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Skillsoft (SKIL)

Filed: 6 Jul 21, 5:04pm
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 6, 2021
Registration No. 333-       
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Skillsoft Corp.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
7372
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
83-4388331
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
300 Innovative Way, Suite 201
Nashua, New Hampshire 03062
(603) 324-3000
(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)
Ryan Murray
300 Innovative Way, Suite 201
Nashua, New Hampshire 03062
(603) 324-3000
(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent For Service)
Copies to:
Jaclyn L. Cohen
P.J. Himelfarb
Merritt S. Johnson
Weil, Gotshal & Manges LLP
767 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York 10153
Tel: (212) 310-8000
Fax: (212) 310-8007
Sarah Hilty
300 Innovative Way, Suite 201
Nashua, New Hampshire 03062
(603) 324-3000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of each Class of Securities to be Registered
Amount to
be Registered(1)
Proposed Maximum
Offering Price
Per Share
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price
Amount of
Registration Fee(2)
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share(3)
70,250,000$9.79(4)$687,747,500.00$75,033.25
Warrants to purchase Class A common stock(5)
38,966,667$(6)$(6)$(6)
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share(7)
61,966,667$11.50(8)$712,616,670.50$77,746.48
Total$1,400,364,170.50$152,779.73
(1)
Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the registrant is also registering an indeterminate number of additional shares of Class A common stock that may become issuable to prevent dilution as a result of any stock dividend, stock split, recapitalization or other similar transaction.
(2)
Calculated by multiplying the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of securities to be registered by 0.0001091.
(3)
Consists of the following: (i) 53,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock (as defined below) issued in connection with the PIPE Investments (as defined below) and (ii) 17,250,000 shares of our Class A common stock (as defined below) issued to the Sponsor (as defined below) upon conversion of its Founder Shares (as defined below) at Closing (as defined below).
(4)
Pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act, and solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee, the proposed maximum offering price per share is $9.79, which is the average of the high and low prices of the shares of Class A common stock on June 30, 2021 on the New York Stock Exchange.
(5)
Consists of the following: (i) 5,000,000 Global Knowledge Warrants (as defined below); (ii) 16,666,667 Prosus Warrants (as defined below); (iii) 15,800,000 Private Placement Warrants (as defined below); and (iv) 1,500,000 Working Capital Warrants (as defined below) issuable to the Sponsor (as defined below) as repayment for the $1,500,000 Sponsor Note (as defined below).
(6)
No separate fee due in accordance with Rule 457(g).
(7)
Consists of the following: (i) 23,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Public Warrants (as defined below); (ii) 15,800,000 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Private Placement Warrants; (iii) 1,500,000 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Working Capital Warrant; (iv) 16,666,667 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Prosus Warrants; and (v) 5,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Global Knowledge Warrants.
(8)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(g) under the Securities Act, based on the exercise price of the warrants ($11.50).
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to completion, dated July 6, 2021
Preliminary Prospectus
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_skillsoft-bwlr.jpg]
70,250,000 Shares of Class A Common Stock
38,966,667 Warrants to Purchase Shares of Class A Common Stock
61,966,667 Shares of Class A Common Stock Underlying Warrants
This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of up to 23,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share that are issuable upon the exercise of the Public Warrants (as defined below). We will pay certain offering fees and expenses in connection with the registration of the shares of our Class A common stock, but will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares underlying the Public Warrants, except with respect to amounts received by us upon exercise of the Public Warrants to the extent such Public Warrants are exercised for cash.
In addition, this prospectus also relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”), or their permitted transferees, of (a) up to 109,216,667 shares of our Class A common stock (which includes up to 38,966,667 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants) and (b) up to 38,966,667 warrants. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our Class A common stock or warrants by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus, except with respect to amounts received by us upon exercise of the warrants to the extent such warrants are exercised for cash. However, we will pay the expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions and expenses incurred by the Selling Securityholders for brokerage, accounting, tax or legal services or any other expenses incurred by the Selling Securityholders in disposing of the securities, associated with the sale of securities pursuant to this prospectus.
Our registration of the securities covered by this prospectus does not mean that either we or the Selling Securityholders will issue, offer or sell, as applicable, any of the securities. The Selling Securityholders may offer and sell the securities covered by this prospectus in a number of different ways and at varying prices. We provide more information in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” In addition, certain of the securities being registered hereby are subject to vesting and/or transfer restrictions that may prevent the Selling Securityholders from offering or selling of such securities upon the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Description of Securities” for more information.
You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities. Our Class A common stock and warrants are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SKIL” and “SKIL.WS”, respectively. On June 30, 2021, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $9.85 per share, and the closing price of our warrants was $2.09 per warrant.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed on the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
     , 2021

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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F-1
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the SEC using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we and the Selling Securityholders may, from time to time, issue, offer and sell, as applicable, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may use the shelf registration statement to issue up to an aggregate of 23,000,000 shares of Class A common stock upon exercise of the Public Warrants. The Selling Securityholders may use the shelf registration statement to sell (a) up to 109,216,667 shares of our Class A common stock (which includes up to 38,966,667 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants) and (b) up to 38,966,667 warrants, from time to time, through any means described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” More specific terms of any securities that the Selling Securityholders offer and sell may be provided in a prospectus supplement that describes, among other things, the specific amounts and prices of the Class A common stock and/or warrants being offered and the terms of the offering.
A prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information included in this prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in such prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified will be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus only as so modified, and any statement so superseded will be deemed not to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus we have prepared. We and the Selling Securityholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of those documents only, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”
On June 11, 2021, Churchill (as defined below) consummated the Transactions (as defined below), including the previously announced business combination (the “Business Combination”) pursuant to the terms of the Skillsoft Merger Agreement (as defined below), which, among other things, provided for (i) each outstanding Skillsoft Class A share (other than shares owned by Churchill, which were automatically canceled and retired and ceased to exist, and no consideration was delivered in exchange therefor) was automatically cancelled and Churchill issued as consideration therefor (A) 6.25 shares of Churchill Class A common stock and (B) one share of Churchill Class C common stock and (ii) each outstanding Skillsoft Class B share was automatically cancelled and Churchill issued as consideration therefor 28.125 shares of Churchill Class A common stock, in each case except for any fractional shares of Churchill Class A common stock which would result from conversion (which instead were paid out in cash in accordance with the Skillsoft Merger Agreement). Immediately following the effective time of the Merger (as defined below), each outstanding share of Churchill Class C common stock issued to the former holders of Skillsoft Class A shares in connection with the Merger was redeemed for a redemption price of (i) $131.51 per share in cash and (ii) $5.208 per share in incremental indebtedness under that certain Senior Secured Second Out Term
 
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Loan Credit Agreement (the “Second Out Credit Agreement”), dated as of August 27, 2020, by and among Software Luxembourg Intermediate S.à r.l. (“Skillsoft Intermediate”), as the parent borrower, the other borrower party thereto, the lenders from time to time party thereto and Wilmington Savings Fund Society, FSB (“WSFS”), as the administrative agent and collateral agent, as amended.
Also on June 11, 2021, the Global Knowledge Merger was completed pursuant to the terms of the Global Knowledge Merger Agreement (as defined below), which, among other things, provided for 100% of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Global Knowledge converted, in the aggregate, into the right to receive 5,000,000 warrants, each of which entitles the holders thereof to purchase one share of Churchill Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share (the “Global Knowledge Warrants”). The Global Knowledge Warrants are non-redeemable and otherwise substantially similar to the private placement warrants issued to Churchill Sponsor II LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (the “Sponsor”), in connection with the Churchill IPO.
In connection with the Transactions, Churchill changed its name to Skillsoft Corp. and the New York Stock Exchange ticker symbols for its Class A common stock and warrants to “SKIL” and “SKIL.WS,” respectively.
 
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FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires, references to:
Board” are to the board of directors of the Company;
certificate of incorporation” are to the Company’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation in effect as of the date of this prospectus;
Churchill” are to Churchill Capital Corp II, a Delaware corporation, which changed its name to Skillsoft Corp. following the consummation of the Transactions;
Churchill IPO” are to the initial public offering by Churchill which closed on July 1, 2019;
Churchill’s Class A common stock” are, prior to consummation of the Transactions, to Churchill’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share and, following consummation of the Transactions, to our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;
Churchill’s Class B common stock” are to Churchill’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;
Churchill Special Meeting” are to a special meeting of the Churchill stockholders held on June 10, 2021.
Class A common stock” are to our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;
Closing” are to the consummation of the Mergers;
Closing Date” are to June 11, 2021, the date on which the Transactions were consummated;
common stock” are, prior to the consummation of the Transactions, to Churchill’s Class A common stock and Churchill’s Class B common stock and, following consummation of the Transactions, to our Class A common stock;
Company” are, prior to the consummation of the Transactions, to Churchill and, following consummation of the Transactions, to Skillsoft Corp.;
DGCL” are to the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended;
Exchange Act” are to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;
Founder Shares” are to shares of Churchill’s Class B common stock and Churchill’s Class A common stock issued upon the automatic conversion thereof in connection with the Closing;
Global Knowledge” are to Albert DE Holdings Inc.;
Global Knowledge Merger Agreement” are to that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of October 12, 2020, by and among Churchill, Merger Sub. and Global Knowledge, as the same has been or may be amended, modified, supplemented or waived from time to time;
Global Knowledge Warrants” are to the Company’s warrants issued pursuant to the Global Knowledge Merger Agreement;
Incentive Plan” are to the Churchill Capital Corp II 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan, as approved by Churchill’s stockholders at the Churchill Special Meeting.
Merger Agreement” are to that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of October 12, 2020, by and among Churchill and the Skillsoft Predecessor, as the same has been or may be amended, modified, supplemented or waived from time to time;
Merger Sub” are to Magnet Merger Sub, Inc.;
Mergers” are to, together, (a) the merger of Churchill with and into the Skillsoft Predecessor with Skillsoft being the surviving company in the merger (the “Merger”) and (b) immediately following and as
 
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part of the same transaction as the Merger, the merger of Magnet Merger Sub, Inc. with and into Albert DE Holdings Inc., with Albert DE Holdings Inc. surviving the transaction as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Churchill (the “Global Knowledge Merger”;
Non-Employee Director” are to each member of our Board that is not an employee of the Company or any parent or subsidiary of the Company;
PIPE Investment” are to the private placement pursuant to which Churchill entered into subscription agreements with certain investors whereby such investors subscribed for (a) 53,000,000 shares of Churchill’s Class A common stock and (b) warrants to purchase 16,666,667 shares of Churchill’s Class A Common Stock (on terms identical to the terms of the Public Warrants) for aggregate gross proceeds of $530,000,000. The PIPE Investment was consummated on the Closing Date;
PIPE Investors” are to the investors participating in the Common PIPE Investment;
PIPE Subscription Agreements” are to the subscription agreements entered into (a) on October 12, 2020 by and between Churchill and MIH Learning B.V., as assignee of the rights and obligations of MIH Edtech Investments B.V. under such agreement (the “Prosus Subscription Agreement”); (b) on October 14, 2020, by and between Churchill, SuRo Capital Corp. (the “SuRo Subscription Agreement”), and (c) on October 13, 2020, by and between Churchill and Lodbrok Capital LLP (the “Lodbrok Subscription Agreement”), and entered into in connection with the PIPE Investment;
Private Placement Warrants” are to the Company’s warrants issued to the Sponsor in a private placement simultaneously with the closing of the Churchill IPO, each Private Placement Warrant exercisable for one additional share of the Company’s Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50, and includes the 1,000,000 warrants transferred by the Sponsor to Jeffrey Tarr, our Chief Executive Officer, at Closing;
Prosus Warrants” are to the Company’s warrants issued pursuant to the Prosus Subscription Agreement;
public shareholders” are to the holders of the Company’s public shares, including the Sponsor and Churchill’s officers and directors to the extent the Sponsor and Churchill’s officers or directors purchase public shares, provided that each of their status as a “public shareholder” shall only exist with respect to such public shares;
public shares” are to shares of Churchill’s Class A common stock sold as part of the units in the Churchill IPO (whether they were purchased in the Churchill IPO or thereafter in the open market);
Public Warrants” are to the Company’s warrants sold as part of the units in the Churchill IPO (whether they were purchased in the Churchill IPO or thereafter in the open market);
SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;
Securities Act” are to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
Skillsoft” are, prior to consummation of the Transactions, to Skillsoft Predecessor and its consolidated subsidiaries and, following consummation of the Transactions, to Skillsoft Corp. and its consolidated subsidiaries;
Skillsoft Predecessor” are to Software Luxembourg Holding S.A.;
Sponsor” are to Churchill Sponsor II, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company;
Sponsor Agreement” are to the Sponsor Agreement, dated as of October 12, 2020, by and among Churchill, the Sponsor and the other parties thereto;
Sponsor Note” are to the promissory note dated November 2, 2020 pursuant to which the Sponsor loaned the Company $1,500,000 and agreed to convert any unpaid balance of the Sponsor Note into the Working Capital Warrants;
 
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Subscription Agreements” are to, collectively, the Prosus Subscription Agreement, the SuRo Subscription Agreement and the Lodbrok Subscription Agreement;
Transactions” are to the Mergers, together with the other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement and the related agreements;
trust account” are to the Churchill trust account that held the proceeds from the Churchill IPO prior to the consummation of the Transactions;
warrants” are to the Public Warrants, the Private Placement Warrants, the Global Knowledge Warrants, the Prosus Warrants and the Working Capital Warrants;
Working Capital Warrants” are to the Company’s warrants issued upon conversion of the Sponsor Note in accordance with the terms thereof, exercisable on identical terms as the Private Placement Warrants; and
we,” “our” or “us” are to Skillsoft and its consolidated subsidiaries.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus includes statements that express our and our subsidiaries’ opinions, expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or projections regarding future events or future results and therefore are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements.” These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “believes,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “seeks,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “may,” “will” or “should” or, in each case, their negative or other variations or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this prospectus and these forward-looking statements reflect management’s expectations regarding our future growth, results of operations, operational and financial performance and business prospects and opportunities. Such forward-looking statements are based on available current market material and management’s expectations, beliefs and forecasts concerning future events impacting our business. Factors that may impact such forward-looking statements include:

our ability to realize the benefits expected from the Merger and the Global Knowledge Merger;

our ability to attract, train and retain an effective sales force and other key personnel;

our ability to upgrade and maintain information technology systems;

our ability to acquire and protect intellectual property;

our ability to meet future liquidity requirements and comply with restrictive covenants related to long-term indebtedness;

our ability to enhance future operating and financial results;

our ability to comply with laws and regulations applicable to its business;

our ability to successfully defend litigation; and

our ability to successfully deploy the proceeds from the Merger.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. You should not put undue reliance on these statements which speak only as of the date hereof. You should understand that the following important factors, in addition to those discussed or incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” below, could affect the Company and could cause those results or other outcomes to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements in this prospectus:

the impact of changes in consumer spending patterns, consumer preferences, local, regional and national economic conditions, crime, weather, demographic trends and employee availability;

the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operating results and financial condition;

fluctuations in our future operating results;

our ability to successfully identify and consummate acquisition opportunities;

the demand for, and acceptance of, our products and for cloud-based technology learning solutions in general;

our ability to compete successfully in competitive markets and changes in the competitive environment in our industry and the markets in which we operate;

our ability to develop new products;

a failure of our information technology infrastructure or any significant breach of security;

future regulatory, judicial and legislative changes in our industry;

the impact of natural disasters, public health crises, political crises, or other catastrophic events;

our ability to attract and retain key employees and qualified technical and sales personnel;

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
 
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our ability to protect or obtain intellectual property rights;

our ability to raise additional capital;

the impact of our indebtedness on our financial position and operating flexibility;

our ability to successfully defend ourselves in legal proceedings;

our ability to remediate any material weaknesses or maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting;

the ability to continue to meet applicable listing standards;

other factors disclosed in this prospectus; and

other factors beyond our control.
The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on our business. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting our business will be those that we have anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond our control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those factors described under the heading “Risk Factors.” Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
In addition, statements of belief and similar statements reflect the beliefs and opinions of the Company on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to the Company as of the date of this prospectus, and while such party believes such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and statements should not be read to indicate that the Company has conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the matters discussed under the sections entitled “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information,” “Business” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus before making an investment decision.
Our Business
For more than 20 years, Skillsoft has been the leading global provider of digital learning and talent solutions, providing best-in-class content, products and services to a large, global customer base made up of blue-chip companies. We deliver solutions that help many of the world’s leading organizations develop and retain their employees and sell our broad portfolio of proprietary content to customers through our leading sales force. We are deeply embedded with our customers, and constantly evolving to address their needs and current market trends.
We partner with thousands of leading global organizations, including approximately 70% of Fortune 1000. Our currently marketed solutions include: (i) Skillsoft legacy learning content (Skillport), (ii) the Percipio intelligent learning experience platform, (iii) SumTotal, a SaaS-based Human Capital Management (“HCM”) solution, with a leading Talent Development platform, and (iv) Global Knowledge, a global provider of training solutions covering information technology and business skills for corporations and their employees.
The enterprise learning market and professional digital learning market are rapidly growing with significant tailwinds given employers’ focus on upskilling and the shift from in-person training to digital training accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Organizations invest in learning and talent solutions to build a more motivated, skilled, and resilient workforce. We help them accomplish this by delivering a complete learning solution, supported by a proven, dynamic, deep, and proprietary content portfolio. Our portfolio includes offerings in the Leadership and Business, Technology and Developer, and Compliance customer market segments. We provide our solutions through engaging learning platforms, including through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Global Knowledge, and our award-winning, state of the art learning experience platform, Percipio.
As noted in the section entitled “About this Prospectus”, on June 11, 2021, we completed our acquisition of Global Knowledge. In connection with the Global Knowledge Merger, Global Knowledge became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. Global Knowledge is a global provider of training solutions covering information technology and business skills for corporations and their employees, and offers a wide breadth of training topics and delivery modalities (classroom, virtual, on-demand) both on a subscription and transactional basis. Through Global Knowledge, we currently offer more than 2,500 courses annually across a range of subject areas, including over 750 on-demand courses and over 2,000 instructor-led virtual courses. We believe this wide breadth of training topics and delivery modalities is a key driver for Global Knowledge’s existing customer retention and for new business growth within Global Knowledge given customer demand for a fulsome multi-modality offering.
In connection with consummation of the Transactions, we have taken important steps to reposition Skillsoft as the leader in corporate digital learning and create value for shareowners. Some of our major steps include:

Combination with Global Knowledge. Global Knowledge is a leader in instructor-led IT training. We believe this acquisition strengthens our Tech & Dev offerings and will create better multi-modal learning experiences and generate significant cost and revenue synergies. Further, as a result of our combination with Global Knowledge, Skillsoft will now have access to authorized content from and training partnerships with some of the world’s most iconic technology brands, including Amazon Web Services, Cisco, Google, IBM, ITIL, Microsoft, Red Hat and VMware, among others.

Investment from Prosus. Prosus invested $500 million in connection with the Transactions. Prosus is a global internet group and one of the largest technology and EdTech investors in the world. Through
 
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this investment, we have gained both capital and expertise to support our planned growth and we strongly believe our partnership with Prosus will yield beneficial progress in the development of our business.

Recruitment of new, leading management team. In connection the consummation of the Transactions, we have recruited a new management team, led by Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) Jeff Tarr. Our new management team is guiding Skillsoft through its next phase of growth. Mr. Tarr is an experienced public company CEO with a track record of transforming tech-enabled content companies into industry leaders and creating value for shareowners. In addition to Mr. Tarr, we are led by a world-class executive team with deep expertise in software, business development, and finance. See the section entitled “Management” for further information.
The new Skillsoft management team will build on Skillsoft’s recent progress with a transformation strategy designed to grow revenue, improve operational efficiency, and increase cash flow. For additional information regarding Skillsoft, see the section entitled “Business.
Recent Developments
On June 21, 2021, Skillsoft announced it has launched marketing for a refinancing of a substantial amount of its long-term debt while repaying the remainder, which is expected to meaningfully decrease the Company’s interest expense, increase free cash flow, increase financial flexibility to grow through acquisitions, and significantly extend the maturity of any obligations. Skillsoft also noted that its board of directors has approved the adoption of a January 31 year-end for the Company’s financial reporting, effective immediately, to align Churchill Capital Corp II and Global Knowledge with the pre-business combination Skillsoft’s fiscal year end. Terms of the potential refinancing will be disclosed upon the completion of the transaction, which is expected to occur in July 2021. The proposed refinancing is subject to market and other conditions and the approval of the Board, and there can be no assurance that it will be completed on favorable terms or at all.
Corporate Information
Skillsoft is a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 300 Innovative Way, Suite 201, Nashua, New Hampshire 03062 and our telephone number at that address is 603-324-3000. Our website is located at https://www.skillsoft.com/. Our website and the information contained on, or accessed through, our website are not part of this prospectus, and you should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus when making an investment decision.
 
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The Offering
We are registering the issuance of 23,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Public Warrants.
We are also registering the offer and sale from time to time by the Selling Securityholders or their permitted transferees, of (a) up to 109,216,667 shares of our Class A common stock (which includes up to 38,966,667 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants) and (b) up to 38,966,667 warrants representing the Global Knowledge Warrants, the Prosus Warrants, the Private Placement Warrants and the Working Capital Warrants.
Any investment in the securities offered hereby is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus.
Issuance of Class A Common Stock
The following information is as of June 11, 2021 and does not give effect to issuances of our Class A common stock, warrants or options to purchase shares of our Class A common after such date, or the exercise of warrants or options after such date.
Shares of our Class A common stock to be issued upon exercise of all Public Warrants
23,000,000 shares.
Shares of our Class A common stock outstanding prior to exercise of all Public Warrants
133,059,021 shares.
Use of proceeds
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $264.5 million from the exercise of all Public Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all such warrants for cash.
Unless we inform you otherwise in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we intend to use the net proceeds from the exercise of such warrants for general corporate purposes which may include acquisitions or other strategic investments or repayment of outstanding indebtedness.
Resale of Class A common stock and warrants
Shares of Class A common stock offered by the Selling Securityholders (including 38,966,667 shares of Class A common stock that may be issued upon exercise of the Global Knowledge Warrants, the Prosus Warrants, the Private Placement Warrants and the Working Capital Warrants)
109,216,667 shares.
Warrants to purchase Class A common stock offered by the Selling Securityholders
38,966,667 warrants (representing the Global Knowledge Warrants, the Prosus Warrants, the Private Placement Warrants and the Working Capital Warrants).
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the Class A common stock to be offered by the Selling Securityholders. With respect to shares of Class A common stock underlying the warrants, we will not receive any proceeds from such shares
 
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except with respect to amounts received by us upon exercise of such warrants to the extent such warrants are exercised for cash. In such case, we will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $448.1 million from the exercise of all such warrants.
Unless we inform you otherwise in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we intend to use the net proceeds from the exercise of such warrants for general corporate purposes which may include acquisitions or other strategic investments or repayment of outstanding indebtedness.
Lock-up agreements
Certain of our stockholders are subject to certain restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable lock-up periods. See “Securities Act Restrictions on Resale of Securities  —   Lock-up Agreements” for further discussion.
NYSE Ticker symbols
“SKIL” and “SKIL.WS” for the Class A common stock and Public Warrants, respectively.
Unless we specifically state otherwise or the context otherwise requires, the number of shares of our Class A common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 133,059,021 shares of our Class A common stock outstanding as of June 11, 2021 and excludes 13,105,902 shares of Class A common stock available for future issuance under our Incentive Plan and 2,198,000 options to purchase shares of Class A common stock and 3,268,816 restricted stock units granted to certain of our executive officers, which are subject to vesting.
Unless we specifically state otherwise or the context otherwise requires, this prospectus reflects and assumes no exercise of the outstanding stock options described above.
Risk Factor Summary
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section entitled “Risk Factors,” that represent challenges that we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy and growth of our business. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in the section entitled “Risk Factors,” alone or in combination with other events or circumstances, may adversely affect our ability realize the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination, and may have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. Such risks include, but are not limited to:
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

COVID-19 has impacted our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as customers and suppliers in industries that we serve.

Failure of customers to fully adopt and migrate to our Percipio platform could result in lost revenue.

Failures relating to our direct sales teams or our indirect sales channel may impede our growth.

Material breaches or unauthorized access to customer data may result in loss of existing customers or failure to attract new customers, harm to our reputation, and significant liabilities.

Increased competition may result in decreased demand for our products and services, which may result in reduced revenue and gross profits and loss of market share.

New products introduced by us may not be successful.

Our failure to retain and attract highly qualified employees could harm our business.

Our alliances with third parties for learning content may be terminated or fail to meet our requirements.
 
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Acquisitions may not produce the anticipated benefits and could harm our current operations.

Our success is dependent on our information systems and our SaaS infrastructure.

Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and our results may fall below market expectations.

Demand for our products and services is susceptible to global market and economic conditions.

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by catastrophic events.

Unauthorized use of our intellectual property may result in competitive products or services.

Risks relating to our worldwide operations could negatively impact our future operating results.

Additional capital we may need to support our growth might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

Our business could be affected by new governmental regulations regarding the Internet as well as by changes impacting the speed and reliability of the Internet.

Existing or future laws and regulations relating to privacy or data security could increase the cost of our products, limit their use and adoption, and subject us or our customers to litigation, regulatory investigations and penalties, and other potential liabilities.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

Our business could be adversely affected if our products contain errors.

Changes in tax laws, unfavorable resolution of tax examinations, or exposure to additional tax liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

We could be subjected to legal actions based upon the content we include in our courseware or learning assets.
Risks Related to Skillsoft’s Indebtedness and Certain Other Obligations

Our degree of leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, expose us to interest rate risk and prevent us from meeting obligations on our indebtedness.

Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness.
Risks Related to Skillsoft’s Previous Capital Structure and Resulting Chapter 11 Cases

The ongoing effects of our prior capital structure, including our recent emergence from the Chapter 11 Cases (as defined herein), could adversely affect our business and relationships.

We may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

Information contained in our historical financial statements will not be comparable to the information contained in our financial statements after the application of fresh-start accounting.
Risks Related to Skillsoft’s Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Critical Accounting Policies

If our assumptions related to our critical accounting policies change or prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could fall below expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price.

Failure to remediate our material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting could result in our failure to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.
 
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Additional Risks Related to Ownership of our Class A Common Stock

Our Derivative Instruments (as defined below) are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of our Derivative Instruments could have a material effect on our financial results.

In connection with the restatement of our financial statements, our management has concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting were not effective as of December 31, 2020 due to a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting solely related to our accounting for Derivative Instruments. If we are unable to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our stock price may change significantly and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result.

If securities analysts do not follow Skillsoft’s business or if they downgrade our stock or sector, our stock price trading volume could decline.

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by Skillsoft or its stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.

Anti-takeover provisions could delay or prevent a change of control.

Our ability to comply with the continued listing standards of NYSE.

Future sales of our securities into the market, including the sale of securities pursuant to this prospectus.

Exclusive forum designations could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a more favorable judicial forum for disputes, and the other risk factors described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.”
Market Price, Ticker Symbols and Dividend Information
Market Price and Ticker Symbols
Our Class A common stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on NYSE under the symbols “SKIL” and “SKIL.WS,” respectively.
The closing price of the Class A common stock and Public Warrants on June 30, 2021, was $9.85 and $2.09, respectively.
Holders
As of June 11, 2021, the Company had 133,059,021 shares of the Class A common stock outstanding held of record by 236 holders and no shares of preferred stock outstanding. Such amounts do not include DTC participants or beneficial owners holding shares through nominee names.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our Class A common stock to date. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon, among other things, our revenues and earnings, capital requirements and general financial condition and the terms of any outstanding indebtedness. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of the Board at such time.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in these risk factors, alone or in combination with other events or circumstances, may adversely affect the anticipated benefits of the Mergers, and may have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. You should also carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information included in this prospectus, including matters addressed in the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” We may face additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, which may also impair our business or financial condition. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes to the financial statements included herein.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as the operations and financial performance of many of the customers and suppliers in industries that we serve. We are unable to predict the extent to which the pandemic and related effects will adversely impact our business operations, financial performance, results of operations, and financial position.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread health crisis and numerous disease control measures are being taken to limit its spread.
The impact of the pandemic on our business has included or could in the future include:

increases in operational expenses and other costs related to requirements implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic;

adverse effects on economies and financial markets globally or in various markets throughout the world, potentially leading to a prolonged economic downturn or reductions in business spending, which may result in decreased net revenue, gross margins, or earnings and/or in increased expenses;

reduced sales as a result of restrictions on travel, limiting the ability to stage in-person demonstrations, as well as prompting potential customers to defer purchase decisions given concerns over implementation of new solutions;

workforce disruptions due to illness, quarantines, governmental actions, other restrictions, and/or the social distancing measures we have taken to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at certain of our locations around the world in an effort to protect the health and well-being of our employees and customers and of the communities in which we operate (including working from home, restricting the number of employees attending events or meetings in person, limiting the number of people in our offices at any one time, further restricting access to our facilities, suspending employee travel and the inability to meet in person with customers);

the inability for customers to pay based on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their businesses;

adverse effects on employee productivity and performance if required to work remotely for an even longer period of time;

increases in health and welfare program costs;

the inability to procure the required equipment or services from partners and suppliers in a timely manner;

requests from customers to reduce their spend with us as a result of workforce reductions that they have had to undertake;

increased vulnerability to cyberattacks due to the significant number of employees working remotely; and

our management team continuing to commit significant time, attention and resources to monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic and seeking to mitigate its effects on our business and workforce.
 
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The ultimate extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time. These impacts, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Such effect may be exacerbated in the event the pandemic and the measures taken in response to it, and their effects, persist for an extended period of time, or if there is a resurgence of the outbreak. Under any of these circumstances, the resumption of normal business operations may be delayed or hampered by lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, partners, and customers.
Failure of customers to fully adopt and migrate to our Percipio platform could result in lost revenue.
We developed Percipio, our intelligent online learning platform, to replace our legacy platform, Skillport. Successful migration of existing customers from Skillport to Percipio, is essential to our ability to maintain these customer relationships. As of January 31, 2021, approximately 63% of our customers either have agreements for Percipio-only access or for Dual Deployment (as defined below) access, representing approximately 75% of our total annual recurring revenue (ARR). Certain customers have only partially migrated to Percipio, and other customers continue to utilize our Skillport platform only. One reason customers have not migrated to the Percipio platform, partially or fully, is that the Percipio platform is not yet at feature parity with Skillport. While we expect Percipio to be at substantial parity with Skillport in 2021, including having completed integrations with applicable HCM partners, there can be no assurance that we will complete the required work or that once completed, we will be able to migrate those customers now on Skillport to Percipio. Given our intention to continue our focus and resources on our Percipio platform, it can be expected that we will lose customers that are unwilling to migrate to Percipio from Skillport over the next several years.
Failure to effectively retain, expand, and continue to increase the productivity of our direct sales teams and develop and expand our indirect sales channel may impede our growth.
We will need to continue to increase the productivity and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of our sales and marketing infrastructure in order to grow our customer base and our business. Identifying, recruiting, and onboarding these people and partners will require significant time, expense, and attention. Our business will be seriously harmed and our financial resources will be wasted if our efforts do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue, and we may be required to sacrifice near-term growth and divert management time and attention in order to drive growth. In particular, if we are unable to successfully optimize our sales structure to strengthen core competencies, align incentives, improve retention, and grow new business, we may not be able to significantly increase our revenue, profitability, and/or free cash flows.
If our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to customer data is otherwise obtained, our platforms may be perceived as insecure, we may lose existing customers or fail to attract new customers, our reputation may be harmed, and we may incur significant liabilities.
Unauthorized access to, or other security breaches of, our platforms or the other systems or networks used in our business, including those of our vendors, contractors, or those with which we have strategic relationships, could result in the loss, compromise or corruption of data, loss of business, reputational damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence, regulatory investigations and orders, litigation, indemnity obligations, damages for contract breach, penalties for violation of applicable laws or regulations, significant costs for remediation, and other liabilities. We have cyber/professional liability insurance coverage for certain information security and privacy damages and claim expenses, but this coverage may be insufficient to compensate us for all liabilities that we may incur.
Our platform and the other systems or networks used in our business are also at risk for breaches as a result of third-party action, or employee, vendor, or contractor error or malfeasance. Security is one of the learning curricula we provide on our platform, which may cause our platform to be a target for hackers and others, and which may cause our brand, credibility, and reputation to be particularly sensitive to any security breaches. We have incurred and expect to continue to incur significant expenses to prevent security breaches, including deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees, and engaging third-party experts and consultants. However, since the techniques used to obtain unauthorized
 
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access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until after they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. We may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period and, therefore, have a greater impact on our platform, the proprietary and other confidential data contained therein or otherwise stored or processed in our operations, and ultimately on our business.
Increased competition may result in decreased demand for our products and services, which may result in reduced revenue and gross profits and loss of market share.
The market for corporate learning and talent development solutions is highly fragmented, rapidly evolving and competitive. In addition to increased competition from new companies entering the market, established companies are entering the market through acquisitions of smaller companies, which directly compete with us, and this trend is expected to continue. We may also face competition from publishing companies, educational institutions, vendors of enterprise application software, and human resource outsourcers, including those vendors with whom we have formed development and marketing alliances. Our primary sources of direct competition are:

third-party suppliers of instructor-led information technology, software development, compliance, business, leadership management, and professional skills education and training;

enterprise software application providers with solutions they have developed to meet the needs of the human capital management;

technology companies that offer learning courses covering their own technology products;

suppliers of digital or distance learning solutions;

free learning content;

internal education and training departments and human resources outsourcers of potential customers;

value-added resellers and network integrators; and

educational institutions.
Growing competition may result in price reductions, reduced revenue and gross profits, and loss of market share, any one of which would have a material adverse effect on our business. Current and potential competitors have and may have substantially greater financial, technical, sales, marketing and other resources, as well as greater name recognition, and we may face increasing price pressures from competitors as buyers demand more value for their learning and talent development budgets. Accordingly, we may be unable to provide digital learning and talent development solutions that compare favorably with new technology-led techniques, other interactive training software or human capital management platforms, or new learning solutions. Our future success will depend upon the extent to which we are able to develop and implement products which address emerging market requirements on a cost effective and timely basis. Product development is risky because it is difficult to foresee developments in technology, coordinate technical personnel, and identify and eliminate design flaws. Any significant delay in releasing new products could have a material adverse effect on the ultimate success of our products and could reduce sales of predecessor products.
Emerging technologies also impact the competitive landscape for learning and talent development solutions. New content development methodologies and/or features and functionality that enhance the learner experience could adversely impact our ability to compete in the market. New market entrants that provide technologies that improve the content delivery and/or management of learning solutions could also increase the level of competition in the market. In addition, even if companies implement technology-based learning solutions, they may still choose to design, develop, deliver, or manage all or part of their learning and development programs internally. If the shift to technology-based learning is not realized, or if companies do not use the products and services of third parties to develop, deliver, or manage their learning and development needs, then some of our products and services may not achieve commercial success.
 
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Lower priced solutions from competitors and access to free content will put pricing pressure on our solutions, and our ability to compete and maintain pricing will be dependent on our ability to differentiate our learning content and the learner experience our platform delivers.
New products introduced by us may not be successful.
An important part of our growth strategy is the continued development and enhancement of our existing offerings and the introduction of new learning content and the delivery of enhanced platform features and functionality. These activities can open new revenue streams, ensure the currency of our content portfolio, and support customer renewals and upgrades. Despite our efforts, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in updating and enhancing our current learning assets, developing and introducing new learning content, or delivering enhanced or new platform features and functionality, or that what we develop or introduce will be met with commercial acceptance. The failure to successfully introduce new, and enhance existing, learning content and platform functionality will not only hamper our growth prospects, but may also adversely impact our net income due to the development and marketing expenses associated with those offerings.
We depend on senior leadership to manage and operate the business, and if we fail to retain and attract highly qualified employees our business could be harmed.
Our success is largely dependent on the personal efforts and abilities of our senior management. Failure to retain these executives, or the loss of certain additional senior management personnel or other key employees, could have a material adverse effect on our business and future prospects. In addition, in connection with the Merger and the Global Knowledge Merger, we made significant changes to our management team, including the appointment of a new chief executive officer at closing.
Ours is a global business, and our success is also dependent, in part, on our ability to attract and retain qualified sales, marketing, and operational personnel capable of supporting a larger and more diverse worldwide customer base. The loss of a significant number of our technology, content or sales personnel and their services could be disruptive to our development efforts or customer relationships. In addition, if any of our key employees joins a competitor or decides to otherwise compete with us, we may experience a material disruption of our operations and business strategy, which may cause us to lose customers or increase operating expenses and may divert our attention as we seek to recruit replacements for the departed employees.
We rely on third parties to provide us with learning content and subject matter expertise, and have content production relationships with third parties for our courses and learning content, and our relationships with these third parties may be terminated or fail to meet our requirements.
We rely on independent third parties and subject matter experts to provide us with some of the learning content for certain of our courses and learning assets based on learning objectives and specific instructional design templates which we develop. We also have arrangements with content development partners for the production of our learning courseware and other digital learning assets. If these group development partners and content providers/subject matter experts were to stop working with us, we cannot predict whether content would be available from reliable alternative sources or that we could enter into development partner relationships on reasonable terms and in a timely manner. In addition, our digital book collections rely on third-party publishers to provide the content that is in our digital book offerings. If one or more of these publishers were to terminate their license with us, we may not be able to find substitute publishers for such content or we may be forced to pay increased royalties to these publishers to continue our licenses with them.
In the event that we are unable to maintain or expand our current development relationships or enter into new development relationships, our operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, the collaborative nature of the development process under these arrangements may result in longer development times and less control over the timing of delivery of certain product offerings. Our strategic partners may from time to time renegotiate the terms of their agreements with us, which could result in changes to the royalty or other economic terms, which could reduce our gross margins.
 
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The partners we rely on as part of the production process and for content or subject matter expertise may compete with us, which could harm our results of operations. Our agreements with these third parties generally do not restrict them from developing content for our competitors or from competing directly with us.
Acquisitions, including the acquisition of Global Knowledge, may not produce the benefits we anticipate and could harm our current operations.
One aspect of our business strategy is to pursue acquisitions of businesses or technologies that will contribute to our future growth. However, we may not be successful in identifying or consummating attractive acquisition opportunities. Moreover, any acquisitions we do consummate may not produce benefits commensurate with the purchase price we pay or our expectations for the acquisition. Finally, acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:

difficulties in integrating the technologies, operations, business systems, financial controls, and personnel of the acquired company;

failure to realize expected synergies or capture the value required for the acquisition to be successful;

difficulties in retaining or transitioning customers and employees of the acquired company;

diversion of management time and focus;

the incurrence of unanticipated expenses associated with the acquisition or the assumption of

unknown liabilities or unanticipated financial, accounting or other problems of the acquired company; and

accounting charges related to the acquisition, including restructuring charges, transaction costs, write-offs of in-process research and development costs, and subsequent impairment charges relating to goodwill or other intangible assets acquired in the transaction.
Our success is dependent on the reliability and consistent performance of our information systems and our Software as a Service (“SaaS”) infrastructure.
Our success is highly dependent on the consistent performance of our information systems and Internet infrastructure. If our SaaS environment fails for any reason or if it experiences any unscheduled downtimes, even for only a short period, our business and reputation could be materially harmed. We have in the past experienced performance problems and unscheduled downtime, and these problems could recur. We currently rely on third parties for proper functioning of computer infrastructure, delivery of our learning and talent development applications and the performance of our destination site. Our systems and operations could be damaged or interrupted by fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, break-ins, earthquake, financial patterns of hosting providers and similar events. Any system failures could adversely affect customer usage of our solutions and user traffic results in any future quarters, which could adversely affect our revenue and operating results and harm our reputation with customers and commerce partners. The satisfactory performance, reliability, and availability of our website, computer infrastructure and learning platform are critical to our reputation and ability to attract and retain customers and commerce partners. We cannot accurately project the rate or timing of any increase in traffic to our website and, therefore, the integration and timing of any upgrades or enhancements required to facilitate any significant traffic increase to the website are uncertain. The failure to expand and upgrade our website or if we experience any system error, failure or extended down time, our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations could be materially harmed.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly, limiting your ability to evaluate historical financial results and increasing the likelihood that our results will fall below market analysts’ expectations.
Our operating results have historically fluctuated, and our operating results may in the future continue to fluctuate, as a result of factors, which include, without limitation:

the period between our initial contact with a potential customer and the purchase of our products by that customer, which typically ranges from three to eighteen months or more;
 
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the size, timing and successful closing of new/renewal agreements and upgrades;

the speed of the migration of existing customers to our new platform the announcement, introduction and acceptance of new products, product enhancements and technologies by us and our competitors;

the mix of sales between our field sales force, our other direct sales channels and our telesales channels;

general conditions in the U.S. and/or the international economy;

the loss of significant customers;

delays in availability of new products;

product or service quality problems;

seasonality — due to the budget and purchasing cycles of our customers, we expect order intake and billings will generally be strongest in the second half of our fiscal year and weakest in the first half of our fiscal year;

the spending patterns of our customers, including their internal budgeting, procurement, and approval processes;

royalty rates;

litigation costs and expenses;

non-recurring charges related to acquisitions;

growing competition that may result in price reductions and customer loss; and

currency fluctuations.
Most of our expenses, such as interest, rent and most employee compensation excluding sales commissions do not vary directly with revenue and are difficult to adjust in the short-term. As a result, if revenue for a particular quarter is below our expectations, we could not proportionately reduce operating expenses for that quarter. Any such revenue shortfall would, therefore, have a disproportionate effect on our expected operating results for that quarter.
Demand for our products and services is susceptible to general global market and economic conditions.
Weakness in the United States, the European Union (the “EU”) and/or the worldwide economy has had and could continue to have a negative effect on demand for our products and our results of operations. Companies may not view training products and services as critical to the success of their businesses. If these companies continue to experience disappointing operating results, whether as a result of adverse economic conditions, competitive issues or other factors, they may decrease or forgo education and training expenditures before limiting their other expenditures or in conjunction with lowering other expenses. In addition, during economic downturns, customers may slow the rate at which they pay vendors or may become unable to pay their debts as they become due, which would have a negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Further, the United Kingdom (the “UK”) withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020, pursuant to a transitionary withdrawal agreement with the EU that in substance maintains the pre-withdrawal, status quo until the end of 2020. The full impact of the British exit from the EU (commonly known as “Brexit”). On December 24, 2020, the UK and the EU entered into a trade and cooperation agreement, effective January 1, 2021 (the “Brexit Trade Agreement”), which governs, among other things, trade between the UK and the EU. The full impact of the Brexit Trade Agreement and its related consequences remain uncertain, including with respect to ongoing negotiations between the UK and EU and new trade agreements with global trading partners. In addition, conflicts in the Middle East and elsewhere, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have created many economic and political uncertainties which have impacted worldwide markets. These global economic and political conditions may impact our business in a number of ways. The revenue growth and potential profitability of our business depends on demand for digital learning content and enterprise human capital management application software generally and for learning and talent development
 
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solutions in particular. We sell our products primarily to large, mid-sized, and small business organizations whose businesses fluctuate based on general economic and business conditions.
In addition, a portion of our customer contract value is attributable to the number of users of our products at each of our customers, which in turn is influenced by the employment and hiring patterns of our customers and potential customers globally. To the extent that economic uncertainty or weak economic conditions cause our customers and potential customers to freeze or reduce their headcount, demand for our products may be negatively affected. Additionally, economic downturns have historically resulted in overall reductions in spending on information technology and learning and talent development solutions as well as pressure from customers and potential customers for extended billing terms. If economic, political, or market conditions deteriorate, or if there is uncertainty around these conditions, our customers and potential customers may elect to decrease their information technology and people development budgets by deferring or reconsidering product purchases, which would limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by natural disasters, public health crises, political crises, or other catastrophic events.
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and other adverse weather and climate conditions; unforeseen public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; political crises, such as terrorist attacks, war, and other political instability; or other catastrophic events, whether occurring in the United States or internationally, could disrupt our operations in any of our offices or the operations of one or more of our third-party providers and vendors. To the extent any of these events occur, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We may be unable to protect our proprietary rights. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property may result in development of products or services that compete with ours. Claims that we infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others could result in costly litigation or royalty payments to third parties, or require us to reengineer or cease sales of our products or services.
Our success depends to a degree upon the protection of our rights in intellectual property. We rely upon a combination of patent, trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws to protect our proprietary rights. We have also entered into, and will continue to enter into, confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties to seek to limit and protect the distribution of confidential information. However, we may not have signed protective agreements in every case.
Although we have taken steps to protect our proprietary rights, these steps may be inadequate. Existing patent, trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws offer only limited protection. Moreover, the laws of other countries in which we market our products may afford little or no effective protection of our intellectual property. Additionally, unauthorized parties may copy aspects of our products, services, or technology or obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. Other parties may also breach protective contracts we have executed or will in the future execute. We may not become aware of, or have adequate remedies in the event of, a breach related to such agreements. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or to determine the validity and scope of our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Even if we were to prevail, such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management and technical resources.
Additionally, third parties have in the past and could in the future claim that our current or future products infringe their intellectual property rights. Any claim, with or without merit, could result in costly litigation or require us to reengineer or cease sales of our products or services, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Infringement claims could also result in an injunction barring the sale of our products or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements. Licensing agreements, if required, may not be available on terms acceptable to the combined company or at all. From time to time we learn of parties that claim broad intellectual property rights in the learning and talent development area that might implicate our offerings. These parties or others could initiate actions against us in the future.
Our worldwide operations are subject to risks that could negatively impact our future operating results.
 
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We expect that international operations will continue to account for a large portion of our revenue and are subject to inherent risks, including:

difficulties or delays in developing and supporting non-English language versions of our products and services;

political and economic conditions in various jurisdictions;

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign subsidiary operations;

multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations;

the influence of works councils or similar employee representative bodies on the procurement process and customer investment decisions;

protectionist laws and business practices that may favor local competitors;

difficulties in finding and managing local resellers;

foreign currency fluctuations, including the Euro, pound sterling, Canadian dollar, Australian dollar, Indian rupee, Singapore dollar and related currencies;

potential adverse tax consequences; and

the absence or significant lack of legal protection for intellectual property rights.
Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our future operations outside of the United States, which could negatively impact our future operating results.
We might require additional capital to support our growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new features or enhance our existing platform or acquire complementary businesses, technologies, and content. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our ordinary shares. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. In addition, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired.
Our business could be affected by new governmental regulations regarding the Internet as well as by changes impacting the speed and reliability of the Internet.
Various laws and regulations could impede the growth of the Internet or other online services, and new laws and regulations may be adopted in the future. These laws and regulations could limit internet neutrality, involve taxation, tariffs, privacy, data protection, information security, content, copyrights, distribution, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, and the characteristics and quality of services, any of which could decrease the demand for, or the usage of, our platform. To date, government regulations have not materially restricted use of the Internet in most parts of the world. However, the legal and regulatory environment pertaining to the internet is uncertain and governments may impose regulation in the future. New laws may be passed, courts may issue decisions affecting the Internet, existing but previously inapplicable or unenforced laws may be deemed to apply to the Internet, regulatory agencies may begin to more rigorously enforce such formerly unenforced laws, or existing legal safe harbors may be narrowed, both by U.S. federal or state governments or by governments of foreign jurisdictions.
Any factors that adversely affect Internet usage could disrupt the ability of those users to access our learning and talent development solutions, which would adversely affect customer satisfaction and therefore
 
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our business. In addition, such changes in laws could increase our costs of doing business or prevent us from delivering our services over the internet or in specific jurisdictions, which could harm our business and our results of operations.
Our ability to increase the effectiveness and scope of our services to customers is ultimately limited by the speed and reliability of both the Internet and our customers’ internal networks. Consequently, the emergence and growth of the market for our products and services depends upon the improvements being made to the entire Internet as well as to our individual customers’ networking infrastructures to alleviate overloading and congestion. If these improvements are not made, and the quality of networks degrades, the ability of our customers to use our products and services will be hindered and our revenue may suffer.
Existing or future laws and regulations relating to privacy or data security could increase the cost of our products, limit their use and adoption, and subject us or our customers to litigation, regulatory investigations and penalties, and other potential liabilities.
The U.S. and various state governments have adopted or proposed laws governing the collection, use, storage, sharing and processing of personal data. Several foreign jurisdictions, including but not limited to the EU and its member states, the UK, Korea, Japan, Singapore, Australia, and India, have adopted legislation (including directives or regulations) that increase or change the requirements governing the personal data of individuals in these jurisdictions. In some cases, these laws impose obligations not only on many of our customers, but also directly on us. These laws and regulations are complex and change frequently, at times due to differing economic conditions and changes in political climate, with new laws and regulations proposed frequently and existing laws and regulations subject to different and conflicting interpretations. These laws have the potential to increase costs of compliance, risks of noncompliance and penalties for noncompliance, and the cost and complexity of selling and delivering our solutions.
For example, the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which took effect on May 25, 2018, imposes obligations on our customers and directly on us. Among other obligations under the GDPR, we are required to give more detailed disclosure about how we collect, use and share personal data; contractually commit to data protection measures in our contracts with customers; maintain adequate data security measures; notify regulators and affected individuals of certain personal data breaches; meet extensive privacy governance and documentation requirements; and honor individuals’ expanded data protection rights, including their rights to access, correct and delete their personal data. Companies that violate the GDPR can face fines of up to the greater of 20 million euros or 4% of their worldwide annual revenue, and restrictions on data processing. Our customers’ or our vendors’ failure to comply with the GDPR could lead to significant fines imposed by regulators or restrictions on our ability to process personal information as needed to provide our services. We may also be obligated to assist our customers with their own compliance obligations under the GDPR.
In addition, the mechanisms allowing companies to transfer personal data outside of the European Economic Area (“EEA”) face ongoing legal challenges in the EU and threaten our ability to lawfully process personal data where we operate outside of the EEA. These challenges have been brought against the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses for transfers of personal data, on which we rely to transfer personal data from the EEA. Loss of our ability to lawfully transfer personal data out of the EEA to any other jurisdictions may cause reluctance or refusal by current or prospective European customers to use our products. Additionally, other countries outside of the EEA have passed or are considering passing laws requiring local data residency, which could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services.
In addition, the California legislature passed the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA gives California residents certain rights similar to the individual rights given under the GDPR, including the right to access and delete their personal information, opt-out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA prohibits discrimination against individuals who exercise their privacy rights, provides for civil penalties for violations, and creates a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Since the enactment of the CCPA, new privacy and data security laws have been proposed in more than half of the U.S. states and in the U.S. Congress, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States.
 
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The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, privacy and data security laws and regulations may limit the use and adoption of our services, lead to negative publicity, reduce overall demand for our services, make it more difficult to meet expectations of or commitments to customers, require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts with customers, lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities for noncompliance, or slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, any of which could harm our business. These laws could also impact our ability to offer, or our customers’ ability to deploy, our services in certain locations. The costs, burdens, and potential liabilities imposed by existing privacy laws could be compounded if other jurisdictions in the United States or abroad begin to adopt similar or more stringent laws.
Furthermore, concerns regarding data privacy and security may cause our customers’ customers to resist providing data that allows our customers to use our services more effectively. Even the perception that the privacy of personal information is not satisfactorily protected or does not meet regulatory requirements could inhibit sales of our products or services and could limit adoption of our cloud-based solutions.
Any of these matters could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operational results.
Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the UK Bribery Act, and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering laws in various jurisdictions both domestic and abroad. We leverage third parties, including channel partners, to sell subscriptions to our solution and conduct our business abroad. We and our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities and may be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party business partners and intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, channel partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. While we have policies and procedures to address compliance with such laws, we cannot guarantee that all of our employees and agents will not take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible. Any violation of the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act, or other applicable anti-bribery, anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, or suspension or debarment from U.S. or other government contracts, all of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, operating results, and prospects.
Our business could be adversely affected if our products contain errors.
Software products contain known and undetected errors or “bugs” that result in product failures. The existence of bugs could result in loss of or delay in revenue, loss of market share, diversion of product development resources, injury to reputation or damage to efforts to build brand awareness, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Changes in tax laws, unfavorable resolution of tax examinations, or exposure to additional tax liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We operate in a number of tax jurisdictions globally, including in the U.S., Ireland and Luxembourg. Governments in the jurisdictions in which we operate implement changes to tax laws and regulations periodically. Any implementation of tax laws that fundamentally change the taxation of corporations in the U.S., Ireland or Luxembourg and other applicable jurisdictions could materially impact our effective tax rate and could have a significant adverse impact on our financial results. In addition, our effective tax rate could fluctuate due to changes in the mix of earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates. Our tax expense could also be impacted by changes in non-deductible expenses, changes in the tax treatment of equity-based compensation, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and our ability to utilize them, the applicability of withholding taxes, effects from acquisitions, and the evaluation of new information that results in a change to a tax position taken in a prior period.
 
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We are also subject to examinations of our tax returns by tax authorities in various jurisdictions around the world. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from ongoing tax examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. These assessments can require a high degree of judgment and estimation. Intercompany transactions associated with the sale of services and intellectual property and cost share arrangements are complex and affect our tax liabilities. The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in multiple jurisdictions. Successful unilateral or multi-jurisdictional actions by various tax authorities, including in the context of our current or future corporate operating structure and third-party and intercompany arrangements (including transfer pricing and the manner in which we develop, value and use our intellectual property), may increase our worldwide effective tax rate, result in additional taxes or other costs or have other material consequences, which could harm our operations, financial results and condition. A difference in the ultimate resolution of tax uncertainties from what is currently estimated could have an adverse effect on our financial results and condition.
We could be subjected to legal actions based upon the content we include in our courseware or learning assets.
It is possible that we could become subject to legal actions based upon claims that our course content or other learning assets infringe the rights of others or is erroneous. Any such claims, with or without merit, could subject us to costly litigation and the diversion of our financial resources and management personnel. The risk of such claims is exacerbated by the fact that certain learning content is provided by third parties over whom we exert limited control. Further, if such claims are successful, we may be required to alter the content, pay financial damages, or obtain content from others.
Risks Related to our Indebtedness and Certain Other Obligations
Our degree of leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, expose us to interest rate risk and prevent us from meeting obligations on our indebtedness.
Our degree of leverage could have potentially adverse consequences, including: making it more difficult for us to make payments on our indebtedness; increasing our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions; requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures, research and development and future business opportunities; exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates under our credit facilities to the extent such facilities have variable rates of interest; limiting our ability to make strategic acquisitions and investments; limiting our ability to refinance our indebtedness as it becomes due; and limiting our ability to adjust quickly or at all to changing market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who are less highly leveraged.
Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.
Our financing agreements contain various covenants that limit our ability to engage in specific types of transactions. These covenants limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to incur or guarantee additional debt and issue or sell certain preferred stock; pay dividends on, redeem or repurchase our capital stock; make certain acquisitions or investments; incur or assume certain liens; enter into transactions with affiliates; and sell assets to, or merge or consolidate with, another company. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under our debt instruments.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and we may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will maintain a level of cash flow from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
 
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Additionally, our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions or debt repayments to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness. Each such subsidiary is a distinct legal entity and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from them. While our existing credit agreements limit the ability of our guarantor subsidiaries to incur consensual encumbrances and include restrictions on their ability to pay dividends or make other intercompany payments to us, these limitations are subject to certain qualifications and exceptions. In the event that we do not receive cash from our subsidiaries, we will be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.
If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations and operating lease obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. Our existing credit agreements restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from the disposition. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we could otherwise realize from such dispositions and any such proceeds that are realized may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.
Risks Related to our Previous Capital Structure and Resulting Chapter 11 Cases
The ongoing effects of our prior capital structure, including our recent emergence from the Chapter 11 Cases, could adversely affect our business and relationships.
The level of prior indebtedness impacted us in several ways, including our ability to invest in the business. This indebtedness led to filing the Chapter 11 Cases. We have only recently emerged from bankruptcy. Our ability to change the public perception relating to our prior capital structure and recently consummated Chapter 11 Cases may have an impact on our ability to continue to attract our customers, which is critical to our ability to achieve long-term profitability, and a negative public perception of our business due to our recently consummated bankruptcy proceedings may have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
Due principally to our prior capital structure, we have incurred losses in each of our last five fiscal years. As noted in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations  —  Non-GAAP Financial Measures,” our Adjusted EBITDA has also declined over this period. While we believe we are taking the right steps to improve profitability over the long-term, we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability on a consistent quarterly or annual basis. Failure to maintain profitability in future periods may materially and adversely affect our ability to make payments on our outstanding debt obligations.
Information contained in our historical financial statements will not be comparable to the information contained in our financial statements after the application of fresh-start accounting.
Following our emergence from Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code, our financial condition and results of operations from and after August 27, 2020 will not be comparable to the financial condition or results of operations in our historical financial statements. This will make it difficult for our stockholders and others to assess our performance in relation to prior periods. As a result of our restructuring, our financial statements are subject to the fresh-start accounting provisions of GAAP. In the application of fresh-start accounting, an allocation of the reorganization value is made to the fair value of assets and liabilities in conformity with the guidance for the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations. Adjustments to the carrying amounts could be material and could affect prospective results of operations as balance sheet items are settled, depreciated, amortized or impaired. We test goodwill and indefinite lived intangible assets for impairment annually or whenever events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. We evaluate other long-lived assets for impairments whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be
 
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recoverable. Impairments could occur in the future if our expected future cash flows decline, market or interest rate environments deteriorate, or if carrying values change materially compared with changes in their respective fair values.
Risks Related to our Internal Control over Financial Reporting and Critical Accounting Policies
If our judgments or estimates relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could fall below expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates, and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our ordinary shares. Significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include, or may in the future include, those related to revenue recognition, fresh-start accounting, sales commissions costs, long-lived assets and accounting for income taxes including deferred tax assets and liabilities.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. Failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in our failure to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.
We are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our controls over financial reporting. Our assessment under Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting, as well as a statement that our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
In connection with the audit of our financial statements for the year ended January 31, 2020, we identified several material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. We did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting related to the control environment component of Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, or the COSO framework, in areas relating to accounting for capitalization and borrowings from our prior parent company, the accounting for income tax valuation allowances and the calculation of goodwill impairment for our reporting units. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
We did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting related to the COSO framework, as the Company had not designed and implemented effective internal controls related to:

Accounting for transactions between Pointwell Limited and its former parent company, including related to intercompany debt and the capitalization of Pointwell Limited. We believe such finding primarily resulted from financial statements of Pointwell Limited not having been prepared and reported previously.

Accounting for the scheduling of deferred tax asset valuation allowances.
 
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Determination of goodwill impairment loss, including the consideration of deferred tax liabilities in the calculation of the carrying values of the reporting units.

Fresh-start accounting.
Because the first and fourth weaknesses related to accounting with our former parent on financial statements not having been previously prepared and to accounting for the reorganization, respectively, management does not believe they will recur in future periods. For the other two weaknesses, management has secured qualified, third-party professional resources to assist management in these technical accounting areas going forward. This assistance may be expensive and time consuming and may distract our management team. Additionally, we may not be able to fully remediate these material weaknesses until these steps have been operating effectively for a sufficient period of time. If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our financial statements and related disclosures may be inaccurate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our stock price.
Management is working to remediate the material weaknesses by continuing to train personnel on established accounting close policies and procedures and adding additional accounting personnel with greater technical and public company accounting experience. We may not be able to fully remediate these material weaknesses until these steps have been completed and have been operating effectively for a sufficient period of time. If we are not able to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our financial statements and related disclosures may be inaccurate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our stock price.
Global Knowledge’s corporate training services business may be disproportionately impacted by an economic downturn.
Global Knowledge’s business of providing corporate training services is particularly sensitive to general economic conditions, as its corporate customers often defer or eliminate training services to control costs when facing financial pressure. Challenging economic conditions may therefore have a disproportionately negative impact on revenue from Global Knowledge’s corporate training services, which constitutes a significant portion of its revenue.
The market for instructor led, synchronous, in-classroom learning may continue to decline
The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant and negative impact on in-classroom learning, as schools and other physical learning facilities were shut down in response to the global pandemic. As a result, the delivery of in-classroom learning has either been greatly curtailed or has pivoted to synchronous or asynchronous remote learning.
Global Knowledge’s future success will depend on its ability to offer clients the learning solutions they need in the format they desire and trust. While Global Knowledge has the capability to provide its clients a learning experience using different technologies and modalities, including in-classroom and remote learning, it remains unclear what the lasting impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will be on the in-classroom learning market. Global Knowledge’s business is transitioning from selling individual classes to selling subscriptions.
Failure or perceived failure to comply with regulations relating to career training services could result in the imposition of penalties or the interruption of Global Knowledge’s ability to provide services in certain jurisdictions.
In many jurisdictions in which Global Knowledge operates, career training services are generally subject to licensing requirements. Global Knowledge does not believe that the services provided by Global Knowledge are subject to such licensing requirements, as career-related training provided by Global Knowledge is provided as a business-to-business service through employers of Global Knowledge’s students, and the students themselves are not customers of Global Knowledge. Regulatory action has in the past been taken against Global Knowledge in respect of licensing requirements applicable to providers of career training services in certain jurisdictions and regulatory inquiries have occasionally been made about Global Knowledge’s licensure. Regulators could disagree with Global Knowledge’s assessment regarding the applicability of licensure requirements and take enforcement action against Global Knowledge, including
 
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by imposing penalties or prohibiting Global Knowledge from offering career-related training services in a relevant jurisdiction until Global Knowledge is able to obtain the requisite license.
Global Knowledge may face exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Most of Global Knowledge’s customer contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars, while Global Knowledge’s operating expenses outside of the United States are often denominated in local currencies. Currently, Global Knowledge does not engage in currency hedging activities to limit the risk of exchange rate fluctuations. Therefore, fluctuations in the relative values of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may affect Global Knowledge’s results of operations when converted into U.S. dollars.
The rapid growth of Global Knowledge’s virtual and on-demand subscription skills platforms, Develop.Com and GK Polaris, make it difficult to evaluate the future prospects of these platforms.
Global Knowledge launched its virtual and on-demand subscription skills platforms Develop.Com and GK Polaris in April 2020 and May 2020, respectively, and as a result, forecasting Global Knowledge’s future results of operations for these platforms is subject to a number of uncertainties, including Global Knowledge’s ability to effectively plan for and model future growth. Beginning in early 2020, Global Knowledge extended its offering to include Develop.Com and GK Polaris, which enabled Global Knowledge to expand its addressable market, attract new users, and broaden its relationships with corporate customers. As such, any predictions about Global Knowledge’s future revenue and expenses with respect to these platforms may not be as accurate as they could be if Global Knowledge had a longer operating history with its virtual and on-demand subscription platform or operated in a more predictable market. Global Knowledge encountered in the past, and may encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries. If Global Knowledge’s assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which Global Knowledge uses to plan and operate its business, are incorrect or change, or if Global Knowledge does not address these risks adequately, its results of operations could differ materially from its expectations, as growth rates may slow, and its business may suffer.
Global Knowledge relies upon SaaS technologies from third parties to operate its business, and interruptions or performance problems with these technologies may adversely affect the Global Knowledge business and results of operations.
Global Knowledge relies on hosted SaaS applications from third parties in order to operate critical functions of its business, including content delivery, enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, billing, project management, and accounting and financial reporting. If these services become unavailable due to extended outages, interruptions, or because they are no longer available on commercially reasonable terms, Global Knowledge’s expenses could increase, the ability to manage finances could be interrupted, and processes for managing sales of Global Knowledge’s platform and supporting its customers could be impaired until equivalent services, if available, are identified, obtained, and implemented, all of which may negatively impact Global Knowledge’s results of operations and harm our business.
A loss of Global Knowledge’s status as an authorized training provider with one or more key technology vendors could adversely affect the Global Knowledge business.
Global Knowledge derives a large portion of its consolidated revenue in any financial reporting period from delivering corporate training as an authorized training provider for certain technology companies and has a concentrated portfolio of relationships with these technology companies. Global Knowledge’s status as an authorized training partner for certain key technology companies provides certain benefits, including, among others, the ability to use official curricula created by key technology vendors, subsidies and other financial incentives provided by these technology vendors to support training on their products, representation on official training websites operated by the technology vendors, and the ability to issue certified training certificates from the technology vendors. Global Knowledge’s operating results depend to a significant degree on its ability to maintain its status as an authorized training partner with such key technology vendors, and an inability to retain such status, or a significant change in Global Knowledge’s relationship with one or more of its technology vendors, could significantly reduce Global Knowledge’s revenue.
 
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Global Knowledge has identified material weaknesses in its internal controls over the underlying information that supports the financial statements. Failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in Global Knowledge’s failure to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.
In connection with the audit of our financial statements for the year ended October 2, 2020, Global Knowledge identified material weaknesses in its internal controls over the underlying information supporting its financial statements. Global Knowledge did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting related to the control environment component of Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, or the COSO framework, due to the accounting personnel not reconciling certain balance sheet accounts and not recording the disposal of subsidiaries timely and accurately. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of Global Knowledge’s consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Global Knowledge’s management is working to remediate the material weaknesses by continuing to train personnel on established accounting close policies and procedures and adding additional accounting personnel with greater technical and public company accounting experience. Global Knowledge may not be able to fully remediate these material weaknesses until these steps have been completed and have been operating effectively for a sufficient period of time. If Skillsoft is not able to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, its financial statements and related disclosures may be inaccurate, which could have a material adverse effect on its business and its stock price.
Risks related to ownership of our Class A common stock
If the benefits of the Merger or the Global Knowledge Merger do not meet the expectations of financial analysts, the market price of the Class A common stock of the Skillsoft may decline.
The market price of the Class A common stock of the Skillsoft may decline as a result of the Merger or the Global Knowledge Merger, as applicable, if Skillsoft does not achieve the perceived benefits of the Merger or the Global Knowledge Merger as rapidly, or to the extent anticipated by, financial analysts or the effect of the Merger or the Global Knowledge Merger on the financial results of Skillsoft is not consistent with the expectations of financial analysts. Accordingly, holders of the Class A common stock of Skillsoft may experience a loss as a result of a decline in the market price of the Class A common stock. In addition, a decline in the market price of the Class A common stock of Skillsoft could adversely affect the ability of Skillsoft to issue additional securities and to obtain additional financing in the future.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included in this prospectus is preliminary and based on a number of assumptions and the actual financial condition and results of operations after the Merger and the Global Knowledge Merger may differ materially.
The unaudited pro forma financial information included in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what the actual financial position or results of operations of Skillsoft were once the Merger and the Global Knowledge Merger had been completed on the date(s) indicated. The preparation of the pro forma financial information is based upon available information and certain assumptions and estimates that Churchill, Skillsoft and Global Knowledge currently believe are reasonable. The unaudited pro forma financial information reflects adjustments, which are based upon preliminary estimates, among other things, to pro forma acquisition accounting recognize the acquired assets and assumed liabilities of Skillsoft. The pro forma acquisition accounting reflected in this prospectus is preliminary, and the final acquisition accounting will be based upon the actual purchase price and the fair value of the assets and liabilities of Skillsoft and Global Knowledge as of the date of the completion of the Merger and the Global Knowledge Merger. In addition, following the completion of the Merger and the Global Knowledge Merger, there may be further refinements of the acquisition as additional information becomes available. Accordingly, the acquisition accounting adjustments may differ materially from the pro forma adjustments reflected in this prospectus. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information.
 
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Legal proceedings in connection with the Merger, the outcomes of which are uncertain, could impact the price of our securities.
In connection with the Merger, certain Churchill shareholders have filed lawsuits and other Churchill shareholders have threatened to file lawsuits alleging breaches of fiduciary duty and violations of the disclosure requirements of the Exchange Act. We intend to defend the matters vigorously. These cases are in the early stages and we are unable to reasonably determine the outcome or estimate any potential losses, and, as such, has not recorded a loss contingency.
Additional lawsuits may be filed against us or our directors and officers in connection with the Merger. Defending such additional lawsuits could require us to incur significant costs and draw the attention of its management team away from the Merger. Further, the defense or settlement of any lawsuit or claim may adversely affect the our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Such legal proceedings could affect the price of our securities.
Our Derivative Instruments are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of our Derivative Instruments could have a material effect on our financial results.
On April 12, 2021, the Staff at the SEC issued a statement (the “SEC Statement”) discussing the accounting implications of certain terms that are common in warrants issued by special purpose acquisition companies. In light of the SEC Statement and guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815-40, “Derivatives and Hedging  —  Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity,” Churchill’s management evaluated the terms of the warrant agreement entered into in connection with the Churchill IPO and concluded that the warrant agreement governing public warrants and the private placement warrants (together, the “warrants”) include provisions that, based on the SEC Statement, preclude the warrants from being classified as components of equity. As a result, Churchill classified the warrants, the 2020 note and the Prosus Subscription Agreement (together, the “Derivative Instruments”) as liabilities. Under this accounting treatment, Churchill was required to measure the fair value of the Derivative Instruments at the end of each reporting period and recognize changes in the fair value from the prior period in their operating results for the current period. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, our financial statements and results of operations may fluctuate quarterly based on factors which are outside our control. We expect that we will recognize non-cash gains or losses due to the quarterly fair valuation of the Derivative Instruments and that such gains or losses could be material.
In connection with the restatement of Churchill’s financial statements, Churchill’s management has concluded that its disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting were not effective as of December 31, 2020 due to a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting solely related to its accounting for Derivative Instruments.
Following the issuance of the SEC Statement and after consultation with Churchill’s independent registered public accounting firm and its management team, Churchill concluded that, in light of the SEC Statement, it was appropriate to restate its previously issued audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the period from April 11, 2019 (inception) through December 31, 2019. Churchill also restated the financial statements as of July 1, 2019, as of and for the period ended September 30, 2019, as of December 31, 2019, and as of and for the periods ended March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020. As part of such process, Churchill identified a material weakness in its internal controls over financial reporting, solely related to its accounting for Derivative Instruments as further discussed herein.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented, or detected and corrected on a timely basis. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. We expect to take steps to remediate the material weakness moving forwards, but there is no assurance that any remediation efforts will ultimately have the intended effects.
If we identify any new material weaknesses in the future, any such newly identified material weakness could limit our ability to prevent or detect a misstatement of our accounts or disclosures that could result in
 
23

 
a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements. In such case, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to applicable stock exchange listing requirements, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting and our stock price may decline as a result. We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken to date, or any measures we may take in the future, will be sufficient to avoid potential future material weaknesses.
Our stock price may change significantly and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result.
The trading price of shares of our Class A common stock is likely to be volatile. The stock market recently has experienced extreme volatility. This volatility often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. You may not be able to resell your shares at an attractive price due to a number of factors such as those listed in the risk factors above and below and the following:

results of operations that vary from the expectations of securities analysts and investors;

results of operations that vary from those of Skillsoft’s competitors;

changes in expectations as to Skillsoft’s future financial performance, including financial estimates and investment recommendations by securities analysts and investors;

declines in the market prices of stocks generally;

strategic actions by Skillsoft or its competitors;

announcements by Skillsoft or its competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint ventures, other strategic relationships or capital commitments;

any significant change in Skillsoft’s management;

changes in general economic or market conditions or trends in Skillsoft’s industry or markets;

changes in business or regulatory conditions, including new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to Skillsoft’s business;

future sales of common stock or other securities of Skillsoft;

investor perceptions or the investment opportunity associated with the common stock of Skillsoft relative to other investment alternatives;

the public’s response to press releases or other public announcements by Skillsoft or third parties, including the filings of Skillsoft with the SEC;

litigation involving Skillsoft, Skillsoft’s industry, or investigations by regulators into Skillsoft’s operations or those of their competitors;

guidance, if any, that Skillsoft provides to the public, any changes in this guidance or Skillsoft’s failure to meet this guidance;

the development and sustainability of an active trading market for the stock of Skillsoft;

actions by institutional or activist stockholders;

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles; and

other events or factors, including those resulting from natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism or responses to these events.
These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of the Class A common stock of Skillsoft, regardless of Skillsoft’s actual operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of the Class A common stock of Skillsoft is low.
In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation. If Skillsoft was involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from Skillsoft’s business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.
 
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Because there are no current plans to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock for the foreseeable future, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
Skillsoft intends to retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and there are no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of Skillsoft’s Class A common stock will be at the sole discretion of Skillsoft’s board of directors. Skillsoft’s board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and results of operations, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax, and regulatory restrictions, implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is limited by covenants of Skillsoft’s existing and outstanding indebtedness and may be limited by covenants of any future indebtedness Skillsoft incurs. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our Class A common stock unless you sell our Class A common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about Skillsoft’s business or if they downgrade our stock or Skillsoft’s sector, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Class A common stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about Skillsoft or its business. Skillsoft will not control these analysts. In addition, some financial analysts may have limited expertise with Skillsoft’s model and operations. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover Skillsoft downgrade its stock or industry, or the stock of any of its competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about its business, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of Skillsoft or fails to publish reports on it regularly, Skillsoft could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by Skillsoft or its stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.
The sale of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Class A common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for Skillsoft to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that it deems appropriate.
As of June 11, 2021, Skillsoft had a total of 133,059,021 shares of Class A common stock outstanding and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 61,966,667 shares of Class A common stock outstanding. Following the expiration of a 180-day lock-up period, all shares issued in the Merger (other than shares issued under the PIPE Subscription Agreements) will be freely tradable without registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and without restriction by persons other than Skillsoft’s “affiliates” ​(as defined under Rule 144 of the Securities Act, “Rule 144”), including Skillsoft’s directors, executive officers and other affiliates.
On June 11, 2022, upon the expiration or waiver of the lock-ups described in “Securities Act Restrictions on Resale of Securities — Lock-up Agreements,” shares held by certain stockholders of Skillsoft will be eligible for resale, subject to volume, manner of sale and other limitations under Rule 144. In addition, pursuant to a registration rights agreement, certain stockholders will have the right, subject to certain conditions, to require us to register the sale of their shares of our Class A common stock under the Securities Act. By exercising their registration rights and selling a large number of shares, these stockholders could cause the prevailing market price of our Class A common stock to decline. As of completion of the Merger, the shares covered by registration rights represent approximately 53% of our outstanding common stock, without giving effect to the issuance of any shares underlying the warrants.
As restrictions on resale end or if these stockholders exercise their registration rights, the market price of shares of the our Class A common stock could drop significantly if the holders of these shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. These factors could also make it more difficult for Skillsoft to raise additional funds through future offerings of our shares of Class A common stock or other securities.
 
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In addition, the shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under Skillsoft’s equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to various vesting agreements, lock-up agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. The compensation committee of our board of directors may determine the exact number of shares to be reserved for future issuance under its equity incentive plans at its discretion. We expect to file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of our Company’s Class A common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our Company’s Class A common stock issued pursuant to Skillsoft’s equity incentive plans. Any such Form S-8 registration statements will automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements will be available for sale in the open market.
In the future, we may also issue its securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The amount of shares of our Class A common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of Class A common stock. Any issuance of additional securities in connection with investments or acquisitions may result in additional dilution to our stockholders.
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.
Certain provisions of our Charter and bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders.
These provisions provide for, among other things:

a staggered board, which means that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors are only able to be removed from office for cause;

the ability of our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock;

advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings;

certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings;

limiting the ability of stockholders to act by written consent; and

providing that our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws.
These anti-takeover provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire Skillsoft, even if the third-party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause Skillsoft to take other corporate actions you desire. See “Description of Securities”.
The Charter designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with Skillsoft or its directors, officers, employees or stockholders.
The Charter provides that, subject to limited exceptions, any (1) derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of Skillsoft, (2) action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, stockholder or employee to Skillsoft or its stockholders, (3) action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Charter or our bylaws or (4) action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be exclusively brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, another state or federal court located within the State of Delaware. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of Skillsoft’s capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of
 
26

 
and to have consented to the provisions of the Charter described above. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with Skillsoft or its directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against Skillsoft and its directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of the Charter inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, the Skillsoft may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect Skillsoft’s business and financial condition. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Charter will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole and exclusive forum. While Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in the Charter. If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of the forum provisions is filed in a court other than a court located within the State of Delaware (a “foreign action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”); and (y) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such enforcement action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such stockholder.
This choice-of-forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with Skillsoft or its directors, officers, stockholders, agents or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits. We note that there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this provision, and the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ charter documents has been challenged in legal proceedings. Further, investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. It is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable, and if a court were to find this provision of the Charter inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.
The NYSE may not continue to list our securities, which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.
Our Class A common stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on the NYSE. There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of NYSE. If the NYSE delists our Class A common stock from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:

a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;

reduced liquidity for our securities;

a determination that our common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in such securities to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;

a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and

a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.
A market for our securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.
The price of our securities may fluctuate significantly due to the market’s reaction to the business combination and general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for our securities may
 
27

 
never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports. Additionally, if our securities become delisted from the NYSE for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on the NYSE or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the shares of Class A common stock and the warrants (including shares of Class A common stock underlying such warrants) offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $712.6 million from the exercise of all Public Warrants, Global Knowledge Warrants, Prosus Warrants, Private Placement Warrants and Working Capital Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all such warrants for cash.
Unless we inform you otherwise in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we intend to use the net proceeds from the exercise of such warrants for general corporate purposes which may include acquisitions or other strategic investments or repayment of outstanding indebtedness. Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the warrants.
There is no assurance that the holders of the warrants will elect to exercise any or all of the warrants. To the extent that the warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the warrants will decrease.
 
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CHURCHILL’S SELECTED HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following table contains selected historical financial data for Churchill as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 and as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and as of December 31, 2019 and for the period from April 11, 2019 (inception) through December 31, 2019. Such data has been derived from the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements and the restated audited financial statements of Churchill, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The restatement is more fully described in Note 2 to Churchill’s financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The information below is only a summary and should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in Churchill’s financial statements, and the notes and schedules related thereto, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. You should not assume the results of operations for past periods indicate results for any future period. All amounts are in U.S. dollars. Certain amounts that appear in this section may not sum due to rounding.
Churchill had neither engaged in any operations nor generated any revenue through March 31, 2021. Churchill’s only activities from inception through March 31, 2021 were organizational activities and those necessary to complete its initial public offering and identifying a target company for a business combination.
For the Three
Months Ended
March 31, 2021
For the Three
Months Ended
March 31, 2020
For the Year
Ended
December 31, 2020
For the Period
from April 11,
2019 (Inception)
Through
December 31,
2019
(unaudited)
Income Statement Data:
Net income (loss)$41,740,801$(8,823,514)$(72,459,185)$(14,682,592)
Less: Income attributable to common stock subject to possible redemption(1,325,482)(1,230,480)(4,868,674)
Nonredeemable net income (loss)$41,740,801$(10,148,996)$(73,689,665)$(19,551,226)
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic and diluted)32,537,49825,224,07527,526,13121,438,529
Basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share$1.28$(0.41)$(2.68)$(0.91)
(1)
Excludes an aggregate of 57,909,708, 59,998,219, 53,712,502 and 61,025,925 shares subject to possible redemption at March 31, 2021, March 31, 2020, December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
(unaudited)
Balance Sheet Data (end of period):
Cash$2,382,560$3,873,865$2,238,275
Prepaid income taxes27,140
Prepaid expenses111,17494,299275,525
Marketable securities held in Trust Account697,018,229696,957,196695,295,418
Total assets699,511,963700,925,360697,836,358
Total liabilities110,392,112153,546,31077,998,123
Common stock subject to possible redemption584,119,845542,379,040614,838,229
Total stockholders’ equity5,000,0065,000,0105,000,006
 
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SKILLSOFT’S SELECTED HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following tables present selected historical consolidated financial data of Pointwell Limited, the predecessor parent company of Skillsoft (US) Corporation for periods prior to August 28, 2020 and Software Luxembourg Holding S.A., the successor-parent company of Skillsoft (US) Corporation for periods from August 28, 2020 onwards.
On June 14, 2020, Skillsoft (US) Corporation, a subsidiary of Pointwell Limited, announced that it had entered into the Skillsoft RSA with a majority of its first and second lien lenders with the objective of reducing long-term debt while maintaining normal operations and paying all trade creditors in full. To efficiently implement the financial restructuring, Skillsoft (US) Corporation and certain of its affiliates (including Pointwell Limited) voluntarily filed “pre-packaged” Chapter 11 cases in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware in addition to ancillary proceedings in Canada under the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act seeking recognition of the U.S. Chapter 11 proceedings in Canada. The U.S. Bankruptcy Court approved the Skillsoft RSA at the Company’s confirmation hearing on August 6, 2020 and Skillsoft and its affiliates emerged from Chapter 11 on August 27, 2020. As a result of the reorganization, ownership interest in Pointwell Limited was transferred to a newly created legal entity, Software Luxembourg Holding S.A., the shares of which are owned by the lenders who had secured interest in Skillsoft and its affiliates prior to the petition date.
The consolidated statement of operations data for the Successor period from August 28, 2020 through January 31, 2021 and the balance sheet data as of January 31, 2021 have been derived from Software Luxembourg Holding S.A.’s audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, together with unaudited financial statements for the three months ended April 30, 2021, which are also included elsewhere in this prospectus. The consolidated statement of operations data for the Predecessor period from February 1, 2020 through August 27, 2020 and for the Predecessor years ended January 31, 2020 and 2019 and the balance sheet data as of January 31, 2020 have been derived from Pointwell Limited’s audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, together with unaudited financial statements for the three months ended April 30, 2021, which are also included elsewhere in this prospectus. The consolidated statement of operations data for the Predecessor year ended January 31, 2018 have been derived from Pointwell Limited’s audited consolidated financial statements not included in this prospectus.
You should read the selected financial data presented below in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the Successor and Predecessor consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The financial information contained in this section relates to the Successor and Predecessor, prior to and without giving pro forma effect to the impact of the Merger and the results reflected in this section may not be indicative of our results going forward.
Consolidated Statements of Operation — Data:
($ in thousands)
Three 
months
ended
April 30,
2021
Three 
months
ended
April 30,
2020
Aug. 28,
2020
through
Jan. 31,
2021
Feb. 1, 2020
through
Aug. 27,
2020
Fiscal Year
Ended
January 31,
2020
Fiscal Year
Ended
January 31,
2019
Fiscal Year
Ended
January 31,
2018
($ in thousands)SuccessorPredecessorSuccessorPredecessorPredecessorPredecessorPredecessor
Revenues:
Total revenues(1)
91,701118,329$108,768��$273,851$514,021$534,141$547,309
Operating expenses:
Cost of revenues:24,52124,21440,89852,16096,04498,636106,274
Content and software development16,60716,94330,02838,98667,95157,33260,500
Selling and marketing28,50232,73755,28575,028140,785150,179143,898
General and administrative12,36215,68821,63637,45557,35651,42145,344
 
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Three 
months
ended
April 30,
2021
Three 
months
ended
April 30,
2020
Aug. 28,
2020
through
Jan. 31,
2021
Feb. 1, 2020
through
Aug. 27,
2020
Fiscal Year
Ended
January 31,
2020
Fiscal Year
Ended
January 31,
2019
Fiscal Year
Ended
January 31,
2018
($ in thousands)SuccessorPredecessorSuccessorPredecessorPredecessorPredecessorPredecessor
Recapitalization and transaction-
related costs
1,93216,37615,92832,09916,244
Amortization of intangible assets34,94317,37039,82434,37896,359151,752194,739
Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets332,376332.376440,59816,094
Restructuring5373704,3411,1791,9002,0732,524
Total Operating Expenses119,404456,074207,940603,661917,237527,487553,279
Operating (loss) income(27,703)(337,745)(99,172)(329,810)(403,216)6,654(5,970)
Interest expense, net(11,449)910(19,936)(168,236)(429,657)(395,842)(346,186)
Reorganization items, net3,329,245
Other income (expense)(342)92939,4521,268(5,120)(5,624)8,812
Loss before provision (benefit) for
income taxes
(39,494)(442,794)(115,656)2,832,467(837,993)(394,812)(343,344)
Provision for income taxes(2,089)(8,891)(21,934)68,45511,2125,0271,373
Net (loss) income(37,405)(433,903)$(93,722)$(2,764,012)$(849,205)$(399,839)$(344,717)
(1)
On February 1, 2019, Predecessor adopted ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. See Note 2 in the Pointwell Limited annual consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data
($ in thousands)
SuccessorPredecessor
As of January 31, 2021As of January 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents$71,479$18,799
Accounts receivable, net179,784193,024
Total current assets(1)
284,553263.250
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities(1)(2)
66,92568,790
Term loans and related-party debt and accrued interest515,43668,790
Total shareholder’s equity (deficit)579,969(2,761,744)
(1)
On February 1, 2019, Predecessor adopted ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. See Note 2 in the Software Luxembourg Holding and Pointwell Limited annual consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.
(2)
On February 1, 2020, Predecessor adopted ASC Topic 842, Leases. See Note 2 in the Pointwell Limited and Software Luxembourg Holdings annual consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.
 
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GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE’S SELECTED HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following table contains selected historical financial data for Global Knowledge as of and for the fiscal years ended October 2, 2020 and September 27, 2019 and the six months ended April 2, 2021 and March 27, 2020. Such data has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Global Knowledge for the fiscal years and unaudited consolidated interim financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The information below is only a summary and should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Business” and Global Knowledge’s consolidated financial statements, and the notes and schedules related thereto, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus. You should not assume the results of operations for past periods indicate results for any future period. All amounts are in U.S. dollars.
Fiscal Year Ended
(in thousands)October 2, 2020September 27, 2019
Statement of Operations And Comprehensive Loss Data:
Revenue$208,535$260,165
Cost of revenue116,203139,459
Gross margin92,332120,706
Total operating expenses164,636121,988
Loss from operations(72,304)(1,282)
Interest expense(27,455)(25,489)
Other (expense) income, net(1,328)500
Loss before income taxes(101,087)(26,271)
Income tax expense(271)(28)
Net Loss$(101,358)$(26,299)
Six Months Ended
(in thousands)April 2, 2021March 27, 2020
Statement of Operations And Comprehensive Loss Data:
Revenue$94,354$122,047
Cost of revenue46,81268,155
Gross margin47,54253,892
Total operating expenses50,236115,605
Loss from operations(2,694)(61,713)
Interest expense(19,379)(13,127)
Other income (expense), net436(2,066)
Loss before income taxes(21,637)(76,906)
Income tax expense(1,316)(738)
Net Loss$(22,953)$(77,644)
As of
(in thousands)April 2, 2021October 2, 2020September 27, 2019
Balance Sheet Data:
Cash$17,296$19,836$9,621
Total assets235,528240,958314,244
Total liabilities384,629364,551344,439
Total stockholder’s deficit(149,101)(123,593)(30,195)
Six Months Ended
(in thousands)April 2, 2021March 27, 2020
Statement of Cash Flow Data:
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$451$(10,532)
Net cash used in investing activities(2,106)(1,220)
Net cash provided by financing activities(1,248)15,841
 
33

 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Defined terms included below have the same meaning as terms defined and included elsewhere in this prospectus. Unless the context otherwise requires, the “Company” or “Churchill” refers to Churchill Capital Corp II and its subsidiaries before and at the Closing and to Skillsoft Corp. after the Closing and “Skillsoft” refers to Software Luxembourg Holding S.A. before and at the Closing.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X, Pro Forma Financial Information, as amended by the final rule, Release No. 33-10786, which is herein referred to as Article 11. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements of the Company, Skillsoft, and Global Knowledge present the combination of the financial information of the Company, Skillsoft and Global Knowledge adjusted to give pro forma effect to the following transactions:

The reorganization of certain Skillsoft affiliates under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code;

The Merger in accordance with the Skillsoft Merger Agreement;

The issuance of Churchill Class A common stock in accordance with (i) the Prosus PIPE Subscription Agreement and (ii) the SuRo PIPE Subscription Agreement that were effective upon the consummation of the Merger. With respect to the issuance of Churchill Class A common stock in accordance with the Prosus PIPE Subscription Agreement, the following pro forma condensed combined financial statements have been prepared to reflect both the First Step Prosus Investment and Second Step Prosus Investment (each as defined below);

The Global Knowledge Merger in accordance with the Global Knowledge Merger Agreement; and

The issuance of Class A common stock of the Company in accordance with the Lodbrok Subscription Agreement that was effective upon the consummation of the Global Knowledge Merger.
The Company was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on April 11, 2019 and completed its initial public offering on June 26, 2019. The Company was formed as a blank check company to acquire one or more businesses through a business combination transaction. Upon the closing of the Churchill IPO and the sale of private placement warrants, $690.0 million from the net proceeds thereof was placed in a trust account.
The following describes the transactions:

Skillsoft Reorganization: On June 14, 2020, Skillsoft (US) Corporation, a subsidiary of Pointwell Limited, announced that it had entered into the Skillsoft RSA with a majority of its first and second lien lenders. Skillsoft (US) Corporation and certain of its affiliates (including Pointwell) voluntarily filed “pre-packaged” Chapter 11 cases in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware in addition to ancillary proceedings in Canada under the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act seeking recognition of the U.S. Chapter 11 proceedings in Canada. The U.S. Bankruptcy Court approved the RSA at the confirmation hearing on August 6, 2020 and Skillsoft and its affiliates emerged from Chapter 11 on August 27, 2020. As a result of the reorganization, ownership interest in Pointwell was transferred to a newly created legal entity, Skillsoft, the shares of which were owned by the lenders who had secured interest in Skillsoft (US) Corporation and its affiliates prior to the petition date. Refer to Note 2 for pro forma adjustments related to the Skillsoft Reorganization.

Skillsoft Merger: On October 12, 2020, Churchill entered into the Skillsoft Merger Agreement. Under the terms of the Skillsoft Merger Agreement, Skillsoft merged with and into Churchill, Skillsoft ceased to exist and Skillsoft’s subsidiaries became subsidiaries of Churchill on June 11, 2021.
PIPE investments:
(i)
On October 12, 2020, Prosus entered into the Prosus Subscription Agreement with Churchill, pursuant to which Prosus subscribed for 10,000,000 newly-issued shares of Churchill Class A common stock, at a purchase price of $10.00 per share, to be issued at the closing (the “First Step Prosus Investment”), and Churchill granted Prosus a 30-day option (the “Option”) to subscribe for up to the lesser of (i) an additional 40,000,000 newly-issued shares of Churchill Class A common
 
34

 
stock, at a purchase price of $10.00 per share or (ii) such additional number of shares that would result in Prosus beneficially owning shares of Churchill Class A common stock representing 35% of the issued and outstanding shares of Churchill on a fully-diluted and as-converted basis as of immediately following the closing (excluding any warrants issued to Prosus pursuant to the Prosus Subscription Agreement) (the “Second Step Prosus Investment” and together with the First Step Prosus Investment, the “Prosus PIPE Investment”). On November 10, 2020, Prosus exercised the Option to subscribe for an additional 40,000,000 shares of Churchill Class A common stock in the Second Step Prosus Investment (or such number of shares as may be reduced pursuant to the Prosus Subscription Agreement). Pursuant to the Prosus Subscription Agreement, in connection with Prosus’s exercise of the Option and concurrently with the consummation of the Second Step Prosus Investment, Churchill issued to Prosus warrants to purchase a number of shares of Churchill Class A common stock equal to one-third of the number of shares of Churchill Class A common stock purchased in the Prosus PIPE Investment (the “Prosus Warrants”). The Prosus Warrants have terms substantively identical to those warrants included in the units offered in the Churchill IPO.
The pro forma financial information reflects the Prosus PIPE Investment. The additional funds from the Second Step Prosus Investment are reflected within the cash balance in the pro forma condensed combined financial statements as the Company will retain these funds to provide maximum balance sheet flexibility. Churchill and Prosus also agreed that following the consummation of the Merger, and in the event that Prosus beneficially owns less than the Prosus Maximum Ownership Amount, Prosus will have the concurrent right to purchase a number of additional shares of Churchill Class A common stock, at $10.00 per share, that would result in Prosus maintaining beneficial ownership of at least, but no more than, the Prosus Maximum Ownership Amount (the “Prosus Top-Up Right”). The Prosus Top-Up Right was not exercised and is not reflected in the following pro forma condensed combined financial statements.
(ii)
On October 14, 2020, in connection with the execution of the Skillsoft Merger Agreement, Churchill entered into a subscription agreement with SuRo Capital Corp. (“SuRo”) pursuant to which SuRo subscribed for 1,000,000 newly-issued shares of Churchill Class A common stock, at a purchase price of $10.00 per share (the “SuRo PIPE Investment”), that were issued at the Skillsoft Closing (the “SuRo Subscription Agreement”).
The Global Knowledge Merger meets the related business criteria defined by SEC’s Regulation S-X Rule 3-05 and is therefore included in the pro forma condensed combined financial statements.

Global Knowledge Merger: On October 12, 2020, Churchill entered into the Global Knowledge Merger Agreement, which was subject to the consummation of the Merger.

Lodbrok PIPE Investment: On October 13, 2020, in connection with the execution of the Global Knowledge Merger Agreement, Churchill entered into a subscription agreement with Lodbrok Capital LLP (“Lodbrok”) pursuant to which Lodbrok subscribed for 2,000,000 newly-issued shares of Churchill Class A common stock, at a purchase price of $10.00 per share (the “Lodbrok PIPE Investment”), which were issued at the closing of the Global Knowledge Merger (the “Lodbrok Subscription Agreement”).
The Merger was not contingent on the Global Knowledge Merger, and as a result, the pro forma condensed combined financial statements first give effect to the Skillsoft Reorganization, the Merger, and the PIPE Investments and then give effect to the Global Knowledge Merger and the Lodbrok PIPE Investment.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of March 31, 2021 combines the historical balance sheets of Churchill, Skillsoft and Global Knowledge as if the Merger, PIPE Investments, the Global Knowledge Merger and the Lodbrok PIPE Investment had been consummated on March 31, 2021. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2021 combine the historical statements of operations of Churchill, Skillsoft and Global Knowledge for such periods on a pro forma basis as if the Skillsoft Reorganization, the Merger, the PIPE Investments, the Global Knowledge Merger and the Lodbrok PIPE Investment had been consummated at the beginning of the earliest period presented. Churchill’s
 
35

 
fiscal year ends on December 31st, Skillsoft’s fiscal year ends on January 31st and Global Knowledge’s fiscal year ends on the Friday nearest September 30th of each year. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are presented on the basis of Churchill’s fiscal year prior to the Closing and combine the historical results of the fiscal periods of Churchill, Skillsoft and Global Knowledge.
In accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X, the historical financial statements may be adjusted in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements to give pro forma effect to provide for “Transaction Accounting Adjustments” reflecting only the application of required accounting for the transactions. The Company has not included any Management Adjustments as defined under Release No. 33-10786.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements have been derived from and should be read in conjunction with, the following historical financial statements, the accompanying notes and other specified information, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus:

the accompanying notes to the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements;

the historical unaudited financial statements of Churchill as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and the related notes;

the historical audited financial statements (as restated) of Churchill as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the related notes;

the historical unaudited financial statements of Skillsoft as of and for the three months ended April 30, 2021 and the related notes;

the historical audited consolidated financial statements of Successor Skillsoft as of January 31, 2021 and for the period from August 28, 2020 to January 31, 2021, the historical audited consolidated financial statements of Predecessor Skillsoft for the period from February 1, 2020 to August 27, 2020, and the related notes;

the historical unaudited consolidated financial statements of Global Knowledge as of and for the three months ended April 2, 2021 and the related notes;

the historical audited consolidated financial statements of Global Knowledge as of and for the year ended October 2, 2020 and the related notes;

other information relating to Churchill, Skillsoft and Global Knowledge contained in this prospectus, including the description of the relevant transactions and certain terms thereof set forth in the sections entitled “Summary” and the risk factors set forth under the section titled “Risk Factors.
The Merger was considered a business combination and is being accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting, whereby Churchill has been determined to be the accounting acquirer, primarily based on the following predominate factors:

Existing Churchill stockholders have the largest voting interest in the combined entity;

Skillsoft shareholders’ ownership interest in the combined company is similar to that of Churchill stockholders. These respective ownership interests in the combined company do not provide either party with a controlling interest. Further, Prosus is an independent investor and does not influence and is not influenced by Churchill or Skillsoft stockholders or shareholders, respectively;

Prosus’s ownership interest in the combined company is limited in the Prosus PIPE Investment to subscribing for up to a number of additional shares of Churchill Class A common stock that would result in it beneficially owning 35% of the issued and outstanding shares of Churchill Class A common stock on a fully-diluted and as-converted basis, which limits its ability to obtain a controlling interest;

The board of directors of the combined company initially had seven members and the Sponsor had the right to nominate six members of the initial board; and

Churchill has placed the Chief Executive Officer and other members of management of the combined company.
 
36

 
Other factors were considered; however, they would not change the preponderance of factors indicating that Churchill is the accounting acquirer. Moreover, Prosus completing the First Step Prosus Investment and Second Step Prosus Investment does not change the determination that Churchill was the accounting acquirer.
The Global Knowledge Merger is considered a business combination and will be accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. The Merger was required to be completed prior to the Global Knowledge Merger, and, therefore, Global Knowledge was acquired by the Company after the Merger.
Description of the Merger and Global Knowledge Merger
Pursuant to the Skillsoft Merger Agreement, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Skillsoft in exchange for (i) 24,000,000 shares of Churchill Class A Common Stock and 3,840,000 shares of Churchill Class C Common Stock, in each case, with respect to the Skillsoft Class A Shares and (ii) 4,500,000 shares of Churchill Class A Common Stock with respect to the Skillsoft Class B Shares. Upon consummation of the Merger, the Company redeemed all Churchill Class C common stock issued to Skillsoft’s Class A shareholders for an aggregate redemption price of (a) $505.0 million and (b) Term Loans in the aggregate principal amount of $20.0 million, issued by certain subsidiaries of the Company. As a result of the transaction and subsequent to the PIPE financing inclusive of both the First Step Prosus Investment and Second Step Prosus Investment, Skillsoft shareholders hold 21.7% of the total outstanding shares of the Company.
In addition, the Company entered into a merger agreement with Albert DE Holdings, Inc., the parent company of Global Knowledge Training, LLC. Upon consummation of the Global Knowledge Merger, all prior shares of Global Knowledge were converted into the right to receive 5,000,000 warrants of the Company. No Churchill Class A common stock was issued as part of the Global Knowledge Merger. In accordance with the Global Knowledge RSA, in conjunction with the acquisition of Global Knowledge, cash payments totaling $170.1 million and new term loans with aggregate principal amounts of $70.0 million were paid to Global Knowledge’s existing creditors. Following the Global Knowledge Merger and the Lodbrok PIPE Investment, Skillsoft shareholders hold approximately 21.4% of the total outstanding shares of the Company.
Assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments set forth in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are described in the accompanying notes. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements have been presented for illustrative purposes only and are not necessarily indicative of the operating results and financial position that would have been achieved had the Merger and Global Knowledge Merger occurred on the dates indicated. Further, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements do not purport to project the future operating results or financial position of the Company following the completion of the Merger and Global Knowledge Merger. Where applicable, as described in the accompanying notes, the unaudited pro forma adjustments represent management’s estimates based on information available as of the date of these unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements and are subject to change as additional information becomes available and analyses are performed.
The unaudited condensed combined pro forma financial statements reflect actual redemption of 34,690,979 shares of Churchill Class A common stock at $10.10 per share.
The following summarizes the Churchill Class A common stock issued and outstanding immediately after consummation of the Transactions:
Including Global
Knowledge
Total Capitalization (in 000s)Shares%Shares%
Skillsoft Shareholders28,50022%28,50021%
Churchill Public Shares34,30926%34,30926%
Churchill Sponsor II LLC17,25013%17,25013%
PIPE Investors51,00039%51,00038%
Lodbrok PIPE Investments2,0002%
Total Churchill Class A shares*131,059100%133,059100%
 
37

 
*
Does not include (i) shares underlying 23,000,000 public warrants to purchase Churchill Class A common stock at $11.50 per share that are outstanding, (ii) shares underlying 15,800,000 private placement warrants issued to the Sponsor for $1.00 per warrant to purchase Churchill Class A common stock at $11.50 per share at the time of the Churchill IPO, (iii) shares underlying 1,500,000 private placement warrants issuable to the Sponsor for $1.00 per warrant to purchase Churchill Class A common stock at $11.50 per share as repayment for the $1,500,000 Sponsor Loan dated November 2, 2020, at consummation of the Merger, (iv) 5,000,000 warrants issued to equity holders of Global Knowledge to purchase Churchill Class A common stock at $11.50 per share at consummation of the Global Knowledge Merger, (v) warrants, options or restricted shares expected to be issued to the new CEO or other employees pursuant to the Incentive Plan or (vi) shares underlying the Prosus Warrants.
 
38

 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED BALANCE SHEET
AS OF MARCH 31, 2021
(Amounts in thousands except per share data)
As of
March 31, 2021
As of
April 30, 2021
Pro Forma
Adjustments
(Note 4)
Skillsoft
Purchase
Accounting
Adjustments
(Note 5)
As of
March 31, 2021
Churchill
Capital
Corp II
Skillsoft
Pro Forma
Condensed
Combined
ASSETS
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$2,383$105,004$697,0184A$(505,000)5A$400,111
(21,371)4B(11,300)5I
500,0004C
(16,244)4D
(350,379)4F
Restricted cash2,6562,656
Accounts receivable (net)92,79292,792
Prepaid expenses and other current assets11131,82531,936
Total Current Assets2,494232,277809,024(516,300)527,495
Property and equipment, net11,79811,798
Intangible assets, net694,930177,0715D872,001
Goodwill494,94261,9025H557,844
Right of use assets14,65414,654
Other assets9,5059,505
Deferred tax assets
Marketable securities held in Trust Account697,018(697,018)4A
TOTAL ASSETS$699,512$1,458,106$112,006$(276,327)$1,993,297
Current liabilities
Accrued expenses$746$18,285$2,0014D$1,2005I$22,232
Accounts payable9,8989,898
Accrued compensation22,94122,941
Deferred revenues234,069(108,860)5F125,209
Current maturities of long-term debt and other short-term debt3,1326,500(3,132)4H6,500
Lease liability – short-term4,6904,690
Credit facility14,19014,190
Income taxes payable9999
Total Current Liabilities3,977310,573(1,131)(107,660)205,759
Deferred tax liabilities77,66259,7945G137,456
Lease liability – long-term12,37012,370
Derivative liabilities85,0442,5354H91,213
3,6344I
Deferred revenue -non-current1,8481,848
Other long-term liabilities5,390(20,000)5C25,390
Long term debt507,927507,927
Deferred underwriting fee payable21,371(21,371)4B
Total Liabilities110,392915,770(16,333)(27,866)981,963
Commitments
Class A Common stock subject to possible redemption584,120(584,120)4E
Stockholders’ Equity
Class A Common stock, $0.0001 par value154C35B12
64E
(3)4F
Class B Common stock, $0.0001 par value22
Successor Class A and Class B shares40(40)5E
Accum. other comprehensive (loss) income(910)9105E
Additional paid-in capital50,398674,333499,9954C(674,333)5E1,087,039
584,1144E306,3725B
(3,464)4I
(350,376)4F
Accumulated deficit(45,401)(131,127)(18,245)4D131,1275E(75,719)
5974H(12,500)5I
(170)4I
Total Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)5,000542,336712,459(248,461)1,011,334
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)$699,512$1,458,106$112,006$(276,327)$1,993,297
 
39

 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED BALANCE SHEET — CONTINUED
AS OF MARCH 31, 2021
(Amounts in thousands except per share data)
As of March 31, 2021As of April 2, 2021
Pro Forma
Adjustments
(Note 4)
Accounting Policies,
Reclassifications, and
Eliminations
(Note 6)
Global Knowledge
Purchase
Accounting
Adjustments
(Note 7)
As of March 31, 2021,
including
Global
Knowledge
Pro Forma
Condensed Combined
Global Knowledge
Pro Forma
Condensed
Combined
ASSETS
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$400,111$17,296$19,6004G$
(250)
6B$
(170,050)
7A$259,783
(6,924)7J
Restricted cash2,6562506B2,906
Accounts receivable (net)92,79226,889(70)6C119,611
Prepaid expenses and other current
assets
31,93613,779(755)6A44,960
Total Current Assets527,49557,96419,600(825)(176,974)427,260
Property and equipment, net11,7986,13317,931
Intangible assets, net872,00142,607141,4837E1,056,091
Goodwill557,844123,848(30,017)7I651,675
Right of use assets14,6547,9486A7567G23,358
Other assets9,5053,99313,498
Deferred tax assets983983
Marketable securities held in Trust
Account
TOTAL ASSETS$1,993,297$235,528$19,600$7,123$(64,752)$2,190,796
Current liabilities
Accrued expenses$22,232$57,340$$
(11,537)
6B$
(28,988)
7C$39,824
7777J
Accounts payable9,89835,687(70)6C45,515
Accrued compensation22,94110,8206B33,761
Deferred revenues125,20927,551(7,516)7H145,244
Current maturities of long-term debt and other short-term
debt
6,500213,568(213,568)7C6,500
Lease liability – short-term4,6904,7356A9,425
Credit facility14,19036,024(36,024)7C14,190
Income taxes payable997176B816
Total Current Liabilities205,759370,1704,665(285,319)295,275
Deferred tax liabilities137,45635512,9657K150,776
Lease liability – long-term12,3704,8246A3217G17,515
Derivative liabilities91,2137,3507D98,563
Deferred revenue -non-current1,8481,848
Other long-term liabilities25,3902,635(2,366)6A25,659
Long term debt507,92711,469(11,469)7C577,927
70,0007B
Deferred underwriting fee
payable
Total Liabilities981,963384,6297,123(206,152)1,167,563
Commitments
Class A Common stock subject to
possible redemption
Stockholders’ Equity
Class A Common stock, $0.0001 par value1212
Class B Common stock, $0.0001 par value22
Successor Class A and Class B shares
Accum. other comprehensive (loss)
income
(2,262)2,2627F
Additional paid-in capital1,087,039242,37519,6004G(242,375)7F1,106,639
Accumulated deficit(75,719)(389,214)389,2147F(83,420)
(7,701)7J
Total Stockholders’ Equity1,011,334(149,101)19,600141,4001,023,233
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’
EQUITY
$1,993,297$235,528$19,600$7,123$(64,752)$2,190,796
 
40

 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
(Amounts in thousands except share and per share data)
For the year ended
December 31, 2020
For the year ended
January 31, 2021
Pro Forma
Adjustments
(Note 4)
Skillsoft
Purchase
Accounting
Adjustments
(Note 5)
For the year ended
December 31, 2020
Churchill Capital
Corp II
(as restated)
Pro Forma
Skillsoft
As Adjusted
(Note 2)
Pro Forma
Condensed
Combined
Revenues:
Total revenues$$350,117$$$350,117
Operating expenses
Cost of revenues93,05893,058
Content and software development69,01469,014
Selling and marketing123,783123,783
General and administrative(2,000)59,09118,2454BB12,5005DD87,836
Amortization of intangible assets98,97736,1865AA135,163
Impairment of intangible assets
Impairment of goodwill332,376332,376
Recapitalization and transaction-related costs48,02748,027
Restructuring5,5205,520
Operating and formation costs2,9072,907
Total operating expenses907829,84618,24548,686897,684
Operating income (loss):$(907)$(479,729)$(18,245)$(48,686)$(547,567)
Other income (expense), net2,5184,725(2,518)4AA4,725
(Loss) gain on derivative liabilities(73,583)(170)4CC(73,156)
5974DD
Reorganization items, net3,329,2453,329,245
Loss on derivative instruments(5)(5)
Interest income129129
Interest expense(46,016)(1,517)5BB(47,533)
(Loss) income before provision (benefit) for income
taxes
(71,972)2,808,349(20,336)(50,203)2,665,838
Provision (benefit) for income taxes48765,744(4,271)4EE(10,543)5CC51,417
Net (loss) income$(72,459)$2,742,605$(16,065)$(39,660)$2,614,421
Earnings per Share
Weighted average Class A shares outstanding131,059,021
Earnings per share (basic and diluted) attributable to Class A common stockholders$19.95
 
41

 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS — CONTINUED
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
(Amounts in thousands except share and per share data)
For the year ended
December 31, 2020
For the twelve
months ended
January 1, 2021
Accounting Policies,
Reclassifications, and
Eliminations
(Note 6)
Global Knowledge
Purchase Accounting
Adjustments
(Note 7)
For the year ended
December 31, 2020,
including Global
Knowledge
Pro Forma
Condensed
Combined
Pro Forma
Condensed
Combined
Pro Forma
Condensed
Combined
Revenues:
Total revenues$350,117$189,649$(697)6BB$(7,516)7AA$531,553
Operating expenses
Cost of revenues93,058104,465(697)6BB196,826���
Content and software development69,0142,48471,498
Selling and marketing123,78341,511165,294
General and administrative87,83634,2011177BB129,855
7,7017FF
Amortization of intangible assets135,1637,27915,1337CC157,575
Impairment of intangible assets7,8797,879
Impairment of goodwill332,37659,553391,929
Recapitalization and transaction-related costs48,02748,027
Restructuring5,5207,27512,795
Operating and formation costs2,9072,907
Total operating expenses897,684