure investors that we and our third-party manufacturers will be able to launch new products on time, transition manufacturing of existing products to new manufacturers, transition our manufacturing capabilities to a new location or transition manufacturing of any additional consumables in-house without manufacturing defects. Additionally, impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, including impacts on the health and safety of our manufacturing staff or on the global supply chain and transportation infrastructure, may limit our ability to manufacture products and components that meet specifications, in necessary quantities and at commercially acceptable costs and deliver them in commercially acceptable timeframes to our customers.
41

An inability to manufacture products and components that consistently meet specifications, in necessary quantities and at commercially acceptable costs will have a negative impact and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have incurred significant losses since inception, we expect to incur losses in the future and we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve and maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant losses since we were formed in 2012 and expect to incur losses in the future. We incurred net losses of $11.6 million and $21.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $816.6 million. We expect that our losses will continue in the near term as we continue to invest significantly in research and development and the commercialization of both new products and improved versions of existing products. We also expect that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we grow our business. To date, we have financed our operations principally from the sale of convertible preferred stock, the sale of Class A common stock in our IPO and our September 2020 follow-on offering, revenue from sales of our products and the incurrence of indebtedness. There can be no assurance that our revenue and gross profit will increase sufficiently such that our net losses decline, or we attain profitability, in the future. Further, our limited operating history and rapid revenue growth over the last several years make it difficult to effectively plan for and model future growth and operating expenses. Our ability to achieve or sustain profitability is based on numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including general economic, industry and market conditions, customer closures and other impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of market acceptance of our products, future product development, our market penetration and margins and current and future litigation. We may never be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability and our recent and historical growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance. Our failure to achieve or maintain profitability could negatively impact the value of our Class A common stock.
In particular, we are subject to significant risks of losses related to current litigation matters. See “—Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property.”
Our markets are highly competitive. If we fail to compete effectively, our business and operating results will suffer.
We face significant competition. We currently compete with both established and early-stage companies that design, manufacture and market instruments, consumables and software for, among other applications, genomics, single cell analysis, spatial analysis and immunology. We believe our competitors include Becton, Dickinson and Company and Nanostring Technologies, Inc., each of which has products that compete to varying degrees with some but not all of our product solutions, as well as a number of other emerging and established companies. Many of these companies have announced plans to introduce products that compete with our single cell, spatial and future In Situ platforms.
Some of our current competitors are large publicly traded companies, or are divisions of large publicly traded companies, and may enjoy a number of competitive advantages over us, including:
greater name and brand recognition;
greater financial and human resources;
broader product lines;
larger sales forces and more established distributor networks;
substantial intellectual property portfolios;
larger and more established customer bases and relationships; and
better established, larger scale and lower cost manufacturing capabilities.
We also face competition from researchers developing their own solutions. The area in which we compete involves rapid innovation and some of our customers have in the past, and more may in the future, elect to create their own platform or assays rather than rely on a third-party supplier such as ourselves. This is particularly true for the largest research centers and labs who are continually testing and trying new technologies, whether from a third-party vendor or developed internally. We also compete for the resources our customers allocate for purchasing a wide range of products used to analyze biological systems, some of which are additive to or complementary with our own but not directly competitive.
We cannot assure investors that our products will compete favorably or that we will be successful in the face of increasing competition from products and technologies introduced by our existing competitors, companies entering our markets or developed
42

by our customers internally. In addition, we cannot assure investors that our competitors do not have or will not develop products or technologies that currently or in the future will enable them to produce competitive products with greater capabilities or at lower costs than ours or that are able to run comparable experiments at a lower total experiment cost. Any failure to compete effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
We are significantly dependent upon revenue generated from the sale of our Chromium solutions, and in particular our Single Cell Gene Expression solutions.
We currently generate substantially all of our revenue from the sale of our Chromium instruments, which we refer to as “instruments,” and our proprietary microfluidic chips, slides, reagents and other consumables for both our Visium and Chromium solutions, which we refer to as “consumables.” In particular, we are dependent upon revenue generated from sales of our Single Cell Gene Expression consumables. There can be no assurance that we will be able to design future products, particularly non-Chromium product lines, that will meet the expectations of our customers or that our future products will become commercially viable. As technologies change in the future for research equipment in general and in genomics solutions specifically, we will be expected to upgrade or adapt our products in order to keep up with the latest technology. To date we have limited experience simultaneously designing, testing, manufacturing and selling non-Chromium products and there can be no assurance we will be able to do so. Our sales expectations are based in part on the assumption that our Chromium Connect instrument will increase workflows for our future customers and their associated purchases of our consumables. If sales of our Chromium Connect instruments fail to materialize so will the related consumable sales and associated revenue. Our sales expectations are also based in part on the continued success of our Single Cell Gene Expression solutions. If our new products, including our Visium Spatial Gene Expression product, which was introduced in 2019, or our Single Cell Multiome ATAC+Gene Expression and Targeted Gene Expression products, which were introduced in 2020, fail to achieve sufficient market acceptance or sales of our Single Cell Gene Expression consumables decrease, our consumables revenue could be materially and adversely impacted.
Our failure to effectively manage product transitions or accurately forecast customer demand could result in excess or obsolete inventory and resulting charges.
Because the market for our products is characterized by rapid technological advances, we frequently introduce new products with improved ease-of-use, improved performance or additional features and functionality. We pre-announce products and services, in some cases before such products and services have been fully developed or tested, and risk failing to meet expectations when such products and services become available. The risks associated with the introduction of new products include the difficulties of predicting customer demand and effectively managing inventory levels to ensure adequate supply of the new product and avoiding excess supply of the legacy product. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has made it more difficult to predict customer demand and effectively manage inventory levels for our instruments and consumables and the risk that we will not be able to source the necessary equipment, components and materials to manufacture our products has led us to carry higher inventory.
We may strategically enter into non-cancelable commitments with vendors to purchase materials for our products in advance of demand to take advantage of favorable pricing, address concerns about the availability of future supplies or build safety stock to help ensure customer shipments are not delayed should we experience higher than anticipated demand for materials with long lead times. During periods of decreased demand, which have occurred and which we expect to continue to occur as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, these non-cancelable commitments could prevent our related costs from decreasing in proportion to decreases in demand.
Our future success is dependent upon our ability to increase penetration in our existing markets and to maintain and increase the effectiveness of our commercial organization.
Our customer base includes academic, government, biopharmaceutical, biotechnology and other institutions. Our success will depend upon our ability to increase our market penetration among these customers and to expand our market by developing and marketing new products and new applications for existing products. We regularly introduce new versions of existing products, and our future success will partially depend on our ability to commercialize these products. As we continue to scale our business, we may find that certain of our products, certain customers or certain markets, including the biopharmaceutical market, may require a dedicated sales force or sales personnel with different experience than those we currently employ in our commercial organization. Identifying, recruiting and training additional qualified personnel would require significant time, expense and attention.
We cannot assure investors that we will be able to further penetrate our existing market or that the market will be able to sustain our current and future product offerings. Any failure to increase penetration in our existing markets would adversely affect our ability to improve our operating results.
43

Additionally, potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and safety of our employees and partners could decrease the effectiveness of our commercial organization and adversely affect our business and operating results. Additionally, our commercial organization’s ability to participate in on-site or other in-person sales and marketing or customer service activities, including participation in trade shows and other in-person events, or on-site installation of our products, may be restricted or eliminated due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The effectiveness of our commercial organization may be decreased and our business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected as a result.
We may not be able to develop new products, enhance the capabilities of our existing products to keep pace with rapidly changing technology and customer requirements or successfully manage the transition to new product offerings, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
Our success depends on our ability to develop new products and applications for our technology in existing and new markets, while improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of our existing products, in each case in ways that address current and anticipated customer requirements. Such success is dependent upon several factors, including functionality, competitive pricing and integration with existing and emerging technologies. New technologies, techniques or products could emerge that might offer better combinations of price and performance or better address customer requirements as compared to our current or future products. Existing markets for our products, including the genomics, single cell analysis, spatial analysis and other relevant markets, are characterized by rapid technological change and innovation. Competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. Due to the significant lead time involved in bringing a new product to market, we are required to make a number of assumptions and estimates regarding the commercial feasibility of a new product, including assumptions and estimates regarding the biological analytes that researchers will want to measure, the appropriate method of measuring such analytes, how researchers intend to use the resulting data and the scope and type of data that will be most useful to researchers. As a result, it is possible that we may introduce a new product that uses technologies or methods of analysis that have been displaced by the time of launch, addresses a market that no longer exists or is smaller than previously thought, targets biological analytes or produces data that provides less utility to researchers than previously thought or otherwise is not competitive at the time of launch. We anticipate that we will face increased competition in the future as existing companies and competitors develop new or improved products and as new companies enter the market with new technologies. Our ability to mitigate downward pressure on our selling prices will be dependent upon our ability to maintain or increase the value we offer to researchers. The expenses or losses associated with unsuccessful product development or launch activities, or a lack of market acceptance of our new products, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Because our solutions are used with other products, such as sequencers, to conduct an experiment, we also expect to face competition from these complementary products, either directly or indirectly, as researchers and labs look to reduce the total cost of any given experiment. For example, if a sequencer manufacturer was successful in vertically integrating their product to provide functionality equivalent to our instruments, they would likely be able to deliver a solution that is capable of running comparable experiments with a total experiment cost that is significantly less than the cost of running such experiments using our products together with third-party sequencers. Conversely, if genome sequencing falls out of favor as a preferred approach for genomic research, whether through the development of alternative solutions or real or perceived problems with sequencing itself, the utility of our products could be significantly impacted. It is critical to our success that we anticipate changes such as these in technology and customer requirements and successfully introduce new, enhanced and competitive technologies to meet our customers’ and prospective customers’ needs on a timely and cost-effective basis. If we do not successfully innovate and introduce new technology into our product lines, our business and operating results will be adversely impacted.
Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers depends in large part on our ability to enhance and improve our existing solutions and to introduce compelling new solutions. The success of any enhancement to our solutions depends on several factors, including timely completion and delivery, competitive pricing, adequate quality testing, integration with existing technologies and overall market acceptance. Any new solution that we develop may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner, may contain errors, vulnerabilities or bugs, or may not achieve the market acceptance necessary to generate significant revenue. If we are unable to successfully develop new solutions, enhance our existing solutions to meet customer requirements, or otherwise gain market acceptance, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be harmed.
Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers also depends on our ability to deliver any enhanced or new solutions to our customers in a format where they can be easily and consistently deployed by most or all users without significant customer service or training. If our customers believe that deploying our enhanced or new solutions would be overly time-consuming, confusing or technically challenging, or require significant training or retraining, then our ability to grow our business would be substantially harmed. We need to create and deliver a repeatable, user-friendly, prescriptive approach to
44

deployment that allows users of all kinds to effectively and easily deploy our solutions, and if we fail to do so, our business and results of operations would be harmed.
The typical development cycle of new life sciences products can be lengthy and complicated and may require new scientific discoveries or advancements and complex technology and engineering. Such developments may involve external suppliers and service providers, making the management of development projects complex and subject to risks and uncertainties regarding timing, timely delivery of required components or services and satisfactory technical performance of such components or assembled products. We expect that impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic will delay the development of certain of our new life science products as well as new versions of existing products. If we do not achieve the required technical specifications or successfully manage new product development processes, or if development work is not performed according to schedule, including because of delays in our research and development programs stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, then such new technologies or products may be adversely impacted and our business and operating results may be harmed.
If our existing and new products fail to achieve and sustain sufficient scientific acceptance, we will not generate expected revenue and our prospects may be harmed.
The life sciences scientific community is comprised of a small number of early adopters and key opinion leaders who significantly influence the rest of the community. The success of life sciences products is due, in large part, to acceptance by the scientific community and their adoption of certain products as best practice in the applicable field of research. The current system of academic and scientific research views publishing in a peer-reviewed journal as a measure of success. In such journal publications, the researchers will describe not only their discoveries but also the methods and typically the products used to fuel such discoveries. Mentions in peer-reviewed journal publications is a good barometer for the general acceptance of our products as best practices. Ensuring that early adopters and key opinion leaders publish research involving the use of our products is critical to ensuring our products gain widespread acceptance and market growth. Continuing to maintain good relationships with such key opinion leaders is vital to growing our market. The number of times our products were mentioned in peer-reviewed publications has increased significantly in recent years. During this time, our revenue has also increased significantly. We cannot assure investors that our products will continue to be mentioned in peer-reviewed articles with any frequency or that any new products that we introduce in the future will be mentioned in peer-reviewed articles. If too few researchers describe the use of our products, too many researchers shift to a competing product and publish research outlining their use of that product or too many researchers negatively describe the use or usability of our products in publications, it may drive existing and potential customers away from our products, which could harm our operating results. Additionally, the ability of researchers to conduct research or publish in peer-reviewed journal publications has been and will continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, even though many of our customers are using our instruments and consumables to research and understand COVID-19 and such efforts may result in peer-reviewed journal publications which describe the use of our products, the COVID-19 pandemic may result in life sciences journals prioritizing research related to COVID-19 in lieu of research relating to other fields, such as oncology, where our instruments and consumables have regularly been mentioned. Any decrease in the frequency at which our instruments and consumables are mentioned in peer reviewed journals, even if only temporarily due to COVID-19, may negatively impact our prospects.
If we do not sustain or successfully manage our growth and anticipated growth, our business and prospects will be harmed.
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods. This growth and our anticipated growth will place significant strains on our management, operational and manufacturing systems and processes, financial systems and internal controls and other aspects of our business. For example, we consummated two acquisitions each in 2018 and 2020 and one more in January 2021, and we intend to continue to make investments that meet management’s criteria to expand or add key technologies that we believe will facilitate the commercialization of new products in the future. In addition, we intend to launch additional new products and new versions of existing products in the near future. Further development and commercialization of our current and future products are key elements of our growth strategy. Developing and launching new products and innovating and improving our existing products have required us to hire and retain additional scientific, sales and marketing, software, manufacturing, distribution and quality assurance personnel. As a result, we have experienced rapid headcount growth from 110 employees as of December 31, 2015 to 946 employees as of March 31, 2021. As we have grown, our employees have become more geographically dispersed. We currently serve thousands of researchers in many countries and plan to continue to expand to new international jurisdictions as part of our growth strategy which will lead to increased dispersion of our employees. As a public company, our management and other personnel must devote a substantial amount of time towards maintaining compliance with these requirements. We may face challenges integrating, developing and motivating our rapidly growing and increasingly dispersed employee base, including as a result of many of our employees working from home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, certain members of our management have not previously worked together for an extended period of time, do not have experience managing a public company or do not have experience managing a global business, which may affect how they manage our growth. To effectively
45

manage our growth, we must continue to improve our operational and manufacturing systems and processes, our financial systems and internal controls and other aspects of our business and continue to effectively expand, train and manage our personnel. As our organization continues to grow, and we are required to implement more complex organizational management structures, we may find it increasingly difficult to maintain the benefits of our corporate culture, including our ability to quickly develop and launch new and innovative products. If we do not successfully manage our anticipated growth, our business, results of operations and growth prospects will be harmed.
Our business depends significantly on the success of our Next GEM microfluidic chip.

Since our inception through March 31, 2021, a substantial number of our Chromium instruments utilized our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables. In November 2018, a jury concluded that our Chromium instruments operating these chips and associated consumables infringe certain of Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.'s ("Bio-Rad") patents. We dedicated significant resources to designing and manufacturing our new Next GEM microfluidic chip, which uses a microfluidic architecture with fundamentally different physics from our legacy GEM microfluidic chip. We introduced our Next GEM microfluidic chips for our Single Cell Gene Expression, Single Cell Immune Profiling and Single Cell ATAC solutions in the second quarter of 2019. We have been gradually phasing out our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and have substantially completed the transition of our customers to our Next GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables.
Although our Next GEM microfluidic chips were designed to replace our legacy GEM microfluidic chips, we cannot assure you that we will be able to make our Next GEM microfluidic chip work with all of our solutions, that our Next GEM microfluidic chip will allow our customers to retain the level of performance or quality they have come to expect using our legacy GEM microfluidic chip, that our Next GEM microfluidic chip will replace the sales of our legacy GEM microfluidic chip or that we will be able to manufacture our Next GEM microfluidic chip in sufficient volumes and in sufficient quality in a timely fashion. While we believe that our Chromium solutions, when used with our Next GEM microfluidic chip, do not infringe the asserted Bio-Rad patents, we cannot assure you that our Next GEM microfluidic chip would not be found to infringe the asserted Bio-Rad patents or other patents, which could prevent us from making, selling and importing our Next GEM microfluidic chips or substantially all of our Chromium products. Since August 28, 2019, all Chromium instruments that we sell and have sold operate exclusively with our Next GEM solutions. We believe that these solutions are very important to our customers’ research but the delay caused by the injunction may slow customer adoption of our products or cause customers to investigate the availability of competing products or technologies.
For additional information relating to this litigation, see the section titled “—Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property—We are involved in significant litigation which has consumed significant resources and management time and adverse resolution of these lawsuits could require us to pay significant damages, and prevent us from selling our products, which would severely adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.”
Our limited operating history and rapid revenue growth make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.
We launched our first product in mid-2015 and have experienced significant revenue growth in recent periods. In addition, we operate in highly competitive markets characterized by rapid technological advances and our business has, and we expect it to continue, to evolve over time to remain competitive. Our limited operating history, evolving business and rapid growth make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter and may increase the risk that we will not continue to grow at or near historical rates.
If we fail to address the risks and difficulties that we face, including those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. We have encountered in the past, and will encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies with limited operating histories in rapidly changing industries. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan and operate our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
The sizes of the markets for our solutions may be smaller than estimated and new market opportunities may not develop as quickly as we expect, or at all, limiting our ability to successfully sell our solutions.
The market for genomics products is new and evolving, making it difficult to predict with any accuracy the sizes of the markets for our current and future solutions. Our estimates of the annual total addressable market for our current and future solutions are based on a number of internal and third-party estimates and assumptions. In particular, our estimates are based on our
46

expectations that: (a) researchers in the market for certain life sciences research tools and technologies will view our solutions as competitive alternatives to, or better options than, such existing tools and technologies; (b) researchers who already own such existing tools and technologies will recognize the ability of our solutions to complement, enhance and enable new applications of their current tools and technologies and find the value proposition offered by our solutions convincing enough to purchase our solutions in addition to the tools and technologies they already own; and (c) the trends we have seen among our customers with respect to placements of our instruments are representative of the broader market. Underlying each of these expectations are a number of estimates and assumptions, including the assumption that government or other sources of funding will continue to be available to life sciences researchers at times and in amounts necessary to allow them to purchase our solutions.
In addition, our growth strategy involves launching new solutions and expanding sales of existing solutions into new areas in which we have limited or no experience, such as the sale of our solutions to biopharmaceutical customers. We also expect to pursue additional opportunities that will further expand our opportunity, including new potential applications of our single cell, spatial and In Situ technologies in the future. Sales of new or existing solutions into new opportunities may take several years to develop and mature and we cannot be certain that these opportunities will develop as we expect. For example, new life sciences technology is often not adopted until a sufficient amount of research conducted using such technology has been published in peer-reviewed publications. Because there can be a considerable delay between the launch of a new life sciences product and publication of research using such product, new life sciences products do not generally contribute a meaningful amount of revenue in the year they are introduced. In certain situations, new life sciences technology, even if sufficiently covered in peer-reviewed publications, may not be adopted until the consistency and accuracy of such technology, method or device has been proven. As a result, the sizes of the annual total addressable market for new markets and new products are even more difficult to predict. 
While we believe our assumptions and the data underlying our estimates of the total annual addressable market for our solutions are reasonable, these assumptions and estimates may not be correct and the conditions supporting our assumptions or estimates, or those underlying the third-party data we have used, may change at any time, thereby reducing the accuracy of our estimates. As a result, our estimates of the annual total addressable market for our solutions may be incorrect.
The future growth of the markets for our current and future solutions depends on many factors beyond our control, including recognition and acceptance of our solutions by the scientific community as best practice and the growth, prevalence and costs of competing products and solutions. Such recognition and acceptance may not occur in the near term, or at all. If the markets for our current and future solutions are smaller than estimated or do not develop as we expect, our growth may be limited and our business, financial condition and operational results may be adversely affected. Additionally, impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic have and may continue to limit demand for our solutions for the foreseeable future.
Our management uses certain key business metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions and such metrics may not accurately reflect all of the aspects of our business needed to make such evaluations and decisions, in particular as our business continues to grow.
In addition to our consolidated financial results, our management regularly reviews a number of operating and financial metrics, including our instrument installed base and consumable pull-through per instrument, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions. We define the instrument installed base as the cumulative number of instruments sold since inception and define consumable pull-through per instrument as the total consumables revenue in the relevant period divided by the average instrument installed base during that period. We believe that these metrics are representative of our current business; however, these metrics may not accurately reflect all aspects of our business and we anticipate that these metrics may change or may be substituted for additional or different metrics as our business grows and as we introduce new products. For example, we expect that our expansion into new markets and adoption by new customers who may not have the same financial resources to devote to consumable purchases as our existing customer base could adversely impact our pull-through figures. These metrics also do not accurately reflect information relating to customers who purchase consumables but do not own an instrument, whom we refer to as “halo users.” Halo users and the introduction of consumables that may not use instruments, such as our Visium solution, or instruments that are expected to use a greater amount of consumables, such as our Chromium Connect instrument, could reduce the utility of our consumable pull-through per instrument metric and make it difficult to compare such figures over time. Moreover, we expect some of our halo users to purchase instruments of their own which would decrease the consumables sold per instrument and therefore decrease our annual consumable pull-through per instrument. Though we expect the introduction of enhanced features and additional solutions on our Chromium instrument to increase consumable pull-through per instrument and to offset this decline, there are no assurances we will be successful in doing so. If our management fails to review other relevant information or change or substitute the key business metrics they review as our business grows and we introduce new products, their ability to accurately formulate
47

financial projections and make strategic decisions may be compromised and our business, financial results and future growth prospects may be adversely impacted.
The COVID-19 pandemic may impact historical trends and the comparability of certain of the key business metrics over time. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic may (i) cause halo users to delay purchases of their own instruments, which could positively impact or prevent a decline in our consumables pull-through per instrument metrics, (ii) lead to a general reduction in consumables spending, which could negatively impact our consumables pull-through per instrument metrics or (iii) cause a general decrease in the rate of growth of our instrument installed base.
If our facilities or our third-party manufacturers’ facilities become unavailable or inoperable, our research and development programs could be adversely impacted and manufacturing of our instruments and consumables could be interrupted.
The manufacturing process for our Chromium Controller takes place at our third-party manufacturer’s facilities in Singapore and the manufacturing process for our Chromium Connect takes place at our third-party manufacturer’s facilities in Nevada. The majority of our consumables are manufactured at our facilities in Pleasanton, California and Singapore using proprietary equipment. Certain raw materials, such as oligonucleotides and enzymes, are custom manufactured by outside partners. We periodically review the manufacturing capacity of our consumables and we expect to manufacture an increasing amount of consumables in-house. Our Pleasanton facilities also house the majority of our research and development and quality assurance teams. Our Chromium Connect is manufactured by our partner at their facility. The facilities and the equipment we and our third-party manufacturers use to manufacture our instruments and consumables and that we use in our research and development programs would be costly to replace and could require substantial lead times to repair or replace.
Our facilities in Pleasanton and Singapore are vulnerable to natural disasters and catastrophic events. For example, our Pleasanton facilities are located near earthquake fault zones and are vulnerable to damage from earthquakes. Our facilities are vulnerable to other types of disasters, including fires, floods, infectious disease, epidemics or pandemics including COVID-19, outbreaks, power loss, conflict, civil unrest, communications failures and similar events. If any disaster or catastrophic event were to occur, our ability to operate our business would be seriously, or potentially completely, impaired. If our facilities or any of our third-party manufacturers’ facilities become unavailable for any reason, including due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot provide assurances that we will be able to secure alternative manufacturing facilities with the necessary capabilities and equipment on acceptable terms, if at all. Further, while we are an essential business that can continue operations under current governmental shelter-in-place measures meant to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no guarantee that we will be able to continue operations at our Pleasanton facilities or other facilities while shelter-in-place or other COVID-19-related measures remain in place. Additionally, potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and safety of our manufacturing staff could decrease the effectiveness of our manufacturing operations and adversely affect our business and operating results. We may encounter particular difficulties in replacing or counterbalancing any unavailability of our Pleasanton staff or facilities given the specialized skills of our team and the specialized equipment housed within our facilities. The inability to manufacture our instruments and/or consumables, combined with our limited inventory of manufactured instruments and consumables, may result in the loss of customers or harm our reputation, and we may be unable to reestablish relationships with those customers in the future. Because certain of our consumables and the raw materials we use to manufacture consumables at our Pleasanton facilities are perishable and must be kept in temperature controlled storage, the loss of power to our facilities, mechanical or other issues with our storage facilities or other events that impact our temperature controlled storage could result in the loss of some or all of such consumables and raw materials and we may not be able to replace them without disruption to our customers or at all.
A substantial percentage of our direct sales revenue comes from sales to academic institutions, whose research often requires long uninterrupted studies performed on a consistent basis over time; thus interruptions in our ability to supply consumables could be particularly damaging to these studies and our reputation. In addition, the budgetary planning and approval process for academic research programs can be lengthy and begin well in advance of the planned purchase of our instrument and/or consumables. If our products become unavailable during the planning process, researchers may use alternative products.
If our research and development programs were disrupted by a disaster or catastrophe, including the COVID-19 pandemic, the launch of new products and the timing of improvements to existing products could be significantly delayed and could adversely impact our ability to compete with other available products and solutions. If our or our third-party manufacturers’ capabilities are impaired, we may not be able to manufacture and ship our products in a timely manner, which would adversely impact our business. Although we possess insurance for damage to our property and the disruption of our business, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

48

Undetected errors or defects in our solutions could harm our reputation and decrease market acceptance of our solutions.
Our instruments and consumables, as well as the software that accompanies them, may contain undetected errors or defects when first introduced or as new versions are released. Disruptions or other performance problems with our products or software may adversely impact our customers’ research or business, harm our reputation and result in reduced revenue or increased costs associated with product repairs or replacements. If that occurs, we may also incur significant costs, the attention of our key personnel could be diverted or other significant customer relations problems may arise. We may also be subject to warranty claims or breach of contract for damages related to errors or defects in our solutions.
Certain disruptions in supply of, and changes in the competitive environment for, raw materials integral to the manufacturing of our products may adversely affect our profitability.
We use a broad range of materials and supplies, including metals, chemicals and other electronic components, in our products. A significant disruption in the supply of these materials, including disruptions stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, could decrease production and shipping levels, materially increase our operating costs and materially adversely affect our profit margins. Shortages of materials or interruptions in transportation systems, labor strikes, work stoppages, infectious disease, epidemics or pandemics including COVID-19, outbreaks, conflict, civil unrest, acts of terrorism or other interruptions to or difficulties in the employment of labor or transportation in the markets in which we purchase materials, components and supplies for the production of our products, in each case may adversely affect our ability to maintain production of our products and sustain profitability. Unforeseen end-of-life or unavailability for certain components, such as enzymes, could cause backorders as we modify our product specifications to accommodate replacement components. If we were to experience a significant disruption in the supply of, or prolonged shortage of, critical components from any of our suppliers and could not procure the components from other sources, we would be unable to manufacture our products and to ship such products to our customers in a timely fashion, which would adversely affect our sales, margins and customer relations.
If we fail to offer high-quality customer service, our business and reputation could suffer.
We differentiate ourselves from our competition through our commitment to an exceptional customer experience. Accordingly, high-quality customer service is important for the growth of our business and any failure to maintain such standards of customer service, or a related market perception, could affect our ability to sell products to existing and prospective customers. Additionally, we believe our customer service team has a positive influence on recurring consumables revenue. Providing an exceptional customer experience requires significant time and resources from our customer service team. Potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and safety of our customer service organization could reduce or eliminate the organization’s ability to provide an exceptional customer experience. Additionally, the organization’s ability to provide on-site, in-person customer service (including on-site installation of our instruments) has and may continue to be restricted or eliminated due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, failure to scale our customer service organization adequately or impacts on our organization’s ability to provide an exceptional customer experience may adversely impact our business results and financial condition.
Customers utilize our service teams and online content for help with a variety of topics, including how to use our products efficiently, how to integrate our products into existing workflows, how to determine which of our other products may be needed for a given experiment and how to resolve technical, analysis and operational issues if and when they arise. As we introduce new products such as our Chromium Connect, Visium solutions, Single Cell Multiome ATAC+Gene Expression solution and Targeted Gene Expression solution and enhance existing products, we expect utilization of our customer service teams to increase. In particular, the introduction of new or improved products that utilize different workflows or variations on existing workflows may require additional customer service efforts to ensure customers use such products correctly and efficiently. While we have developed significant resources for remote training, including an extensive library of online videos, we may need to rely more on these resources for future customer training or we may experience increased expenses to enhance our online and remote solutions, particularly due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. If our customers do not adopt these resources, we may be required to increase the staffing of our customer service team, which would increase our costs. Also, as our business scales, we may need to engage third-party customer service providers, which could increase our costs and negatively impact the quality of the customer experience if such third parties are unable to provide service levels equivalent to ours.
The number of our customers has grown significantly and such growth, as well as any future growth, will put additional pressure on our customer service organization. We may be unable to hire qualified staff quickly enough or to the extent necessary to accommodate increases in demand.
In addition, as we continue to grow our operations and reach a global customer base, we need to be able to provide efficient customer service that meets our customers’ needs globally at scale. In geographies where we sell through distributors, we rely on
49

those distributors to provide customer service. If these third-party distributors do not provide a high-quality customer experience, our business operations and reputation may suffer.
We depend on our key personnel and other highly qualified personnel, and if we are unable to recruit, train, retain and ensure the health and safety of our personnel, we may not achieve our goals.
Our future success depends on our ability to recruit, train, retain and motivate key personnel, including our senior management, research and development, manufacturing and sales, customer service and marketing personnel. In particular, Dr. Saxonov, our Chief Executive Officer and one of our co-founders, and Dr. Hindson, our Chief Scientific Officer, President and one of our co-founders, are critical to our vision, strategic direction, culture and products. Competition for qualified personnel is intense, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area. As we grow, we may continue to make changes to our management team, which could make it difficult to execute on our business plans and strategies. New hires also require significant training and, in most cases, take significant time before they achieve full productivity. Our failure to successfully integrate these key personnel into our business could adversely affect our business. Additionally, many of our employees are temporarily working from home due to the COVID-19 pandemic and, because of the challenges of working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, including collaborating with and managing employees, it may take significant time before our teams can achieve full productivity again, if at all, and it may take significantly longer for new hires to achieve full productivity, if at all.
Our continued growth depends, in part, on attracting, retaining and motivating highly trained sales personnel with the necessary scientific background and ability to understand our systems at a technical level to effectively identify and sell to potential new customers. In addition, the continued development of complementary software tools, such as our analysis tools and visualization software, requires us to compete for highly trained software engineers in the San Francisco Bay Area and for highly trained customer service personnel globally. We also compete for computational biologists and qualified scientific personnel with other life sciences companies, academic institutions and research institutions. Many of our scientific personnel are qualified foreign nationals whose ability to live and work in the United States is contingent upon the continued availability of appropriate visas. Due to the competition for qualified personnel in the San Francisco Bay Area, we expect to continue to rely on foreign nationals to fill part of our recruiting needs. As a result, changes to United States immigration policies could restrain the flow of technical and professional talent into the United States and may inhibit our ability to hire qualified personnel. The typical immigration and visa procedures of the United States have been impacted by COVID-19 and our current or future employees may be negatively affected by delays, disruptions or changes in United States immigration policies. Past United States administrations have made restricting immigration and reforming the work visa process a priority and these efforts may adversely affect our ability to find qualified personnel.
We do not maintain key person life insurance or fixed term employment contracts with any of our employees. As a result, our employees could leave our company with little or no prior notice and would be free to work for a competitor. Because of the complex and technical nature of our products and the dynamic market in which we compete, any failure to attract, train, retain and motivate qualified personnel could materially harm our operating results and growth prospects. Additionally, while we are committed to maintaining a safe workplace and to support our personnel through the COVID-19 pandemic, the health and safety of our personnel may be impacted by COVID-19 and our operating results and growth prospects could be materially harmed as a result. Further, while our Pleasanton facilities have been designated an essential business that can continue operations under current governmental shelter-in-place measures meant to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, we may face civil liability if any of our employees contracts COVID-19 while performing his or her job on site or is otherwise negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Investments and acquisitions could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders and otherwise harm our business.
In 2018, we acquired Epinomics, Inc., an epigenetics company based in California, and Spatial Transcriptomics Holdings AB, a spatial analysis company based in Sweden. In 2020, we acquired CartaNA, an In Situ company based in Sweden and ReadCoor, an In Situ company based in Massachusetts. In January 2021, we acquired Tetramer Shop, a reagent company based in Denmark. We believe we are successfully integrating the technologies acquired from those companies into our business, but the long-term success of these acquisitions is not guaranteed. We regularly review investment, acquisition and technology licensing opportunities, and we may invest in or acquire real estate or additional businesses and legal entities to add specialized employees, products or technologies as well as pursue technology licenses or investments in complementary businesses. Our previous acquisitions and any future transactions could be material to our financial condition and operating results and expose us to many risks, including:
difficulties integrating acquired personnel, technologies and operations into our existing business;
diversion of management time and focus from operating our business;
50

increases in our expenses and reductions in our cash available for operations and other uses;
failure to realize anticipated benefits or synergies from such a transaction;
unanticipated costs of or legal exposure related to complying with existing and future laws and regulations, including land use, environmental or antitrust-related laws and regulations;
disruption in our relationships with customers, distributors, manufacturers or suppliers as a result of such a transaction;
unanticipated liabilities related to acquired real estate or companies, including liabilities related to acquired intellectual property or litigation relating thereto;
possible write-offs or impairment charges relating to acquired businesses; and
potential higher taxes if our tax positions relating to certain acquisitions were challenged.
Foreign acquisitions, such as our acquisitions of Spatial Transcriptomics Holdings AB, CartaNA AB and Tetramer Shop involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned above, including those related to integration of operations across different cultures and languages, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries. Even if we identify a strategic transaction that we wish to pursue, we may be prohibited from consummating such transaction due to the terms of future indebtedness we may incur.
Future investments, acquisitions or dispositions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition. We cannot predict the number, timing or size of future investments, acquisitions or dispositions or the effect that any such transactions might have on our operating results.
Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations.
We operate on a December 31st year end and believe that there are significant seasonal factors which may cause sales of our products, and particularly our Chromium Controller, to vary on a quarterly or yearly basis and increase the magnitude of quarterly or annual fluctuations in our operating results. We believe that this seasonality results from a number of factors, including the procurement and budgeting cycles of many of our customers, especially government- or grant-funded customers, whose cycles often coincide with government fiscal year ends. For example, the United States government’s fiscal year end occurs in our third quarter and may result in increased sales of our products during such quarter if government-funded customers have unused funds that may be forfeited, or future budgets that may be reduced, if such funds remain unspent at such fiscal year end. Furthermore, the academic budgetary cycle similarly requires grantees to ‘use or lose’ their grant funding, which seems to be tied disproportionately to the end of the calendar year, driving sales higher during the fourth quarter. Similarly, our biopharmaceutical customers typically have calendar year fiscal years which also result in a disproportionate amount of their purchasing activity occurring during our fourth quarter. These factors have contributed, and may contribute in the future, to substantial fluctuations in our quarterly operating results. Because of these fluctuations, it is possible that in some quarters our operating results will fall below the expectations of securities analysts or investors. If that happens, the market price of our Class A common stock would likely decrease. These fluctuations, among other factors, also mean that our operating results in any particular period may not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Seasonal or cyclical variations in our sales have in the past, and may in the future, become more or less pronounced over time, and have in the past materially affected, and may in the future materially affect, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Additionally, impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic could cause unpredictable temporary or permanent fluctuations in seasonal or cyclical variations as in the second quarter of 2020 in which widespread shutdowns caused a significant decrease in our revenue.
Our reliance on distributors for sales of our products in certain geographies outside of the United States could limit or prevent us from selling our products and impact our revenue.
We sell our products through third-party distributors in Asia, certain regions of Europe, Oceania, South America, the Middle East and Africa. We intend to continue to grow our business internationally and to do so we must attract additional distributors and retain existing distributors to maximize the commercial opportunity for our products. There is no guarantee that we will be successful in attracting or retaining desirable sales and distribution partners or that we will be able to enter into such arrangements on favorable terms. Most of our distribution relationships are non-exclusive and permit such distributors to distribute competing products. As such, our distributors may not commit the necessary resources to market our products to the level of our expectations or may choose to favor marketing the products of our competitors. Additionally, the ability of our distributors to sell and distribute our products has been and may continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. If current or future distributors do
51

not or are unable to perform adequately or if we are unable to enter into effective arrangements with distributors in particular geographic areas, we may not realize long-term international revenue growth.
We rely exclusively on commercial carriers to transport our products, including perishable consumables, to our customers in a timely and cost-efficient manner and if these delivery services are disrupted, our business will be harmed.
Our business depends on our ability to quickly and reliably deliver our products and in particular, our consumables, to our customers. Certain of our consumables are perishable and must be kept below certain temperatures. As such, we ship certain of our refrigerated consumables on dry ice and only ship such consumables on certain days of the week to reach customers on a timely basis. Disruptions in the delivery of our products, whether due to labor disruptions, bad weather, natural disasters, infectious disease, conflict, civil unrest, epidemics or pandemics including COVID-19, outbreaks, terrorist acts or threats or for other reasons could result in delivery delays or our customers receiving consumables that are not fit for usage, and if used, could result in inaccurate results or ruined experiments. While we work with customers to replace any consumables that are impacted by delivery disruptions, our reputation and our business may be adversely impacted even if we replace perished consumables free of charge. In addition, if we are unable to continue to obtain expedited delivery services on commercially reasonable terms, our operating results may be adversely affected.
In addition, should our commercial carriers encounter difficulties in delivering our instruments or consumables to customers, including due to impacts stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly at the end of any financial quarter, it could adversely impact our ability to recognize revenue for those products in that period and accordingly adversely affect our financial results for that period.
We are subject to certain manufacturing restrictions related to licensed technologies that were developed with the financial assistance of United States government grants.
We are subject to certain United States government regulations because we have licensed technologies that were developed with United States government grants. Such licensed technologies are used, for example, in a substantial majority of our consumables. In accordance with these regulations, these licenses provide that products embodying the technologies are subject to domestic manufacturing requirements. If this domestic manufacturing requirement is not met, the government agency that funded the relevant grant is entitled to exercise specified rights (“march-in rights”) which if exercised would allow the government agency to require the licensors or us to grant a non-exclusive, partially exclusive or exclusive license in any field of use to a third-party designated by such agency. The exercise of march-in rights or the termination of our license of the relevant technologies could materially adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition. As of March 31, 2021, all of our products embodying licensed technology subject to march-in rights were manufactured in the United States. While we do not expect to move manufacturing of these products to facilities located outside of the United States, we cannot assure investors that such products will always be manufactured in the United States or that the applicable government agency would grant a waiver of such requirement. These restrictions may limit our ability to manufacture our products in geographies where it may be more economically favorable to do so which could limit our ability to respond to competitive developments or otherwise adversely affect our results of operations.
Doing business internationally creates operational and financial risks for our business.
We currently serve thousands of researchers in many countries and plan to continue to expand to new international jurisdictions as part of our growth strategy. For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately 51% and 45%, respectively, of our revenue was generated from sales to customers located outside of North America. We believe that a significant portion of our future revenue will come from international sources. We sell directly in North America and certain regions of Europe and have a significant portion of our sales and customer service personnel in the United States. We sell our products through third-party distributors in Asia, certain regions of Europe, Oceania, South America, the Middle East and Africa. As a result, we or our distribution partners may be subject to additional regulations. Conducting operations on an international scale requires close coordination of activities across multiple jurisdictions and time zones. If we fail to coordinate and manage these activities effectively, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected and failure to comply with laws and regulations applicable to business operations in foreign jurisdictions may also subject us to significant liabilities and other penalties. International operations entail a variety of other risks, including, without limitation:
challenges in staffing and managing foreign operations;
potentially longer sales cycles and more time required to engage and educate customers on the benefits of our products outside of the United States;
the potential need for localized software, documentation and post-sales support;
52

reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries and practical difficulties of enforcing intellectual property and contract rights abroad;
complexities associated with managing a third-party contract manufacturer located outside of the United States;
United States and foreign government trade restrictions, including those which may impose restrictions on the importation, exportation, re-exportation, sale, shipment or other transfer of programming, technology, components and/or services to foreign persons;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including new tariffs, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, trade embargoes and other trade barriers;
tariffs imposed by the United States on goods from other countries and tariffs imposed by other countries on United States goods, or increases in existing tariffs;
deterioration of political relations between the United States and Canada, China, the United Kingdom and the European Union, which could have a material adverse effect on our sales and operations in these countries;
changes in social, political and economic conditions or in laws, regulations and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development and investment both domestically as well as in the other countries and jurisdictions into which we sell our products, including as a result of the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union;
difficulties in obtaining export licenses or in overcoming other trade barriers and restrictions resulting in delivery delays or our inability to sell our products in certain countries;
natural disasters, infectious diseases, epidemics or pandemics including COVID-19, outbreaks or major catastrophic events;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities; and
significant taxes or other burdens of complying with a variety of foreign laws, including laws relating to privacy and data protection such as the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”).
In conducting our international operations, we are subject to United States laws relating to our international activities, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as well as foreign laws relating to our activities in other countries, such as the United Kingdom Bribery Act of 2010. Additionally, we are subject to laws that prohibit the conduct of business with persons that are subject to “sanctions,” including but not limited to persons listed on the United States Department of Commerce’s List of Denied Persons and the United States Department of Treasury’s Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List. Failure to comply with these laws and other applicable laws may subject us to claims or financial and/or other penalties in the United States and/or foreign countries that could materially and adversely impact our operations or financial condition. These risks have become increasingly prevalent as we have expanded our sales into countries that are generally recognized as having a higher risk of corruption.
Historically, most of our revenue has been denominated in U.S. dollars, although we have sold our products and services in local currency outside of the United States, principally the euro. For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and twelve months ended December 31, 2020, approximately 12% and 16%, respectively, of our sales were denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars. Our expenses are generally denominated in the currencies in which our operations are located, which is primarily in the United States. As our operations in countries outside of the United States grow, our results of operations and cash flows will become increasingly subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, which could harm our business in the future. For example, if the value of the U.S. dollar increases relative to foreign currencies, in the absence of a corresponding change in local currency prices, our revenue could be adversely affected as we convert revenue from local currencies to U.S. dollars. During periods of economic crises, such as fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic, foreign currencies may be devalued significantly against the U.S. dollar, reducing our margins. In addition, because we conduct business in currencies other than U.S. dollars, but report our results of operations in U.S. dollars, we also face remeasurement exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could hinder our ability to predict our future results and earnings and could materially impact our results of operations. We do not currently maintain a program to hedge foreign currency exposures.
Violations of complex foreign and United States laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries, and could also materially affect our brand, our international growth efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, our business and our operating results. Even if we implement policies or procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our distribution partners, our employees, contractors or agents will not violate our policies and subject us to potential claims or penalties.
53

Significant U.K. or European developments stemming from the U.K.’s withdrawal from the European Union could have a material adverse effect on us.
In January 2020, the United Kingdom exited from the European Union (“Brexit”) under the terms of a withdrawal agreement, entering into a “transition period” ending December 31, 2020 during which the existing regulatory regime was essentially the same. The United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union occurred on January 31, 2020. On December 24, 2020, the United Kingdom and the European Union entered into a trade and cooperation agreement (the "Trade and Cooperation Agreement"), which was applied on a provisional basis from January 1, 2021. While the economic integration does not reach the level that existed during the time the United Kingdom was a member state of the European Union, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement sets out preferential arrangements in areas such as trade in goods and in services, digital trade and intellectual property. Negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union are expected to continue in relation to the relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union in certain other areas which are not covered by the Trade and Cooperation Agreement. The long term effects of Brexit on our business in the United Kingdom, the European Union and worldwide will depend on the effects of the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement and any other relevant agreements between the United Kingdom and the European Union.
The events that could occur in the future as a consequence of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal may cause significant volatility in global financial markets, including in global currency and debt markets. This volatility could cause a slowdown in economic activity in the United Kingdom, Europe or globally, which could adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. In addition, our business could be negatively affected by new trade agreements or data transfer agreements between the United Kingdom and other countries, including the United States, and by the possible imposition of trade or other regulatory and immigration barriers in the United Kingdom. In addition, access to European Union research funding by research scientists based in the United Kingdom may be reduced or cut off altogether. It also is unclear whether Brexit may limit the ability or willingness of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council or other funding sources to continue funding genomic or single cell research by local research centers and labs. The impact of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union could negatively impact our revenue as a result of currency fluctuations, a slowdown in research funding or restricted budgets. In addition, the growth of sales in the United Kingdom may be slowed or those sales may even decline as a result of this withdrawal. Additionally, distribution costs for products sold in the United Kingdom may be increased due to trade agreements and incremental importation expenses and it may become more difficult or time-consuming to ship our products into the United Kingdom. These possible negative impacts, and others resulting from the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, the implementation of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, the outcome of further negotiations and the policies, rules and regulations that are adopted as a result, may increase our cost of doing business in Europe, disrupt our European operations and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
The illegal distribution and sale by third parties of counterfeit or unfit versions of our products or stolen products could have a negative impact on our reputation and business.
Third parties might illegally distribute and sell counterfeit or unfit versions of our products, which do not meet our rigorous manufacturing, distribution and quality standards. As we expand our business internationally, we expect to encounter counterfeit versions of our products, particularly our consumables. A researcher who receives and uses counterfeit consumables could obtain erroneous results, experience failed experiments or potentially damage his or her instrument. Our reputation and business could suffer harm as a result of counterfeit products sold under our brand name. In addition, inventory that is stolen from warehouses, plants or while in-transit, and that is subsequently improperly stored and sold through unauthorized channels, could adversely impact our customers’ experiments, our reputation and our business.
Effective as of July 1, 2020, we implemented a new company-wide enterprise resource planning system. Such implementation could adversely affect our business and results of operations or the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.
We implemented a new company-wide enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system in 2020 to handle the business and financial processes within our operations, manufacturing and corporate functions. While we successfully implemented the new ERP system effective July 1, 2020, we may experience operating problems with the ERP system or the ERP system and the associated process changes may not give rise to the benefits that we expect. If the system does not operate as intended or if the benefits we expect to receive from our new ERP system do not materialize, our business, results of operations and internal controls over financial reporting could be adversely affected.
Indebtedness may impair our financial and operating flexibility.
We may incur indebtedness in the future. The debt instruments governing such indebtedness could contain restrictive provisions. If we incur debt, a portion of our cash flows will be needed to satisfy our debt service obligations. While we do not anticipate that
54

we will need to raise additional financing in the future to fund our operations, in the event that additional financing is required, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all. As a result, we would be more vulnerable to general adverse economic, industry and capital markets conditions in addition to the risks associated with indebtedness described in this risk factor.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“SOX”), and the rules and regulations of the applicable listing standards of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”). We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems and resources.
SOX requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file with the SEC is accurately recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended, and anticipate that we will continue to expend, significant resources including accounting-related costs and significant management oversight.
Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. Further, weaknesses in our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we are required to include in our periodic reports. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our Class A common stock. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, we may not be able to remain listed on Nasdaq.
We cannot provide any assurance that significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. If we fail to remediate any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses that may be identified in the future or encounter problems or delays in the implementation of internal controls over financial reporting, we may be unable to conclude that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in our implementation of our internal controls over financial reporting could result in material misstatements that are not prevented or detected on a timely basis, which could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities.
We are required to have an audit of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and could cause a decline in the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Risks related to our regulatory environment and taxation
Ethical, legal, privacy and social concerns or governmental restrictions surrounding the use of the genomic and multi-omic information and gene editing could reduce demand for our products.
While we do not make gene sequencing or gene editing products, our products are used to better understand genomic information that could further gene editing endeavors. For example, our single cell gene expression solutions allow users to examine cells that have been genetically perturbed using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (“CRISPR”) gene editing
55

technology. Advances in genome editing or gene therapy, such as CRISPR Cas9 technology have been subject to negative publicity and increased regulatory scrutiny, in part due to the underlying ethical, legal, privacy and social concerns regarding the use or potential misuse of such technology. Governmental authorities could, for safety, social or other purposes, call for limits on or regulation of technologies and products used in the genome editing or gene therapy fields. Such concerns or governmental restrictions could limit the use of our products. Because the science and technology of genome editing or gene therapy is incredibly complex, any regulations or restrictions placed on such technology or aimed at curtailing its usage could, intentionally or inadvertently, limit or restrict the usage of our products. Any such restrictions or any reduction in usage of our products as a result of concerns regarding the usage of genome editing technology could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our products could become subject to government regulation and the regulatory approval and maintenance process for such products may be expensive, time-consuming and uncertain both in timing and in outcome.
Our products are not subject to the clearance or approval of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), as they are not intended to be used for the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease. However, as we continue to expand our product line and the applications and uses of our existing products into new fields, certain of our current or future products could become subject to regulation by the FDA, or comparable international agencies, including requirements for regulatory clearance or approval of such products before they can be marketed. Such regulatory approval processes or clearances may be expensive, time-consuming and uncertain, and our failure to obtain or comply with such approvals and clearances could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, changes to the current regulatory framework, including the imposition of additional or new regulations, including regulation of our products, could arise at any time during the development or marketing of our products, which may negatively affect our ability to obtain or maintain FDA or comparable regulatory approval of our products, if required. Further, sales of devices for diagnostic purposes may subject us to additional healthcare regulation and enforcement by the applicable government agencies. Such laws include, without limitation, state and federal anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, privacy and security and physician sunshine laws and regulations.
Diagnostic products are regulated as medical devices by the FDA and comparable international agencies and may require either clearance from the FDA following the 510(k) pre-market notification process or pre-market approval from the FDA, in each case prior to marketing. Obtaining the requisite regulatory approvals can be expensive and may involve considerable delay. None of our products are currently regulated as medical devices, however, if our products labeled as “For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures” are used, or could be used, for the diagnosis of disease, the regulatory requirements related to marketing, selling and supporting such products could change or be uncertain, even if such use by our customers is without our consent.
If the FDA or other regulatory authorities assert that any of our products are subject to regulatory clearance or approval, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
Enhanced trade tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, Chinese regulations or other trade barriers may materially harm our business.
We are continuing to expand our international operations as part of our growth strategy and have experienced an increasing concentration of sales in certain regions outside the United States, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, sales outside of North America constituted approximately 47% and 43%, respectively, of our sales revenue and our largest markets outside of North America were China and Germany. There is currently significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and various other countries, most significantly China, with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs.
Additionally, our business may be adversely impacted by retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries. Such measures could include restrictions on our ability to sell or import our instruments and/or consumables into certain countries or have the effect of increasing the prices of our instruments and/or consumables. Although the United States and China signed an interim trade agreement in January 2020 (the “Phase One deal”), the parties are continuing to negotiate a trade agreement. At this time, it is unknown whether the Phase One deal will last, whether there will be sufficient progress on Phases Two and Three to lead to a further reduction in U.S.-China trade tensions and what effect the ultimate trade agreement will have on our business. There are also pressures on the U.S. Administration to retaliate against China over China’s inability to prevent COVID-19 from spreading outside of the country’s borders and China’s actions in Hong Kong, which could lead to additional U.S., Chinese and other tariffs, or a resumption of trade hostilities, exposing us to increased tariffs in the U.S. and Chinese markets. Therefore, it is possible further tariffs may be imposed that could cover imports of the export or sale our instruments and/or consumables, or our business may be adversely impacted by retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries, which could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. The nature of the dispute between the United States and China is evolving and additional products such as ours could become subject to tariffs, which could adversely affect the marketability of
56

our products and our results of operations. Further, the continued threats of tariffs, trade restrictions and trade barriers could have a generally disruptive impact on the global economy and, therefore, negatively impact our sales. Given the relatively fluid regulatory environment in China and the United States and uncertainty how the United States or foreign governments will act with respect to tariffs, international trade agreements and policies, there could be additional tax or other regulatory changes in the future. Any such changes could directly and adversely impact our financial results and results of operations.
Additionally, in November 2018, the United States Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security released an advance notice of proposed rulemaking to control the export of emerging technologies. This notice included “[b]iotechnology, including nanobiology; synthetic biology; genomic and genetic engineering; or neurotech” as possible areas of increased export controls. Therefore, it is possible that our ability to export our products may be restricted in the future.
The imposition of new, or changes in existing, tariffs, trade restrictions, trade barriers, export controls or retaliatory trade measures taken by other countries could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
As of December 31, 2020, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) of $373.7 million and federal tax credit carryforwards of $27.6 million. Our federal NOLs generated after January 1, 2018, which total $258.8 million are carried forward indefinitely, while all of our other federal NOLs and tax credit carryforwards expire beginning in 2032. As of December 31, 2020, we had state NOLs of $188.5 million, which expire beginning in 2030. In addition, we had state tax credit carryforwards of $20.9 million, which carry forward indefinitely. Our ability to utilize such carryforwards for income tax savings is subject to certain conditions and may be subject to certain limitations in the future due to ownership changes as described below. As such, there can be no assurance that we will be able to utilize such carryforwards. We have experienced a history of losses and a lack of future taxable income would adversely affect our ability to utilize these NOLs and research and development credit carryforwards.
Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” will occur if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “5% shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We completed a study through December 31, 2020 to determine whether an ownership change had occurred under Section 382 or 383 of the Code, and we determined that an ownership change occurred in 2013. As a result, our net operating losses generated through November 1, 2013 may be subject to limitation under Section 382 of the Code. The amount of pre-change loss carryforwards which may be subject to this limitation is $4.8 million. In addition, certain attributes are subject to annual limitations as a result of our acquisition of ReadCoor, which constitutes an ownership change. Such limitations may result in expiration of a portion of the carryforwards before utilization. Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards, research and development credit carryforwards and other tax attributes to reduce future taxable income and liabilities may be further limited as a result of future changes in stock ownership. As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carryforwards or other pre-change tax attributes to offset United States federal and state taxable income may still be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us.
We are subject to risks related to taxation in multiple jurisdictions.
We are subject to income taxes in both the United States and foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments based on interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations are required in determining our provision for income taxes. Our effective income tax rate could be adversely affected by various factors, including, but not limited to, changes in the mix of earnings in tax jurisdictions with different statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in existing tax policies, laws, regulations or rates, changes in the level of non-deductible expenses (including share-based compensation), changes in the location of our operations, changes in our future levels of research and development spending, mergers and acquisitions or the result of examinations by various tax authorities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, if the United States Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authority disagrees with the positions taken on our tax returns, we could have additional tax liability, including interest and penalties. If material, payment of such additional amounts upon final adjudication of any disputes could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.
Changes in tax laws or regulations that are applied adversely to us or our customers may have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition or results of operations.
New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time, which could affect the tax treatment of our domestic and foreign earnings. Any new taxes could adversely affect our domestic and international
57

business operations and our business and financial performance. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “TCJA”) significantly revised the Code. This federal income tax law contains significant changes to corporate taxation. In April 2020, recent interpretations of a German law relating to withholding taxes on intellectual property rights emerged. We have completed our evaluation of the overall impact of this recent interpretation of German law and our evaluation of the overall impact of TCJA on our effective tax rate and balance sheet through March 31, 2021 and have reflected the amounts in our financial statements for the quarter ended March 31, 2021.
On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was signed into law. The CARES Act includes provisions relating to net operating loss carryback periods, alternative minimum tax credit refunds, modifications to the net interest deduction limitations and technical corrections to tax depreciation methods for qualified improvement property. These provisions are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Risks related to our intellectual property, information technology, and data security
We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to us. We do not control these technologies and any loss of our rights to them could prevent us from selling our products.
We rely on licenses in order to be able to use various proprietary technologies that are used in a substantial majority of our consumables. We do not own the patents that are the subject matter of these licenses. Our rights to use these patented technologies in our business are subject to the continuation of and compliance with the terms of those licenses.
We may need to license other technologies to commercialize future products. We may also need to negotiate licenses to patents after launching new products. Our business may suffer if the technologies or patents are unavailable for license or if we are unable to enter into necessary licenses on acceptable terms.
Our solutions contain third-party open source software components and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.
Our solutions contain software tools licensed by third parties under open source software licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source software licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source software licenses contain requirements that the licensee make its source code publicly available if the licensee creates modifications or derivative works using the open source software, depending on the type of open source software the licensee uses and how the licensee uses it. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source software licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public for free. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with less development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales and revenue. In addition, some companies that use third-party open source software have faced claims challenging their use of such open source software and their compliance with the terms of the applicable open source license. We may be subject to suits by third parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software, or claiming non-compliance with the applicable open source licensing terms. Use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of such software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to compromise or attempt to compromise our technology platform and systems.
Although we review our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our solutions to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many open source software licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions. Moreover, we cannot assure investors that our processes for monitoring and controlling our use of open source software in our solutions will be effective. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue offering our solutions on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our solutions, to discontinue the sale of our solutions if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis, or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

58

We collect, process, store, share, disclose and use personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulations and other legal obligations related to privacy and security, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.
We collect, process, store, transmit, disclose and use information from our employees, customers and others, including personal information and other data, some of which may be sensitive in nature. There are numerous federal, state and foreign laws and regulations regarding data protection, privacy and security. We strive to comply with applicable laws, our posted policies and legal contractual obligations relating to privacy and data protection. However, the scope of these laws is changing, is subject to differing interpretations, may be costly to comply with and may be inconsistent among countries and jurisdictions or conflict with other rules. Our business, including our ability to operate and expand internationally, could be adversely affected if legislation or regulations are adopted, interpreted or implemented in a manner that is inconsistent with our current business practices and that require changes to these practices.
The global data protection landscape is rapidly evolving and new laws and regulations are likely to be enacted and violations of existing and new laws and regulations may subject companies to significant penalties and fines, government investigations and/or enforcement actions, private litigation and other claims. For example, the European Union’s adoption of the GDPR introduced stringent requirements for processing personal data. The GDPR is likely to increase compliance burdens on us, including by mandating potentially burdensome documentation requirements and granting certain rights to individuals to control how we collect, use, disclose, retain and leverage information about them or how we obtain consent from them. The processing of sensitive personal data, such as physical health condition, may impose heightened compliance burdens under the GDPR and is a topic of active interest among foreign regulators. In addition, the GDPR provides for breach reporting requirements, more robust regulatory enforcement and greater penalties for noncompliance than previous data protection laws, including fines of up to €20 million or 4% of a noncompliant company’s global annual revenue for the preceding financial year, whichever is greater. As we continue to expand into other foreign countries and jurisdictions, we may be subject to additional laws and regulations that may affect how we conduct business.
In the United States, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which came into effect on January 1, 2020 and limits and imposes requirements on how we may collect and use personal information and provides for civil penalties for violations and a private right of action for data breaches. In addition, in November 2020, Californians approved Proposition 24, that was also known as the California Privacy Rights Act (the "CPRA"). The CPRA modifies and expands the CCPA and established a new California Privacy Protection Agency. While the CPRA extended the current CCPA exemption of employment and business-to-business data until January 1, 2023, it also established January 1, 2023 as the new compliance date for most of the other substantive provisions that companies doing business in California must be prepared to meet. In addition to applying to businesses that buy and sell personal information the CPRA applies to businesses that buy, sell or share personal information and sets forth a new category of "sensitive personal information" that includes, genetic data; biometric or health information; and sex life or sexual orientation information. In addition to the modifications that enhance individuals' rights under the CCPA, the CPRA added five more rights, including the authority for the State to regulate the requirement for businesses to conduct risk assessments and cybersecurity audits. There is still a significant amount of uncertainty with respect to the CPRA's three-year compliance roll-out and the impact it will have on us and others in our industry, however, we expect to incur increased compliance costs and may be subject to increased potential liability in the event we fail to comply. Similar privacy and data protection laws have also been proposed in other states and at the federal level.
Any failure or perceived failure by us or our vendors or partners to comply with these laws and regulations, our privacy and notice policies, our privacy-related obligations to employees, customers or other third parties or privacy or security-related legal obligations, or any actual or perceived compromise of security that results in the unauthorized access to or disclosure, alteration, theft, loss, transfer or use of personal or other information, including personally identifiable information or other sensitive data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, fines and penalties, litigation or public statements critical of us by consumer advocacy groups or others and could cause our customers, partners or others to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our business.
If we experience a significant disruption in our information technology systems or breaches of data security, our business could be adversely affected.
We rely on information technology systems to keep financial records, facilitate our research and development initiatives, manage our manufacturing operations, maintain quality control, fulfill customer orders, maintain corporate records, communicate with staff and external parties and operate other critical functions. Our information technology systems are potentially vulnerable to disruption due to breakdown, malicious intrusion, computer viruses, worms, ransomware or other disruptive events including but not limited to natural disasters and catastrophes. Cyberattacks and other malicious internet-based activity continue to increase and cloud-based platform providers of services have been and are expected to continue to be targeted. In addition to traditional
59

computer “hackers,” malicious code (such as viruses, worms and ransomware), employee theft or misuse, denial-of-service attacks and sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors now engage in attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions). Despite significant efforts to create security barriers to such threats, it is virtually impossible for us to entirely mitigate these risks. If our security measures are compromised as a result of third-party action, employee or customer error, malfeasance, stolen or fraudulently obtained log-in credentials or otherwise, our reputation could be damaged, our business may be harmed and we could incur significant liability. If we were to experience a prolonged system disruption in our information technology systems or those of certain of our vendors, it could negatively impact our ability to serve our customers, which could adversely impact our business. If operations at our facilities were disrupted, it may cause a material disruption in our business if we are not capable of restoring functionality on an acceptable timeframe. In addition, our information technology systems (and those of our vendors and partners) are potentially vulnerable to data security breaches, whether by internal bad actors (e.g., employees) or external bad actors (attacks of which are becoming increasingly sophisticated, including social engineering and phishing scams), which could lead to the exposure of personal data, sensitive data and confidential information to unauthorized persons. Such data security breaches could lead to the loss of trade secrets or other intellectual property, or could lead to the exposure of personal information (including sensitive personal information) of our employees, customers and others, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
We have not always been able in the past and may be unable in the future to anticipate or prevent techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to compromise our systems because the techniques used change frequently and are generally not detected until after an incident has occurred. Concerns regarding data privacy and security may cause some of our customers to stop using our solutions. This discontinuance in use could substantially harm our business, operating results and growth prospects.
In addition, any such access, disclosure or other loss or unauthorized use of information or data could result in legal claims or proceedings, regulatory investigations or actions, and other types of liability under laws that protect the privacy and security of personal information, including federal, state and foreign data protection and privacy regulations, violations of which could result in significant penalties and fines. In addition, although we seek to detect and investigate all data security incidents, security breaches and other incidents of unauthorized access to our information technology systems and data can be difficult to detect and any delay in identifying such breaches or incidents may lead to increased harm and legal exposure of the type described above.
In March 2020, we experienced an attempted ransomware attack in which cybercriminals were able to access our information technology systems. While we isolated the source of the attack and restored normal operations with no material day-to-day impact to us or our ability to access our data, we have reason to believe confidential information was stolen. We believe the attempted ransomware attack could lead to the disclosure of our trade secrets or other intellectual property, or could lead to the exposure of personal information of our employees. The release of any of this information could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the March 2020 attempted ransomware attack could result in legal claims or proceedings, regulatory investigations or actions, and other types of liability under laws that protect the privacy and security of personal information, including federal, state and foreign data protection and privacy regulations, violations of which could result in significant judgements against us, penalties and fines.
The cost of investigating, mitigating and responding to potential data security breaches and complying with applicable breach notification obligations to individuals, regulators, partners and others, including the March 2020 attempted ransomware attack, could be significant. Our insurance policies may not be adequate to compensate us for the potential costs and other losses arising from such disruptions, failures, attempted attacks or security breaches. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all. Further, defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management attention and harm our reputation.
We rely on on-premise, co-located and third-party data centers and platforms to host our website and other online services, as well as for research and development purposes and any interruptions of service or failures may impair and harm our business.
Our proprietary software is a crucial component of our solutions, as our software allows our end users to visualize genomic and multi-omic information provided by our instruments and reagents. Our software is generally downloadable free of charge from our website for installation and use by end users on their computer systems. Our website is hosted with various third-party service providers located in the United States. We rely on on-premises, co-located and third-party infrastructure in the San Francisco Bay Area and other regions in the United States to perform computationally demanding analysis tasks for our research and development programs and for other business purposes.
60

In the event of any technical problems that may arise in connection with our on-premise, co-located or third-party data centers, we could experience interruptions in our ability to provide products and services to our customers or in our internal functions, including research and development, which rely on such services. Interruptions or failures may be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, viruses, worms, ransomware, security attacks, fraud, spikes in customer usage and denial of service issues. Interruptions or failures in our operations or services may reduce our revenue, result in the loss of customers, adversely affect our ability to attract new customers or harm our reputation. Significant interruptions to our research and development programs could cause us to delay the introduction of new products or improvements to existing products, which could adversely impact our business, our results of operations and the competitiveness of our products.
Our current solutions are capable of generating large datasets, the analysis of which can be time consuming without access to a high-performance computing system. The visualization of such data can also be computationally intensive. As we iterate and improve our products and as the related technologies advance, our continued growth may require an ability to provide our customers with direct access to a high-performance computing system and/or alternative means of obtaining our software. As a result, we expect our reliance on internal and third-party data centers to increase in the future.
Further, as we rely on third-party and public-cloud infrastructure, we will depend in part on third-party security measures to protect against unauthorized access, cyberattacks and the mishandling of customer data. In addition, failures to meet customers’ expectations with respect to security and confidentiality of their data and information could damage our reputation and affect our ability to retain customers, attract new customers and grow our business. In addition, a cybersecurity event could result in significant increases in costs, including costs for remediating the effects of such an event, lost revenue due to a decrease in customer trust and network downtime; increases in insurance coverage due to cybersecurity incidents; and damages to our reputation because of any such incident.
Risks related to litigation and our intellectual property
We are involved in significant litigation which has consumed significant resources and management time and adverse resolution of these lawsuits could require us to pay significant damages, and prevent us from selling our products, which would severely adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our success depends in part on our non-infringement of the patents or proprietary rights of third parties. Third parties have asserted, are currently asserting, and may in the future assert that our products infringe patents that they have obtained and may in the future obtain. We have incurred and could incur substantial costs and divert the attention of our management and technical personnel in defending ourselves against any of these claims. Any adverse ruling or perception of an adverse ruling in defending ourselves against these claims could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Furthermore, parties making claims against us have obtained, are currently seeking, and may in the future be able to obtain injunctive or other relief, which effectively could block our ability to further develop, commercialize, market or sell products or services and have resulted and could in the future result in the award of substantial damages against us. In the event of a successful infringement claim against us, we may be required to pay damages and obtain one or more licenses from third parties or be prohibited from selling certain products or services. In addition, we may be unable to obtain these licenses at a reasonable cost, if at all. We could therefore incur substantial costs related to royalty payments for licenses obtained from third parties, which could negatively affect our gross margins and earnings per share. In addition, we could encounter delays in product introductions while we attempt to develop alternative methods or products. Defense of any lawsuit or failure to obtain any of these licenses on favorable terms could prevent us from commercializing products and the prohibition of sale of any of our products or services could adversely affect our ability to grow or achieve or maintain profitability. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, lawsuits brought against us may result in decreased demand for our products, injury to our reputation and increased insurance costs.
We have been involved in multiple patent litigation matters in the past several years and we expect that given the litigious history of our industry and the high profile of operating as a public company, other third parties, in addition to the parties identified herein, may claim that our products infringe their intellectual property rights. Our success depends in part on our ability to defend ourselves against such claims and maintain the validity of our patents and other proprietary rights.
In particular, we are currently involved in the following litigation matters related to substantially all of our Chromium products, the loss of any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, financial results and reputation. Beginning in 2015, Bio-Rad has filed six separate patent infringement cases against substantially all of our Chromium products, including instruments and consumables. These litigations are generally distinct and involve different Bio-Rad patents, however, the patents asserted by Bio-Rad in the U.S. International Trade Commission (“ITC”) are also asserted in the district court case filed in the Northern District of California.

61

The details of these litigation matters are described below:
The 2015 Delaware Action
In February 2015, Raindance Technologies, Inc. (“Raindance”) and the University of Chicago filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware (the “Delaware Court”), accusing the Company's legacy GEM products of infringing certain U.S. patents owned by or exclusively licensed to Raindance (the “2015 Delaware Action”). In May 2017, Bio-Rad was substituted as the plaintiff following its acquisition of Raindance. A jury trial was held in November 2018. The jury found that the accused legacy GEM products infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,304,193, 8,329,407 and 8,889,083. The jury also concluded that our infringement was willful and awarded Bio-Rad approximately $24 million in damages through June 30, 2018. We appealed the jury verdict. Post-trial, Bio-Rad moved for a permanent injunction, treble damages for willful infringement, attorneys’ fees, supplemental damages for the period from the second quarter of 2018 through the end of the trial as well as pre- and post-judgment interest.
The Court denied Bio-Rad’s request for attorneys’ fees and enhanced damages for willful infringement. The Court awarded supplemental damages for the period from the second quarter of 2018 through the end of trial as well as pre- and post-judgment interest. The Court entered final judgment against us in the amount of approximately $35 million in August 2019.
In the fourth quarter of 2018, we began recording an accrual for estimated royalties as a cost of revenue. This accrual is based on an estimated royalty rate of 15% of worldwide sales of our Chromium instruments operating our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables. As of March 31, 2021, we had accrued a total of $44.8 million relating to this matter which includes our estimated 15% royalty for subsequent sales through that date.
In July 2019, the Court also granted Bio-Rad a permanent injunction against our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables that were found to infringe the Bio-Rad patents, which historically constituted a significant amount of our product sales. However, under the injunction, we are permitted to continue to sell our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables for use with our historical installed base of instruments provided that we pay into escrow a royalty of 15% of our net revenue related to such sales occurring after August 28, 2019. We appealed the Court's judgment including the injunction to the Federal Circuit.
In August 2020, the Federal Circuit issued its opinion in our appeal of the 2015 Delaware Action. The Federal Circuit (1) affirmed the judgment of the lower Court with respect to infringement of the '083 patent by our legacy GEM products and (2) vacated the judgment with respect to infringement of the '193 and '407 patents, which are remanded to the lower Court for a new trial on infringement. The Federal Circuit affirmed the damages award including the 15% royalty with respect to our legacy GEM products. The Federal Circuit vacated the injunction with respect to our Single Cell CNV and Linked-Read products but affirmed the injunction with respect to our other legacy GEM products. In October 2020, we filed a petition for en banc rehearing with the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit denied our petition for en banc rehearing on November 4, 2020. We paid the $34.5 million judgment, plus approximately $0.8 million in post-judgment interest, to Bio-Rad on December 17, 2020. The case was remanded to the Delaware Court for a determination of post-judgment royalties or other amounts, which we expect in the second half of 2021.
Neither the lower Court judgment nor the Federal Circuit opinion in the 2015 Delaware Action implicate our Next GEM products. We have dedicated significant resources to designing and manufacturing our Next GEM microfluidic chips which use fundamentally different physics from our legacy GEM microfluidic chips. Neither the jury verdict nor the injunction relate to our Next GEM microfluidic chips based on our new proprietary design and associated consumables which we launched in May 2019 for three of our single cell solutions – Single Cell Gene Expression, Single Cell Immune Profiling and Single Cell ATAC. Since August 28, 2019, all Chromium instruments that we sell and have sold operate exclusively with our Next GEM solutions and we have substantially completed the transition of our customers to our Next GEM microfluidic chips and associated consumables.
Although our Next GEM microfluidic chips were designed to replace our legacy GEM microfluidic chips, we cannot assure you that we will be able to make our Next GEM microfluidic chip work with all of our solutions, that our Next GEM microfluidic chip will allow our customers to maintain the level of performance or quality of our legacy GEM microfluidic chip, that our Next GEM microfluidic chip will replace the sales of the legacy GEM microfluidic chip or that we will be able to manufacture the Next GEM microfluidic chips in sufficient volumes in a timely fashion. Our Next GEM microfluidic chips may be subject to future claims of infringement by Bio-Rad or others and are currently the subject of the litigation described in this risk factor. While we believe that our Chromium solutions, when used with our Next GEM microfluidic chip, would not infringe the asserted Bio-Rad patents, we cannot assure you that our Next GEM microfluidic chip would not become subject to additional patent infringement litigation, which could prevent us from making, selling and importing our Next GEM microfluidic chips. In addition, it is possible
62

that Bio-Rad could, in the future, claim that our continued sale of products violates orders issued by the court and request that the court impose sanctions or other penalties on us for such violations.
In addition, we have not developed Next GEM microfluidic chips for our Single Cell CNV and Linked-Read solutions. Although the Federal Circuit recently vacated the injunction with respect to our Single Cell CNV and Linked-Read solutions, we have not yet released a new version of our instrument that would allow our customers to use these solutions using our legacy GEM microfluidic chip.  
Also in 2015, we filed multiple petitions for inter partes review (“IPR”) at the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB”) of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) against Raindance and the University of Chicago relating to the patents asserted in the 2015 Delaware Action, including U.S. Patent Nos. 7,129,091, 8,658,430, 8,304,193, 8,273,573, 8,329,407, 8,889,083 and 8,822,148. Among these proceedings, all the claims in the ‘430 patent were determined by the PTAB to be invalid, all the claims in the ‘573 patent were canceled, and our invalidity challenges to the remaining Bio-Rad patents were unsuccessful. Accordingly, we may be precluded from challenging the ‘091, ‘193, ‘407 and ‘148 patents at the PTAB in the future as a result of these decisions. Further, because all the claims in the ‘083 patent survived the IPR challenge, we will be precluded from making certain invalidity challenges to this patent at the PTAB, or in a district court or ITC litigation in the future.
The ITC 1068 Action
On July 31, 2017, Bio-Rad and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC filed a complaint against us in the ITC pursuant to Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, alleging that substantially all of our Chromium products infringe U.S. Patents Nos. 9,089,844, 9,126,160, 9,500,664, 9,636,682 and 9,649,635 (the “ITC 1068 Action”). Bio-Rad is seeking an exclusion order preventing us from importing the accused microfluidic chips, including (1) our legacy GEM microfluidic chip, (2) our gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chip and (3) our Next GEM microfluidic chip, into the United States and a cease and desist order preventing us from selling such imported chips. An evidentiary hearing for the ITC 1068 Action was held in May 2018 and the presiding judge issued an Initial Determination in September 2018, finding that our legacy GEM microfluidic chips infringe the ‘664, ‘682 and ‘635 patents but not the ‘160 patent. The judge further found that our gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chip and Next GEM microfluidic chip do not infringe any claim asserted against them (the “Initial Determination”). The judge recommended entry of an exclusion order preventing us from importing our legacy GEM microfluidic chips and a cease and desist order that would prevent us from selling such imported chips.
On December 18, 2019, the ITC issued its final determination in the ITC 1068 Action (the “Final Determination”). The Final Determination affirmed the Initial Determination that our Next GEM microfluidic chips and gel bead manufacturing microfluidic chips do not infringe any of the claims asserted against them. The Final Determination also affirmed the ruling that our legacy GEM microfluidic chips infringe the ‘664, ‘682 and ‘635 patents but not the ‘160 patent. The ITC issued (1) a limited exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed importation of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips into the United States and (2) a cease and desist order preventing us from selling such imported legacy GEM microfluidic chips in the United States. The ITC expressly allowed the importation and sale of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips for use by researchers who were using such chips as of December 18, 2019, and who have a documented need to continue receiving such chips for a specific current ongoing research project for which that need cannot be met by any alternative product. The Final Determination was subject to a 60-day presidential review period. During the presidential review period, we were permitted to continue importation and sales of the legacy GEM microfluidic chips subject to payment of a bond of three (3) percent of the entered value of the accused microfluidic chips.
We and Bio-Rad have appealed the Final Determination to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Bio-Rad has appealed the Final Determination with respect to non-infringement of our gel bead manufacturing chips, but not with respect to non-infringement of our Next GEM microfluidic chips. We have appealed the Final Determination with respect to infringement of our legacy GEM microfluidic chips. Oral argument was held on April 7, 2021. We expect a decision around the fourth quarter of 2021.
In order to allow our customers to continue their important research, we have dedicated significant resources to developing the capabilities to manufacture our microfluidic chips in the United States prior to the entry of the exclusion order or cease and desist order which took effect in February 2020. Prior to the second quarter of 2019, all of our microfluidic chips were manufactured outside of the United States. Our United States manufacturing facilities achieved volume production of certain of our legacy GEM microfluidic chips beginning in the third quarter of 2019. We cannot assure investors that our U.S. manufacturing facilities can produce our microfluidic chips to the same level of functionality, quality or quantity as our current foreign manufacturer. Moreover, Bio-Rad has also filed other suits against us, including in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, which is discussed separately below. If Bio-Rad succeeds in obtaining an injunction in the district court case or any of the other
63

cases, we could be prohibited from selling our legacy GEM microfluidic chips, regardless of where they are manufactured. If we are prohibited from selling our legacy GEM microfluidic chips, our business, operations, financial results and reputation would be significantly adversely impacted.
In addition, it is possible that Bio-Rad could, in the future, file enforcement proceedings claiming that we have violated the exclusion order and/or cease and desist order entered in the ITC 1068 Action and requesting that the ITC impose sanctions or other penalties on us for such violations. Our Next GEM microfluidic chips could also become subject to other patent infringement litigations. If we are prohibited from selling our Next GEM microfluidic chips, our business, operations, financial results and reputation would be significantly adversely impacted.
The Northern District of California Action
On July 31, 2017, Bio-Rad and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC also filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that the Company’s legacy GEM products infringe U.S. Patents Nos. 9,216,392, 9,347,059 and the five patents asserted in the ITC 1068 Action. The complaint seeks injunctive relief, unspecified monetary damages, costs and attorneys’ fees. This litigation has been stayed pending resolution of the Federal Circuit appeal of the ITC 1068 Action. In July 2020, Bio-Rad moved to lift the stay with respect to the '059 patent and consolidate the '059 patent with the '115 patent transferred from the District of Massachusetts which is being asserted against our Next GEM products. In August 2020, the Court denied Bio-Rad's motion to lift the stay with respect to both the '059 and '115 patents. In October 2020, the Company filed two petitions for IPR challenging the validity of the ‘115 patent. The Company expects the PTAB to issue a decision on institution of these IPR petitions in the second quarter of 2021.
The Germany Action
On February 13, 2018, Bio-Rad filed suit against us in Germany in the Munich Region Court alleging that our Chromium instruments, legacy GEM microfluidic chips and certain accessories infringe German Utility Model No. DE 20 2011 110 979. Bio-Rad seeks unspecified damages and an injunction prohibiting sales of these products in Germany and requiring us to recall these products sold in Germany subsequent to February 11, 2018. An initial hearing was held on November 27, 2018, and a subsequent hearing was held on May 15, 2019. The Court issued a ruling on November 20, 2019. The Court ruled that our legacy GEM microfluidic chips, as well as certain Chromium instruments and accessories used with legacy GEM microfluidic chips, infringed the German Utility Model. The Court issued an injunction with respect to such legacy GEM microfluidic chips, Chromium instruments and accessories used with such systems, prohibiting among other things the sale of these products in Germany and the importation of such products into Germany. The Court found that we are obligated to compensate Bio-Rad for unspecified damages and required that these products be recalled from distribution channels in Germany. The Court further found that we have to bear the statutory costs of the legal dispute in a minimum amount of at least 61,000 Euros. The Court’s ruling did not address our Next GEM products, which were not accused in this action and which constitute substantially all of our Chromium sales in Germany. The Company appealed the Court's ruling.
On April 6, 2020, the Munich Higher Regional Court (the “Higher Court”) issued a ruling staying enforcement of the ruling of the lower Court, including the injunction, subject to the payment of a bond by the Company. The Higher Court found that the lower Court’s claim construction was not justifiable and that the facts did not provide a basis for a finding of infringement. On April 16, 2020, we paid a 2.8 million Euro bond to the Higher Court to completely stay enforcement of the ruling. The bond is refundable upon a favorable ruling on the merits by the Higher Court. We expect the Higher Court to rule on the merits in 2021. In August 2020, Bio-Rad filed its appeal response arguing for the first time that our Next GEM microfluidic chips and certain accessories infringe the utility model. In its appeal response, Bio-Rad also attempted to add infringement allegations with respect to a new patent, European Patent No. 3 132 844, against our Chromium instruments and Next GEM microfluidic chips. We believe it is procedurally improper to attempt to add these new claims at this stage, that our Next GEM products are not covered by the lower court's judgment and are not admissible in the appeal, and that the newly asserted '844 patent is not admissible in the appeal. The Higher Court is not expected to rule on whether Next GEM products or the '844 patent are admissible in the appeal until around the fourth quarter of 2021.
The 2018 Delaware Action
On October 25, 2018, Bio-Rad filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, alleging that substantially all of our Chromium products, including our legacy GEM products and Next GEM products, infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 9,562,837 and 9,896,722. Bio-Rad seeks injunctive relief, unspecified monetary damages, costs and attorneys’ fees.
In October 2019, we filed four petitions for IPR challenging the validity of both asserted patents. On April 27, 2020, the PTAB instituted review on all four of these petitions. On April 26, 2021, the PTAB issued final written decisions on all four IPRs
64

invalidating the majority of the asserted claims of the ‘837 and ‘722 patents but maintaining the validity of claim 8 of the '837 patent and claims 15-17 of the '722 patent. The Company expects to seek rehearing of and/or appeal the decision with respect to the claims found to be valid.
In June 2020, the Court completely stayed the District of Delaware litigation pending resolution of the IPRs before the PTAB.
If we are found to infringe these patents or if we are prohibited from selling our products, our business, operations, financial results and reputation could be significantly adversely impacted.
The Massachusetts Action
On September 11, 2019, Bio-Rad filed suit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, alleging that our Next GEM products infringe certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 8,871,444. On November 5, 2019, Bio-Rad amended the complaint to additionally allege that our Next GEM products infringe certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 9,919,277 and 10,190,115. The ‘444 and ‘277 patents are exclusively licensed by Bio-Rad from Harvard University, which subsequently joined the suit as a party plaintiff. Bio-Rad is seeking damages and an injunction against our Next GEM products amongst other remedies. The ‘444 and ‘277 patents are projected to expire in October 2024.
On December 18, 2019, Bio-Rad dismissed this action in the District of Delaware and refiled it in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts. The case was assigned to Judge William G. Young. On January 14, 2020, the Court consolidated this case with a separate action, Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc. et al. v. Stilla Technologies, Inc. (“Stilla”), in which Bio-Rad is asserting the ‘444 patent (among other patents) against Stilla’s droplet digital PCR product. On January 23, 2020, we filed a motion to dismiss the case and to transfer the ‘115 patent to the Northern District of California, where the related ‘059 patent is stayed.
On January 24, 2020, we filed antitrust counterclaims against Bio-Rad alleging violations of (a) Section 7 of the Clayton Act, (b) Section 2 of the Sherman Act and (c) California unfair competition laws, for illegally acquiring Raindance and illegally monopolizing or attempting to monopolize markets relating to droplet digital PCR products, droplet single cell products and droplet genetic analysis technology. On February 19, 2020, Bio-Rad moved to dismiss, or alternatively to stay and sever, our antitrust claims.
On February 5, 2020, we filed additional counterclaims against Bio-Rad alleging that Bio-Rad’s single cell ATAC-seq products infringe U.S. Patent No. 9,029,085 and 9,850,526 that are exclusively licensed to us from Harvard University. On February 26, 2020, Bio-Rad moved to sever and stay the patent counterclaims. On March 6, 2020, the Court denied the motion to stay and deferred the motion to sever until prior to trial.
On March 25, 2020, the Court held a hearing with respect to (a) our motion to dismiss Bio-Rad’s patent claims, (b) our motion to transfer the ‘115 patent and (c) Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss our antitrust counterclaims. On April 30, 2020, the Court denied our motion to dismiss with respect to Bio-Rad’s patent claims and granted our motion to transfer the ‘115 patent to the Northern District of California. In August 2020, the Court granted Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss (i) our Sherman Act and Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet single cell products and (ii) our Sherman Act counterclaims with respect to droplet genetic analysis technology. The Court denied Bio-Rad’s motion to dismiss (i) our Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet genetic analysis technology; (ii) our Sherman Act and Clayton Act counterclaims with respect to droplet digital PCR products; and (iii) our California unfair competition counterclaims.
Discovery is ongoing. A Markman hearing was conducted in September 2020. In December 2020, the Court ordered the parties to be ready for trial for Bio-Rad’s patent claims and our patent counterclaims in July 2021 and for our antitrust counterclaims in September 2021.
In June 2020, we filed two petitions for IPR challenging the validity of the '444 patent. In August 2020, we filed two petitions for IPR challenging the validity of the '277 patent. On January 13, 2021, the PTAB denied institution of IPRs for the '444 patent. On February 22, 2021, the PTAB denied institution of IPRs for the '277 patent.
If we are found to infringe the asserted patents or if we are prohibited from selling our products, our business, operations, financial results and reputation could be significantly adversely impacted.

65

We are involved in lawsuits to protect, enforce or defend our patents and other intellectual property rights, which are expensive, time consuming and could ultimately be unsuccessful.
The ITC 1100 Action
On January 11, 2018, we filed a complaint against Bio-Rad at the ITC pursuant to Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 alleging that Bio-Rad infringes our U.S. Patent Nos. 9,644,204, 9,689,024, 9,695,468 and 9,856,530 (the “ITC 1100 Action”). The judge issued an Initial Determination on July 12, 2019 finding that Bio-Rad’s ddSEQ products infringe the ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents. The judge also found all of our asserted patents to be valid and rejected Bio-Rad’s claim of ownership in all of the asserted patents.
On February 12, 2020, the ITC issued its Final Determination affirming the judge’s findings with respect to Bio-Rad’s violation of the ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents, including the judge’s findings for those patents with respect to infringement, validity and ownership. The ITC issued an exclusion order prohibiting Bio-Rad from importing into the United States infringing microfluidic devices, components thereof and products containing same, including the ddSEQ products. The ITC also issued a cease and desist order preventing Bio-Rad from selling such imported products in the United States. The ITC’s remedial orders do not identify any ddSEQ assay as exempted from their potential scope. The ITC orders do not prohibit the importation or sale of microfluidic consumables imported into the U.S. for use by researchers who are using such consumables as of February 12, 2020, and who have a documented need to continue receiving such consumables for a specific current ongoing research project for which that need cannot be met by any alternative product. The Final Determination is subject to a 60-day presidential review period.  On April 29, 2020, Bio-Rad appealed the Final Determination to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Oral argument was held on March 11, 2021. Oral argument was held on March 11, 2021. On April 29, 2021, the Federal Circuit issued its decision completely affirming the Final Determination of the ITC, including its findings with respect to infringement, validity and ownership.
Also in January 2018, we filed a related but separate suit against Bio-Rad in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that Bio-Rad infringes the ‘204, ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents. The ‘204, ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents generally relate to gel bead reagents that are used in our Chromium products, which historically have constituted a significant amount of our current sales. This litigation has been stayed pending resolution of the ITC 1100 Action.
In January 2019, Bio-Rad also filed petitions for IPR of the ‘024, ‘468 and ‘530 patents at the PTAB seeking to invalidate these patents. In July and August of 2019, the PTAB denied institution of all of these Bio-Rad IPR petitions.
The Nanostring Action

On May 6, 2021, we filed suit against Nanostring Technologies, Inc. ("Nanostring") in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that Nanostring's GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiler and associated instruments and reagents infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 10,472,669, 10,662,467, 10,961,566, 10,983,113, and 10,996,219.
In addition to the litigation and legal proceedings discussed above, we are currently and may in the future be a party to other litigation or legal proceedings to determine the scope and validity of our intellectual property, which, if resolved adversely to us, could invalidate or render unenforceable our intellectual property or generally preclude us from restraining, enjoining or otherwise seeking to exclude competitors from commercializing products using technology developed or used by us. For example, our patents and any patents which we in-license may be challenged, narrowed, invalidated or circumvented. If patents we own or license are invalidated or otherwise limited, other companies may be better able to develop products that compete with ours, which would adversely affect our competitive position, business prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
The following are examples of litigation and other adversarial proceedings or disputes that we could become a party to involving our patents or patents licensed to us:
we have initiated, and in the future may initiate, litigation or other proceedings against third parties to enforce our patent rights;
third parties have initiated, and in the future may initiate, litigation or other proceedings seeking to invalidate patents owned by or licensed to us or to obtain a declaratory judgment that their product or technology does not infringe our patents or patents licensed to us or that such patents are invalid or unenforceable;
third parties have initiated, and in the future may initiate, oppositions, IPRs, post grant reviews or reexamination proceedings challenging the validity or scope of our patent rights, requiring us and/or licensors to participate in such proceedings to defend the validity and scope of our patents;
66

there are, and in the future may be, more challenges or disputes regarding inventorship or ownership of patents currently identified as being owned by or licensed to us; or
at our initiation or at the initiation of a third-party, the USPTO may initiate an interference between patents or patent applications owned by or licensed to us and those of our competitors, requiring us and/or licensors to participate in an interference proceeding to determine the priority of invention, which could jeopardize our patent rights.
Furthermore, many of our employees were previously employed at universities or other life sciences companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. We or our employees may be subject to claims that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Although no such claims are currently pending, litigation may be necessary to defend against such claims if they arise in the future. If we fail to successfully defend such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may be subject to injunctive relief and lose valuable intellectual property rights. A loss of key research personnel work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize certain potential products, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property effectively, our business would be harmed.
We rely on patent protection as well as trademark, copyright, trade secret and other intellectual property rights protection and contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary technologies, all of which provide limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. Worldwide we own or exclusively license over 330 issued or allowed patents and over 660 pending patent applications as of December 31, 2020. We also license additional patents on a non-exclusive and/or territory restricted basis. We continue to file new patent applications to attempt to obtain further legal protection of the full range of our technologies. If we fail to protect our intellectual property, third parties may be able to compete more effectively against us and we may incur substantial litigation costs in our attempts to recover or restrict the use of our intellectual property.
Our success depends in part on obtaining patent protection for our products and processes, preserving trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks, operating without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties and acquiring licenses for technology or products. We may exercise our business judgment and choose to relinquish rights in trade secrets by filing applications that disclose and describe our inventions and certain trade secrets when we seek patent protection for certain of our products and technology. We cannot assure investors that any of our currently pending or future patent applications will result in issued patents and we cannot predict how long it will take for such patents to be issued. Further, in some cases, we have only filed provisional patent applications on certain aspects of our products and technologies and each of these provisional patent applications is not eligible to become an issued patent until, among other things, we file a non-provisional patent application within 12 months of the filing date of the applicable provisional patent application. Such provisional patents may not become issued patents for a variety of reasons, including our failure to file a non-provisional patent application within the permitted timeframe or a decision that doing so no longer makes business or financial sense. Publications of discoveries in scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot know with certainty whether we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our owned or licensed patents or pending patent applications, or that we were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain, despite the importance of seeking patent protection in our industry.
Further, we cannot assure investors that other parties will not challenge any patents issued to us or that courts or regulatory agencies will hold our patents to be valid or enforceable. We cannot guarantee investors that we will be successful in defending challenges made against our patents and patent applications, even if we spend significant resources defending such challenges. Any successful third-party challenge to our patents could result in the unenforceability or invalidity of such patents and could deprive us of the ability to prevent others from using the technologies claimed in such issued patents.
Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the United States or other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property. We cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowed or enforced in our patents or in third-party patents.
In addition to pursuing patents on our technology, we take steps to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology by entering into confidentiality agreements and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, corporate partners and, when needed, our advisors. Such agreements may not be enforceable or may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure or other breaches of the agreements and we may not be able to prevent such unauthorized disclosure. Monitoring unauthorized disclosure is difficult
67

and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to prevent such disclosure are, or will be, adequate. If we were to enforce a claim that a third-party had illegally obtained and was using our trade secrets, it would be expensive and time consuming and the outcome would be unpredictable.
We also seek trademark registration to protect key trademarks such as our 10X, CHROMIUM and VISIUM marks, however, we have not yet registered all of our trademarks in all of our current and potential markets. If we apply to register these trademarks, our applications may not be allowed for registration and our registered trademarks may not be maintained or enforced. In addition, opposition or cancellation proceedings may be filed against our trademark applications and registrations and our trademarks may not survive such proceedings. If we do not secure registrations for our trademarks, we may encounter more difficulty in enforcing them against third parties than we otherwise would.
With respect to all categories of intellectual property protection, our competitors could purchase our products and attempt to replicate some or all of the competitive advantages we derive from our development efforts, willfully infringe our intellectual property rights, design around our protected technology or develop their own competitive technologies that fall outside of our intellectual property rights. In addition, competitors may develop their own versions of our products in countries where we did not apply for patents, where our patents have not issued or where our intellectual property rights are not recognized and compete with us in those countries and markets.
The laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States and many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents. The legal systems in certain countries may also favor state-sponsored or companies headquartered in particular jurisdictions over our first-in-time patents and other intellectual property protection. We are aware of incidents where such entities have stolen the intellectual property of domestic companies in order to create competing products and we believe we may face such circumstances ourselves in the future. In the Office of the United States Trade Representative (“USTR”) annual “Special 301” Report released in 2019, the adequacy and effectiveness of intellectual property protection in a number of foreign countries were analyzed. A number of countries in which both we and our distributors operate are identified in the report as being on the Priority Watch List. In China, for instance, the USTR noted a range of IP-related concerns, including a need to “strengthen IP protection and enforcement, including as to trade secret theft, online piracy and counterfeiting, the high-volume manufacture and export of counterfeit goods, and impediments to pharmaceutical innovation.” The absence of harmonized intellectual property protection laws and effective enforcement makes it difficult to ensure consistent respect for patent, trade secret, and other intellectual property rights on a worldwide basis. As a result, it is possible that we will not be able to enforce our rights against third parties that misappropriate our proprietary technology in those countries.
The U.S. law relating to the patentability of certain inventions in the life sciences is uncertain and rapidly changing, which may adversely impact our existing patents or our ability to obtain patents in the future.
Various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, have rendered decisions that impact the scope of patentability of certain inventions or discoveries relating to the life sciences. Specifically, these decisions stand for the proposition that patent claims that recite laws of nature (for example, the relationships between gene expression levels and the likelihood of risk of recurrence of cancer) are not themselves patentable unless those patent claims have sufficient additional features that provide practical assurance that the processes are genuine inventive applications of those laws rather than patent drafting efforts designed to monopolize the law of nature itself. What constitutes a “sufficient” additional feature is uncertain. Furthermore, in view of these decisions, in December 2014 the USPTO, published revised guidelines for patent examiners to apply when examining process claims for patent eligibility. This guidance was updated by the USPTO in July 2015 and additional illustrative examples provided in May 2016. The USPTO provided additional guidance on examination procedures pertaining to subject matter eligibility in April 2018 and June 2018. The guidance indicates that claims directed to a law of nature, a natural phenomenon or an abstract idea that do not meet the eligibility requirements should be rejected as non-statutory, patent ineligible subject matter; however, method of treatment claims that practically apply natural relationships should be considered patent eligible. We cannot assure you that our patent portfolio will not be negatively impacted by the current uncertain state of the law, new court rulings or changes in guidance or procedures issued by the USPTO. From time to time, the U.S. Supreme Court, other federal courts, the U.S. Congress or the USPTO may change the standards of patentability and validity of patents within the life sciences and any such changes could have a negative impact on our business.


68

Risks related to ownership of our Class A common stock
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock by our existing stockholders could cause the price of our Class A common stock to decline.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market could occur at any time. Moreover, certain holders of our common stock have rights, subject to conditions, to require us to file registration statements with the SEC covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. We have also registered all shares of Class A common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation and employee stock purchase plans. These shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance and, if applicable, vesting, subject to our insider trading policy, where applicable, and applicable securities laws including volume limitations applicable to affiliates under Rule 144 and Rule 701. Sales of Class A common stock in the public market or pursuant to registration rights may make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. These sales also could cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to fall and make it more difficult for you to sell shares of our Class A common stock.
The multi-class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with those stockholders who held our capital stock prior to the completion of our IPO, including our co-founders, and may depress the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Our Class A common stock has one vote per share and our Class B common stock has ten votes per share, except as otherwise required by law. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B common stock and Class A common stock, the holders of our Class B common stock collectively control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore are able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval. This concentrated control is expected to limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other major corporate transaction requiring stockholder approval. In addition, this may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our capital stock that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our stockholders.
Future transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning purposes where sole dispositive power and exclusive voting control with respect to the shares of Class B common stock is retained by the transferring holder and transfers between our co-founders. In addition, each outstanding share of Class B common stock held by a stockholder who is a natural person, or held by the permitted entities of such stockholder (as described in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation), will convert automatically into one share of Class A common stock upon the death of such natural person. In the event of the death or permanent and total disability of a co-founder, shares of Class B common stock held by such co-founder or his permitted entities will convert to Class A common stock, provided that the conversion will be deferred for nine months, or up to 18 months if approved by a majority of our independent directors, following his death or permanent and total disability. Transfers between our co-founders are permitted transfers and will not result in conversion of the shares of Class B common stock that are transferred. The conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock has had, and will continue to have, the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those individual holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term. To date, such conversions have had the effect of increasing the relative voting power of our co-founders and certain of our directors and will continue to have such an effect if our co-founders and such directors retain their shares in the long term.
We have incurred and will continue to incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices, including maintaining an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting. We ceased to be an "emerging growth company" and are now required to comply with certain provisions of SOX and are no longer permitted to take advantage of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies.
We have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company and we expect these expenses to increase because we are no longer eligible to take advantage of the reduced disclosure requirements and other benefits available to emerging growth companies. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, SOX, the listing requirements of Nasdaq and other applicable federal and Delaware rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. These requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly.
69

The rules and regulations applicable to us as a public company and recent trends in the insurance market have made it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. We have currently obtained only director and officer liability coverage (commonly referred to as “Side A” coverage). This means that while our directors and officers have direct insurance coverage for acts which the company is not legally required or permitted to indemnify them, the company itself does not have coverage for amounts incurred in defending, among other things, stockholder derivative or securities class action lawsuits or in the event of certain investigative actions, for amounts it must pay as a result of such suits or amounts it must pay to indemnify our directors or officers. We are in essence self-insuring for these costs. Any costs incurred in connection with such litigation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In September 2018, California enacted a law that requires publicly held companies headquartered in California to have at least one female director by the end of 2019 and at least three by the end of 2021, depending on the size of the board. In September 2020, California enacted a law that requires publicly held companies headquartered in California to have at least one director from an underrepresented community, as defined in the law, by the end of 2021 and at least three by the end of 2022, depending on the size of the board. The laws impose financial penalties for failure to comply. We are currently in compliance with the requirements of both laws but we may incur costs associated with complying with the law in future years, including costs associated with expanding our board of directors or identifying qualified candidates for appointment to our board of directors, or financial penalties or harm to our brand and reputation if we fail to comply. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.
Delaware law and provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Our status as a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of our company more difficult, including the following:
any transaction that would result in a change in control of our company requires the approval of a majority of our outstanding Class B common stock voting as a separate class;
our multi-class common stock structure provides our holders of Class B common stock with the ability to significantly influence the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even if they own significantly less than a majority of the shares of our outstanding Class A common stock and Class B common stock;
our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors are only able to be removed from office for cause by the affirmative vote of holders of at least two-thirds of the voting power of our then outstanding capital stock;
certain amendments to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation require the approval of stockholders holding two-thirds of the voting power of our then outstanding capital stock;
any stockholder-proposed amendment to our amended and restated bylaws requires the approval of stockholders holding two-thirds of the voting power of our then outstanding capital stock;
our stockholders are only able to take action at a meeting of stockholders and are not able to take action by written consent for any matter;
our stockholders are able to act by written consent only if the action is first recommended or approved by the board of directors;
vacancies on our board of directors are able to be filled only by our board of directors and not by stockholders;
only our chairman of the board of directors, chief executive officer or a majority of the board of directors are authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;
certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;
our restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued, without the approval of the holders of our capital stock; and
advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.
70

These anti-takeover defenses could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions they desire, any of which, under certain circumstances, could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our capital stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.
Our amended and restated bylaws designate a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to choose the judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, stockholders or employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the law of the State of Delaware shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be exclusively brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, the federal district court of the State of Delaware. Our amended and restated bylaws further provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States are the exclusive forum for the resolution of any claims under the Securities Act or any successor thereto. Nothing in our amended and restated bylaws precludes stockholders that assert claims under the Exchange Act, or any successor thereto, from bringing such claims in state or federal court, subject to applicable law. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing forum selection provisions. These exclusive-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of such stockholder’s choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find the exclusive-forum provisions in our amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could harm our results of operations.
General risks
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our operating results could fall below our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. If our assumptions underlying our estimates and judgements relating to our critical accounting policies change or if actual circumstances differ from our assumptions, estimates or judgements, our operating results may be adversely affected and could fall below our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock.
The market price of our Class A common stock may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors.
The trading price of our Class A common stock has been and may continue to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report, these factors include:
the timing of our launch of future products and degree to which the launch and commercialization thereof meets the expectations of securities analysts and investors;
the outcomes of and related rulings in the litigation and administrative proceedings in which we are currently or may in the future become involved;
the timing and rate of market acceptance of our Next GEM microfluidic chips, the successful transition of our customers to our Next GEM microfluidic chips and our ability to make our Next GEM microfluidic chip work with all of our solutions;
the failure or discontinuation of any of our product development and research programs;
71

changes in the structure or funding of research at academic and research laboratories and institutions, including changes that would affect their ability to purchase our instruments or consumables;
the success of existing or new competitive businesses or technologies;
announcements about new research programs or products of our competitors;
developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;
the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
litigation and governmental investigations involving us, our industry or both;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;
volatility and variations in market conditions in the life sciences sector generally, or the genomics sector specifically;
investor perceptions of us or our industry;
the level of expenses related to any of our research and development programs or products;
actual or anticipated changes in our estimates as to our financial results or development timelines, variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us or changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, that cover our Class A common stock or companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
whether our financial results meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors;
the announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;
stock-based compensation expense under applicable accounting standards;
sales of our Class A common stock or Class B common stock by us, our insiders or other stockholders;
general economic, industry and market conditions;
natural disasters, infectious diseases, conflict, civil unrest, epidemics or pandemics including COVID-19, outbreaks or major catastrophic events; and
the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
In recent years, stock markets in general, and the market for life sciences technology companies in particular (including companies in the genomics, biotechnology, diagnostics and related sectors), have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to changes in the operating performance of the companies whose stock is experiencing those price and volume fluctuations. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Because of the potential volatility of our stock price, we may become the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.
72

Item 6.    Exhibits.
Exhibit
Number
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit TitleFormFile No.ExhibitFiling Date
3.18-K001-390353.19/16/2019
3.28-K001-390353.13/26/2020
4.1S-1/A333-2333614.18/19/2019
4.2S-1333-2333614.28/19/2019
31.1
31.2
32.1*
32.2*
101.INSInline XBRL Instance Document.
101.SCHInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
101.CALInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.
101.DEFInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
101.LABInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.
101.PREInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (the Cover Page Interactive Data File does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document).
*    This certification is deemed not filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liability of that section, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
73

Signatures
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
10x Genomics, Inc.
Date: May 7, 2021By:/s/ Serge Saxonov
Serge Saxonov
Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
Date: May 7, 2021By:/s/ Justin J. McAnear
Justin J. McAnear
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
74