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CSAIL 2021-C20 Commercial Mortgage Trust

Filed: 30 Mar 21, 4:46pm

  FILED PURSUANT TO RULE 424(b)(2)
  REGISTRATION FILE NO.: 333-227081-06
   

 

PROSPECTUS

 

$569,645,000 (Approximate)

 

CSAIL 2021-C20 Commercial Mortgage Trust

(Central Index Key Number 0001832873)

 as Issuing Entity

Credit Suisse Commercial Mortgage Securities Corp.

(Central Index Key Number 0001654060)

 as Depositor

3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC

(Central Index Key Number 0001767304)

Column Financial, Inc.

 (Central Index Key Number 0001628601)

UBS AG

(Central Index Key Number 0001685185)

 German American Capital Corporation

(Central Index Key Number 0001541294)

 as Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers

 

Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-C20

 

Credit Suisse Commercial Mortgage Securities Corp. is offering certain classes of the Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-C20 consisting of the certificate classes identified in the table below. The certificates being offered by this prospectus (and the non-offered Class X-D, Class D, Class E, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class NR-RR, Class Z and Class R certificates) represent the beneficial ownership interests in the issuing entity, which will be a New York common law trust named CSAIL 2021-C20 Commercial Mortgage Trust. The assets of the issuing entity will primarily consist of a pool of fixed rate commercial mortgage loans, each of which are generally the sole source of payments on the certificates. All of such commercial mortgage loans will be fixed rate mortgage loans. Credit enhancement will be provided solely by certain classes of subordinate certificates that will be subordinate to certain classes of senior certificates as described under “Description of the Certificates—Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses”. Each class of certificates will be entitled to receive monthly distributions of interest and/or principal on the 4th business day following the 11th day of each month (or if the 11th day is not a business day, the next business day), commencing in April 2021. The rated final distribution date for the certificates is the distribution date in March 2054.

 

Class 

Approximate Initial
Certificate
Balance or Notional
Amount(1) 

 Approximate Initial
Pass-Through
Rate
 Pass-Through
Rate
Description
 

Assumed Final
Distribution
Date(3) 

Class A-1 $8,269,000  0.8551% Fixed(6) March 2026
Class A-2 $180,945,000  2.4862% Fixed(6) March 2030
Class A-3 $251,814,000  2.8048% Fixed(6) March 2031
Class A-SB $14,038,000  2.4356% Fixed(6) July 2029
Class X-A $514,387,000(7) 1.1719% Variable IO(8) March 2031
Class X-B $55,258,000(7) 0.2863% Variable IO(8) March 2031
Class A-S $59,321,000  3.0760% Fixed/WAC Cap(9) March 2031
Class B $28,442,000  3.2982% Fixed/WAC Cap(9) March 2031
Class C $26,816,000  3.8545% WAC(10) March 2031

 

(Footnotes to table on pages 3 and 4)

 

You should carefully consider the summary of risk factors and the risk factors beginning on page 56 and page 58, respectively, of this prospectus.

 

Neither the certificates nor the mortgage loans are insured or guaranteed by any governmental agency, instrumentality or private issuer or any other person or entity.

 

The certificates will represent interests in the issuing entity only. They will not represent interests in or obligations of the sponsors, depositor, any of their affiliates or any other entity.

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission and state regulators have not approved or disapproved of the offered certificates or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. Credit Suisse Commercial Mortgage Securities Corp. will not list the offered certificates on any securities exchange or on any automated quotation system of any securities association.

 

The issuing entity will be relying on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, contained in Section 3(c)(5) of the Investment Company Act or Rule 3a-7 under the Investment Company Act, although there may be additional exclusions or exemptions available to the issuing entity. The issuing entity is being structured so as not to constitute a “covered fund” for purposes of the Volcker Rule under the Dodd-Frank Act (both as defined in this prospectus).

 

The underwriters, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., UBS Securities LLC and Academy Securities, Inc., will purchase the offered certificates from Credit Suisse Commercial Mortgage Securities Corp. and will offer them to the public at negotiated prices, plus, in certain cases, accrued interest, determined at the time of sale. Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC is acting as a co-lead manager and joint bookrunner with respect to 76.8% of each class of offered certificates. Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. is acting as a co-lead manager and joint bookrunner with respect to 10.4% of each class of offered certificates. UBS Securities LLC is acting as a co-lead manager and joint bookrunner with respect to 12.8% of each class of offered certificates. Academy Securities, Inc. is acting as a co-manager.

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the offered certificates to purchasers in book-entry form only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company in the United States and Clearstream Banking, Luxembourg and Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, in Europe, against payment in New York, New York on or about March 30, 2021. Credit Suisse Commercial Mortgage Securities Corp. expects to receive from this offering approximately 109.9% of the aggregate certificate balance of the offered certificates, plus accrued interest from and including March 1, 2021, before deducting expenses payable by the depositor.

 

Credit SuisseDeutsche Bank SecuritiesUBS Securities LLC
 Co-Lead Managers and Joint Bookrunners 
 

 

Academy Securities

Co-Manager

 

 

March 24, 2021

 

 

 

 

 (GRAPHIC)

 

 

 

 

Summary of Certificates

 

Class 

Approx. Initial Certificate Balance or Notional
Amount(1) 

 

Initial Available Certificate Balance or Notional
Amount(1)(4)

 

Initial Retained Certificate Balance or Notional
Amount(1)(4)

 

Approx. Initial Credit Support(2)

 Pass-Through Rate Description 

Assumed
Final
Distribution
Date(3) 

 Initial Approx. Pass-Through Rate 

Weighted Average
Life
(Yrs.)(5)

 

Expected Principal Window(5) 

        
Offered Certificates       
A-1 $8,269,000  $8,088,000  $181,000  30.000% Fixed(6) March 2026 0.8551% 3.42 1 - 60
A-2 $180,945,000  $177,000,000  $3,945,000  30.000% Fixed(6) March 2030 2.4862% 8.78 100 - 108
A-3 $251,814,000  $246,324,000  $5,490,000  30.000% Fixed(6) March 2031 2.8048% 9.60 108 - 120
A-SB $14,038,000  $13,731,000  $307,000  30.000% Fixed(6) July 2029 2.4356% 6.71 60 - 100
X-A $514,387,000(7) $503,170,000(7) $11,217,000(7) N/A Variable IO(8) March 2031 1.1719% N/A N/A
X-B $55,258,000(7) $54,052,000(7) $1,206,000(7) N/A Variable IO(8) March 2031 0.2863% N/A N/A
A-S $59,321,000  $58,027,000  $1,294,000  20.875% Fixed/WAC Cap(9) March 2031 3.0760% 9.96 120 - 120
B $28,442,000  $27,821,000  $621,000  16.500% Fixed/WAC Cap(9) March 2031 3.2982% 9.96 120 - 120
C $26,816,000  $26,231,000  $585,000  12.375% WAC(10) March 2031 3.8545% 9.96 120 - 120
Non-Offered Certificates            
X-D $30,067,000(7) $29,410,000(7) $657,000(7) N/A Variable IO(8) March 2031 1.6045% N/A N/A
D $17,065,000  $16,692,000  $373,000  9.750% Fixed(6) March 2031 2.2500% 9.96 120 - 120
E $13,002,000  $12,718,000  $284,000  7.750% Fixed(6) March 2031 2.2500% 9.96 120 - 120
F-RR $14,627,000  $14,308,000  $319,000  5.500% WAC(10) March 2031 3.8545% 9.96 120 - 120
G-RR $6,501,000  $6,359,000  $142,000  4.500% WAC(10) March 2031 3.8545% 9.96 120 - 120
NR-RR $29,254,694  $28,616,000  $638,694  0.000% WAC(10) March 2031 3.8545% 9.96 120 - 120
Z(11)  N/A   N/A   N/A  N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
R(12)  N/A   N/A   N/A  N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

 

 

 

(1)Approximate, subject to a permitted variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)The approximate initial credit support percentages set forth for the certificates are approximate and, for the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates, are represented in the aggregate.

 

(3)The assumed final distribution dates set forth in this prospectus have been determined on the basis of the assumptions described in “Description of the Certificates—Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date”.

 

(4)On the closing date, the certificates with the initial certificate balances or notional amounts, as applicable, set forth in the table above under “Initial Retained Certificate Balance or Notional Amount”, as well as a 2.18% percentage interest in the Class Z certificates, are expected to be purchased for cash from the underwriters by a majority-owned affiliate of 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC (a sponsor and an affiliate of the special servicer), which will act as the “retaining sponsor” (as such term is defined in the Credit Risk Retention Rules), as further described in “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

(5)The weighted average life and expected principal window during which distributions of principal would be received as set forth in the foregoing table with respect to each class of certificates having a certificate balance are based on the assumptions set forth under “Yield and Maturity Considerations—Weighted Average Life” and on the assumptions that there are no prepayments, modifications or losses in respect of the mortgage loans and that there are no extensions or forbearances of maturity dates or anticipated repayment dates of the mortgage loans.

 

(6)For any distribution date, the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class D and Class E certificates will each be a per annum rate equal to the initial pass-through rate set forth opposite such class in the table. See “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Pass-Through Rates”.

 

(7)The notional amount of the Class X-A certificates will be equal to the aggregate of the certificate balances of the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB and Class A-S certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-B certificates will be equal to the aggregate of the certificate balances of the Class B and Class C certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-D certificates will be equal to the aggregate of the certificate balances of the Class D and Class E certificates. The Class X-A, Class X-B and Class X-D certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal.

 

(8)The pass-through rate on the Class X-A certificates for any distribution date will equal the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (in each case adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB and Class A-S certificates for that distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective certificate balances immediately prior to that distribution date. The pass-through rate on the Class X-B certificates for any distribution date will equal the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (in each case adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class B and Class C certificates for that distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective certificate balances immediately prior to that distribution date. The pass-through rate on the Class X-D certificates for any distribution date will equal the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (in each case adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class D and Class E certificates for that distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective certificate balances immediately prior to that distribution date. See “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Pass-Through Rates”.

 

3

 

 

(9)The pass-through rates of the Class A-S and Class B certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the lesser of (i) the initial pass-through rate for such class specified in the table above and (ii) the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months). See “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Pass-Through Rates”.

 

(10)The pass-through rates of the Class C, Class F-RR, Class G-RR and Class NR-RR certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months). See “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Pass-Through Rates”.

 

(11)Information concerning the Class Z certificates is not represented in the above table. The Class Z certificates will not have a certificate balance, notional amount, pass-through rate, assumed final distribution date, rating or rated final distribution date. The Class Z certificates will only entitle holders to excess interest accrued on the mortgage loans with an anticipated repayment date. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—ARD Loans”.

 

(12)Information concerning the Class R certificates is not presented in the above table. The Class R certificates will not have a certificate balance, notional amount, pass-through rate, assumed final distribution date, rating or rated final distribution date. The Class R certificates represent the residual interests in each real estate mortgage investment conduit created with respect to this securitization, as further described in this prospectus. The Class R certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal or interest.

 

The Class X-D, Class D, Class E, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class NR-RR, Class Z and Class R certificates are not offered by this prospectus. Any information in this prospectus concerning certificates other than the offered certificates is presented solely to enhance your understanding of the offered certificates.

 

4

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Summary of Certificates3
Important Notice Regarding the Offered Certificates13
Important Notice About Information Presented in This Prospectus13
Summary of Terms21
Summary of Risk Factors56
Risk Factors58
Special Risks58
Current Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans58
Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans61
Mortgage Loans Are Non-Recourse and Are Not Insured or Guaranteed61
Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally62
Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases63
General63
A Tenant Concentration May Result in Increased Losses64
Mortgaged Properties Leased to Multiple Tenants Also Have Risks65
Mortgaged Properties Leased to Borrowers or Borrower Affiliated Entities Also Have Risks65
Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease65
Leases That Are Not Subordinated to the Lien of the Mortgage or Do Not Contain Attornment Provisions May Have an Adverse Impact at Foreclosure66
Early Lease Termination Options May Reduce Cash Flow66
Mortgaged Properties Leased to Not-for-Profit Tenants Also Have Risks67
Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks68
Retail Properties Have Special Risks70
Changes in the Retail Sector, Such as Online Shopping and Other Uses of Technology, Could Affect the Business Models and Viability of Retailers71
The Performance of the Retail Properties is Subject to Conditions Affecting the Retail Sector71
Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants72
Office Properties Have Special Risks73
Hotel Properties Have Special Risks74
Risks Relating to Affiliation with a Franchise or Hotel Management Company76
Risks Related to Casino Properties76
Industrial and Logistics Properties Have Special Risks77
Self Storage Properties Have Special Risks78
Mixed Use Properties Have Special Risks79
Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements79
Sale-Leaseback Transactions Have Special Risks80
Operation of a Mortgaged Property Depends on the Property Manager’s Performance82
Concentrations Based on Property Type, Geography, Related Borrowers and Other Factors May Disproportionately Increase Losses82
Adverse Environmental Conditions at or Near Mortgaged Properties May Result in Losses84
Risks Related to Redevelopment, Expansion and Renovation at Mortgaged Properties85
Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses86
Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions88
Risks Relating to Inspections of Properties89
Risks Relating to Costs of Compliance with Applicable Laws and Regulations89
Insurance May Not Be Available or Adequate90
Inadequacy of Title Insurers May Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates91

 

5

 

 

Terrorism Insurance May Not Be Available for All Mortgaged Properties91
Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance92
Condemnation of a Mortgaged Property May Adversely Affect Distributions on Certificates93
Limited Information Causes Uncertainty93
Historical Information93
Ongoing Information93
Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions94
Frequent and Early Occurrence of Borrower Delinquencies and Defaults May Adversely Affect Your Investment94
The Mortgage Loans Have Not Been Reviewed or Re-Underwritten by Us; Some Mortgage Loans May Not Have Complied With Another Originator’s Underwriting Criteria95
Static Pool Data Would Not Be Indicative of the Performance of this Pool96
Appraisals May Not Reflect Current or Future Market Value of Each Property96
Seasoned Mortgage Loans Present Additional Risk of Repayment98
The Performance of a Mortgage Loan and Its Related Mortgaged Property Depends in Part on Who Controls the Borrower and Mortgaged Property98
The Borrower’s Form of Entity May Cause Special Risks99
A Bankruptcy Proceeding May Result in Losses and Delays in Realizing on the Mortgage Loans101
Litigation Regarding the Mortgaged Properties or Borrowers May Impair Your Distributions101
Other Financings or Ability to Incur Other Indebtedness Entails Risk102
CFIUS104
Tenancies-in-Common May Hinder Recovery104
Risks Relating to Enforceability of Cross-Collateralization104
Risks Relating to Enforceability of Yield Maintenance Charges, Prepayment Premiums or Defeasance Provisions105
Risks Associated with One Action Rules105
State Law Limitations on Assignments of Leases and Rents May Entail Risks105
Various Other Laws Could Affect the Exercise of Lender’s Rights106
Risks of Anticipated Repayment Date Loans106
The Absence of Lockboxes Entails Risks That Could Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates107
Borrower May Be Unable to Repay Remaining Principal Balance on Maturity Date or Anticipated Repayment Date; Longer Amortization Schedules and Interest-Only Provisions Increase Risk107
Risks Related to Ground Leases and Other Leasehold Interests108
Increases in Real Estate Taxes May Reduce Available Funds110
State and Local Mortgage Recording Taxes May Apply Upon a Foreclosure or Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure and Reduce Net Proceeds110
The Servicing of the Miami Design District Whole Loan Will Shift to Other Servicers110
Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest111
Interests and Incentives of the Originators, the Sponsors and Their Affiliates May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests111
Interests and Incentives of the Underwriter Entities May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests113
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Master Servicer and the Special Servicer114
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Operating Advisor117
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Asset Representations Reviewer117
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Directing Holder and the Companion Loan Holders118
Potential Conflicts of Interest in the Selection of the Underlying Mortgage Loans120
Conflicts of Interest May Occur as a Result of the Rights of the Applicable Directing Holder To Terminate the Special Servicer of the Applicable Whole Loan121
Other Potential Conflicts of Interest May Affect Your Investment121
Other Risks Relating to the Certificates122
The Certificates Are Limited Obligations122
The Certificates May Have Limited Liquidity and the Market Value of the Certificates May Decline122

 

6

 

 

Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations May Assign Different Ratings to the Certificates; Ratings of the Certificates Reflect Only the Views of the Applicable Rating Agencies as of the Dates Such Ratings Were Issued; Ratings May Affect ERISA Eligibility; Ratings May Be Downgraded122
Your Yield May Be Affected by Defaults, Prepayments and Other Factors125
General125
The Timing of Prepayments and Repurchases May Change Your Anticipated Yield126
Your Yield May Be Adversely Affected By Prepayments Resulting From Earnout Reserves128
Losses and Shortfalls May Change Your Anticipated Yield128
Risk of Early Termination128
Subordination of the Subordinated Certificates Will Affect the Timing of Distributions and the Application of Losses on the Subordinated Certificates129
Your Lack of Control Over the Issuing Entity and the Mortgage Loans Can Impact Your Investment129
You Have Limited Voting Rights129
The Rights of the Directing Holder, the Risk Retention Consultation Party and the Operating Advisor Could Adversely Affect Your Investment130
You Have Limited Rights to Replace the Master Servicer, the Special Servicer, the Trustee, the Certificate Administrator, the Operating Advisor or the Asset Representations Reviewer132
The Rights of Companion Loan Holders and Mezzanine Debt May Adversely Affect Your Investment133
Risks Relating to Modifications of the Mortgage Loans134
Sponsors May Not Make Required Repurchases or Substitutions of Defective Mortgage Loans or Pay Any Loss of Value Payment Sufficient to Cover All Losses on a Defective Mortgage Loan135
Risks Relating to Interest on Advances and Special Servicing Compensation136
Bankruptcy of a Servicer May Adversely Affect Collections on the Mortgage
Loans and the Ability to Replace the Servicer136
The Sponsors, the Depositor and the Issuing Entity Are Subject to Bankruptcy or Insolvency Laws That May Affect the Issuing Entity’s Ownership of the Mortgage Loans137
The Requirement of the Special Servicer to Obtain FIRREA-Compliant Appraisals May Result in an Increased Cost to the Issuing Entity138
Tax Matters and Changes in Tax Law May Adversely Impact the Mortgage Loans or Your Investment138
Tax Considerations Relating to Foreclosure138
REMIC Status139
Material Federal Tax Considerations Regarding Original Issue Discount139
Changes to REMIC Restrictions on Loan Modifications and REMIC Rules on Partial Releases May Impact an Investment in the Certificates.139
State and Local Taxes Could Adversely Impact Your Investment.140
General Risk Factors141
Combination or “Layering” of Multiple Risks May Significantly Increase Risk of Loss141
The Certificates May Not Be a Suitable Investment for You141
The Volatile Economy, Credit Crisis and Downturn in the Real Estate Market Adversely Affected the Value of CMBS and Similar Factors May in the Future Adversely Affect the Value of CMBS141
Other Events May Affect the Value and Liquidity of Your Investment142
Legal and Regulatory Provisions Affecting Investors Could Adversely Affect the Liquidity of the Offered Certificates142
The Master Servicer, any Sub-Servicer or the Special Servicer May Have Difficulty Performing Under the Pooling and Servicing Agreement or a Related Sub Servicing Agreement146
Description of the Mortgage Pool146
General146
Certain Calculations and Definitions147
Mortgage Pool Characteristics156
Overview156
Property Types158

 

7

 

 

Multifamily Properties159
Retail Properties159
Office Properties159
Hotel Properties160
Industrial Properties163
Self Storage Properties163
Mixed Use Properties163
Specialty Use Concentrations164
Mortgage Loan Concentrations164
Cross-Collateralized Mortgage Loans, Multi-Property Mortgage Loans and Related Borrower Mortgage Loans165
Geographic Concentrations166
Mortgaged Properties With Limited Prior Operating History167
Tenancies-in-Common; Crowd Funding; Diversified Ownership167
Condominium and Other Shared Interests167
Fee & Leasehold Estates; Ground Leases168
COVID Considerations169
Environmental Considerations173
Redevelopment, Renovation and Expansion174
Assessment of Property Value and Condition174
Litigation and Other Considerations175
Loan Purpose175
Modified and Refinanced Loans175
Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings175
Tenant Issues177
Tenant Concentrations177
Lease Expirations and Terminations177
Expirations177
Terminations178
Other180
Purchase Options and Rights of First Refusal181
Affiliated Leases182
Insurance Considerations182
Use Restrictions184
Appraised Value185
Non-Recourse Carveout Limitations186
Real Estate and Other Tax Considerations187
Delinquency Information187
Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans187
Amortization of Principal187
Due Dates; Mortgage Rates; Calculations of Interest187
ARD Loans188
Prepayment Protections and Certain Involuntary Prepayments189
Voluntary Prepayments190
“Due-On-Sale” and “Due-On-Encumbrance” Provisions191
Defeasance; Collateral Substitution192
Partial Releases193
Escrows195
Mortgaged Property Accounts196
Lockbox Accounts196
Exceptions to Underwriting Guidelines196
Additional Indebtedness197
General197
Whole Loans197
Mezzanine Indebtedness197
Other Secured Indebtedness198
Preferred Equity199
Other Unsecured Indebtedness199
The Whole Loans200
General200
The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans204
The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans206
The Grace Building Whole Loan206
The Miami Design District Whole Loan214
The MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay Whole Loan223
The Westchester Whole Loan237
Additional Information241
Transaction Parties242
The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers242
3650 REIT242
General242
3650 REIT’s Securitization Program243
Review of 3650 REIT Mortgage Loans243
3650 REIT’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes245
Exceptions to 3650 REIT’s Disclosed Underwriting Guidelines249
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act249
Retained Interests in This Securitization249
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions250
Column Financial, Inc.250
General250
Column’s Securitization Program250
Review of Column Mortgage Loans251
Column’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes253
Exceptions to Column’s Disclosed Underwriting Guidelines256
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act257
Litigation261
Retained Interests in This Securitization261
UBS AG, New York Branch261

 

8

 

 

General261
UBS AG, New York Branch’s Securitization Program261
Review of the UBS AG, New York Branch Mortgage Loans262
UBS AG, New York Branch’s Underwriting Standards264
Exceptions266
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act266
Retained Interests in This Securitization269
German American Capital Corporation269
General269
GACC’s Securitization Program269
Review of GACC Mortgage Loans.270
DB Originators’ Underwriting Guidelines and Processes.272
Exceptions276
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act277
Retained Interests in This Securitization277
The Depositor277
The Issuing Entity278
The Trustee and Certificate Administrator279
The Master Servicer282
The Special Servicer286
The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer289
Credit Risk Retention291
General291
Qualifying CRE Loans; Required Credit Risk Retention Percentage292
Retaining Party292
Material Terms of the Eligible Vertical Interest293
HRR Certificates293
General293
Material Terms of the Eligible Horizontal Residual Interest294
Hedging, Transfer and Financing Restrictions294
Operating Advisor295
Representations and Warranties295
Description of the Certificates296
General296
Distributions298
Method, Timing and Amount298
Available Funds299
Priority of Distributions300
Pass-Through Rates303
Interest Distribution Amount305
Principal Distribution Amount305
Certain Calculations with Respect to Individual Mortgage Loans307
Excess Interest308
Application Priority of Mortgage Loan Collections or Whole Loan Collections308
Allocation of Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums311
Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date312
Prepayment Interest Shortfalls313
Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses314
Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information316
Certificate Administrator Reports316
Information to be Provided to Risk Retention Consultation Party322
Information Available Electronically322
Voting Rights327
Delivery, Form, Transfer and Denomination327
Book-Entry Registration327
Definitive Certificates330
Certificateholder Communication331
Access to Certificateholders’ Names and Addresses331
Requests to Communicate331
Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements332
General332
Dispute Resolution Provisions342
Asset Review Obligations342
Pooling and Servicing Agreement343
General343
Assignment of the Mortgage Loans343
Servicing Standard344
Subservicing345
Advances346
P&I Advances346
Servicing Advances347
Nonrecoverable Advances347
Recovery of Advances348
Accounts350
Withdrawals from the Collection Account352
Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses354
General354
Master Servicing Compensation358
Special Servicing Compensation360
Disclosable Special Servicer Fees364
Certificate Administrator and Trustee Compensation365
Operating Advisor Compensation365
Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation366
CREFC® Intellectual Property Royalty License Fee366
Appraisal Reduction Amounts367

 

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Maintenance of Insurance374
Modifications, Waivers and Amendments377
Enforcement of “Due-on-Sale” and “Due-on-Encumbrance” Provisions380
Inspections381
Collection of Operating Information382
Special Servicing Transfer Event382
Asset Status Report384
Realization Upon Mortgage Loans387
Sale of Defaulted Loans and REO Properties389
The Directing Holder392
General392
Major Decisions394
Asset Status Report397
Replacement of Special Servicer397
Control Termination Event, Consultation Termination Event and Operating Advisor Consultation Event397
Servicing Override400
Rights of Holders of Companion Loans400
Limitation on Liability of Directing Holder401
The Operating Advisor402
General402
Duties of Operating Advisor at All Times403
Annual Report404
Additional Duties of the Operating Advisor During an Operating Advisor Consultation Event405
Recommendation of the Replacement of the Special Servicer406
Eligibility of Operating Advisor406
Other Obligations of Operating Advisor407
Delegation of Operating Advisor’s Duties408
Termination of the Operating Advisor With Cause408
Rights Upon Operating Advisor Termination Event409
Waiver of Operating Advisor Termination Event409
Termination of the Operating Advisor Without Cause409
Resignation of the Operating Advisor410
Operating Advisor Compensation410
The Asset Representations Reviewer410
Asset Review410
Asset Review Trigger410
Asset Review Vote411
Review Materials412
Asset Review413
Eligibility of Asset Representations Reviewer415
Other Obligations of Asset Representations Reviewer415
Delegation of Asset Representations Reviewer’s Duties416
Asset Representations Reviewer Termination Events416
Rights Upon Asset Representations Reviewer Termination Event417
Termination of the Asset Representations Reviewer Without Cause417
Resignation of Asset Representations Reviewer418
Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation418
Limitation on Liability of Risk Retention Consultation Party418
Replacement of Special Servicer Without Cause419
Replacement of Special Servicer After Operating Advisor Recommendation and Certificateholder Vote421
Termination of Master Servicer and Special Servicer for Cause422
Servicer Termination Events422
Rights Upon Servicer Termination Event424
Waiver of Servicer Termination Event425
Resignation of the Master Servicer or Special Servicer426
Resignation of Master Servicer, Trustee, Certificate Administrator, Operating Advisor or Asset Representations Reviewer Upon Prohibited Risk Retention Affiliation426
Limitation on Liability; Indemnification427
Enforcement of Mortgage Loan Seller’s Obligations Under the MLPA429
Dispute Resolution Provisions430
Certificateholder’s Rights When a Repurchase Request is Initially Delivered by a Certificateholder430
Certificateholder’s Rights When a Repurchase Request is Delivered by Another Party to the PSA430
Resolution of a Repurchase Request431
Mediation and Arbitration Provisions433
Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans434
General434
Servicing of The Grace Building Mortgage Loan437
Servicing of the Miami Design District Mortgage Loan438
Servicing of the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay Mortgage Loan438
Servicing of The Westchester Mortgage Loan439
Rating Agency Confirmations439

 

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Evidence as to Compliance441
Limitation on Rights of Certificateholders to Institute a Proceeding443
Termination; Retirement of Certificates443
Amendment444
Resignation and Removal of the Trustee and the Certificate Administrator446
Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; and Consent to Jurisdiction448
Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans448
New York448
Florida448
California449
Georgia449
General450
Types of Mortgage Instruments450
Leases and Rents451
Personalty451
Foreclosure451
General451
Foreclosure Procedures Vary from State to State451
Judicial Foreclosure452
Equitable and Other Limitations on Enforceability of Certain Provisions452
Nonjudicial Foreclosure/Power of Sale452
Public Sale453
Rights of Redemption454
Anti-Deficiency Legislation454
Leasehold Considerations454
Cooperative Shares455
Bankruptcy Laws455
Environmental Considerations461
General461
Superlien Laws461
CERCLA461
Certain Other Federal and State Laws461
Additional Considerations462
Due-on-Sale and Due-on-Encumbrance Provisions462
Subordinate Financing463
Default Interest and Limitations on Prepayments463
Applicability of Usury Laws463
Americans with Disabilities Act463
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act464
Anti-Money Laundering, Economic Sanctions and Bribery464
Potential Forfeiture of Assets465
Certain Affiliations, Relationships and Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties465
Pending Legal Proceedings Involving Transaction Parties466
Use of Proceeds467
Yield and Maturity Considerations467
Yield Considerations467
General467
Rate and Timing of Principal Payments467
Losses and Shortfalls468
Certain Relevant Factors Affecting Loan Payments and Defaults469
Delay in Payment of Distributions470
Yield on the Certificates with Notional Amounts470
Weighted Average Life471
Pre-Tax Yield to Maturity Tables475
Material Federal Income Tax Considerations479
General479
Qualification as a REMIC480
Status of Offered Certificates482
Taxation of Regular Interests482
General482
Original Issue Discount482
Acquisition Premium484
Market Discount484
Premium485
Election To Treat All Interest Under the Constant Yield Method486
Treatment of Losses486
Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premium487
Sale or Exchange of Regular Interests487
Taxes That May Be Imposed on a REMIC488
Prohibited Transactions488
Contributions to a REMIC After the Startup Day488
Net Income from Foreclosure Property488
REMIC Partnership Representative489
Taxation of Certain Foreign Investors489
FATCA490
Backup Withholding490
Information Reporting490
3.8% Medicare Tax on “Net Investment Income”490
Reporting Requirements491
Certain State and Local Tax Considerations491
Method of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)492
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference494
Where You Can Find More Information494
Financial Information495
Certain ERISA Considerations495
General495
Plan Asset Regulations496

 

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Administrative Exemptions496
Insurance Company General Accounts498
Legal Investment499
Legal Matters500
Ratings500
Index of Significant Definitions502
ANNEX A-1 – CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MORTGAGE LOANS AND MORTGAGED PROPERTIESA-1-1

ANNEX a-2 –COLLATERAL TERM SHEETa-2-1

ANNEX b – DISTRIBUTION DATE STATEMENTb-1

Annex c – FORM OF OPERATING ADVISOR ANNUAL REPORTc-1

Annex d-1 – MORTGAGE LOAN REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF COLUMN, UBS AG, NEW YORK BRANCH AND 3650 REITd-1-1

Annex d-2 – EXCEPTIONS TO MORTGAGE LOAN REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIESd-2-1

Annex E-1 – MORTGAGE LOAN REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF GACCE-1-1

Annex E-2 – EXCEPTIONS TO MORTGAGE LOAN REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIESE-2-1

ANNEX F – CLASS A-SB PLANNED PRINCIPAL BALANCE SCHEDULEF-1

 

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Important Notice Regarding the Offered Certificates

 

WE HAVE FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION A REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, WITH RESPECT TO THE CERTIFICATES OFFERED IN THIS PROSPECTUS. HOWEVER, THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONTAIN ALL OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION REGARDING THE DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROSPECTUS, YOU SHOULD REFER TO OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT AND THE EXHIBITS TO IT. OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT AND THE EXHIBITS TO IT CAN BE OBTAINED ELECTRONICALLY THROUGH THE SEC’S INTERNET WEBSITE (HTTP://WWW.SEC.GOV).

 

THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL OR A SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE OR OTHER JURISDICTION WHERE SUCH OFFER, SOLICITATION OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES REFERRED TO IN THIS PROSPECTUS ARE OFFERED ON A “WHEN, AS AND IF ISSUED” BASIS.

 

THE UNDERWRITERS DESCRIBED IN THESE MATERIALS MAY FROM TIME TO TIME PERFORM INVESTMENT BANKING SERVICES FOR, OR SOLICIT INVESTMENT BANKING BUSINESS FROM, ANY COMPANY NAMED IN THESE MATERIALS. THE UNDERWRITERS AND/OR THEIR RESPECTIVE EMPLOYEES MAY FROM TIME TO TIME HAVE A LONG OR SHORT POSITION IN ANY CONTRACT OR CERTIFICATE DISCUSSED IN THESE MATERIALS.

 

THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PROSPECTUS SUPERSEDES ANY PREVIOUS SUCH INFORMATION DELIVERED TO ANY PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR.

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES DO NOT REPRESENT AN INTEREST IN OR OBLIGATION OF THE DEPOSITOR, THE SPONSORS, THE MORTGAGE LOAN SELLERS, THE MASTER SERVICER, THE SPECIAL SERVICER, THE TRUSTEE, THE OPERATING ADVISOR, THE ASSET REPRESENTATIONS REVIEWER, THE CERTIFICATE ADMINISTRATOR, THE DIRECTING HOLDER, THE RISK RETENTION CONSULTATION PARTY, THE UNDERWRITERS OR ANY OF THEIR RESPECTIVE AFFILIATES. NEITHER THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES NOR THE MORTGAGE LOANS ARE INSURED OR GUARANTEED BY ANY GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY OR INSTRUMENTALITY OR PRIVATE INSURER.

 

THERE IS CURRENTLY NO SECONDARY MARKET FOR THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. WE CANNOT ASSURE YOU THAT A SECONDARY MARKET WILL DEVELOP OR, IF A SECONDARY MARKET DOES DEVELOP, THAT IT WILL PROVIDE HOLDERS OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES WITH LIQUIDITY OF INVESTMENT OR THAT IT WILL CONTINUE FOR THE TERM OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. THE UNDERWRITERS CURRENTLY INTEND TO MAKE A MARKET IN THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BUT ARE UNDER NO OBLIGATION TO DO SO. ACCORDINGLY, PURCHASERS MUST BE PREPARED TO BEAR THE RISKS OF THEIR INVESTMENTS FOR AN INDEFINITE PERIOD. SEE “RISK FACTORS—Other Risks Relating to the CertificatesThe Certificates May Have Limited Liquidity and the Market Value of the Certificates May Decline”.

 

Important Notice About Information Presented in This Prospectus

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus.

 

13

 

 

This prospectus begins with several introductory sections describing the certificates and the issuing entity in abbreviated form:

 

Summary of Certificates, commencing on the page set forth on the table of contents of this prospectus, which sets forth important statistical information relating to the certificates;

 

Summary of Terms, commencing on the page set forth on the table of contents of this prospectus, which gives a brief introduction of the key features of the certificates and a description of the mortgage loans; and

 

Summary of Risk Factors and Risk Factors, commencing on the respective pages set forth on the table of contents of this prospectus, which describe risks that apply to the certificates.

 

This prospectus includes cross references to sections in this prospectus where you can find further related discussions. The table of contents in this prospectus identifies the pages where these sections are located.

 

Certain capitalized terms are defined and used in this prospectus to assist you in understanding the terms of the offered certificates and this offering. The capitalized terms used in this prospectus are defined on the pages indicated under the caption “Index of Significant Definitions” commencing on the page set forth on the table of contents of this prospectus.

 

All annexes and schedules attached to this prospectus are a part of this prospectus.

 

In this prospectus:

 

the terms “depositor”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to Credit Suisse Commercial Mortgage Securities Corp.;

 

unless otherwise specified, (i) references to a mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) by name refer to such mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) so identified on Annex A-1, (ii) references to a mortgage loan by name refer to such mortgage loan secured by the related mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) so identified on Annex A-1, (iii) any parenthetical with a percent next to a mortgaged property name (or portfolio of mortgaged properties name) indicates the approximate percent (or approximate aggregate percent) that the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan (or, if applicable, the allocated loan amount with respect to such mortgaged property) represents of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date for this securitization, and (iv) any parenthetical with a percent next to a mortgage loan name or a group of mortgage loans indicates the approximate percent (or approximate aggregate percent) that the outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loan or the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such group of mortgage loans, as applicable, represents of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date for this securitization;

 

references to a “pooling and servicing agreement” (other than the CSAIL 2021-C20 pooling and servicing agreement) governing the servicing of any mortgage loan should be construed to refer to any relevant pooling and servicing agreement, trust and servicing agreement or other primary transaction agreement governing the servicing of such mortgage loan; and

 

references to “lender” or “mortgage lender” with respect to a mortgage loan generally should be construed to mean, from and after the date of initial issuance of the offered certificates, the trustee on behalf of the issuing entity as the holder of record title to the mortgage loans or the master servicer or special servicer, as applicable, with respect to the obligations and rights of the lender as described under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

Until ninety days after the date of this prospectus, all dealers that buy, sell or trade the offered certificates, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in

 

14

 

 

addition to the dealers’ obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

NOTICE TO INVESTORS IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA

 

The OFFERED Certificates are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any EEA Retail Investor in the European Economic Area (the “EEA”). For these purposes, an “EEA Retail Investor” means a person who is one (or more) of the following:

 

(i) a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU (as amended, “MiFID II”); or

 

(ii) a customer within the meaning of Directive (EU) 2016/97, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or

 

(iii) not a qualified investor as defined in Article 2 of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 (as amended, the “EU Prospectus Regulation”).

 

Consequently, no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 (as amended, the “EU PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the Certificates or otherwise making them available to EEA Retail Investors in the EEA has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the Certificates or otherwise making them available to any EEA Retail Investor in the EEA may be unlawful under the EEA PRIIPs Regulation.

 

MIFID II PRODUCT GOVERNANCE

 

ANY DISTRIBUTOR SUBJECT TO MIFID II THAT IS OFFERING, SELLING OR RECOMMENDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDERTAKING ITS OWN TARGET MARKET ASSESSMENT IN RESPECT OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND DETERMINING ITS OWN DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE MIFID II PRODUCT GOVERNANCE RULES UNDER COMMISSION DELEGATED DIRECTIVE (EU) 2017/593 (AS AMENDED, THE “DELEGATED DIRECTIVE”). NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER MAKES ANY REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES AS TO A DISTRIBUTOR’S COMPLIANCE WITH THE DELEGATED DIRECTIVE.

 

NOTICE TO INVESTORS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

 

PROHIBITION ON SALES TO UK RETAIL INVESTORS

 

The Certificates are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any UK Retail Investor in the United Kingdom (the “UK”). For these purposes, a “UK Retail Investor” means a person who is one (or more) of the following:

 

(i)a retail client as defined in point (8) of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) 2017/565 as it forms part of UK domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (as amended, the “EUWA”); or

 

(ii)a customer within the meaning of the provisions of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (as amended, the “FSMA”) and any rules or regulations made under the FSMA to implement Directive (EU) 2016/97, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client, as

 

15

 

 

defined in point (8) of Article 2(1) of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as it forms part of UK domestic law by virtue of the EUWA; or

 

(iii)not a qualified investor as defined in Article 2 of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of UK domestic law by virtue of the EUWA.

 

Consequently, no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 as it forms part of (as amended, the “UK PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the Certificates or otherwise making them available to retail investors i has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the Certificates or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA or in the UK may be unlawful under the UK PRIIPs Regulation.

 

UK PRODUCT GOVERNANCE

 

Solely for the purposes of each manufacturer’s product approval process, the target market assessment in respect of the Certificates has led to the conclusion that: (i) the target market for the Certificates is only eligible counterparties, as defined in the FCA Handbook Conduct of Business Sourcebook, and professional clients, as defined in Regulation (EU) No 6000/2014 as it forms part of UK domestic law by virtue of the EUWA; and (ii) all channels for distribution of the Certificates to eligible counterparties and professional clients are appropriate. Any person subsequently offering, selling or recommending the Certificates (a “distributor”) should take into consideration the manufacturers; target market assessment; however, a distributor subject to the FCA Handbook Product Intervention and Product Governance Sourcebook is responsible for undertaking its own target market assessment in respect of the Notes (by either adopting or refining the manufacturers’ target market assessment) and determining appropriate distribution channels.

 

FINANCIAL PROMOTION REGIME AND PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES REGIME

 

THE ISSUING ENTITY MAY CONSTITUTE A “COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEME” AS DEFINED BY SECTION 235 OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (AS AMENDED, “FSMA”) THAT IS NOT A “RECOGNISED COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEME” FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE FSMA AND THAT HAS NOT BEEN AUTHORIZED, REGULATED OR OTHERWISE RECOGNIZED OR APPROVED. AS AN UNREGULATED SCHEME, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES CANNOT BE MARKETED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC, EXCEPT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FSMA.

 

THE COMMUNICATION OF THIS PROSPECTUS (A) IF MADE BY A PERSON WHO IS NOT AN AUTHORIZED PERSON UNDER THE FSMA, IS BEING MADE ONLY TO, OR DIRECTED ONLY AT, PERSONS WHO (I) ARE OUTSIDE THE UNITED KINGDOM, OR (II) HAVE PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE IN MATTERS RELATING TO INVESTMENTS AND QUALIFY AS INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 19(5) OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (FINANCIAL PROMOTION) ORDER 2005 (AS AMENDED, THE “FINANCIAL PROMOTION ORDER”), OR (III) ARE PERSONS FALLING WITHIN ARTICLE 49(2)(A) THROUGH (D) (“HIGH NET WORTH COMPANIES”, “UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS”, ETC.) OF THE FINANCIAL PROMOTION ORDER, OR (IV) ARE PERSONS TO WHICH THIS PROSPECTUS MAY OTHERWISE LAWFULLY BE COMMUNICATED OR DIRECTED (ALL SUCH PERSONS TOGETHER BEING REFERRED TO AS “FPO PERSONS”); AND (B) IF MADE BY A PERSON WHO IS AN AUTHORIZED PERSON UNDER THE FSMA, IS BEING MADE ONLY TO, AND DIRECTED ONLY AT, PERSONS WHO (I) ARE OUTSIDE THE UNITED KINGDOM, OR (II) HAVE PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OF PARTICIPATING IN UNREGULATED SCHEMES (AS DEFINED FOR PURPOSES OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE

 

16

 

 

INVESTMENT SCHEMES) (EXEMPTIONS) ORDER 2001 (AS AMENDED, THE “PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER”)) AND QUALIFY AS INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 14(5) OF THE PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER, OR (III) ARE PERSONS FALLING WITHIN ARTICLE 22(2)(A) THROUGH (D) (“HIGH NET WORTH COMPANIES, UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS, ETC.”) OF THE PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER, OR (IV) ARE PERSONS TO WHOM THE ISSUING ENTITY MAY LAWFULLY BE PROMOTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH CHAPTER 4.12 OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FINANCIAL CONDUCT AUTHORITY’S CONDUCT OF BUSINESS SOURCEBOOK (ALL SUCH PERSONS TOGETHER WITH FPO PERSONS, “RELEVANT PERSONS”).

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MUST NOT BE ACTED ON OR RELIED ON BY PERSONS WHO ARE NOT RELEVANT PERSONS. ANY INVESTMENT OR INVESTMENT ACTIVITY TO WHICH THIS PROSPECTUS RELATES, INCLUDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, IS AVAILABLE ONLY TO RELEVANT PERSONS AND WILL BE ENGAGED IN ONLY WITH RELEVANT PERSONS.

 

POTENTIAL INVESTORS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM ARE ADVISED THAT ALL, OR MOST, OF THE PROTECTIONS AFFORDED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM REGULATORY SYSTEM WILL NOT APPLY TO AN INVESTMENT IN THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND THAT COMPENSATION WILL NOT BE AVAILABLE UNDER THE UNITED KINGDOM FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPENSATION SCHEME.

 

PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES WILL NOT BE OFFERED OR SOLD IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (EXCLUDING HONG KONG, MACAU AND TAIWAN, THE “PRC”) AS PART OF THE INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BUT MAY BE AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE BY INVESTORS RESIDENT IN THE PRC FROM OUTSIDE THE PRC.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER TO SELL OR THE SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY ANY SECURITIES IN THE PRC TO ANY PERSON TO WHOM IT IS UNLAWFUL TO MAKE THE OFFER OR SOLICITATION IN THE PRC.

 

THE DEPOSITOR DOES NOT REPRESENT THAT THIS PROSPECTUS MAY BE LAWFULLY DISTRIBUTED, OR THAT ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY BE LAWFULLY OFFERED, IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANY APPLICABLE REGISTRATION OR OTHER REQUIREMENTS IN THE PRC, OR PURSUANT TO AN EXEMPTION AVAILABLE THEREUNDER, OR ASSUME ANY RESPONSIBILITY FOR FACILITATING ANY SUCH DISTRIBUTION OR OFFERING. IN PARTICULAR, NO ACTION HAS BEEN TAKEN BY THE DEPOSITOR WHICH WOULD PERMIT AN OFFERING OF ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR THE DISTRIBUTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS IN THE PRC. ACCORDINGLY, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE NOT BEING OFFERED OR SOLD WITHIN THE PRC BY MEANS OF THIS PROSPECTUS OR ANY OTHER DOCUMENT. NEITHER THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY ADVERTISEMENT OR OTHER OFFERING MATERIAL MAY BE DISTRIBUTED OR PUBLISHED IN THE PRC, EXCEPT UNDER CIRCUMSTANCES THAT WILL RESULT IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANY APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS.

 

HONG KONG

 

THIS PROSPECTUS HAS NOT BEEN DELIVERED FOR REGISTRATION TO THE REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES IN HONG KONG AND THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED OR APPROVED BY ANY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN HONG KONG. THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE NOR INTEND TO BE AN OFFER OR INVITATION TO THE PUBLIC IN HONG KONG TO ACQUIRE THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES.

 

EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED, WARRANTED AND AGREED THAT: (1) IT HAS NOT OFFERED OR SOLD AND WILL NOT OFFER OR SELL IN HONG KONG, BY MEANS OF ANY DOCUMENT, ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES (EXCEPT FOR CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE A

 

17

 

 

STRUCTURED PRODUCT” AS DEFINED IN THE SECURITIES AND FUTURES ORDINANCE (CAP. 571) (THE “SFO”) OF HONG KONG) OTHER THAN (A) TO “PROFESSIONAL INVESTORS” AS DEFINED IN THE SFO AND ANY RULES OR REGULATIONS MADE UNDER THE SFO; OR (B) IN OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH DO NOT RESULT IN THE DOCUMENT BEING A “PROSPECTUS” AS DEFINED IN THE COMPANIES (WINDING UP AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS) ORDINANCE (CAP. 32) (THE “C(WUMP)O”) OF HONG KONG OR WHICH DO NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER TO THE PUBLIC WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE C(WUMP)O; AND (2) IT HAS NOT ISSUED OR HAD IN ITS POSSESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ISSUE, AND WILL NOT ISSUE OR HAVE IN ITS POSSESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ISSUE, WHETHER IN HONG KONG OR ELSEWHERE, ANY ADVERTISEMENT, INVITATION OR DOCUMENT RELATING TO THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, WHICH IS DIRECTED AT, OR THE CONTENTS OF WHICH ARE LIKELY TO BE ACCESSED OR READ BY, THE PUBLIC OF HONG KONG (EXCEPT IF PERMITTED TO DO SO UNDER THE SECURITIES LAWS OF HONG KONG) OTHER THAN WITH RESPECT TO OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE OR ARE INTENDED TO BE DISPOSED OF ONLY TO PERSONS OUTSIDE HONG KONG OR ONLY TO “PROFESSIONAL INVESTORS” AS DEFINED IN THE SFO AND ANY RULES OR REGULATIONS MADE UNDER THE SFO.

 

W A R N I N G

 

THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED OR APPROVED BY ANY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN HONG KONG. YOU ARE ADVISED TO EXERCISE CAUTION IN RELATION TO THE OFFER. IF YOU ARE IN ANY DOUBT ABOUT ANY OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS, YOU SHOULD OBTAIN INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONAL ADVICE.

 

SINGAPORE

 

NEITHER THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY OTHER DOCUMENT OR MATERIAL IN CONNECTION WITH ANY OFFER OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES HAS BEEN REGISTERED AS A PROSPECTUS WITH THE MONETARY AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE (“MAS”) UNDER THE SECURITIES AND FUTURES ACT (CAP. 289) OF SINGAPORE (THE “SFA”). ACCORDINGLY, MAS ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT A PROSPECTUS AS DEFINED IN THE SFA AND STATUTORY LIABILITY UNDER THE SFA IN RELATION TO THE CONTENTS OF PROSPECTUSES WOULD NOT APPLY. ANY PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR SHOULD CONSIDER CAREFULLY WHETHER THE INVESTMENT IS SUITABLE FOR IT. THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY OTHER DOCUMENT OR MATERIAL IN CONNECTION WITH THE OFFER OR SALE, OR INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY NOT BE CIRCULATED OR DISTRIBUTED, NOR MAY THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BE OFFERED OR SOLD, OR BE MADE THE SUBJECT OF AN INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, WHETHER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, TO PERSONS IN SINGAPORE OTHER THAN (I) TO AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 4A(1)(c) OF THE SFA) PURSUANT TO SECTION 274 OF THE SFA (EACH AN “INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR”), (II) TO A RELEVANT PERSON (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 275(2) OF THE SFA) PURSUANT TO SECTION 275(1), OR ANY PERSON PURSUANT TO SECTION 275(1A) OF THE SFA, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275 OF THE SFA, PROVIDED ALWAYS THAT NONE OF SUCH PERSON SHALL BE AN INDIVIDUAL OTHER THAN AN INDIVIDUAL WHO IS AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 4A(1)(a) OF THE SFA) (EACH, A “RELEVANT INVESTOR”).

 

NO CERTIFICATES ACQUIRED BY (I) AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR; OR (II) A RELEVANT INVESTOR IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275 OF THE SFA MAY BE OFFERED OR SOLD, MADE THE SUBJECT OF AN INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, OR OTHERWISE TRANSFERRED, WHETHER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, TO PERSONS IN SINGAPORE, OTHER THAN TO (I) AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR; OR (II) A RELEVANT INVESTOR IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275 OF THE SFA.

 

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WHERE THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE SUBSCRIBED OR PURCHASED UNDER SECTION 275 OF THE SFA BY A RELEVANT PERSON WHICH IS: (A) A CORPORATION (WHICH IS NOT AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 4A OF THE SFA)) THE SOLE BUSINESS OF WHICH IS TO HOLD INVESTMENTS AND THE ENTIRE SHARE CAPITAL OF WHICH IS OWNED BY ONE OR MORE INDIVIDUALS, EACH OF WHOM IS AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR; OR (B) A TRUST (WHERE THE TRUSTEE IS NOT AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR) WHOSE SOLE PURPOSE IS TO HOLD INVESTMENTS AND EACH BENEFICIARY IS AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR, SECURITIES (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 239(1) OF THE SFA) OF THAT CORPORATION OR THE BENEFICIARIES’ RIGHTS AND INTEREST (HOWSOEVER DESCRIBED) IN THAT TRUST SHALL NOT BE TRANSFERABLE FOR 6 MONTHS AFTER THAT CORPORATION OR THAT TRUST HAS ACQUIRED THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES UNDER SECTION 275 OF THE SFA EXCEPT: (1) TO AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR UNDER SECTION 274 OF THE SFA OR TO A RELEVANT PERSON (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 275(2) OF THE SFA), OR TO ANY PERSON PURSUANT TO AN OFFER THAT IS MADE ON TERMS THAT SUCH SHARES, DEBENTURES AND UNITS OF SHARES AND DEBENTURES OF THAT CORPORATION OR SUCH RIGHTS OR INTEREST IN THAT TRUST ARE ACQUIRED AT A CONSIDERATION OF NOT LESS THAN 200,000 SINGAPORE DOLLARS (OR ITS EQUIVALENT IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY) FOR EACH TRANSACTION, WHETHER SUCH AMOUNT IS TO BE PAID FOR IN CASH OR BY EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES OR OTHER ASSETS, AND FURTHER FOR CORPORATIONS, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275(1A) OF THE SFA; (2) WHERE NO CONSIDERATION IS GIVEN FOR THE TRANSFER; (3) WHERE THE TRANSFER IS BY OPERATION OF LAW; OR (4) AS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 276(7) OF THE SFA.

 

REPUBLIC OF KOREA

 

THESE CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN REGISTERED WITH THE FINANCIAL SERVICES COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA FOR A PUBLIC OFFERING IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA. THE UNDERWRITERS HAVE THEREFORE REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT THE CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE OFFERED, SOLD OR DELIVERED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OR OFFERED, SOLD OR DELIVERED TO ANY PERSON FOR RE OFFERING OR RESALE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA OR TO ANY RESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE PERMITTED UNDER APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, INCLUDING THE FINANCIAL INVESTMENT SERVICES AND CAPITAL MARKETS ACT AND THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS LAW AND THE DECREES AND REGULATIONS THEREUNDER.

 

JAPAN

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE REGISTERED UNDER THE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND EXCHANGE LAW OF JAPAN, AS AMENDED (THE “FIEL”), AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE FIEL HAS NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. ACCORDINGLY, EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT IT HAS NOT, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OFFERED OR SOLD AND WILL NOT, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OFFER OR SELL ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN JAPAN OR TO, OR FOR THE BENEFIT OF, ANY RESIDENT OF JAPAN (WHICH TERM AS USED IN THIS PROSPECTUS MEANS ANY PERSON RESIDENT IN JAPAN, INCLUDING ANY CORPORATION OR OTHER ENTITY ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF JAPAN) OR TO OTHERS FOR REOFFERING OR RE-SALE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN JAPAN OR TO, OR FOR THE BENEFIT OF, ANY RESIDENT OF JAPAN EXCEPT PURSUANT TO AN EXEMPTION FROM THE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS OF, AND OTHERWISE IN COMPLIANCE WITH, THE FIEL AND OTHER RELEVANT LAWS, REGULATIONS AND MINISTERIAL GUIDELINES OF JAPAN. AS PART OF THIS OFFERING OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, THE UNDERWRITERS MAY OFFER THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN JAPAN TO UP TO 49 OFFEREES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ABOVE PROVISIONS.

 

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JAPANESE RETENTION REQUIREMENT

 

THE JAPANESE FINANCIAL SERVICES AGENCY (“JFSA”) PUBLISHED A RISK RETENTION RULE AS PART OF THE REGULATORY CAPITAL REGULATION OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF JAPANESE INVESTORS SEEKING TO INVEST IN SECURITIZATION TRANSACTIONS (THE “JRR RULE”). THE JRR RULE MANDATES AN “INDIRECT” COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENT, MEANING THAT CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF JAPANESE INVESTORS WILL BE REQUIRED TO APPLY HIGHER RISK WEIGHTING TO SECURITIZATION EXPOSURES THEY HOLD UNLESS THE RELEVANT ORIGINATOR COMMITS TO HOLD A RETENTION INTEREST IN THE SECURITIES ISSUED IN THE SECURITIZATION TRANSACTION EQUAL TO AT LEAST 5% OF THE EXPOSURE OF THE TOTAL UNDERLYING ASSETS IN THE SECURITIZATION TRANSACTION (THE “JAPANESE RETENTION REQUIREMENT” ), OR SUCH INVESTORS DETERMINE THAT THE UNDERLYING ASSETS WERE NOT “INAPPROPRIATELY ORIGINATED.” IN THE ABSENCE OF SUCH A DETERMINATION BY SUCH INVESTORS THAT SUCH UNDERLYING ASSETS WERE NOT “INAPPROPRIATELY ORIGINATED,” THE JAPANESE RETENTION REQUIREMENT WOULD APPLY TO AN INVESTMENT BY SUCH INVESTORS IN SUCH SECURITIES.

 

NO PARTY TO THE TRANSACTION DESCRIBED IN THIS PROSPECTUS HAS COMMITTED TO HOLD A RISK RETENTION INTEREST IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE JAPANESE RETENTION REQUIREMENT, AND WE MAKE NO REPRESENTATION AS TO WHETHER THE TRANSACTION DESCRIBED IN THIS PROSPECTUS WOULD OTHERWISE COMPLY WITH THE JRR RULE.

 

NOTICE TO RESIDENTS OF CANADA

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY BE SOLD IN CANADA ONLY TO PURCHASERS PURCHASING, OR DEEMED TO BE PURCHASING, AS PRINCIPAL THAT ARE ACCREDITED INVESTORS, AS DEFINED IN NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 45-106 PROSPECTUS EXEMPTIONS OR SUBSECTION 73.3(1) OF THE SECURITIES ACT (ONTARIO), AND ARE PERMITTED CLIENTS, AS DEFINED IN NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 31-103 REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS, EXEMPTIONS AND ONGOING REGISTRANT OBLIGATIONS. ANY RESALE OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MUST BE MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH AN EXEMPTION FROM, OR IN A TRANSACTION NOT SUBJECT TO, THE PROSPECTUS REQUIREMENTS OF APPLICABLE SECURITIES LAWS.

 

SECURITIES LEGISLATION IN CERTAIN PROVINCES OR TERRITORIES OF CANADA MAY PROVIDE A PURCHASER WITH REMEDIES FOR RESCISSION OR DAMAGES IF THIS PROSPECTUS (INCLUDING ANY AMENDMENT THERETO) CONTAINS A MISREPRESENTATION, PROVIDED THAT THE REMEDIES FOR RESCISSION OR DAMAGES ARE EXERCISED BY THE PURCHASER WITHIN THE TIME LIMIT PRESCRIBED BY THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF THE PURCHASER’S PROVINCE OR TERRITORY. THE PURCHASER SHOULD REFER TO ANY APPLICABLE PROVISIONS OF THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF THE PURCHASER’S PROVINCE OR TERRITORY FOR PARTICULARS OF THESE RIGHTS OR CONSULT WITH A LEGAL ADVISOR.

 

PURSUANT TO SECTION 3A.3 OF NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 33-105 UNDERWRITING CONFLICTS (“NI 33-105”), THE UNDERWRITERS ARE NOT REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH THE DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS OF NI 33-105 REGARDING UNDERWRITER CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN CONNECTION WITH THIS OFFERING.

 

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Summary of Terms

 

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus. It does not contain all of the information you need to consider in making your investment decision. To understand all of the terms of the offering of the offered certificates, read this entire document carefully.

 

Relevant Parties

 

Title of CertificatesCSAIL 2021-C20 Commercial Mortgage Trust, Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-C20.

 

DepositorCredit Suisse Commercial Mortgage Securities Corp., a Delaware corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Credit Suisse Management LLC, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Credit Suisse (USA), Inc., which in turn is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Credit Suisse Holdings (USA), Inc. The depositor’s address is 11 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10010, and its telephone number is (212) 325-2000. See “Transaction Parties—The Depositor”.

 

Issuing EntityCSAIL 2021-C20 Commercial Mortgage Trust, a New York common law trust, to be established on the closing date under the pooling and servicing agreement. For more detailed information, see “Transaction Parties—The Issuing Entity”.

 

Sponsors and OriginatorsThe sponsors of this transaction are:

 

3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC, a Delaware limited liability company

 

Column Financial, Inc., a Delaware corporation

 

UBS AG, by and through its branch office at 1285 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York (referred to herein as “UBS AG, New York Branch”), an Office of the Comptroller of the Currency regulated branch of a foreign bank

 

German American Capital Corporation, a Maryland corporation

 

 The sponsors are sometimes also referred to in this prospectus as the “mortgage loan sellers”.

 

 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC is an affiliate of each of 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC, the expected special servicer and a significant sub-servicer, and 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC, the anticipated holder of the VRR Interest and the HRR Certificates and the anticipated initial directing certificateholder. Column Financial, Inc. is an affiliate of each of the depositor and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, one of the underwriters and an initial purchaser of certain non-offered certificates. UBS AG, New York Branch is an affiliate of UBS Securities LLC, one of the underwriters and an initial purchaser of certain non-offered certificates. German American Capital Corporation is an affiliate of Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., one of the underwriters and an

 

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 initial purchaser of certain non-offered certificates, DBR Investments Co. Limited, an originator, and Deutsche Bank AG, New York Branch, an originator. See “Transaction PartiesThe Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”.

 

 The sponsors originated, co-originated or acquired and will transfer to the depositor the mortgage loans as set forth in the following chart:

  

 Sellers of the Mortgage Loans
  
 Seller Number of Mortgage Loans Aggregate Cut-off Date Balance Approx. % of Initial Pool Balance
 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC(1) 18  $398,980,753  61.4%
 Column Financial, Inc.(2) 3  100,000,000  15.4 
 UBS AG, New York Branch 6  83,258,608  12.8 
 German American Capital Corporation(3)(4) 2  67,855,333  10.4 
 Total 29  $650,094,694  100.0%
   

 

(1)One (1) mortgage loan, Miami Design District (9.2%), is part of a whole loan that was originated by Bank of America, N.A. and certain notes evidencing an interest therein were subsequently acquired by 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC. One (1) mortgage loan, 888 Figueroa (6.2%), is part of a whole loan that was originated by MUFG Union Bank, N.A. and certain notes evidencing an interest therein were subsequently acquired by 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC. One (1) mortgage loan, Voyant Industrial Portfolio (3.6%), was originated by Bayview Commercial Mortgage Finance, LLC and subsequently acquired by 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC. Each such mortgage loan was re-underwritten pursuant to 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC’s underwriting guidelines.

 

(2)One (1) mortgage loan, The Grace Building (9.2%), is part of a whole loan that was co-originated by Column Financial, Inc., Bank of America, N.A., JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association and DBR Investments Co. Limited, and two (2) of three (3) notes that comprise The Grace Building mortgage loan, (identified as note A-3-2 and note A-3-4) are being sold to the depositor for inclusion in this securitization by Column Financial, Inc. Such mortgage loan was underwritten in accordance with the procedures described under “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—Column Financial, Inc.

 

(3)One (1) mortgage loan, The Grace Building (9.2%), is part of a whole loan that was co-originated by Column Financial, Inc., Bank of America, N.A., JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association and DBR Investments Co. Limited, and one (1) of the three (3) notes that comprise the mortgage loan, (identified as note A-4-5) is being sold to the depositor by German American Capital Corporation for inclusion in this securitization transaction. The “Number of Mortgage Loans” shown in the table above for German American Capital Corporation does not include this note; however, the “Aggregate Cut-off Date Principal Balance of Mortgage Loans” and the “Approx. % of Initial Pool Balance” shown in the table above for German American Capital Corporation do include this note. Such mortgage loan was underwritten in accordance with the procedures described under “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—German American Capital Corporation”.

 

(4)One (1) mortgage loan, MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay (6.0%), for which German American Capital Corporation is the mortgage loan seller, is part of a whole loan that was co-originated by Citi Real Estate Funding Inc., Barclays Capital Real Estate Inc., Deutsche Bank AG, New York Branch, and Société Générale Financial Corporation.

 

 See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”.

 

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Master ServicerMidland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National Association, a national banking association, is expected to act as the master servicer and will be responsible for the master servicing and administration of the mortgage loans and the related companion loans pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement (other than any mortgage loan and companion loan identified in the table titled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below). The principal servicing offices of the master servicer are located at 10851 Mastin Street, Building 82, Suite 300, Overland Park, Kansas 66210, and its telephone number is (913) 253-9000. See “Transaction Parties—The Master Servicer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

 The master servicer of each non-serviced mortgage loan is set forth in the table below under the heading “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans”, “—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Special Servicer3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, is expected to act as the special servicer with respect to the mortgage loans (other than any excluded special servicer loan) and any related companion loans other than with respect to the non-serviced mortgage loans set forth in the table titled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below. The special servicer will be primarily responsible for (i) making decisions and performing certain servicing functions with respect to such mortgage loans and any related companion loans as to which a special servicing transfer event (such as a default or an imminent default) has occurred and (ii) in certain circumstances, reviewing, evaluating, processing and providing or withholding consent as to certain decisions and other transactions relating to such mortgage loans and any related companion loans for which a special servicing transfer event has not occurred, in each case pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction. The primary servicing office of the special servicer is located at 2977 McFarlane Road, Suite 300, Miami, Florida 33133, and its telephone number is (305) 901-1000. See “Transaction Parties—The Special Servicer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

If the special servicer obtains knowledge that it is a borrower party with respect to any mortgage loan (other than a non-serviced mortgage loan) or serviced whole loan (such mortgage loan or serviced whole loan, referred to in this prospectus as an “excluded special servicer loan”), the special servicer will be required to resign as special servicer of that excluded special servicer loan and will be replaced as discussed under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Replacement of Special Servicer Without Cause”.

 

3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC is expected to be appointed as the special servicer by 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC.

 

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3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC is expected to purchase the VRR Interest and the HRR Certificates and, on the closing date, 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC or an affiliate is expected to be the initial directing certificateholder. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Holder” and “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

The special servicer of each non-serviced mortgage loan is set forth in the table below titled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans”, “—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Affiliated Sub-Servicer Pursuantto a limited subservicing agreement, 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, is expected to have limited (non-cashiering) subservicing duties consisting of collecting financial statements with respect to sixteen (16) of the 3650 REIT mortgage loans (collectively, 46.0%).

 

TrusteeWells Fargo Bank, National Association, a national banking association, will act as trustee. The corporate trust office of the trustee is located at 9062 Old Annapolis Road, Columbia, Maryland, 21045-1951. Following the transfer of the mortgage loans to the issuing entity, the trustee, on behalf of the issuing entity, will become the mortgagee of record for each serviced mortgage loan and the related companion loans. See “Transaction Parties—The Trustee and Certificate Administrator” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

 With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan, the entity set forth in the table titled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under
—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below, in its capacity as trustee under the pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, for the indicated transaction, is the mortgagee of record for that non-serviced mortgage loan and any related companion loan. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Certificate AdministratorWells Fargo Bank, National Association, a national banking association, will initially act as certificate administrator. The certificate administrator will also be required to act as custodian, certificate registrar, REMIC administrator, 17g-5 information provider and authenticating agent. The corporate trust office of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association is located at 9062 Old Annapolis Road, Columbia, Maryland 21045-1951, and its office for certificate transfer services is located at 600 South 4th Street, 7th Floor, MAC: N9300-070, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55479. See “Transaction Parties—The Trustee and Certificate Administrator” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

The custodian with respect to the mortgage file for each non-serviced mortgage loan (other than the promissory note evidencing such mortgage loan) will be the entity set forth in the table below titled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”, as custodian under the pooling

 

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 and servicing agreement or the trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, for the indicated transaction. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Operating AdvisorPark Bridge Lender Services LLC, a New York limited liability company and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Park Bridge Financial LLC, will be the operating advisor. The operating advisor will have certain review and reporting responsibilities with respect to the performance of the special servicer, and in certain circumstances may recommend to the certificateholders that the special servicer be replaced. The operating advisor will generally have no obligations or consultation rights as operating advisor under the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan or any related REO property. See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Operating Advisor.

 

Asset Representations ReviewerPark Bridge Lender Services LLC, a New York limited liability company and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Park Bridge Financial LLC, will also be serving as the asset representations reviewer. The asset representations reviewer will be required to review certain delinquent mortgage loans after a specified delinquency threshold has been exceeded and notification from the certificate administrator that the required percentage of certificateholders have voted to direct a review of such delinquent mortgage loans.

 

See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Asset Representations Reviewer”.

 

Directing HolderThe directing holder will have certain consent and consultation rights in certain circumstances with respect to the mortgage loans (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan and certain excluded loans as described in the next paragraph), as further described in this prospectus.

 

The directing holder will be, with respect to each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan) or serviced whole loan, the directing certificateholder.

 

The directing certificateholder will generally be the controlling class certificateholder (or its representative) selected by more than 50% of the controlling class certificateholders (by certificate balance, as certified by the certificate registrar from time to time as provided for in the pooling and servicing agreement). However, in certain circumstances (such as when no directing certificateholder has been appointed and no one holder owns the largest aggregate certificate balance of the controlling class) there may be no directing certificateholder even if there is a controlling class.

 

With respect to the directing holder or (if the directing holder is the directing certificateholder) the holder of the majority of the controlling class certificates (by certificate balance), an “excluded

 

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loan” is a mortgage loan or whole loan with respect to which such party is a borrower, a mortgagor, a manager of the related mortgaged property, the holder of a mezzanine loan that has accelerated the related mezzanine loan or commenced foreclosure or enforcement proceedings against the equity collateral pledged to secure the related mezzanine loan, or any borrower party affiliate thereof.

 

The controlling class will be the most subordinate class of the Class F-RR, Class G-RR and Class NR-RR certificates then-outstanding that has an aggregate certificate balance, as notionally reduced by any cumulative appraisal reduction amounts allocable to such class, at least equal to 25% of the initial certificate balance of that class; provided that if at any time the certificate balances of the certificates other than the Class F-RR, Class G-RR and Class NR-RR certificates have been reduced to zero as a result of the allocation of principal payments on the mortgage loans, then the controlling class will be the most subordinate class among the control eligible certificates that has an aggregate certificate balance greater than zero without regard to any cumulative appraisal reduction amounts; provided, further, however, that during such time as the Class F-RR certificates would be the controlling class, the holders of such certificates will have the right to irrevocably waive their right to appoint a directing certificateholder or to exercise any rights of the controlling class certificateholder. No class of certificates, other than as described above, will be eligible to act as the controlling class or appoint a directing certificateholder.

 

It is anticipated that on the closing date 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC (i) will purchase the “eligible vertical interest” (referred to herein as the “VRR Interest”), (ii) will purchase the “eligible horizontal residual interest”, which will be comprised of the Class F-RR, Class G-RR and Class NR-RR certificates (other than the portions thereof that comprise the VRR Interest as described in “Credit Risk Retention”), (iii) will receive the Class Z certificates (other than the portion of such class of certificates that comprises the “VRR Interest” as described in “Credit Risk Retention”) and (iv) will be appointed (or will designate an affiliate to be appointed) as the initial directing certificateholder and as a result will be the initial directing holder with respect to each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan and any applicable excluded loan).

 

The entity identified in the table titled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below is the initial directing holder (or the equivalent) under the trust and servicing agreement or the pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, for the indicated transaction and will have certain consent and consultation rights with respect to the related non-serviced whole loan, which are substantially similar, but not identical, to those of the directing certificateholder under the pooling and servicing agreement for this securitization, subject to similar appraisal mechanics. See “Description of the Mortgage

 

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Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans”, “—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Holder” and “—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Risk Retention

Consultation PartyThe risk retention consultation party will have certain non-binding consultation rights with respect to certain matters relating to specially serviced loans (other than certain excluded loans as described in the next paragraph), as further described in this prospectus. The risk retention consultation party will be the party appointed by the holder or holders of more than 50% of the VRR Interest. 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC will retain the right to appoint a risk retention consultation party but will not be appointing a risk retention consultation on the closing date. As of the closing date, there will be no risk retention consultation party.

 

 With respect to the risk retention consultation party, an “excluded loan” is a mortgage loan or whole loan with respect to which the risk retention consultation party (or the holder of the VRR Interest entitled to appoint such risk retention consultation party) is a borrower, a mortgagor, a manager of the mortgaged property, the holder of a related mezzanine loan who has accelerated such mezzanine loan or commenced foreclosure or enforcement proceedings against the equity collateral pledged to secure such mezzanine loan, or a borrower party affiliate thereof.

 

Holder of a Subordinate

Companion LoanFour (4) mortgage loans, The Grace Building, Miami Design District, MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay and The Westchester, (collectively, 29.9%) are comprised of (i) one or more senior pari passu notes (included in the trust) and (ii) one or more senior pari passu notes (not included in the trust) and/or one or more subordinate notes (not included in the trust).

 

With respect to The Grace Building mortgage loan and The Westchester mortgage loan, pursuant to the related intercreditor agreement, the holder of the related subordinate companion loan will have the right under certain limited circumstances to (i) cure certain defaults with respect to the related mortgage loan, (ii) purchase (without payment of any yield maintenance charge or prepayment premium) the related mortgage loan under certain limited default circumstances and/or (iii) for so long as no AB control appraisal period is continuing under the related intercreditor agreement will be the initial “directing holder” with respect to such mortgage loan and in such capacity will have the right to approve certain modifications and consent to certain actions to be taken with respect to the related whole loan and replace the special servicer with respect to the related whole loan. As of the closing date, the party set forth in the table titled “Whole Loan Control Notes and Non-Control Notes” in “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—General” is expected to be the holder of the related subordinate companion loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans”.

 

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Certain Affiliations and RelationshipsThe originators, the sponsors, the underwriters, and the parties to the pooling and servicing agreement have various roles in this transaction as well as certain relationships with parties to this transaction and certain of their affiliates. These roles and other potential relationships may give rise to conflicts of interest as further described under “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest” and “Certain Affiliations, Relationships and Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties”.

 

Significant ObligorsThere are no significant obligors related to the issuing entity.

 

Relevant Dates and Periods

 

Cut-off DateThe mortgage loans will be considered part of the trust fund as of their respective cut-off dates. The cut-off date with respect to each mortgage loan is the respective due date for the monthly debt service payment that is due in March 2021 (or, in the case of any mortgage loan that has its first due date after March 2021, the date that would have been its due date in March 2021 under the terms of that mortgage loan if a monthly debt service payment were scheduled to be due in that month).

 

Closing DateOn or about March 30, 2021.

 

Distribution DateThe 4th business day following each determination date. The first distribution date will be in April 2021.

 

Determination DateThe 11th day of each month or, if the 11th day is not a business day, then the business day immediately following such 11th day, commencing in April 2021.

 

Record DateWith respect to any distribution date, the last business day of the month immediately preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs.

 

Business DayUnder the pooling and servicing agreement, a business day will be any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in North Carolina, Florida, New York, Kansas, Pennsylvania, Ohio, California or any of the jurisdictions in which the respective primary servicing offices of the master servicer or special servicer or the corporate trust offices of either the certificate administrator or the trustee are located, or the New York Stock Exchange or the Federal Reserve System of the United States of America are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to remain closed.

 

Interest Accrual PeriodThe interest accrual period for each class of offered certificates for each distribution date will be the calendar month immediately preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs. Interest on the offered certificates will be calculated assuming that each month has 30 days and each year has 360 days.

 

Collection PeriodFor any mortgage loan to be held by the issuing entity and any distribution date, the period commencing on the day immediately following the due date (without regard to grace periods) for such mortgage loan in the month preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs and ending on and including the due

 

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date for such mortgage loan in the month in which that distribution date occurs. However, in the event that the last day of a collection period (or applicable grace period) is not a business day, any periodic payments received with respect to the mortgage loans relating to that collection period on the business day immediately following that last day will be deemed to have been received during that collection period and not during any other collection period.

 

Assumed Final Distribution

Date; Rated Final

Distribution DateThe assumed final distribution dates set forth below for each class of offered certificates have been determined on the basis of the assumptions described in “Description of the Certificates—Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date”:

 

 

Class

Assumed
Final Distribution Date

 Class A-1March 2026
 Class A-2March 2030
 Class A-3March 2031
 Class A-SBJuly 2029
 Class X-AMarch 2031
 Class X-BMarch 2031
 Class A-SMarch 2031
 Class BMarch 2031
 Class CMarch 2031

 

 The rated final distribution date for the offered certificates will be the distribution date in March 2054.

 

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Transaction Overview

 

On the closing date, each sponsor will sell its respective mortgage loans to the depositor, which will in turn deposit the mortgage loans into the issuing entity, a common law trust created on the closing date. The issuing entity will be formed by a pooling and servicing agreement to be entered into among the depositor, the master servicer, the special servicer, the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor and the asset representations reviewer.

 

The transfers of the mortgage loans from the sponsors to the depositor and from the depositor to the issuing entity in exchange for the offered certificates are illustrated below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Offered Certificates

 

GeneralWe are offering the following classes of commercial mortgage pass-through certificates as part of Series 2021-C20:

 

Class A-1

Class A-2

Class A-3

Class A-SB

Class X-A

Class X-B

Class A-S

Class B

Class C

 

 The certificates of this series will consist of the above classes and the following classes that are not being offered by this prospectus: Class X-D, Class D, Class E, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class NR-RR, Class Z and Class R.

 

Certificate Balances and

Notional Amounts Eachclass of offered certificates will have the approximate aggregate initial certificate balance or notional amount set forth below:

 

  

Initial Certificate Balance or
Notional Amount(1)

 

Initial Available Certificate
Balance or Notional Amount(1)

 

Initial Retained Certificate
Balance or Notional Amount(1)(2)
 

Class A-1 $8,269,000  $8,088,000  $181,000 
Class A-2 $180,945,000  $177,000,000  $3,945,000 
Class A-3 $251,814,000  $246,324,000  $5,490,000 
Class A-SB(3) $14,038,000  $13,731,000  $307,000 
Class X-A(4) $514,387,000  $503,170,000  $11,217,000 
Class X-B(4) $55,258,000  $54,052,000  $1,206,000 
Class A-S $59,321,000  $58,027,000  $1,294,000 
Class B $28,442,000  $27,821,000  $621,000 
Class C $26,816,000  $26,231,000  $585,000 

 

 

 

(1)Subject to a variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)On the closing date, 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC (a sponsor and an affiliate of the special servicer) will purchase or cause a majority-owned affiliate to purchase from the underwriters offered certificates (of each class thereof) with the initial certificate balances or notional amounts, as applicable, set forth in the table above under “Initial Retained Certificate Balance or Notional Amount” as described in “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

(3)The Class A-SB certificates have a certain priority with respect to reducing the certificate balance of those certificates to their planned principal balance, as described in this prospectus.

 

(4)Notional amount.

 

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Pass-Through Rates

 

A. Offered CertificatesYour certificates will accrue interest at an annual rate called a pass-through rate. The initial approximate pass-through rate is set forth below for each class of certificates:

 

 Class A-10.8551%(1)
 Class A-22.4862%(1)
 Class A-32.8048%(1)
 Class A-SB2.4356%(1)
 Class X-A1.1719%(2)
 Class X-B0.2863%(2)
 Class A-S3.0760%(3)
 Class B3.2982%(3)
 Class C3.8545%(4)
   
(1)For any distribution date, the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates will each be a per annum rate equal to the initial pass-through rate set forth opposite such class in the table above.

 

(2)For any distribution date, the pass-through rate on the Class X-A certificates will generally be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (i) the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (in each case adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) for such distribution date, over (ii) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB and Class A-S certificates weighted on the basis of their respective certificate balances immediately prior to the distribution date, as described in this prospectus. For any distribution date, the pass-through rate on the Class X-B certificates will generally be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (i) the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (in each case adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) for such distribution date, over (ii) the weighted average of pass-through rates on the Class B and Class C certificates weighted on the basis of their respective certificate balances immediately prior to that distribution date.

 

(3)For any distribution date, the pass-through rates of the Class A-S and Class B certificates will each be a per annum rate equal to the lesser of (i) the initial pass-through rate for such class specified in the table above and (ii) the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months).

 

(4)For any distribution date, the pass-through rate of the Class C certificates will be a per annum rate equal to the weighted average of the net mortgage rates on the mortgage loans (adjusted, if necessary, to accrue on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months).

 

B. Interest Rate Calculation

ConventionInterest on the offered certificates at their applicable pass-through rates will be calculated based on a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months, or a “30/360 basis”.

 

For purposes of calculating the pass-through rates on the Class X-A and Class X-B certificates and any other class of certificates that has a pass-through rate limited by, equal to or based on the weighted average net mortgage rate (which calculation does not include any companion loan interest rate), the mortgage loan interest rates will not reflect any default interest rate, any loan term modifications agreed to by the special servicer (or a special servicer for a non-serviced

 

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mortgage loan), any modifications resulting from a borrower’s bankruptcy or insolvency, or any increase in the interest rate of any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date after the related anticipated repayment date.

 

For purposes of calculating the pass-through rates on the offered certificates, the interest rate for each mortgage loan that accrues interest based on the actual number of days in each month and assuming a 360-day year, or an “actual/360 basis”, will be recalculated, if necessary, so that the amount of interest that would accrue at that recalculated rate in the applicable month, calculated on a 30/360 basis, will equal the amount of interest that is required to be paid on that mortgage loan in that month, subject to certain adjustments as described in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Pass-Through Rates” and “—Interest Distribution Amount”.

 

C. Servicing and

Administration FeesThe master servicer and the special servicer are entitled to a servicing fee and a special servicing fee, respectively, from the interest payments on each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan with respect to the special servicing fee only), any serviced companion loans and any related REO loans and, with respect to the special servicing fees, if the related loan interest payments (or other collections in respect of the related mortgage loan or mortgaged property) are insufficient, then from general collections on all mortgage loans. The servicing fee for each distribution date, including the master servicing fee and the portion of the servicing fee payable to any primary servicer or subservicer, is calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan) and the related serviced companion loans at the servicing fee rate equal to a per annum rate of between 0.00188% and 0.06125% (although with respect to serviced companion loans, the servicing fee may be lower than the indicated rate).

 

The special servicing fee for each distribution date is calculated based on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan) and the related serviced companion loans as to which a special servicing transfer event has occurred (including any REO loans), on a loan-by-loan basis at the special servicing fee rate equal to a per annum rate of the greater of 0.25% and the per annum rate that would result in a special servicing fee of $3,500 for the related month. The special servicer will not be entitled to a special servicing fee with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan.

 

The special servicer will also be entitled to a liquidation fee and a workout fee as further described under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses”.

 

Any primary servicing fees or sub-servicing fees with respect to each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related serviced companion loan will be paid by

 

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the master servicer or special servicer, respectively, out of the fees described above.

 

The master servicer and the special servicer are also entitled to additional fees and amounts, including income on the amounts held in certain accounts and certain permitted investments, liquidation fees and workout fees. See “Pooling and Servicing AgreementServicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses”.

 

The trustee/certificate administrator fee for each distribution date is calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and any REO loan (excluding any related companion loan) at a per annum rate equal to 0.01146%. The trustee fee is payable by the certificate administrator as a portion of the trustee/certificate administrator fee.

 

The operating advisor will be entitled to a fee on each distribution date calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and any REO loan (excluding any related companion loan) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00236%. The operating advisor will also be entitled under certain circumstances to a consulting fee.

 

The asset representations reviewer will be entitled to an upfront fee of $5,000 on the closing date. As compensation for the performance of its routine duties, the asset representations reviewer will be entitled to a fee on each distribution date calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and any REO loan (excluding any related companion loan) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00038%. Upon the completion of any asset review with respect to each delinquent loan, the asset representations reviewer will be entitled to a per loan fee in an amount described in “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses—Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation”.

 

Each party to the pooling and servicing agreement will also be entitled to be reimbursed by the issuing entity for costs, expenses and liabilities borne by them in certain circumstances. Fees and expenses payable by the issuing entity to any party to the pooling and servicing agreement are generally payable prior to any distributions to certificateholders.

 

Additionally, with respect to each distribution date, an amount equal to the product of 0.00050% per annum multiplied by the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and any REO loan (excluding any related companion loan) will be payable to CRE Finance Council® as a license fee for use of its names and trademarks, including an investor reporting package. This fee will be payable prior to any distributions to certificateholders.

 

Payment of the fees and reimbursement of the costs and expenses described above will generally have priority over the distribution of amounts payable to the certificateholders. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement —Servicing and Other

 

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Compensation and Payment of Expenses” and “—Limitation on Liability; Indemnification”.

 

With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan set forth in the table below, the master servicer under the related pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of that mortgage loan will be entitled to a primary servicing fee at a rate equal to a per annum rate set forth in the table below, and the special servicer under the related trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, will be entitled to a special servicing fee at a rate equal to the per annum rate set forth below. In addition, each party to the related pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of the related non-serviced whole loan will be entitled to receive other fees and reimbursements with respect to the related non-serviced mortgage loan in amounts, from sources, and at frequencies, that are similar, but not necessarily identical, to those described above and, in certain cases (for example, with respect to unreimbursed special servicing fees and servicing advances with respect to the related non-serviced whole loan), such amounts will be reimbursable from general collections on the mortgage loans to the extent not recoverable from the related non-serviced whole loan and to the extent allocable to the related non-serviced mortgage loan pursuant to the related intercreditor agreement. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans”, “—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

 Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans
  
 

Non-Serviced
Mortgage Loan

Primary Servicing
Fee Rate

Special Servicing
Fee Rate

 The Grace Building0.00250%0.15000%(1)
 Miami Design District(2)0.00250%0.25000%(3)
 888 Figueroa0.01000%0.25000%
 MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay0.000625%0.25000%(4)
 The Westchester0.00125%0.25000%
   
(1)Subject to a cap of $750,000 per calendar year.

 

(2)From and after the securitization of the related note A-1 companion loan, such mortgage loan will be serviced under the pooling and servicing agreement governing such securitization and the related special servicing fee rate will be as specified in such pooling and servicing agreement.

 

(3)Such fee rate is subject to a minimum amount equal to $3,500 for any month in which such fee is payable (or $5,000 if the related risk retention consultation party is entitled to consult with the special servicer under the related non-serviced pooling and servicing agreement for so long as the related mortgage loan is a specially serviced loan during the occurrence and continuance of a consultation termination event under the related non-serviced pooling and servicing agreement).

 

(4)Subject to a cap of $250,000 per calendar year.

 

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Distributions

 

A. Amount and Order of

DistributionsOn each distribution date, funds available for distribution from the mortgage loans, net of (i) specified expenses of the issuing entity, including fees payable to, and costs and expenses reimbursable to, the master servicer, the special servicer, the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor and the asset representations reviewer, (ii) any yield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums and (iii) any excess interest will be distributed in the following amounts and order of priority;

 

First, to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class X-A, Class X-B and Class X-D certificates, in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those classes;

 

Second, to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates, to the extent of funds allocated to principal and available for distribution, in reduction of the then-outstanding certificate balances of those classes, in the following priority:

 

(A)to principal on the Class A-SB certificates until their certificate balance has been reduced to the A-SB scheduled principal balance set forth on Annex F for the relevant distribution date;

 

(B)to principal on the Class A-1 certificates until their certificate balance has been reduced to zero;

 

(C)to principal on the Class A-2 certificates until their certificate balance has been reduced to zero;

 

(D)to principal on the Class A-3 certificates until their certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and

 

(E)to principal on the Class A-SB certificates until their certificate balance has been reduced to zero;

 

provided that, if the certificate balances of each class of certificates (other than the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates) having an initial certificate balance have been reduced to zero, funds available for distributions of principal will be distributed to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates, pro rata, based on their respective certificate balances;

 

Third, to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata based upon, the aggregate unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans previously allocated to each such class; plus interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such class;

 

Fourth, to the Class A-S certificates as follows: (a) to interest on the Class A-S certificates in the amount of its interest entitlement; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class

 

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with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class A-S certificates until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class A-S certificates for any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans that were previously allocated to that class of certificates, together with interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such class;

 

Fifth, to the Class B certificates as follows: (a) to interest on the Class B certificates in the amount of its interest entitlement; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class B certificates until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class B certificates for any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans that were previously allocated to that class of certificates, together with interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such class;

 

Sixth, to the Class C certificates as follows: (a) to interest on the Class C certificates in the amount of its interest entitlement; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class C certificates until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class C certificates for any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans that were previously allocated to that class of certificates, together with interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such class;

 

Seventh, to the non-offered certificates (other than the Class X-D, Class Z and Class R certificates), in the amounts and order of priority described in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions”; and

 

Eighth, to the Class R certificates, any remaining amounts.

 

For more detailed information regarding distributions on the certificates, see “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Priority of Distributions”.

 

BInterest and Principal

EntitlementsA description of the interest entitlement of each class of certificates (other than the Class Z and Class R certificates) can be found in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Interest Distribution Amount”. As described in that section, there are circumstances in which your interest entitlement for a distribution date could be less than one full month’s interest at the pass-through rate on your certificate’s balance or notional amount.

 

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A description of the amount of principal required to be distributed to each class of certificates entitled to principal on a particular distribution date can be found in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Principal Distribution Amount”.

 

CYield Maintenance Charges,

Prepayment PremiumsYield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums with respect to the mortgage loans will be allocated to the certificates as described in “Description of the Certificates—Allocation of Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums”.

 

For an explanation of the calculation of yield maintenance charges, see “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

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D. Subordination, Allocation of

Losses and Certain ExpensesThe chart below describes the manner in which the payment rights of certain classes of certificates will be senior or subordinate, as the case may be, to the payment rights of other classes of certificates. The chart shows the entitlement to receive principal and/or interest of certain classes of certificates (other than excess interest that accrues on each mortgage loan that has an anticipated repayment date) on any distribution date in descending order. It also shows the manner in which mortgage loan losses are allocated to certain classes of those certificates in ascending order (beginning with the non-offered certificates, other than the Class Z and Class R certificates) to reduce the certificate balance of each such class to zero; provided that no principal payments or mortgage loan losses will be allocated to the Class R, Class Z, Class X-A, Class X-B or Class X-D certificates, although principal payments and mortgage loan losses will reduce the notional amounts of the Class X-A certificates (to the extent such principal payments or mortgage loan losses are allocated to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB or Class A-S certificates), the Class X-B certificates (to the extent such principal payments or mortgage loan losses are allocated to the Class B or Class C certificates) and the Class X-D certificates (to the extent such principal payments or mortgage loan losses are allocated to the Class D or Class E certificates) and, therefore, the amount of interest they accrue.

 

 
   

 

*The Class A-SB certificates will have certain priority with respect to reducing the principal balance of those certificates to their planned principal balance as described in the prospectus.

**The Class X-A, Class X-B and Class X-D certificates are interest only.

***Other than the Class X-D, Class Z and Class R certificates.

 

Other than the subordination of certain classes of certificates, as described above, no other form of credit enhancement will be available for the benefit of the holders of the offered certificates.

 

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Principal losses and principal payments, if any, on mortgage loans that are allocated to a class of certificates (other than the Class X-A, Class X-B or Class X-D certificates) will reduce the certificate balance of that class of certificates.

 

The notional amount of the Class X-A certificates will be reduced by the aggregate amount of principal losses or principal payments, if any, allocated to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB and Class A-S certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-B certificates will be reduced by the aggregate amount of principal losses or principal payments, if any, allocated to the Class B or Class C certificates.

 

To the extent funds are available on a subsequent distribution date for distribution on your offered certificates, you will be reimbursed for any losses allocated to your offered certificates with interest at the pass-through rate on those offered certificates in accordance with the distribution priorities.

 

See “Description of the CertificatesSubordination; Allocation of Realized Losses” for more detailed information regarding the subordination provisions applicable to the certificates and the allocation of losses to the certificates.

 

E. Shortfalls in Available FundsThe following types of shortfalls in available funds will reduce distributions to the classes of certificates with the lowest payment priorities. Shortfalls may occur as a result of:

 

the payment of special servicing fees and other additional compensation that the special servicer is entitled to receive;

 

interest on advances made by the master servicer, the special servicer or the trustee (to the extent not covered by late payment charges or default interest paid by the related borrower);

 

the application of appraisal reduction amounts to reduce interest advances;

 

extraordinary expenses of the issuing entity including indemnification payments payable to the parties to the pooling and servicing agreement;

 

a modification of a mortgage loan’s interest rate or principal balance; and

 

other unanticipated or default-related expenses of the issuing entity.

 

In addition, prepayment interest shortfalls on the mortgage loans that are not covered by certain compensating interest payments made by the master servicer are required to be allocated among the classes of certificates entitled to interest (other than the Class Z certificates), on a pro rata basis, to reduce the amount of interest payable on each such class of certificates to the extent described in this prospectus. See “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Priority of Distributions”.

 

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F. Excess InterestOn each distribution date, any excess interest in respect of the increase in the interest rate on any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date after the related anticipated repayment date to the extent actually collected and applied as interest during a collection period will be distributed to the holders of the Class Z certificates on the related distribution date as set forth in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Excess Interest”. This excess interest will not be available to make distributions to any other class of certificates or to provide credit support for other classes of certificates or offset any interest shortfalls or to pay any other amounts to any other party under the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

Advances

 

A. P&I AdvancesThe master servicer is required to advance a delinquent periodic payment on each mortgage loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan) and any REO loan (other than any portion of an REO loan related to a companion loan), unless, in each case, the master servicer, the trustee or the special servicer determines that the advance would be non-recoverable. Neither the master servicer nor the trustee will be required to advance balloon payments due at maturity or any excess interest following an anticipated repayment date in excess of the regular periodic payment, interest in excess of a mortgage loan’s regular interest rate, default interest, late payment charges, prepayment premiums or yield maintenance charges.

 

The amount of the interest portion of any advance will be subject to reduction to the extent that an appraisal reduction of the related mortgage loan has occurred (and with respect to any mortgage loan that is part of a whole loan, to the extent such appraisal reduction amount is allocated to the related mortgage loan). There may be other circumstances in which the master servicer will not be required to advance a full month of principal and/or interest. If the master servicer fails to make a required advance, the trustee will be required to make the advance, unless the trustee determines that the advance would be non-recoverable. If an interest advance is made by the master servicer, the master servicer will not advance the portion of interest that constitutes its servicing fee, but will advance the portion of interest that constitutes the monthly fees payable to the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor and the asset representations reviewer and the CREFC® license fee.

 

None of the master servicer, the special servicer or the trustee will make, or be permitted to make, any principal or interest advance with respect to any companion loan that is not held by the issuing entity. The special servicer will not be required to make any principal or interest advance on any mortgage loan or companion loan.

 

See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

B. Servicing AdvancesThe master servicer may be required to make advances with respect to the mortgage loans (excluding any non-serviced

 

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mortgage loan) and any related companion loan that it is required to service to pay delinquent real estate taxes, assessments and hazard insurance premiums and similar expenses necessary to:

 

protect and maintain (and in the case of REO properties, lease and manage) the related mortgaged property;

 

maintain the lien on the related mortgaged property; and/or

 

enforce the related mortgage loan documents.

 

The special servicer will have no obligation to make any servicing advances (although it may elect to make them in an emergency circumstance). If the special servicer makes a servicing advance, the master servicer will, subject to a recoverability determination, be required to reimburse the special servicer for that advance (unless the master servicer determines that the advance would be non-recoverable, in which case the advance will be reimbursed out of the collection account) and the master servicer will be deemed to have made that advance as of the date made by the special servicer.

 

If the master servicer fails to make a required advance of this type, the trustee will be required to make this advance. None of the master servicer, the special servicer or the trustee is required to advance amounts determined by such party to be non-recoverable.

 

See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

With respect to a non-serviced mortgage loan, the master servicer (and the trustee, as applicable) under the pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of that non-serviced whole loan will be required to make similar advances with respect to delinquent real estate taxes, assessments and hazard insurance premiums as described above.

 

None of the master servicer, special servicer or trustee will make or be permitted to make any advance in connection with the exercise of any cure rights or purchase rights granted to the holder of any subordinate companion loan under the related intercreditor agreement.

 

C. Interest on AdvancesThe master servicer, the special servicer and the trustee, as applicable, will be entitled to interest on the above described advances at the “prime rate” as published in The Wall Street Journal, as described in this prospectus. Interest accrued on outstanding advances may result in reductions in amounts otherwise payable on the certificates. Neither the master servicer nor the trustee will be entitled to interest on advances made with respect to principal and interest due on a mortgage loan until the related due date has passed and any grace period for late payments applicable to the mortgage loan has expired. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

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With respect to a non-serviced mortgage loan, the applicable makers of advances under the related pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of such non-serviced whole loan will similarly be entitled to interest on advances, and any accrued and unpaid interest on servicing advances made in respect of such non-serviced mortgage loan may be reimbursed from general collections on the other mortgage loans included in the issuing entity to the extent not recoverable from such non-serviced mortgage loan and to the extent allocable to such non-serviced mortgage loan in accordance with the related intercreditor agreement.

 

The Mortgage Pool

 

The Mortgage PoolThe issuing entity’s primary assets will be twenty-nine (29) commercial mortgage loans, each evidenced by one or more promissory notes secured by first mortgages, deeds of trust, deeds to secure debt or similar security instruments on the fee and/or leasehold estate of the related borrower in forty (40) commercial or multifamily properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness”.

 

All of the mortgage loans will be fixed rate mortgage loans.

 

The aggregate principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date will be approximately $650,094,694.

 

In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified, (i) references to a mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) by name refer to such mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) so identified on Annex A-1, (ii) references to a mortgage loan, whole loan or companion loan by name refer to such mortgage loan, whole loan or companion loan, as applicable, secured by the related mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) so identified on Annex A-1, (iii) any parenthetical with a percent next to a mortgaged property name (or portfolio of mortgaged properties name) indicates the approximate percent (or approximate aggregate percent) that the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan (or, if applicable, the allocated loan amount with respect to such mortgaged property) represents of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date for this securitization, and (iv) any parenthetical with a percent next to a reference to a mortgage loan or a group of mortgage loans indicates the approximate percent (or approximate aggregate percent) that the outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loan or the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such group of mortgage loans, as applicable, represents of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date for this securitization.

 

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 Whole Loans

 

Unless otherwise expressly stated in this prospectus, the term “mortgage loan” refers to each of the twenty-nine (29) commercial mortgage loans to be held by the issuing entity. Of the mortgage loans, each mortgage loan in the table below is part of a larger “whole loan”, each of which is comprised of the related mortgage loan and one or more loans that are pari passu in right of payment to the related mortgage loan (each referred to in this prospectus as a “pari passu companion loan”) and/or are subordinate in right of payment to the related mortgage loan (each referred to in this prospectus as a “subordinate companion loan” and, together with any pari passu companion loans, the “companion loans”).

 

Whole Loan Summary

 

Mortgage Loan Name Mortgage Loan Cut-off Date Balance Approx. % of Initial Pool Balance Pari Passu Companion Loans Cut-off Date Balance Subordinate Companion Loan Cut-off Date Balance 

Mortgage Loan Cut-off Date LTV Ratio(1)(2)

 

Whole Loan Cut-off Date LTV Ratio(2)(3)

 

Mortgage Loan Underwritten NCF DSCR(1)(2)(4)

 

Whole Loan Underwritten NCF DSCR(2)(3)(4)

The Grace Building $60,000,000  9.2% $823,000,000  $367,000,000  41.1% 58.1% 4.25x 3.00x
Miami Design District $60,000,000  9.2% $340,000,000  $100,000,000  46.7% 58.4% 2.14x 1.72x
888 Figueroa $40,000,000  6.2% $75,000,000   N/A  59.3% 59.3% 2.15x 2.15x
MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay $39,055,333  6.0% $1,595,144,667  $1,365,800,000  35.5% 65.2% 4.95x 2.70x
The Westchester $35,000,000  5.4% $308,000,000  $57,000,000  53.0% 61.8% 3.61x 3.10x

 

 
(1)Calculated including any related pari passu companion loan(s), but excluding any related subordinate companion loan(s).

 

(2)Certain of the mortgage loans were originated prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic disruption resulting from the measures implemented to combat the pandemic. As such, for these mortgage loans, all debt service coverage ratios and all loan-to-value and debt yield metrics were calculated, and the related mortgaged properties were underwritten, based on such prior information. The cumulative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy may cause tenants to be unable to pay their rent and borrowers to be unable to pay debt service under the mortgage loans. See “Risk Factors – Special Risks – Current Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

(3)Calculated including any related pari passu companion loan(s) and any related subordinate companion loan(s), but excluding any related mezzanine loan(s).

 

(4)For each partial interest-only loan, Mortgage Loan Underwritten NCF DSCR and Whole Loan Underwritten NCF DSCR was calculated based on the first principal and interest payment to be made into the issuing entity during the term of the mortgage loan once amortization has commenced.

 

The whole loans identified in the table below will not be serviced under the pooling and servicing agreement and instead will be serviced under a separate pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, as identified below and entered into in connection with the securitization of one or more related companion loan(s). Each such whole loan is referred to in this prospectus as a “non-serviced whole loan”. The related mortgage loans are each referred to as a “non-serviced mortgage loan” and any related companion loans are each referred to in this prospectus as a “non-serviced

 

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companion loan”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Non-Serviced Whole Loans

 

Loan Name

Lead Trust/Pooling and Servicing Agreement(1)

Approx. % of Initial Pool Balance

Master Servicer

Special Servicer

Trustee

Certificate Administrator and Custodian

Operating Advisor/Trust Advisor

Initial Directing Holder(2)

The Grace BuildingGRACE 2020-GRCE9.2%Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationSitus Holdings, LLCWilmington Trust, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPark Bridge Lender Services LLCCore Credit Partners A LLC
Miami Design DistrictBANK 2020-BNK30(3)9.2%Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationGreystone Servicing Company LLCWilmington Trust, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPark Bridge Lender Services LLCCF MDD Holdings LLC(4)
888 FigueroaCD 2019-CD86.2%Midland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National AssociationMidland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPark Bridge Lender Services LLCEightfold Real Estate Capital, L.P.
MGM Grand & Mandalay BayBX 2020-VIVA6.0%KeyBank National AssociationSitus Holdings, LLCWilmington Trust, National AssociationCitibank, N.A.N/ACF LV SASB Holdings LLC(4)
The WestchesterCSMC 2020-WEST5.4%Midland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National AssociationPacific Life Insurance CompanyWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPentalpha Surveillance LLCPacific Life Insurance Company

 

 
(1)Or an equivalent entity.

 

(2)The identification of a “Lead Trust/Pooling and Servicing Agreement” above indicates that we have identified a securitization trust that has closed or priced or as to which a preliminary prospectus or final prospectus has printed and that has included, or is expected to include, the related controlling note for such whole loan.

 

(3)The Miami Design District whole loan is currently serviced under the pooling and servicing agreement governing the BANK 2020-BNK30 trust. From and after the securitization of the related note A-1 companion loan, such whole loan will be serviced under the pooling and servicing agreement governing such securitization and the related master servicer, special servicer, trustee, certificate administrator, custodian, operating advisor and directing certificateholder will be the parties specified in such pooling and servicing agreement.

 

(4)The subject whole loan is an AB whole loan, and the controlling note as of the date hereof is a related subordinate companion note. Upon the occurrence of certain trigger events specified in the related co-lender agreement, however, control will generally shift to a more senior note (or, if applicable, first to one more senior note and, following certain additional trigger events, to another more senior note) in the subject whole loan, which more senior note will thereafter be the controlling note. The more senior note may be included in another securitization trust, in which case the directing party for the related whole loan will be the party designated under the servicing agreement for such securitization trust.

 

For further information regarding the whole loans and the rights of the “directing holder” under the related intercreditor agreement, see “Description of the Mortgage PoolThe Whole Loans”, and for information regarding the servicing of the non-serviced whole loans, see “Pooling and Servicing AgreementServicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Mortgage Loan Characteristics

 

The following table sets forth certain anticipated characteristics of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (unless otherwise indicated). Except as specifically provided in this prospectus, various information presented in this prospectus (including loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios, debt yields and cut-off date balances per net rentable square foot, pad, room or unit, as applicable) with respect to any mortgage loan with a pari passu companion loan or subordinate companion loan(s) is calculated including the principal balance and debt service payment of the related pari passu companion loan(s), but is calculated excluding the principal balance and debt service payment of the related subordinate companion loan(s) (or any other subordinate debt encumbering the related mortgaged

 

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property or any related mezzanine debt or any preferred equity). Unless specifically indicated, no subordinate companion loans are included in the presentation of numerical and statistical information with respect to the composition of the mortgage pool contained in this prospectus (including any tables, charts and information set forth on Annex A-1 and A-2).

 

The sum of the numerical data in any column may not equal the indicated total due to rounding. Unless otherwise indicated, all figures and percentages presented in this “Summary of Terms” are calculated as described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Information” and, unless otherwise indicated, such figures and percentages are approximate and, in each case, represent the indicated figure or percentage of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date. The principal balance of each mortgage loan as of the cut-off date assumes (or, in the case of each mortgage loan with a due date prior to the date of this prospectus, reflects) the timely receipt of principal scheduled to be paid on or before the cut-off date and no defaults, delinquencies or prepayments on, or modifications of, any mortgage loan on or prior to the cut-off date. Whenever percentages and other information in this prospectus are presented on the mortgaged property level rather than the mortgage loan level, the information for mortgage loans secured by more than one mortgaged property (or that is part of a group of more than one cross-collateralized mortgage loans) is based on allocated loan amounts as stated on Annex A-1. All percentages of the mortgage loans and mortgaged properties, or of any specified group of mortgage loans and mortgaged properties, referred to without further description are approximate percentages of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date, by cut-off date balance and/or the allocated loan amount allocated to such mortgaged properties as of the cut-off date.

 

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The mortgage loans will have the following approximate characteristics as of the cut-off date:

 

Cut-off Date Mortgage Loan Characteristics

 

All Mortgage Loans

 Initial Pool Balance(1)$650,094,694
 Number of Mortgage Loans29
 Number of Mortgaged Properties40
 Number of Crossed Loans(2)2
 Crossed Loans as a percentage(2)1.1%
 Range of Cut-off Date Balances$3,307,500 – $60,000,000
 Average Cut-off Date Balance$22,417,058
 Range of Mortgage Rates(2)2.5610% – 5.0000%
 Weighted Average Mortgage Rate(2)3.7674%
 Range of Original Terms to Maturity(3)120 months to 124 months
 Weighted Average Original Term to Maturity(3)121 months
 Range of Remaining Terms to Maturity(3)100 months to 120 months
 Weighted Average Remaining Term to Maturity(3)114 months
 Range of Original Amortization Terms(4)300 months to 360 months
 Weighted Average Original Amortization Term(4)358 months
 Range of Remaining Amortization Terms(4)286 months to 360 months
 Weighted Average Remaining Amortization Term(4)357 months
 Range of Cut-off Date LTV Ratios(2)(5)23.4% – 81.0%
 Weighted Average Cut-off Date LTV Ratio(2)(5)57.5%
 Range of Maturity Date/ARD LTV Ratios(2)(3)(5)23.4% – 70.9%
 Weighted Average Maturity Date/ARD LTV Ratio(2)(3)(5)54.4%
 Range of UW NCF DSCRs(2)(5)(6)(7)1.14x – 4.95x
 Weighted Average UW NCF DSCR(2)(5)(6)(7)2.51x
 Range of UW NOI Debt Yields(2)(5)(7)6.8% – 17.9%
 Weighted Average UW NOI Debt Yield(2)(5)(7)10.4%
 Percentage of Initial Pool Balance consisting of: 
 Interest Only60.9%
 IO - Balloon30.2%
 Interest Only, ARD6.0%
 Balloon2.9%
   

 

(1)Subject to a permitted variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)With respect to each mortgage loan that is part of a whole loan, any related pari passu companion loan is included and any related subordinate loan(s) or mezzanine loan(s) are excluded for purposes of calculating the Mortgage Rate, Cut-off Date LTV Ratio, Maturity Date/ARD LTV Ratio, UW NCF DSCR and UW NOI Debt Yield unless otherwise expressly stated. Other than as specifically noted, the information for each mortgage loan is presented in this prospectus without regard to any other indebtedness that currently exists or that may be incurred by the related borrower or its owners in the future, in order to present statistics for the related mortgage loan without combination with the other indebtedness. In general, when a mortgage loan is cross-collateralized and cross-defaulted with one or more other mortgage loans, we present Cut-off Date LTV Ratio, Maturity Date/ARD LTV Ratio, UW NCF DSCR and UW NOI Debt Yield for the cross-collateralized group on an aggregate basis in the manner described in this prospectus (without regard to any limitation on the amount of indebtedness secured by the related mortgaged properties). On an individual basis, without regard to the cross-collateralization feature, any mortgage loan that is part of a cross-collateralized group of mortgage loans may have a higher Cut-off Date LTV Ratio or Maturity Date/ARD LTV Ratio, lower UW NCF DSCR and/or lower UW NOI Debt Yield than is presented in this prospectus.

 

(3)With respect to one (1) mortgage loan, MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay (6.0%), the related anticipated repayment date is deemed to be the maturity date.

 

(4)Excludes fifteen (15) mortgage loans (collectively, 66.9%), that are interest-only for the entire term to maturity or to the anticipated repayment date, as applicable.

 

(5)Certain of the mortgage loans were originated prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic disruption resulting from the measures implemented to combat the pandemic. As such, for these mortgage loans, all debt service coverage ratios and all loan-to-value and debt yield metrics were calculated, and the related mortgaged properties were underwritten, based on such prior information. The cumulative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy may cause tenants to be unable to pay their rent and borrowers to be unable to pay debt service under the mortgage loans. See “Risk Factors – Special Risks – Current Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

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(6)For each partial interest-only loan, the UW NCF DSCR was calculated based on the first principal and interest payment to be made into the trust during the term of the mortgage loan once amortization has commenced.

 

(7)With respect to the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay mortgage loan (6.0%), the related mortgaged property is master leased and for so long as the master lease is in effect, the borrower is entitled to receive rents from the master lease, and not the underlying rents and other receipts from the mortgaged property. The UW NCF DSCR and UW NOI Debt Yield of the related whole loan, based on the master lease rent, are 2.70x and 9.7%, respectively. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Property Types--Hotel Properties” and “—COVID-19 Considerations.”

 

All of the mortgage loans accrue interest on an actual/360 basis.

 

For further information regarding the mortgage loans, see “Description of the Mortgage Pool”.

 

Modified and Refinanced LoansAs of the cut-off date, none of the mortgage loans were modified due to a delinquency, nor were any of the mortgage loans refinancings of prior loans in default at the time of refinancing and/or otherwise involved discounted pay-offs of prior loans in connection with the origination of the mortgage loan.

 

In addition, with respect to the SpringHill Suites Boise mortgage loan (2.9%), a loan modification was entered into on February 22, 2021 that provided for, among other things, a discounted payoff of a portion of the mortgage loan. For further information, see “Description of the Mortgage PoolMortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Hotel Properties”.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage PoolModified and Refinanced Loans”, “—Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings” and representation and warranty no. 15 on Annex D-1 and no. 14 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

Loans Underwritten Based on

Limited Operating HistoriesNine (9) of the mortgaged properties securing in whole or in part eight (8) mortgage loans (collectively, 25.8%) (i) were constructed or the subject of a major renovation that was completed within 12 calendar months prior to the cut-off date and, therefore, the related mortgaged property has no or limited prior operating history, (ii) have a borrower or an affiliate under the related mortgage loan that acquired the related mortgaged property within 12 calendar months prior to the cut-off date and such borrower or affiliate was unable to provide the related mortgage loan seller with historical financial information for such acquired mortgaged property and/or (iii) are single tenant properties subject to triple-net leases with the related tenant where the related borrower did not provide the related mortgage loan seller with historical financial information for the related mortgaged property.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Mortgaged Properties With Limited Prior Operating History”.

 

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Certain Variances from

Underwriting StandardsEach sponsor maintains its own set of underwriting guidelines, which typically relate to credit and collateral analysis, loan approval, debt service coverage ratio and loan-to-value ratio analysis, assessment of property condition, escrow requirements and requirements regarding title insurance policy and property insurance. Certain of the mortgage loans may vary from the related sponsor’s underwriting guidelines described under “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—3650 REIT—3650 REIT’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”, “—Column Financial, Inc.—Column’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”, “—UBS AG, New York Branch—UBS AG’s Underwriting Standards” and “—German American Capital Corporation—DB Originators’ Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”.

 

With respect to the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay mortgage loan (6.0%), the related mortgage loan is structured with a 10-year ARD and a 12-year final maturity date, which is longer than the maximum term of 10 years generally required by GACC’s underwriting guidelines. See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—German American Capital Corporation—Exceptions”.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgage loans were underwritten without taking into account the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, the actual property performance or market conditions may not be consistent with the assumptions made for purposes of underwriting. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans—Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions”.

 

Additional Aspects of Certificates

 

DenominationsThe offered certificates with certificate balances that are initially offered and sold to purchasers will be issued in minimum denominations of $10,000 and integral multiples of $1 in excess of $10,000. The offered certificates with notional amounts will be issued, maintained and transferred only in minimum denominations of authorized initial notional amounts of not less than $1,000,000 and in integral multiples of $1 in excess of $1,000,000.

 

Registration, Clearance and

SettlementEach class of offered certificates will initially be registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee of The Depository Trust Company, or DTC.

 

You may hold offered certificates through: (1) DTC in the United States; or (2) Clearstream Banking, Luxembourg or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System. Transfers within DTC, Clearstream Banking, Luxembourg or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, will be made in accordance with the usual rules and operating procedures of those systems.

 

We may elect to terminate the book-entry system through DTC (with the consent of the DTC participants), Clearstream Banking,

 

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Luxembourg or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, with respect to all or any portion of any class of the offered certificates.

 

See “Description of the Certificates—Delivery, Form, Transfer and Denomination—Book-Entry Registration”.

 

Credit Risk RetentionFor purposes of the U.S. credit risk retention requirements, 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC will act as the “retaining sponsor” and is expected to satisfy its risk retention requirement through the purchase by its “majority-owned affiliate” (as defined in the U.S. credit risk retention rules), which is expected to be 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC (the “retaining party”), of (i) an “eligible vertical interest”, in the form of certificates representing approximately 2.18% of the certificate balance, notional amount or percentage interest of each class of certificates (other than the Class R certificates) and (ii) an “eligible horizontal residual interest”, in the form of certificates representing approximately 2.90% of the fair value of all of the ABS interests issued, which will be comprised of the Class F-RR, Class G-RR and Class NR-RR certificates (other than the portion that comprises the VRR Interest) (the “HRR Certificates”) in a manner that satisfies the U.S. credit risk retention requirements.

 

While 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC will initially satisfy a portion of its risk retention requirements through the purchase by 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC of the HRR Certificates, the retaining sponsor is permitted under the credit risk retention rules under certain circumstances to transfer the HRR Certificates to a “third party purchaser” (as defined in the credit risk retention rules) at any time after March 30, 2026. Any such transfer will be subject to the satisfaction of all applicable provisions under the credit risk retention rules.

 

For additional information, see “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

None of the sponsors, the depositor, the issuing entity or any other party to the transaction intends to retain a material net economic interest in the securitization constituted by the issue of the certificates in a manner that would satisfy the requirements of (A) European Union Regulation (EU) 2017/2402 or (B) Regulation (EU) 2017/2402, as it forms part of UK Domestic Law by virtue of the EUWA, and as amended by the Securitization (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019. In particular, no such person will take any other action that may be required by any prospective investor or certificateholder for the purposes of its compliance with any applicable requirement under such Regulations. Furthermore, the arrangements described under “Credit Risk Retention” have not been structured with the objective of ensuring compliance by any person with any requirements of such Regulations. Consequently, the certificates may not be a suitable investment for investors which are subject to any such requirements. See “Risk Factors—General Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Provisions Affecting Investors Could Adversely Affect the Liquidity of the Offered Certificates”.

 

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Information Available to

CertificateholdersOn each distribution date, the certificate administrator will prepare and make available to each certificateholder of record, initially expected to be Cede & Co., a statement as to the distributions being made on that date. Additionally, under certain circumstances, certificateholders of record may be entitled to certain other information regarding the issuing entity. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information”.

 

Deal Information/AnalyticsCertain information concerning the mortgage loans and the certificates may be available to subscribers through the following services:

 

Bloomberg, L.P., CMBS.com, Inc., Thomson Reuters Corporation, Trepp, LLC, Intex Solutions, Inc., Moody’s Analytics, BlackRock Financial Management, Inc., RealINSIGHT, KBRA Analytics, Inc., Markit Group Limited, and DealView Technologies Ltd/StructureIt;

 

The certificate administrator’s website initially located at www.ctslink.com; and

 

The master servicer’s website initially located at www.pnc.com/midland.

 

Optional TerminationOn any distribution date on which the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans remaining in the issuing entity is less than 1.0% of the aggregate principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (solely for the purposes of this calculation, if a mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date is still an asset of the issuing entity and such right is being exercised after its respective anticipated repayment date, then such mortgage loan will be excluded from the then-aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans and from the aggregate principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date), certain entities specified in this prospectus will have the option to purchase all of the remaining mortgage loans (including all property acquired through exercise of remedies in respect of any mortgage loan) at the price specified in this prospectus.

 

The mortgage loans held by the issuing entity may also be subject to a voluntary exchange of all the then-outstanding certificates (other than the Class Z and Class R certificates); provided that (i) the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class X-A, Class X-B, Class X-D, Class A-S, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E certificates are no longer outstanding, (ii) there is only one holder (or multiple holders acting unanimously) of the outstanding certificates (other than the Class Z and Class R certificates) and (iii) if the then-outstanding pool balance is equal to or greater than 8.125% of the original outstanding pool balance, the master servicer consents to the exchange as specified under the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Termination; Retirement of Certificates”.

 

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Required Repurchases or
Substitutions of Mortgage

Loans; Loss of Value PaymentUnder certain circumstances, the related mortgage loan seller may be obligated to (i) repurchase (without payment of any yield maintenance charge or prepayment premium) or substitute for an affected mortgage loan from the issuing entity or (ii) make a cash payment that would be deemed sufficient to compensate the issuing entity in the event of an uncured document defect or an uncured breach of a representation and warranty made by the related mortgage loan seller with respect to the mortgage loan in the related mortgage loan purchase agreement that materially and adversely affects the value of the mortgage loan, the value of the related mortgaged property or the interests of any certificateholders in the mortgage loan or mortgaged property or causes the mortgage loan to be other than a “qualified mortgage” within the meaning of Section 860G(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (but without regard to the rule of Treasury regulations Section 1.860G-2(f)(2) that causes a defective loan to be treated as a “qualified mortgage”); provided that with respect to The Grace Building mortgage loan, each related mortgage loan seller will be obligated to take the above remedial actions only with respect to the related promissory note sold by it to the depositor as if the note contributed by each mortgage loan seller and evidencing such mortgage loan were a separate mortgage loan. In addition, 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC is expected to agree, pursuant to the related mortgage loan purchase agreement, to guarantee payment in connection with the performance of such obligations on the part of 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC. See “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements”.

 

Sale of Defaulted LoansPursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement, under certain circumstances, the special servicer is required to use reasonable efforts to solicit offers for defaulted serviced mortgage loans (or a defaulted serviced whole loan) and/or related REO properties and may accept the first (and, if multiple offers are received, the highest) cash offer from any person that constitutes a fair price for the defaulted serviced mortgage loan (or defaulted serviced whole loan) or related REO property, determined as described in “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Realization Upon Mortgage Loans” and “—Sale of Defaulted Loans and REO Properties”, unless the special servicer determines, in accordance with the servicing standard (and subject to the requirements of any related intercreditor agreement), that rejection of such offer would be in the best interests of the certificateholders and any related companion loan holders (as a collective whole as if such certificateholders constituted a single lender and, with respect to a whole loan with a subordinate companion loan, taking into account the subordinate nature of such subordinate companion loan).

 

Any mortgage loan with associated mezzanine financing may be subject to a default-related purchase option on the part of the mezzanine lender.

 

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If a non-serviced mortgage loan with one or more related pari passu companion loans becomes a defaulted mortgage loan and the special servicer under the related pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing thereof determines to sell such pari passu companion loan(s), then that special servicer will be required to sell such non-serviced mortgage loan together with the related pari passu companion loan(s) and, with respect to each of The Grace Building whole loan, the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay Whole Loan and The Westchester whole loan, the related subordinate companion loans, in a manner similar to that described above. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”.

 

Pursuant to the related intercreditor agreement with respect to the Miami Design District mortgage loan, the holders of the related subordinate companion loans have the right to purchase the related mortgage loan under certain default scenarios as described in “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans”.

 

Tax StatusElections will be made to treat designated portions of the issuing entity (exclusive of interest that is deferred after the anticipated repayment date of each mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date and the excess interest distribution account) as two separate REMICs (the “Lower-Tier REMIC” and the “Upper-Tier REMIC”) for federal income tax purposes. In addition, (1) a REMIC was formed on February 12, 2021 by DBNY with respect to the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay mortgage loan (the “MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay Loan REMIC”), which issued a class of regular interests (of which the trust will own an approximately 41.25% interest) and a single residual interest (of which the trust will own a 0% interest), (2) a REMIC was formed on January 26, 2021 with respect to The Westchester mortgage loan (the “Westchester Loan REMIC”), which issued two classes of regular interests (of which the trust will own an approximately 46.667% interest in one such regular interest and 0% interest in the other regular interest) and a single residual interest (of which the trust will own a 100% interest) and (3) a REMIC was formed on March 4, 2021 with respect to the Voyant Industrial Portfolio mortgage loan (the “Voyant Loan REMIC”), which issued a class of regular interest (of which the trust will own a 100% interest) and a single residual interest (of which the trust will own a 100% interest). The Westchester Loan REMIC, the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay Loan REMIC and the Voyant Loan REMIC will be designated as the “Loan REMICs”. The Westchester Loan REMIC, the Voyant Loan REMIC, the Upper-Tier REMIC and the Lower-Tier REMIC will be designated as the “Trust REMICs”.

 

The MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay Loan REMIC, created pursuant to a REMIC declaration effective as of February 12, 2021, holds the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay mortgage loan and other related assets and has issued a class of uncertificated regular interests, an approximately 41.25% interest of which is to be held by the Lower-Tier REMIC.

 

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The Westchester Loan REMIC, created pursuant to a REMIC declaration effective as of January 26, 2021, holds The Westchester mortgage loan and other related assets and has issued two classes of uncertificated regular interests (1) one of which has a principal balance of $75,000,000, an approximately 46.667% interest of which is to be held by the Lower-Tier REMIC and (2) the other of which has a principal balance of $25,000,000, of which the trust will not own an interest.

 

The Voyant Loan REMIC, created pursuant to a REMIC declaration effective as of March 4, 2021, holds the Voyant Industrial Portfolio mortgage loan and other related assets and has issued a class of uncertificated regular interests to be held by the Lower-Tier REMIC.

 

In addition, (1) the portion of the issuing entity consisting of the excess interest accrued on any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date, beneficial ownership of which is represented by the Class Z certificates and the residual interests issued by the Westchester Loan REMIC and the Voyant Loan REMIC, will be classified as a “trust” under Treasury Regulations Section 301.7701-4(c) (the “grantor trust”), and (2) the Class R certificates will represent beneficial ownership of the residual interests issued by the Westchester Loan REMIC and the Voyant Loan REMIC.

 

Pertinent federal income tax consequences of an investment in the offered certificates include:

 

Each class of offered certificates will represent a class of REMIC “regular interests” as further described in “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations”.

 

The offered certificates will be treated as newly originated debt instruments for federal income tax purposes.

 

You will be required to report income on your offered certificates using the accrual method of accounting.

 

It is anticipated that the Class X-A and Class X-B certificates will be issued with original issue discount and that the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates will be issued at a premium for federal income tax purposes.

 

See “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations”.

 

Certain ERISA ConsiderationsSubject to important considerations described under “Certain ERISA Considerations”, the offered certificates are eligible for purchase by persons investing assets of employee benefit plans or individual retirement accounts.

 

Legal InvestmentNone of the certificates will constitute “mortgage related securities” for purposes of the Secondary Mortgage Market Enhancement Act of 1984, as amended.

 

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If your investment activities are subject to legal investment laws and regulations, regulatory capital requirements, or review by regulatory authorities, then you may be subject to restrictions on investment in the certificates. You should consult your own legal advisors for assistance in determining the suitability of and consequences to you of the purchase, ownership, and sale of the certificates.

 

The issuing entity will not be registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The issuing entity will be relying on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, contained in Section 3(c)(5) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or Rule 3a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, although there may be additional exclusions or exemptions available to the issuing entity. The issuing entity is being structured so as not to constitute a “covered fund” for purposes of the Volcker Rule under the Dodd-Frank Act (both as defined in this prospectus).

 

See “Legal Investment”.

 

RatingsThe offered certificates will not be issued unless each of the offered classes receives a credit rating from one or more of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations engaged by the depositor to rate the offered certificates. The decision not to engage one or more other rating agencies in the rating of certain classes of certificates to be issued in connection with this transaction was due in part to their initial subordination levels for the various classes of the certificates and may negatively impact the liquidity, market value and regulatory characteristics of those classes of certificates. Neither the depositor nor any other person or entity will have any duty to notify you if any other nationally recognized statistical rating organization issues, or delivers notice of its intention to issue, unsolicited ratings on one or more classes of certificates after the date of this prospectus.

 

See “Risk Factors—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations May Assign Different Ratings to the Certificates; Ratings of the Certificates Reflect Only the Views of the Applicable Rating Agencies as of the Dates Such Ratings Were Issued; Ratings May Affect ERISA Eligibility; Ratings May Be Downgraded” and “Ratings”.

 

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Summary of Risk Factors

 

Investing in the certificates involves risks. Any of the risks set forth in this prospectus under the heading “Risk Factors” may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow on one or more mortgaged properties, the related borrowers’ ability to meet their respective payment obligations under the mortgage loans, and/or on your certificates. As a result, the market price of the certificates could decline significantly and you could lose a part or all of your investment. You should carefully consider all the information set forth in this prospectus and, in particular, evaluate the risks set forth in this prospectus under the heading “Risk Factors” before deciding to invest in the certificates. The following is a summary of some of the principal risks associated with an investment in the certificates:

 

Special Risks

 

COVID-19: Economic conditions and restrictions on enforcing landlord rights due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related governmental countermeasures may adversely affect the borrowers and/or the tenants and, therefore, the certificates. In addition, the underwriting of certain mortgage loans and the appraisals and property condition reports for certain mortgaged properties were conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore may not reflect current conditions with respect to the mortgaged properties or the borrowers.

 

Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans

 

Non-Recourse Loans: The mortgage loans are non-recourse loans, and in the event of a default on a mortgage loan, recourse generally may only be had against the specific mortgaged property(ies) and other assets that have been pledged to secure the mortgage loan. Consequently, payment on the certificates is dependent primarily on the sufficiency of the net operating income or market value of the mortgaged properties, each of which may be volatile.

 

Borrowers: Frequent and early occurrence of borrower delinquencies and defaults may adversely affect your investment. Bankruptcy proceedings involving borrowers, borrower organizational structures and additional debt incurred by a borrower or its sponsors may increase risk of loss. In addition, borrowers may be unable to refinance or repay their mortgage loans at the maturity date or anticipated repayment date.

 

Property Performance: Certificateholders are exposed to risks associated with the performance of the mortgaged properties, including location, competition, condition (including environmental conditions), maintenance, ownership, management, and litigation. Property values may decrease even when current operating income does not. The property type (e.g., office, mixed use, retail, hospitality, industrial, multifamily, leased fee, parking and self storage) may present additional risks.

 

Loan Concentration: Certain of the mortgage loans represent significant concentrations of the mortgage pool as of the cut-off date. A default on one or more of such mortgage loans may have a disproportionate impact on the performance of the certificates.

 

Property Type Concentration: Certain property types represent significant concentrations of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage pool as of the cut-off date, based on allocated loan amounts. Adverse developments with respect to those property types or related industries may have a disproportionate impact on the performance of the certificates.

 

Other Concentrations: Losses on loans to related borrowers or cross-collateralized and cross-defaulted loan groups, geographical concentration of the mortgaged properties, and concentration of tenants among the mortgaged properties, may disproportionately affect distributions on the offered certificates.

 

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Tenant Performance: The repayment of a commercial or multifamily mortgage loan is typically dependent upon the ability of the related mortgaged property to produce cash flow through the collection of rents. Therefore, the performance of the mortgage loans will be highly dependent on the performance of tenants and tenant leases.

 

Significant Tenants: Properties that are leased to a single tenant or a tenant that comprises a significant portion of the rental income are disproportionately susceptible to interruptions of cash flow in the event of a lease expiration or termination or a downturn in the tenant’s business.

 

Underwritten Net Cash Flow: Underwritten net cash flow for the mortgaged properties could be based on incorrect or flawed assumptions.

 

Appraisals: Appraisals may not reflect the current or future market value of the mortgaged properties.

 

Inspections: Property inspections may not identify all conditions requiring repair or replacement.

 

Insurance: The absence or inadequacy of terrorism, fire, flood, earthquake and other insurance may adversely affect payment on the certificates.

 

Zoning: Changes in zoning laws may affect the ability to repair or restore a mortgaged property. Properties or structures considered to be “legal non-conforming” may not be able to be restored or rebuilt “as-is” following a casualty or loss.

 

Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest

 

Transaction Parties: Conflicts of interest may arise from the transaction parties’ relationships with each other or their economic interests in the transaction.

 

Directing Holder and Companion Holders: Certain certificateholders and companion loan holders have control and/or consent rights regarding the servicing of the mortgage loans and related whole loans. Such rights include rights to remove and replace the special servicer without cause and/or to direct or recommend the special servicer or non-serviced special servicer to take actions that conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of certificates. The right to remove and replace the special servicer may give the directing holder the ability to influence the special servicer’s servicing actions in a manner that may be more favorable to the directing holder relative to other certificateholders.

 

Other Risks Relating to the Certificates

 

Limited Obligations: The certificates will only represent ownership interests in the issuing entity, and will not be guaranteed by the sponsors, the depositor or any other person. The issuing entity’s assets may be insufficient to repay the offered certificates in full.

 

Uncertain Yields to Maturity: The offered certificates have uncertain yields to maturity. Prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans will affect the average lives of the certificates; and the rate and timing of prepayments may be highly unpredictable. Optional early termination of the issuing entity may also adversely impact your yield or may result in a loss.

 

Rating Agency Feedback: Future events could adversely impact the credit ratings and value of your certificates.

 

Limited Credit Support: Credit support provided by subordination of certain certificates is limited and may not be sufficient to prevent loss on the offered certificates.

  

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Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the following risks before making an investment decision. In particular, distributions on your certificates will depend on payments received on, and other recoveries with respect to the mortgage loans. Therefore, you should carefully consider the risk factors relating to the mortgage loans and the mortgaged properties.

 

If any of the following events or circumstances identified as risks actually occur or materialize, your investment could be materially and adversely affected. We note that additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us may also impair your investment.

 

This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described below and elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

Special Risks

 

Current Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans

 

There has been a global outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and a related respiratory disease (“COVID-19”), which has spread throughout the world, including the United States, causing a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has been declared to be a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization, and the President of the United States has made a declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. A significant number of countries and the majority of United States state governments have also made emergency declarations and have attempted to slow the spread of the virus by providing social distancing guidelines, issuing stay-at-home orders and mandating the closure of certain non-essential businesses. Although vaccines have been approved and more are in development, there can be no assurance as to the availability of vaccines, the rate of vaccination or the effectiveness of vaccination against the COVID-19 virus or any mutations. We cannot assure you when states will permit full resumption of economic activity, whether or when people will feel comfortable in resuming economic activity, that vaccines, containment or other measures will be successful in limiting the spread of the virus or that future regional or broader outbreaks of COVID-19 or other diseases will not result in resumed or additional countermeasures from governments.

 

The COVID-19 outbreak and corresponding countermeasures have led to severe disruptions in the global supply chain, financial and other markets, significant increases in unemployment, significant reductions in consumer demand and downturns in the economies of many nations, including the United States, and those disruptions will likely continue for some time. While the United States government and other governments have implemented unprecedented financial support and relief measures (such as the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act), the effectiveness of such measures cannot be predicted. The United States economy has begun to contract, and it is unclear how large the contraction will be, how long it will last, and when economic expansion will resume.

 

With respect to the mortgage pool, it is unclear how many borrowers have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is expected that many borrowers will be (or continue to be) adversely affected by the cumulative effects of COVID-19 and the measures implemented by governments to combat the pandemic. As a result, borrowers may not and/or may be unable to meet their payment obligations under the mortgage loans, which may result in significant losses, including shortfalls in distributions of interest and/or principal to the holders of the certificates. Shortfalls and losses will be particularly pronounced to the extent that the related mortgaged properties are located in geographic areas with significant numbers of COVID-19 cases or relatively restrictive COVID-19 countermeasures. Certain geographic regions of the United States, such as New York City, have experienced a larger concentration of COVID-19 infections and deaths than other regions, which is expected to result in lengthier stay at home orders than in other less-impacted regions. However, as the COVID-19 emergency has continued, various regions of the United States have seen fluctuations in rates of COVID-19 cases. Therefore, we cannot assure you

 

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that any region will not experience an increase in such rates, and corresponding governmental countermeasures and economic distress.

 

While the COVID-19 pandemic has created personnel, supply-chain and other logistical issues that affect all property types, the effects are particularly severe for certain property types. For example:

 

hospitality properties and casino properties, due to travel limitations implemented by governments and businesses as well as declining interest in travel generally, and current or future closures, whether government mandated or voluntary;

 

retail properties, due to store closures, either government mandated or voluntary, declining interest in visiting large shared spaces such as shopping malls, restaurants, bars and movie theatres, and tenants (including certain national and regional chains) refusing to pay rent;

 

self storage properties, due to increasing unemployment rates and a general reduction in disposable income available for non-essential expenses for their tenants, who typically lease space under short-term leases;

 

multifamily properties, due to federal, state and local moratoria on eviction proceedings and other mandated tenant forbearance programs, as well as increasing unemployment rates;

 

industrial properties, due to restrictions or shutdowns of tenant operations at such properties or as a result of general financial distress of such tenants;

 

properties with significant tenants that operate co-working or office-sharing spaces, due to restrictions on such spaces or declining interest in such spaces by their users, who typically are unaffiliated and license or sublease space for shorter durations; and

 

properties with significant tenants with executed leases but not yet in place and whose leases are conditioned on tenant improvements being completed, the delivery of premises, or the vacancy of a current tenant by a date certain, due to lack of access to the mortgaged property and disruptions in labor and the global supply chain.

 

Federal, state and local governmental authorities may implement (and in some cases may already have implemented) measures designed to provide relief to borrowers and tenants, including moratoria on foreclosure or eviction proceedings and mandated forbearance programs. For example, recent legislation in Oregon imposed a temporary moratorium on foreclosures and other lender remedies and affords COVID-impacted borrowers, including commercial borrowers, the right to defer debt service payments through December 31, 2020 until loan maturity. Similar legislation has imposed a temporary eviction and foreclosure moratorium in New York. Any such measures may lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

In addition, businesses are adjusting their business plans in response to government actions and new industry practices in order to change how, how many and from where staff members work. Such changes may lead to reduced or modified levels of service, including in the services provided by the master servicer, the special servicer, the certificate administrator and the other parties to this transaction. Such parties’ ability to perform their respective obligations under the transaction documents may be adversely affected by such changes. Furthermore, because the master servicer and special servicer operate according to a servicing standard that is in part based on accepted industry practices, the servicing actions taken by such parties may vary from historical norms to the extent that such accepted industry practices change.

 

The loss models used by any NRSRO to rate the certificates may not have accounted for the possible economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or the borrowers’ ability to make payments on the mortgage loans. We cannot assure you that declining economic conditions precipitated by COVID-19 and the measures implemented by governments to combat the pandemic will not result in downgrades to the ratings of the certificates after the closing date.

 

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Tenants may be unable to meet their rent obligations as a result of extended periods of unemployment and business slowdowns and shutdowns. Accordingly, tenants at the mortgaged properties have sought and are expected to continue to seek rent relief at the mortgaged properties, and it would be expected that rent collections and/or occupancy rates may decline. Even as areas of the country reopen, we cannot assure you as to if and when the operations of commercial tenants and the income earning capacity of residential tenants will reach pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels. Prospective investors should also consider as the country reopens the impact that a continued surge in (as well as any future prolonged waves of) COVID-19 cases could have on economic conditions.

 

We cannot assure you that the cash flow at the mortgaged properties will be sufficient for the borrowers to pay all required insurance premiums. While certain mortgage loans provide for insurance premium reserves, we cannot assure you that the borrower will be able to continue to fund such reserve or that such reserve will be sufficient to pay all required insurance premiums.

 

Although each mortgage loan generally requires the related borrower to maintain business interruption insurance, certain insurance companies have reportedly taken the position that such insurance does not cover closures due to the COVID-19 emergency. In addition, the COVID-19 emergency could adversely affect future availability and coverage of business interruption insurance. Furthermore, it is unclear whether such closures due to COVID-19 will trigger co-tenancy provisions.

 

Investors should understand that the underwriting of certain mortgage loans and the appraisals and property condition reports for certain mortgaged properties were conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore may not reflect current conditions with respect to the mortgaged properties or the borrowers. In addition, the underwriting of mortgage loans originated during the COVID-19 pandemic may be based on assumptions that do not reflect current conditions. When evaluating the financial information and mortgaged property valuations presented in this prospectus (including certain information set forth in “Summary of Certificates”, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics”, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”, Annex A-1 and Annex A-2), investors should take into consideration the dates as of which historical financial information is presented and appraisals and property condition reports were conducted and that the underwritten information does not reflect the events described in this risk factor or any potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because a pandemic of the scale and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic has not occurred in recent years, historical delinquency and loss experience is unlikely to accurately predict the performance of the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool. Investors should expect higher-than-average delinquencies and losses on the mortgage loans. The aggregate number and size of delinquent loans in a given collection period may be significant, and the master servicer may determine that advances of payments on such mortgage loans are not or would not be recoverable or may not be able to make such advances given the severity of delinquencies (in this transaction or other transactions), which would result in shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

Some borrowers may seek forbearance arrangements at some point in the near future, if they have not already made such request. We cannot assure you that the borrowers will be able to make debt service payments (including deferred amounts that were previously subject to forbearance) after the expiration of any such forbearance period. Some borrowers may also seek to use funds on deposit in reserve or escrow accounts to make debt service payments, rather than for the explicit purpose set forth in the mortgage loan documents. We cannot assure you that the cash flow at the mortgaged properties will be sufficient for the borrowers to replenish those reserves or escrows, which would then be unavailable for their original intended use.

 

In addition, you should expect that a number of borrowers may not make timely payment on their mortgage loans at some point during the continuance of the COVID-19 pandemic. In response, the master servicer and the special servicer may implement a range of actions with respect to affected borrowers and the related mortgage loans to forbear or modify the loan terms consistent with the applicable servicer’s customary servicing practices. Such actions may also lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

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The borrowers have provided additional information regarding the status of the mortgage loans and mortgaged properties, which is described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—COVID Considerations”, as of the dates set forth in that section. We cannot assure you that the information in that section is indicative of future performance or that tenants or borrowers will not seek rent or debt service relief (including forbearance arrangements) or other lease or loan modifications in the future. Such actions may lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

Although the borrowers and certain tenants may have made their January and/or February debt service and rent payments, we cannot assure you that they will be able to make future payments. While certain mortgage loans may provide for debt service or rent reserves, we cannot assure you that any such reserve will be sufficient to satisfy any or all debt service payments on the affected mortgage loans.

 

Furthermore, we cannot assure you that future failure to make rent or debt service payments will not trigger cash sweeps or defaults under the mortgage loan documents.

 

In addition, servicers have reported an increase in borrower requests as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is likely that the volume of requests will continue to increase as the COVID-19 pandemic progresses. The increased volume of borrower requests and communication may result in delays in the servicers’ ability to respond to such requests and their ability to perform their respective obligations under the related transaction documents.

 

Further, some federal, state and local administrative offices and courts have closed due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Foreclosures, recordings of assignments and similar activities may not be processed in such offices and courts until such offices and courts reopen and may be further delayed as such offices and courts address any backlogs of such actions that accumulated during the period they were closed. Furthermore, to the extent the related jurisdiction has implemented, or implements, a moratorium on foreclosures, any processing of foreclosure actions would not commence until such moratorium has ended.

 

The widespread and cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including those described above, also heighten many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as those related to timely payments by borrowers and tenants, mortgaged property values and the performance, market value, credit ratings and secondary market liquidity of your certificates.

 

Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans

 

Mortgage Loans Are Non-Recourse and Are Not Insured or Guaranteed

 

The mortgage loans are not insured or guaranteed by any person or entity, governmental or otherwise.

 

Investors should treat each mortgage loan as a non-recourse loan. If a default occurs on a non-recourse loan, recourse generally may be had only against the specific mortgaged properties and other assets that have been pledged to secure the mortgage loan. Consequently, payment prior to maturity or prior to the related anticipated repayment date is dependent primarily on the sufficiency of the net operating income of the mortgaged property. Payment at maturity or on an anticipated repayment date is primarily dependent upon the market value of the mortgaged property or the borrower’s ability to refinance or sell the mortgaged property.

 

Although the mortgage loans generally are non-recourse in nature, certain mortgage loans contain non-recourse carveouts for liabilities such as those that arise as a result of fraud by the borrower, certain voluntary insolvency proceedings or other matters. Certain mortgage loans set forth under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Non-Recourse Carveout Limitations” either do not contain non-recourse carveouts or contain material limitations to non-recourse carveouts. Often these obligations are guaranteed by an affiliate of the related borrower, although liability under any such guaranty may be capped or otherwise limited in amount or scope. Furthermore, certain guarantors may be foreign entities or individuals which, while subject to the domestic governing law provisions in the guaranty and related mortgage loan

 

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documents, could nevertheless require enforcement of any judgment in relation to a guaranty in a foreign jurisdiction, which could, in turn, cause a significant time delay or result in the inability to enforce the guaranty under foreign law. Additionally, any guarantor’s net worth and liquidity may be less (and in some cases, materially less) than amounts due under the related mortgage loan or the guarantor’s sole asset may be its interest in the related borrower. In addition, the related guarantees may expire upon certain events, including upon the lender taking title to the related mortgaged property or a mezzanine lender taking title to equity in the borrower, or in the case of guarantees for environmental items, upon payment in full of the related mortgage loan and provision of a clean environmental report. Certain mortgage loans may have the benefit of a general payment guaranty of a portion of the indebtedness under the mortgage loan. In all cases, however, the mortgage loans should be considered to be non-recourse obligations because neither the depositor nor the sponsors make any representation or warranty as to the obligation or ability of any borrower or guarantor to pay any deficiencies between any foreclosure proceeds and the mortgage loan indebtedness. In addition, certain mortgage loans may provide for recourse to a guarantor for a portion of the indebtedness or for any loss or costs that may be incurred by the borrower or the lender with respect to certain borrower obligations under the related mortgage loan documents. In such cases, we cannot assure you any recovery from such guarantor will be made or that such guarantor will have assets sufficient to pay any otherwise recoverable claim under a guaranty.

 

Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally

 

The mortgage loans will be secured by various income producing commercial and multifamily properties. The repayment of a commercial or multifamily loan is typically dependent upon the ability of the related mortgaged property to produce cash flow through the collection of rents. Even the liquidation value of a commercial property is determined, in substantial part, by the capitalization of the property’s ability to produce cash flow. However, net operating income can be volatile and may be insufficient to cover debt service on the loan at any given time.

 

The net operating incomes and property values of the mortgaged properties may be adversely affected by a large number of factors. Some of these factors relate to the properties themselves, such as:

 

the age, design and construction quality of the properties;

 

perceptions regarding the safety, convenience and attractiveness of the properties;

 

the characteristics and desirability of the area where the property is located;

 

the strength and nature of the local economy, including labor costs and quality, tax environment and quality of life for employees;

 

the proximity and attractiveness of competing properties;

 

the adequacy of the property’s management and maintenance;

 

increases in interest rates, real estate taxes and operating expenses at the property and in relation to competing properties;

 

an increase in the capital expenditures needed to maintain the properties or make improvements;

 

the dependence upon a single tenant or concentration of tenants in a particular business or industry;

 

a decline in the businesses operated by tenants or in their financial condition;

 

an increase in vacancy rates; and

 

a decline in rental rates as leases are renewed or entered into with new tenants.

 

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Other factors are more general in nature, such as:

 

national or regional economic conditions, including plant closings, military base closings, industry slowdowns, oil and/or gas drilling facility slowdowns or closings and unemployment rates;

 

local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of competing properties, retail space, office space, multifamily housing or hotel capacity;

 

demographic factors;

 

consumer confidence;

 

consumer tastes and preferences;

 

political factors;

 

environmental factors;

 

seismic activity risk;

 

retroactive changes in building codes;

 

changes or continued weakness in specific industry segments;

 

location of certain mortgaged properties in less densely populated or less affluent areas; and

 

the public perception of safety for customers and clients.

 

The volatility of net operating income will be influenced by many of the foregoing factors, as well as by:

 

the length of tenant leases (including that in certain cases, all or substantially all of the tenants, or one or more sole, anchor or other major tenants, at a particular mortgaged property may have leases that expire or permit the tenant(s) to terminate its lease during the term of the loan);

 

the quality and creditworthiness of tenants;

 

tenant defaults;

 

in the case of rental properties, the rate at which new rentals occur; and

 

the property’s “operating leverage”, which is generally the percentage of total property expenses in relation to revenue, the ratio of fixed operating expenses to those that vary with revenues, and the level of capital expenditures required to maintain the property and to retain or replace tenants.

 

A decline in the real estate market or in the financial condition of a major tenant will tend to have a more immediate effect on the net operating income of properties with relatively higher operating leverage or short term revenue sources, such as short term or month to month leases, and may lead to higher rates of delinquency or defaults.

 

Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases

 

General

 

Any tenant may, from time to time, experience a downturn in its business, which may weaken its financial condition and result in a reduction or failure to make rental payments when due. In addition, tenants under certain leases included in the underwritten net cash flow, underwritten net operating

 

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income or occupancy may currently be in financial distress. If tenants’ sales were to decline, percentage rents may decline and, further, tenants may be unable to pay their base rent or other occupancy costs. If a tenant defaults in its obligations to a property owner, that property owner may experience delays in enforcing its rights as lessor and may incur substantial costs and experience significant delays associated with protecting its investment, including costs incurred in renovating and reletting the property.

 

Additionally, the income from, and market value of, the mortgaged properties leased to various tenants would be adversely affected if:

 

space in the mortgaged properties could not be leased or re-leased or substantial re-leasing costs were required and/or the cost of performing landlord obligations under existing leases materially increased;

 

leasing or re-leasing is restricted by exclusive rights of tenants to lease the mortgaged properties or other covenants not to lease space for certain uses or activities, or covenants limiting the types of tenants to which space may be leased;

 

a significant tenant were to become a debtor in a bankruptcy case;

 

rental payments could not be collected for any other reason; or

 

a borrower fails to perform its obligations under a lease resulting in the related tenant having a right to terminate such lease.

 

In addition, certain tenants may be part of a chain that is in financial distress as a whole, or the tenant’s parent company may have implemented or expressed an intent to implement a plan to consolidate or reorganize its operations, close a number of stores in the chain, reduce exposure, relocate stores or otherwise reorganize its business to cut costs.

 

There may be (and there may exist from time to time) pending or threatened legal proceedings against, or disputes with, certain tenants and/or their parent companies that may have a material adverse effect on the related tenant’s ability to pay rent or remain open for business. We cannot assure you that any such litigation or dispute will not result in a material decline in net operating income at the related mortgaged property.

 

Certain tenants currently may be in a rent abatement period. We cannot assure you that such tenants will be in a position to pay full rent when the abatement period expires. We cannot assure you that the net operating income contributed by the mortgaged properties will remain at its current or past levels. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues”.

 

A Tenant Concentration May Result in Increased Losses

 

Mortgaged properties that are owner-occupied or leased to a single tenant, or a tenant that makes up a significant portion of the rental income, also are more susceptible to interruptions of cash flow if that tenant’s business operations are negatively impacted or if such tenant fails to renew its lease. This is so because:

 

the financial effect of the absence of rental income may be severe;

 

more time may be required to re-lease the space; and

 

substantial capital costs may be incurred to make the space appropriate for replacement tenants.

 

In the event of a default by that tenant, if the related lease expires prior to the mortgage loan maturity date and the related tenant fails to renew its lease or if such tenant exercises an early termination option, there would likely be an interruption of rental payments under the lease and, accordingly, insufficient funds available to the borrower to pay the debt service on the mortgage loan. In certain cases where the

 

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tenant owns the improvements on the mortgaged property, the related borrower may be required to purchase such improvements in connection with the exercise of its remedies.

 

With respect to certain mortgaged properties that are leased to a single tenant, the related leases may expire prior to, or soon after, the maturity dates of the mortgage loans or the related tenant may have the right to terminate the lease prior to the maturity date of the mortgage loan. If the current tenant does not renew its lease on comparable economic terms to the expired lease, if a single tenant terminates its lease, or if a suitable replacement tenant does not enter into a new lease on similar economic terms, there could be a negative impact on the payments on the related mortgage loan.

 

A deterioration in the financial condition of a tenant, the failure of a tenant to renew its lease, or the exercise by a tenant of an early termination right can be particularly significant if a mortgaged property is owner-occupied, leased to a single tenant, or if any tenant makes up a significant portion of the rental income at the mortgaged property.

 

Concentrations of particular tenants among the mortgaged properties or within a particular business or industry at one or multiple mortgaged properties increase the possibility that financial problems with such tenants or such business or industry sectors could affect the mortgage loans. In addition, the mortgage loans may be adversely affected if a tenant at the mortgaged property is highly specialized, or dependent on a single industry or only a few customers for its revenue. See “—Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease” below, and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Tenant Concentrations” for information on tenant concentrations in the mortgage pool.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Multiple Tenants Also Have Risks

 

If a mortgaged property has multiple tenants, re-leasing expenditures may be more frequent than in the case of mortgaged properties with fewer tenants, thereby reducing the cash flow available for payments on the related mortgage loan. Multi-tenant mortgaged properties also may experience higher continuing vacancy rates and greater volatility in rental income and expenses. See Annex A-1 for tenant lease expiration dates for the five largest tenants at each mortgaged property.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Borrowers or Borrower Affiliated Entities Also Have Risks

 

If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower under the mortgage loan or to an affiliate of the borrower, there may be conflicts of interest. For instance, it is more likely a landlord will waive lease conditions for an affiliated tenant than it would for an unaffiliated tenant. We cannot assure you that the conflicts of interest arising where a borrower is affiliated with a tenant at a mortgaged property will not adversely impact the value of the related mortgage loan.

 

In certain cases, an affiliated lessee may be a tenant under a master lease with the related borrower, under which the tenant is obligated to make rent payments but does not occupy any space at the mortgaged property. Master leases in these circumstances may be used to bring occupancy to a “stabilized” level with the intent of finding additional tenants to occupy some or all of the master leased space, but may not provide additional economic support for the mortgage loan. If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower or to an affiliate of the borrower, a deterioration in the financial condition of the borrower or such affiliate could significantly affect the borrower’s ability to perform under the mortgage loan as it would directly interrupt the cash flow from the mortgaged property if the borrower’s or its affiliate’s financial condition worsens. We cannot assure you that any space leased by a borrower or an affiliate of the borrower will eventually be occupied by third party tenants.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Affiliated Leases” for information on properties leased in whole or in part to borrowers and their affiliates.

 

Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease

 

The bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant or a number of smaller tenants, such as in retail properties, may have an adverse impact on the mortgaged properties affected and the income produced

 

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by such mortgaged properties. Under the federal bankruptcy code, a tenant has the option of assuming or rejecting or, subject to certain conditions, assuming and assigning to a third party, any unexpired lease. If the tenant rejects the lease, the landlord’s claim for breach of the lease would (absent collateral securing the claim) be treated as a general unsecured claim against the tenant and a lessor’s damages for lease rejection are generally subject to certain limitations. We cannot assure you that tenants of the mortgaged properties will continue making payments under their leases or that tenants will not file for bankruptcy protection in the future or, if any tenants do file, that they will continue to make rental payments in a timely manner. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Bankruptcy Laws”. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Loan Purpose” and “—Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings” for information regarding bankruptcy issues with respect to certain mortgage loans.

 

In the case of certain mortgage loans included in the mortgage pool, it may be possible that the related master lease could be construed in a bankruptcy as a financing lease or other arrangement under which the related master lessee (and/or its affiliates) would be deemed as effectively the owner of the related mortgaged property, rather than a tenant, which could result in potentially adverse consequences for the trust, as the holder of such mortgage loan, including treatment of the mortgage loan as an unsecured obligation, or a potentially greater risk of an unfavorable plan of reorganization and competing claims of creditors of the related master lessee and/or its affiliates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Affiliated Leases”.

 

Leases That Are Not Subordinated to the Lien of the Mortgage or Do Not Contain Attornment Provisions May Have an Adverse Impact at Foreclosure

 

In certain jurisdictions, if tenant leases are subordinated to the liens created by the mortgage but do not contain attornment provisions that require the tenant to recognize a successor owner, the tenants may terminate their leases upon the transfer of the property to a foreclosing lender or purchaser at foreclosure. Accordingly, if a mortgaged property is located in such a jurisdiction and is leased to one or more desirable tenants under leases that are subordinate to the mortgage and do not contain attornment provisions, such mortgaged property could experience a further decline in value if such tenants’ leases were terminated. This is particularly likely if those tenants were paying above-market rents or could not be replaced. If a lease is not subordinate to a mortgage, the issuing entity will not possess the right to dispossess the tenant upon foreclosure of the mortgaged property (unless otherwise agreed to with the tenant). Also, if the lease contains provisions inconsistent with the mortgage (e.g., provisions relating to application of insurance proceeds or condemnation awards) or which could affect the enforcement of the lender’s rights (e.g., a right of first refusal to purchase the property), the provisions of the lease will take precedence over the provisions of the mortgage. Not all leases were reviewed to ascertain the existence of attornment or subordination provisions.

 

With respect to certain of the mortgage loans, the related borrower may have given to certain tenants or others an option to purchase, a right of first refusal to purchase and/or a right of first offer to purchase all or a portion of the mortgaged property in the event a sale is contemplated, and such right may not be subordinate to the related mortgage. This may impede the mortgagee’s ability to sell the related mortgaged property at foreclosure, or, upon foreclosure, this may affect the value and/or marketability of the related mortgaged property. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Purchase Options and Rights of First Refusal” for information regarding material purchase options and/or rights of first refusal or rights of first offer, if any, with respect to mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans.

 

Early Lease Termination Options May Reduce Cash Flow

 

Leases often give tenants the right to terminate the related lease, abate or reduce the related rent, and/or exercise certain remedies against the related borrower for various reasons or upon various conditions, including:

 

if the borrower for the applicable mortgaged property allows uses at the mortgaged property in violation of use restrictions in current tenant leases,

 

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if the related borrower or any of its affiliates owns other properties within a certain radius of the mortgaged property and allows uses at those properties in violation of use restrictions,

 

if the related borrower fails to provide a designated number of parking spaces,

 

if there is construction at the related mortgaged property or an adjacent property (whether or not such adjacent property is owned or controlled by the borrower or any of its affiliates) that may interfere with visibility of, access to or a tenant’s use of the mortgaged property or otherwise violate the terms of a tenant’s lease,

 

upon casualty or condemnation with respect to all or a portion of the mortgaged property that renders such mortgaged property unsuitable for a tenant’s use or if the borrower fails to rebuild such mortgaged property within a certain time or if the casualty occurs within a specified period of the lease expiration date,

 

if a tenant’s use is not permitted by zoning or applicable law,

 

if the tenant is unable to exercise an expansion right,

 

if the landlord defaults on its obligations under the lease,

 

if a landlord leases space at the mortgaged property or within a certain radius of the mortgaged property to a competitor,

 

if the tenant fails to meet certain sales targets or other business objectives for a specified period of time,

 

if significant tenants at the subject property go dark, terminate their leases or otherwise cease to occupy their space, or if a specified percentage of the mortgaged property is unoccupied,

 

if the landlord violates the tenant’s exclusive use rights for a specified period of time,

 

if the related borrower violates covenants under the related lease or if third parties take certain actions that adversely affect such tenants’ business or operations,

 

in the case of government sponsored tenants, at any time or for lack of appropriations, or

 

if the related borrower violates covenants under the related lease or if third parties take certain actions that adversely affect such tenants’ business or operations.

 

In certain cases, compliance or satisfaction of landlord covenants may be the responsibility of a third party affiliated with the borrower or, in the event that partial releases of the applicable mortgaged property are permitted, an unaffiliated or affiliated third party.

 

Any exercise of a termination right by a tenant at a mortgaged property could result in vacant space at the related mortgaged property, renegotiation of the lease with the related tenant or re-letting of the space. Any such vacated space may not be re-let. Furthermore, such foregoing termination and/or abatement rights may arise in the future or materially adversely affect the related borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan documents. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Lease Expirations and Terminations” for information on material tenant lease expirations and early termination options.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Not-for-Profit Tenants Also Have Risks

 

Certain mortgaged properties may have tenants that are charitable institutions that generally rely on contributions from individuals and government grants or other subsidies to pay rent on office space and other operating expenses. We cannot assure you that the rate, frequency and level of individual

 

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contributions or governmental grants and subsidies will continue with respect to any such institution. A reduction in contributions or grants may impact the ability of the related institution to pay rent, and we cannot assure you that the related borrower will be in a position to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan documents if such tenant fails to pay its rent.

 

Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of multifamily properties, including:

 

the quality of property management;

 

the ability of management to provide adequate maintenance and insurance;

 

the types of services or amenities that the property provides;

 

the property’s reputation;

 

the level of mortgage interest rates, which may encourage tenants to purchase rather than lease housing;

 

the generally short terms of residential leases and the need for continued reletting;

 

rent concessions and month-to-month leases, which may impact cash flow at the property;

 

the tenant mix, such as the tenant population being predominantly students or being heavily dependent on workers from a particular business or industry or personnel from or workers related to a local military base or oil and/or gas drilling industries;

 

in the case of student housing facilities or properties leased primarily to students, which may be more susceptible to damage or wear and tear than other types of multifamily housing, the reliance on the financial well-being of the college or university to which it relates, closures of the related college or university due to the COVID-19 pandemic, competition from on campus housing units and new competitive student housing properties, which may adversely affect occupancy, the physical layout of the housing, which may not be readily convertible to traditional multifamily use, rental payments that may depend upon financial aid and that student tenants have a higher turnover rate than other types of multifamily tenants, which in certain cases is compounded by the fact that student leases are available for periods of less than 12 months, and closures of, or ongoing social distancing measures that may be instituted by, colleges and universities due to the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

certain multifamily properties may be considered to be “flexible apartment properties”. Such properties have a significant percentage of units leased to tenants under short-term leases (less than one year in term), which creates a higher turnover rate than for other types of multifamily properties;

 

restrictions on the age or income of tenants who may reside at the property;

 

dependence upon governmental programs that provide rent subsidies to tenants pursuant to tenant voucher programs, which vouchers may be used at other properties and influence tenant mobility;

 

adverse local, regional or national economic conditions, which may limit the amount of rent that may be charged and may result in a reduction of timely rent payments or a reduction in occupancy levels;

 

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state and local regulations, which may affect the building owner’s ability to increase rent to market rent for an equivalent apartment; and

 

the existence of government assistance/rent subsidy programs, and whether or not they continue and provide the same level of assistance or subsidies.

 

Certain states regulate the relationship between an owner and its tenants. Commonly, these laws require a written lease, good cause for eviction, disclosure of fees, and notification to residents of changed land use, while prohibiting unreasonable rules, retaliatory evictions, and restrictions on a resident’s choice of unit vendors. Apartment building owners have been the subject of suits under state “Unfair and Deceptive Practices Acts” and other general consumer protection statutes for coercive, abusive or unconscionable leasing and sales practices. A few states offer more significant protection. For example, in some states, there are provisions that limit the bases on which a landlord may terminate a tenancy or increase a tenant’s rent or prohibit a landlord from terminating a tenancy solely by reason of the sale of the owner’s building.

 

In addition to state regulation of the landlord tenant relationship, numerous counties and municipalities impose rent control on apartment buildings. These ordinances may limit rent increases to fixed percentages, to percentages of increases in the consumer price index, to increases set or approved by a governmental agency, or to increases determined through mediation or binding arbitration. Any limitations on a borrower’s ability to raise property rents may impair such borrower’s ability to repay its multifamily loan from its net operating income or the proceeds of a sale or refinancing of the related multifamily property.

 

Certain of the mortgage loans may be secured currently or in the future by mortgaged properties that are subject to certain affordable housing covenants and other covenants and restrictions with respect to various tax credit, city, state and federal housing subsidies, rent stabilization or similar programs, in respect of various units within the mortgaged properties. The limitations and restrictions imposed by these programs could result in losses on the mortgage loans. In addition, in the event that the program is cancelled, it could result in less income for the project. These programs may include, among others:

 

rent limitations that would adversely affect the ability of borrowers to increase rents to maintain the condition of their mortgaged properties and satisfy operating expenses;

 

tenant income restrictions that may reduce the number of eligible tenants in those mortgaged properties and result in a reduction in occupancy rates; and

 

minimum existing rent requirements that may reduce the number of units that can be converted to market rents.

 

The difference in rents between subsidized or supported properties and other multifamily rental properties in the same area may not be a sufficient economic incentive for some eligible tenants to reside at a subsidized or supported property that may have fewer amenities or be less attractive as a residence. As a result, occupancy levels at a subsidized or supported property may decline, which may adversely affect the value and successful operation of such property.

 

Moreover, legislative or judicial actions concerning the status of rent stabilized properties may adversely affect existing market rent units and a borrower’s ability to convert rent stabilized units to market rent units in the future.

 

Some counties and municipalities may later impose stricter rent control regulations on apartment buildings. For example, on June 14, 2019, the New York State Senate passed the Housing Stability and Tenant Protection Act of 2019 (the “HSTP Act”), which, among other things, limits the ability of landlords to increase rents in rent stabilized apartments at the time of lease renewal and after a vacancy. The HSTP Act also limits potential rent increases for major capital improvements and for individual apartment improvements. In addition, the HSTP Act permits certain qualified localities in the State of New York to implement the rent stabilization system.

 

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We cannot assure you that the rent stabilization laws or regulations will not cause a reduction in rental income or the appraised value of mortgaged properties. If rents are reduced, we cannot assure you that any such mortgaged property will be able to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy debt service payments and operating expenses.

 

Certain of the multifamily properties may be residential cooperative buildings and the land under any such building is owned or leased by a non-profit residential cooperative corporation. The cooperative owns all the units in the building and all common areas. Its tenants own stock, shares or membership certificates in the corporation. This ownership entitles the tenant-stockholders to proprietary leases or occupancy agreements which confer exclusive rights to occupy specific units. Generally, the tenant-stockholders make monthly maintenance payments which represent their share of the cooperative corporation’s mortgage loan payments, real property taxes, reserve contributions and capital expenditures, maintenance and other expenses, less any income the corporation may receive. These payments are in addition to any payments of principal and interest the tenant-stockholder may be required to make on any loans secured by its shares in the cooperative.

 

A number of factors may adversely affect the value and successful operation of a residential cooperative property. Some of these factors include:

 

the primary dependence of a borrower upon maintenance payments and any rental income from units or commercial areas to meet debt service obligations;

 

the initial concentration of shares relating to occupied rental units of the borrower sponsor, owner or investor after conversion from rental housing, which may result in an inability to meet debt service obligations on the residential cooperative corporation’s mortgage loan if the borrower sponsor, owner or investor is unable to make the required maintenance payments;

 

the failure of a borrower to qualify for favorable tax treatment as a “cooperative housing corporation” each year, which may reduce the cash flow available to make payments on the related mortgage loan; and

 

that, upon foreclosure, in the event a cooperative property becomes a rental property, certain units could be subject to rent control, stabilization and tenants’ rights laws, at below market rents, which may affect rental income levels and the marketability and sale proceeds of the rental property as a whole.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Multifamily Properties”.

 

Retail Properties Have Special Risks

 

Some of the mortgage loans are secured by retail properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Retail Properties.” The value of retail properties is significantly affected by the quality of the tenants as well as fundamental aspects of real estate, such as location and market demographics, as well as changes in shopping methods and choices. Some of the risks related to these matters are further described in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, and “—Changes in the Retail Sector, Such as Online Shopping and Other Uses of Technology, Could Affect the Business Models and Viability of Retailers”, “—The Performance of the Retail Properties is Subject to Conditions Affecting the Retail Sector” and “Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants” below.

 

Rental payments from tenants of retail properties typically comprise the largest portion of the net operating income of those mortgaged properties. We cannot assure you that the rate of occupancy at the retail stores will remain at the levels described in this prospectus or that the net operating income

 

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contributed by the mortgaged properties will remain at the level specified in this prospectus or remain consistent with past levels. In addition, some or all of the rental payments from tenants may be tied to that tenant’s gross sales. To the extent that a tenant changes the manner in which its gross sales are reported it could result in lower rent paid by that tenant. For example, if a tenant takes into account customer returns of merchandise purchased online and reduces the gross sales, this could result in lower gross sales relative to gross sales previously reported at that location even if the actual performance of the store remained unchanged.

 

Changes in the Retail Sector, Such as Online Shopping and Other Uses of Technology, Could Affect the Business Models and Viability of Retailers

 

Online shopping and the use of technology, such as smartphone shopping applications, to transact purchases or to aid purchasing decisions have increased in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the future. This trend is affecting the business models, sales and profitability of some retailers and could adversely affect the demand for retail real estate and occupancy at retail properties securing the mortgage loans. Any resulting decreases in rental revenue could have a material adverse effect on the value of retail properties securing the mortgage loans.

 

Some of these developments in the retail sector have led to retail companies, including several national retailers, filing for bankruptcy and/or voluntarily closing certain of their stores. Borrowers may be unable to re-lease such space or to re-lease it on comparable or more favorable terms. As a result, the bankruptcy or closure of a national tenant may adversely affect a retail borrower’s revenues. In addition, such closings may allow other tenants to modify their leases to terms that are less favorable for borrowers or to terminate their leases, also adversely impacting their revenues. See also “—Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants” below and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Lease Expirations and Terminations”.

 

In addition to competition from online shopping, retail properties face competition from sources outside a specific geographical real estate market. For example, all of the following compete with more traditional retail properties for consumer dollars: factory outlet centers, discount shopping centers and clubs, catalogue retailers, home shopping networks, and telemarketing. Continued growth of these alternative retail outlets (which often have lower operating costs) could adversely affect the rents collectible at the retail properties included in the pool of mortgage loans, as well as the income from, and market value of, the mortgaged properties and the related borrower’s ability to refinance such property. Moreover, additional competing retail properties may be built in the areas where the retail properties are located.

 

We cannot assure you that these developments in the retail sector will not adversely affect the performance of retail properties securing the mortgage loans.

 

The Performance of the Retail Properties is Subject to Conditions Affecting the Retail Sector

 

Retail properties are also subject to conditions that could negatively affect the retail sector, such as increased unemployment, increased federal income and payroll taxes, increased health care costs, increased state and local taxes, increased real estate taxes, industry slowdowns, lack of availability of consumer credit, weak income growth, increased levels of consumer debt, poor housing market conditions, adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, plant closings, and other factors. Similarly, local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of, or a reduction in demand for, retail space or retail goods, and the supply and creditworthiness of current and prospective tenants may negatively impact those retail properties.

 

In addition, the limited adaptability of certain shopping malls that have proven unprofitable may result in high (and possibly extremely high) loss severities on mortgage loans secured by those shopping malls. For example, it is possible that a significant amount of advances made by the applicable servicer(s) of a mortgage loan secured by a shopping mall property, combined with low liquidation proceeds in respect of

 

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that property, may result in a loss severity exceeding 100% of the outstanding principal balance of that mortgage loan.

 

Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants

 

The presence or absence of an “anchor tenant” or a “shadow anchor tenant” in or near a retail property also can be important to the performance of a retail property because anchors play a key role in generating customer traffic and making a retail property desirable for other tenants. Retail properties may also have shadow anchor tenants. An “anchor tenant” is located on the related mortgaged property, usually proportionately larger in size than most or all other tenants in the mortgaged property, and is vital in attracting customers to a retail property. A “shadow anchor tenant” is usually proportionally larger in size than most tenants in the mortgaged property, is important in attracting customers to a retail property and is located sufficiently close and convenient to the mortgaged property so as to influence and attract potential customers, but is not located on the mortgaged property.

 

If anchor stores in a mortgaged property were to close, the related borrower may be unable to replace those anchors in a timely manner or without suffering adverse economic consequences. In addition, anchor tenants and non-anchor tenants at anchored or shadow anchored retail centers may have co-tenancy clauses and/or operating covenants in their leases or operating agreements that permit those tenants or anchor stores to cease operating, reduce rent or terminate their leases if the anchor or shadow anchor tenant or another major tenant goes dark, if the mortgaged property does not meet certain minimum occupancy levels, or if the subject store is not meeting the minimum sales requirement under its lease. Even if non-anchor tenants do not have termination or rent abatement rights, the loss of an anchor tenant or a shadow anchor tenant may have a material adverse impact on the non-anchor tenant’s ability to operate because the anchor or shadow anchor tenant plays a key role in generating customer traffic and making a center desirable for other tenants. This, in turn, may adversely impact the borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan. In addition, in the event that a “shadow anchor” fails to renew its lease, terminates its lease or otherwise ceases to conduct business within a close proximity to the mortgaged property, customer traffic at the mortgaged property may be substantially reduced. If an anchor tenant goes dark, generally the borrower’s only remedy may be to terminate that lease after the anchor tenant has been dark for a specified amount of time.

 

Certain anchor tenants may have the right to demolish and rebuild, or substantially alter, their premises. Exercise of such rights may result in disruptions at the mortgaged property or reduce traffic to the mortgaged property, may trigger co-tenancy clauses if such activities result in the anchor tenants being dark for the period specified in any co-tenancy clause, and may result in reduced value of the structure or in a loss of the structure if the tenant fails to rebuild.

 

If anchor tenants or shadow anchor tenants at a particular mortgaged property were to close or otherwise become vacant or remain vacant, we cannot assure you that the related borrower’s ability to repay its mortgage loan would not be materially and adversely affected.

 

Certain anchor tenant and tenant estoppels have been obtained in connection with the origination of the mortgage loans. These estoppels may identify disputes between the related borrower and the applicable anchor tenant or tenant, or alleged defaults or potential defaults by the applicable property owner under the lease or a reciprocal easement and/or operating agreement (each, an “REA”). Such disputes, defaults or potential defaults, could lead to a termination or attempted termination of the applicable lease or REA by the anchor tenant or tenant or to the anchor tenant or tenant withholding some or all of its rental payments or to litigation against the related borrower. We cannot assure you that the anchor tenant or tenant estoppels obtained identify all potential disputes that may arise with respect to the mortgaged retail properties, or that anchor tenant or tenant disputes will not have a material adverse effect on the ability of borrowers to repay their mortgage loans.

 

Certain retail properties have specialty use tenants. See “—Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses” below. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool

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Characteristics—Property Types—Retail Properties” and “—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Specialty Use Concentrations”.

 

Office Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of office properties, including:

 

the physical attributes of the building in relation to competing buildings (e.g., age, condition, design, appearance, access to transportation and ability to offer certain amenities, such as sophisticated building systems and/or business wiring requirements);

 

the adaptability of the building to changes in the technological needs of the tenants;

 

an adverse change in population, patterns of telecommuting or sharing of office space, and employment growth (which creates demand for office space);

 

in the case of medical office properties, the performance of a medical office property may depend on (a) the proximity of such property to a hospital or other healthcare establishment, (b) reimbursements for patient fees from private or government sponsored insurers, (c) its ability to attract doctors and nurses to be on staff, and (d) its ability to afford and acquire the latest medical equipment. Issues related to reimbursement (ranging from nonpayment to delays in payment) from such insurers could adversely impact cash flow at such mortgaged properties; and

 

office space used as a lab and/or for research and development may (a) require a unique layout that may make re-tenanting to new office tenants more expensive and (b) rely on funds for research and development from government and/or private sources of funding, which sources may become unavailable. These factors, among others, may adversely affect the cash flow generating monthly payments for the mortgage loan.

 

Certain office tenants at the mortgaged properties may use their leased space to create shared workspaces that they lease to other businesses. Shared workspaces are rented by customers on a short-term basis. Short-term space users may be more impacted by economic fluctuations compared to traditional long-term office leases, which has the potential to impact operating profitability of the office tenant offering the shared space and, in turn, its ability to maintain its lease payments. This may subject the related mortgage loan to increased risk of default and loss.

 

Moreover, the cost of refitting office space for a new tenant is often higher than the cost of refitting other types of properties for new tenants.

 

If one or more major tenants at a particular office property were to close or remain vacant, we cannot assure you that such tenants would be replaced in a timely manner or without incurring material additional costs to the related borrower and resulting in an adverse effect on the financial performance of the property.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Office Properties”.

 

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Hotel Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” above, various other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of hotel properties, including:

 

adverse economic and social conditions, either local, regional or national (which may limit the amount that can be charged for a room or reduce occupancy levels);

 

continuing expenditures for modernizing, refurbishing and maintaining existing facilities prior to the expiration of their anticipated useful lives;

 

ability to convert to alternative uses which may not be readily made;

 

a deterioration in the financial strength or managerial capabilities of the owner or operator of a hotel property;

 

changes in travel patterns caused by general adverse economic conditions, fear of terrorist attacks, adverse weather conditions, pandemics and changes in access, energy prices, strikes, travel costs, relocation of highways, the construction of additional highways, concerns about travel safety or other factors;

 

relative illiquidity of hospitality investments which limits the ability of the borrowers and property managers to respond to changes in economic or other conditions; and

 

competition.

 

Because hotel rooms are generally rented for short periods of time, the financial performance of hotel properties tends to be affected by adverse economic conditions and competition more quickly than other commercial properties. Additionally, as a result of high operating costs, relatively small decreases in revenue can cause significant stress on a property’s cash flow.

 

Moreover, the hospitality and lodging industry is generally seasonal in nature and different seasons affect different hotel properties differently depending on type and location. This seasonality can be expected to cause periodic fluctuations in a hotel property’s room and restaurant revenues, occupancy levels, room rates and operating expenses. We cannot assure you that cash flow will be sufficient to offset any shortfalls that occur at the mortgaged property during slower periods or that the related mortgage loans provide for seasonality reserves, or if seasonality reserves are provided for, that such reserves will be funded or will be sufficient or available to fund such shortfalls.

 

In addition, certain hotel properties are limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels. Hotel properties that are limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels may subject a lender to more risk than full-service hotel properties as they generally require less capital for construction than full-service hotel properties. In addition, as limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels generally offer fewer amenities than full-service hotel properties, they are less distinguishable from each other. As a result, it is easier for limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels to experience increased or unforeseen competition.

 

In addition to hotel operations, some hotel properties also operate entertainment complexes that include restaurants, lounges, nightclubs and/or banquet and meeting spaces and may derive a significant portion of the related property’s revenue from such operations. Consumer demand for entertainment resorts is particularly sensitive to downturns in the economy and the corresponding impact on discretionary spending on leisure activities. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences could be driven by factors such as perceived or actual general economic conditions, high energy, fuel and food costs, the increased cost of travel, the weakened job market, perceived or actual disposable consumer income and wealth, fears of recession and changes in consumer confidence in the economy, or fears of war and future acts of terrorism. These factors could reduce consumer demand for

 

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the leisure activities that the property offers, thus imposing practical limits on pricing and harming operations. Restaurants and nightclubs are particularly vulnerable to changes in consumer preferences. In addition, a nightclub’s, restaurant’s or bar’s revenue is extremely dependent on its popularity and perception. These characteristics are subject to change rapidly and we cannot assure you that any of a hotel property’s nightclubs, restaurants or bars will maintain their current level of popularity or perception in the market. With respect to mortgaged properties that operate entertainment venues, the entertainment industry’s brand perception of the mortgaged property’s entertainment venue may have a significant impact on the ability to book talent and sell shows at the property. Any change in perception of entertainment venues by consumers or by the entertainment industry could have a material adverse effect on the net cash flow of the property. Furthermore, because of the unique construction requirements of restaurants, theaters, lounges, bars or nightclubs, the space at those hospitality properties would not easily be converted to other uses.

 

In addition, some hotel properties also operate a casino business at the property, which is subject to a number of risks. See “—Risks Related to Casino Properties” below.

 

Some of the hotel properties have liquor licenses associated with the mortgaged property. The liquor licenses for these mortgaged properties are generally held by affiliates of the related borrowers, unaffiliated managers or operating lessees. The laws and regulations relating to liquor licenses generally prohibit the transfer of such licenses to any person, or condition such transfer on the prior approval of the governmental authority that issued the license. In the event of a foreclosure of a hotel property that holds a liquor license, the special servicer on behalf of the issuing entity or a purchaser in a foreclosure sale would likely have to apply for a new license, which might not be granted or might be granted only after a delay that could be significant. We cannot assure you that a new license could be obtained promptly or at all. The lack of a liquor license in a hotel property could have an adverse impact on the revenue from the related mortgaged property or on the hotel property’s occupancy rate. In addition, certain state laws prohibit the assignment of liquor revenues. In such case, the lender may not be able to obtain a security interest in such revenues, which may constitute a material portion of the revenues at the related hotel property. As a result, the lender may lose its ability to obtain such revenues in a foreclosure in certain scenarios, including if there is bankruptcy of the liquor license holder. In certain cases, the liquor license holder may not be a single purpose entity.

 

Further, liquor licenses are subject to extensive regulation. A revocation of the liquor license at a hotel property, particularly a property with significant revenues from nightclubs, casinos, other entertainment venues, restaurants and lounges, could have a material adverse effect on revenues from such property.

 

In addition, hotel properties may be structured with a master lease (or operating lease) in order to minimize potential liabilities of the borrower. Under the master lease structure, an operating lessee (typically affiliated with the borrower) is also an obligor under the related mortgage loan and the operating lessee borrower pays rent to the fee owner borrower.

 

In addition, there may be risks associated with hotel properties that have not entered into or become a party to any franchise agreement, license agreement or other “flag”. Hotel properties often enter into these types of agreements in order to align the hotel property with a certain public perception or to benefit from a centralized reservation system. We cannot assure you that hotel properties that lack such benefits will be able to operate successfully on an independent basis.

 

With respect to certain hospitality properties, including hospitality properties that are unflagged, the collateral may include the collateral assignment of the rights of the borrower in certain intellectual property and brand names used in connection with the operation of the properties. The success of the operation of the mortgaged property depends in part on the borrower’s continued ability to use this intellectual property and on adequate protection and enforcement of this intellectual property, as well as related brands, logos and branded merchandise, including to increase brand awareness and further develop the property’s brand. Not all of the trademarks, copyrights, proprietary technology or other intellectual property rights used in the operation of such a mortgaged property may have been registered, and some of these trademarks and other intellectual property rights may never be registered. Despite the borrower’s efforts to protect their proprietary rights, third parties may infringe or otherwise violate such intellectual

 

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property rights, and use information that the borrower regards as proprietary, and the borrower’s rights may be invalidated or rendered unenforceable.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Hotel Properties”. See also “Risk Factors—Special Risks—Other Events May Affect the Value and Liquidity of Your Investment”.

 

Risks Relating to Affiliation with a Franchise or Hotel Management Company

 

The performance of a hotel property affiliated with a franchise or hotel management company depends in part on:

 

the continued existence and financial strength of the franchisor or hotel management company;

 

the public perception of the franchise or hotel chain service mark; and

 

the duration of the franchise licensing or management agreements.

 

The continuation of a franchise agreement, license agreement or management agreement is subject to specified operating standards and other terms and conditions set forth in such agreements. The failure of a borrower to maintain such standards or adhere to other applicable terms and conditions, such as property improvement plans, could result in the loss or cancellation of their rights under the franchise, license or hotel management company agreement or management agreement. We cannot assure you that a replacement franchise could be obtained in the event of termination or that such replacement franchise affiliation would be of equal quality to the terminated franchise affiliation. In addition, a replacement franchise, license and/or hotel property manager may require significantly higher fees as well as the investment of capital to bring the hotel property into compliance with the requirements of the replacement franchisor, licensor and/or hotel property manager. Any provision in a franchise agreement, license agreement or management agreement providing for termination because of a bankruptcy of a franchisor, licensor or manager generally will not be enforceable.

 

The transferability of franchise agreements, license agreements and property management agreements may be restricted. In the event of a foreclosure, the lender may not have the right to use the franchise license without the franchisor’s consent or the manager might be able to terminate the management agreement. Conversely, in the case of certain mortgage loans, the lender may be unable to remove a franchisor/licensor or a hotel management company that it desires to replace following a foreclosure and, further, may be limited as regards the pool of potential transferees for a foreclosure or real estate owned property.

 

In some cases where a hotel property is subject to a license or franchise agreement, the licensor or franchisor has required or may in the future require the completion of various repairs and/or renovations pursuant to a property improvement plan issued by the licensor or franchisor. Failure to complete those repairs and/or renovations in accordance with the plan could result in the hotel property losing its license or franchise. Annex A-1 and the related footnotes set forth the amount of reserves, if any, established under the related mortgage loans in connection with any of those repairs and/or renovations. We cannot assure you that any amounts reserved will be sufficient to complete the repairs and/or renovations required with respect to any affected hotel property. In addition, in some cases, those reserves will be maintained by the franchisor or property manager. Furthermore, the lender may not require a reserve for repairs and/or renovations in all instances.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Hotel Properties”.

 

Risks Related to Casino Properties

 

Certain mortgaged properties may consist of casino properties, or may consist of hotel and resort properties that include casinos. The casino business is highly competitive among a large number of

 

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participants, including riverboat casinos, dockside casinos, land-based casinos, video lottery, sweepstakes and poker machines not located in casinos, Native American gaming, internet lotteries and other internet wagering gaming services. In addition, the casino business is subject to the following risks: (i) the casino business is subject to changes in discretionary consumer spending, which may decline during economic downturns or for other reasons, (ii) the gaming industry is characterized by an element of chance, which may result in the actual win rates of the casino being less than anticipated, leading to losses, (iii) customers or employees may attempt or commit fraud or theft or cheat in order to increase winnings, (iv) credit extended to customers (which is unsecured) may be uncollectable, and (v) the gaming industry is subject to significant regulation, and loss of its gaming license could materially adversely affect the ability of the borrower to make payments under the related mortgage loan. In addition, the gaming laws of certain jurisdictions relating to casino operations prohibit the transfer of gaming licenses and, in the case of a transfer of the equity of the entity holding the gaming license, require the prior approval from the related gaming authorities. Accordingly, in the event of a foreclosure of the related mortgaged property, the lender or its agent, or a purchaser of the property, would not have the right to operate the casino without first obtaining a license, which may be granted after a delay, which could be significant, or may not be granted at all. Furthermore, because of the unique construction requirements of casinos, the space at those hospitality properties would not easily be converted to other uses.

 

Industrial and Logistics Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of industrial properties, including:

 

the quality of tenants;

 

reduced demand for industrial and logistics space because of a decline in a particular industry segment;

 

the property becoming functionally obsolete;

 

building design and adaptability;

 

unavailability of labor sources;

 

changes in access, energy prices, strikes, relocation of highways, the construction of additional highways or other factors;

 

changes in proximity of supply sources;

 

the expenses of converting a previously adapted space to general use; and

 

the location of the property.

 

Concerns about the quality of tenants, particularly major tenants, are similar in both office properties and industrial or logistics properties, although industrial or logistics properties may be more frequently dependent on a single or a few tenants.

 

Industrial properties may be adversely affected by reduced demand for industrial and logistics space occasioned by a decline in a particular industry segment in which the related tenant(s) conduct their businesses (for example, a decline in consumer demand for products sold by a tenant using the property as a distribution center). In addition, a particular industrial, logistics or warehouse property that suited the needs of its original tenant may be difficult to relet to another tenant or may become functionally obsolete relative to newer properties. Furthermore, lease terms with respect to industrial and logistics properties are generally for shorter periods of time and may result in a substantial percentage of leases expiring in

 

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the same year at any particular industrial property. In addition, mortgaged properties used for many industrial and logistics purposes are more prone to environmental concerns than other property types.

 

Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of an industrial and logistics property. Site characteristics that are generally desirable to a warehouse/industrial/logistics property include high clear ceiling heights, wide column spacing, a large number of bays (loading docks) and large bay depths, divisibility, a layout that can accommodate large truck minimum turning radii and overall functionality and accessibility.

 

In addition, because of unique construction requirements of many industrial and logistics properties, any vacant industrial and logistics property space may not be easily converted to other uses. Thus, if the operation of any of the industrial and logistics properties becomes unprofitable due to competition, age of the improvements or other factors such that the borrower becomes unable to meet its obligations on the related mortgage loan, the liquidation value of that industrial and logistics property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the related mortgage loan, than would be the case if the industrial and logistics property were readily adaptable to other uses.

 

Location is also important because an industrial and logistics property requires the availability of labor sources, proximity to supply sources and customers and accessibility to rail lines, major roadways and other distribution channels.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Industrial Properties”.

 

Self Storage Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of self storage properties, including:

 

decreased demand;

 

lack of proximity to apartment complexes or commercial users;

 

apartment tenants moving to single family homes;

 

decline in services rendered, including security;

 

dependence on business activity ancillary to renting units;

 

security concerns;

 

age of improvements; or

 

competition or other factors.

 

Self storage properties are considered vulnerable to competition, because both acquisition costs and break-even occupancy are relatively low. The conversion of self storage facilities to alternative uses would generally require substantial capital expenditures. Thus, if the operation of any of the self storage properties becomes unprofitable, the liquidation value of that self storage mortgaged property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the mortgage loan, than if the self storage mortgaged property were readily adaptable to other uses.

 

Tenants at self storage properties tend to require and receive privacy, anonymity and efficient access, each of which may heighten environmental and other risks related to such property as the borrower may be unaware of the contents in any self storage unit. No environmental assessment of a self storage mortgaged property included an inspection of the contents of the self storage units at that mortgaged

 

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property, and there is no assurance that all of the units included in the self storage mortgaged properties are free from hazardous substances or other pollutants or contaminants or will remain so in the future.

 

Certain mortgage loans secured by self storage properties may be affiliated with a franchise company through a franchise agreement. The performance of a self storage property affiliated with a franchise company may be affected by the continued existence and financial strength of the franchisor, the public perception of a service mark, and the duration of the franchise agreement. The transferability of franchise license agreements is restricted. In the event of a foreclosure, the lender or its agent would not have the right to use the franchise license without the franchisor’s consent. In addition, certain self storage properties may derive a material portion of revenue from business activities ancillary to self storage such as truck rentals, parking fees and similar activities which require special use permits or other discretionary zoning approvals.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Self Storage Properties”.

 

Mixed Use Properties Have Special Risks

 

Certain properties have more than one property subtype. Such mortgaged properties are subject to the risks relating to the property types described in “—Retail Properties Have Special Risks” and Office Properties Have Special Risks”. See Annex A-1 for the 5 largest tenants (by net rentable area leased) at each mixed use property. A mixed use property may be subject to additional risks, including the property manager’s inexperience in managing the different property types that comprise such mixed use property.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Mixed Use Properties”.

 

Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements

 

The management and operation of a condominium is generally controlled by a condominium board representing the owners of the individual condominium units, subject to the terms of the related condominium rules or by-laws. Generally, the consent of a majority of the board members is required for any actions of the condominium board and a unit owner’s ability to control decisions of the board are generally related to the number of units owned by such owner as a percentage of the total number of units in the condominium. In certain cases, the related borrower does not have a majority of votes on the condominium board, which result in the related borrower not having control of the related condominium or owners association.

 

The board of managers or directors of the related condominium generally has discretion to make decisions affecting the condominium, and we cannot assure you that the related borrower under a mortgage loan secured by one or more interests in that condominium will have any control over decisions made by the related board of managers or directors. Even if a borrower or its designated board members, either through control of the appointment and voting of sufficient members of the related condominium board or by virtue of other provisions in the related condominium documents, has consent rights over actions by the related condominium associations or owners, we cannot assure you that the related condominium board will not take actions that would materially adversely affect the related borrower’s unit. Thus, decisions made by that board of managers or directors, including regarding assessments to be paid by the unit owners, insurance to be maintained on the condominium and many other decisions affecting the maintenance of that condominium, may have a significant adverse impact on the related mortgage loans in the issuing entity that are secured by mortgaged properties consisting of such condominium interests. We cannot assure you that the related board of managers or directors will always act in the best interests of the related borrower under the related mortgage loans.

 

The condominium board is generally responsible for administration of the affairs of the condominium, including providing for maintenance and repair of common areas, adopting rules and regulations regarding common areas, and obtaining insurance and repairing and restoring the common areas of the

 

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property after a casualty. Notwithstanding the insurance and casualty provisions of the related mortgage loan documents, the condominium board may have the right to control the use of casualty proceeds.

 

In addition, the condominium board generally has the right to assess individual unit owners for their share of expenses related to the operation and maintenance of the common elements. In the event that an owner of another unit fails to pay its allocated assessments, the related borrower may be required to pay such assessments in order to properly maintain and operate the common elements of the property. Although the condominium board generally may obtain a lien against any unit owner for common expenses that are not paid, such lien generally is extinguished if a lender takes possession pursuant to a foreclosure. Each unit owner is responsible for maintenance of its respective unit and retains essential operational control over its unit.

 

In addition, due to the nature of condominiums, a default on the part of the borrower with respect to mortgaged properties consisting of condominium units will not allow the special servicer the same flexibility in realizing on the collateral as-is generally available with respect to commercial properties that are not condominium units. The rights of other unit or property owners, the documents governing the management of the condominium units and the state and local laws applicable to condominium units must be considered. In addition, in the event of a casualty with respect to a condominium, due to the possible existence of multiple loss payees on any insurance policy covering such property, there could be a delay in the allocation of related insurance proceeds, if any. Consequently, servicing and realizing upon collateral consisting of condominium units described above could subject the certificateholders to a greater delay, expense and risk than with respect to a mortgage loan secured by a commercial property that is not a condominium unit.

 

Certain condominium declarations and/or local laws provide for the withdrawal of a property from a condominium structure under certain circumstances. For example, the New York Condominium Act provides for a withdrawal of the property from a condominium structure by vote of 80% of unit owners. If the condominium is terminated, the building will be subject to an action for partition by any unit owner or lienor as if owned in common. This could cause an early and unanticipated prepayment of the mortgage loan. We cannot assure you that the proceeds from partition would be sufficient to satisfy borrower’s obligations under the mortgage loan. See also “—Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions” for certain risks relating to use restrictions imposed pursuant to condominium declarations or other condominium especially in a situation where the mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium building.

 

A condominium regime can also be established with respect to land, as an alternative to land subdivision in those jurisdictions where it is so permitted. In such circumstances, the condominium board’s responsibilities are typically limited to matters such as landscaping and maintenance of common areas, including private roadways, while individual unit owners have responsibility for the buildings constructed on their respective land units. Likewise, in land condominium regimes, individual unit owners would typically have responsibility for property insurance, although the condominium board might maintain liability insurance for the common areas. Accordingly, while some attributes of a building condominium form are shared by a land condominium, the latter would have a more limited scope of board responsibilities and shared costs.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Condominium and Other Shared Interests”.

 

Sale-Leaseback Transactions Have Special Risks

 

Certain mortgaged properties, including the MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay mortgaged properties and both of the Voyant Industrial Portfolio mortgaged properties (collectively, 9.7%), were the subject of a sale-leaseback transaction in connection with the acquisition of such property by the related borrower. Each of these mortgaged properties is leased to a tenant, who is the former owner of the mortgaged property (or is affiliated with the former owner of the mortgaged property), pursuant to a lease. We cannot assure you that any of these tenants will not file for bankruptcy protection.

 

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A bankruptcy with respect to a tenant in a sale-leaseback transaction could result in the related lease being recharacterized as a loan from the borrower to the tenant. If the lease were recharacterized as a loan, the lease would be a deemed loan and the tenant would gain a number of potential benefits in a bankruptcy case. The tenant could retain possession of the mortgaged property during the pendency of its bankruptcy case without having to comply with the ongoing post-petition rent requirements of section 365(d)(3) of the Bankruptcy Code, which requires a tenant to start paying rent within 60 days following the commencement of its bankruptcy case, while deciding whether to assume or reject a lease of nonresidential real property. The tenant desiring to remain in possession of the mortgaged property would not have to assume the lease within 210 days following the commencement of its bankruptcy case pursuant to section 365(d)(4) of the Bankruptcy Code or comply with the conditions precedent to assumption, including curing all defaults, compensating for damages and giving adequate assurance of future performance. To the extent the deemed loan is under-secured, the tenant would be able to limit the secured claim to the then-current value of the mortgaged property and treat the balance as a general unsecured claim. The tenant also might assert that the entire claim on the deemed loan is an unsecured claim. In Liona Corp., Inc. v. PCH Associates (In re PCH Associates), 949 F.2d 585 (2d Cir. 1991), the court considered the effect of recharacterizing a sale-leaseback transaction as a financing rather than a true lease. The court held that the landlord’s record title to the leased property should be treated as an equitable mortgage securing the deemed loan. Under the reasoning of that case, if a lease were recharacterized as a loan, the related borrower would have a claim against the tenant secured by an equitable mortgage. That secured claim has been collaterally assigned to the mortgagees. However, the legal authority considering the effects of such a recharacterization is limited, and we cannot assure you that a bankruptcy court would follow the reasoning of the PCH Associates case.

 

There is also a risk that a tenant that files for bankruptcy protection may reject the related lease. Pursuant to section 502(b)(6) of the Bankruptcy Code, a lessor’s damages for lease rejection are limited to the amount owed for the unpaid rent reserved under the lease for the periods prior to the bankruptcy petition (or earlier surrender of the leased premises) which are unrelated to the rejection, plus the greater of one year’s rent or 15% of the remaining rent reserved under the lease (but not to exceed three years’ rent).

 

It is likely that each lease constitutes an “unexpired lease” for purposes of the Bankruptcy Code. Federal bankruptcy law provides generally that rights and obligations under an unexpired lease of a debtor may not be terminated or modified at any time after the commencement of a case under the Bankruptcy Code solely on the basis of a provision in such contract to such effect or because of certain other similar events. This prohibition on so called “ipso facto clauses” could limit the ability of a borrower to exercise certain contractual remedies with respect to a lease. In addition, the Bankruptcy Code provides that a trustee in bankruptcy or debtor in possession may, subject to approval of the court, (a) assume an unexpired lease and (i) retain it or (ii) unless applicable law excuses a party other than the debtor from accepting performance from or rendering performance to an entity other than the debtor, assign it to a third party (notwithstanding any other restrictions or prohibitions on assignment) or (b) reject such contract. In a bankruptcy case of a tenant, if the lease were to be assumed, the trustee in bankruptcy on behalf of the tenant, or the tenant as debtor in possession, or the assignee, if applicable, must cure any defaults under the lease, compensate the related borrower for its losses and provide such borrower with “adequate assurance” of future performance. Such remedies may be insufficient, however, as the borrower may be forced to continue under the lease with a tenant that is a poor credit risk or an unfamiliar tenant if the lease was assigned (if applicable state law does not otherwise prevent such an assignment), and any assurances provided to the borrower may, in fact, be inadequate. If the lease is rejected, such rejection generally constitutes a breach of the lease immediately before the date of the filing of the petition. As a consequence, the borrower would have only an unsecured claim against the tenant for damages resulting from such breach, which could adversely affect the security for the certificates.

 

Furthermore, there is likely to be a period of time between the date upon which a tenant files a bankruptcy petition and the date upon which the lease is assumed or rejected. Although the tenant is obligated to make all lease payments within 60 days following the commencement of the bankruptcy case, there is a risk that such payments will not be made due to the tenant’s poor financial condition. If

 

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the lease is rejected, the lessor will be treated as an unsecured creditor with respect to its claim for damages for termination of the lease and the borrower must re-let the mortgaged property before the flow of lease payments will recommence. In addition, pursuant to section 502(b)(6) of the Bankruptcy Code, a lessor’s damages for lease rejection are limited to the amount owed for the unpaid rent reserved under the lease for the periods prior to the bankruptcy petition (or earlier surrender of the leased premises) which are unrelated to the rejection, plus the greater of one year’s rent or 15% of the remaining rent reserved under the lease (but not to exceed three years’ rent).

 

As discussed above, bankruptcy courts, in the exercise of their equitable powers, have the authority to recharacterize a lease as a financing. We cannot assure you such recharacterization would not occur with respect to the mortgage loans as to which the related mortgaged properties were the subject of sale-leaseback transactions.

 

The application of any of these doctrines to any one of the sale-leaseback transactions could result in substantial, direct and material impairment of the rights of the certificateholders.

 

Operation of a Mortgaged Property Depends on the Property Manager’s Performance

 

The successful operation of a real estate project depends upon the property manager’s performance and viability. The property manager is responsible for:

 

responding to changes in the local market;

 

planning and implementing the rental structure;

 

operating the property and providing building services;

 

managing operating expenses; and

 

assuring that maintenance and capital improvements are carried out in a timely fashion.

 

Properties deriving revenues primarily from short term sources, such as hotel guests or short term or month to month leases, are generally more management intensive than properties leased to creditworthy tenants under long term leases.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties will be managed by affiliates of the related borrower. If a mortgage loan is in default or undergoing special servicing, such relationship could disrupt the management of the related mortgaged property, which may adversely affect cash flow. However, the related mortgage loans will generally permit, in the case of mortgaged properties managed by borrower affiliates, the lender to remove the related property manager upon the occurrence of an event of default under the related mortgage loan beyond applicable cure periods (or, in some cases, in the event of a foreclosure following such default), and in some cases a decline in cash flow below a specified level or the failure to satisfy some other specified performance trigger.

 

Concentrations Based on Property Type, Geography, Related Borrowers and Other Factors May Disproportionately Increase Losses

 

The effect of mortgage pool loan losses will be more severe if the losses relate to mortgage loans that account for a disproportionately large percentage of the pool’s aggregate principal balance. As mortgage loans pay down or properties are released, the remaining certificateholders may face a higher risk with respect to the diversity of property types and property characteristics and with respect to the number of borrowers.

 

See the table titled “Remaining Term to Maturity/ARD in Months” on Annex A-2 for a stratification of the remaining terms to maturity or the related anticipated repayment date, as applicable, of the mortgage loans. Because principal on the certificates is payable in sequential order of payment priority, and a class receives principal only after the preceding class(es), if any, have been paid in full, classes that have a

 

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lower sequential priority are more likely to face these types of risks of concentration than classes with a higher sequential priority.

 

Several of the mortgage loans have cut-off date balances that are substantially higher than the average cut-off date balance. In general, concentrations in mortgage loans with larger-than-average balances can result in losses that are more severe, relative to the size of the mortgage loan pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the mortgage loan pool were more evenly distributed.

 

A concentration of mortgage loans secured by the same mortgaged property types can increase the risk that a decline in a particular industry or business would have a disproportionately large impact on the pool of mortgage loans. Mortgaged property types representing at least 5.0% of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (based on allocated cut-off date loan amount) are multifamily, retail, office, hotel, industrial and self storage properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types” for information on the types of mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool.

 

Repayments by borrowers and the market value of the related mortgaged properties could be affected by economic conditions generally or specific to particular geographic areas or regions of the United States, and concentrations of mortgaged properties in particular geographic areas may increase the risk that conditions in the real estate market where the mortgaged property is located, or other adverse economic or other developments or natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, floods, forest fires, tornadoes or hurricanes or changes in governmental rules or fiscal policies) affecting a particular region of the country, could increase the frequency and severity of losses on mortgage loans secured by those mortgaged properties. As a result, areas affected by such events may experience disruptions in travel, transportation and tourism, loss of jobs, an overall decrease in consumer activity, or a decline in real estate-related investments. We cannot assure you that the economies in such impacted areas will recover sufficiently to support income-producing real estate at pre-event levels or that the costs of the related clean-up will not have a material adverse effect on the local or national economy. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations”. We also cannot assure you that any hurricane damage would be covered by insurance.

 

Mortgaged properties securing approximately 5.0% or more of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (based on allocated cut-off date loan amount) are located in New York, Florida, California, Georgia, Nevada and Pennsylvania. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations”.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties are located in areas that, based on low population density, poor economic demographics (such as higher than average unemployment rates, lower than average annual household income and/or overall loss of jobs) and/or negative trends in such regards, would be considered secondary or tertiary markets.

 

A concentration of mortgage loans with the same borrower or related borrowers also can pose increased risks, such as:

 

if a borrower that owns or controls several mortgaged properties (whether or not all of them secure mortgage loans in the mortgage pool) experiences financial difficulty at one mortgaged property, it could defer maintenance at another mortgaged property or debt service payments on the related mortgage loan in order to satisfy current expenses with respect to the first property or, alternatively, it could direct leasing activity in ways that are adverse to a mortgaged property;

 

a borrower could also attempt to avert foreclosure by filing a bankruptcy petition that might have the effect of interrupting debt service payments on the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool secured by that borrower’s mortgaged properties (subject to the master servicer’s and the trustee’s obligation to make advances for monthly payments) for an indefinite period; and

 

mortgaged properties owned by the same borrower or related borrowers are likely to have common management, common general partners and/or common managing members, thereby increasing the

 

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  risk that financial or other difficulties experienced by such related parties could have a greater impact on the pool of mortgage loans. See “—A Bankruptcy Proceeding May Result in Losses and Delays in Realizing on the Mortgage Loans” below.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics” for information on the composition of the mortgage pool by property type and geographic distribution and loan concentration.

 

Adverse Environmental Conditions at or Near Mortgaged Properties May Result in Losses

 

The issuing entity could become liable for a material adverse environmental condition at an underlying mortgaged property. Any such potential liability could reduce or delay payments on the offered certificates.

 

Each of the mortgaged properties was either (i) subject to environmental site assessments prior to the time of origination of the related mortgage loan (or, in certain limited cases, after origination) including Phase I environmental site assessments or updates of previously performed Phase I environmental site assessments, or (ii) subject to a secured creditor environmental insurance policy or other environmental insurance policy. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations”.

 

We cannot assure you that the environmental assessments revealed all existing or potential environmental risks or that all adverse environmental conditions have been or will be completely abated or remediated or that any reserves, insurance or operations and maintenance plans will be sufficient to remediate the environmental conditions. Moreover, we cannot assure you that:

 

future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability; or

 

the current environmental condition of the mortgaged properties will not be adversely affected by tenants or by the condition of land or operations in the vicinity of the mortgaged properties (such as underground storage tanks).

 

We cannot assure you that with respect to any mortgaged property any remediation plan or any projected remedial costs or time is accurate or sufficient to complete the remediation objectives, or that no additional contamination requiring environmental investigation or remediation will be discovered on any mortgaged property. Likewise, all environmental policies naming the lender as named insured cover certain risks or events specifically identified in the policy, but the coverage is limited by its terms, conditions, limitations and exclusions, and does not purport to cover all environmental conditions whatsoever affecting the applicable mortgaged property, and we cannot assure you that any environmental conditions currently known, suspected, or unknown and discovered in the future will be covered by the terms of the policy.

 

Before the trustee or the special servicer, as applicable, acquires title to a mortgaged property on behalf of the issuing entity or assumes operation of the property, it will be required to obtain an environmental assessment of such mortgaged property, or rely on a recent environmental assessment. This requirement is intended to mitigate the risk that the issuing entity will become liable under any environmental law. There is accordingly some risk that the mortgaged property will decline in value while this assessment is being obtained or remedial action is being taken. Moreover, we cannot assure you that this requirement will effectively insulate the issuing entity from potential liability under environmental laws. Any such potential liability could reduce or delay distributions to certificateholders.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations” for additional information on environmental conditions at mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans in the issuing entity. See also representation and warranty no. 43 on Annex D-1 and no. 41 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—3650 REIT—3650 REIT’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”, “—Column Financial, Inc.—Column’s Underwriting Guidelines

 

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and Processes”, “—UBS AG, New York Branch—UBS AG’s Underwriting Standards” and “—German American Capital Corporation—DB Originators’ Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”.

 

See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Environmental Considerations”.

 

Risks Related to Redevelopment, Expansion and Renovation at Mortgaged Properties

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are currently undergoing or, in the future, are expected to undergo redevelopment, expansion or renovation. In addition, the related borrower may be permitted under the related mortgage loan documents, at its option and cost but subject to certain conditions, to undertake future construction, renovation or alterations of the mortgaged property. To the extent applicable, we cannot assure you that any escrow or reserve collected, if any, will be sufficient to complete the current renovation or be otherwise sufficient to satisfy any tenant improvement expenses at a mortgaged property. Failure to complete those planned improvements may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow at the mortgaged property and the related borrower’s ability to meet its payment obligations under the mortgage loan documents.

 

Certain of the hotel properties securing the mortgage loans are currently undergoing or are scheduled to undergo renovations or property improvement plans. In some circumstances, these renovations or property improvement plans may necessitate taking a portion of the available guest rooms temporarily offline, temporarily decreasing the number of available rooms and the revenue generating capacity of the related hotel property. In other cases, these renovations may involve renovations of common spaces or external features of the related hotel property, which may cause disruptions or otherwise decrease the attractiveness of the related hotel property to potential guests. These property improvement plans may be required under the related franchise or management agreement and a failure to timely complete them may result in a termination or expiration of a franchise or management agreement and may be an event of default under the related mortgage loan.

 

Certain of the retail properties securing the mortgage loans may currently be undergoing or are scheduled to undergo renovations or property expansions. Such renovations or expansions may be required under tenant leases and a failure to timely complete such renovations or expansions may result in a termination of such lease and may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow at the mortgaged property and the related borrower’s ability to meet its payment obligations under the mortgage loan documents.

 

We cannot assure you that current or planned redevelopment, expansion or renovation will be completed at all, that such redevelopment, expansion or renovation will be completed in the time frame contemplated, or that, when and if such redevelopment, expansion or renovation is completed, such redevelopment, expansion or renovation will improve the operations at, or increase the value of, the related mortgaged property. Failure of any of the foregoing to occur could have a material negative impact on the related mortgaged property, which could affect the ability of the related borrower to repay the related mortgage loan.

 

In the event the related borrower fails to pay the costs for work completed or material delivered in connection with such ongoing redevelopment, expansion or renovation, the portion of the mortgaged property on which there are renovations may be subject to mechanic’s or materialmen’s liens that may be senior to the lien of the related mortgage loan.

 

The existence of construction or renovation at a mortgaged property may take rental units or rooms or leasable space “off-line” or otherwise make space unavailable for rental, impair access or traffic at or near the mortgaged property, or, in general, make that mortgaged property less attractive to tenants or their customers or guests, and accordingly could have a negative effect on net operating income. In addition, any such construction or renovation at a mortgaged property may temporarily interfere with the use and operation of any portion of such mortgaged property. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Redevelopment, Renovation and Expansion” for information regarding mortgaged properties which are currently undergoing or, in the future, are expected to undergo redevelopment, expansion or renovation.

 

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See also Annex A-2 for additional information on redevelopment, renovation and expansion at the mortgaged properties securing the fifteen (15) largest mortgage loans.

 

Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses

 

Certain mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans may have specialty use tenants and may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable for any reason.

 

For example, retail, office or mixed use properties may have theater tenants. Properties with theater tenants are exposed to certain unique risks. Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of a theater. In addition, decreasing attendance at a theater could adversely affect revenue of the theater, which may, in turn, cause the tenant to experience financial difficulties, resulting in downgrades in their credit ratings and, in certain cases, bankruptcy filings. In addition, because of unique construction requirements of theaters, any vacant theater space would not easily be converted to other uses.

 

Retail, office or mixed use properties may also have health clubs as tenants. Several factors may adversely affect the value and successful operation of a health club, including:

 

the physical attributes of the health club (e.g., its age, appearance and layout);

 

the reputation, safety, convenience and attractiveness of the property to users;

 

management’s ability to control membership growth and attrition;

 

competition in the tenant’s marketplace from other health clubs and alternatives to health clubs; and

 

adverse changes in economic and social conditions and demographic changes (e.g., population decreases or changes in average age or income), which may result in decreased demand.

 

In addition, there may be significant costs associated with changing consumer preferences (e.g., multipurpose clubs from single-purpose clubs or varieties of equipment, classes, services and amenities). In addition, health clubs may not be readily convertible to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable for any reason. The liquidation value of any such health club consequently may be less than would be the case if the property were readily adaptable to changing consumer preferences for other uses.

 

Certain retail, office or mixed use properties may be partially comprised of a parking garage, or certain properties may be entirely comprised of a parking garage. Parking garages and parking lots present risks not associated with other properties. The primary source of income for parking lots and garages is the rental fees charged for parking spaces.

 

Factors affecting the success of a parking lot or garage include:

 

the number of rentable parking spaces and rates charged;

 

the location of the lot or garage and, in particular, its proximity to places where large numbers of people work, shop or live;

 

the amount of alternative parking spaces in the area;

 

the availability of mass transit; and

 

the perceptions of the safety, convenience and services of the lot or garage.

 

In instances where a parking garage does not have a long-term leasing arrangement with a parking lessee, but rather relies on individual short-term (i.e., daily or weekly) parking tenants for parking

 

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revenues, variations in any or all of the foregoing factors can result in increased volatility in the net operating income for such parking garage.

 

Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of a parking garage facility. Site characteristics that are valuable to a parking garage facility include location, clear ceiling heights, column spacing, zoning restrictions, number of spaces and overall functionality and accessibility.

 

In addition, because of the unique construction requirements of many parking garages and because a parking lot is often vacant paved land without any structure, a vacant parking garage facility or parking lot may not be easily converted to other uses.

 

With respect to parking properties leased to a parking garage, parking lot operator or single tenant user, such leases generally provide the parking operator the right to terminate such leases upon various contingencies, which may include if there are specified reductions in gross receipts, or specified income targets are not met, if certain subleases of such parking properties are terminated or reduced, or upon a specified amount of capital expenditures to such properties being required in order to comply with applicable law, or other adverse events. There can be no assurance that the operating lessee of a parking property will not terminate its lease upon such an event.

 

Mortgaged properties may have other specialty use tenants, such as retail bank branches, medical and dental offices, lab space, gas stations, dry cleaners, data centers, urgent care facilities, daycare centers, design showrooms and/or restaurants, as part of the mortgaged property. Re-tenanting certain specialty use tenants, such as gas stations and dry cleaners, may also involve substantial costs related to environmental remediation.

 

In the case of specialty use tenants such as restaurants, lounges, bars, night clubs and theaters, aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of such properties and other retailers at the mortgaged property. Decreasing patronage at such properties could adversely affect revenue of the property, which may, in turn, cause the tenants to experience financial difficulties, resulting in downgrades in their credit ratings, lease defaults and, in certain cases, bankruptcy filings. See “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases—Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease” above. Additionally, receipts at such properties are also affected not only by objective factors but by subjective factors. For instance, restaurant receipts are affected by such varied influences as the current personal income levels in the community, an individual consumer’s preference for type of food, style of dining and restaurant atmosphere, the perceived popularity of the restaurant, food safety concerns related to personal health with the handling of food items at the restaurant or by food suppliers and the actions and/or behaviors of staff and management and level of service to the customers. In addition, because of unique construction requirements of such properties, any vacant space would not easily be converted to other uses.

 

Retail bank branches are specialty use tenants that are often outfitted with vaults, teller counters and other customary installations and equipment that may have required significant capital expenditures to install. The ability to lease these types of properties may be difficult due to the added cost and time to retrofit the property to allow for other uses.

 

Mortgaged properties with specialty use tenants may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable, or the leased spaces were to become vacant, for any reason due to their unique construction requirements. In addition, converting commercial properties to alternate uses generally requires substantial capital expenditures and could result in a significant adverse effect on, or interruption of, the revenues generated by such properties.

 

In addition, a mortgaged property may not be readily convertible due to restrictive covenants related to such mortgaged property, including in the case of mortgaged properties that are subject to a condominium regime or subject to a ground lease, the use and other restrictions imposed by the condominium declaration and other related documents, especially in a situation where a mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium regime. See “—Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements” above.

 

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Some of the mortgaged properties may be part of tax-reduction programs that apply only if the mortgaged properties are used for certain purposes. Such properties may be restricted from being converted to alternative uses because of such restrictions.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties have government tenants or other tenants which may have space that was “built to suit” that particular tenant’s uses and needs. For example, a government tenant may require enhanced security features that required additional construction or renovation costs and for which the related tenant may pay above market rent. However, such enhanced features may not be necessary for a new tenant (and such new tenant may not be willing to pay the higher rent associated with such features). While a government office building or government leased space may be usable as a regular office building or tenant space, the rents that may be collected in the event the government tenant does not renew its lease may be significantly lower than the rent currently collected.

 

Additionally, zoning, historical preservation or other restrictions also may prevent alternative uses. See “—Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions” below.

 

Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties may not comply with current zoning laws, including use, density, parking, height, landscaping, open space and set back requirements, due to changes in zoning requirements after such mortgaged properties were constructed. These properties, as well as those for which variances or special permits were issued or for which non-conformity with current zoning laws is otherwise permitted, are considered to be a “legal non-conforming use” and/or the improvements are considered to be “legal non-conforming structures”. This means that the borrower is not required to alter its structure to comply with the existing or new law; however, the borrower may not be able to rebuild the premises “as-is” in the event of a substantial casualty loss. This may adversely affect the cash flow of the property following the loss. If a substantial casualty were to occur, we cannot assure you that insurance proceeds would be available to pay the mortgage loan in full. In addition, if a non-conforming use were to be discontinued and/or the property were repaired or restored in conformity with the current law, the value of the property or the revenue-producing potential of the property may not be equal to that before the casualty.

 

In some cases, the related borrower has obtained law and ordinance insurance to cover additional costs that result from rebuilding the mortgaged property in accordance with current zoning requirements, including, within the policy’s limitations, demolition costs, increased costs of construction due to code compliance and loss of value to undamaged improvements resulting from the application of zoning laws. However, if as a result of the applicable zoning laws the rebuilt improvements are smaller or less attractive to tenants than the original improvements, you should not assume that the resulting loss in income will be covered by law and ordinance insurance. Zoning protection insurance, if obtained, will generally reimburse the lender for the difference between (i) the mortgage loan balance on the date of damage loss to the mortgaged property from an insured peril and (ii) the total insurance proceeds at the time of the damage to the mortgaged property if such mortgaged property cannot be rebuilt to its former use due to new zoning ordinances.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties that do not conform to current zoning laws may not be “legal non-conforming uses” or “legal non-conforming structures”, thus constituting a zoning violation. The failure of a mortgaged property to comply with zoning laws or to be a “legal non-conforming use” or “legal non-conforming structure” may adversely affect the market value of the mortgaged property or the borrower’s ability to continue to use it in the manner it is currently being used or may necessitate material additional expenditures to remedy non-conformities. See also representation and warranty no. 26 on Annex D-1 and no. 25 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable). Further, current uses may not in all instances have all necessary licenses and permits, which may subject the borrower or tenant to penalties or disruption of the related use.

 

The limited availability of zoning information and/or extent of zoning diligence may also present risks. Zoning information contained in appraisals may be based on limited investigation, and zoning comfort

 

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letters obtained from jurisdictions, while based on available records, do not customarily involve any contemporaneous site inspection. The extent of zoning diligence will also be determined based on perceived risk and the cost and benefit of obtaining additional information. Even if law and ordinance insurance is required to mitigate rebuilding-related risks, we cannot assure you that other risks related to material zoning violations will have been identified under such circumstances, and that appropriate borrower covenants or other structural mitigants will have been required as a result.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties may be subject to certain use restrictions and/or operational requirements imposed pursuant to development agreements, regulatory agreements, ground leases, restrictive covenants, environmental restrictions, reciprocal easement agreements or operating agreements or historical landmark designations or, in the case of those mortgaged properties that are condominiums, condominium declarations or other condominium use restrictions or regulations, especially in a situation where the mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium building. Such use restrictions could include, for example, limitations on the character of the improvements or the properties, limitations affecting noise and parking requirements, among other things, and limitations on the borrowers’ right to operate certain types of facilities within a prescribed radius. These limitations impose upon the borrower stricter requirements with respect to repairs and alterations, including following a casualty loss. These limitations could adversely affect the ability of the related borrower to lease the mortgaged property on favorable terms, thus adversely affecting the borrower’s ability to fulfill its obligations under the related mortgage loan. In addition, any alteration, reconstruction, demolition, or new construction affecting a mortgaged property designated a historical landmark may require prior approval. Any such approval process, even if successful, could delay any redevelopment or alteration of a related property. The liquidation value of such property, to the extent subject to limitations of the kind described above or other limitations on convertibility of use, may be substantially less than would be the case if such property was readily adaptable to other uses or redevelopment. Further, such agreements may give any related owners’ association the right to impose assessments which, if unpaid, would constitute a lien prior to that of the mortgage loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Use Restrictions” for examples of mortgaged properties that are subject to restrictions relating to the use of the mortgaged properties.

 

Additionally, some of the mortgaged properties may have current or past tenants that handle or have handled hazardous materials and, in some cases, related contamination at some of the mortgaged properties was previously investigated and, as warranted, remediated with regulatory closure, the conditions of which in some cases may include restrictions against any future redevelopment for residential use or other land use restrictions. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations” for additional information on environmental conditions at mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans in the issuing entity. See also representation and warranty no. 43 on Annex D-1 and no. 41 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

Risks Relating to Inspections of Properties

 

In general, licensed engineers or consultants inspected the mortgaged properties at or about the time of the origination of the mortgage loans to assess items such as structural integrity of the buildings and other improvements on the mortgaged property, including exterior walls, roofing, interior construction, mechanical and electrical systems and general condition of the site, buildings and other improvements. However, we cannot assure you that all conditions requiring repair or replacement were identified. No additional property inspections were conducted in connection with the issuance of the offered certificates.

 

Risks Relating to Costs of Compliance with Applicable Laws and Regulations

 

A borrower may be required to incur costs to comply with various existing and future federal, state or local laws and regulations applicable to the related mortgaged property, for example, zoning laws and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, which requires all public accommodations to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by persons with disabilities. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Americans with Disabilities Act”. The expenditure of these costs or the

 

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imposition of injunctive relief, penalties or fines in connection with the borrower’s noncompliance could negatively impact the borrower’s cash flow and, consequently, its ability to pay its mortgage loan.

 

Insurance May Not Be Available or Adequate

 

Although the mortgaged properties are required to be insured, or self-insured by a sole or significant tenant of a related building or group of buildings, against certain risks, there is a possibility of casualty loss with respect to the mortgaged properties for which insurance proceeds may not be adequate or which may result from risks not covered by insurance.

 

In addition, certain types of mortgaged properties, such as manufactured housing and recreational vehicle communities, have few or no insurable buildings or improvements and thus do not have casualty insurance or low limits of casualty insurance in comparison with the related mortgage loan balances.

 

In addition, hazard insurance policies will typically contain co-insurance clauses that in effect require an insured at all times to carry insurance of a specified percentage, generally 80% to 90%, of the full replacement value of the improvements on the related mortgaged property in order to recover the full amount of any partial loss. As a result, even if insurance coverage is maintained, if the insured’s coverage falls below this specified percentage, those clauses generally provide that the insurer’s liability in the event of partial loss does not exceed the lesser of (1) the replacement cost of the improvements less physical depreciation and (2) that proportion of the loss as the amount of insurance carried bears to the specified percentage of the full replacement cost of those improvements.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties may be located in areas that are considered a high earthquake risk (seismic zones 3 or 4). See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations”.

 

Furthermore, with respect to certain mortgage loans, the insurable value of the related mortgaged property as of the origination date of the related mortgage loan was lower than the principal balance of the related mortgage loan. In the event of a casualty when a borrower is not required to rebuild or cannot rebuild, we cannot assure you that the insurance required with respect to the related mortgaged property will be sufficient to pay the related mortgage loan in full and there is no “gap” insurance required under such mortgage loan to cover any difference. In those circumstances, a casualty that occurs near the maturity date may result in an extension of the maturity date of the mortgage loan if the special servicer, in accordance with the servicing standard, determines that such extension was in the best interest of certificateholders.

 

The mortgage loans do not all require flood insurance on the related mortgaged properties unless they are in a flood zone and flood insurance is available and, in certain instances, even where the related mortgaged property was in a flood zone and flood insurance was available, flood insurance was not required.

 

The National Flood Insurance Program is scheduled to expire on September 30, 2021. We cannot assure you if or when the National Flood Insurance Program will be reauthorized by Congress. If the National Flood Insurance Program is not reauthorized, it could have an adverse effect on the value of properties in flood zones or their ability to repair or rebuild after flood damage.

 

We cannot assure you that the borrowers will in the future be able to comply with requirements to maintain insurance with respect to the mortgaged properties, and any uninsured loss could have a material adverse impact on the amount available to make payments on the related mortgage loan, and consequently, the offered certificates. As with all real estate, if reconstruction (for example, following fire or other casualty) or any major repair or improvement is required to the damaged property, changes in laws and governmental regulations may be applicable and may materially affect the cost to, or ability of, the borrowers to effect such reconstruction, major repair or improvement. As a result, the amount realized with respect to the mortgaged properties, and the amount available to make payments on the related mortgage loan, and consequently, the offered certificates, could be reduced. In addition, we cannot assure you that the amount of insurance required or provided would be sufficient to cover damages

 

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caused by any casualty, or that such insurance will be available in the future at commercially reasonable rates. See representation and warranty no. 18 on Annex D-1 and no. 17 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

Inadequacy of Title Insurers May Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates

 

Title insurance for a mortgaged property generally insures a lender against risks relating to a lender not having a first lien with respect to a mortgaged property, and in some cases can insure a lender against specific other risks. The protection afforded by title insurance depends on the ability of the title insurer to pay claims made upon it. We cannot assure you that with respect to any mortgage loan:

 

a title insurer will have the ability to pay title insurance claims made upon it;

 

the title insurer will maintain its present financial strength; or

 

a title insurer will not contest claims made upon it.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are either completing initial construction or undergoing renovation or redevelopment. Under such circumstances, there may be limitations to the amount of coverage or other exceptions to coverage that could adversely affect the issuing entity if losses are suffered.

 

Terrorism Insurance May Not Be Available for All Mortgaged Properties

 

The occurrence or the possibility of terrorist attacks could (1) lead to damage to one or more of the mortgaged properties if any terrorist attacks occur or (2) result in higher costs for security and insurance premiums or diminish the availability of insurance coverage for losses related to terrorist attacks, particularly for large properties, which could adversely affect the cash flow at those mortgaged properties.

 

After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City and the Washington, D.C. area, all forms of insurance were impacted, particularly from a cost and availability perspective, including comprehensive general liability and business interruption or rent loss insurance policies required by typical mortgage loans. To give time for private markets to develop a pricing mechanism for terrorism risk and to build capacity to absorb future losses that may occur due to terrorism, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 was enacted on November 26, 2002, establishing the Terrorism Insurance Program. The Terrorism Insurance Program was reauthorized on December 20, 2019 through December 31, 2027 pursuant to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2019 (“TRIPRA”).

 

The Terrorism Insurance Program requires insurance carriers to provide terrorism coverage in their basic “all-risk” policies. Any commercial property and casualty terrorism insurance exclusion that was in force on November 26, 2002 is automatically void to the extent that it excluded losses that would otherwise be insured losses. Any state approval of those types of exclusions in force on November 26, 2002 is also void.

 

Under the Terrorism Insurance Program, the federal government shares in the risk of losses occurring within the United States resulting from acts committed in an effort to influence or coerce United States civilians or the United States government. The federal share of compensation for insured losses of an insurer equals 80% of the portion of such insured losses that exceed a deductible equal to 20% of the value of the insurer’s direct earned premiums over the calendar year immediately preceding that program year. Federal compensation in any program year is capped at $100 billion (with insurers being liable for any amount that exceeds such cap), and no compensation is payable with respect to a terrorist act unless the aggregate industry losses relating to such act exceed $200 million. The Terrorism Insurance Program does not cover nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological attacks. Unless a borrower obtains separate coverage for events that do not meet the thresholds or other requirements above, such events will not be covered.

 

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If the Terrorism Insurance Program is not reenacted after its expiration in 2027, premiums for terrorism insurance coverage will likely increase and the terms of such insurance policies may be materially amended to increase stated exclusions or to otherwise effectively decrease the scope of coverage available (perhaps to the point where it is effectively not available). In addition, to the extent that any insurance policies contain a “sunset clause” (i.e., a clause that voids terrorism coverage if the federal insurance backstop program is not renewed), then such policies may cease to provide terrorism insurance upon the expiration of the Terrorism Insurance Program. We cannot assure you that the Terrorism Insurance Program or any successor program will create any long term changes in the availability and cost of such insurance. Moreover, future legislation, including regulations expected to be adopted by the Treasury Department pursuant to TRIPRA, may have a material effect on the availability of federal assistance in the terrorism insurance market. To the extent that uninsured or underinsured casualty losses occur with respect to the related mortgaged properties, losses on the mortgage loans may result. In addition, the failure to maintain such terrorism insurance may constitute a default under the related mortgage loan.

 

Some of the mortgage loans may not require the related borrower to maintain terrorism insurance. In addition, most of the mortgage loans contain limitations on the related borrower’s obligation to obtain terrorism insurance, such as (i) waiving the requirement that such borrower maintain terrorism insurance if such insurance is not available at commercially reasonable rates, (ii) providing that the related borrower is not required to spend in excess of a specified dollar amount (or in some cases, a specified multiple of what is spent on other insurance) in order to obtain such terrorism insurance, (iii) requiring coverage only for as long as the TRIPRA is in effect, or (iv) requiring coverage only for losses arising from domestic acts of terrorism or from terrorist acts certified by the federal government as “acts of terrorism” under the TRIPRA. See representation and warranty no. 31 on Annex D-1 and no. 30 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

We cannot assure you that all of the mortgaged properties will be insured against the risks of terrorism and similar acts. As a result of any of the foregoing, the amount available to make distributions on your certificates could be reduced.

 

Other mortgaged properties securing mortgage loans may also be insured under a blanket policy or self-insured or insured by a sole tenant. See “—Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance” below.

 

Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are covered by blanket insurance policies, which also cover other properties of the related borrower or its affiliates (including certain properties in close proximity to the mortgaged properties). In the event that such policies are drawn on to cover losses on such other properties, the amount of insurance coverage available under such policies would thereby be reduced and could be insufficient to cover each mortgaged property’s insurable risks.

 

Certain mortgaged properties may also be insured or self-insured by a sole or significant tenant, as further described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues” and “—Insurance Considerations”. We cannot assure you that any insurance obtained by a sole or significant tenant will be adequate or that such sole or significant tenant will comply with any requirements to maintain adequate insurance. Additionally, to the extent that insurance coverage relies on self-insurance, there is a risk that the “insurer” will not be willing or have the financial ability to satisfy a claim if a loss occurs.

 

Additionally, the risks related to blanket or self-insurance may be aggravated if the mortgage loans that allow such coverage are part of a group of mortgage loans with related borrowers, and some or all of the related mortgaged properties are covered under the same self-insurance or blanket insurance policy, which may also cover other properties owned by affiliates of such borrowers.

 

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Condemnation of a Mortgaged Property May Adversely Affect Distributions on Certificates

 

From time to time, there may be condemnations pending or threatened against one or more of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans. The proceeds payable in connection with a total condemnation may not be sufficient to restore the related mortgaged property or to satisfy the remaining indebtedness of the related mortgage loan. The occurrence of a partial condemnation may have a material adverse effect on the continued use of, or income generated by, the affected mortgaged property. The application of condemnation proceeds may be subject to the leases of certain major tenants and, in some cases, such tenants may be entitled to a portion of the condemnation proceeds. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the occurrence of any condemnation will not have a negative impact upon distributions on your offered certificates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Litigation and Other Considerations” and representation and warranty nos. 8 and 14 on Annex D-1 and nos. 7 and 13 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

Limited Information Causes Uncertainty

 

Historical Information

 

Some of the mortgage loans that we intend to include in the issuing entity are secured in whole or in part by mortgaged properties for which limited or no historical operating information is available. As a result, you may find it difficult to analyze the historical performance of those mortgaged properties.

 

A mortgaged property may lack prior operating history or historical financial information because it is newly constructed or renovated, it is a recent acquisition by the related borrower or it is a single-tenant property that is subject to a triple net lease. In addition, a tenant’s lease may contain confidentiality provisions that restrict the sponsors’ access to or disclosure of such tenant’s financial information. The underwritten net cash flows and underwritten net operating income for such mortgaged properties are derived principally from current rent rolls or tenant leases and historical expenses, adjusted to account for, among other things, inflation, rent steps, significant occupancy increases and/or a market rate management fee. In some cases, underwritten net cash flows and underwritten net operating income for mortgaged properties are based all or in part on leases (or letters of intent) that are not yet in place (and may still be under negotiation) or on tenants that may have signed a lease (or letter of intent), or lease amendment expanding the leased space, but are not yet in occupancy and/or paying rent, which present certain risks described in “—Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions” below, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” and “—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Mortgaged Properties with Limited Prior Operating History”.

 

See Annex A-1 for certain historical financial information relating to the mortgaged properties, including net operating income for the most recent reporting period and prior three calendar years, to the extent available.

 

Ongoing Information

 

The primary source of ongoing information regarding the offered certificates, including information regarding the status of the related mortgage loans and any credit support for the offered certificates, will be the periodic reports delivered to you. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information”. We cannot assure you that any additional ongoing information regarding the offered certificates will be available through any other source. The limited nature of the available information in respect of the offered certificates may adversely affect their liquidity, even if a secondary market for the offered certificates does develop.

 

We are not aware of any source through which pricing information regarding the offered certificates will be generally available on an ongoing basis or on any particular date.

 

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Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions

 

As described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Information”, underwritten net cash flow generally includes cash flow (including any cash flow from master leases) adjusted based on a number of assumptions used by the sponsors. We make no representation that the underwritten net cash flow set forth in this prospectus as of the cut-off date or any other date represents actual future net cash flows. For example, with respect to certain mortgage loans included in the issuing entity, the occupancy of the related mortgaged property reflects tenants that (i) may not have yet actually executed leases (but have in some instances signed letters of intent), (ii) have signed leases or a lease amendment expanding the leased space but have not yet taken occupancy and/or are not paying full contractual rent, (iii) are seeking or may in the future seek to sublet all or a portion of their respective spaces, (iv) are “dark” tenants but paying rent, or (v) are affiliates of the related borrower and are leasing space pursuant to a master lease or a space lease. Similarly, with respect to certain mortgage loans included in the issuing entity, the underwritten net cash flow may be based on certain tenants that have not yet executed leases or that have signed leases but are not yet in place and/or are not yet paying rent, or have a signed lease or lease amendment expanding the leased space, but are not yet in occupancy of all or a portion of their space and/or paying rent, or may assume that future contractual rent steps (during some or all of the remaining term of a lease) have occurred. In many cases, co-tenancy provisions were assumed to be satisfied and vacant space was assumed to be occupied and space that was due to expire was assumed to have been re-let, in each case at market rates that may have exceeded current rent. You should review these and other similar assumptions and make your own determination of the appropriate assumptions to be used in determining underwritten net cash flow.

 

In addition, underwritten or adjusted cash flows, by their nature, are speculative and are based upon certain assumptions and projections. For example, as described under “—Special Risks—Current Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”, the assumptions and projections used to prepare underwritten information for the mortgage pool may not reflect any potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The failure of these assumptions or projections in whole or in part could cause the underwritten net operating income (calculated as described in “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”) to vary substantially from the actual net operating income of a mortgaged property.

 

In the event of the inaccuracy of any assumptions or projections used in connection with the calculation of underwritten net cash flow, the actual net cash flow could be significantly different (and, in some cases, may be materially less) than the underwritten net cash flow presented in this prospectus, and this would change other numerical information presented in this prospectus based on or derived from the underwritten net cash flow, such as the debt service coverage ratios or debt yield presented in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that any such assumptions or projections made with respect to any mortgaged property will, in fact, be consistent with that mortgaged property’s actual performance.

 

In addition, the debt service coverage ratios set forth in this prospectus for the mortgage loans and the mortgaged properties vary, and may vary substantially, from the debt service coverage ratios for the mortgage loans and the mortgaged properties as calculated pursuant to the definition of such ratios as set forth in the related mortgage loan documents. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” for additional information on certain of the mortgage loans in the issuing entity.

 

Frequent and Early Occurrence of Borrower Delinquencies and Defaults May Adversely Affect Your Investment

 

If you calculate the anticipated yield of your offered certificates based on a rate of default or amount of losses lower than that actually experienced on the mortgage loans and those additional losses result in a reduction of the total distributions on, or the certificate balance of, your offered certificates, your actual yield to maturity will be lower than expected and could be negative under certain extreme scenarios. The timing of any loss on a liquidated mortgage loan that results in a reduction of the total distributions on or the certificate balance of your offered certificates will also affect the actual yield to maturity of your offered

 

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certificates, even if the rate of defaults and severity of losses are consistent with your expectations. In general, the earlier a loss is borne by you, the greater the effect on your yield to maturity.

 

Delinquencies on the mortgage loans, if the delinquent amounts are not advanced, may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest and/or principal to the holders of the offered certificates for the current month. Furthermore, no interest will accrue on this shortfall during the period of time that the payment is delinquent. Additionally, in instances where the principal portion of any balloon payment scheduled with respect to a mortgage loan is collected by the master servicer following the end of the related collection period, no portion of the principal received on such payment will be passed through for distribution to the certificateholders until the subsequent distribution date, which may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest to the holders of the offered certificates in the following month. Furthermore, in such instances no provision is made for the master servicer or any other party to cover any such interest shortfalls that may occur as a result. In addition, if interest and/or principal advances and/or servicing advances are made with respect to a mortgage loan after a default and the related mortgage loan is thereafter worked out under terms that do not provide for the repayment of those advances in full at the time of the workout, then any reimbursements of those advances prior to the actual collection of the amount for which the advance was made may also result in shortfalls in distributions of principal to the holders of the offered certificates with certificate balances for the current month. Even if losses on the mortgage loans are not allocated to a particular class of offered certificates with certificate balances, the losses may affect the weighted average life and yield to maturity of that class of offered certificates. In the case of any material monetary or material non-monetary default, the special servicer may accelerate the maturity of the related mortgage loan, which could result in an acceleration of principal distributions to the certificateholders. The special servicer may also extend or modify a mortgage loan, which could result in a substantial delay in principal distributions to the certificateholders. In addition, losses on the mortgage loans, even if not allocated to a class of offered certificates with certificate balances, may result in a higher percentage ownership interest evidenced by those offered certificates in the remaining mortgage loans than would otherwise have resulted absent the loss. The consequent effect on the weighted average life and yield to maturity of the offered certificates will depend upon the characteristics of those remaining mortgage loans in the trust.

 

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the aggregate number and size of delinquent loans in a given collection period may be significant, and the master servicer may determine that advances of payments on such mortgage loans are not or would not be recoverable or may not be able to make such advances given the severity of delinquencies (in this transaction or other transactions), which would result in shortfalls and losses on the certificates. See also “Risk FactorsSpecial Risks—Current Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

The Mortgage Loans Have Not Been Reviewed or Re-Underwritten by Us; Some Mortgage Loans May Not Have Complied With Another Originator’s Underwriting Criteria

 

Although the sponsors have conducted a review of the mortgage loans to be sold to us for this securitization transaction, we, as the depositor for this securitization transaction, have neither originated the mortgage loans nor conducted a review or re-underwriting of the mortgage loans. Instead, we have relied on the representations and warranties made by the applicable sponsor and the remedies for breach of a representation and warranty as described under “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements” and each sponsor’s description of its underwriting criteria described under “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”. A description of the review conducted by each sponsor for this securitization transaction is set forth under “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—3650 REIT—3650 REIT’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”, “—Column Financial, Inc.—Column’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”, “—UBS AG, New York Branch—UBS AG’s Underwriting Standards” and “—German American Capital Corporation—DB Originators’ Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”.

 

The representations and warranties made by the sponsors may not cover all of the matters that one would review in underwriting a mortgage loan and you should not view them as a substitute for re-

 

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underwriting the mortgage loans. Furthermore, these representations and warranties in some respects represent an allocation of risk rather than a confirmed description of the mortgage loans. If we had re-underwritten the mortgage loans, it is possible that the re-underwriting process may have revealed problems with a mortgage loan not covered by a representation or warranty or may have revealed inaccuracies in the representations and warranties. See “—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—Sponsors May Not Make Required Repurchases or Substitutions of Defective Mortgage Loans or Pay Any Loss of Value Payment Sufficient to Cover All Losses on a Defective Mortgage Loan” below, and “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements”.

 

In addition, we cannot assure you that all of the mortgage loans would have complied with the underwriting criteria of the other originators or, accordingly, that each originator would have made the same decision to originate every mortgage loan included in the issuing entity or, if they did decide to originate an unrelated mortgage loan, that they would have been underwritten on the same terms and conditions.

 

As a result of the foregoing, you are advised and encouraged to make your own investment decision based on a careful review of the information set forth in this prospectus and your own view of the mortgage pool.

 

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the aggregate number and size of delinquent loans in a given collection period may be significant, and the master servicer or special servicer may determine that advances of payments on such mortgage loans are not or would not be recoverable or may not be able to make such advances given the severity of delinquencies (in this transaction or other transactions), which would result in shortfalls and losses on the certificates. See also “Risk Factors—Special Risks—Current Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

Static Pool Data Would Not Be Indicative of the Performance of this Pool

 

As a result of the distinct nature of each pool of commercial mortgage loans, and the separate mortgage loans within the pool, this prospectus does not include disclosure concerning the delinquency and loss experience of static pools of periodic originations by any sponsor of assets of the type to be securitized (known as “static pool data”). In particular, static pool data showing a low level of delinquencies and defaults would not be indicative of the performance of this pool or any other pools of mortgage loans originated by the same sponsor or sponsors.

 

While there may be certain common factors affecting the performance and value of income-producing real properties in general, those factors do not apply equally to all income-producing real properties and, in many cases, there are unique factors that will affect the performance and/or value of a particular income-producing real property. Moreover, the effect of a given factor on a particular real property will depend on a number of variables, including but not limited to property type, geographic location, competition, sponsorship and other characteristics of the property and the related commercial mortgage loan. Each income-producing real property represents a separate and distinct business venture and, as a result, each of the mortgage loans requires a unique underwriting analysis. Furthermore, economic and other conditions affecting real properties, whether worldwide, national, regional or local, vary over time. The performance of a pool of mortgage loans originated and outstanding under a given set of economic conditions may vary significantly from the performance of an otherwise comparable mortgage pool originated and outstanding under a different set of economic conditions.

 

Therefore, you should evaluate this offering on the basis of the information set forth in this prospectus with respect to the mortgage loans, and not on the basis of the performance of other pools of securitized commercial mortgage loans.

 

Appraisals May Not Reflect Current or Future Market Value of Each Property

 

Appraisals were obtained with respect to each of the mortgaged properties at or about the time of origination of the related mortgage loan (or whole loan, if applicable) or at or around the time of the

 

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acquisition of the mortgage loan (or whole loan, if applicable) by the related sponsor or originator. See Annex A-1 for the dates of the latest appraisals for the mortgaged properties. We have not obtained new appraisals of the mortgaged properties or assigned new valuations to the mortgage loans in connection with the offering of the offered certificates. The market values of the mortgaged properties could have declined since the origination of the related mortgage loans. In addition, in certain cases where a mortgage loan is funding the acquisition of the related mortgaged property or portfolio of mortgaged properties, the purchase price may be less than the related appraisal value set forth herein.

 

In general, appraisals represent the analysis and opinion of qualified appraisers and are not guarantees of present or future value. One appraiser may reach a different conclusion than that of a different appraiser with respect to the same property. The appraisals seek to establish the amount a typically motivated buyer would pay a typically motivated seller and, in certain cases, may have taken into consideration the purchase price paid by the borrower. The amount could be significantly higher than the amount obtained from the sale of a mortgaged property in a distress or liquidation sale.

 

Information regarding the appraised values of the mortgaged properties (including loan-to-value ratios) presented in this prospectus is not intended to be a representation as to the past, present or future market values of the mortgaged properties. For example, in some cases, a borrower or its affiliate may have acquired the related mortgaged property for a price or otherwise for consideration in an amount that is less than the related appraised value specified on Annex A-1, including at a foreclosure sale or through acceptance of a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure. Historical operating results of the mortgaged properties used in these appraisals, as adjusted by various assumptions, estimates and subjective judgments on the part of the appraiser, may not be comparable to future operating results. In addition, certain appraisals may be based on extraordinary assumptions, including without limitation, that certain tenants are in-place and paying rent when such tenants have not yet taken occupancy and/or begun paying rent or that certain renovations or property improvement plans have been completed. Such capital expenditures are not required and have not been reserved for under the mortgage loan documents, and we cannot assure you that they will be made. Additionally, certain appraisals with respect to mortgage loans secured by multiple mortgaged properties may have been conducted on a portfolio basis rather than on an individual property basis, and the sum of the values of the individual properties may be different from (and in some cases may be less than) the appraised value of the aggregate of such properties on a portfolio basis. In addition, other factors may impair the mortgaged properties’ value without affecting their current net operating income, including:

 

changes in governmental regulations, zoning or tax laws;

 

potential environmental or other legal liabilities;

 

the availability of refinancing; and

 

changes in interest rate levels.

 

In certain cases, an appraisal may reflect “as-is” values or values other than “as-is”. However, the appraised value reflected in this prospectus with respect to each mortgaged property, except as described under “Description of the Mortgage PoolAppraised Value”, reflects only the “as-is” value unless otherwise specified, which values may be based on certain assumptions, such as future construction completion, projected re-tenanting or increased tenant occupancies. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Appraised Value”.

 

In addition, investors should be aware that the appraisals for certain of the mortgaged properties were prepared prior to origination and generally have not been updated. Certain appraisals were prepared prior to the COVID-19 outbreak and do not account for the effects of the pandemic on the related mortgaged properties. In addition, more recent appraisals may not reflect the complete effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the related mortgaged properties as the cumulative impact of the pandemic may not be known for some time. Similarly, net operating income and occupancy information used in underwriting the mortgage loans may not reflect current conditions, and in particular, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, appraised values, net operating income, occupancy, and related metrics, such as

 

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loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios and debt yields, may not accurately reflect the current conditions at the mortgaged properties.

 

Additionally, with respect to the appraisals setting forth assumptions, particularly those setting forth extraordinary assumptions, as to the “as-is” values and values shown in this prospectus, we cannot assure you that any values other than “as-is” will be the value of the related mortgaged property at the indicated stabilization date (if applicable), or at maturity or on the anticipated repayment date. Any engineering report, site inspection or appraisal represents only the analysis of the individual consultant, engineer or inspector preparing such report at the time of such report, and may not reveal all necessary or desirable repairs, maintenance and capital improvement items. See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—3650 REIT—3650 REIT’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”, “—Column Financial, Inc.—Column’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”, “—UBS AG, New York Branch—UBS AG’s Underwriting Standards” and “—German American Capital Corporation—DB Originators’ Underwriting Guidelines and Processes” for additional information regarding the appraisals. We cannot assure you that the information set forth in this prospectus regarding the appraised values or loan-to-value ratios accurately reflects past, present or future market values of the mortgaged properties or the amount that would be realized upon a sale of the related mortgaged property.

 

Seasoned Mortgage Loans Present Additional Risk of Repayment

 

Certain of the mortgage loans are seasoned loans. For example, the Miami Design District, 888 Figueroa, MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay, The Westchester, Voyant Industrial Portfolio, SpringHill Suites Boise and 280 Commerce Street mortgage loans (collectively, 34.7%) were originated more than 9 months prior to the cut-off date. There are a number of risks associated with seasoned mortgage loans that are not present, or are present to a lesser degree, with more recently originated mortgage loans. For example:

 

property values and surrounding areas may have changed since the mortgage loans were originated and then-prevailing origination standards may have been different than current origination standards;

 

the business circumstances and financial condition of the related borrowers and tenants may have changed since the mortgage loans were originated;

 

the environmental circumstances at the mortgaged properties may have changed since the mortgage loans were originated;

 

the physical condition of the mortgaged properties or improvements may have changed since origination; and

 

the circumstances of the mortgaged properties, the borrower and the tenants may have changed in other respects since the mortgage loans were originated.

 

In addition, any seasoned mortgage loan may not satisfy all of the related sponsor’s underwriting standards. See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”. See also representation and warranty nos. 12, 42 and 44 on Annex D-1 and nos. 11 and 40 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

The Performance of a Mortgage Loan and Its Related Mortgaged Property Depends in Part on Who Controls the Borrower and Mortgaged Property

 

The operation and performance of a mortgage loan will depend in part on the identity of the persons or entities who control the borrower and the mortgaged property. The performance of a mortgage loan may be adversely affected if control of a borrower changes, which may occur, for example, by means of transfers of direct or indirect ownership interests in the borrower, or if the mortgage loan is assigned to and assumed by another person or entity along with a transfer of the property to that person or entity.

 

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Many of the mortgage loans generally place certain restrictions on the transfer and/or pledging of general partnership and managing member equity interests in a borrower, such as specific percentage or control limitations, although some have current or permit future mezzanine or subordinate debt. We cannot assure you the ownership of any of the borrowers would not change during the term of the related mortgage loan and result in a material adverse effect on your certificates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness” and “—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—“Due-On-Sale” and “Due-On-Encumbrance” Provisions”.

 

The Borrower’s Form of Entity May Cause Special Risks

 

The borrowers are legal entities rather than individuals. Mortgage loans made to legal entities may entail greater risks of loss than those associated with mortgage loans made to individuals. For example, a legal entity, as opposed to an individual, may be more inclined to seek legal protection from its creditors under the bankruptcy laws. Unlike individuals involved in bankruptcies, most entities generally, but not in all cases, do not have personal assets and creditworthiness at stake.

 

The terms of certain of the mortgage loans require that the borrowers be single-purpose entities and, in most cases, such borrowers’ organizational documents or the terms of the mortgage loans limit their activities to the ownership of only the related mortgaged property or mortgaged properties and limit the borrowers’ ability to incur additional indebtedness. Such provisions are designed to mitigate the possibility that the borrower’s financial condition would be adversely impacted by factors unrelated to the related mortgaged property and mortgage loan. Such borrower may also have previously owned property other than the related mortgaged property or may be a so-called “recycled” single-purpose entity that previously had other business activities and liabilities. However, we cannot assure you that such borrowers have in the past complied, or in the future will comply, with such requirements. Additionally, in some cases unsecured debt exists and/or is allowed in the future. Furthermore, in many cases such borrowers are not required to observe all covenants and conditions which typically are required in order for such borrowers to be viewed under standard rating agency criteria as “single purpose entities”.

 

Although a borrower may currently be a single purpose entity, in certain cases the borrowers were not originally formed as single purpose entities, but at origination of the related mortgage loan their organizational documents were amended. Such borrower may have previously owned property other than the related mortgaged property and may not have observed all covenants that typically are required to consider a borrower a “single purpose entity” and thus may have liabilities arising from events prior to becoming a single purpose entity.

 

The organizational documents of a borrower or the direct or indirect managing partner or member of a borrower may also contain requirements that there be one or two independent directors, managers or trustees (depending on the entity form of such borrower) whose vote is required before the borrower files a voluntary bankruptcy or insolvency petition or otherwise institutes insolvency proceedings. Generally, but not always, the independent directors, managers or trustees may only be replaced with certain other independent successors. Although the requirement of having independent directors, managers or trustees is designed to mitigate the risk of a voluntary bankruptcy filing by a solvent borrower, a borrower could file for bankruptcy without obtaining the consent of its independent director(s) (and we cannot assure you that such bankruptcy would be dismissed as an unauthorized filing), and in any case the independent directors, managers or trustees may determine that a bankruptcy filing is an appropriate course of action to be taken by such borrower. Although the independent directors, managers or trustees generally owe no fiduciary duties to entities other than the borrower itself, such determination might take into account the interests and financial condition of such borrower’s parent entities and such parent entities’ other subsidiaries in addition to those of the borrower. Consequently, the financial distress of an affiliate of a borrower might increase the likelihood of a bankruptcy filing by a borrower.

 

The bankruptcy of a borrower, or a general partner or managing member of a borrower, may impair the ability of the lender to enforce its rights and remedies under the related mortgage loan. Certain of the mortgage loans have been made to single purpose limited partnerships that have a general partner or general partners that are not themselves single purpose entities. Such loans are subject to additional

 

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bankruptcy risk. The organizational documents of the general partner in such cases do not limit it to acting as the general partner of the partnership. Accordingly there is a greater risk that the general partner may become insolvent for reasons unrelated to the mortgaged property. The bankruptcy of a general partner may dissolve the partnership under applicable state law. In addition, even if the partnership itself is not insolvent, actions by the partnership and/or a bankrupt general partner that are outside the ordinary course of their business, such as refinancing the related mortgage loan, may require prior approval of the bankruptcy court in the general partner’s bankruptcy case. The proceedings required to resolve these issues may be costly and time-consuming.

 

Any borrower, even an entity structured as a single purpose entity, as an owner of real estate, will be subject to certain potential liabilities and risks as an owner of real estate. We cannot assure you that any borrower will not file for bankruptcy protection or that creditors of a borrower or a corporate or individual general partner or managing member of a borrower will not initiate a bankruptcy or similar proceeding against such borrower or corporate or individual general partner or managing member.

 

Certain mortgage loans may have the benefit of a general payment guaranty of a portion of the indebtedness under the mortgage loan. A payment guaranty for a portion of the indebtedness under the mortgage loan that is greater than 10% presents a risk for consolidation of the assets of a borrower and the guarantor. In addition, certain borrowers’ organizational documents or the terms of certain mortgage loans permit an affiliated property manager to maintain a custodial account on behalf of such borrower and certain affiliates of such borrower into which funds available to such borrower under the terms of the related mortgage loans and funds of such affiliates are held, but which funds are and will continue to be separately accounted for as to each item of income and expense for each related mortgaged property and each related borrower. A custodial account structure for affiliated entities, while common among certain REITs, institutions or independent owners of multiple properties, presents a risk for consolidation of the assets of such affiliates as commingling of funds is a factor a court may consider in considering a request by other creditors for substantive consolidation. Substantive consolidation is an equitable remedy that could result in an otherwise solvent company becoming subject to the bankruptcy proceedings of an insolvent affiliate, making its assets available to repay the debts of affiliated companies. A court has the discretion to order substantive consolidation in whole or in part and may include non-debtor affiliates of the bankrupt entity in the proceedings. In particular, consolidation may be ordered when corporate funds are commingled and used for a principal’s personal purposes, inadequate records of transfers are made and corporate entities are deemed an alter ego of a principal. Strict adherence to maintaining separate books and records, avoiding commingling of assets and otherwise maintaining corporate policies designed to preserve the separateness of corporate assets and liabilities make it less likely that a court would order substantive consolidation, but we cannot assure you that the related borrowers, property managers or affiliates will comply with these requirements as set forth in the related mortgage loans.

 

Furthermore, with respect to any affiliated borrowers, creditors of a common parent in bankruptcy may seek to consolidate the assets of such borrowers with those of the parent. Consolidation of the assets of such borrowers would likely have an adverse effect on the funds available to make distributions on your certificates, and may lead to a downgrade, withdrawal or qualification of the ratings of your certificates.

 

See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Bankruptcy Laws”.

 

In addition, borrowers may own a mortgaged property as tenants-in-common. In the case of a mortgaged property that is owned by tenants-in-common, there is a risk that obtaining the consent of the tenants-in-common will be time consuming and cause delays with respect to the taking of certain actions by or on behalf of the borrower, including with respect to the related mortgaged property. See “—Tenancies-in-Common May Hinder Recovery” below. See also “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Tenancies-in-Common; Crowd Funding; Diversified Ownership”.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgage loans may have borrowers that are wholly or partially (directly or indirectly) owned by one or more crowd funding investor groups or other diversified ownership structures. Investments in the commercial real estate market through crowd funding investor groups are a relatively recent development and there may be certain unanticipated risks to this new ownership structure which

 

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may adversely affect the related mortgage loan. Typically, the crowd funding investor group is made up of a large number of individual investors who invest relatively small amounts in the group pursuant to a securities offering. With respect to an equity investment in the borrower, the crowd funding investor group in turn purchases a stake in the borrower. Accordingly, equity in the borrower is indirectly held by the individual investors in the crowd funding group. We cannot assure you that either the crowd funding investor group or the individual investors in the crowd funding investor group or other diversified ownership structure have relevant expertise in the commercial real estate market. Additionally, crowd funding investor groups are required to comply with various securities regulations related to offerings of securities and we cannot assure you that any enforcement action or legal proceeding regarding failure to comply with such securities regulations would not delay enforcement of the related mortgage loan or otherwise impair the borrower’s ability to operate the related mortgaged property. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that a bankruptcy proceeding by the crowd funding investor group or other diversified ownership structure will not delay enforcement of the related mortgage loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Tenancies-in-Common; Crowd Funding; Diversified Ownership”.

 

A Bankruptcy Proceeding May Result in Losses and Delays in Realizing on the Mortgage Loans

 

Numerous statutory provisions, including the federal bankruptcy code and state laws affording relief to debtors, may interfere with and delay the ability of a secured mortgage lender to obtain payment of a loan, to realize upon collateral and/or to enforce a deficiency judgment. For example, under the federal bankruptcy code, virtually all actions (including foreclosure actions and deficiency judgment proceedings) are automatically stayed upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition, and, often, no interest or principal payments are made during the course of the bankruptcy proceeding. Also, under federal bankruptcy law, the filing of a petition in bankruptcy by or on behalf of a junior lien holder may stay the senior lender from taking action to foreclose out such junior lien. Certain of the mortgage loans have borrower sponsors that have previously filed bankruptcy and we cannot assure you that such borrower sponsors will not be more likely than other borrower sponsors to utilize their rights in bankruptcy in the event of any threatened action by the mortgagee to enforce its rights under the related mortgage loan documents. As a result, the issuing entity’s recovery with respect to borrowers in bankruptcy proceedings may be significantly delayed, and the aggregate amount ultimately collected may be substantially less than the amount owed. See “—Other Financings or Ability to Incur Other Indebtedness Entails Risk” below, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Loan Purpose”, “—Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings” and “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Bankruptcy Laws”.

 

Additionally, the courts of any state may refuse the foreclosure of a mortgage or deed of trust when an acceleration of the indebtedness would be inequitable or unjust or the circumstances would render the action unconscionable. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Foreclosure”.

 

See also “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases—Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease” above.

 

Litigation Regarding the Mortgaged Properties or Borrowers May Impair Your Distributions

 

There may be (and there may exist from time to time) pending or threatened legal proceedings against, or disputes with, the borrowers, the borrower sponsors and the managers of the mortgaged properties and their respective affiliates arising out of their ordinary business. We have not undertaken a search for all legal proceedings that relate to the borrowers, borrower sponsors or managers for the mortgaged properties or their respective affiliates. Potential investors are advised and encouraged to perform their own searches related to such matters to the extent relevant to their investment decision. Any such litigation or dispute may materially impair distributions to certificateholders if borrowers must use property income to pay judgments, legal fees or litigation costs. We cannot assure you that any litigation or dispute or any settlement of any litigation or dispute will not have a material adverse effect on your investment.

 

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Additionally, a borrower or a principal of a borrower or affiliate may have been a party to a bankruptcy, foreclosure, litigation or other proceeding, particularly against a lender, or may have been convicted of a crime in the past. In addition, certain of the borrower sponsors, property managers, affiliates of any of the foregoing and/or entities controlled thereby have been a party to bankruptcy proceedings, mortgage loan defaults and restructures, discounted payoffs, foreclosure proceedings or deed-in-lieu of foreclosure transactions, or other material proceedings (including criminal proceedings) in the past, whether or not related to the mortgaged property securing a mortgage loan in this securitization transaction. In some cases, mortgaged properties securing certain of the mortgage loans previously secured other loans that had been in default, restructured or the subject of a discounted payoff, foreclosure or deed-in-lieu of foreclosure.

 

Certain of the borrower sponsors may have a history of litigation or other proceedings against their lender, in some cases involving various parties to a securitization transaction. We cannot assure you that the borrower sponsors that have engaged in litigation or other proceedings in the past will not commence action against the issuing entity in the future upon any attempt by the special servicer to enforce the mortgage loan documents. Any such actions by the borrower or borrower sponsor may result in significant expense and potential loss to the issuing entity and a shortfall in funds available to make payments on the offered certificates. In addition, certain principals or borrower sponsors may have in the past been convicted of, or pled guilty to, a felony. We cannot assure you that the borrower or principal will not be more likely than other borrowers or principals to avail itself or cause a borrower to avail itself of its legal rights, under the federal bankruptcy code or otherwise, in the event of an action or threatened action by the lender or its servicer to enforce the related mortgage loan documents, or otherwise conduct its operations in a manner that is in the best interests of the lender and/or the mortgaged property. We cannot assure you that any such proceedings or actions will not have a material adverse effect upon distributions on your certificates. Further, borrowers, principals of borrowers, property managers and affiliates of such parties may, in the future, be involved in bankruptcy proceedings, foreclosure proceedings or other material proceedings (including criminal proceedings), whether or not related to the mortgage loans. We cannot assure you that any such proceedings will not negatively impact a borrower’s or borrower sponsor’s ability to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan and, as a result could have a material adverse effect upon your certificates.

 

Often it is difficult to confirm the identity of owners of all of the equity in a borrower, which means that past issues may not be discovered as to such owners. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Litigation and Other Considerations”, “—Loan Purpose” and “—Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings” for additional information on certain mortgage loans in the issuing entity. See also representation and warranty nos. 41 and 42 on Annex D-1 and nos. 39 and 40 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable). However, we cannot assure you that there are no undisclosed bankruptcy proceedings, foreclosure proceedings, deed-in-lieu-of-foreclosure transaction and/or mortgage loan workout matters that involved one or more mortgage loans or mortgaged properties, and/or a guarantor, borrower sponsor or other party to a mortgage loan.

 

In addition, in the event the owner of a borrower experiences financial problems, we cannot assure you that such owner would not attempt to take actions with respect to the mortgaged property that may adversely affect the borrower’s ability to fulfill its obligations under the related mortgage loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Litigation and Other Considerations” for information regarding litigation matters with respect to certain mortgage loans.

 

Other Financings or Ability to Incur Other Indebtedness Entails Risk

 

When a borrower (or its constituent members) also has one or more other outstanding loans (even if they are pari passu, subordinated, mezzanine, preferred equity or unsecured loans or another type of equity pledge), the issuing entity is subjected to additional risk such as:

 

the borrower (or its constituent members) may have difficulty servicing and repaying multiple financings;

 

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the existence of other financings will generally also make it more difficult for the borrower to obtain refinancing of the related mortgage loan (or whole loan, if applicable) or sell the related mortgaged property and may thereby jeopardize repayment of the mortgage loan (or whole loan, if applicable);

 

the need to service additional financings may reduce the cash flow available to the borrower to operate and maintain the mortgaged property and the value of the mortgaged property may decline as a result;

 

if a borrower (or its constituent members) defaults on its mortgage loan and/or any other financing, actions taken by other lenders such as a suit for collection, foreclosure or an involuntary petition for bankruptcy against the borrower could impair the security available to the issuing entity, including the mortgaged property, or stay the issuing entity’s ability to foreclose during the course of the bankruptcy case;

 

the bankruptcy of another lender also may operate to stay foreclosure by the issuing entity; and

 

the issuing entity may also be subject to the costs and administrative burdens of involvement in foreclosure or bankruptcy proceedings or related litigation.

 

Although the companion loans related to a serviced whole loan and any non-serviced mortgage loan are not assets of the issuing entity, each related borrower is still obligated to make interest and principal payments on such companion loans. As a result, the issuing entity is subject to additional risks, including:

 

the risk that the necessary maintenance of the related mortgaged property could be deferred to allow the borrower to pay the required debt service on these other obligations and that the value of the mortgaged property may fall as a result; and

 

the risk that it may be more difficult for the borrower to refinance these loans or to sell the related mortgaged property for purposes of making any balloon payment on the entire balance of such loans and the related additional debt at maturity or on the related anticipated repayment date.

 

With respect to mezzanine financing (if any), while a mezzanine lender has no security interest in the related mortgaged properties, a default under a mezzanine loan could cause a change in control of the related borrower. With respect to mortgage loans that permit mezzanine financing, the relative rights of the mortgagee and the related mezzanine lender will generally be set forth in an intercreditor agreement, which agreements typically provide that the rights of the mezzanine lender (including the right to payment) against the borrower and mortgaged property are subordinate to the rights of the mortgage lender and that the mezzanine lender may not take any enforcement action against the mortgage borrower and mortgaged property.

 

In addition, the mortgage loan documents related to certain mortgage loans may have or permit future “preferred equity” structures, where one or more special limited partners or members receive a preferred return in exchange for an infusion of capital or other type of equity pledge that may require payments of a specified return or of excess cash flow. Such arrangements can present risks that resemble mezzanine debt, including dilution of the borrower’s equity in the mortgaged property, stress on the cash flow in the form of a preferred return or excess cash payments, and/or potential changes in the management of the related mortgaged property in the event the preferred return is not satisfied.

 

Additionally, the terms of certain mortgage loans permit or require the borrowers to post letters of credit and/or surety bonds for the benefit of the related mortgage loan, which may constitute a contingent reimbursement obligation of the related borrower or an affiliate. The issuing bank or surety will not typically agree to subordination and standstill protection benefiting the mortgagee.

 

In addition, borrowers under most of the mortgage loans are generally permitted to incur trade payables and equipment financing, which may not be limited or may be significant, in order to operate the related mortgaged properties. Also, with respect to certain mortgage loans the related borrower either has incurred or is permitted to incur unsecured debt from an affiliate of either the borrower or the borrower

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sponsor. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness—Other Unsecured Indebtedness”.

 

For additional information, see “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

CFIUS

 

The US Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”) is tasked with reviewing transactions that could result in control of US businesses by non-US persons to determine the effect of such transactions on US national security and has jurisdiction over any “covered transaction,” which is defined to include (among other things) “any merger, acquisition, or takeover . . . by or with any foreign person which could result in foreign control of any person engaged in interstate commerce in the United States.” If CFIUS determines that a transaction, including any transaction relating to a mortgage loan included in the trust, raises US national security concerns, it can impose a range of mitigation measures on the parties (which may include, for example, unwinding the transaction if concerns cannot be addressed through other measures, and, in the most severe cases, recommending that the President of the United States order divestiture of the assets). Investors should note that were any such measures taken with respect to any mortgage loan in the trust, such measures could result in losses on, or alter the rate and timing of principal payment made, with respect to the related mortgage loan.

 

Tenancies-in-Common May Hinder Recovery

 

Certain of the mortgage loans included in the issuing entity have borrowers that own the related mortgaged properties as tenants-in-common. In general, with respect to a tenant-in-common ownership structure, each tenant-in-common owns an undivided share in the property and if such tenant-in-common desires to sell its interest in the property (and is unable to find a buyer or otherwise needs to force a partition) the tenant-in-common has the ability to request that a court order a sale of the property and distribute the proceeds to each tenant in common proportionally. As a result, if a tenant-in-common that has not waived its right of partition or similar right exercises a right of partition, the related mortgage loan may be subject to prepayment. The bankruptcy, dissolution or action for partition by one or more of the tenants-in-common could result in an early repayment of the related mortgage loan, significant delay in recovery against the tenant-in-common borrowers, particularly if the tenant-in-common borrowers file for bankruptcy separately or in series (because each time a tenant-in-common borrower files for bankruptcy, the bankruptcy court stay will be reinstated), a material impairment in property management and a substantial decrease in the amount recoverable upon the related mortgage loan. Not all tenants-in-common under the mortgage loans will be single purpose entities. Each tenant-in-common borrower has waived its right to partition, reducing the risk of partition. However, we cannot assure you that, if challenged, this waiver would be enforceable. In addition, in some cases, the related mortgage loan documents may provide for full recourse (or in an amount equal to its pro rata share of the debt) to the related tenant-in-common borrower or the guarantor if a tenant-in-common files for partition. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Tenancies-in-Common; Crowd Funding; Diversified Ownership”.

 

Risks Relating to Enforceability of Cross-Collateralization

 

Cross-collateralization arrangements may be terminated in certain circumstances under the terms of the related mortgage loan documents. Cross-collateralization arrangements whereby multiple borrowers grant their respective mortgaged properties as security for one or more mortgage loans could be challenged as fraudulent conveyances by the creditors or the bankruptcy estate of any of the related borrowers.

 

Among other things, a legal challenge to the granting of the liens may focus on the benefits realized by that borrower from the respective mortgage loan proceeds, as well as the overall cross-collateralization. If a court were to conclude that the granting of the liens was an avoidable fraudulent conveyance, that court could subordinate all or part of the mortgage loan to other debt of that borrower,

 

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recover prior payments made on that mortgage loan, or take other actions such as invalidating the mortgage loan or the mortgages securing the cross-collateralization. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Bankruptcy Laws”.

 

In addition, when multiple real properties secure a mortgage loan, the amount of the mortgage encumbering any particular one of those properties may be less than the full amount of the related aggregate mortgage loan indebtedness, to minimize recording tax. This mortgage amount is generally established at 100% to 150% of the appraised value or allocated cut-off date loan amount for the mortgaged property and will limit the extent to which proceeds from the property will be available to offset declines in value of the other properties securing the same mortgage loan.

 

The borrowers under certain of the mortgage loans secured by multiple mortgaged properties may be permitted, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, to obtain the release of one or more mortgaged properties from the lien of the mortgage and substitute other properties as collateral. A substitute property generally is required to meet certain criteria under the related mortgage loan documents. However, notwithstanding the substitution criteria, a substitute mortgaged property may have different characteristics from those of the replaced mortgaged property. We cannot assure you that a substitute mortgaged property will perform in the same manner as the replaced mortgaged property and that a substitution will not adversely affect the performance of the mortgage loan.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics” for a description of any mortgage loans that are cross-collateralized and cross-defaulted with each other or that are secured by multiple properties owned by multiple borrowers.

 

Risks Relating to Enforceability of Yield Maintenance Charges, Prepayment Premiums or Defeasance Provisions

 

Provisions requiring yield maintenance charges, prepayment premiums or lockout periods may not be enforceable in some states and under federal bankruptcy law. Provisions requiring prepayment premiums or yield maintenance charges also may be interpreted as constituting the collection of interest for usury purposes. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that the obligation to pay a yield maintenance charge or prepayment premium will be enforceable. Also, we cannot assure you that foreclosure proceeds will be sufficient to pay an enforceable yield maintenance charge or prepayment premium.

 

Additionally, although the collateral substitution provisions related to defeasance do not have the same effect on the certificateholders as prepayment, we cannot assure you that a court would not interpret those provisions as the equivalent of a yield maintenance charge or prepayment premium. In certain jurisdictions those collateral substitution provisions might therefore be deemed unenforceable or usurious under applicable law or public policy.

 

Risks Associated with One Action Rules

 

Several states (such as California) have laws that prohibit more than one “judicial action” to enforce a mortgage obligation, and some courts have construed the term “judicial action” broadly. Accordingly, the special servicer will be required to obtain advice of counsel prior to enforcing any of the issuing entity’s rights under any of the mortgage loans that include mortgaged properties where a “one action” rule could be applicable. In the case of a multi-property mortgage loan which is secured by mortgaged properties located in multiple states, the special servicer may be required to foreclose first on properties located in states where “one action” rules apply (and where non-judicial foreclosure is permitted) before foreclosing on properties located in states where judicial foreclosure is the only permitted method of foreclosure. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Foreclosure”.

 

State Law Limitations on Assignments of Leases and Rents May Entail Risks

 

Generally mortgage loans included in an issuing entity secured by mortgaged properties that are subject to leases typically will be secured by an assignment of leases and rents pursuant to which the related borrower (or with respect to any indemnity deed of trust structure, the related property owner)

 

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assigns to the lender its right, title and interest as landlord under the leases of the related mortgaged properties, and the income derived from those leases, as further security for the related mortgage loan, while retaining a license to collect rents for so long as there is no default. If the borrower defaults, the license terminates and the lender is entitled to collect rents. Some state laws may require that the lender take possession of the related property and obtain a judicial appointment of a receiver before becoming entitled to collect the rents. In addition, if bankruptcy or similar proceedings are commenced by or in respect of the borrower, the lender’s ability to collect the rents may be adversely affected. In particular, with respect to properties that are master leased, state law may provide that the lender will not have a perfected security interest in the underlying rents (even if covered by an assignment of leases and rents), unless there is also a mortgage on the master tenant’s leasehold interest. Such a mortgage is not typically obtained. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Leases and Rents” and “—Bankruptcy Laws”.

 

Various Other Laws Could Affect the Exercise of Lender’s Rights

 

The laws of the jurisdictions in which the mortgaged properties are located (which laws may vary substantially) govern many of the legal aspects of the mortgage loans. These laws may affect the ability to foreclose on, and, in turn the ability to realize value from, the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans. For example, state law determines:

 

what proceedings are required for foreclosure;

 

whether the borrower and any foreclosed junior lienors may redeem the property and the conditions under which these rights of redemption may be exercised;

 

whether and to what extent recourse to the borrower is permitted; and

 

what rights junior mortgagees have and whether the amount of fees and interest that lenders may charge is limited.

 

In addition, the laws of some jurisdictions may render certain provisions of the mortgage loans unenforceable or subject to limitations which may affect lender’s rights under the mortgage loans. Delays in liquidations of defaulted mortgage loans and shortfalls in amounts realized upon liquidation as a result of the application of these laws may create delays and shortfalls in payments to certificateholders. For example, Florida statutes render any prohibition on a property owners’ ability to obtain property-assessed clean energy (commonly referred to as “PACE”) financing unenforceable. Consequently, we cannot assure you that borrowers owning assets in Florida will not obtain PACE financing notwithstanding any prohibition on such financing set forth in the related mortgage loan documents given that such restrictions are not enforceable in Florida.

 

See also “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans”.

 

Risks of Anticipated Repayment Date Loans

 

The MGM Grand & Mandalay Bay mortgage loan provides that, if after a certain date (referred to as the anticipated repayment date) the related borrower has not prepaid the mortgage loan in full, any principal outstanding after that anticipated repayment date will accrue interest at an increased interest rate rather than the stated mortgage loan rate, and excess cash flow available after payment of debt service on the related whole loan (including interest at the increased rate), reserves, operating expenses and other amounts required under the related loan documents, will be applied to repay principal. Although this feature may create an incentive for the borrower to repay the mortgage loan in full on its anticipated repayment date, a substantial payment would be required and the borrower has no obligation to do so. Excess interest, to the extent actually collected, will be paid to the holders of the Class Z certificates, which are not offered by this prospectus. To the extent that payments are required to be made on a related subordinate companion loan or mezzanine loan prior to application of excess cash flow to repay an anticipated repayment date mortgage loan, the amount of excess cash flow available to repay such

 

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mortgage loan will be reduced. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—ARD Loans”.

 

The Absence of Lockboxes Entails Risks That Could Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates

 

Certain of the mortgage loans may not require the related borrower to cause rent and other payments to be made into a lockbox account maintained on behalf of the mortgagee, although some of those mortgage loans do provide for a springing lockbox. If rental payments are not required to be made directly into a lockbox account, there is a risk that the borrower will divert such funds for other purposes.

 

Borrower May Be Unable to Repay Remaining Principal Balance on Maturity Date or Anticipated Repayment Date; Longer Amortization Schedules and Interest-Only Provisions Increase Risk

 

Mortgage loans with substantial remaining principal balances at their stated maturity date or on the anticipated repayment date, as applicable, involve greater risk than fully-amortizing mortgage loans. This is because the borrower may be unable to repay the mortgage loan balloon balance at that time. In addition, fully amortizing mortgage loans which may pay interest on an “actual/360” basis but have fixed monthly payments may, in effect, have a small balloon payment due at maturity or on the related anticipated repayment date.

 

Most of the mortgage loans have amortization schedules that are significantly longer than their respective terms to maturity or to the anticipated repayment date, as applicable, and many of the mortgage loans require only payments of interest for part or all of their respective terms. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—Due Dates; Mortgage Rates; Calculations of Interest”. A longer amortization schedule or an interest-only provision in a mortgage loan will result in a higher amount of principal outstanding under the mortgage loan at any particular time, including at the maturity date or on the anticipated repayment date of the mortgage loan, than would have otherwise been the case had a shorter amortization schedule been used or had the mortgage loan had a shorter interest-only period or not included an interest-only provision at all. That higher principal amount outstanding could both (i) make it more difficult for the related borrower to make the required balloon payment at maturity or pay the outstanding principal balance at the related anticipated repayment date and (ii) lead to increased losses for the issuing entity either during the loan term or at maturity or at the anticipated repayment date, as applicable, if the mortgage loan becomes a defaulted mortgage loan.

 

A borrower’s ability to repay a mortgage loan on its stated maturity date or on the anticipated repayment date, as applicable, typically will depend upon its ability either to refinance the mortgage loan or to sell the mortgaged property at a price sufficient to permit repayment. A borrower’s ability to achieve either of these goals will be affected by a number of factors, including:

 

the availability of, and competition for, credit for commercial, multifamily or manufactured housing community real estate projects, which fluctuate over time;

 

the prevailing interest rates;

 

the net operating income generated by the mortgaged property;

 

the fair market value of the related mortgaged property;

 

the borrower’s equity in the related mortgaged property;

 

significant tenant rollover at the related mortgaged properties (see “—Retail Properties Have Special Risks” and “—Office Properties Have Special Risks” above);

 

the borrower’s financial condition;

 

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the operating history and occupancy level of the mortgaged property;

 

reductions in applicable government assistance/rent subsidy programs;

 

the tax laws; and

 

prevailing general and regional economic conditions.

 

In addition, the promulgation of additional laws and regulations, including the final regulations to implement the credit risk retention requirements under Section 15G of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as added by Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act, may cause commercial real estate lenders to tighten their lending standards and reduce the availability of leverage and/or refinancings for commercial real estate. This, in turn, may adversely affect a borrower’s ability to refinance mortgage loans or sell the related mortgaged property on or before the related maturity date or on the anticipated repayment date, as applicable.

 

With respect to any mortgage loan that is part of a whole loan, the risks relating to balloon payment obligations are enhanced by the existence and amount of the related companion loans.

 

None of the sponsors, any party to the pooling and servicing agreement or any other person will be under any obligation to refinance any mortgage loan. However, in order to maximize recoveries on defaulted mortgage loans, the pooling and servicing agreement permits the special servicer (and the pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of a non-serviced whole loan may permit the related special servicer) to extend and modify mortgage loans in a manner consistent with the servicing standard, subject to the limitations described under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Realization Upon Mortgage Loans” and “—Modifications, Waivers and Amendments”.

 

Neither the master servicer nor the special servicer will have the ability to extend or modify any non-serviced mortgage loan because such mortgage loan is being serviced by a master servicer or special servicer pursuant to the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of the applicable non-serviced whole loan. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

We cannot assure you that any extension or modification will increase the present value of recoveries in a given case. Whether or not losses are ultimately sustained, any delay in collection of a balloon payment that would otherwise be distributable on your certificates, whether such delay is due to borrower default or to modification of the related mortgage loan, will likely extend the weighted average life of your certificates.

 

In any event, we cannot assure you that each borrower under a balloon loan will have the ability to repay the principal balance of such mortgage loan on the related maturity date or anticipated repayment date, as applicable. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics”.

 

Risks Related to Ground Leases and Other Leasehold Interests

 

With respect to certain mortgaged properties, the encumbered interest will be characterized as a “fee interest” if (i) the borrower has a fee interest in all or substantially all of the mortgaged property (provided that if the borrower has a leasehold interest in any portion of the mortgaged property, such portion is not material to the use or operation of the mortgaged property), or (ii) the mortgage loan is secured by the borrower’s leasehold interest in the mortgaged property as well as the borrower’s (or other fee owner’s) overlapping fee interest in the related mortgaged property.

 

Leasehold mortgage loans are subject to certain risks not associated with mortgage loans secured by a lien on the fee estate of the borrower. The most significant of these risks is that if the related borrower’s leasehold were to be terminated upon a lease default, the lender would lose its security in the leasehold interest. Generally, each related ground lease or a lessor estoppel requires the lessor to give the lender

 

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notice of the borrower’s defaults under the ground lease and an opportunity to cure them, permits the leasehold interest to be assigned to the lender or the purchaser at a foreclosure sale, in some cases only upon the consent of the lessor, and contains certain other protective provisions typically included in a “mortgageable” ground lease, although not all these protective provisions are included in each case.

 

Upon the bankruptcy of a lessor or a lessee under a ground lease, the debtor has the right to assume or reject the lease. If a debtor lessor rejects the lease, the lessee has the right pursuant to the federal bankruptcy code to treat such lease as terminated by rejection or remain in possession of its leased premises for the rent otherwise payable under the lease for the remaining term of the ground lease (including renewals) and to offset against such rent any damages incurred due to the landlord’s failure to perform its obligations under the lease. If a debtor lessee/borrower rejects any or all of the lease, the leasehold lender could succeed to the lessee/borrower’s position under the lease only if the lease specifically grants the lender such right. If both the lessor and the lessee/borrower are involved in bankruptcy proceedings, the issuing entity may be unable to enforce the bankrupt lessee/borrower’s pre-petition agreement to refuse to treat a ground lease rejected by a bankrupt lessor as terminated. In such circumstances, a ground lease could be terminated notwithstanding lender protection provisions contained in the ground lease or in the mortgage.

 

Some of the ground leases securing the mortgage loans may provide that the ground rent payable under the related ground lease increases during the term of the mortgage loan. These increases may adversely affect the cash flow and net income of the related borrower.

 

A leasehold lender could lose its security unless (i) the leasehold lender holds a fee mortgage, (ii) the ground lease requires the lessor to enter into a new lease with the leasehold lender upon termination or rejection of the ground lease, or (iii) the bankruptcy court, as a court of equity, allows the leasehold lender to assume the ground lessee’s obligations under the ground lease and succeed to the ground lessee’s position. Although not directly covered by the 1994 amendments to the federal bankruptcy code, such a result would be consistent with the purpose of the 1994 amendments to the federal bankruptcy code granting the holders of leasehold mortgages permitted under the terms of the lease the right to succeed to the position of a leasehold mortgagor. Although consistent with the federal bankruptcy code, such position may not be adopted by the applicable bankruptcy court.

 

Further, in a decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (Precision Indus. v. Qualitech Steel SBQ, LLC, 327 F.3d 537 (7th Cir. 2003)) the court ruled with respect to an unrecorded lease of real property that where a statutory sale of the fee interest in leased property occurs under the federal bankruptcy code upon the bankruptcy of a landlord, such sale terminates a lessee’s possessory interest in the property, and the purchaser assumes title free and clear of any interest, including any leasehold estates. Pursuant to the federal bankruptcy code, a lessee may request the bankruptcy court to prohibit or condition the statutory sale of the property so as to provide adequate protection of the leasehold interest; however, the court ruled that this provision does not ensure continued possession of the property, but rather entitles the lessee to compensation for the value of its leasehold interest, typically from the sale proceeds. While there are certain circumstances under which a “free and clear” sale under the federal bankruptcy code would not be authorized (including that the lessee could not be compelled in a legal or equitable proceeding to accept a monetary satisfaction of his possessory interest, and that none of the other conditions of the federal bankruptcy code otherwise permits the sale), we cannot assure you that those circumstances would be present in any proposed sale of a leased premises. As a result, we cannot assure you that, in the event of a statutory sale of leased property pursuant to the federal bankruptcy code, the lessee will be able to maintain possession of the property under the ground lease. In addition, we cannot assure you that the lessee and/or the lender will be able to recoup the full value of the leasehold interest in bankruptcy court. Most of the ground leases contain standard protections typically obtained by securitization lenders. Certain of the ground leases with respect to a mortgage loan included in the issuing entity may not. See also representation and warranty no. 36 on Annex D-1 and no. 35 on Annex E-1 and any exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 or Annex E-2, respectively (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 or Annex E-1, as applicable).

 

Except as noted in this prospectus, each of the ground leases has a term that extends at least 20 years beyond the maturity date of the mortgage loan (taking into account all freely exercisable extension

 

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options) and contains customary mortgagee protection provisions, including notice and cure rights and the right to enter into a new lease with the applicable ground lessor in the event a ground lease is rejected or terminated.

 

With respect to certain of the mortgage loans, the related borrower may have given to certain lessors under the related ground lease a right of first refusal in the event a sale is contemplated or an option to purchase all or a portion of the mortgaged property and these provisions, if not waived, may impede the mortgagee’s ability to sell the related mortgaged property at foreclosure or adversely affect the foreclosure process.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Fee & Leasehold Estates; Ground Leases” and “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Bankruptcy Laws”.

 

Increases in Real Estate Taxes May Reduce Available Funds

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans have or may in the future have the benefit of reduced real estate taxes in connection with a local government “payment in lieu of taxes” program or other tax abatement arrangements. Upon expiration of such program or if such programs were otherwise terminated, the related borrower would be required to pay higher, and in some cases substantially higher, real estate taxes. Prior to expiration of such program, the tax benefit to the mortgaged property may decrease throughout the term of the expiration date until the expiration of such program. An increase in real estate taxes may impact the ability of the borrower to pay debt service on the mortgage loan.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Real Estate and Other Tax Considerations” for descriptions of real estate tax matters relating to certain mortgaged properties.

 

State and Local Mortgage Recording Taxes May Apply Upon a Foreclosure or Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure and Reduce Net Proceeds

 

Many jurisdictions impose recording taxes on mortgages which, if not paid at the time of the recording of the mortgage, may impair the ability of the lender to foreclose the mortgage. Such taxes, interest, and penalties could be significant in amount and would, if imposed, reduce the net proceeds realized by the issuing entity in liquidating the real property securing the related mortgage loan.

 

The Servicing of the Miami Design District Whole Loan Will Shift to Other Servicers

 

The servicing of the Miami Design District whole loan will be governed by the BANK 2020-BNK30 pooling and servicing agreement only temporarily, until the securitization of the related controlling pari passu companion loan. At that time, the servicing and administration of the whole loan will shift to the master servicer and special servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, and will be governed exclusively by such pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, and the related intercreditor agreement. Neither the closing date of such securitization nor the identity of such master servicer or special servicer has been determined. In addition, the provisions of the related pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, have not yet been determined. Prospective investors should be aware that they will not have any control over the identity of either the master servicer or special servicer, nor will they have any assurance as to the particular terms of any such pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, except to the extent of compliance with certain requirements set forth in the related intercreditor agreement. Moreover, the directing certificateholder for this securitization will not have any consent or consultation rights with respect to the servicing of the Miami Design District whole loan other than those limited consent and consultation rights as are provided in the related intercreditor agreement, and the holder of the related controlling pari passu companion loan or the controlling party in the securitization of such controlling pari passu companion loan or such other party specified in the related intercreditor agreement is expected to have rights substantially similar to, but not necessarily identical to, those granted to the directing holder in this transaction. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans”.

 

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Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest

 

Interests and Incentives of the Originators, the Sponsors and Their Affiliates May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests

 

The originators, the sponsors and their affiliates (including certain of the underwriters) expect to derive ancillary benefits from this offering and their respective incentives may not be aligned with those of purchasers of the offered certificates. The sponsors originated or purchased the mortgage loans in order to securitize the mortgage loans by means of a transaction such as the offering of the offered certificates. The sponsors will sell the mortgage loans to the depositor (an affiliate of Column Financial, Inc., one of the sponsors and originators, and of Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, one of the underwriters) on the closing date in exchange for cash, derived from the sale of the offered certificates to investors and/or in exchange for offered certificates. A completed offering would reduce the originators’ exposure to the mortgage loans. The originators made the mortgage loans with a view toward securitizing them and distributing the exposure by means of a transaction such as this offering of offered certificates. In addition, certain mortgaged properties may have tenants that are affiliated with the related originator. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Affiliated Leases”. This offering of offered certificates will effectively transfer the originators’ exposure to the mortgage loans to purchasers of the offered certificates.

 

The originators, the sponsors and their affiliates expect to receive various benefits, including compensation, commissions, payments, rebates, remuneration and business opportunities, in connection with or as a result of this offering of offered certificates and their interests in the mortgage loans. The sponsors and their affiliates will effectively receive compensation, and may record a profit, in an amount based on, among other things, the amount of proceeds (net of transaction expenses) received from the sale of the offered certificates to investors relative to their investment in the mortgage loans. The benefits to the originators, the sponsors and their affiliates arising from the decision to securitize the mortgage loans may be greater than they would have been had other assets been selected.

 

Furthermore, the sponsors and/or their affiliates may benefit from a completed offering of the offered certificates because the offering would establish a market precedent and a valuation data point for securities similar to the offered certificates, thus enhancing the ability of the sponsors and their affiliates to conduct similar offerings in the future and permitting them to adjust the fair value of the mortgage loans or other similar assets or securities held on their balance sheet, including increasing the carrying value or avoiding decreasing the carrying value of some or all of such similar positions.

 

In some cases, the originators, the sponsors or their affiliates are the holders of the mezzanine loans, subordinate loans, unsecured loans and/or companion loan related to their mortgage loans. The originators, the sponsors and/or their respective affiliates may retain existing mezzanine loans, subordinate loans, unsecured loans and/or companion loan or originate future permitted mezzanine indebtedness, subordinate indebtedness or unsecured indebtedness with respect to the mortgage loans. These transactions may cause the originators, the sponsors and their affiliates or their clients or counterparties who purchase the mezzanine loans, subordinate loans, unsecured loans and/or companion loans, as applicable, to have economic interests and incentives that do not align with, and that may be directly contrary to, those of an investor in the offered certificates. In addition, these transactions or actions taken to maintain, adjust or unwind any positions in the future, may, individually or in the aggregate, have a material effect on the market for the offered certificates (if any), including adversely affecting the value of the offered certificates, particularly in illiquid markets. The originators, the sponsors and their affiliates will have no obligation to take, refrain from taking or cease taking any action with respect to such companion loans or any existing or future mezzanine loans, subordinate loans and/or unsecured loans, based on the potential effect on an investor in the offered certificates, and may receive substantial returns from these transactions. In addition, the originators, the sponsors or any of their respective affiliates may benefit from certain relationships, including financial dealings, with any borrower, any non-recourse carveout guarantor or any of their respective affiliates, aside from the origination of mortgage loans or contribution of mortgage loans into this securitization, and they may have other financing arrangements with any borrower, any non-recourse carveout guarantor or any of their

 

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respective affiliates, including, without limitation, making loans or having other financing arrangements secured by indirect ownership interests in the mortgage loan borrowers not otherwise prohibited by the terms of the mortgage loan documents. Conflicts may also arise because the sponsors and their respective affiliates intend to continue to actively acquire, develop, operate, finance and dispose of real estate-related assets in the ordinary course of their businesses. During the course of their business activities, the sponsors and their respective affiliates may acquire, sell or lease properties, or finance loans secured by properties, which may include the properties securing the mortgage loans or properties that are in the same markets as the mortgaged properties. Such other properties, similar to other third-party owned real estate, may compete with the mortgaged properties for existing and potential tenants. The sponsors may also, from time to time, be among the tenants at the mortgaged properties, and they should be expected to make occupancy-related decisions based on their self-interest and not that of the issuing entity. We cannot assure you that the activities of these parties with respect to such other properties will not adversely impact the performance of the mortgaged properties.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgage loans included in the issuing entity may have been refinancings of debt previously held by a sponsor, an originator or one of their respective affiliates, or a sponsor, an originator or one of their respective affiliates may have or have had equity investments in the borrowers or mortgaged properties under certain of the mortgage loans included in the issuing entity. Each of the sponsors, the originators and their respective affiliates have made and/or may make loans to, or equity investments in, affiliates of the borrowers under the related mortgage loans. In the circumstances described above, the interests of the sponsors, the originators and their respective affiliates may differ from, and compete with, the interests of the issuing entity.

 

Moreover, an affiliate of 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC is expected to be appointed as the initial directing certificateholder. See “—Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Directing Holder and the Companion Loan Holders” below.

 

Further, various originators, sponsors and their respective affiliates are acting in multiple capacities in or with respect to this transaction, which may include, without limitation, acting as one or more transaction parties or a subcontractor or vendor of such party, participating in or contracting for interim servicing and/or custodial services with certain transaction parties, providing warehouse financing to, or receiving warehouse financing from, certain other originators or sponsors prior to transfer of the related mortgage loans to the issuing entity, and/or conducting due diligence on behalf of an investor with respect to the mortgage loans prior to their transfer to the issuing entity.

 

3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC, a mortgage loan seller is an affiliate of 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC, the expected special servicer for this transaction. In addition, pursuant to a limited subservicing agreement between 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC, an affiliate of 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC, and Midland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National Association, 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC is expected to have limited subservicing duties with respect to sixteen (16) of the 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC mortgage loans (collectively, 46.0%).

 

In addition, a majority-owned affiliate of 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC, as retaining sponsor, is expected to retain the VRR Interest and the HRR Certificates as described in “Credit Risk Retention”, and upon the occurrence of certain conditions as described under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Limitation on Liability of the Risk Retention Consultation Party”, will have the right to appoint a risk retention consultation party. Upon appointment, the risk retention consultation party may, in certain circumstances, on a strictly non-binding basis, consult with the special servicer and recommend that the special servicer take certain servicing actions, which actions may conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of the certificates. However, the special servicer is not required to follow any such recommendations or take directions from the risk retention consultation party and is not permitted to take actions that are prohibited by law or that violate the servicing standard or the terms of the mortgage loan documents. In addition, the risk retention consultation party may upon appointment be affiliated with the b-piece buyer and special servicer. While the holder of the VRR Interest only has consultation rights, the b-piece buyer and special servicer have rights which are not merely consultive. Upon appointment, the risk retention consultation party and the holder of the of the majority of the VRR Interest by whom it is appointed may have interests that are in conflict with those of certain other certificateholders, in particular

 

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if the risk retention consultation party or holder of the majority of the VRR Interest holds companion loans or companion loan securities, or has financial interests in or other financial dealings (as a lender or otherwise) with a borrower or an affiliate of a borrower under any of the mortgage loans. In order to minimize the effect of certain of these conflicts of interest, for so long as any borrower party is the risk retention consultation party or the holder of the majority of the VRR Interest (any such loan referred to in this context as an “excluded loan” as to such party), then the risk retention consultation party will not have consultation rights with respect to such excluded loan. See “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

In addition, for so long as the risk retention consultation party or the holder of the VRR Interest entitled to appoint such risk retention consultation party is a borrower party with respect to any mortgage loan or whole loan, such party will be required to certify that it will forego access to any “excluded information” relating to such excluded loan and/or the related mortgaged properties. Notwithstanding such restriction, there can be no assurance that the risk retention consultation party or holder of the VRR Interest will not obtain sensitive information related to the strategy of any contemplated workout or liquidation related to an excluded loan or otherwise seek to exert its influence over the special servicer in the event such mortgage loan or whole loan becomes subject to a workout or liquidation. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information” in this prospectus.

 

Each of these relationships may create a conflict of interest. For a description of certain of the foregoing relationships and arrangements that exist among the parties to this securitization, see “Certain Affiliations, Relationships And Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties” and “Transaction Parties”.

 

These roles and other potential relationships may give rise to conflicts of interest as described in
—Interests and Incentives of the Underwriter Entities May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests”,
—Potential Conflicts of Interest in the Selection of the Underlying Mortgage Loans” and “—Other Potential Conflicts of Interest May Affect Your Investment” below. Each of the foregoing relationships and related interests should be considered carefully by you before you invest in any offered certificates.

 

Interests and Incentives of the Underwriter Entities May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests

 

The activities and interests of the underwriters and their respective affiliates (collectively, the “Underwriter Entities”) may not align with, and may in fact be directly contrary to, those of the certificateholders. The Underwriter Entities are each part of separate global investment banking, securities and investment management firms that provide a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, they actively make markets in and trade financial instruments for their own account and for the accounts of customers. These financial instruments include debt and equity securities, currencies, commodities, bank loans, indices, baskets and other products. The Underwriter Entities’ activities include, among other things, executing large block trades and taking long and short positions directly and indirectly, through derivative instruments or otherwise. The securities and instruments in which the Underwriter Entities take positions, or expect to take positions, include loans similar to the mortgage loans, securities and instruments similar to the offered certificates and other securities and instruments. Market making is an activity where the Underwriter Entities buy and sell on behalf of customers, or for their own account, to satisfy the expected demand of customers. By its nature, market making involves facilitating transactions among market participants that have differing views of securities and instruments. Any short positions taken by the Underwriter Entities and/or their clients through marketing or otherwise will increase in value if the related securities or other instruments decrease in value, while positions taken by the Underwriter Entities and/or their clients in credit derivative or other derivative transactions with other parties, pursuant to which the Underwriter Entities and/or their clients sell or buy credit protection with respect to one or more classes of the offered certificates, may increase in value if the offered certificates default, are expected to default, or decrease in value.

 

The Underwriter Entities and their clients acting through them may execute such transactions, modify or terminate such derivative positions and otherwise act with respect to such transactions, and may

 

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exercise or enforce, or refrain from exercising or enforcing, any or all of their rights and powers in connection therewith, without regard to whether any such action might have an adverse effect on the offered certificates or the certificateholders. Additionally, none of the Underwriter Entities will have any obligation to disclose any of these securities or derivatives transactions to you in your capacity as a certificateholder. As a result, you should expect that the Underwriter Entities will take positions that are inconsistent with, or adverse to, the investment objectives of investors in the offered certificates.

 

As a result of the Underwriter Entities’ various financial market activities, including acting as a research provider, investment advisor, market maker or principal investor, you should expect that personnel in various businesses throughout the Underwriter Entities may have and express research or investment views and make recommendations that are inconsistent with, or adverse to, the objectives of investors in the offered certificates.

 

If an Underwriter Entity becomes a holder of any of the certificates, through market-making activity or otherwise, any actions that it takes in its capacity as a certificateholder, including voting, providing consents or otherwise will not necessarily be aligned with the interests of other holders of the same class or other classes of the certificates. There can be no assurance that any actions that such party takes in either such capacity will necessarily be aligned with the interests of the holders of other classes of certificates. To the extent an Underwriter Entity makes a market in the certificates (which it is under no obligation to do), it would expect to receive income from the spreads between its bid and offer prices for the certificates. The price at which an Underwriter Entity may be willing to purchase certificates, if it makes a market, will depend on market conditions and other relevant factors and may be significantly lower than the issue price for the certificates and significantly lower than the price at which it may be willing to sell certificates.

 

In addition, none of the Underwriter Entities will have any obligation to monitor the performance of the certificates or the actions of the parties to the pooling and servicing agreement and will have no authority to advise any party to the pooling and servicing agreement or to direct their actions.

 

Furthermore, each Underwriter Entity expects that a completed offering will enhance its ability to assist clients and counterparties in the transaction or in related transactions (including assisting clients in additional purchases and sales of the certificates and hedging transactions). The Underwriter Entities expect to derive fees and other revenues from these transactions. In addition, participating in a successful offering and providing related services to clients may enhance the Underwriter Entities’ relationships with various parties, facilitate additional business development, and enable them to obtain additional business and generate additional revenue.

 

The Underwriter Entities are playing several roles in this transaction. Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, one of the underwriters, is an affiliate of the depositor and of Column Financial, Inc., a sponsor, a mortgage loan seller, an originator, a warehouse lender to certain other sponsors (or their respective affiliates) and the current holder of one or more of The Grace Building and The Westchester companion loans. Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., one of the underwriters, is an affiliate of (i) German American Capital Corporation, a sponsor and a mortgage loan seller, (ii) DBR Investments Co. Limited, an originator, and (iii) Deutsche Bank AG, New York Branch, an originator. UBS Securities LLC, one of the underwriters, is an affiliate of UBS AG, New York Branch, a sponsor, a mortgage loan seller and an originator.

 

See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”. Each of the foregoing relationships should be considered carefully by you before you invest in any certificates.

 

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Master Servicer and the Special Servicer

 

The pooling and servicing agreement provides that the mortgage loans serviced thereunder are required to be administered in accordance with the servicing standard without regard to ownership of any certificate by the master servicer, the special servicer or any of their respective affiliates. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing Standard”. The trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of a non-serviced whole loan provides that

 

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such non-serviced whole loans are required to be administered in accordance with a servicing standard that is generally similar to the servicing standard set forth in the pooling and servicing agreement. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the master servicer, a sub-servicer, the special servicer or any of their respective affiliates and, as it relates to servicing and administration of a non-serviced mortgage loan, each applicable master servicer, sub-servicer, the special servicer or any of their respective affiliates under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of the non-serviced whole loans, may have interests when dealing with the mortgage loans that are in conflict with those of holders of the certificates, especially if the master servicer, a sub-servicer, the special servicer or any of their respective affiliates holds certificates or securities relating to any of the applicable companion loans, or has financial interests in or financial dealings with a borrower or a borrower sponsor.

 

Furthermore, nothing in the pooling and servicing agreement or otherwise will prohibit the master servicer or special servicer or an affiliate thereof from soliciting the refinancing of any of the mortgage loans. In the event that the master servicer or special servicer or an affiliate thereof refinances any of the mortgage loans included in the mortgage pool, an earlier than expected payoff of any such mortgage loan could occur, which would result in a prepayment, which such prepayment could have an adverse effect on the yield of the certificates. See “—Other Risks Relating to the CertificatesYour Yield May Be Affected by Defaults, Prepayments and Other Factors”.

 

In order to minimize the effect of certain of these conflicts of interest as they relate to the special servicer, for so long as the special servicer is a borrower party with respect to an excluded special servicer loan, the special servicer will be required to resign as special servicer with respect to that mortgage loan and, while no control termination event is continuing under the pooling and servicing agreement, the directing certificateholder will be required to select a separate special servicer that is not a borrower party (referred to herein as an “excluded special servicer”) with respect to any excluded special servicer loan, unless such excluded special servicer loan is also an excluded loan with respect to the directing certificateholder or the holder of the majority of the controlling class. After the occurrence and during the continuance of a control termination event or at any time the applicable excluded special servicer loan is also an excluded loan, the resigning special servicer will be required to use reasonable efforts to select the related excluded special servicer. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Replacement of Special Servicer Without Cause”. Any excluded special servicer will be required to perform all of the obligations of the special servicer with respect to such excluded special servicer loan and will be entitled to all special servicing compensation with respect to such excluded special servicer loan earned during such time as the related mortgage loan is an excluded special servicer loan. While the special servicer will have the same access to information related to the excluded special servicer loan as it does with respect to the other mortgage loans, the special servicer will covenant in the pooling and servicing agreement that it will not directly or indirectly provide any information related to any excluded special servicer loan to the related borrower party, any of the special servicer’s employees or personnel or any of its affiliates involved in the management of any investment in the related borrower party or the related mortgaged property or, to its actual knowledge, any non-affiliate that holds a direct or indirect ownership interest in the related borrower party, and will maintain sufficient internal controls and appropriate policies and procedures in place in order to comply with those obligations. Notwithstanding those restrictions, there can be no assurance that the related borrower party will not obtain sensitive information related to the strategy of any contemplated workout or liquidation related to an excluded special servicer loan.

 

Each of these relationships may create a conflict of interest. For instance, if the special servicer or its affiliate holds a subordinate class of certificates, the special servicer might seek to reduce the potential for losses allocable to those certificates from the mortgage loans by deferring acceleration in hope of maximizing future proceeds. However, that action could result in less proceeds to the issuing entity than would be realized if earlier action had been taken. In addition, no servicer is required to act in a manner more favorable to the offered certificates or any particular class of offered certificates than to the Series 2021-C20 non-offered certificates, any companion loan holder or the holder of any serviced companion

 

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loan securities. In addition, in some cases, the master servicer or special servicer or their respective affiliates may be the holder of a mezzanine or subordinate loan related to a mortgage loan in the mortgage pool. Any such interest in a mezzanine or subordinate loan may result in economic interests and incentives that do not align with, and that may be directly contrary to, those of an investor in the offered certificates. In addition, these transactions or actions taken to maintain, adjust or unwind any positions in the future may, individually or in the aggregate, have a material effect on the market for the offered certificates (if any), including adversely affecting the value of the offered certificates, particularly in illiquid markets. In any such instance, neither the master servicer nor the special servicer will have any obligation to take, refrain from taking or cease taking any action with respect to any existing or future mezzanine or subordinate loans based on the potential effect on an investor in the offered certificates, and may receive substantial returns from these transactions.

 

Each of the master servicer and the special servicer services and is expected to continue to service, in the ordinary course of their respective businesses, existing and new mortgage loans for third parties, including portfolios of mortgage loans similar to the mortgage loans. The real properties securing these other mortgage loans may be in the same markets as, and compete with, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans. Consequently, personnel of the master servicer or the special servicer, as applicable, may perform services, on behalf of the issuing entity, with respect to the mortgage loans at the same time as they are performing services, on behalf of other persons, with respect to other mortgage loans secured by properties that compete with the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans. In addition, the mortgage loan sellers will determine who will service mortgage loans that the mortgage loan sellers originate in the future, and that determination may be influenced by the mortgage loan seller’s opinion of servicing decisions made by the master servicer or the special servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement including, among other things, the manner in which the master servicer or special servicer enforces breaches of representations and warranties against the related mortgage loan seller. This may pose inherent conflicts for the master servicer or the special servicer.

 

The special servicer may enter into one or more arrangements with the directing certificateholder, a controlling class certificateholder, a serviced companion loan holder or other certificateholders (or an affiliate or a third party representative of one or more of the preceding parties) to provide for a discount and/or revenue sharing with respect to certain of the special servicer compensation in consideration of, among other things, the special servicer’s appointment (or continuance) as special servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement and/or the related intercreditor agreement and limitations on the right of such person to replace the special servicer. See “—Other Potential Conflicts of Interest May Affect Your Investment” below.

 

It is expected that 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC (or an affiliate thereof) will be the initial directing certificateholder and, as such, will be the initial directing holder (other than with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan and any applicable excluded loan). It is expected that 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC will be appointed by 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC to act as the special servicer.

 

Although the master servicer and the special servicer will be required to diligently service and administer the mortgage loan pool in accordance with the servicing standard and, accordingly, without regard to their rights to receive compensation under the pooling and servicing agreement and without regard to any potential obligation to repurchase or substitute a mortgage loan if the master servicer or the special servicer is, or is affiliated with, a mortgage loan seller, the possibility of receiving additional servicing compensation in the nature of assumption and modification fees, the continuation of receiving fees to service or specially service a mortgage loan, or the desire to avoid a repurchase demand resulting from a breach of a representation and warranty or material document default may under certain circumstances provide the master servicer or the special servicer, as the case may be, with an economic disincentive to comply with this standard.

 

Additionally, 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC, the special servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement, is an affiliate of (i) 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC, a sponsor and a mortgage loan seller and (ii) 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC, the entity which is expected to be the holder of the HRR Certificates, the holder of the VRR Interest and the initial controlling class certificateholder and expected

 

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to be appointed as the initial directing certificateholder with respect to each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan and any excluded loan).

 

Pursuant to a limited subservicing agreement between 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC, an affiliate of 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC, and Midland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National Association, 3650 REIT Loan Servicing LLC is expected to have limited subservicing duties with respect to sixteen (16) of the 3650 REIT Loan Funding 1 LLC mortgage loans (46.0%).

 

Each of the foregoing relationships should be considered carefully by you before you invest in any certificates.

 

See also “Certain Affiliations, Relationships and Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties”.

 

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Operating Advisor

 

Park Bridge Lender Services LLC, a New York limited liability company and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Park Bridge Financial LLC, has been appointed as the initial operating advisor with respect to all of the mortgage loans (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan). See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer”. In the normal course of conducting its business, the initial operating advisor and its affiliates may have rendered services to, performed surveillance of, provided valuation services to and negotiated with, numerous parties engaged in activities related to structured finance and commercial mortgage securitization. These parties may have included institutional investors, the depositor, the sponsors, the mortgage loan sellers, the originators, the certificate administrator, the trustee, the master servicer, the special servicer, the directing holder, the risk retention consultation party, collateral property owners and their vendors or affiliates of any of those parties. Each of these relationships, to the extent they exist, may continue in the future, and may involve a conflict of interest with respect to the initial operating advisor’s duties as operating advisor. We cannot assure you that the existence of these relationships and other relationships in the future will not impact the manner in which the initial operating advisor performs its duties under the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

Park Bridge Lender Services LLC or its affiliates, in the ordinary course of their business, may in the future (a) perform for third parties contract underwriting services and advisory services as well as service or specially service mortgage loans and (b) acquire mortgage loans for their own account, including, in each such case, mortgage loans similar to the mortgage loans that will be included in the issuing entity. The real properties securing these other mortgage loans may be in the same markets as, and compete with, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans that will be included in the issuing entity. Consequently, personnel of Park Bridge Lender Services LLC may perform services, on behalf of the issuing entity, with respect to the mortgage loans included in the issuing entity at the same time as they are performing services with respect to, or while Park Bridge Lender Services LLC or its affiliates are holding, other mortgage loans secured by properties that compete with the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans included in the issuing entity. This may pose inherent conflicts for Park Bridge Lender Services LLC.

 

In addition, the operating advisor and its affiliates may have interests that are in conflict with those of certificateholders if the operating advisor or any of its affiliates holds certificates or has financial interests in or other financial dealings with any of the parties to this transaction, a borrower, a parent of a borrower or any of their affiliates. Each of these relationships may also create a conflict of interest.

 

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Asset Representations Reviewer

 

Park Bridge Lender Services LLC, a New York limited liability company and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Park Bridge Financial LLC, has been appointed as the initial asset representations reviewer with respect to all of the mortgage loans. See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer”. In the normal course of conducting its business, the initial asset representations reviewer and its affiliates have rendered services to, performed surveillance of, provided valuation services to and negotiated with, numerous parties engaged in activities related to structured finance and commercial mortgage securitization. These parties may have included institutional investors,

 

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the depositor, the sponsors, the mortgage loan sellers, the originators, the certificate administrator, the trustee, the master servicer, the special servicer, the directing holder, the risk retention consultation party, collateral property owners and their vendors or affiliates of any of those parties. Each of these relationships, to the extent they exist, may continue in the future and may involve a conflict of interest with respect to the initial asset representations reviewer’s duties as asset representations reviewer. We cannot assure you that the existence of these relationships and other relationships in the future will not impact the manner in which the initial asset representations reviewer performs its duties under the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

Additionally, Park Bridge Lender Services LLC or its affiliates, in the ordinary course of their business, may in the future (a) perform for third parties contract underwriting services and advisory services as well as service or specially service mortgage loans and (b) acquire mortgage loans for their own account, including, in each such case, mortgage loans similar to the mortgage loans that will be included in the issuing entity. The real properties securing these other mortgage loans may be in the same markets as, and compete with, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans that will be included in the issuing entity. Consequently, personnel of Park Bridge Lender Services LLC may perform services, on behalf of the issuing entity, with respect to the mortgage loans included in the issuing entity at the same time as they are performing services with respect to, or while Park Bridge Lender Services LLC or its affiliates are holding, other mortgage loans secured by properties that compete with the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans included in the issuing entity. This may pose inherent conflicts for Park Bridge Lender Services LLC.

 

In addition, the asset representations reviewer and its affiliates may have interests that are in conflict with those of certificateholders if the asset representations reviewer or any of its affiliates holds certificates or has financial interests in or financial dealings with any of the parties to this transaction, a borrower, a parent of a borrower or any of their affiliates. Each of these relationships may also create a conflict of interest.

 

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Directing Holder and the Companion Loan Holders

 

It is expected that 3650 Real Estate Investment Trust 1 LLC (or an affiliate thereof) will be the initial directing certificateholder and, as such, will be the directing holder (other than with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan and any applicable excluded loan) and will be the retaining party with respect to the HRR Certificates and the VRR Interest. The special servicer may, at the direction of the directing certificateholder (if no control termination event is continuing), take actions with respect to the specially serviced loans (other than certain excluded loans) administered under the pooling and servicing agreement that could adversely affect the holders of some or all of the classes of certificates. The directing certificateholder will be controlled by the controlling class certificateholders.

 

The controlling class certificateholders and the holders of the companion loans or securities backed by such companion loans may have interests in conflict with those of the other certificateholders. As a result, it is possible that the directing certificateholder on behalf of the controlling class certificateholders (for so long as a control termination event does not exist and other than with respect to any applicable excluded loan and any non-serviced whole loan) or a controlling pari passu companion loan holder or the directing holder (which term as used in this prospectus will include any equivalent entity or any representative thereof) under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of a non-serviced whole loan may direct the special servicer or the special servicer under such trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, relating to the other securitization transaction, as the case may be, to take actions that conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of the certificates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—General” for the identity of the controlling noteholder and initial directing holder for each non-serviced whole loan.

 

The special servicer, upon consultation with a serviced pari passu companion loan holder or its representative, may take actions with respect to the related serviced whole loan that could adversely affect the holders of some or all of the classes of certificates, to the extent described under “Description of

 

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the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”. In connection with the pari passu whole loans serviced under the pooling and servicing agreement for this securitization, the serviced pari passu companion loan holders do not have any duties to the holders of any class of certificates, and they may have interests in conflict with those of the certificateholders. As a result, it is possible that a serviced pari passu companion loan holder (solely with respect to the related serviced whole loan) may advise the special servicer to take actions that conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of the certificates. However, the special servicer is not permitted to take actions that are prohibited by law or violate the servicing standard or the terms of the mortgage loan documents. In addition, except as limited by certain conditions described under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Termination of Master Servicer and Special Servicer for Cause—Servicer Termination Events”, the special servicer may be replaced by the directing certificateholder for cause at any time and without cause at any time prior to a control termination event (other than with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loans and any applicable excluded loans). See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Holder” and “—Termination of Master Servicer and Special Servicer for Cause—Servicer Termination Events”.

 

Similarly, the applicable controlling noteholder or directing certificateholder related to the securitization trust indicated in the chart titled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—General” as the directing holder has certain consent and/or consultation rights with respect to the non-serviced mortgage loan under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement governing the servicing of that non-serviced whole loan. Such controlling noteholder or directing certificateholder does not have any duties to the holders of any class of certificates and may have similar conflicts of interest with the holders of other certificates backed by the companion loans. As a result, it is possible that a non-serviced companion loan holder (solely with respect to the related non-serviced whole loan) may advise a non-serviced special servicer to take actions that conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of the certificates. However, such non-serviced special servicer is not permitted to take actions that are prohibited by law or that violate the servicing standard or the terms of the related mortgage loan documents. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

In addition, except as limited by certain conditions described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”, a non-serviced special servicer may be replaced by the related directing certificateholder or controlling noteholder for cause at any time and without cause for so long as a control termination event (or its equivalent) does not exist (and other than in respect of any excluded loan with respect to the directing certificateholder or the holder of the majority of the controlling class). See “Pooling and Servicing AgreementServicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans” below and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans” and “—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans”.

 

The directing holder and its affiliates (and a controlling noteholder under an intercreditor agreement with respect to, or the directing certificateholder (or equivalent entity) under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of, a non-serviced whole loan and their respective affiliates) may have interests that are in conflict with those of certain certificateholders, especially if the applicable directing holder (or equivalent entity) or any of its affiliates holds certificates or companion loan securities, or has financial interests in or other financial dealings (as lender or otherwise) with a borrower or an affiliate of a borrower. In order to minimize the effect of certain of these conflicts of interest, for so long as any borrower party is the directing holder or (if the directing holder is the directing certificateholder) the holder of the majority of the controlling class (any such mortgage loan referred to herein as an “excluded loan” with respect to the directing certificateholder), the directing holder will not have consent or consultation rights solely with respect to the related excluded loan (however, the directing holder will be provided certain notices and certain information relating to such excluded loan as described in the pooling and servicing agreement). In addition, for so long as any borrower party is the directing holder or a controlling class certificateholder, as applicable, the directing holder or such controlling class certificateholder, as applicable, will not be given access to certain “excluded information” solely relating to the related excluded loan and/or the related mortgaged properties pursuant to the terms of the pooling and servicing agreement. Notwithstanding those restrictions, there can be no assurance that the directing holder or any controlling class certificateholder will not obtain

 

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sensitive information related to the strategy of any contemplated workout or liquidation related to an excluded loan or otherwise seek to exert its influence over the special servicer in the event an excluded loan becomes subject to a workout or liquidation. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information”. Each of these relationships may create a conflict of interest.

 

The special servicer, in connection with obtaining the consent of, or upon consultation with, the directing holder or a serviced companion loan holder or its representative, may take actions with respect to the related serviced whole loan that could adversely affect the holders of some or all of the classes of certificates, to the extent described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”. In connection with the serviced whole loan, the serviced companion loan holder does not have any duties to the holders of any class of certificates, and it may have interests in conflict with those of the certificateholders. As a result, it is possible that the serviced companion loan holder may advise the special servicer to take actions with respect to the related serviced whole loan that conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of the certificates.

 

Potential Conflicts of Interest in the Selection of the Underlying Mortgage Loans

 

The anticipated initial investor in the Class F-RR, Class G-RR and Class NR-RR certificates (in each case, other than the portion of each such class of certificates that comprise the “VRR Interest” as described in “Credit Risk Retention”), which is referred to in this prospectus as the “b-piece buyer” (see “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Holder—General”), was given the opportunity by the sponsors to perform due diligence on the mortgage loans originally identified by the sponsors for inclusion in the issuing entity, and to request the removal, re-sizing, decrease in the principal balance of the mortgage loan, reduction of the time during which the loan pays interest only, increase in the amount of required reserves or change in the expected repayment dates or other features of some or all of the mortgage loans. The mortgage pool as originally proposed by the sponsors was adjusted based on certain of these requests. In addition, the b-piece buyer received or may receive price adjustments or cost mitigation arrangements in connection with accepting certain mortgage loans in the mortgage pool.

 

We cannot assure you that you or another investor would have made the same requests to modify the original pool as the b-piece buyer or that the final pool as influenced by the b-piece buyer’s feedback will not adversely affect the performance of your certificates and benefit the performance of the B-piece buyer’s certificates. Because of the differing subordination levels, the b-piece buyer has interests that may, in some circumstances, differ from those of purchasers of other classes of certificates, and may desire a portfolio composition that benefits the b-piece buyer but that does not benefit other investors. In addition, the b-piece buyer may enter into hedging or other transactions (except as may be restricted pursuant to the credit risk retention rules) or otherwise have business objectives that also could cause its interests with respect to the mortgage pool to diverge from those of other purchasers of the certificates. The b-piece buyer performed due diligence solely for its own benefit and has no liability to any person or entity for conducting its due diligence. The b-piece buyer is not required to take into account the interests of any other investor in the certificates in exercising remedies or voting or other rights in its capacity as owner of its certificates or in making requests or recommendations to the sponsors as to the selection of the mortgage loans and the establishment of other transaction terms. Investors are not entitled to rely on in any way the b-piece buyer’s acceptance of a mortgage loan. The b-piece buyer’s acceptance of a mortgage loan does not constitute, and may not be construed as, an endorsement of such mortgage loan, the underwriting for such mortgage loan or the originator of such mortgage loan.

 

The b-piece buyer will have no liability to any certificateholder for any actions taken by it as described in the preceding two paragraphs, and the pooling and servicing agreement will provide that each certificateholder, by its acceptance of a certificate, waives any related claims against such buyers in respect of such actions.

 

The b-piece buyer, or an affiliate, is expected to be appointed the initial directing certificateholder with respect to the mortgage loans and, as such, will be the initial directing holder (other than with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan and any applicable excluded loan). The directing holder will have certain

 

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rights to direct and consult with the special servicer. In addition, the directing holder will generally have certain consultation rights with regard to the non-serviced mortgage loans under the pooling and servicing agreements and trust and servicing agreements governing the servicing of such non-serviced whole loans and the related intercreditor agreements. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Holder”.

 

Because the incentives and actions of the b-piece buyers may, in some circumstances, differ from or be adverse to those of purchasers of the offered certificates, you are advised and encouraged to make your own investment decision based on a careful review of the information set forth in this prospectus and your own view of the mortgage pool.

 

Conflicts of Interest May Occur as a Result of the Rights of the Applicable Directing Holder To Terminate the Special Servicer of the Applicable Whole Loan

 

With respect to each whole loan, the directing holder (or an equivalent entity) exercising control rights over that whole loan will be entitled, under certain circumstances, to remove the special servicer under the applicable pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of such whole loan and, in such circumstances, appoint a successor special servicer for such whole loan (or have certain consent rights with respect to such removal or replacement). The party with this appointment power may have special relationships or interests that conflict with those of the holders of one or more classes of certificates. In addition, that party does not have any duties to the holders of any class of certificates, may act solely in its own interests, and will have no liability to any certificateholders for having done so. No certificateholder may take any action against the directing holder (or an equivalent entity) under the pooling and servicing agreement for this securitization or under the pooling and servicing agreement or trust and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of the non-serviced whole loans, or against any other parties for having acted solely in their respective interests. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans” for a description of these rights to terminate the special servicer.

 

Other Potential Conflicts of Interest May Affect Your Investment

 

The managers of the mortgaged properties and the borrowers may experience conflicts in the management and/or ownership of the mortgaged properties because:

 

a substantial number of the mortgaged properties are managed by property managers affiliated with the respective borrowers;

 

these property managers also may manage and/or franchise additional properties, including properties that may compete with the mortgaged properties; and

 

affiliates of the managers and/or the borrowers, or the managers and/or the borrowers themselves, also may own other properties, including competing properties.

 

None of the borrowers, property managers or any of their affiliates or any employees of the foregoing has any duty to favor the leasing of space or renting of hotel rooms, as applicable, in the mortgaged properties over the leasing of space in other properties, one or more of which may be adjacent to or near the mortgaged properties. In many such cases where the borrower under a mortgage loan in this transaction is affiliated with the owner of a competing property, the related mortgage loan documents may, but are not required to, contain so-called “anti-poaching” provisions, which are designed to prevent borrowers and their affiliates from steering or directing existing or prospective tenants to the competing property. However, violations of such anti-poaching provisions might not trigger the non-recourse carveout and may not be easily discovered and/or proven. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Non-Recourse Carveout Limitations”.

 

Each of the foregoing relationships should be considered carefully by you before you invest in any certificates.

 

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Other Risks Relating to the Certificates

 

The Certificates Are Limited Obligations

 

The certificates, when issued, will only represent ownership interests in the issuing entity. The certificates will not represent an interest in or obligation of, and will not be guaranteed by, the sponsors, the depositor, or any other person. The primary assets of the issuing entity will be the mortgage loans, and distributions on any class of certificates will depend solely on the amount and timing of payments and other collections in respect of the mortgage loans. We cannot assure you that the cash flow from the mortgaged properties and the proceeds of any sale or refinancing of the mortgaged properties will be sufficient to pay the principal of, and interest on, the mortgage loans or to distribute in full the amounts of interest and principal to which the certificateholders will be entitled. See “Description of the Certificates—General”.

 

The Certificates May Have Limited Liquidity and the Market Value of the Certificates May Decline

 

Your certificates will not be listed on any national securities exchange or traded on any automated quotation systems of any registered securities association, and there is currently no secondary market for your certificates. The underwriters have no obligation to make a market in the offered certificates. We cannot assure you that an active secondary market for the certificates will develop. Additionally, one or more investors may purchase substantial portions of one or more classes of certificates. Accordingly, you may not have an active or liquid secondary market for your certificates.

 

The market value of the certificates will also be influenced by the supply of and demand for CMBS generally. A number of factors will affect investors’ demand for CMBS, including:

 

the availability of alternative investments that offer higher yields or are perceived as being a better credit risk than CMBS, or as having a less volatile market value or being more liquid than CMBS;

 

legal and other restrictions that prohibit a particular entity from investing in CMBS or limit the amount or types of CMBS that it may acquire or require it to maintain increased capital or reserves as a result of its investment in CMBS;

 

increased regulatory compliance burdens imposed on CMBS or securitizations generally, or on classes of securitizers, that may make securitization a less attractive financing option for commercial mortgage loans; and

 

investors’ perceptions of commercial real estate lending or CMBS, which may be adversely affected by, among other things, a decline in real estate values or an increase in defaults and foreclosures on commercial mortgage loans.

 

We cannot assure you that your certificates will not decline in value.

 

Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations May Assign Different Ratings to the Certificates; Ratings of the Certificates Reflect Only the Views of the Applicable Rating Agencies as of the Dates Such Ratings Were Issued; Ratings May Affect ERISA Eligibility; Ratings May Be Downgraded

 

Ratings assigned to the offered certificates by the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations engaged by the depositor:

 

are based on, among other things, the economic characteristics of the mortgaged properties and other relevant structural features of the transaction;

 

do not represent any assessment of the yield to maturity that a certificateholder may experience;

 

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reflect only the views of the respective rating agencies as of the date such ratings were issued;

 

may be reviewed, revised, suspended, downgraded, qualified or withdrawn entirely by the applicable rating agency as a result of changes in or unavailability of information;

 

may have been determined based on criteria that included an analysis of historical mortgage loan data that may not reflect future experience;

 

may reflect assumptions by such rating agencies regarding performance of the mortgage loans that are not accurate, as evidenced by the significant amount of downgrades, qualifications and withdrawals of ratings assigned to previously issued CMBS by the hired rating agencies and other nationally recognized statistical rating organizations during the recent credit crisis; and

 

do not consider to what extent the offered certificates will be subject to prepayment or that the outstanding principal amount of any class of offered certificates will be prepaid.

 

The nationally recognized statistical rating organizations that assign ratings to any class of offered certificates will establish the amount of credit support, if any, for such class of offered certificates based on, among other things, an assumed level of defaults, delinquencies and losses with respect to the mortgage loans. Actual losses may, however, exceed the assumed levels. If actual losses on the mortgage loans exceed the assumed levels, you may be required to bear the additional losses.

 

We make no representation as to the suitability of any criteria established by the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations that assign ratings to any class of offered certificates or any other rating agencies, nor can we assure you that the criteria established by a nationally recognized statistical rating organizations that assign ratings to any class of offered certificates or any other rating agency will be followed in all circumstances (including, in each case, with respect to the certificates) or that they will be applied consistently across all securities analyzed by such nationally recognized statistical rating organizations that assign ratings to any class of offered certificates or any other rating agency. Any change in a rating agency’s criteria or methodology could result in a downgrade, withdrawal or qualification of any rating assigned to any securities rated by such rating agency or any other rating agency (including any class of certificates), despite the fact that such securities (or such class) might still be fully performing pursuant to the terms of the related securitization documents. We cannot assure you that any such downgrade, withdrawal or qualification of any rating assigned to any securities (including any class of certificates) will not adversely affect the market value of those certificates whose ratings have not been subject to such downgrade, withdrawal or qualification.

 

In addition, the rating of any class of offered certificates below an investment grade rating by any nationally recognized statistical rating organization, whether upon initial issuance of such class of certificates or as a result of a ratings downgrade, could adversely affect the ability of an employee benefit plan or other investor to purchase or retain those offered certificates. See “Certain ERISA Considerations” and “Legal Investment”.

 

Nationally recognized statistical rating organizations that were not engaged by the depositor to rate the offered certificates may nevertheless issue unsolicited credit ratings on one or more classes of offered certificates, relying on information they receive pursuant to Rule 17g-5 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise. If any such unsolicited ratings are issued, we cannot assure you that they will not be different from any ratings assigned by a rating agency engaged by the depositor. The issuance of unsolicited ratings by any nationally recognized statistical rating organization on a class of the offered certificates that are lower than ratings assigned by a rating agency engaged by the depositor may adversely impact the liquidity, market value and regulatory characteristics of that class.

 

As part of the process of obtaining ratings for the offered certificates, the depositor (or its affiliate) had initial discussions with and submitted certain materials to five (5) nationally recognized statistical rating organizations. Based on preliminary feedback from those nationally recognized statistical rating organizations at that time, the depositor selected three (3) of those nationally recognized statistical rating organizations to rate certain classes of the certificates and not the other nationally recognized statistical

 

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rating organizations, due in part to their initial subordination levels for the various classes of the certificates. If the depositor had selected the other nationally recognized statistical rating organizations to rate the certificates, we cannot assure you that the ratings such other nationally recognized statistical rating organizations would have assigned to the certificates would not have been lower than the ratings assigned by the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations engaged by the depositor. Further, in the case of one (1) nationally recognized statistical rating organization engaged by the depositor, the depositor only requested ratings for certain classes of rated certificates, but not others, due, in part, to the final subordination levels provided by such nationally recognized statistical rating organization for the classes of certificates. If the depositor had selected such nationally recognized statistical rating organization to rate those other classes of rated certificates not rated by it, its ratings of those other certificates may have been different, and potentially lower, than those ratings ultimately assigned to those certificates by the other nationally recognized statistical rating organizations engaged to rate such certificates. In addition, the decision not to engage one or more other rating agencies in the rating of certain classes of certificates to be issued in connection with this transaction may negatively impact the liquidity, market value and regulatory characteristics of those classes of certificates. Although unsolicited ratings may be issued by any nationally recognized statistical rating organization, a nationally recognized statistical rating organization might be more likely to issue an unsolicited rating if it was not selected after having provided preliminary feedback to the depositor. Neither the depositor nor any other person or entity will have any duty to notify you if any other nationally recognized statistical rating organization issues, or delivers notice of its intention to issue, consolidated ratings on one or more classes of certificates after the date of this prospectus.

 

Furthermore, the Securities and Exchange Commission may determine that any or all of the rating agencies engaged by the depositor to rate the certificates no longer qualifies as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization, or is no longer qualified to rate the certificates or may no longer rate similar securities for a limited period as a result of an enforcement action. Any such determination may have an adverse effect on the liquidity, market value and regulatory characteristics of the offered certificates.

 

The Securities and Exchange Commission may also take other types of enforcement actions against any or all of such rating agencies. For example, on September 29, 2020, a settlement was reached between Kroll Bond Rating Agency, LLC and the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with an investigation into the policies and procedures deployed by Kroll Bond Rating Agency, LLC to establish, maintain, enforce and document an effective internal control structure governing the implementation of and adherence to policies, procedures, and methodologies for determining credit ratings for conduit/fusion commercial mortgage-backed securities in accordance with Section 15E(c)(3)(A) of the Exchange Act. The Securities and Exchange Commission found that Kroll Bond Rating Agency, LLC’s internal controls relating to its rating of conduit/fusion commercial mortgage-backed securities had deficiencies that resulted in material weaknesses in its internal control structure. Under the settlement, Kroll Bond Rating Agency, LLC, without admitting or denying the findings of the Securities and Exchange Commission, agreed (a) to pay a civil penalty of $1.25 million, (b) to undertake, among other things, a review of the application of its internal processes, policies and procedures regarding the implementation of and adherence to procedures and methodologies for determining credit ratings, and (c) to take the necessary actions to ensure that such internal processes, policies and procedures accurately reflect the strictures of Section 15E(c)(3)(A) of the Exchange Act. Any change in Kroll Bond Rating Agency, LLC’s rating criteria or methodology could result in a downgrade, withdrawal or qualification of any rating assigned to any class of certificates, despite the fact that such class might still be performing fully to the specifications described in this prospectus and set forth in the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

We are not obligated to maintain any particular rating with respect to the certificates, and the ratings initially assigned to the certificates by any or all of the rating agencies engaged by the depositor to rate the certificates could change adversely as a result of changes affecting, among other things, the mortgage loans, the mortgaged properties, the parties to the pooling and servicing agreement, or as a result of changes to ratings criteria employed by any or all of the rating agencies engaged by the depositor to rate the certificates. Although these changes would not necessarily be or result from an event of default on any mortgage loan, any adverse change to the ratings of the offered certificates would likely have an adverse effect on the market value, liquidity and/or regulatory characteristics of those certificates.

 

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Further, certain actions provided for in loan agreements may require a rating agency confirmation be obtained from the rating agencies engaged by the depositor to rate the certificates and, in the case of a serviced whole loan, any companion loan securities as a precondition to taking such action. In certain circumstances, this condition may be deemed to have been met or waived without such a rating agency confirmation being obtained. In the event such an action is taken without a rating agency confirmation being obtained, we cannot assure you that the applicable rating agency will not downgrade, qualify or withdraw its ratings as a result of the taking of such action. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—“Due-On-Sale” and “Due-On-Encumbrance” Provisions”, “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Rating Agency Confirmations” and “Ratings” for additional considerations regarding the ratings, including a description of the process of obtaining confirmations of ratings for the offered certificates.

 

Conflicts of interest may arise for the rating agencies and other nationally recognized statistical rating organizations because sponsors, depositors, issuers and other arrangers of CMBS and other securities transactions (including the mortgage loan sellers, the depositor, the issuing entity, the borrowers and/or their affiliates) engage and pay fees to such rating agencies to assign and/or maintain their ratings for such securities, and because arrangers of such transactions are a source of repeat business for rating agencies. You should consider such potential conflicts when evaluating the relative importance of the rating assigned by a rating agency to your investment decision with respect to any class of certificates.

 

Your Yield May Be Affected by Defaults, Prepayments and Other Factors

 

General

 

The yield to maturity on each class of offered certificates will depend in part on the following:

 

the purchase price for the certificates;

 

the rate and timing of principal payments on the mortgage loans (both voluntary and involuntary), and the allocation of principal prepayments to the respective classes of offered certificates with certificate balances; and

 

the allocation of shortfalls and losses on the mortgage loans to the respective classes of offered certificates.

 

For this purpose, principal payments include voluntary and involuntary prepayments, such as prepayments resulting from the application of loan reserves, property releases, casualty or condemnation, defaults and liquidations as well as principal payments resulting from repurchases due to material breaches of representations and warranties or material document defects or purchases by a companion loan holder or mezzanine lender (if any) pursuant to a purchase option or sales of defaulted mortgage loans.

 

Any changes in the weighted average lives of your certificates may adversely affect your yield. In general, if you buy a certificate at a premium or any of the Class X-A or Class X-B certificates, and principal distributions occur faster than expected, your actual yield to maturity will be lower than expected. If principal distributions are very high, holders of certificates purchased at a premium or any of the Class X-A or Class X-B certificates might not fully recover their initial investment. Conversely, if you buy a certificate at a discount (other than any of the Class X-A or Class X-B certificates) and principal distributions occur more slowly than expected, your actual yield to maturity will be lower than expected.

 

Prepayments resulting in a shortening of the weighted average lives of your principal balance certificates may be made at a time of low interest rates when you may be unable to reinvest the resulting payment of principal on your certificates at a rate comparable to the effective yield anticipated by you in making your investment in the certificates, while delays and extensions resulting in a lengthening of those weighted average lives may occur at a time of high interest rates when you may have been able to reinvest principal payments that would otherwise have been received by you at higher rates.

 

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In addition, the extent to which prepayments on the mortgage loans in the issuing entity ultimately affect the weighted average life of the principal balance certificates will depend on the terms of the certificates, more particularly:

 

a class of certificates that entitles the holders of those certificates to a disproportionately larger share of the prepayments on the mortgage loans increases the “call risk” or the likelihood of early retirement of that class if the rate of prepayment is relatively fast; and

 

a class of certificates that entitles the holders of the certificates to a disproportionately smaller share of the prepayments on the mortgage loans increases the likelihood of “extension risk” or an extended average life of that class if the rate of prepayment is relatively slow.

 

The Timing of Prepayments and Repurchases May Change Your Anticipated Yield

 

The rate at which voluntary prepayments occur on the mortgage loans will be affected by a variety of factors, including:

 

the terms of the mortgage loans, including, the length of any prepayment lockout period and the imposition of applicable yield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums and the extent to which the related mortgage loan terms may be practically enforced;

 

the level of prevailing interest rates;

 

the availability of credit for commercial real estate;

 

the master servicer’s or special servicer’s ability to enforce yield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums;

 

the failure to meet certain requirements for the release of escrows;

 

the occurrence of casualties or natural disasters; and

 

economic, demographic, tax, legal or other factors.

 

Although a yield maintenance charge or other prepayment premium provision of a mortgage loan is intended to create an economic disincentive for a borrower to prepay voluntarily a mortgage loan, we cannot assure you that mortgage loans that have such provisions will not prepay.

 

The extent to which the master servicer or the special servicer, if any, forecloses upon, takes title to and disposes of any mortgaged property related to a mortgage loan or sells defaulted mortgage loans will affect the weighted average lives of your certificates. If the master servicer or the special servicer forecloses upon a significant number of the related mortgage loans, and depending upon the amount and timing of recoveries from the related mortgaged properties, or sells defaulted mortgage loans, your certificates may have a shorter weighted average life.

 

Delays in liquidations of defaulted mortgage loans and modifications extending the maturity of mortgage loans will tend to delay the payment of principal on the mortgage loans. The ability of the related borrower to make any required balloon payment typically will depend upon its ability either to refinance the mortgage loan or to sell the related mortgaged property. A significant number of the mortgage loans require balloon payments at maturity or provide incentives for a borrower to repay the mortgage loan by any anticipated repayment date and there is a risk that a number of those mortgage loans may default at maturity or not be repaid by any anticipated repayment date, or that the master servicer or the special servicer, if any, may extend the maturity of a number of those mortgage loans in connection with workouts. We cannot assure you as to the borrowers’ abilities to make mortgage loan payments on a full and timely basis, including any balloon payments at maturity or anticipated repayment date. Bankruptcy of the borrower or adverse conditions in the market where the mortgaged property is located may, among other things, delay the recovery of proceeds in the case of defaults. Losses on the

 

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mortgage loans due to uninsured risks or insufficient hazard insurance proceeds may create shortfalls in distributions to certificateholders. Any required indemnification of a party to the pooling and servicing agreement in connection with legal actions relating to the issuing entity, the related agreements or the certificates may also result in shortfalls.

 

See “—Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans—Risks Relating to Enforceability of Yield Maintenance Charges, Prepayment Premiums or Defeasance Provisions” above and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—Prepayment Protections and Certain Involuntary Prepayments” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Redevelopment, Renovation and Expansion”.

 

In addition, if a sponsor repurchases a mortgage loan from the issuing entity due to a material breach of one or more of its representations or warranties or a material document defect, the repurchase price paid will be passed through to the holders of the certificates with the same effect as if the mortgage loan had been prepaid in part or in full, and no yield maintenance charge or other prepayment premium would be payable. Additionally, any mezzanine lender (if any) or the holder of a subordinate companion loan may have the option to purchase the related mortgage loan after certain defaults, and the purchase price may not include any yield maintenance charges or prepayment premiums. As a result of such a repurchase or purchase, investors in the Class X-A and/or Class X-B certificates and any other certificates purchased at a premium might not fully recoup their initial investment. A repurchase, a prepayment or the exercise of a purchase option may adversely affect the yield to maturity on your certificates. In this respect, see “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Realization Upon Mortgage Loans”.

 

The certificates with notional amounts will not be entitled to distributions of principal but instead will accrue interest on their respective notional amounts. Because the notional amount of each class of interest-only certificates indicated in the table below is based upon all or a portion of the outstanding certificate balance(s) of the related class(es) of certificates identified under the heading “Underlying Class(es)”, the yield to maturity on the indicated interest-only certificates will be extremely sensitive to the rate and timing of prepayments of principal, liquidations and principal losses on the mortgage loans to the extent allocated to the related certificates with certificate balances.

 

Interest-Only Class of Certificates 

Underlying Class(es) 

Class X-AClass A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB and Class A-S certificates
Class X-BClass B and Class C certificates

 

In particular, the Class X-A certificates (and to a lesser extent, the Class X-B certificates) will be sensitive to prepayments on the mortgage loans because the prepayments will have the effect of reducing the notional amount of the Class X-A certificates first. A rapid rate of principal prepayments, liquidations and/or principal losses on the mortgage loans could result in the failure to recoup the initial investment in the Class X-A and/or Class X-B certificates. Investors in the Class X-A and Class X-B certificates should fully consider the associated risks, including the risk that an extremely rapid rate of amortization, prepayment or other liquidation of the mortgage loans could result in the failure of such investors to recoup fully their initial investments. The yield to maturity of the certificates with notional amounts may be adversely affected by the prepayment of mortgage loans with higher net mortgage loan rates. See “Yield and Maturity Considerations—Yield on the Certificates with Notional Amounts”.

 

In addition, with respect to the Class A-SB certificates, the extent to which the planned balances are achieved and the sensitivity of the Class A-SB certificates to principal prepayments on the mortgage loans will depend in part on the period of time during which the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-3 certificates remain outstanding. As such, the Class A-SB certificates will become more sensitive to the rate of prepayments on the mortgage loans after the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-3 certificates are no longer outstanding.

 

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Your Yield May Be Adversely Affected By Prepayments Resulting From Earnout Reserves

 

With respect to certain mortgage loans, earnout escrows may have been established at origination, which funds may be released to the related borrower upon satisfaction of certain conditions. If such conditions with respect to any such mortgage loa