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VanEck Bitcoin Trust

Filed: 30 Dec 20, 11:01am

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 30, 2020

Registration No. 333-[  ]

 

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

VANECK BITCOIN TRUST
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

85-6811021
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

c/o VanEck Digital Assets, LLC
Jonathan R. Simon, Esq.
666 Third Avenue, 9th Floor
New York, New York 10017
(212) 293-2000

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices and for service of process purposes)

 

Copy to:

Clifford R. Cone, Esq.
Jason D. Myers, Esq.
Clifford Chance US LLP
31 West 52nd St
New York, New York 10019

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box:  x

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  o

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  o

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer o

 

 

 

Accelerated filer o

Non-accelerated filer x

 

 

 

Smaller reporting company x

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company x

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  o

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered

 

Proposed
Maximum Aggregate
Offering Price
(1)

 

Amount of
Registration
Fee
(1)

 

Common shares of beneficial interest

 

$1,000,000

 

$109.10

 

 

(1)

 

Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(d) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 


 

The information in this Preliminary Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Preliminary Prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus dated December 30, 2020

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 Shares

VanEck Bitcoin Trust

The VanEck Bitcoin Trust (the “Trust”) is an exchange-traded fund that issues common shares of beneficial interest (the “Shares”) that trade on the Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”). The Trust’s investment objective is to reflect the performance of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate less the expenses of the Trust’s operations. In seeking to achieve its investment objective, the Trust will hold bitcoin and will value its Shares daily based on the reported MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, which is calculated based on prices contributed by exchanges that the Sponsor’s (as defined below) affiliate, MV Index Solutions GmbH (“MVIS”), believes represent the top five bitcoin exchanges based on the industry leading CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark review report. VanEck Digital Assets, LLC (the “Sponsor”) is the sponsor of the Trust, Delaware Trust Company (the “Trustee”) is the trustee of the Trust, and [  ] (the “Bitcoin Custodian”) is the custodian of the Trust, who will hold all of the Trust’s bitcoin on the Trust’s behalf.

The Trust is an exchange-traded fund. Barring a liquidation or extraordinary circumstances, the Trust does not intend on purchasing or selling bitcoin directly, although the Trustee may direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin to pay certain expenses. Instead, when the Trust sells or redeems its Shares, it will do so in “in-kind” transactions in blocks of [  ] Shares (a “Creation Basket”) at the Trust’s net asset value. Financial firms that are authorized to purchase or redeem Shares with the Trust (known as “Authorized Participants”) will deliver, or facilitate the delivery of, bitcoin to the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian in exchange for Shares when they purchase Shares, and the Trust, through the Bitcoin Custodian, will deliver bitcoin to such Authorized Participants when they redeem Shares with the Trust. Authorized Participants may then offer Shares to the public at prices that depend on various factors, including the supply and demand for Shares, the value of the Trust’s assets, and market conditions at the time of a transaction. The initial Authorized Participant is expected to be [  ]. Shareholders who buy or sell Shares during the day from their broker may do so at a premium or discount relative to the net asset value of the Shares of the Trust.

Shareholders who decide to buy or sell Shares of the Trust will place their trade orders through their brokers and may incur customary brokerage commissions and charges. Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the Shares. The Shares are expected to be listed for trading, subject to notice of issuance, on the Exchange under a ticker symbol to be announced prior to commencement of trading. Investing in the Trust involves risks similar to those involved with an investment directly in bitcoin and other significant risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 9.

The offering of the Trust’s Shares is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) in accordance with the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”). The offering is intended to be a continuous offering and is not expected to terminate until all of the registered Shares have been sold or three years from the date of the original offering, whichever is earlier, unless extended as permitted by applicable rules under the 1933 Act. The Trust is not a mutual fund registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) and is not subject to regulation under the 1940 Act. The Trust is not a commodity pool for purposes of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, as amended (the “CEA”), and the Sponsor is not subject to regulation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) as a commodity pool operator or a commodity trading advisor. The Trust’s Shares are neither interests in nor obligations of the Sponsor or the Trustee.

AN INVESTMENT IN THE TRUST INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS AND MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR SHAREHOLDERS THAT ARE NOT IN A POSITION TO ACCEPT MORE RISK THAN MAY BE INVOLVED WITH OTHER EXCHANGE-TRADED PRODUCTS THAT DO NOT HOLD BITCOIN OR INTERESTS RELATED TO BITCOIN. THE SHARES ARE SPECULATIVE SECURITIES. THEIR PURCHASE INVOLVES A HIGH DEGREE OF RISK AND YOU COULD LOSE YOUR ENTIRE INVESTMENT. YOU SHOULD CONSIDER ALL RISK FACTORS BEFORE INVESTING IN THE TRUST. PLEASE REFER TO “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE 9.

NEITHER THE SEC NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THE SECURITIES OFFERED IN THIS PROSPECTUS, OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

THE TRUST IS AN “EMERGING GROWTH COMPANY” AS THAT TERM IS USED IN THE JUMPSTART OUR BUSINESS STARTUPS ACT (THE “JOBS ACT”) AND, AS SUCH, MAY ELECT TO COMPLY WITH CERTAIN REDUCED REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.

The date of this Prospectus is  , 2021


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Page

STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

 

 

ii

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

 

 

1

 

RISK FACTORS

 

 

 

9

 

BITCOIN, BITCOIN MARKET, BITCOIN EXCHANGES AND REGULATION OF BITCOIN

 

 

 

32

 

THE TRUST AND BITCOIN PRICES

 

 

 

37

 

CALCULATION OF NAV

 

 

 

40

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRUST

 

 

 

42

 

THE TRUST’S SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

 

 

45

 

CUSTODY OF THE TRUST’S ASSETS

 

 

 

47

 

FORM OF SHARES

 

 

 

48

 

TRANSFER OF SHARES

 

 

 

49

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

 

 

50

 

CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

 

 

 

51

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

 

 

56

 

OWNERSHIP OR BENEFICIAL INTEREST IN THE TRUST

 

 

 

57

 

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

 

 

 

58

 

DUTIES OF THE SPONSOR

 

 

 

59

 

LIABILITY AND INDEMNIFICATION

 

 

 

61

 

PROVISIONS OF LAW

 

 

 

63

 

MANAGEMENT; VOTING BY SHAREHOLDERS

 

 

 

64

 

BOOKS AND RECORDS

 

 

 

65

 

STATEMENTS, FILINGS, AND REPORTS TO SHAREHOLDERS

 

 

 

66

 

FISCAL YEAR

 

 

 

67

 

GOVERNING LAW; CONSENT TO DELAWARE JURISDICTION

 

 

 

68

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

 

 

69

 

EXPERTS

 

 

 

69

 

MATERIAL CONTRACTS

 

 

 

70

 

UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES

 

 

 

71

 

PURCHASES BY EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS

 

 

 

75

 

INFORMATION YOU SHOULD KNOW

 

 

 

76

 

SUMMARY OF PROMOTIONAL AND SALES MATERIAL

 

 

 

77

 

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

 

 

 

78

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

 

 

79

 

PRIVACY POLICY

 

 

 

80

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

 

 

81

 

APPENDIX A

 

 

 

A-1

 

This Prospectus contains information you should consider when making an investment decision about the Shares of the Trust. You may rely on the information contained in this Prospectus. The Trust and the Sponsor have not authorized any person to provide you with different information and, if anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell the Shares in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale of the Shares is not permitted.

The Shares of the Trust are not registered for public sale in any jurisdiction other than the United States.

i


 

STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Prospectus includes “forward-looking statements” which generally relate to future events or future performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. All statements (other than statements of historical fact) included in this Prospectus that address activities, events or developments that will or may occur in the future, including such matters as movements in the cryptocurrencies markets and indexes that track such movements, the Trust’s operations, the Sponsor’s plans and references to the Trust’s future success and other similar matters, are forward-looking statements. These statements are only predictions. Actual events or results may differ materially. These statements are based upon certain assumptions and analyses the Sponsor has made based on its perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors appropriate in the circumstances. Whether or not actual results and developments will conform to the Sponsor’s expectations and predictions, however, is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including the special considerations discussed in this Prospectus, general economic, market and business conditions, changes in laws or regulations, including those concerning taxes, made by governmental authorities or regulatory bodies, and other world economic and political developments. Consequently, all the forward-looking statements made in this Prospectus are qualified by these cautionary statements, and there can be no assurance that actual results or developments the Sponsor anticipates will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will result in the expected consequences to, or have the expected effects on, the Trust’s operations or the value of its Shares.

ii


 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This is only a summary of the prospectus and, while it contains material information about the Trust and its Shares, it does not contain or summarize all of the information about the Trust and the Shares contained in this prospectus that is material and/or which may be important to you. You should read this entire prospectus before making an investment decision about the Shares. For a glossary of defined terms, see Appendix A.

As used below, Bitcoin with an uppercase “B” is used to describe the system as a whole that is involved in maintaining the ledger of bitcoin ownership and facilitating the transfer of bitcoin among parties. When referring to the digital asset within the Bitcoin network, bitcoin is written with a lower case “b.”

Overview of the Trust

The VanEck Bitcoin Trust (the “Trust”) is an exchange-traded fund that issues common shares of beneficial interest (the “Shares”) that trade on the [  ] (the “Exchange”). The Trust’s investment objective is to reflect the performance of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate less the expenses of the Trust’s operations. In seeking to achieve its investment objective, the Trust will hold bitcoin and will value its Shares daily based on the reported MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, which is calculated based on prices contributed by exchanges that the Sponsor’s affiliate, MV Index Solutions GmbH (“MVIS”), believes represent the top five bitcoin exchanges based on the industry leading CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark review report. The Trust is sponsored by VanEck Digital Assets, LLC (the “Sponsor”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Van Eck Associates Corporation (“VanEck”).

Bitcoin is a system for decentralized digital value exchange that is designed to enable units of bitcoin to be transferred across borders without the need for currency conversion. Bitcoin is not legal tender. The supply of bitcoin is not determined by a central government, but rather by an open-source software program that limits both the total amount of bitcoin that will be produced and the rate at which it is released into the network. The responsibility for maintaining the official ledger of who owns what bitcoin and for validating new bitcoin transactions is not entrusted to any single central entity. Instead, it is distributed among the network’s participants.

Because transfers of bitcoin are recorded on the “Bitcoin Blockchain”, which is a digital public recordkeeping system or ledger, buying, holding and selling bitcoin is very different than buying, holding and selling more conventional instruments like cash, stocks or bonds. For example, bitcoin must either be acquired through the process of “mining,” obtained in a peer-to-peer transaction, or purchased through an online bitcoin trading platform (an “exchange”) or other intermediary, such as a broker in the institutional over-the-counter (“OTC”) market. Peer-to-peer transactions may be difficult to arrange, and involve complex and potentially risky procedures around safekeeping, transferring and holding the bitcoin. Alternatively, purchasing bitcoin on an exchange requires choosing an exchange, opening an account, and transferring money from a bank account or credit card to the exchange in order to purchase the bitcoin. There are also currently over 150 bitcoin exchanges from which to choose, the quality and reliability of which varies significantly. Some exchanges have been subject to unauthorized cybersecurity breaches (“hacks”), resulting in significant losses to end users.

The Trust provides direct exposure to bitcoin and the Shares of the Trust are valued on a daily basis using prices drawn from a carefully evaluated group of exchanges selected by MVIS, which utilizes the CryptoCompare data to construct the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. The Trust provides investors with the opportunity to access the market for bitcoin through a traditional brokerage account without the potential barriers to entry or risks involved with holding or transferring bitcoin directly, acquiring it from an exchange, or mining it, as referenced above. The Trust will custody its bitcoin at [  ] (the “Bitcoin Custodian”), a regulated third-party custodian that carries insurance [and is chartered as a trust company under the New York Banking Law]. The Trust will not use derivatives that may subject the Trust to counterparty and credit risks. The Sponsor believes that the design of the Trust will enable certain investors to more effectively and


 

efficiently implement strategic and tactical asset allocation strategies that use bitcoin by investing in the Shares rather than purchasing, holding and trading bitcoin directly.

Bitcoin and the Bitcoin Network

Bitcoin is based on the decentralized, open source protocol of a peer-to-peer electronic network (the “Bitcoin network”). No single entity owns or operates the Bitcoin network. Bitcoin is not issued by governments, banks or any other centralized authority. The infrastructure of the Bitcoin network is collectively maintained on a distributed basis by the network’s participants, consisting of “miners”, who run special software to validate transactions, developers, who maintain and contribute updates to the Bitcoin network’s source code, and users, who download and maintain on their individual computer a full or partial copy of the Bitcoin Blockchain and related software. Anyone can be a user, developer, or miner. The Bitcoin network is accessed through software, and software governs bitcoin’s creation, movement, and ownership. The source code for the Bitcoin network and related software procotol is open-source, and anyone can contribute to its development. The value of bitcoin is in part determined by the supply of, and demand for, bitcoin in the global markets for the trading of bitcoin, market expectations for the adoption of bitcoin as a decentralized store of value, the number of merchants and/or institutions that accept bitcoin as a form of payment, and the volume of peer-to-peer transactions, among other factors.

Bitcoin transaction and ownership records are reflected on the Bitcoin Blockchain. Miners authenticate and bundle Bitcoin transactions sequentially into files called “blocks”, which requires performing computational work to solve a cryptographic puzzle set by the Bitcoin network’s software protocol. Because each solved block contains a reference to the previous block, they form a chronological “chain” back to the first bitcoin transaction. Copies of the Bitcoin Blockchain are stored in a decentralized manner on the computers of each individual Bitcoin network full node, i.e., any user who chooses to maintain on their computer a full copy of the Bitcoin Blockchain as well as related software. Each bitcoin is associated with a set of unique cryptographic “keys”, in the form of a string of numbers and letters, which allow whoever is in possession of the private key to assign that bitcoin in a transfer that the Bitcoin network will recognize.

MVIS and the Sponsor believe that the bitcoin market has matured such that it is operating at a level of efficiency and scale similar in material respects to established global equity, fixed income and commodity markets. MVIS and the Sponsor believe that this maturation is indicated by various objective factors, including, but not limited to:

 

 

the launch of futures contracts for bitcoin (“Bitcoin Futures”) on major, established and regulated commodity futures exchanges in the United States;

 

 

the subsequent growth of significant trading volume in those futures contracts;

 

 

the public offering of shares in a registered investment company investing in Bitcoin Futures pursuant to a registration statement declared effective by the SEC, and the offering of interests in private investment vehicles that invest in bitcoin by numerous investment managers;

 

 

the arrival of major, established market makers that rely on sophisticated and technologically enabled trading systems to arbitrage price discrepancies that may appear between bitcoin prices on different exchanges;

 

 

the development of a robust bitcoin lending market;

 

 

a significant expansion in the availability of institutional-quality custody services from regulated third-party custodians;

 

 

the confirmation by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency that national banks may provide custody services for bitcoin and other virtual currencies; and

 

 

the advent and increasing prevalence of significant insurance on custodied assets held at third-party custodians.

2


 

MVIS and the Sponsor believe that these, as well as other, factors have combined to improve the efficiency of the bitcoin market, creating a dynamic, institutional-quality, two-sided market. For more information on bitcoin and the Bitcoin network, see “Bitcoin, Bitcoin Market, Bitcoin Exchanges and Regulation of Bitcoin” below.

The Trust’s Investment Objective and Strategies

The Trust’s investment objective is to reflect the performance of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate less the expenses of the Trust’s operations. In seeking to achieve its investment objective, the Trust will hold bitcoin and will value its Shares daily based on the reported MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate and process all creations and redemptions in-kind in transactions with Authorized Participants as described below.

Barring the liquidation of the Trust or extraordinary circumstances, the Trust will not purchase or sell bitcoin directly, although the Trustee may direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin to pay certain expenses. Instead, when it sells or redeems its Shares, it will do so in “in-kind” transactions. Financial firms that are authorized to purchase or redeem Shares with the Trust (known as “Authorized Participants”) will deliver, or facilitate the delivery of, bitcoin to the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian in exchange for Shares when they purchase Shares, and the Trust, through the Bitcoin Custodian, will deliver bitcoin to such Authorized Participants when they redeem Shares from the Trust. All bitcoin will be held by the Bitcoin Custodian, a third-party custodian that carries insurance and is chartered as a trust company under the New York Banking Law. The Transfer Agent (as defined below) will facilitate the processing of purchase and sale orders in Creation Baskets from the Trust.

The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate

MV Index Solutions GmbH (“MVIS”) is the sponsor for the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. MVIS, with the assistance of its affiliates, is also the calculation agent for the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate.

The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is a U.S. dollar-denominated composite reference rate for the price of bitcoin. The index is calculated daily between 00:00 and 24:00 (CET) and the index values are disseminated to data vendors. The index is disseminated in USD and the closing value is calculated based on one hour volume weighted average price.

The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is designed to be a robust price for Bitcoin in USD. There is no component other than Bitcoin in the index. The underlying exchanges are sourced from the industry leading CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark review report. CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark was established in 2019 as a tool designed to bring clarity to the digital asset exchange sector by providing a framework for assessing risk and in turn bringing transparency and accountability to a complex and rapidly evolving market. The CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark methodology utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative metrics to analyze a comprehensive data set, covering more than 165 exchanges across eight categories of evaluation legal/regulation, KYC/transaction risk, data provision, security, team/exchange, asset quality/diversity, market quality and negative events. See “The Trust and Bitcoin Prices—Description of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate Construction and Maintenance” for more details. The CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark review report assigns a grade to each exchange which helps identify what it believes to be the lowest risk exchanges in the industry. Based on the CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark, MVIS initially selects the top five exchanges by rank for inclusion in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. If an eligible exchange is downgraded by two or more notches in a semi-annual review and is no longer in the top five by rank, it is replaced by the highest ranked non-component exchange. Adjustments to exchange coverage are announced four business days prior to the first business day of each of March and September at 23:00 CET. The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is rebalanced at 16:00:00 GMT/BST on the last business day of each of February and August. The current exchange

3


 

composition of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is Bitstamp, Coinbase, Gemini, itBit and Kraken.

Pricing Information Available on the Exchange and Other Sources

The following table lists the Exchange symbols and their descriptions with respect to the Shares and the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate:

 

 

 

Ticker

 

Description

[  ]

 

Market price per Share on the Exchange

[  ]

 

Indicative intra-day value per Share

[  ]

 

End of day NAV

[  ]

 

Number of outstanding Shares

The intra-day data in the above table is published once every 15 seconds throughout each trading day.

The current market price per Share (symbol: “[  ]”) will be published continuously as trades occur throughout each trading day on the consolidated tape by market data vendors.

The intra-day indicative value per Share (symbol: “[]”) will be published by the Exchange once every 15 seconds throughout each trading day on the consolidated tape by market data vendors.

The most recent end-of-day net asset value (“NAV”) (symbol: “[]”) will be published as of the close of business by market data vendors and available on the Sponsor’s website at [], or any successor thereto, and will be published on the consolidated tape.

Any adjustments made to the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate will be published on the MVIS website at https://www.mvis-indices.com/ or any successor thereto.

The intra-day levels and closing levels of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate are published by MVIS, and the closing NAV is published by the Administrator.

The Shares are not issued, sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by the Exchange, and the Exchange makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the Shares.

MVIS makes no warranty, express or implied, as to the results to be obtained by any person or entity from the use of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate for any purpose. Index information and any other data calculated and/or disseminated, in whole or part, by MVIS is for informational purposes only, not intended for trading purposes, and provided on an “as is” basis. MVIS does not warrant that the index information will be uninterrupted or error-free, or that defects will be corrected. MVIS also does not recommend or make any representation as to possible benefits from any securities or investments, or third-party products or services. Shareholders should undertake their own due diligence regarding securities and investment practices.

For more information on the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate and MVIS, see “The Trust and Bitcoin Prices” below.

The Trust’s Legal Structure

The Trust is a Delaware statutory trust, formed on December 17, 2020 pursuant to the Delaware Statutory Trust Act. The Trust continuously issues common shares representing fractional undivided beneficial interest in and ownership of the Trust that may be purchased and sold on the Exchange. The Trust operates pursuant to the Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement (the “Trust Agreement”), dated as of December 17, 2020. Delaware Trust Company, a Delaware trust company, is the Delaware trustee of the Trust (the “Trustee”). The Trust is managed and controlled by the Sponsor. The Sponsor is a limited liability company formed in the state of Delaware on December 8, 2020.

4


 

The Trust’s Service Providers

The Sponsor

The Sponsor arranged for the creation of the Trust and is responsible for the ongoing registration of the Shares for their public offering in the United States and the listing of Shares on the Exchange. The Sponsor will develop a marketing plan for the Trust, will prepare marketing materials regarding the Shares of the Trust, and will exercise the marketing plan of the Trust on an ongoing basis. The Sponsor has agreed to pay all operating expenses (except for litigation expenses and other extraordinary expenses) out of the Sponsor’s unified fee.

The Trustee

The Trustee, a Delaware trust company, acts as the trustee of the Trust as required to create a Delaware statutory trust in accordance with the Declaration of Trust and the Delaware Statutory Trust Act.

The Administrator

[  ] (“[  ]”) serves as the Trust’s administrator (the “Administrator”). [  ]’s principal address is [  ]. Under the Trust Administration and Accounting Agreement, the Administrator provides necessary administrative, tax and accounting services and financial reporting for the maintenance and operations of the Trust, including valuing the Trust’s bitcoin and calculating the net asset value per Share of the Trust and the net asset value of the Trust and supplying pricing information to the Sponsor for the Trust’s website. In addition, the Administrator makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services.

The Transfer Agent

[  ] serves as the transfer agent for the Trust (the “Transfer Agent”). The Transfer Agent: (1) issues and redeems Shares of the Trust; (2) responds to correspondence by Trust Shareholders and others relating to its duties; (3) maintains Shareholder accounts; and (4) makes periodic reports to the Trust.

The Bitcoin Custodian

[  ], serves as the Trust’s bitcoin custodian (the “Bitcoin Custodian”). Under the Bitcoin Custodian Agreement, the Bitcoin Custodian is responsible for safekeeping all of the bitcoin owned by the Trust. The Bitcoin Custodian was selected by the Sponsor. The Bitcoin Custodian has responsibility for opening a special account that holds the Trust’s bitcoin (the “Bitcoin Account”), as well as facilitating the transfer of bitcoin required for the operation of the Trust.

The Marketing Agent

Van Eck Securities Corporation (the “Marketing Agent”) is responsible for: (1) [in conjunction with the Administrator, reviewing and approving, or rejecting, purchase and redemption orders of Creation Baskets placed by Authorized Participants with the Administrator]; and (2) reviewing and approving the marketing materials prepared by the Trust for compliance with applicable SEC and FINRA advertising laws, rules, and regulations.

The Trust’s Fees and Expenses

The Trust will pay the Sponsor a unified fee of [  ] (the “Sponsor Fee”). The Sponsor Fee is paid by the Trust to the Sponsor as compensation for services performed under the Trust Agreement. The Administrator will make its determination regarding the Sponsor Fee in respect of each day by reference to the Trust’s NAV as of that day. The Sponsor Fee will be accrue and be payable in U.S. dollars. The Sponsor has agreed to pay all operating expenses (except for litigation

5


 

expenses and other extraordinary expenses) out of the Sponsor Fee. The Trustee from time to time will direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin in such quantity as is necessary to permit payment of the Sponsor Fee and may also direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin in such quantities as may be necessary to permit the payment of Trust expenses and liabilities not assumed by the Sponsor. The Trustee is authorized to direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin at such times and in the smallest amounts required to permit such payments as they become due, it being the intention to avoid or minimize the Trust’s holdings of assets other than bitcoin. Accordingly, the amount of bitcoin to be sold may vary from time to time depending on the level of the Trust’s expenses and liabilities and the market price of bitcoin.

Custody of the Trust’s Assets

The Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian will keep custody of all of the Trust’s bitcoin. The Bitcoin Custodian will keep a substantial portion of the private keys associated with the Trust’s bitcoin in “cold storage” or similarly secure technology. Cold storage is a safeguarding method with multiple layers of protections and protocols, by which the private key(s) corresponding to the Trust’s bitcoin is (are) generated and stored in an offline manner. Private keys are generated in offline computers that are not connected to the internet so that they are resistant to being hacked.

Cold storage of private keys may involve keeping such keys on a non-networked computer or electronic device or storing the public key and private keys on a storage device (for example, a USB thumb drive) or printed medium and deleting the keys from all computers. The Bitcoin Custodian may receive deposits of bitcoin but may not send bitcoin without use of the corresponding private keys. In order to send bitcoin when the private keys are kept in cold storage, either the private keys must be retrieved from cold storage and entered into a software program to sign the transaction, or the unsigned transaction must be sent to the “cold” server in which the private keys are held for signature by the private keys. At that point, the Bitcoin Custodian can transfer the bitcoin.

The Trust’s Transfer Agent will facilitate the settlement of Shares in response to the placement of creation orders and redemption orders from Authorized Participants. The Trust generally does not intend to hold cash or cash equivalents. However, there may be situations where the Trust will unexpectedly hold cash on a temporary basis.

Net Asset Value

NAV means the total assets of the Trust including, but not limited to, all bitcoin and cash less total liabilities of the Trust, each determined on the basis of generally accepted accounting principles.

The Administrator determines the NAV of the Trust on each day that the Exchange is open for regular trading, as promptly as practical after 4:00 p.m. EST. The NAV of the Trust is the aggregate value of the Trust’s assets less its estimated accrued but unpaid liabilities (which include accrued expenses). In determining the Trust’s NAV, the Administrator values the bitcoin held by the Trust based on the price set by the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate as of 4:00 p.m. EST. The Administrator also determines the NAV per Share.

Plan of Distribution

The Trust is an exchange-traded fund. Barring the liquidation of the Trust or extraordinary circumstances, the Trust will not purchase or sell bitcoin directly, although the Trustee may direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin to pay certain expenses. Instead, when it sells or redeems its Shares, it will do so in “in-kind” transactions in blocks of [  ] Shares called Creation Baskets at the Trust’s NAV. Only Authorized Purchasers may purchase or redeem Shares with the Trust, and they will do so by delivering, or facilitating the delivery of, bitcoin to the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian in exchange for Shares when they purchase Shares; conversely, the Trust, through the Bitcoin Custodian, will deliver bitcoin to such Authorized Participants when they redeem Shares from the Trust. Authorized Participants may then offer Shares to the public at prices that depend on

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various factors, including the supply and demand for Shares, the value of the Trust’s assets, and market conditions at the time of a transaction. The initial Authorized Participant is expected to be [Name of Initial Authorized Participant]. Shareholders who buy or sell Shares during the day from their broker may do so at a premium or discount relative to the NAV of the Shares of the Trust.

Shareholders who decide to buy or sell Shares of the Trust will place their trade orders through their brokers and may incur customary brokerage commissions and charges. Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the Shares. The Shares are expected to be listed for trading, subject to notice of issuance, on the Exchange under a ticker symbol to be announced prior to commencement of trading.

Federal Income Tax Considerations

It is expected that owners of Shares will be treated, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as if they own a proportionate share of the assets of the Trust, as if they directly receive a proportionate share of any income of the Trust, and as if they will incur a proportionate share of the expenses of the Trust. Consequently, each sale of bitcoin by the Trust (which includes under current Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) guidance using bitcoin to pay expenses of the Trust) would constitute a taxable event to Shareholders. See “United States Federal Income Tax Consequences—Taxation of U.S. Shareholders.”

Use of Proceeds

Proceeds received by the Trust from the issuance of Creation Baskets consist of bitcoin. Such deposits are held by the Bitcoin Custodian on behalf of the Trust until (i) delivered out in connection with redemptions of Creation Baskets or (ii) sold by the Bitcoin Custodian at the direction of the Trustee to pay fees due to the Sponsor and Trust expenses and liabilities not assumed by the Sponsor.

Principal Investment Risks of an Investment in the Trust

An investment in the Trust involves risks. Some of the risks you may face are summarized below. A more extensive discussion of these risks appears beginning on page 9.

Risks Associated with bitcoin and the Bitcoin network

The Bitcoin network is in the early stages of development and has a limited history. There is no assurance that usage of bitcoin will continue to grow. A contraction in use or adoption of bitcoin may result in increased volatility or a reduction in the price of bitcoin, which could adversely impact the value of the Shares. Sales of newly created or “mined” bitcoin may cause the price of bitcoin to decline, which could negatively affect an investment in the Shares. Bitcoin trading prices have exhibited high levels of volatility, and in some cases such volatility has been sudden and extreme. Because of such volatility, Shareholders could lose all or substantially all of their investment in the Trust. The Bitcoin network could cease to be a focal point for developer activity, and there is no assurance that the most active developers who participate in monitoring and upgrading the software protocols on which the Bitcoin network is based will continue to do so in the future, which could damage the network or reduce Bitcoin’s competitiveness with competing blockchain protocols. Central banks in some countries are reportedly exploring the issuance of sovereign digital currencies (“Central Bank Digital Currencies” or “CBDC”) as a form of legal tender, which could negatively impact bitcoin. Regulation of bitcoin and the Bitcoin network continues to evolve in both the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions, which may result in restrictions on the use of bitcoin or otherwise impact the demand for bitcoin.

Disruptions at bitcoin exchanges and in the OTC market could adversely affect the availability of bitcoin and the ability of Authorized Participants to purchase or sell bitcoin and therefore their ability to create and redeem Shares of the Trust. The loss or destruction of certain “private keys,” including by the Bitcoin Custodian, could prevent the Trust from accessing its bitcoin. Loss of these

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private keys may be irreversible and could result in the loss of all or substantially all of an investment in the Trust.

Risks Associated with the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate

The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate has a limited history and the methodology for determining the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate established by MVIS is relatively new and untested. The failure of one or more of the assumptions built into the methodology could have an adverse effect on the Trust and on the value of an investment in the Trust.

Risks Associated with Investing in the Trust

Shareholders may choose to use the Trust as means of investing indirectly in bitcoin. As noted, there are significant risks and hazards inherent in the bitcoin market that may cause the price of bitcoin to widely fluctuate. Shareholders considering a purchase of Shares of the Trust should carefully consider how much of their total assets should be exposed to the bitcoin market, and should fully understand, be willing to assume, and have the financial resources necessary to withstand, the risks involved in the Trust’s investment strategy, and be in a position to bear the potential loss of their entire investment in the Trust.

There is no assurance as to whether the Trust will be profitable or meet its expenses and liabilities. Any investment made in the Trust may result in a total loss of the investment.

The Trust’s return may not match the performance of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate because the Trust incurs operating expenses. The NAV of the Trust may not always correspond to the market price of its Shares for a number of reasons, including price volatility, trading activity, normal trading hours for the Trust, the calculation methodology of the NAV, and/or the closing of bitcoin trading platforms due to fraud, failure, security breaches or otherwise. As a result, although all creations and redemptions will take place in-kind in transactions with Authorized Participants, Creation Baskets may be created or redeemed at a dollar value that differs from the market price of the Shares.

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RISK FACTORS

You should consider carefully the risks described below before making an investment decision. You should also refer to the other information included in this prospectus, as well as information found in documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, before you decide to purchase any Shares. These risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by risk factors contained in any periodic report, prospectus supplement, post-effective amendment or in other reports filed with the SEC in the future.

Risks Associated with bitcoin and the Bitcoin network

Digital assets such as bitcoin were only introduced within the past decade, and the medium-to-long term value of the Shares is subject to a number of factors relating to the capabilities and development of blockchain technologies and to the fundamental investment characteristics of digital assets that are uncertain and difficult to evaluate.

Digital assets such as bitcoin were only introduced within the past decade, and the medium-to-long term value of the Shares is influenced by a wide variety of factors that are uncertain and difficult to evaluate, such as the infancy of their development, their dependence on technologies such as cryptographic protocols, their dependence on the role played by miners and developers and the potential for malicious activity. For example, the following are some of the risks could materially adversely affect the value of the Shares:

 

 

The trading prices of many digital assets, including bitcoin, have experienced extreme volatility in recent periods and may continue to do so. For instance, there were steep increases in the value of certain digital assets, including bitcoin, over the course of 2017, and multiple market observers asserted that digital assets were experiencing a “bubble.” These increases were followed by steep drawdowns throughout 2018 in digital asset trading prices, including for bitcoin. Following the drawdowns, bitcoin prices increased during 2019, then decreased significantly again in early 2020 before increasing later in the year. There can be no assurance that such increases will continue in the future, or that they will not be offset by declines. The bitcoin markets may still be experiencing a bubble or may experience a bubble again in the future. Extreme volatility in the future, including further declines in the trading prices of bitcoin, could have a material adverse effect on the value of the Shares and the Shares could lose all or substantially all of their value.

 

 

Digital asset networks and the software used to operate them are in the early stages of development. Digital assets have experienced, and the Sponsor expects will experience in the future, sharp fluctuations in value. Given the infancy of the development of digital asset networks, parties may be unwilling to transact in digital assets, which would dampen the growth, if any, of digital asset networks, including the Bitcoin network.

 

 

Digital asset networks are dependent upon the internet. A disruption of the internet or a digital asset network, such as the Bitcoin network, would affect the ability to transfer digital assets, including bitcoin, and, consequently, adversely affect their value.

 

 

The acceptance of software patches or upgrades by a significant, but not overwhelming, percentage of the users and miners in a digital asset network, such as the Bitcoin network, could result in a “fork” in such network’s blockchain, resulting in the creation of multiple separate networks, which could compete with one another for users, miners, and developers. This could adversely affect the Bitcoin network and bitcoin prices.

 

 

Governance of many digital asset networks, including the Bitcoin network, is by voluntary consensus and open competition. As a result, there may be a lack of consensus or clarity on the governance of the Bitcoin network, which may stymie the Bitcoin network’s utility and ability to grow and solve challenges. In particular, it may be difficult to find solutions or martial sufficient effort to overcome current or future problems on the Bitcoin network.

 

 

The foregoing notwithstanding, the Bitcoin network’s software protocol is informally managed by a group of core developers that propose amendments to the Bitcoin network’s source code.

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The core developers evolve over time, largely based on self-determined participation. To the extent that a significant majority of users and miners adopt amendments to the Bitcoin network, the Bitcoin network will be subject to new protocols that may adversely affect the value of bitcoin.

 

 

The open-source structure of many digital asset network protocols, such as the protocol for the Bitcoin network, means that developers and other contributors are generally not directly compensated for their contributions in maintaining and developing such protocols. As a result, the developers and other contributors of a particular digital asset may lack a financial incentive to maintain or develop the network, or may lack the resources to adequately address emerging issues. Alternatively, some developers may be funded by companies whose interests are at odds with other participants in a particular digital asset network. A failure to properly monitor and upgrade the software protocol of the Bitcoin network could damage the network, and adversely affect the value of bitcoin.

 

 

The loss or destruction of a private key required to access a digital asset such as bitcoin may be irreversible. If a private key is lost, destroyed or otherwise compromised, including by the Bitcoin Custodian, the Trust will be unable to access the bitcoin corresponding to that private key, resulting in loss.

 

 

Bitcoins have only recently become selectively accepted as a means of payment by merchants and retail and commercial businesses, and use of bitcoins by consumers to pay such merchants and businesses remains limited. Bitcoin’s price volatility may make retailers less likely to accept it as a form of payment in the future.

 

 

Miners, developers and users may switch to or adopt certain digital asset networks at the expense of their engagement with other digital asset networks, which may negatively impact those networks, including the Bitcoin network.

 

 

Over the past several years, digital asset mining operations have become more costly as they have evolved from individual users mining with computer processors, graphics processing units and first generation application specific integrated circuit machines to “professionalized” mining operations using specialized hardware or sophisticated machines. If the profit margins of digital asset mining operations are not sufficiently high, digital asset miners are more likely to immediately sell tokens earned by mining, resulting in an increase in liquid supply of that digital asset, which would generally tend to reduce that digital asset’s market price.

 

 

To the extent that any miners cease to record transactions that do not include the payment of a transaction fee in solved blocks or do not record a transaction because the transaction fee is too low, such transactions will not be recorded on the Bitcoin Blockchain until a block is solved by a miner who does not require the payment of transaction fees or is willing to accept a lower fee. Any widespread delays in the recording of transactions could result in a loss of confidence in the Bitcoin network.

 

 

In the past, flaws in the source code for digital asset networks have been exposed and exploited, including flaws that disabled some functionality for users, exposed users’ personal information and/or resulted in the theft of users’ digital assets. The cryptography underlying Bitcoin could prove to be flawed or ineffective, or developments in mathematics and/or technology, such as advances in quantum computing, could result in such cryptography becoming ineffective, enabling a malicious actor to take the Trust’s bitcoin, which would adversely affect the value of the Shares. Even if another digital asset other than bitcoin were affected by similar circumstances, any reduction in confidence in the robustness of the source code or cryptography underlying digital assets generally could negatively affect the demand for all digital assets, including bitcoin, and therefore adversely affect the value of the Shares.

 

 

Banks and other established financial institutions may refuse to process funds for bitcoin transactions; process wire transfers to or from bitcoin exchanges, bitcoin-related companies or service providers; or maintain accounts for persons or entities transacting in bitcoin. This could dampen liquidity in the market and damage the public perception of digital assets

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generally or any one digital asset in particular, such as bitcoin, and their or its utility as a payment system, which could decrease the price of digital assets generally or individually.

Moreover, because digital assets, including bitcoin, have been in existence for a short period of time and are continuing to develop, there may be additional risks in the future that are impossible to predict or evaluate as of the date of this registration statement.

The value of the Shares relates directly to the value of bitcoins, the value of which may be highly volatile and subject to fluctuations due to a number of factors.

The value of the Shares relates directly to the value of the bitcoins held by the Trust and fluctuations in the price of bitcoin could adversely affect the value of the Shares. The market price of bitcoin may be highly volatile, and may be influenced by a wide variety of factors, some of which could include:

 

 

An increase in the global bitcoin supply;

 

 

The adoption of bitcoin as a medium of exchange, store-of-value or other consumptive asset and the maintenance and development of the open-source software protocol of the Bitcoin network, and speculative expectations related thereto;

 

 

Forks in the Bitcoin network;

 

 

Shareholders’ expectations with respect to interest rates, the rates of inflation of fiat currencies or bitcoin, and digital asset and fiat currency conversion and exchange rates;

 

 

Monetary policies of governments, trade restrictions, currency devaluations and revaluations and regulatory measures or enforcement actions, if any, that restrict the use of bitcoin as a form of payment or the purchase of bitcoin on the bitcoin markets;

 

 

Increased competition from other forms of digital assets or payment services, including digital currencies constituting legal tender that may be issued in the future by central banks, or digital assets meant to serve as a medium of exchange by major private companies or other institutions.

 

 

Global or regional political, economic or financial conditions, events and situations, such as the novel coronavirus outbreak;

 

 

Consumer and investor preferences and perceptions of bitcoin specifically and digital assets generally;

 

 

Decreased confidence in bitcoin exchanges generally due the failure of certain bitcoin exchanges or their being subject to hacks, service outages, or manipulative trading activity, as well as to the lack of regulation and transparency associated with some of them;

 

 

Fiat currency withdrawal and deposit policies on bitcoin exchanges;

 

 

The liquidity of bitcoin markets;

 

 

Levels of speculative interest and trading activity in bitcoin and other digital asset markets;

 

 

Investment and trading activities of large holders of bitcoin;

 

 

A “short squeeze” resulting from speculation on the price of bitcoin, if aggregate short exposure exceeds the number of shares available for purchase;

 

 

An active derivatives market for bitcoin or for digital assets generally; and

 

 

Fees associated with processing a bitcoin transaction and the speed at which bitcoin transactions are settled.

The value of a bitcoin as represented by the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate may also be subject to momentum pricing due to speculation regarding future appreciation in value, leading to greater volatility that could adversely affect the value of the Shares. Momentum pricing typically is associated with growth stocks and other assets whose valuation, as determined by the investing public, accounts for future appreciation in value, if any. The Sponsor believes that momentum pricing of bitcoins has resulted, and may continue to result, in speculation regarding

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future appreciation in the value of bitcoin, inflating and making the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate more volatile. As a result, bitcoin may be more likely to fluctuate in value due to changing investor confidence, which could impact future appreciation or depreciation in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate and could adversely affect the value of the Trust.

The Trust is not actively managed and does not and will not have any strategy relating to the development of the Bitcoin network. Furthermore, the Sponsor cannot be certain as to the impact of the expansion of its bitcoin holdings on the digital asset industry and the Bitcoin network. A decline in the popularity or acceptance of the Bitcoin network would harm the value of the Trust.

The value of the Shares depends on the development and acceptance of the Bitcoin network. The slowing or stopping of the development or acceptance of the Bitcoin network may adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

The Bitcoin network, including the cryptographic and algorithmic protocols associated with the operation of the Bitcoin Blockchain, has only been in existence since 2009, and bitcoin markets have a limited performance record, making them part of a new and rapidly evolving industry that is subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate. For example, the following are some of the risks could materially adversely affect the value of the Shares:

 

 

As the Bitcoin network continues to develop and grow, certain technical issues might be uncovered and the trouble shooting and resolution of such issues requires the attention and efforts of Bitcoin’s global development community.

 

 

In August 2017, the Bitcoin network underwent a hard fork that resulted in the creation of a new digital asset network called Bitcoin Cash. This hard fork was contentious, and as a result some users of the Bitcoin Cash network may harbor ill will toward the Bitcoin network. These users may attempt to negatively impact the use or adoption of the Bitcoin network.

 

 

Also in August 2017, the Bitcoin Network was upgraded with a technical feature known as “Segregated Witness” with the promise of increasing the number of transactions per second that can be handled on-chain and enabling so-called second layer solutions, such as the Lightning Network or payment channels, that have the potential to increase transaction throughput by processing certain transactions outside the main Bitcoin Blockchain. These upgrades may fail to achieve the expected benefits or widespread adoption, leading to a decline in public support for, and the price of, bitcoin.

 

 

As of the date of this registration statement, the largest 100 bitcoin wallets held a substantial amount of the outstanding supply of bitcoin and it is possible that some of these wallets are controlled by the same person or entity. Moreover, it is possible that other persons or entities control multiple wallets that collectively hold a significant number of bitcoin, even if each wallet individually only holds a small amount. As a result of this concentration of ownership, large sales by such holders could have an adverse effect on the market price of bitcoin.

Bitcoin transactions are irrevocable and stolen or incorrectly transferred bitcoin may be irretrievable. As a result, any incorrectly executed bitcoin transactions could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Bitcoin transactions are not reversible. Once a transaction has been verified and recorded in a block that is added to the Bitcoin Blockchain, an incorrect transfer of cryptocurrency, such as bitcoin, or a theft of bitcoin generally will not be reversible and the Trust may not be capable of seeking compensation for any such transfer or theft. To the extent that the Trust is unable to successfully seek redress for such error or theft, such loss could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

The custody of the Trust’s bitcoin is handled by the Bitcoin Custodian, and the transfer of bitcoin to and from Authorized Participants is directed by the Administrator. The Sponsor has evaluated the procedures and internal controls of the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian to safeguard the Trust’s bitcoin holdings, as well as the procedures and internal controls of the Trust’s Administrator. However, if the Bitcoin Custodian’s internal procedures and controls are inadequate to safeguard the

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Trust’s bitcoin holdings, and the Trust’s private key(s) is (are) lost, destroyed or otherwise compromised and no backup of the private key(s) is (are) accessible, the Trust will be unable to access its bitcoin, which could adversely affect an investment in the Shares of the Trust. In addition, if the Trust’s private key(s) is (are) misappropriated and the Trust’s bitcoin holdings are stolen, including from or by the Bitcoin Custodian, the Trust could lose some or all of its bitcoin holdings, which could adversely impact an investment in the Shares of the Trust.

Security threats to the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian could result in the halting of Trust operations and a loss of Trust assets or damage to the reputation of the Trust, each of which could result in a reduction in the price of the Shares.

Security breaches, computer malware and computer hacking attacks have been a prevalent concern in relation to digital assets. The Sponsor believes that the Trust’s bitcoins held in the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian will be an appealing target to hackers or malware distributors seeking to destroy, damage or steal the Trust’s bitcoins and will only become more appealing as the Trust’s assets grow. To the extent that the Trust, the Sponsor or the Bitcoin Custodian is unable to identify and mitigate or stop new security threats or otherwise adapt to technological changes in the digital asset industry, the Trust’s Bitcoins may be subject to theft, loss, destruction or other attack.

The Sponsor has evaluated the security procedures in place for safeguarding the Trust’s bitcoins. Nevertheless, the security procedures cannot guarantee the prevention of any loss due to a security breach, software defect or act of God that may be borne by the Trust.

The security procedures and operational infrastructure may be breached due to the actions of outside parties, error or malfeasance of an employee of the Sponsor, the Bitcoin Custodian, or otherwise, and, as a result, an unauthorized party may obtain access to the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian, the private keys (and therefore bitcoin) or other data of the Trust. Additionally, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees of the Sponsor, the Bitcoin Custodian, or the Trust’s other service providers to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to the Trust’s infrastructure. As the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently, or may be designed to remain dormant until a predetermined event and often are not recognized until launched against a target, the Sponsor and the Bitcoin Custodian may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures.

An actual or perceived breach of the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian could harm the Trust’s operations, result in partial or total loss of the Trust’s assets, damage the Trust’s reputation and negatively affect the market perception of the effectiveness of the Trust, all of which could in turn reduce demand for the Shares, resulting in a reduction in the price of the Shares. The Trust may also cease operations, the occurrence of which could similarly result in a reduction in the price of the Shares.

A disruption of the Internet may affect bitcoin operations, which may adversely affect the bitcoin industry and an investment in the Trust.

The Bitcoin network relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity (i.e., one that affects large numbers of users or geographic regions) could disrupt the Bitcoin network’s functionality and operations until the disruption in the Internet is resolved. A disruption in the Internet could adversely affect an investment in the Trust or the ability of the Trust to operate.

Potential amendments to the Bitcoin network’s protocols and software could, if accepted and authorized by the Bitcoin network community, adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

The Bitcoin network uses a cryptographic protocol to govern the interactions within the Bitcoin network. A loose community known as the core developers has evolved to informally manage the source code for the protocol. Membership in the community of core developers evolve over time, largely based on self-determined participation in the resource section dedicated to bitcoin on Github.com. The core developers can propose amendments to the Bitcoin network’s source code

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that could alter the protocols and software of the Bitcoin network and the properties of bitcoin. These alterations would occur through software upgrades, and could potentially include changes to the irreversibility of transactions and limitations on the mining of new bitcoin. The Bitcoin network could be subject to new protocols and software that may adversely affect an investment in the Trust, to the extent that a significant majority of the users and miners on the Bitcoin network install such software upgrades.

The open-source structure of the Bitcoin network protocol means that the core developers and other contributors are generally not directly compensated for their contributions in maintaining and developing the Bitcoin network protocol. A failure to properly monitor and upgrade the Bitcoin network protocol could damage the Bitcoin network and an investment in the Trust.

The Bitcoin network operates based on an open-source protocol maintained by the core developers and other contributors, largely on the GitHub resource section dedicated to bitcoin development. As the Bitcoin network protocol is not sold or made available subject to licensing or subscription fees and its use does not generate revenues for its development team, the core developers are generally not compensated for maintaining and updating the Bitcoin network protocol. Consequently, there is a lack of financial incentive for developers to maintain or develop the Bitcoin network and the core developers may lack the resources to adequately address emerging issues with the Bitcoin network protocol. Although the Bitcoin network is currently supported by the core developers, there can be no guarantee that such support will continue or be sufficient in the future. Alternatively, some developers may be funded by entities whose interests are at odds with other participants in the Bitcoin network. To the extent that material issues arise with the Bitcoin network protocol and the core developers and open-source contributors are unable to address the issues adequately or in a timely manner, the Bitcoin network and an investment in the Trust may be adversely affected.

A temporary or permanent “fork” of the Bitcoin Blockchain could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Bitcoin software is open source. Any user can download the software, modify it and then propose that bitcoin users and miners adopt the modification. When a modification is introduced and a substantial majority of users and miners consent to the modification, the change is implemented and the Bitcoin network remains uninterrupted. However, if less than a substantial majority of users and miners consent to the proposed modification, and the modification is nonetheless implemented by some users and miners and the modification is not compatible with the software prior to its modification, the consequence would be what is known as a “fork” (i.e., “split”) of the Bitcoin network (and the blockchain), with one version running the pre-modified software and the other running the modified software. The effect of such a fork would be the existence of two (or more) versions of the Bitcoin network running in parallel, but with each version’s bitcoin lacking interchangeability. Such a fork in the Bitcoin Blockchain typically would be addressed by community-led efforts to merge the forked Bitcoin Blockchains, and several prior forks have been so merged. Since the Bitcoin network’s inception, modifications to the Bitcoin network have been accepted by the vast majority of users and miners, ensuring that the Bitcoin network remains a coherent economic system and the focal point of the majority of developer activity. There is no assurance, however, that this will continue to be the case, and if it is not, then the price of bitcoin could be negatively affected. The original blockchain and the forked blockchain could potentially compete with each other for users, developers, and miners, leading to a loss of these for the original blockchain. A fork of any kind could adversely affect an investment in the Trust or the ability of the Trust to operate and the Trust’s procedures may be inadequate to address the effects of a fork.

Additionally, a fork could be introduced by an unintentional, unanticipated software flaw in the multiple versions of otherwise compatible software users run.

Forks have occurred already to the Bitcoin network, including, but not limited to, forks resulting in the creation of Bitcoin Cash (August 1, 2017), Bitcoin Gold (October 24, 2017) and Bitcoin SegWit2X (December 28, 2017), among others. If another fork occurs, the Trust would hold

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equal amounts of both the original bitcoin and the alternative forked asset. The Trust has adopted procedures to address situations involving a fork that results in the issuance of new alternative bitcoin that the Trust may receive. Typically, the holder of bitcoin has no discretion in a hard fork; it merely has the right to claim the new bitcoin on a pro rata basis while it continues to hold the same number of bitcoin. The Trust Agreement stipulates that if such a transaction does occur, the Trust will as soon as possible direct the Bitcoin Custodian to distribute the new cryptocurrency in-kind to the Sponsor, as agent for the Shareholders, and the Sponsor will arrange to sell the new cryptocurrency and for the proceeds to be distributed to the Shareholders. However, the Trust may not be able, or it may not be practical, to secure or realize any economic benefit from the new asset for various reasons For example, the Trust is under no obligation to claim the forked asset if doing so will expose the Trust or the Trust’s (original) bitcoin holdings to risk. Alternatively, the Bitcoin Custodian may not agree to provide the Trust with access to the new asset.

In the event of a hard fork of the Bitcoin Network, the Sponsor will, if permitted by the terms of the Trust Agreement, use its discretion to determine which network should be considered the appropriate network for the Trust’s purposes, and in doing so may adversely affect the value of the Shares.

In the event of a hard fork of the Bitcoin network, the Sponsor will, if permitted by the terms of the Trust Agreement, use its discretion to determine, in good faith, which peer-to-peer network, among a group of incompatible forks of the Bitcoin network, is generally accepted as the Bitcoin network and should therefore be considered the appropriate network for the Trust’s purposes. The Sponsor will base its determination on a variety of then relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the Sponsor’s beliefs regarding expectations of the core developers of Bitcoin, users, service providers, businesses, miners and other constituencies, as well as the actual continued acceptance of, mining power on, and community engagement with, the Bitcoin network. There is no guarantee that the Sponsor will choose the digital asset that is ultimately the most valuable fork, and the Sponsor’s decision may adversely affect the value of the Shares as a result. The Sponsor may also disagree with Shareholders, security vendors and MVIS on what is generally accepted as Bitcoin and should therefore be considered “bitcoin” for the Trust’s purposes, which may also adversely affect the value of the Shares as a result.

The Bitcoin Blockchain could be vulnerable to a “51% attack”, which could adversely affect an investment in the Trust or the ability of the Trust to operate.

If the majority of the processing power dedicated to mining on the Bitcoin network is controlled by a bad actor (often referred to as a “51% attack”), it may be able to alter the Bitcoin Blockchain on which the Bitcoin network and bitcoin transactions rely. This could occur if the bad actor were to construct fraudulent blocks or prevent certain transactions from completing in a timely manner, or at all. It could be possible for the malicious actor to control, exclude or modify the ordering of transactions, though it could not generate new bitcoin or transactions. Further, a bad actor could “double-spend” its own bitcoin (i.e., spend the same bitcoin in more than one transaction) and prevent the confirmation of other users’ transactions for so long as it maintained control. If the Bitcoin community did not reject the fraudulent blocks as malicious or to the extent that such bad actor did not yield its control of processing power, reversing any changes made to the Bitcoin Blockchain may be impossible. The possible crossing of this threshold indicates a greater risk that a single mining pool could exert authority over the validation of bitcoin transactions. If the feasibility of a bad actor gaining control of the processing power on the Bitcoin network increases, there may be a negative effect on an investment in the Trust.

If miners expend less processing power on the Bitcoin network, it could increase the likelihood of a malicious actor obtaining control.

Miners ceasing operations would reduce the collective processing power on the Bitcoin network, which would adversely affect the confirmation process for transactions (i.e., temporarily decreasing the speed at which blocks are added to the Bitcoin Blockchain until the next scheduled adjustment

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in difficulty for block solutions). If a reduction in processing power occurs, the Bitcoin network may be more vulnerable to a malicious actor obtaining control in excess of fifty percent (50%) of the processing power on the Bitcoin network. As a result, it may be possible for a bad actor to manipulate the Bitcoin Blockchain and hinder transactions. Any reduction in confidence in the confirmation process or processing power of the Bitcoin network may adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Blockchain technologies are based on the theoretical conjectures as to the impossibility of solving certain cryptographical puzzles quickly. These premises may be incorrect or may become incorrect due to technological advances.

Blockchain technologies are premised on theoretical conjectures as to the impossibility, in practice, of solving certain mathematical problems quickly. Those conjectures remain unproven, however, and mathematical or technological advances could conceivably prove them to be incorrect. Blockchain technology companies may also be negatively affected by cryptography or other technological advances, such as the development of quantum computers with significantly more power than computers presently available, that undermine or vitiate the cryptographic consensus mechanism underpinning the Bitcoin Blockchain and other distributed ledger protocols. If either of these events were to happen, markets that rely on blockchain technologies, such as the Bitcoin network, could quickly collapse, and an investment in the Trust may be adversely affected.

The price of bitcoin on the bitcoin market has exhibited periods of extreme volatility, which could have a negative impact on the performance of the Trust.

The price of bitcoin as determined by the bitcoin market has experienced periods of extreme volatility and may be influenced by a wide variety of factors. Speculators and investors who seek to profit from trading and holding bitcoin generate a significant portion of bitcoin demand. Such speculation regarding the potential future appreciation in the value of bitcoin may cause the price of bitcoin to increase. Conversely, a decrease in demand for or speculative interest regarding bitcoin may cause the price to decline. The volatility of the price of bitcoin, particularly arising from speculative activity, may have a negative impact on the performance of the Trust.

Currently, there is relatively small use of bitcoin in the retail and commercial marketplace in comparison to relatively large use by speculators and those perceiving bitcoin as a store of value, thus contributing to price volatility that could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Certain merchants and major retail and commercial businesses have only recently begun accepting bitcoin and the Bitcoin network as a means of payment for goods and services. Consumer use of bitcoin to pay such retail and commercial outlets, however, remains limited. Yet, market speculators and investors seeking to profit from the short- or long-term holding of bitcoin generate a significant portion of demand for bitcoin, which can contribute to price volatility, which in turn can make bitcoin less attractive to merchants and commercial parties as a means of payment. A lack of expansion by bitcoin into retail and commercial markets or a contraction of such use may result in a reduction in the price of bitcoin, which could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Bitcoin exchanges on which bitcoin trades are relatively new and, in some cases, unregulated, and, therefore, may be more exposed to fraud and security breaches than established, regulated exchanges for other financial assets or instruments, which could have a negative impact on the performance of the Trust.

Over the past several years, a number of bitcoin exchanges have been closed or faced issues due to fraud, failure, security breaches or governmental regulations. The nature of the assets held at bitcoin exchanges makes them appealing targets for hackers and a number of bitcoin exchanges have been victims of cybercrimes. In many of these instances, the customers of such bitcoin exchanges were not compensated or made whole for the partial or complete losses of their account balances in such bitcoin exchanges. No bitcoin exchange is immune from these risks. While the Trust itself does

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not buy or sell bitcoin on bitcoin exchanges, the closure or temporary shutdown of bitcoin exchanges due to fraud, business failure, hackers or malware, or government-mandated regulation may reduce confidence in the Bitcoin network and can slow down the mass adoption of bitcoin. Further, such bitcoin exchange failures or that of any other major component of the overall bitcoin ecosystem can have an adverse effect on bitcoin markets and the price of bitcoin and could therefore have a negative impact on the performance of the Trust.

MVIS has analyzed bitcoin exchange data and developed insights that have informed MVIS understanding of the bitcoin market and the design of the Trust. If such data or insights are inaccurate or incorrect, the value of an investment in the Trust may be adversely affected.

MVIS has relied upon bitcoin market data in developing its analysis of the bitcoin market. This analysis has informed MVIS’s understanding of the bitcoin market, the design of the Trust and the design of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. The continued viability of the Trust relies upon access to accurate data, and MVIS’s continued ability to effectively analyze such data. If data is inaccurate or becomes unavailable, or if MVIS’s analysis of such data is incorrect, the value of an investment in the Trust may be adversely affected.

Sales of new bitcoin may cause the price of bitcoin to decline, which could negatively affect an investment in the Trust.

Newly created bitcoin (“newly mined bitcoin”) are generated through a process referred to as “mining.” If entities engaged in bitcoin mining choose not to hold the newly mined bitcoin, and, instead, make them available for sale, there can be downward pressure on the price of bitcoin. A bitcoin mining operation may be more likely to sell a higher percentage of its newly created bitcoin, and more rapidly so, if it is operating at a low profit margin, thus reducing the price of bitcoin. Lower bitcoin prices may result in further tightening of profit margins for miners and decreasing profitability, thereby potentially causing even further selling pressure. Diminishing profit margins and increasing sales of newly mined bitcoin could result in a reduction in the price of bitcoin, which could adversely impact an investment in the Shares.

Digital asset networks face significant scaling challenges and efforts to increase the volume of transactions may not be successful.

Many digital asset networks face significant scaling challenges due to the fact that public blockchains generally face a tradeoff between security and scalability. One means through which public blockchains achieve security is decentralization, meaning that no intermediary is responsible for securing and maintaining these systems. For example, a greater degree of decentralization generally means a given digital asset network is less susceptible to manipulation or capture. Achieving decentralization may mean that every single node on a given digital asset network is responsible for securing the system by processing every transaction and maintaining a copy of the entire state of the network. However, this may involve tradeoffs from an efficiency perspective, and impose constraints on throughput.

In an effort to increase the volume of transactions that can be processed on a given digital asset network, many digital assets are being upgraded with various features to increase the speed and throughput of digital asset transactions. In August 2017, the Bitcoin Network was upgraded with a technical feature known as “Segregated Witness” with the promise of increasing the number of transactions per second that can be handled on-chain and enabling so-called second layer solutions, such as the Lightning Network or payment channels, that have the potential to increase transaction throughput by processing certain transactions outside the main Bitcoin Blockchain. However, this upgrade may fail to achieve the expected benefits or widespread adoption.

If increases in throughput on the Bitcoin network lag behind growth in usage of bitcoin, average fees and settlement times may increase considerably. For example, the Bitcoin network has been, at times, at capacity, which has led to increased transaction fees. Increased fees and decreased

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settlement speeds could preclude certain uses for bitcoin (e.g., micropayments), and could reduce demand for, and the price of, bitcoin, which could adversely impact the value of the Shares.

Many developers are actively researching and testing scalability solutions for public blockchains that do not necessarily result in lower levels of security or decentralization. However, there is no guarantee that any of the mechanisms in place or being explored for increasing the scale of settlement of the Bitcoin network transactions will be effective, or how long these mechanisms will take to become effective, which could adversely impact the value of the Shares.

New competing digital assets may pose a challenge to bitcoin’s current market position, resulting in a reduction in demand for bitcoin, which could have a negative impact on the price of bitcoin and may have a negative impact on the performance of the Trust.

The Bitcoin network and bitcoin, as an asset, hold a “first-to-market” advantage over other digital assets. This first-to-market advantage has resulted in the Bitcoin network evolving into the most well-developed network of any digital asset. The Bitcoin network enjoys the largest user base and has more mining power in use to secure the Bitcoin Blockchain than any other digital asset. Having a large mining network provides users confidence regarding the security and long-term stability of the Bitcoin network. This in turn creates a domino effect that inures to the benefit of the Bitcoin network – namely, the advantage of more users and miners makes a digital asset more secure, which potentially makes it more attractive to new users and miners, resulting in a network effect that potentially strengthens the first-to-market advantage. However, despite the first-mover advantage of the Bitcoin network over other digital assets, it is possible that real or perceived shortcomings in the Bitcoin network, or technological, regulatory or other developments, could result in a decline in popularity and acceptance of bitcoin and the Bitcoin network, and other digital currencies and trading systems could become more widely accepted and used than the Bitcoin network.

Competition from central bank digital currencies (“CBDCs”) could adversely affect the value of bitcoins and other digital assets.

Central banks have introduced digital forms of legal tender (CBDCs). China’s CBDC project, known as Digital Currency Electronic Payment (“DC/EP”), has reportedly been tested in a live pilot program conducted in multiple cities in China. A recent study published by the Bank for International Settlements estimated that at least 36 central banks have published retail or wholesale CBDC work ranging from research to pilot projects. Whether or not they incorporate blockchain or similar technology, CBDCs, as legal tender in the issuing jurisdiction, could have an advantage in competing with, or replace, bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies as a medium of exchange or store of value. As a result, the value of bitcoin could decrease, which could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Because Facebook is seeking to develop a cryptocurrency, it may adversely affect the value of bitcoins and digital assets.

In May 2019, Facebook announced its plans for a cryptocurrency called Libra. Facebook and its partners in the Libra Association have touted the Libra digital coin and Facebook’s corresponding digital wallet, Calibra, as a way to make cross-border payments cheaper and easier. In July 2019, Facebook announced that Libra will not launch until all regulatory concerns have been met. In October 2019, many partners left the Libra Association including Paypal, eBay, Mastercard, Stripe, and Visa, although certain other new members have since joined. In December 2020, Facebook announced that the Libra cryptocurrency had been renamed Diem. Because Facebook is a leading technology company with substantial resources, when and if it or a consortium launches a cryptocurrency, it could adversely affect the value of bitcoins and digital assets.

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Operational cost may exceed the award for solving blocks or transaction fees. Increased transaction fees may adversely affect the usage of the Bitcoin network.

The Bitcoin network is designed to periodically reduce the fixed award given to miners for solving new blocks (the “block reward”), most recently in May 2020, when the block reward reduced from 12.5 to 6.25 bitcoin. As the block reward continues to decrease over time, the mining incentive structure may transition to a higher reliance on transaction confirmation fees in order to incentivize miners to continue to dedicate processing power to the blockchain. If transaction confirmation fees become too high, the marketplace may be reluctant to use bitcoin. Increased transaction fees may motivate market participants, such as merchants or commercial institutions, to switch from bitcoin to another digital asset or back to fiat currency as their preferred medium of exchange. Decreased demand for bitcoin may adversely affect its price, which may adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Ultimately, if the awards of new bitcoin for solving blocks declines and transaction fees for recording transactions are not sufficiently high to exceed the costs of mining, miners may operate at a loss or cease operations. If the award does not exceed the costs of mining in the long-term, miners may have to cease operations entirely. If miners cease their operations, this could have a negative impact on the Bitcoin network and could adversely affect the value of the bitcoin held by the Trust.

Miners could act in collusion to raise transaction fees, which may adversely affect the usage of the Bitcoin network.

Bitcoin miners collect fees for each transaction they confirm. Miners validate unconfirmed transactions by adding the previously unconfirmed transactions to new blocks in the blockchain. Miners are not forced to confirm any specific transaction, but they are economically incentivized to confirm valid transactions as a means of collecting fees. To the extent that any miners cease to record transactions in solved blocks, such transactions will not be recorded on the Bitcoin Blockchain until a block is solved by a miner who does not require the payment of transaction fees. Miners have historically accepted relatively low transaction confirmation fees, because miners have a very low marginal cost of validating unconfirmed transactions. If miners collude in an anticompetitive manner to reject low transaction fees, then bitcoin users could be forced to pay higher fees, thus reducing the attractiveness of the bitcoin network, or to wait longer times for their transactions to be validated by a miner who does not require the payment of a transaction fee. Bitcoin mining occurs globally and it may be difficult for authorities to apply antitrust regulations across multiple jurisdictions. Any collusion among miners may adversely impact an investment in the Trust or the ability of the Trust to operate.

As technology advances, miners may be unable to acquire the digital asset mining hardware necessary to develop and launch their operations. A decline in the bitcoin mining population could adversely affect the Bitcoin network and an investment in the Trust.

Due to the increasing demand for digital asset mining hardware, miners may be unable to acquire the proper mining equipment or suitable amount of equipment necessary to continue their operations or develop and launch their operations. In addition, because successful mining of a digital asset that uses “proof of work” validation requires maintaining or exceeding a certain level of computing power relative to other validators, miners will need to upgrade their mining hardware periodically to keep up with their competition. The development of supercomputers with disproportionate computing power may threaten the integrity of the bitcoin market by concentrating mining power, which would make it unprofitable for other miners to mine. The expense of purchasing or upgrading new equipment may be substantial and diminish returns to miners dramatically. A decline in miners may result in a decrease in the value of bitcoin and the value of the Trust.

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If profit margins of bitcoin mining operations are not high, miners may elect to immediately sell bitcoin earned by mining, resulting in a reduction in the price of bitcoin that could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Bitcoin network mining operations have rapidly evolved over the past several years from individual users mining with computer processors, graphics processing units and first-generation ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) machines. New processing power is predominantly added to the Bitcoin network currently by “professionalized” mining operations. Such operations may use proprietary hardware or sophisticated ASIC machines acquired from ASIC manufacturers. Significant capital is necessary for mining operations to acquire this hardware, lease operating space (often in data centers or warehousing facilities), afford electricity costs and employ technicians to operate the mining farms. As a result, professionalized mining operations are of a greater scale than prior Bitcoin network validators and have more defined, regular expenses and liabilities. In addition, mining operations may choose to immediately sell bitcoin earned from their operations into the global bitcoin market. In past years, individual miners are believed to have been more likely to hold newly mined bitcoin for more extended periods. The immediate selling of newly mined bitcoin would increase the supply of bitcoin on the bitcoin market, creating downward pressure on the price of bitcoin.

A professional mining operation operating at a low profit margin may be more likely to sell a higher percentage of its newly mined bitcoin rapidly, and it may partially or completely cease operations if its profit margin is negative. In a low profit margin environment, a higher percentage of the new bitcoin mined each day will be sold into the bitcoin market more rapidly, thereby reducing bitcoin prices. The network effect of reduced profit margins resulting in greater sales of newly mined bitcoin could result in a reduction in the price of bitcoin that could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.

Congestion or delay in the Bitcoin network may delay purchases or sales of bitcoin by the Trust.

The size of each block on the Bitcoin Blockchain is currently limited, and is significantly below the level that centralized systems can provide. Increased transaction volume could result in delays in the recording of transactions due to congestion in the Bitcoin network. Moreover, unforeseen system failures, disruptions in operations, or poor connectivity may also result in delays in the recording of transactions on the Bitcoin network. Any delay in the Bitcoin network could affect the Trust’s ability to buy or sell bitcoin at an advantageous price, or may create the opportunity for a bad actor to double spend bitcoin, resulting in decreased confidence in the Bitcoin network. Over the longer term, delays in confirming transactions could reduce the attractiveness to merchants and other commercial parties as a means of payment. As a result, the Bitcoin network and the value of the Trust would be adversely affected.

Failure of funds that hold digital assets to receive SEC approval to list their shares on exchanges could adversely affect the value of the Shares.

There have been a growing a number of attempts to list on national securities exchanges the shares of funds that hold digital assets. These investment vehicles attempt to provide institutional and retail investors exposure to markets for digital assets and related products. The exchange listing of shares of digital asset funds would create more opportunities for institutional and retail investors to invest in the digital asset market. However, the SEC has repeatedly denied such requests. If exchange-listing requests continue to be denied by the SEC, increased investment interest by institutional or retail investors could fail to materialize, which could reduce the demand for digital assets generally and therefore adversely affect the value of the Shares.

Risks Associated with the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate

The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate has a limited history.

The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate was developed by MVIS and has a limited history. MVIS has substantial discretion at any time to change the methodology used to

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calculate the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, including the exchanges that contribute prices to the Trust’s NAV. MVIS does not have any obligation to take the needs of the Trust, the Trust’s Shareholders, or anyone else into consideration in connection with such changes. There is no guarantee that the methodology currently used in calculating the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate will appropriately track the price of bitcoin in the future.

The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is based on various inputs which may include price data from various third-party exchanges and markets MVIS does not guarantee the validity of any of these inputs, which may be subject to technological error, manipulative activity, or fraudulent reporting from their initial source. The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate could be calculated now or in the future in a way that adversely affects an investment in the Trust.

Risk Associated with Investing in the Trust

The value of the Shares may be influenced by a variety of factors unrelated to the value of bitcoin.

The value of the Shares may be influenced by a variety of factors unrelated to the price of bitcoin and the bitcoin exchanges included in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate that may have an adverse effect on the price of the Shares. These factors include the following factors:

 

 

Unanticipated problems or issues with respect to the mechanics of the Trust’s operations and the trading of the Shares may arise, in particular due to the fact that the mechanisms and procedures governing the creation and offering of the Shares and storage of bitcoin have been developed specifically for this product;

 

 

The Trust could experience difficulties in operating and maintaining its technical infrastructure, including in connection with expansions or updates to such infrastructure, which are likely to be complex and could lead to unanticipated delays, unforeseen expenses and security vulnerabilities;

 

 

The Trust could experience unforeseen issues relating to the performance and effectiveness of the security procedures used to protect the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian, or the security procedures may not protect against all errors, software flaws or other vulnerabilities in the Trust’s technical infrastructure, which could result in theft, loss or damage of its assets; or

 

 

Service providers may decide to terminate their relationships with the Trust due to concerns that the introduction of privacy enhancing features to the Bitcoin network may increase the potential for Bitcoin to be used to facilitate crime, exposing such service providers to potential reputational harm.

Any of these factors could affect the value of the Shares, either directly or indirectly through their effect on the Trust’s assets.

The Trust is subject to market risk.

Market risk refers to the risk that the market price of bitcoin held by the Trust will rise or fall, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. An investment in the Shares is subject to market risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal of the investment.

The NAV may not always correspond to the market price of bitcoin and, as a result, Creation Baskets may be created or redeemed at a value that is different from the market price of the Shares.

The NAV of the Trust will change as fluctuations occur in the market price of the Trust’s bitcoin holdings. Shareholders should be aware that the public trading price per Share may be different from the NAV for a number of reasons, including price volatility, trading activity, the closing of bitcoin trading platforms due to fraud, failure, security breaches or otherwise, and the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for Shares are related, but not identical, to the supply and demand forces influencing the market price of bitcoin.

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An Authorized Participant may be able to create or redeem a Creation Basket at a discount or a premium to the public trading price per Share, although all such creations or redemptions must take place in-kind, and the Trust will therefore maintain its intended fractional exposure to a specific amount of bitcoin per Share.

Shareholders also should note that the size of the Trust in terms of total bitcoin held may change substantially over time and as Creation Baskets are created and redeemed.

Authorized Participants’ buying and selling activity associated with the creation and redemption of Creation Baskets may adversely affect an investment in the Shares of the Trust.

Authorized Participants’ purchase of bitcoin in connection with Creation Basket creation orders may cause the price of bitcoin to increase, which will result in higher prices for the Shares. Increases in the bitcoin prices may also occur as a result of bitcoin purchases by other market participants who attempt to benefit from an increase in the market price of bitcoin when baskets are created. The market price of bitcoin may therefore decline immediately after Creation Baskets are created.

Selling activity associated with sales of bitcoin by Authorized Participants in connection with redemption orders may decrease the bitcoin prices, which will result in lower prices for the Shares. Decreases in bitcoin prices may also occur as a result of selling activity by other market participants.

In addition to the effect that purchases and sales of bitcoin by Authorized Participants may have on the price of bitcoin, sales and purchases of bitcoin by similar investment vehicles (if developed) could impact the price of bitcoin. If the price of bitcoin declines, the trading price of the Shares will generally also decline.

The inability of Authorized Participants and market makers to hedge their bitcoin exposure may adversely affect the liquidity of Shares and the value of an investment in the Shares.

Authorized Participants and market makers will generally want to hedge their exposure in connection with Creation Basket creation and redemption orders. To the extent Authorized Participants and market makers are unable to hedge their exposure due to market conditions (e.g., insufficient bitcoin liquidity in the market, inability to locate an appropriate hedge counterparty, etc.), such conditions may make it difficult to create or redeem Creation Baskets or cause them to not create or redeem Creation Baskets. In addition, the hedging mechanisms employed by Authorized Participants and market makers to hedge their exposure to bitcoin may not function as intended, which may make it more difficult for them to enter into such transactions. Such events could negatively impact the market price of the Trust and the spread at which the Trust trades on the open market. The market for exchange-traded Bitcoin Futures has limited trading history and operational experience and may be less liquid, more volatile and more vulnerable to economic, market and industry changes than more established futures markets. The liquidity of the market will depend on, among other things, the adoption of bitcoin and the commercial and speculative interest in the market for the ability to hedge against the price of bitcoin with exchange-traded Bitcoin Futures.

Arbitrage transactions intended to keep the price of Shares closely linked to the price of bitcoin may be problematic if the process for the creation and redemption of Creation Baskets encounters difficulties, which may adversely affect an investment in the Shares.

If the processes of creation and redemption of the Shares encounter any unanticipated difficulties, including, but not limited to, the Trust’s inability in the future to obtain regulatory approvals for the offer and sale of additional Shares after the present offering is completed, potential market participants who would otherwise be willing to purchase or redeem Creation Baskets to take advantage of any arbitrage opportunity arising from discrepancies between the price of the Shares and the price of the underlying bitcoin may not take the risk that, as a result of those difficulties, they may not be able to realize the profit they expect. If this is the case, the liquidity of Shares may decline and the price of the Shares may fluctuate independently of the price of bitcoin and may fall.

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The Trust is subject to risks due to its concentration of investments in a single asset class.

Unlike other funds that may invest in diversified assets, the Trust’s investment strategy is concentrated in a single asset class: bitcoin. This concentration maximizes the degree of the Trust’s exposure to a variety of market risks associated with bitcoin. By concentrating its investment strategy solely in bitcoin, any losses suffered as a result of a decrease in the value of bitcoin can be expected to reduce the value of an interest in the Trust and will not be offset by other gains if the Trust were to invest in underlying assets that were diversified.

The lack of active trading markets for the Shares of the Trust may result in losses on Shareholders’ investments at the time of disposition of Shares.

Although Shares of the Trust are expected to be publicly listed and traded on an exchange, there can be no guarantee that an active trading market for the Trust will develop or be maintained. If Shareholders need to sell their Shares at a time when no active market for them exists, the price Shareholders receive for their Shares, assuming that Shareholders are able to sell them, likely will be lower than the price that Shareholders would receive if an active market did exist and, accordingly, a Shareholder may suffer losses.

Possible illiquid markets may exacerbate losses or increase the variability between the Trust’s NAV and its market price.

Barring the liquidation of the Trust, the Trust does not intend to buy or sell bitcoin directly, but rather, to use in-kind creations and redemptions managed by an Authorized Participant. Nonetheless, risks exist due to possible illiquid markets for bitcoin.

Bitcoin is a new asset with a very limited trading history. Therefore, the markets for bitcoin may be less liquid and more volatile than other markets for more established products. It may be difficult to execute a bitcoin trade at a specific price when there is a relatively small volume of buy and sell orders in the bitcoin market. A market disruption can also make it more difficult to liquidate a position or find a suitable counterparty at a reasonable cost.

Market illiquidity may cause losses for the Trust. The large size of the positions that the Trust may acquire will increase the risk of illiquidity by both making the positions more difficult to liquidate and increasing the losses incurred while trying to do so should the Trust need to liquidate its bitcoin, or making it more difficult for Authorized Participants to acquire or liquidate bitcoin as part of the creation and/or redemption of Shares of the Trust. Any type of disruption or illiquidity will potentially be exacerbated due to the fact that the Trust will typically invest in bitcoin, which is highly concentrated.

Several factors may affect the Trust’s ability to achieve its investment objective on a consistent basis.

There is no guarantee that the Trust will meet its investment objective. Factors that may affect the Trust’s ability to meet its investment objective include: (1) Authorized Participants’ ability to purchase and sell bitcoin in an efficient manner to effectuate creation and redemption orders; (2) transaction fees associated with the Bitcoin network; (3) the bitcoin market becoming illiquid or disrupted; (4) the Trust’s Share prices being rounded to the nearest cent and/or valuation methodologies; (5) the need to conform the Trust’s portfolio holdings to comply with investment restrictions or policies or regulatory or tax law requirements; (6) early or unanticipated closings of the markets on which bitcoin trades, resulting in the inability of Authorized Participants to execute intended portfolio transactions; and (7) accounting standards.

The amount of bitcoin represented by the Shares will decline over time.

The amount of bitcoin represented by the Shares will continue to be reduced during the life of the Trust due to the transfer of the Trust’s bitcoin to pay for the Sponsor Fee, and to pay for

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litigation expenses or other extraordinary expenses. This dynamic will occur irrespective of whether the trading price of the Shares rises or falls in response to changes in the price of bitcoin.

Each outstanding Share represents a fractional, undivided interest in the bitcoin held by the Trust. The Trust does not generate any income and transfers bitcoin to pay for the Sponsor Fee, and to pay for litigation expenses or other extraordinary expenses. Therefore, the amount of bitcoin represented by each Share will gradually decline over time. This is also true with respect to Shares that are issued in exchange for additional deposits of bitcoin over time, as the amount of bitcoin required to create Shares proportionally reflects the amount of bitcoin represented by the Shares outstanding at the time of such creation unit being created. Assuming a constant bitcoin price, the trading price of the Shares is expected to gradually decline relative to the price of bitcoin as the amount of bitcoin represented by the Shares gradually declines.

Shareholders should be aware that the gradual decline in the amount of bitcoin represented by the Shares will occur regardless of whether the trading price of the Shares rises or falls in response to changes in the price of bitcoin.

The development and commercialization of the Trust is subject to competitive pressures.

The Trust and the Sponsor face competition with respect to the creation of competing products. The Sponsor’s competitors may have greater financial, technical and human resources than the Sponsor. These competitors may also compete with the Sponsor or MVIS in recruiting and retaining qualified personnel. Smaller or early stage companies may also prove to be effective competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. Accordingly, the Sponsor’s competitors may commercialize a product involving bitcoin more rapidly or effectively than the Sponsor is able to, which could adversely affect the Sponsor’s competitive position, the likelihood that the Trust will achieve initial market acceptance and the Sponsor’s ability to generate meaningful revenues from the Trust.

Regulatory Risk

Future and current regulations by a United States or foreign government or quasi-governmental agency could have an adverse effect on an investment in the Trust.

The regulation of bitcoin and related products and services continues to evolve, may take many different forms and will, therefore, impact bitcoin and its usage in a variety of manners. The inconsistent and sometimes conflicting regulatory landscape may make it more difficult for bitcoin businesses to provide services, which may impede the growth of the bitcoin economy and have an adverse effect on consumer adoption of bitcoin. There is a possibility of future regulatory change altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Trust or the ability of the Trust to continue to operate. Additionally, changes to current regulatory determinations of bitcoin’s status as not being a security, changes to regulations surrounding Bitcoin Futures or related products, or actions by a United States or foreign government or quasi-governmental agency exerting regulatory authority over bitcoin, the Bitcoin network, bitcoin trading, or related activities impacting other parts of the digital asset market, may adversely impact bitcoin and therefore may have an adverse effect on the value of your investment in the Trust.

Shareholders do not have the protections associated with ownership of Shares in an investment company registered under the 1940 Act or the protections afforded by the Commodity Exchange Act.

The 1940 Act is designed to protect investors by preventing insiders from managing investment companies to their benefit and to the detriment of public investors, such as: the issuance of securities having inequitable or discriminatory provisions; the management of investment companies by irresponsible persons; the use of unsound or misleading methods of computing earnings and asset value; changes in the character of investment companies without the consent of investors; and investment companies from engaging in excessive leveraging. To accomplish these ends, the 1940 Act requires the safekeeping and proper valuation of fund assets, restricts greatly transactions with affiliates, limits leveraging, and imposes governance requirements as a check on fund management.

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The Trust is not registered as an investment company under the 1940 Act, and the Sponsor believes that the Trust is not required to register under such act. Consequently, Shareholders do not have the regulatory protections provided to investors in investment companies.

The Trust will not hold or trade in commodity interests regulated by the CEA, as administered by the CFTC. Furthermore, the Sponsor believes that the Trust is not a commodity pool for purposes of the CEA, and that neither the Sponsor nor the Trustee is subject to regulation by the CFTC as a commodity pool operator or a commodity trading advisor in connection with the operation of the Trust. Consequently, Shareholders will not have the regulatory protections provided to investors in CEA-regulated instruments or commodity pools.

Future regulations may require the Trust or the Sponsor to become registered, which may cause the Trust to liquidate.

Current and future legislation, SEC and CFTC rulemaking, and other regulatory developments may impact the manner in which bitcoin are treated for classification and clearing purposes. In particular, bitcoin in the future may be classified by the CFTC as a “commodity interest” under the CEA and certain transactions in bitcoin may be deemed to be commodity futures or bitcoin may be classified by the SEC as a “security” under U.S. federal securities laws. In the face of such developments, the required registrations and compliance steps may result in extraordinary, nonrecurring expenses to the Trust. If the Sponsor decides to terminate the Trust in response to the changed regulatory circumstances, the Trust may be dissolved or liquidated at a time that is disadvantageous to Shareholders.

The SEC has stated that certain digital assets may be considered “securities” under the federal securities laws. The test for determining whether a particular digital asset is a “security” is complex and the outcome is difficult to predict. If Bitcoin is determined to be a “security” under federal or state securities laws by the SEC or any other agency, or in a proceeding in a court of law or otherwise, it may have material adverse consequences for bitcoin as a digital asset. For example, it may become more difficult for bitcoin to be traded, cleared and custodied as compared to other digital assets that are not considered to be securities, which could in turn negatively affect the liquidity and general acceptance of Bitcoin and cause users to migrate to other digital assets.

To the extent that bitcoin is determined to be a security, the Trust and the Sponsor may also be subject to additional regulatory requirements, including under the 1940 Act, and the Sponsor may be required to register as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act. If the Sponsor determines not to comply with such additional regulatory and registration requirements, the Sponsor will terminate the Trust. Any such termination could result in the liquidation of the Trust’s bitcoin at a time that is disadvantageous to Shareholders.

To the extent that bitcoin is deemed to fall within the definition of a “commodity interest” under the CEA, the Trust and the Sponsor may be subject to additional regulation under the CEA and CFTC regulations. These additional requirements may result in extraordinary, recurring and/or nonrecurring expenses of the Trust, thereby materially and adversely impacting the Shares. If the Sponsor and/or the Trust determines not to comply with such additional regulatory and registration requirements, the Sponsor may terminate the Trust. Any such termination could result in the liquidation of the Trust’s bitcoin at a time that is disadvantageous to Shareholders.

If regulatory changes or interpretations of an Authorized Participant’s, the Trust’s or the Sponsor’s activities require the regulation of an Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor as a money service business under the regulations promulgated by FinCEN under the authority of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act or as a money transmitter or digital asset business under state regimes for the licensing of such businesses, an Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor may be required to register and comply with such regulations, which could result in extraordinary, recurring and/or nonrecurring expenses to the Authorized Participant, Trust or Sponsor or increased commissions for the Authorized Participant’s clients, thereby reducing the liquidity of the Shares.

To the extent that the activities of any Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor cause it to be deemed a “money services business” under the regulations promulgated by FinCEN under the

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authority of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, such Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor may be required to comply with FinCEN regulations, including those that would mandate the Authorized Participant to implement anti-money laundering programs, make certain reports to FinCEN and maintain certain records. Similarly, the activities of an Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor may require it to be licensed as a money transmitter or as a digital asset business, such as under NYDFS’ BitLicense regulation.

Such additional regulatory obligations may cause the Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor to incur extraordinary expenses. If the Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor decide to seek the required licenses, there is no guarantee that they will timely receive them. The Authorized Participant may also instead decide to terminate its role as Authorized Participant of the Trust, or the Sponsor may decide to terminate the Trust. Termination by the Authorized Participant may decrease the liquidity of the Shares, which may adversely affect the value of the Shares, and any termination of the Trust in response to the changed regulatory circumstances may be at a time that is disadvantageous to the Shareholders.

Trading on bitcoin exchanges outside the United States is not subject to U.S. regulation, and may be less reliable than U.S. exchanges.

Barring a liquidation of the Trust or extraordinary circumstances, the Trust does not purchase or sell bitcoin. In the event of a fork, however, the Trust will distribute the forked cryptoasset and return proceeds to the Sponsor, as agent for the Shareholders, and the Sponsor will sell the forked cryptoasset and distribute the proceeds to Shareholders. Similarly, in the event of a forced liquidation, the Trust may be required to sell bitcoin as well.

To the extent any of the Trust’s trading is conducted on bitcoin exchanges outside the U.S., trading on such exchanges is not regulated by any U.S. governmental agency and may involve certain risks not applicable to trading on U.S. exchanges. Certain foreign markets may be more susceptible to disruption than U.S. exchanges. These factors could adversely affect the performance of the Trust.

The Sponsor may need to find and appoint a replacement custodian quickly, which could pose a challenge to the safekeeping of the Trust’s Bitcoins.

The Sponsor could decide to replace the Bitcoin Custodian as the custodian of the Trust’s bitcoins. Transferring maintenance responsibilities of the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian to another party will likely be complex and could subject the Trust’s bitcoin to the risk of loss during the transfer, which could have a negative impact on the performance of the Shares or result in loss of the Trust’s assets.

The Sponsor may not be able to find a party willing to serve as the custodian under the same terms as the current Custodian Agreement. To the extent that Sponsor is not able to find a suitable party willing to serve as the custodian, the Sponsor may be required to terminate the Trust and liquidate the Trust’s bitcoin. In addition, to the extent that the Sponsor finds a suitable party but must enter into a modified Custodian Agreement that is less favorable for the Trust or Sponsor, the value of the Shares could be adversely affected.

The Sponsor is solely responsible for determining the value of the bitcoin holdings and bitcoin holdings per Share, and any errors, discontinuance or changes in such valuation calculations may have an adverse effect on the value of the Shares.

The Sponsor will determine the Trust’s bitcoin boldings and bitcoin holdings per Share on a daily basis as soon as practicable after 4:00 p.m. EST on each business day. The Sponsor’s determination is made utilizing data from the operations of the Trust and the Bitcoin Index Price, calculated at 4:00 p.m. EST on such day. To the extent that the bitcoin holdings or bitcoin holdings per Share are incorrectly calculated, the Sponsor may not be liable for any error and such misreporting of valuation data could adversely affect the value of the Shares.

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The value of the Shares will be adversely affected if the Trust is required to indemnify the Sponsor, the Trustee, the Transfer Agent or the Custodian under the Trust Documents.

Under the Trust Documents, each of the Sponsor, the Trustee, the Transfer Agent and the Custodian has a right to be indemnified by the Trust for certain liabilities or expenses that it incurs without gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct on its part. Therefore, the Sponsor, Trustee, Transfer Agent or the Custodian may require that the assets of the Trust be sold in order to cover losses or liability suffered by it. Any sale of that kind would reduce the bitcoin holdings of the Trust and the value of the Shares.

Intellectual property rights claims may adversely affect the Trust and the value of the Shares.

The Sponsor is not aware of any intellectual property rights claims that may prevent the Trust from operating and holding bitcoin. However, third parties may assert intellectual property rights claims relating to the operation of the Trust and the mechanics instituted for the investment in, holding of and transfer of bitcoin. Regardless of the merit of an intellectual property or other legal action, any legal expenses to defend or payments to settle such claims would be extraordinary expenses that would be borne by the Trust through the sale or transfer of its bitcoin. Additionally, a meritorious intellectual property rights claim could prevent the Trust from operating and force the Sponsor to terminate the Trust and liquidate its bitcoin. As a result, an intellectual property rights claim against the Trust could adversely affect the value of the Shares.

Tax Risk

Shareholders could incur a tax liability without an associated distribution of the Trust.

In the normal course of business, it is possible that the Trust could incur a taxable gain in connection with the sale of bitcoin (including deemed sales of bitcoin as a result of the Trust using bitcoin to pay its expenses) that is otherwise not associated with a distribution to Shareholders. While purchases and sales of bitcoin are not expected to occur, in the event that this does occur, Shareholders may be subject to tax due to the grantor trust status of the Trust even though there is not a corresponding distribution from the Trust.

The tax treatment of bitcoin and transactions involving bitcoin for United States federal income tax purposes may change.

Current IRS guidance indicates that bitcoin should be treated as property for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that transactions involving the exchange of bitcoin in return for goods and services should be treated as barter exchanges. Such guidance allows transactions in bitcoin to qualify for beneficial capital gains treatment. However, because bitcoin is a new technological innovation, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in bitcoin or in transactions relating to investments in bitcoin, including without limitation the tax treatment of a fork, may evolve and change from those described in this prospectus, possibly with retroactive effect. Any such change in the U.S. federal income tax treatment of bitcoin may have a negative effect on prices of bitcoin and may adversely affect the value of the Shares. In this regard, the IRS has indicated that it has made it a priority to issue additional guidance related to the taxation of virtual currency transactions, such as transactions involving bitcoin. While it has started to issue such additional guidance, whether any future guidance will adversely affect the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in bitcoin or in transactions relating to investments in bitcoin is unknown. Moreover, future developments that may arise with respect to digital currencies may increase the uncertainty with respect to the treatment of digital currencies for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

The tax treatment of bitcoin and transactions involving bitcoin for state and local tax purposes is not settled.

Because bitcoin is a new technological innovation, the tax treatment of bitcoin for state and local tax purposes, including without limitation state and local income and sales and use taxes, is not

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settled. It is uncertain what guidance, if any, on the treatment of bitcoin for state and local tax purposes may be issued in the future. A state or local government authority’s treatment of bitcoin may have negative consequences, including the imposition of a greater tax burden on investors in bitcoin or the imposition of a greater cost on the acquisition and disposition of bitcoin generally. Any such treatment may have a negative effect on prices of bitcoin and may adversely affect the value of the Shares.

A hard “fork” of the Bitcoin Blockchain could result in Shareholders incurring a tax liability.

If a hard fork occurs in the Bitcoin Blockchain, the Trust could hold both the original bitcoin and the alternative new bitcoin. The IRS has held that a hard fork resulting in the creation of new units of cryptocurrency is a taxable event giving rise to ordinary income. Moreover, the Trust Agreement requires that, if such a transaction occurs, the Trust will as soon as possible direct the Bitcoin Custodian to distribute the alternative new bitcoin in-kind to the Sponsor, as agent for the Shareholders, and the Sponsor will arrange to sell the new bitcoin and for the proceeds to be distributed to the Shareholders. The receipt, distribution and/or sale of the alternative bitcoin may cause Shareholders to incur a United States federal, state, local, or foreign tax liability. Any tax liability could adversely impact an investment in the Shares and may require Shareholders to prepare and file tax returns.

Other Risks

The Exchange on which the Shares are listed may halt trading in the Trust’s Shares, which would adversely impact a Shareholder’s ability to sell Shares.

The Trust’s Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange under the market symbol “[  ].” Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or, in light of the Exchange rules and procedures, for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to “circuit breaker” rules that require trading to be halted for a specified period based on a specified market decline. Additionally, there can be no assurance that the requirements necessary to maintain the listing of the Trust’s Shares will continue to be met or will remain unchanged.

The liquidity of the Shares may also be affected by the withdrawal from participation of Authorized Participants, which could adversely affect the market price of the Shares.

In the event that one or more Authorized Participants or market makers that have substantial interests in the Trust’s Shares withdraw or “step away” from participation in the purchase (creation) or sale (redemption) of the Trust’s Shares, the liquidity of the Shares will likely decrease, which could adversely affect the market price of the Shares and result in Shareholders incurring a loss on their investment.

The market infrastructure of the bitcoin spot market could result in the absence of active Authorized Participants able to support the trading activity of the Trust.

Bitcoin is extremely volatile, and concerns exist about the stability, reliability and robustness of many exchanges where bitcoin trade. In a highly volatile market, or if one or more exchanges supporting the bitcoin market faces an issue, it could be extremely challenging for any Authorized Participants to provide continuous liquidity in the Shares. There can be no guarantee that the Sponsor will be able to find an Authorized Participant to actively and continuously support the Trust.

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Bitcoin spot exchanges are not subject to same regulatory oversight as traditional equity exchanges, which could negatively impact the ability of Authorized Participants to implement arbitrage mechanisms.

The trading for spot bitcoin occurs on multiple trading venues that have various levels and types of regulation, but are not regulated in the same manner as traditional stock and bond exchanges. If these exchanges do not operate smoothly or face technical, security or regulatory issues, that could impact the ability of Authorized Participants to make markets in the Shares. In such an event, trading in the Shares could occur at a material premium or discount against the NAV.

Shareholders that are not Authorized Participants may only purchase or sell their Shares in secondary trading markets, and the conditions associated with trading in secondary markets may adversely affect Shareholders’ investment in the Shares.

Only Authorized Participants may create or redeem Creation Baskets. All other Shareholders that desire to purchase or sell Shares must do so through the Exchange or in other markets, if any, in which the Shares may be traded. Shares may trade at a premium or discount to the NAV per Share.

The Sponsor is leanly staffed and relies heavily on key personnel.

The Sponsor is leanly staffed and relies heavily on key personnel to manage its activities. These key personnel intend to allocate their time managing the Trust in a manner that they deem appropriate. If such key personnel were to leave or be unable to carry out their present responsibilities, it may have an adverse effect on the management of the Sponsor.

The Trust is new, and if it is not profitable, the Trust may terminate and liquidate at a time that is disadvantageous to Shareholders.

The Trust is new. If the Trust does not attract sufficient assets to remain open, then the Trust could be terminated and liquidated at the direction of the Sponsor. Termination and liquidation of the Trust could occur at a time that is disadvantageous to Shareholders. When the Trust’s assets are sold as part of the Trust’s liquidation, the resulting proceeds distributed to Shareholders may be less than those that may be realized in a sale outside of a liquidation context. Shareholders may be adversely affected by redemption or creation orders that are subject to postponement, suspension or rejection under certain circumstances.

Shareholders do not have the rights enjoyed by investors in certain other vehicles and may be adversely affected by a lack of statutory rights and by limited voting and distribution rights.

The Shares have limited voting and distribution rights. For example, Shareholders do not have the right to elect directors, the Trust may enact splits or reverse splits without Shareholder approval and the Trust is not required to pay regular distributions, although the Trust may pay distributions at the discretion of the Sponsor.

An investment in the Trust may be adversely affected by competition from other investment vehicles focused on bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies.

The Trust will compete with direct investments in bitcoin, other cryptocurrencies and other potential financial vehicles, possibly including securities backed by or linked to cryptocurrency and other investment vehicles that focus on other digital assets. Market and financial conditions, and other conditions beyond the Trust’s control, may make it more attractive to invest in other vehicles, which could adversely affect the performance of the Trust.

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Shareholders cannot be assured of the Sponsor’s continued services, the discontinuance of which may be detrimental to the Trust.

Shareholders cannot be assured that the Sponsor will be able to continue to service the Trust for any length of time. If the Sponsor discontinues its activities on behalf of the Trust, the Trust may be adversely affected, as there may be no entity servicing the Trust for a period of time. Such an event could result in termination of the Trust.

Shareholders may be adversely affected by creation or redemption orders that are subject to postponement, suspension or rejection under certain circumstances.

The Trust may, in its discretion, suspend the right of creation or redemption or may postpone the redemption or purchase settlement date, for (1) any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which the fulfillment of a purchase order or the redemption distribution is not reasonably practicable, or (2) such other period as the Sponsor determines to be necessary for the protection of the Shareholders of the Trust. In addition, the Trust may reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form as described in the Authorized Participant Agreement or if the fulfillment of the order might be unlawful. Any such postponement, suspension or rejection could adversely affect a redeeming Authorized Participant. Suspension of creation privileges may adversely impact how the Shares are traded and arbitraged on the secondary market, which could cause them to trade at levels materially different (premiums and discounts) from the fair value of their underlying holdings.

Shareholders may be adversely affected by an overstatement or understatement of the NAV calculation of the Trust due to the valuation method employed on the date of the NAV calculation.

In certain circumstances, the Trust’s bitcoin investments may be valued using techniques other than reliance on the price established by the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. The value established by using the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate may be different from what would be produced through the use of another methodology. Bitcoin or other digital asset investments that are valued using techniques other than those employed by the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, including bitcoin investments that are “fair valued,” may be subject to greater fluctuation in their value from one day to the next than would be the case if market-price valuation techniques were used.

The liability of the Sponsor and the Trustee is limited, and the value of the Shares will be adversely affected if the Trust is required to indemnify the Trustee or the Sponsor.

Under the Trust Agreement, the Trustee and the Sponsor are not liable, and have the right to be indemnified, for any liability or expense incurred absent gross negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee or the Sponsor or breach by the Sponsor of the Trust Agreement, as the case may be. As a result, the Sponsor may require the assets of the Trust to be sold in order to cover losses or liability suffered by it or by the Trustee. Any sale of that kind would reduce the NAV of the Trust and the value of its Shares.

Third parties may infringe upon or otherwise violate intellectual property rights or assert that the Sponsor has infringed or otherwise violated their intellectual property rights, which may result in significant costs and diverted attention.

It is possible that third parties might utilize the Trust’s or MVIS’s intellectual property or technology, including the use of its business methods and trademarks, without permission. However, the Trust and/or MVIS may not have adequate resources to implement procedures for monitoring unauthorized uses of their trademarks, proprietary software and other technology. Also, third parties may independently develop business methods, trademarks or proprietary software and other technology similar to that of the Trust or MVIS or claim that the Trust or MVIS has violated their intellectual property rights, including their copyrights, trademark rights, trade names, trade secrets and patent rights. As a result, the Trust or MVIS may have to litigate in the future to protect its trade secrets, determine the validity and scope of other parties’ proprietary rights, defend itself

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against claims that it has infringed or otherwise violated other parties’ rights, or defend itself against claims that its rights are invalid. Any litigation of this type, even if the Trust or MVIS is successful and regardless of the merits, may result in significant costs, divert its resources from the Trust or MVIS, or require it to change its proprietary software and other technology or enter into royalty or licensing agreements.

Due to the increased use of technologies, intentional and unintentional cyber-attacks pose operational and information security risks.

With the increased use of technologies such as the internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Trust is susceptible to operational and information security risks. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber-attacks include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites. Cyber security failures or breaches of one or more of the Trust’s service providers (including, but not limited to, MVIS, the administrator, transfer agent, and the Bitcoin Custodian) have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of the Shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs.

In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future. The Trust and its Shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result. While the Trust has established business continuity plans, there are inherent limitations in such plans.

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BITCOIN, BITCOIN MARKET, BITCOIN EXCHANGES AND REGULATION OF BITCOIN

This section of the prospectus provides a more detailed description of bitcoin, including information about the historical development of bitcoin, how a person holds bitcoin, how to use bitcoin in transactions, how to trade bitcoin, the “exchange” market where bitcoin can be bought, held and sold, the bitcoin OTC market and bitcoin mining. In this prospectus, Bitcoin with an upper case “B” is used to describe the system as a whole that is involved in maintaining the ledger of bitcoin ownership and facilitating the transfer of bitcoin among parties. When referring to the digital asset within the bitcoin network, bitcoin is written with a lower case “b” (except, of course, at the beginning of sentences or paragraph sections, as below).

Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a digital asset that can be transferred among participants on the Bitcoin network on a peer-to-peer basis via the Internet. Unlike other means of electronic payments, bitcoin can be transferred without the use of a central administrator or clearing agency. Because a central party is not necessary to administer bitcoin transactions or maintain the bitcoin ledger, the term decentralized is often used in descriptions of bitcoin.

Bitcoin Network

Bitcoin was first described in a white paper released in 2008 and published under the name “Satoshi Nakamoto.” The protocol underlying Bitcoin was subsequently released in 2009 as open source software and currently operates on a worldwide network of computers.

The first step in using bitcoin for transactions is to download specialized software referred to as a “bitcoin wallet.” A user’s bitcoin wallet can run on a computer or smartphone, and can be used both to send and to receive bitcoin. Within a bitcoin wallet, a user can generate one or more unique “bitcoin addresses,” which are conceptually similar to bank account numbers on the Bitcoin Blockchain and are associated with a pair of public and private keys. After establishing a bitcoin address, a user can send or receive bitcoin from his or her bitcoin address to another user’s address using the public and private keys. Sending bitcoin from one bitcoin address to another is similar in concept to sending a bank wire from one person’s bank account to another person’s bank account.

The amount of bitcoin associated with each bitcoin address is listed in a public ledger, referred to as a “blockchain.” Copies of the Bitcoin Blockchain exist on thousands of computers on the Bitcoin network throughout the Internet. A user’s bitcoin wallet will either contain a copy of the Bitcoin Blockchain or be able to connect with another computer that holds a copy of the Bitcoin Blockchain.

When a bitcoin user wishes to transfer bitcoin to another user, the sender must first request a bitcoin address from the recipient. The sender then uses his or her bitcoin wallet software to create a data packet containing the proposed addition (often referred to as a “transaction”) to the Bitcoin Blockchain. The proposed transaction would reduce the sender’s address and increase the recipient’s address by the amount of bitcoin desired to be transferred, and is sent on a peer-to-peer basis to other computers participating in the Bitcoin network.

Bitcoin Protocol

Bitcoin is an open source project with no official company or group that controls the Bitcoin network, and anyone can review the underlying code and suggest changes. There are, however, a number of individual developers that regularly contribute to a specific distribution of Bitcoin software known as the “Bitcoin Core,” and who loosely oversee the development of its source code. There are many other compatible versions of Bitcoin software, but Bitcoin Core is the most widely adopted and currently provides the de facto standard for the Bitcoin protocol. The core developers are able to access, and can alter, the Bitcoin network source code and, as a result, they are responsible for quasi-official releases of updates and other changes to the Bitcoin network’s source code. However, because Bitcoin has no central authority, the release of updates to the Bitcoin network’s source code by the core developers does not guarantee that the updates will be

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automatically adopted by the other participants in the Bitcoin network. Users and miners must accept any changes made to the Bitcoin source code by downloading the proposed modification of the Bitcoin network’s source code. A modification of the Bitcoin network’s source code is effective only with respect to those Bitcoin users and miners who choose to download it. If a modification is accepted by only a percentage of users and miners, a division in the Bitcoin network will occur such that one network will run the pre-modification source code and the other network will run the modified source code. Such a division is known as a “fork.” See “Risk Factors—Risks Associated with bitcoin and the Bitcoin network—A temporary or permanent “fork” could adversely affect an investment in the Trust.” Consequently, as a practical matter, a modification to the source code becomes part of the Bitcoin network only if accepted by participants collectively having most of the processing power on the Bitcoin network. In recent years, there have been several forks in the Bitcoin network, including, but not limited to, forks resulting in the creation of Bitcoin Cash (August 1, 2017), Bitcoin Gold (October 24, 2017) and Bitcoin SegWit2X (December 28, 2017), among others.

The Trust has adopted the following procedures to address situations involving a fork that results in the issuance of new cryptocurrency that the Trust may receive. Typically, the holder of bitcoin has no discretion in a hard fork transaction; it merely receives the new cryptocurrency while it continues to hold the same number of bitcoin. The Trust Agreement stipulates that if such a transaction does occur, the Trust will as soon as possible direct the Bitcoin Custodian to distribute the new cryptocurrency in-kind to the Sponsor, as agent for the Shareholders, and the Sponsor will arrange to sell the new cryptocurrency and for the proceeds to be distributed to the Shareholders. The Trust is under no obligation to claim the forked asset if doing so will expose the Trust’s (original) bitcoin holdings to risk. Alternatively, the Bitcoin Custodian may not agree to provide the Trust with access to the forked asset.

Bitcoin Transactions

A bitcoin transaction is similar in concept to an irreversible digital check. The transaction contains the sender’s bitcoin address, the recipient’s bitcoin address, the amount of bitcoin to be sent, a transaction fee and the sender’s digital signature. The sender’s use of his or her digital signature enables participants on the Bitcoin network to verify the authenticity of the bitcoin transaction.

A user’s digital signature is generated via usage of the user’s so-called “private key,” one of two numbers in a so-called cryptographic “key pair.” A key pair consists of a “public key” and its corresponding private key, both of which are lengthy alphanumeric codes, derived together and possessing a unique relationship.

Public keys are associated with bitcoin addresses that are publicly known and can accept a bitcoin transfer. Private keys are used to sign transactions that initiate the transfer of bitcoin from a sender’s bitcoin address to a recipient’s bitcoin address. Only the holder of the private key associated with a particular bitcoin address can digitally sign a transaction proposing a transfer of bitcoin from that particular bitcoin address.

A user’s bitcoin address may be safely distributed, but a user’s private key must be kept in accordance with appropriate controls and procedures to ensure it is used only for legitimate and intended transactions. Only by using a private key can a bitcoin user create a digital signature to transfer bitcoin to another user. In addition, if an unauthorized third person learns of a user’s private key, that third person could forge the user’s digital signature and send the user’s bitcoin to any arbitrary bitcoin address, thereby stealing the user’s bitcoin.

The usage of key pairs is a cornerstone of the Bitcoin network. This is because the use of a private key is the only mechanism by which a bitcoin transaction can be signed. If a private key is lost, the corresponding bitcoin is thereafter permanently non-transferable. Moreover, the theft of a private key enables the thief immediate and unfettered access to the corresponding bitcoin. Bitcoin users must therefore understand that in this regard, bitcoin is a bearer asset, similar to cash: that is, the person or entity in control of the private key corresponding to a particular quantity of bitcoin has de facto control of the bitcoin. For large quantities of bitcoin, holders often employ sophisticated

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security measures. For a discussion of how the Trust secures its bitcoin, see “The Bitcoin Custodian” below.

The Bitcoin network incorporates a system to prevent double spending of a single bitcoin. To prevent the possibility of double-spending a single bitcoin, each validated transaction is recorded, time stamped and publicly displayed in a “block” in the Bitcoin Blockchain, which is publicly available. Thus, the Bitcoin network provides confirmation against double-spending by memorializing every transaction in the Bitcoin Blockchain, which is publicly accessible and downloaded in part or in whole by all users of the Bitcoin network software program.

The process by which bitcoin are created and bitcoin transactions are verified is called mining. To begin mining, a user, or “miner,” can download and special mining software, which, like regular Bitcoin network software programs, turns the user’s computer into a “node” on the Bitcoin network, and also has the ability to validate transactions and add new blocks of transactions to the Blockchain.

Miners, through the use of the bitcoin software program, engage in a set of prescribed complex mathematical calculations imposed by the Bitcoin network’s software protocol, called “proof of work”, in order to validate proposed transactions and bundle them into a data packet known as a “block". The first miner who successfully solves the cryptographic puzzle imposed by the Bitcoin network’s software protocol is permitted to add a block of transactions to the Bitcoin Blockchain and is rewarded by a grant of newly-issued bitcoin, known as the “block reward". Bitcoin is created and allocated by the Bitcoin network protocol and distributed through a “mining” process subject to a strict, well-known issuance schedule. Block rewards for mining are the method by which new bitcoin is issued. The supply of bitcoin is limited to 21 million by the Bitcoin network’s software protocol.

Confirmed and validated bitcoin transactions are recorded in blocks added to the Bitcoin Blockchain. Each block contains the details of some or all of the most recent transactions that are not memorialized in prior blocks, as well as a record of the award of bitcoin to the miner who added the new block. Each unique block can only be solved and added to the Bitcoin Blockchain by one miner; as a result, individual miners and mining pools on the Bitcoin network engage in a competitive process of constantly increasing their computing power to improve their individual likelihood of solving new blocks. As more miners join the Bitcoin network and its processing power increases, or if miners leave the Bitcoin network and its processing power declines, the Bitcoin network adjusts the complexity of a block-solving equation to maintain a predetermined pace of adding a new block to the Bitcoin Blockchain approximately every ten minutes.

Bitcoin Market and Bitcoin Exchanges

Bitcoin can be transferred in direct peer-to-peer transactions through the direct sending of bitcoin over the Bitcoin Blockchain from one bitcoin address to another. Among end-users, bitcoin can be used to pay other members of the Bitcoin network for goods and services under what resembles a barter system. Consumers can also pay merchants and other commercial businesses for goods or services through direct peer-to-peer transactions on the Bitcoin Blockchain or through third-party service providers.

In addition to using bitcoin to engage in transactions, investors may purchase and sell bitcoin to speculate as to the value of bitcoin in the bitcoin market, or as a long-term investment to diversify their portfolio. The value of bitcoin within the market is determined, in part, by the supply of and demand for bitcoin in the global bitcoin market, market expectations for the adoption of bitcoin as a store of value, the number of merchants that accept bitcoin as a form of payment, and the volume of peer-to-peer transactions, among other factors.

A bitcoin exchange provides investors with a website that permits investors to open accounts with the exchange and then purchase and sell bitcoin. Prices for trades on bitcoin exchanges are typically reported publicly. An investor opening a trading account must deposit an accepted government-issued currency into their account with the exchange, or a previously acquired digital asset, before they can purchase or sell assets on the exchange. The process of establishing an

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account with a bitcoin exchange and trading bitcoin is different from, and should not be confused with, the process of users sending bitcoin from one bitcoin address to another bitcoin address on the Bitcoin Blockchain. This latter process is an activity that occurs on the Bitcoin network, while the former is an activity that occurs entirely on the private website operated by the exchange. The exchange typically records the investor’s ownership of bitcoin in its internal books and records, rather than on the Bitcoin Blockchain. The exchange ordinarily does not transfer bitcoin to the investor on the Bitcoin Blockchain unless the investor makes a request to the exchange to withdraw the bitcoin in their exchange account to an off-exchange bitcoin wallet.

Outside of exchanges, Bitcoin can be traded OTC in transactions that are not publicly reported. The OTC market is largely institutional in nature, and OTC market participants generally consist of institutional entities, such as firms that offer two-sided liquidity for bitcoin, investment managers, proprietary trading firms, high-net-worth individuals that trade bitcoin on a proprietary basis, entities with sizeable bitcoin holdings, and family offices. The OTC market provides a relatively flexible market in terms of quotes, price, quantity, and other factors, although it tends to involve large blocks of bitcoin. The OTC market has no formal structure and no open-outcry meeting place. Parties engaging in OTC transactions will agree upon a price—often via phone or email—and then one of the two parties will then initiate the transaction. For example, a seller of bitcoin could initiate the transaction by sending the bitcoin to the buyer’s bitcoin address. The buyer would then wire U.S. dollars to the seller’s bank account. OTC trades are sometimes hedged and eventually settled with concomitant trades on bitcoin spot exchanges.

Although bitcoin was the first digital asset, in the ensuing years, the number of digital assets, market participants and companies in the space has increased dramatically. In addition to bitcoin, other well-known digital assets include ethereum, XRP, bitcoin cash, and litecoin. The category and protocols are still being defined and evolving.

As discussed in more detail below, barring the liquidation of the Trust or extraordinary circumstances, the Trust will not directly purchase or sell bitcoin, although the Trustee may direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin to pay certain expenses. Instead, Authorized Participants will deliver bitcoin to the Trust’s account with the Bitcoin Custodian in exchange for Shares of the Trust, and the Trust, through the Bitcoin Custodian, will deliver bitcoin to Authorized Participants when those Authorized Participants redeem Shares of the Trust. Based on the CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark, MVIS selects the top five exchanges by rank for inclusion in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, which the Trust will then use to price its NAV at the end of every business day.

Regulation of Bitcoin and Government Oversight

As digital assets have grown in both popularity and market size, the U.S. Congress and a number of U.S. federal and state agencies (including FinCEN, SEC, CFTC, FINRA, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), the Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the IRS and state financial institution regulators) have been examining the operations of digital asset networks, digital asset users and the digital asset exchange markets, with particular focus on the extent to which digital assets can be used to launder the proceeds of illegal activities or fund criminal or terrorist enterprises and the safety and soundness of exchanges or other service-providers that hold digital assets for users. Many of these state and federal agencies have issued consumer advisories regarding the risks posed by digital assets to investors. In addition, federal and state agencies, and other countries have issued rules or guidance about the treatment of digital asset transactions or requirements for businesses engaged in digital asset activity.

Various foreign jurisdictions have, and may continue to, in the near future, adopt laws, regulations or directives that affect the Bitcoin Network, the Bitcoin Markets, and their users, particularly Bitcoin Exchanges and service providers that fall within such jurisdictions’ regulatory scope. For example, on March 5, 2020, South Korea voted to amend its Financial Information Act to require virtual asset service providers to register and comply with its AML and CFT framework. These measures also provide the government with the authority to close digital asset exchanges that

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do not comply with specified processes. The Chinese and South Korean governments have also banned ICOs and there are reports that Chinese regulators have taken action to shut down a number of China-based digital asset exchanges. Further, on January 19, 2018, a Chinese news organization reported that the People’s Bank of China had ordered financial institutions to stop providing banking or funding to “any activity related to cryptocurrencies.” Similarly, in April 2018, the Reserve Bank of India banned the entities it regulates from providing services to any individuals or business entities dealing with or settling digital assets. On March 5, 2020, this ban was overturned in the Indian Supreme Court, although the Reserve Bank of India is currently challenging this ruling. There remains significant uncertainty regarding the South Korean, Indian and Chinese governments’ future actions with respect to the regulation of digital assets and digital asset exchanges. Such laws, regulations or directives may conflict with those of the United States and may negatively impact the acceptance of Bitcoin by users, merchants and service providers outside the United States and may therefore impede the growth or sustainability of the Bitcoin economy in the European Union, China, Japan, Russia and the United States and globally, or otherwise negatively affect the value of Bitcoin.

The effect of any future regulatory change on the Trust or Bitcoin is impossible to predict, but such change could be substantial and adverse to the Trust and the value of the Shares.

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THE TRUST AND BITCOIN PRICES

Overview of the Trust

The Trust is an exchange-traded fund that issues Shares that trade on the Exchange. The Trust’s investment objective is to reflect the performance of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate less the expenses of the Trust’s operations. In seeking to achieve its investment objective, the Trust will hold bitcoin and will value its Shares daily based on the reported MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, which is calculated based on prices contributed by exchanges that MVIS believes represent the top five bitcoin exchanges, based on the industry leading CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark review report. The Trust is sponsored by VanEck Digital Assets, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of VanEck.

The Sponsor believes that the Trust will provide a cost-efficient way for Shareholders to implement strategic and tactical asset allocation strategies that use bitcoin by investing in the Trust’s Shares rather than purchasing, holding and trading bitcoin directly. The latter alternative would require selecting a bitcoin exchange and opening an account or arranging a private transaction, establishing a personal computer system capable of transacting directly on the blockchain, and incurring the risk associated with maintaining and protecting a private key that is irrecoverable if lost, among other difficulties.

Bitcoin Value

The value of bitcoin is determined by the value that various market participants place on Bitcoin through their transactions. The most common means of determining the value of a bitcoin is by surveying one or more bitcoin exchanges where bitcoin is traded publicly and transparently (e.g., Bitstamp, Coinbase, Gemini, Kraken, and itBit).

On exchanges, bitcoin is traded with publicly disclosed valuations for each executed trade, measured by one or more fiat currencies such as the U.S. dollar or Euro. OTC dealers or market makers do not typically disclose their trade data.

Currently, there are many exchanges operating worldwide, representing a substantial percentage of bitcoin buying and selling activity, and providing the most data with respect to prevailing valuations of bitcoins. The below table reflects the trading volume (in thousands of USD) of each of the bitcoin exchanges included in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate as of November 30, 2020 using data reported by MVIS from May 1, 2015 to November 30, 2020:

 

 

 

Bitcoin Exchanges included in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin
Benchmark Rate as of November 30, 2020

 

Total Volume
(in thousands of USD)

Bitstamp

 

 

$

 

109,225,876

 

Coinbase

 

 

$

 

161,311,286

 

Gemini(1)

 

 

$

 

41,301,427

 

itBit

 

 

$

 

20,815,844

 

Kraken

 

 

$

 

64,841,080

 

 

 

(1)

 

Trading volume for Gemini is as of November 30, 2020 using data reported by MVIS from October 1, 2015 to November 30, 2020.

Trust Structure

The Sponsor designed the Trust in what it believes is a straight-forward structure to provide exposure to bitcoin. By utilizing the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, the Trust draws prices for its Shares off of what it is in reality a “consolidated tape” for bitcoin, similar to the consolidated tapes or “ticker tapes” used by major stock exchanges to report trades and quotes. The term “consolidated” refers to the fact that securities, just like bitcoin, often trade on more than one exchange, and a consolidated tape reports not only a security’s trading activity on its primary listing exchange but the trading activity on all or substantially all exchanges on which it is traded.

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The use of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is designed to eliminate from the NAV calculation pursuant to which the Trust prices its Shares those bitcoin exchanges with indicia of suspicious, fake, or non-economic volume. In addition, the use of five bitcoin exchanges is designed to mitigate the potential for idiosyncratic exchange risk, as the failure of any individual bitcoin exchange should not materially impact pricing for the Trust. Moreover, any attempt to manipulate the NAV would require a substantial amount of capital distributed across a majority of the five exchanges, and potentially coordinated activity across those exchanges, making it more difficult to conduct, profit from, or avoid the detection of market manipulation. The Sponsor believes that this is especially true in a well-arbitraged and distributed market, as MVIS believes the real bitcoin market to be.

In addition to the above safeguards, the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is calculated over twenty three-minute intervals pursuant to a methodology referred to as an equal-weighted average of the volume-weighted median price.” The use of twenty consecutive three-minute segments over a sixty-minute period means a malicious actor would need to sustain efforts to manipulate the market over an extended period of time, or would need to replicate efforts multiple times, potentially triggering review from the exchange or regulators, or both. The use of a “median” price by its nature limits the ability of outlier prices that may have been caused by attempts to manipulate the price on a particular exchange, to impact the NAV, as it systematically excludes those prices from the NAV calculation.

The Sponsor further believes that the fact that the Trust will not purchase bitcoin and, in all ordinary circumstances, barring a forced redemption of the Trust or other extraordinary circumstances, will not sell bitcoin (though the Trustee may direct the Bitcoin Custodian to do so to pay certain expenses), but will instead process all creations and redemptions in-kind in transactions with Authorized Participants, provides unique protections against potential attempts by bad actors to manipulate the price of bitcoin on exchanges contributing to the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate and thereby the Trust’s NAV calculation. Even if a bad actor were able to temporarily manipulate the price of bitcoin on such exchange, and even if it could manipulate enough of the volume and enough of the exchanges to overwhelm the protections designed into the calculation of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate and thereby the NAV (addressed below), the exclusive use of in-kind creations and redemptions in all circumstances barring a forced redemption, means that the amount of bitcoin per Share held by the Trust would not be impacted as a result and long-term Shareholders of the Trust would therefore be protected in a way that would not be the case if the Trust processed creations or redemptions in cash.

Description of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate Construction and Maintenance

The Sponsor has entered into a licensing agreement with MVIS to use the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. The Trust is entitled to use the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate pursuant to a sub-licensing arrangement with the Sponsor. The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is a U.S. dollar-denominated composite reference rate for the price of bitcoin. The index is calculated daily between 00:00 and 24:00 (CET) and the index values are disseminated to data vendors. The index is disseminated in USD and the closing value is calculated based on one hour volume weighted average price. The intra-day data available in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is published once every 60 minutes throughout each trading day. The intra-day levels and closing levels of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate are published by MVIS. The current exchange composition of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is Bitstamp, Coinbase, Gemini, itBit and Kraken. The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate index was launched on June 3, 2020.

The underlying exchanges are sourced from the industry leading CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark review report. CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark was established in 2019 as a tool designed to bring clarity to the digital asset exchange sector by providing a framework for assessing risk and in turn bringing transparency and accountability to a complex and rapidly evolving market. The CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark methodology utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative metrics to analyze a comprehensive data set, covering more than 165 exchanges across

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eight categories of evaluation. The categories of evaluation include legal/regulation, KYC/transaction risk, data provision, security, team/exchange, asset quality/diversity, market quality and negative events.

The legal/regulation category considers, among other inputs, an exchange’s offering of some form of cryptocurrency insurance and whether the exchange is registered as a money services business. The KYC/transaction risk category assesses an exchange’s market surveillance system, transaction protocols and KYC/AML procedures. Data provisions measure an exchange’s quality of connectivity and data processing, including its API average response time and order book availability, among others. The security category takes into account, among others, an exchanges use of cold wallets, two-factor authentication policy, and encryption quality. The team/exchange category gauges the experience of an exchange’s senior leadership and funding sources, among others. Asset quality/diversity considerations include the fundamental health and mix of digital assets available on each exchange. The market quality category includes, but is not limited to, average spreads on exchange, volatility and volume correlation, and depth of market. Negative events impose a 5% penalty factor in determining the overall ranking of an exchange and captures negative events such as a flash crash, legal matters, or a large breach in data privacy.

The CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark review report assigns a grade to each exchange which helps identify what it believes to be the lowest risk exchanges in the industry. Based on the CryptoCompare Exchange Benchmark, MVIS initially selects the top five exchanges by rank for inclusion in the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. If an eligible exchange is downgraded by two or more notches in a semi-annual review and is no longer in the top five by rank, it is replaced by the highest ranked non-component exchange. Adjustments to exchange coverage are announced four business days prior to the first business day of each of March and September at 23:00 CET. The MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate is rebalanced at 16:00:00 GMT/BST on the last business day of each of February and August.

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CALCULATION OF NAV

The Sponsor believes that use of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate mitigates against idiosyncratic exchange risk, as the failure of any individual exchange will not materially impact pricing for the Trust. It also allows the Administrator to calculate the NAV in a manner that significantly deters manipulation.

As discussed, the fact that there are multiple exchanges contributing prices to the NAV makes manipulation more difficult in a well-arbitraged and fractured market, as a malicious actor would need to manipulate multiple exchanges simultaneously to impact the NAV, or dramatically skew the historical distribution of volume between the various exchanges.

In calculating the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, the methodology captures trade prices and sizes from exchanges and examines twenty three-minute periods leading up to 4:00 p.m. EST. It then calculates an equal-weighted average of the volume-weighted median price of these twenty three-minute periods, removing the highest and lowest contributed prices. Using twenty consecutive three-minute segments over a sixty-minute period means malicious actors would need to sustain efforts to manipulate the market over an extended period of time, or would need to replicate efforts multiple times across exchanges, potentially triggering review. This extended period also supports Authorized Participant activity by capturing volume over a longer time period, rather than forcing Authorized Participants to mark an individual close or auction. The use of a median price eliminates the ability of outlier prices to impact the NAV, as it systematically excludes those prices from the NAV calculation. The use of a volume-weighted median (as opposed to a traditional median) protects against attempts to manipulate the NAV by executing a large number of low-dollar trades, because, any manipulation attempt would have to involve a majority of global spot bitcoin volume in a three-minute window to have any influence on the NAV. As discussed, trimming the highest and lowest prices further protects against attempts to manipulate the NAV, requiring bad actors to act on multiple exchanges at once to have any ability to influence the price.

The Trust’s NAV per Share is calculated by:

 

 

taking the current market value of its total assets;

 

 

subtracting any liabilities; and

 

 

dividing that total by the total number of outstanding Shares.

The Administrator calculates the NAV of the Trust once each Exchange trading day. The NAV for a normal trading day will be released after 4:00 p.m. EST. Trading during the core trading session on the Exchange typically closes at 4:00 p.m. EST. However, NAVs are not officially struck until later in the day (often by 5:30 p.m. EST and almost always by 8:00 p.m. EST). The pause between 4:00 p.m. EST and 5:30 p.m. EST (or later) provides an opportunity to algorithmically detect, flag, investigate, and correct unusual pricing should it occur.

In addition, in order to provide updated information relating to the Trust for use by Shareholders and market professionals, [  ] will calculate and disseminate throughout the core trading session on each trading day an updated intraday indicative value (“IIV”). The IIV will be calculated by using the prior day’s closing NAV per Share of the Trust as a base and updating that value throughout the trading day to reflect changes in the most recently reported price level of the [MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate] as reported by Bloomberg, L.P. or another reporting service.

The IIV disseminated during the Exchange core trading session hours should not be viewed as an actual real time update of the NAV, because NAV per Share is calculated only once at the end of each trading day based upon the relevant end of day values of the Trust’s investments. The IIV will be disseminated on a per Share basis every 15 seconds during regular Exchange core trading session hours of 9:30 a.m. EST to 4:00 p.m. EST. [  ] will disseminate the IIV value through the facilities of CTA/CQ High Speed Lines. In addition, the indicative fund value will be published on the Exchange’s website and will be available through on-line information services such as Bloomberg and Reuters. The IIV may differ from the NAV due to the differences in the time window of trades used to calculate each price (the NAV uses a sixty-minute window, whereas the IIV draws prices from the last trade on each exchange in an effort to produce a relevant, real-time price). The

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Sponsor does not believe this will cause confusion in the marketplace, as Authorized Participants are the only Shareholders who interact with the NAV and the Sponsor will communicate its NAV calculation methodology clearly.

There are many instances in the market today where the IIV and the NAV of an ETF are subtly different, whether due to the calculation methodology, market hours overlap or other factors. The Sponsor has seen limited or no negative impact on trading, liquidity or other factors for exchange-traded funds in this situation. The Sponsor believes that the IIV will closely track the globally integrated bitcoin price as reflected on the contributing real bitcoin exchanges.

Dissemination of the IIV provides additional information that is not otherwise available to the public and is useful to Shareholders and market professionals in connection with the trading of the Trust’s Shares on the Exchange. Shareholders and market professionals will be able throughout the trading day to compare the market price of the Trust and the IIV. If the market price of the Trust’s Shares diverges significantly from the IIV, market professionals will have an incentive to execute arbitrage trades. For example, if the Trust appears to be trading at a discount compared to the IIV, a market professional could buy the Trust’s Shares on the Exchange and sell short futures contracts. Such arbitrage trades can tighten the tracking between the market price of the Trust and the IIV and thus can be beneficial to all market participants.

The Sponsor reserves the right to adjust the Share price of the Trust in the future to maintain convenient trading ranges for Shareholders. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits. Such splits would decrease (in the case of a split) or increase (in the case of a reverse split) the proportionate NAV per Share, but would have no effect on the net assets of the Trust or the proportionate voting rights of Shareholders or the value of any Shareholder’s investment.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRUST

The Trust

The Trust is a Delaware statutory trust, formed on December 17, 2020 pursuant to the Delaware Statutory Trust Act. The Trust continuously issues common shares representing fractional undivided beneficial interest in and ownership of the Trust that may be purchased and sold on the Exchange. The Trust operates pursuant to the Trust Agreement dated as December 17, 2020. Delaware Trust Company, a Delaware trust company, is the Delaware trustee of the Trust. The Trust is managed and controlled by the Sponsor. The Sponsor is a limited liability company formed in the state of Delaware on December 8, 2020.

The Trust is not registered as an investment company under the 1940 Act and is not required to register under such act. The Trust will not hold or trade in commodity futures contracts regulated by the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”), as administered by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”). The Trust is not a commodity pool for purposes of the CEA and neither the Sponsor, nor the Trustee is subject to regulation as a commodity pool operator or a commodity trading adviser in connection with the Shares.

The number of outstanding Shares is expected to increase and decrease from time to time as a result of the creation and redemption of baskets. The creation and redemption of baskets requires the delivery to the Trust or the distribution by the Trust of the amount of bitcoin represented by the NAV of the baskets being created or redeemed. The total amount of bitcoin required for the creation of baskets will be based on the combined net assets represented by the number of baskets being created or redeemed.

The Trust has no fixed termination date.

The Trust’s Fees and Expenses

The Trust will pay the Sponsor a unified fee of [  ]. The Sponsor Fee is paid by the Trust to the Sponsor as compensation for services performed under the Trust Agreement. The Administrator will make its determination regarding the Sponsor Fee in respect of each day by reference to the Trust’s NAV as of that day. The Sponsor Fee will be accrue and be payable in U.S. dollars. The Sponsor has agreed to pay all operating expenses (except for litigation expenses and other extraordinary expenses) out of the Sponsor Fee. The Trustee from time to time will direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin in such quantity as is necessary to permit payment of the Sponsor Fee and may also direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin in such quantities as may be necessary to permit the payment of Trust expenses and liabilities not assumed by the Sponsor. The Trustee is authorized to direct the Bitcoin Custodian to sell bitcoin at such times and in the smallest amounts required to permit such payments as they become due, it being the intention to avoid or minimize the Trust’s holdings of assets other than bitcoin. Accordingly, the amount of bitcoin to be sold may vary from time to time depending on the level of the Trust’s expenses and liabilities and the market price of bitcoin.

Termination of the Trust

The Sponsor will notify Shareholders at least 30 days before the date for termination of the Trust Agreement and the Trust if any of the following occurs:

 

 

Shares are delisted from the Exchange and are not approved for listing on another national securities exchange within five business days of their delisting;

 

 

180 days have elapsed since the Trustee notified the Sponsor of the Trustee’s election to resign or since the Sponsor removed the Trustee, and a successor trustee has not been appointed and accepted its appointment;

 

 

the SEC determines that the Trust is an investment company under the 1940 Act, and the Sponsor has made the determination that termination of the Trust is advisable;

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the CFTC determines that the Trust is a commodity pool under the Commodity Exchange Act, and the Sponsor has made the determination that termination of the Trust is advisable;

 

 

the Trust is determined to be a “money service business” under the regulations promulgated by FinCEN under the authority of the US Bank Secrecy Act and is required to comply with certain FinCEN regulations thereunder or is determined to be a “money transmitter” (or equivalent designation) under the laws of any state in which the Trust operates and is required to seek licensing or otherwise comply with state licensing requirements, and the Sponsor has made the determination that termination of the Trust is advisable;

 

 

a United States regulator requires the Trust to shut down or forces the Trust to liquidate its bitcoin;

 

 

any ongoing event exists that either prevents the Trust from making or makes impractical the Trust’s reasonable efforts to make a fair determination of the price of bitcoin for purposes of determining the NAV of the Trust;

 

 

the Sponsor determines that the aggregate net assets of the Trust in relation to the operating expenses of the Trust make it unreasonable or imprudent to continue the business of the Trust;

 

 

the Trust fails to qualify for treatment, or ceases to be treated, as a “grantor trust” under the Code or any comparable provision of the laws of any State or other jurisdiction where that treatment is sought, and the Sponsor determines that, because of that tax treatment or change in tax treatment, termination of the Trust is advisable;

 

 

60 days have elapsed since DTC or another depository has ceased to act as depository with respect to the Shares, and the Sponsor has not identified another depository that is willing to act in such capacity;

 

 

the Trustee elects to terminate the Trust after the Sponsor is conclusively deemed to have resigned effective immediately as a result of the Sponsor being adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver of the Sponsor or of its property being appointed, or a trustee or liquidator or any public officer taking charge or control of the Sponsor or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation and a successor sponsor has not been appointed; or

 

 

the Sponsor elects to terminate the Trust after the Trustee, Administrator or the Bitcoin Custodian (or any successor trustee, administrator or custodian) resigns or otherwise ceases to be the trustee, administrator or custodian of the Trust, as applicable, and no replacement trustee, administrator and/or custodian acceptable to the Sponsor is engaged.

In addition, the Trust may be dissolved at any time for any reason by the Sponsor in its sole discretion. In respect of termination events that rely on Sponsor determinations to terminate the Trust (e.g., if the SEC determines that the Trust is an investment company under the 1940 Act; the CFTC determines that the Trust is a commodity pool under the CEA; the Trust is determined to be a money transmitter under the regulations promulgated by FinCEN; the Trust fails to qualify for treatment, or ceases to be treated, as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes; or, following a resignation by a trustee or custodian, the Sponsor determines that no replacement is acceptable to it), the Sponsor may consider, without limitation, the profitability to the Sponsor and other service providers of the operation of the Trust, any obstacles or costs relating to the operation or regulatory compliance of the Trust relating to the determination’s triggering event, and the ability to market the Trust to investors. To the extent that the Sponsor determines to continue operation of the Trust following a determination’s triggering event, the Trust will be required to alter its operations to comply with the triggering event. In the instance of a determination that the Trust is an investment company, the Trust and Sponsor would have to comply with the regulations and disclosure and reporting requirements applicable to investment companies and investment advisers. In the instance of a determination that the Trust is a commodity pool, the Trust and the Sponsor would have to comply with regulations and disclosure and reporting requirements applicable to commodity pools and commodity pool operators or commodity trading advisers. In the event that the Trust is determined to be a money transmitter, the Trust and the Sponsor will have to comply

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with applicable federal and state registration and regulatory requirements for money transmitters and/or money service businesses. In the event that the Trust ceases to qualify for treatment as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Trust will be required to alter its disclosure and tax reporting procedures and may no longer be able to operate or to rely on pass-through tax treatment. In each such case and in the case of the Sponsor’s determination as to whether a potential successor trustee or custodian is acceptable to it, the Sponsor will not be liable to anyone for its determination of whether to continue or to terminate the Trust.

Upon termination of the Trust, following completion of winding up of its business by the Sponsor, the Trustee, upon written directions of the Sponsor, will cause a certificate of cancellation of the Trust’s Certificate of Trust to be filed in accordance with applicable Delaware law. Upon the termination of the Trust, the Sponsor will be discharged from all obligations under the Trust Agreement except for its certain obligations that survive termination of the Trust Agreement.

Amendments

The Trust Agreement can be amended by the Sponsor in its sole discretion and without the Shareholders’ consent by making an amendment, a Trust Agreement supplemental thereto, or an amended and restated trust agreement. Any such restatement, amendment and/or supplement to the Trust Agreement will be effective on such date as designated by the Sponsor in its sole discretion. However, any amendment to the Trust Agreement that affects the duties, liabilities, rights or protections of the Trustee will require the Trustee’s prior written consent, which it may grant or withhold in its sole discretion. Every Shareholder, at the time any amendment so becomes effective, will be deemed, by continuing to hold any Shares or an interest therein, to consent and agree to such amendment and to be bound by the Trust Agreement as amended thereby. In no event will any amendment impair the right of Authorized Participants to surrender baskets and receive therefor the amount of Trust assets represented thereby (less fees in connection with the surrender of Shares and any applicable taxes or other governmental charges), except in order to comply with mandatory provisions of applicable law.

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THE TRUST’S SERVICE PROVIDERS

The Sponsor

The Sponsor arranged for the creation of the Trust and is responsible for the ongoing registration of the Shares for their public offering in the United States and the listing of Shares on the Exchange. The Sponsor will not exercise day-to-day oversight over the Trustee, the Bitcoin Custodian, or MVIS. The Sponsor will develop a marketing plan for the Trust, will prepare marketing materials regarding the Shares of the Trust, and will exercise the marketing plan of the Trust on an ongoing basis. The Sponsor has agreed to pay all operating expenses (except for litigation expenses and other extraordinary expenses) out of the Sponsor’s unified fee.

The Sponsor is a wholly-owned subsidiary of VanEck. VanEck acts as adviser or sub-adviser to exchange-traded funds, mutual funds, other pooled investment vehicles and separate accounts. VanEck has been wholly owned by members of the van Eck family since its founding in 1955 and its shares are held by its Chief Executive Officer, Jan van Eck, and his family. See “Management; Voting by Shareholders” for a discussion of Mr. van Eck’s biography and positions with the Sponsor.

The principal office of the Sponsor is:

Van Eck Digital Assets, LLC
666 Third Avenue, 9
th Floor
New York, NY 10017

The Trustee

Delaware Trust Company, a Delaware trust company, acts as the trustee of the Trust for the purpose of creating a Delaware statutory trust in accordance with the Delaware Statutory Trust Act (“DSTA”). The Trustee is appointed to serve as the trustee of the Trust in the State of Delaware for the sole purpose of satisfying the requirement of Section 3807(a) of the DSTA that the Trust have at least one trustee with a principal place of business in the State of Delaware.

General Duty of Care of Trustee

The Trustee is a fiduciary under the Trust Agreement; provided, however, that the fiduciary duties and responsibilities and liabilities of the Trustee are limited by, and are only those specifically set forth in, the Trust Agreement.

Resignation, Discharge or Removal of Trustee; Successor Trustees

The Trustee may resign at any time by giving at least 30 days advance written notice to the Sponsor. The Sponsor may remove the Trustee at any time by giving at least 30 days advance written notice to the Trustee. Upon effective resignation or removal, the Trustee will be discharged of its duties and obligations.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed, the Sponsor, acting on behalf of the Shareholders, is required to use reasonable efforts to appoint a successor trustee. Any successor Trustee must satisfy the requirements of Section 3807 of the DSTA. Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee cannot become effective until a written acceptance of appointment is delivered by the successor Trustee to the outgoing Trustee and the Sponsor and any fees and expenses due to the outgoing Trustee are paid or waived by the outgoing Trustee. Following compliance with the preceding sentence, the successor will become fully vested with the rights, powers, duties and obligations of the outgoing Trustee under the Trust Agreement, with like effect as if originally named as Trustee, and the outgoing Trustee shall be discharged of its duties and obligations herein. If no successor Trustee shall have been appointed and shall have accepted such appointment within forty-five (45) days after the giving of such notice of resignation or removal, the Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

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If the Trustee resigns and no successor trustee is appointed within 180 days after the date the Trustee issues its notice of resignation, the Sponsor will terminate and liquidate the Trust and distribute its remaining assets.

The Administrator

Under the Trust Administration and Accounting Agreement, the Administrator provides necessary administrative, tax and accounting services and financial reporting for the maintenance and operations of the Trust. In addition, the Administrator makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities to provide such services. The Administrator will also facilitate the transfer of bitcoin required for the operation of the Trust.

The Bitcoin Custodian

The Bitcoin Custodian is responsible for safekeeping all of the bitcoin owned by the Trust. The Bitcoin Custodian was selected by the Sponsor. The Bitcoin Custodian has responsibility for opening the Bitcoin Account, as well as facilitating the transfer of bitcoin required for the operation of the Trust.

The Transfer Agent

The Transfer Agent: (1) issues and redeems Shares of the Trust; (2) responds to correspondence by Trust Shareholders and others relating to its duties; (3) maintains Shareholder accounts; and (4) makes periodic reports to the Trust.

The Marketing Agent

The Marketing Agent is responsible for: (1) [working with the Administrator to review and approve, or reject, purchase and redemption orders of Creation Baskets placed by Authorized Participants with the Administrator]; (2) providing assistance in the marketing of the Shares; (3) reviewing and approving the marketing materials prepared by the Sponsor for compliance with applicable SEC and FIRA advertising laws, rules and regulations; and (4) maintaining a public website on behalf of the Trust, containing information about the Trust and the Shares. The internet address of the Trust’s website is [  ]. This internet address is only provided here as a convenience, and the information contained on or connected to the Trust’s website is not considered part of this Prospectus.

MVIS

MV Index Solutions GmbH is an indirectly wholly owned-subsidiary of Van Eck Associates Corporation.

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CUSTODY OF THE TRUST’S ASSETS

The Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian will keep custody of the Trust’s bitcoin. The Bitcoin Custodian will keep a substantial portion of the private keys associated with the Trust’s bitcoin in “cold storage” or similarly secure technology. Cold storage is a safeguarding method with multiple layers of protections and protocols, by which the private key(s) corresponding to the Trust’s bitcoin is (are) generated and stored in an offline manner. Private keys are generated in offline computers that are not connected to the internet so that they are resistant to being hacked.

Cold storage of private keys may involve keeping such keys on a non-networked computer or electronic device or storing the public key and private keys on a storage device (for example, a USB thumb drive) or printed medium and deleting the keys from all computers. The Bitcoin Custodian may receive deposits of bitcoin but may not send bitcoin without use of the corresponding private keys. In order to send bitcoin when the private keys are kept in cold storage, either the private keys must be retrieved from cold storage and entered into a software program to sign the transaction, or the unsigned transaction must be sent to the “cold” server in which the private keys are held for signature by the private keys. At that point, the Bitcoin Custodian can transfer the bitcoin.

The Trust’s Transfer Agent will facilitate the settlement of Shares in response to the placement of creation orders and redemption orders from Authorized Participants. The Trust generally does not intend to hold cash or cash equivalents. However, there may be situations where the Trust will unexpectedly hold cash on a temporary basis.

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FORM OF SHARES

Registered Form

Shares are issued in registered form in accordance with the Trust Agreement. The Transfer Agent has been appointed registrar and transfer agent for the purpose of transferring Shares in certificated form. The Transfer Agent keeps a record of all Shareholders and holders of the Shares in certified form in the registry (“Register”). The Sponsor recognizes transfers of Shares in certificated form only if done in accordance with the Trust Agreement. The beneficial interests in such Shares are held in book-entry form through participants and/or accountholders in DTC.

Book Entry

Individual certificates are not issued for the Shares. Instead, Shares are represented by one or more global certificates, which are deposited by the Administrator with DTC and registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee for DTC. The global certificates evidence all of the Shares outstanding at any time. Shareholders are limited to (1) participants in DTC such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies (“DTC Participants”), (2) those who maintain, either directly or indirectly, a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant (“Indirect Participants”), and (3) those who hold interests in the Shares through DTC Participants or Indirect Participants, in each case who satisfy the requirements for transfers of Shares. DTC Participants acting on behalf of Shareholders holding Shares through such participants’ accounts in DTC will follow the delivery practice applicable to securities eligible for DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System. Shares are credited to DTC Participants’ securities accounts following confirmation of receipt of payment.

DTC

DTC has advised us as follows: It is a limited purpose trust company organized under the laws of the State of New York and is a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code and a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC holds securities for DTC Participants and facilitates the clearance and settlement of transactions between DTC Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of DTC Participants.

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TRANSFER OF SHARES

The Shares are only transferable through the book-entry system of DTC. Shareholders who are not DTC Participants may transfer their Shares through DTC by instructing the DTC Participant holding their Shares (or by instructing the Indirect Participant or other entity through which their Shares are held) to transfer the Shares. Transfers are made in accordance with standard securities industry practice.

Transfers of interests in Shares with DTC are made in accordance with the usual rules and operating procedures of DTC and the nature of the transfer. DTC has established procedures to facilitate transfers among the participants and/or accountholders of DTC. Because DTC can only act on behalf of DTC Participants, who in turn act on behalf of Indirect Participants, the ability of a person or entity having an interest in a global certificate to pledge such interest to persons or entities that do not participate in DTC, or otherwise take actions in respect of such interest, may be affected by the lack of a certificate or other definitive document representing such interest.

DTC has advised us that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a Shareholder (including, without limitation, the presentation of a global certificate for exchange) only at the direction of one or more DTC Participants in whose account with DTC interests in global certificates are credited and only in respect of such portion of the aggregate principal amount of the global certificate as to which such DTC Participant or Participants has or have given such direction.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Buying and Selling Shares

Most investors buy and sell Shares of the Trust in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares trade on the Exchange under the ticker symbol “[  ].” Shares are bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities. When buying or selling Shares through a broker, most investors incur customary brokerage commissions and charges. Shareholders are encouraged to review the terms of their brokerage account for details on applicable charges.

Authorized Participants

The offering of the Trust’s Shares is a best efforts offering. The Trust continuously offers Creation Baskets consisting of [  ] Shares to Authorized Participants. Authorized Participants pay a transaction fee for each order they place to create or redeem one or more baskets.

The offering of baskets is being made in compliance with Rule 2310 of the FINRA Rules. Accordingly, Authorized Participants will not make any sales to any account over which they have discretionary authority without the prior written approval of a purchaser of Shares.

The per share price of shares offered in Creation Baskets on any subsequent day will be the total NAV of the Trust calculated shortly after the close of the Exchange on that day divided by the number of issued and outstanding Shares of the Trust. An Authorized Participant is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of Shares.

By executing an Authorized Participant Agreement, an Authorized Participant becomes part of the group of parties eligible to purchase baskets from, and put baskets for redemption to, the Trust. An Authorized Participant is under no obligation to create or redeem baskets or to offer to the public Shares of any baskets it does create.

Because new Shares can be created and issued on an ongoing basis, at any point during the life of the Trust, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the 1933 Act, will be occurring. Authorized Participants, other broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some of their activities may result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner that would render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus-delivery and liability provisions of the 1933 Act. For example, the initial Authorized Participant will be a statutory underwriter with respect to the initial purchase of Creation Baskets. Any purchaser who purchases Shares with a view towards distribution of such Shares may be deemed to be a statutory underwriter. In addition, an Authorized Participant, other broker-dealer firm or its client will be deemed a statutory underwriter if it purchases a basket from the Trust, breaks the basket down into the constituent Shares and sells the Shares to its customers; or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for the Shares. In contrast, Authorized Participants may engage in secondary market or other transactions in Shares that would not be deemed “underwriting.” For example, an Authorized Participant may act in the capacity of a broker or dealer with respect to Shares that were previously distributed by other Authorized Participants. A determination of whether a particular market participant is an underwriter must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that would lead to designation as an underwriter and subject them to the prospectus-delivery and liability provisions of the 1933 Act.

Dealers who are neither Authorized Participants nor “underwriters” but are nonetheless participating in a distribution (as contrasted to ordinary secondary trading transactions), and thus dealing with Shares that are part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the 1933 Act, would be unable to take advantage of the prospectus-delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the 1933 Act.

While the Authorized Participants may be indemnified by the Sponsor, they will not be entitled to receive a discount or commission from the Trust or The Sponsor for their purchases of Creation Baskets.

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CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

The Trust creates and redeems Shares from time to time, but only in one or more Creation Baskets. Creation Baskets are only made in exchange for delivery to the Trust or the distribution by the Trust of the amount of bitcoin represented by the baskets being created or redeemed, the amount of which is equal to the combined NAV of the number of Shares included in the baskets being created or redeemed determined as of 4:00 p.m. EST on the day the order to create or redeem baskets is properly received.

Authorized Participants are the only persons that may place orders to create and redeem baskets. Authorized Participants must be (1) registered broker-dealers or other securities market participants, such as banks and other financial institutions, that are not required to register as broker-dealers to engage in securities transactions described below, and (2) DTC Participants. To become an Authorized Participant, a person must enter into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Sponsor. The Authorized Participant Agreement provides the procedures for the creation and redemption of baskets and for the delivery of the bitcoin required for such creation and redemptions. The Authorized Participant Agreement and the related procedures attached thereto may be amended by the Trust, without the consent of any Shareholder or Authorized Participant. Authorized Participants pay the Transfer Agent a fee for each order they place to create or redeem one or more Creation Baskets. The transaction fee may be reduced, increased or otherwise changed by the Sponsor. Authorized Participants who make deposits with the Trust in exchange for baskets receive no fees, commissions or other form of compensation or inducement of any kind from either the Trust or the Sponsor, and no such person will have any obligation responsibility to the Sponsor or the Trust to effect any sale or resale of Shares.

Certain Authorized Participants are expected to be capable of participating directly in the spot markets. Some Authorized Participants or their affiliates may from time to time buy or sell bitcoin and may profit in these instances.

Each Authorized Participant will be required to be registered as a broker-dealer under the Exchange Act and a member in good standing with FINRA, or exempt from being or otherwise not required to be licensed as a broker-dealer or a member of FINRA, and will be qualified to act as a broker or dealer in the states or other jurisdictions where the nature of its business so requires. Certain Authorized Participants may also be regulated under federal and state banking laws and regulations. Each Authorized Participant has its own set of rules and procedures, internal controls and information barriers as it determines is appropriate in light of its own regulatory regime.

The following description of the procedures for the creation and redemption of baskets is only a summary and a Shareholder should refer to the relevant provisions of the Trust Agreement and the form of Authorized Participant Agreement for more detail. The Trust Agreement and form of Authorized Participant Agreement are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this Prospectus is a part.

Authorized Participants will place orders through the Transfer Agent. The Transfer Agent will coordinate with the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian in order to facilitate settlement of the Shares and bitcoin as described in more detail in the Creation Procedures and Redemption Procedures sections below.

Creation Procedures

On any business day, an Authorized Participant may place an order with the Transfer Agent to create one or more baskets. For purposes of processing creation and redemption orders, a “business day” means any day other than a day when the Exchange is closed for regular trading. Purchase orders must be placed by [  ] EST, or the close of regular trading on the Exchange, whichever is earlier. The day on which an order is received by the Transfer Agent is considered the purchase order date.

By placing a purchase order, an Authorized Participant agrees to facilitate the deposit of bitcoin with the Trust. Prior to the delivery of baskets for a purchase order, the Authorized Participant

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must also have wired to the Transfer Agent the nonrefundable transaction fee due for the creation order. Authorized Participants may not withdraw a creation request.

The manner by which creations are made is dictated by the terms of the Authorized Participant Agreement. By placing a creation order, an Authorized Participant agrees to facilitate the deposit of bitcoin with the Bitcoin Custodian. If an Authorized Participant fails to consummate the foregoing, the order will be cancelled.

The total deposit of bitcoin required to create each Basket is an amount of bitcoin that is in the same proportion to the total assets of the Trust, net of accrued expenses and other liabilities, on the date the order to purchase is properly received, as the number of Shares to be created under the purchase order is in proportion to the total number of Shares outstanding on the date the order is received. Each night, the Sponsor will publish the amount of bitcoin that will be required in exchange for each creation order.

Following an Authorized Participant’s purchase order, the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian account must be credited with the required bitcoin by the end of the second business day following the purchase order date. Upon receipt of the bitcoin deposit amount in the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian account, the Bitcoin Custodian will notify the Transfer Agent, the Authorized Participant, and the Sponsor that the bitcoin has been deposited. The Transfer Agent will then direct DTC to credit the number of Shares created to the Authorized Participant’s DTC account.

Bitcoin held in the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian account is the property of the Trust and is not traded, leased, or loaned under any circumstances.

Determination of Required Deposits

The total deposit required to create each basket (“Creation Basket Deposit”) changes from day to day. On each day that the Exchange is open for regular trading, the Administrator adjusts the quantity of bitcoin constituting the Creation Basket Deposit as appropriate to reflect accrued expenses and any loss of bitcoin that may occur. The computation is made by the Administrator as promptly as practicable after 4:00 p.m. EST. The Administrator determines the Creation Basket Deposit for a given day by dividing the number of bitcoin held by the Trust as of the opening of business on that business day, adjusted for the amount of bitcoin constituting estimated accrued but unpaid fees and expenses of the Trust as of the opening of business on that business day, by the quotient of the number of Trust Shares outstanding at the opening of business divided by [  ]. Fractions of a bitcoin smaller than [  ] are disregarded for purposes of the computation of the Creation Basket Deposit. The Creation Basket Deposit so determined is communicated via electronic mail message to all Authorized Participants, and made available on the Sponsor’s website for the Shares.

Delivery of Required Deposits

An Authorized Participant who places a purchase order must follow the procedures outlined in the “Creation Procedures” section of this Prospectus. Upon receipt of the deposit amount, the Bitcoin Custodian will notify the Transfer Agent that the bitcoin has been received, and the Transfer Agent will direct DTC to credit the number of Shares ordered to the Authorized Participant’s DTC account on the second business day following the purchase order date. The expense and risk of delivery and ownership of bitcoin until such bitcoin has been received by the Bitcoin Custodian on behalf of the Trust will be borne solely by the Authorized Participant.

Rejection of Purchase Orders

The Sponsor or its designee has the absolute right, but does not have any obligation, to reject any purchase order or Creation Basket Deposit if the Sponsor determines that:

 

 

the purchase order or Creation Basket Deposit is not in proper form;

 

 

it would not be in the best interest of the Shareholders of the Trust;

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the acceptance of the purchase order or the Creation Basket Deposit would have adverse tax consequences to the Trust or its Shareholders;

 

 

the acceptance or receipt of which would, in the opinion of counsel to The Sponsor, be unlawful; or

 

 

circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Sponsor, the Marketing Agent or the Custodian make it, for all practical purposes, not feasible to process Creations Baskets (including if the Sponsor determines that the investments available to the Trust at that time will not enable it to meet its investment objective).

None of the Sponsor, the Transfer Agent or the Bitcoin Custodian will be liable for the rejection of any purchase order or Creation Basket Deposit.

Redemption Procedures

The procedures by which an Authorized Participant can redeem one or more Creation Baskets mirror the procedures for the creation of Creation Baskets with an additional safeguard on bitcoin being removed from the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian account. On any business day, an Authorized Participant may place an order with the Transfer Agent to redeem one or more Creation Baskets. Redemption orders must be placed by [  ] EST, or the close of regular trading on the Exchange, whichever is earlier. A redemption order will be effective on the date it is received by the Transfer Agent (“Redemption Order Date”).

The redemption distribution from the Trust consists of a movement of bitcoin to the redeeming Authorized Participant representing the amount of bitcoin held by the Trust evidenced by the Shares being redeemed. The redemption distribution due from the Trust will be delivered once the Transfer Agent notifies the Bitcoin Custodian and the Sponsor that the Authorized Participant has delivered the Shares represented by the Creation Baskets to be redeemed to the Trust’s DTC account. If the Trust’s DTC account has not been credited with all of the Shares of the Creation Baskets to be redeemed, the redemption distribution will be delayed until such time as the Transfer Agent confirms receipt of all such Shares.

Once the Transfer Agent notifies the Bitcoin Custodian and the Sponsor that the Shares have been received in the Trust’s DTC account, the [Sponsor] instructs the Bitcoin Custodian to transfer the redemption bitcoin amount from the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian account to the Authorized Participant.

Bitcoin held in the Trust’s Bitcoin Custodian account is the property of the Trust and is not traded, leased, or loaned under any circumstances.

Determination of Redemption Distribution

The redemption distribution from the Trust will consist of a transfer to the redeeming Authorized Participant of an amount of bitcoin that is determined in the same manner as the determination of Creation Basket Deposits discussed above.

Delivery of Redemption Distribution

The redemption distribution due from the Trust will be delivered to the Authorized Participant on the second business day following the Redemption Order Date if, by [  ] EST, on such business day, the Trust’s DTC account has been credited with the baskets to be redeemed. If the Trust’s DTC account has not been credited with all of the baskets to be redeemed by such time, the redemption distribution will also be delayed.

Suspension or Rejection of Redemption Orders

The Sponsor may, in its discretion, suspend the right of redemption, or postpone the redemption settlement date, (1) for any period during which the Exchange is closed other than customary weekend or holiday closings, or trading on the Exchange is suspended or restricted, (2) for any

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period during which an emergency exists as a result of which delivery, disposal or evaluation of bitcoin is not reasonably practicable, or (3) for such other period as the Sponsor determines to be necessary for the protection of the Shareholders. For example, the Sponsor may determine that it is necessary to suspend redemptions to allow for the orderly liquidation of the Trust’s assets. If the Sponsor has difficulty liquidating the Trust’s positions, e.g., because of a market disruption event or an unanticipated delay in the liquidation of a position in an over the counter contract, it may be appropriate to suspend redemptions until such time as such circumstances are rectified. None of the Sponsor, the person authorized to take redemption orders in the manner provided in the Authorized Participant Agreement, or the Custodian will be liable to any person or in any way for any loss or damages that may result from any such suspension or postponement.

Redemption orders must be made in whole baskets. The Sponsor acting by itself or through the person authorized to take redemption orders in the manner provided in the Authorized Participant Agreement may, in its sole discretion, reject any redemption order (1) the Sponsor determines not to be in proper form, (2) the fulfillment of which its counsel advises may be illegal under applicable laws and regulations, or (3) if circumstances outside the control of the Sponsor, the person authorized to take redemption orders in the manner provided in the Authorized Participant Agreement or the Bitcoin Custodian make it for all practical purposes not feasible for the Shares to be delivered under the redemption order. The Sponsor may also reject a redemption order if the number of Shares being redeemed would reduce the remaining outstanding Shares to [  ] Shares (i.e., [  ] baskets) or less.

Creation and Redemption Transaction Fee

To compensate the Transfer Agent for expenses incurred in connection with the creation and redemption of baskets, an Authorized Participant is required to pay a transaction fee to the Transfer Agent to create or redeem baskets, which does not vary in accordance with number of baskets in such order. The transaction fee may be reduced, increased or otherwise changed by the Sponsor. The Sponsor will notify DTC of any change in the transaction fee and will not implement any increase in the fee for the redemption of baskets until thirty (30) days after the date of notice.

Tax Responsibility

Authorized Participants are responsible for any transfer tax, sales or use tax, stamp tax, recording tax, value added tax or similar tax or governmental charge applicable to the creation or redemption of baskets, regardless of whether or not such tax or charge is imposed directly on the Authorized Participant, and agree to indemnify the Sponsor and the Trust if they are required by law to pay any such tax, together with any applicable penalties, additions to tax and interest thereon.

Secondary Market Transactions

As noted, the Trust will create and redeem Shares from time to time, but only in one or more Creation Baskets. The creation and redemption of baskets are only made in exchange for delivery to the Trust or the distribution by the Trust of the amount of bitcoin equal to the number of Shares included in the baskets being created or redeemed determined on the day the order to create or redeem baskets is properly received.

As discussed above, Authorized Participants are the only persons that may place orders to create and redeem baskets. Authorized Participants must be registered broker-dealers or other securities market participants, such as banks and other financial institutions that are not required to register as broker-dealers to engage in securities transactions. An Authorized Participant is under no obligation to create or redeem baskets, and an Authorized Participant is under no obligation to offer to the public Shares of any baskets it does create.

Authorized Participants that do offer to the public Shares from the baskets they create will do so at per-Share offering prices that are expected to reflect, among other factors, the trading price of the Shares on the Exchange, the NAV of the Trust at the time the Authorized Participant

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purchased the Creation Baskets, the NAV of the Shares at the time of the offer of the Shares to the public, the supply of and demand for Shares at the time of sale, and the liquidity of bitcoin or other portfolio investments. Creation Baskets are generally redeemed when the price per Share is at a discount to the NAV per Share. Shares initially comprising the same basket but offered by Authorized Participants to the public at different times may have different offering prices. An order for one or more baskets may be placed by an Authorized Participant on behalf of multiple clients. Authorized Participants who make deposits with the Trust in exchange for baskets receive no fees, commissions or other forms of compensation or inducement of any kind from either the Trust or the Sponsor and no such person has any obligation or responsibility to the Sponsor or the Trust to effect any sale or resale of Shares. Shares trade in the secondary market on the Exchange.

Shares are expected to trade in the secondary market on the Exchange. Shares may trade in the secondary market at prices that are lower or higher relative to their NAV per Share. The amount of the discount or premium in the trading price relative to the NAV per Share may be influenced by various factors, including the number of Shareholders who seek to purchase or sell Shares in the secondary market and the liquidity of bitcoin.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Proceeds received by the Trust from the issuance of Creation Baskets consist of bitcoin. Such deposits are held by the Bitcoin Custodian on behalf of the Trust until (i) delivered out in connection with redemptions of Creation Baskets or (ii) sold by the Bitcoin Custodian at the direction of the Trustee to pay fees due to the Sponsor and Trust expenses and liabilities not assumed by the Sponsor.

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OWNERSHIP OR BENEFICIAL INTEREST IN THE TRUST

The beneficial interest in the Trust is divided into shares. Each Share of the Trust represents an equal beneficial interest in the net assets of the Trust, and each holder of Shares is entitled to receive such holder’s pro rata share of distributions of income and capital gains, if any.

All Shares are fully paid and non-assessable. No Share will have any priority or preference over any other Share of the Trust. All distributions, if any, will be made ratably among all Shareholders from the assets of the Trust according to the number of Shares held of record by such Shareholders on the record date for any distribution or on the date of termination of the Trust, as the case may be. Except as otherwise provided by the Sponsor, Shareholders will have no preemptive or other right to subscribe to any additional Shares or other securities issued by the Trust.

The Sponsor will have full power and authority, in its sole discretion, without seeking the approval of the Trustee or the Shareholders (a) to establish and designate and to change in any manner and to fix such preferences, voting powers, rights, duties and privileges of the Trust as the Sponsor may from time to time determine, (b) to divide the beneficial interest in the Trust into an unlimited amount of shares, with or without par value, as the Sponsor will determine, (c) to issue shares without limitation as to number (including fractional shares), to such persons and for such amount of consideration, subject to any restriction set forth in the By-Laws, if any, at such time or times and on such terms as the Sponsor may deem appropriate, (d) to divide or combine the shares into a greater or lesser number without thereby materially changing the proportionate beneficial interest of the shares in the assets held, and (e) to take such other action with respect to the shares as the Sponsor may deem desirable. The ownership of Shares will be recorded on the books of the Trust or a transfer or similar agent for the Trust. No certificates certifying the ownership of Shares will be issued except as the Sponsor may otherwise determine from time to time. The Sponsor may make such rules as it considers appropriate for the issuance of share certificates, transfer of Shares and similar matters. The record books of the Trust as kept by the Trust, or any transfer or similar agent, as the case may be, will be conclusive as to the identity of the Shareholders and as to the number of Shares held from time to time by each.

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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

There are present and potential future conflicts of interest in the Trust’s structure and operation you should consider before you purchase Shares. The Sponsor will use this notice of conflicts as a defense against any claim or other proceeding made. If the Sponsor is not able to resolve these conflicts of interest adequately, it may impact the Trust’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

The officers, directors and employees of the Sponsor do not devote their time exclusively to the Trust. These persons are directors, officers or employees of other entities which may compete with the Trust for their services. They could have a conflict between their responsibilities to the Trust and to those other entities.

The Sponsor has the authority to manage the investments and operations of the Trust, and this may allow it to act in a way that furthers its own interests which may create a conflict with your best interests. Shareholders have very limited voting rights, which will limit their ability to influence matters such as amendment of the Trust Agreement, change in the Trust’s basic investment policy, dissolution of the Trust, or the sale or distribution of the Trust’s assets.

The Sponsor serves as the sponsor to the Trust. The Sponsor may have a conflict to the extent that its trading decisions for the Trust may be influenced by the effect they would have on other funds its affiliates may manage. In addition, the Sponsor may be required to indemnify its officers, directors and key employees with respect to their activities on behalf of other funds, if the need for indemnification arises. This potential indemnification could cause the Sponsor’s assets to decrease. If the Sponsor’s other sources of income are not sufficient to compensate for the indemnification, it could cease operations, which could in turn result in Trust losses and/or termination of the Trust.

If the Sponsor acquires knowledge of a potential transaction or arrangement that may be an opportunity for the Trust, it will have no duty to offer such opportunity to the Trust. The Sponsor will not be liable to the Trust or the Shareholders for breach of any fiduciary or other duty if Sponsor pursues such opportunity or directs it to another person or does not communicate such opportunity to the Trust. Neither the Trust nor any Shareholder has any rights or obligations by virtue of the Trust Agreement, the trust relationship created thereby, or this Prospectus in such business ventures or the income or profits derived from such business ventures. The pursuit of such business ventures, even if competitive with the activities of the Trust, will not be deemed wrongful or improper.

MVIS is an affiliate of the Sponsor and the sponsor for the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, which may create conflicts of interest as a result of such relationship. Appropriate procedures have been implemented to avoid any conflicts of interest adversely affecting the interests of Shareholders. However, Shareholders should be aware that MVIS has not taken the interests of the Shareholders into consideration when creating the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate, and MVIS will have no obligation to take the interests of the Shareholders into account when maintaining, modifying, rebalancing, reconstituting or discontinuing the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate. Actions taken by MVIS in respect of the MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate may have an adverse impact on the value or liquidity of the Shares. The interests of MVIS and the Shareholders may not be aligned. MVIS will have no responsibility or liability to the Shareholders.

Resolution of Conflicts Procedures

The Trust Agreement provides that whenever a conflict of interest exists between the Sponsor or any of its affiliates, on the one hand, and the Trust or any Shareholders or any other person, on the other hand, the Sponsor will resolve such conflict of interest considering the relative interest of each party (including its own interest) and the benefits and burdens relating to such interests, any customary or accepted industry practices, and any applicable accepted accounting practices or principles.

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DUTIES OF THE SPONSOR

The general fiduciary duties which would otherwise be imposed on the Sponsor (which would make its operation of the Trust as described herein impracticable due to the strict prohibition imposed by such duties on, for example, conflicts of interest on behalf of a fiduciary in its dealings with its beneficiaries), are replaced entirely by the terms of the Trust Agreement (to which terms all Shareholders, by subscribing to the Shares, are deemed to consent).

Additionally, under the Trust Agreement, the Sponsor has the following obligations as a sponsor of the Trust:

 

 

execute, file, record and/or publish all certificates, statements and other documents and do any and all other things as may be appropriate for the formation, qualification and operation of the Trust and for the conduct of its business in all appropriate jurisdictions;

 

 

retain independent public accountants to audit the accounts of the Trust;

 

 

employ attorneys to represent the Trust;

 

 

select the Trust’s Trustee, administrator, transfer agent, custodian(s), bitcoin exchange counterparties and OTC market participant counterparties, index provider, marketing agent(s); insurer(s) and any other service provider(s) and cause the Trust to enter into contracts with such service provider(s);

 

 

negotiate and enter into insurance agreements to secure and maintain the insurance coverage to the extent described in the Prospectus;

 

 

develop a marketing plan for the Trust on an ongoing basis and prepare marketing materials regarding the Trust;

 

 

maintain the Trust’s website;

 

 

acquire and sell bitcoin, subject in each instance to the limitations imposed by the Trust Agreement, with a view to providing Shareholders with exposure to bitcoin at a price that is reflective of the actual bitcoin market where investors can purchase or sell bitcoin, less the expenses of the Trust’s operations, valuing the Trust’s Shares daily based on prices drawn from exchanges representing substantially all of the economically significant spot trading volume on bitcoin exchanges around the world (such price referred to as the “MVIS® CryptoCompare Bitcoin Benchmark Rate”), or any other pricing methodology adopted by the Sponsor in its discretion (for the avoidance of doubt, the Sponsor may select such subsequent pricing methodology without Shareholder approval);

 

 

enter into an Authorized Participant Agreement with each Authorized Participant and discharge the duties and responsibilities of the Trust and the Sponsor thereunder;

 

 

receive directly or through its delegates from Authorized Participants and process or cause its delegates to process properly submitted purchase orders, as described in the Trust Agreement and in the Authorized Participant Agreement;

 

 

in connection with purchase orders, receive directly or through its delegates the number of bitcoin and/or cash in an amount equal to the NAV of a Creation Basket from Authorized Participants;

 

 

in connection with purchase orders, after accepting an Authorized Participant’s purchase order and receiving bitcoin and/or cash, as applicable, in an amount equal to the NAV of the Creation Basket(s), the Sponsor or its delegate will direct the Trust’s appointed transfer agent to credit the Creation Baskets to fill the Participant’s purchase order within one Business Day immediately following the purchase order date;

 

 

receive directly or through its delegates from Authorized Participants and process or cause its delegates to process properly submitted redemption orders, as described in the Trust Agreement and in the Authorized Participant Agreement;

 

 

in connection with redemption orders, after receiving the redemption order specifying the number of Creation Baskets that the Authorized Participant wishes to redeem and after the Trust’s DTC account has been credited with the Creation Baskets to be redeemed, the

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Sponsor or its delegates will transfer to the redeeming Authorized Participant: i) in the case of a cash redemption, an amount of cash and ii) in the case of an in-kind redemption, an amount of bitcoin, in each case equal to the NAV of the Trust multiplied by the number of Shares to be redeemed under the redemption order;

 

 

assist in the preparation and filing of reports and proxy statements (if any) to the Shareholders, the periodic updating of the Registration Statement and Prospectus and other reports and documents for the Trust required to be filed by the Trust with the SEC and other governmental bodies;

 

 

use its best efforts to maintain the status of the Trust as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including making such elections, filing such tax returns, and preparing, disseminating and filing such tax reports, as it is advised by its counsel or accountants are from time to time required by any statute, rule or regulation of the United States, any State or political subdivision thereof, or other jurisdiction having taxing authority in respect of the Trust or its administration. The expense of accountants employed to prepare such tax returns and tax reports will be an expense of the Trust;

 

 

monitor all fees charged to the Trust, and the services rendered by the service providers to the Trust, to determine whether the fees paid by, and the services rendered to, the Trust are at competitive rates and are the best price and services available under the circumstances, and if necessary, renegotiate the fee structure to obtain such rates and services for the Trust;

 

 

perform such other services as the Sponsor believes the Trust may from time to time require; and

 

 

in general, to carry out any other business in connection with or incidental to any of the foregoing powers, to do everything necessary, suitable or proper for the accomplishment of any purpose or the attainment of any object or the furtherance of any power herein set forth, either alone or in association with others, and to do every other act or thing incidental or appurtenant or growing out of or connected with the aforesaid business or purposes, objects or powers.

To the extent that a law (common or statutory) or in equity, the Sponsor has duties (including fiduciary duties) and liabilities relating thereto to the Trust, the Shareholders or to any other person, the Sponsor will not be liable to the Trust, the Shareholders or to any other person for its good faith reliance on the provisions of the Trust Agreement or this Prospectus unless such reliance constitutes gross negligence, bad faith, or willful misconduct on the part of the Sponsor.

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LIABILITY AND INDEMNIFICATION

Trustee

The Trustee will not be liable for the acts or omissions of the Sponsor, nor will the Trustee be liable for supervising or monitoring the performance and the duties and obligations of the Sponsor or the Trust under the Trust Agreement. The Trustee will not be personally liable under any circumstances, except for its own willful misconduct, bad faith or gross negligence. In particular, but not by way of limitation:

(a) the Trustee will not be personally liable for any error of judgment made in good faith except to the extent such error of judgment constitutes gross negligence on its part;

(b) no provision of the Trust Agreement will require the Trustee to expend or risk its personal funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of its rights or powers hereunder, if the Trustee shall have reasonable grounds for believing that the payment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured or provided to it;

(c) under no circumstances will the Trustee be personally liable for any representation, warranty, covenant, agreement, or indebtedness of the Trust;

(d) the Trustee will not be personally responsible for or in respect of the validity or sufficiency of the Trust Agreement or for the due execution hereof by the Sponsor;

(e) the Trustee will incur no liability to anyone in acting upon any signature, instrument, notice, resolution, request, consent, order, certificate, report, opinion, bond or other document or paper reasonably believed by it to be genuine and reasonably believed by it to be signed by the proper party or parties. The Trustee may accept a certified copy of a resolution of any governing body of any corporate party as conclusive evidence that such resolution has been duly adopted by such body and that the same is in full force and effect. As to any fact or matter the manner of ascertainment of which is not specifically prescribed herein, the Trustee may for all purposes hereof rely on a certificate, signed by an authorized officer of the Sponsor or any other corresponding directing party, as to such fact or matter, and such certificate will constitute full protection to the Trustee for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in reliance thereon;

(f) in the exercise or administration of the trust hereunder, the Trustee (i) may act directly or through agents or attorneys pursuant to agreements entered into with any of them, and the Trustee will not be liable for the default or misconduct of such agents or attorneys if such agents or attorneys will have been selected by the Trustee in good faith and with due care and (ii) may consult with counsel, accountants and other skilled persons to be selected by it in good faith and with due care and employed by it, and it will not be liable for anything done, suffered or omitted in good faith by it in accordance with the advice or opinion of any such counsel, accountants or other skilled persons;

(g) except as expressly provided in Article [  ] of the Trust Agreement, the Trustee acts solely as a trustee under the Trust Agreement and not in its individual capacity, and all persons having any claim against the Trustee by reason of the transactions contemplated by the Trust Agreement will look only to the Trust’s property for payment or satisfaction thereof; and

(h) the Trustee will not be liable for punitive, exemplary, consequential, special or other similar damages under any circumstances.

The Trustee or any officer, affiliate, director, employee, or agent of the Trustee (each, an “Indemnified Person”) will be entitled to indemnification from the Sponsor or the Trust, to the fullest extent permitted by law, from and against any and all losses, claims, taxes, damages, reasonable expenses, and liabilities (including liabilities under State or federal securities laws) of any kind and nature whatsoever (collectively, “Expenses”), to the extent that such Expenses arise out of or are imposed upon or asserted against such Indemnified Persons with respect to the creation, operation or termination of the Trust, the execution, delivery or performance of the Trust Agreement or the transactions contemplated in the Trust Agreement; provided, however, that the Sponsor and the Trust will not be required to indemnify any Indemnified Person for any Expenses that are a result of the willful misconduct, bad faith or gross negligence of such Indemnified Person.

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The obligations of the Sponsor and the Trust to indemnify the Indemnified Persons will survive the termination of the Trust Agreement.

Sponsor

The Sponsor will not be under any liability to the Trust, the Trustee or any Shareholder for any action taken or for refraining from the taking of any action in good faith pursuant to the Trust Agreement, or for errors in judgment or for depreciation or loss incurred by reason of the sale of any bitcoin or other assets held in trust hereunder; provided, however, that this provision will not protect the Sponsor against any liability to which it would otherwise be subject by reason of its own gross negligence, bad faith, or willful misconduct. The Sponsor may rely in good faith on any paper, order, notice, list, affidavit, receipt, evaluation, opinion, endorsement, assignment, draft or any other document of any kind prima facie properly executed and submitted to it by the Trustee, the Trustee’s counsel or by any other Person for any matters arising hereunder. The Sponsor will in no event be deemed to have assumed or incurred any liability, duty, or obligation to any Shareholder or to the Trustee other than as expressly provided for herein. The Trust will not incur the cost of that portion of any insurance which insures any party against any liability, the indemnification of which is herein prohibited.

In addition, as described in the Trust Agreement, (i) whenever a conflict of interest exists or arises between the Sponsor or any of its Affiliates, on the one hand, and the Trust, on the other hand; or (ii) whenever the Trust Agreement or any other agreement contemplated herein or therein provides that the Sponsor will act in a manner that is, or provides terms that are, fair and reasonable to the Trust, the Sponsor will resolve such conflict of interest, take such action or provide such terms, considering in each case the relative interest of each party (including its own interest) to such conflict, agreement, transaction or situation and the benefits and burdens relating to such interests, and any applicable generally accepted accounting practices or principles. In the absence of bad faith by the Sponsor, the resolution, action or terms so made, taken or provided by the Sponsor will not constitute a breach of the Trust Agreement or any other agreement contemplated herein or of any duty or obligation of the Sponsor at law or in equity or otherwise.

The Sponsor and its shareholders, members, directors, officers, employees, Affiliates and subsidiaries (each a “Sponsor Indemnified Party”) will be indemnified by the Trust and held harmless against any loss, liability or expense incurred hereunder without gross negligence, bad faith, or willful misconduct on the part of such Sponsor Indemnified Party arising out of or in connection with the performance of its obligations under the Trust Agreement or any actions taken in accordance with the provisions of the Trust Agreement. Any amounts payable to a Sponsor Indemnified Party under Section 4.06 of the Trust Agreement may be payable in advance or will be secured by a lien on the Trust. The Sponsor will not be under any obligation to appear in, prosecute or defend any legal action that in its opinion may involve it in any expense or liability; provided, however, that the Sponsor may, in its discretion, undertake any action that it may deem necessary or desirable in respect of the Trust Agreement and the rights and duties of the parties hereto and the interests of the Shareholders and, in such event, the legal expenses and costs of any such action will be expenses and costs of the Trust and the Sponsor will be entitled to be reimbursed therefor by the Trust. The obligations of the Trust to indemnify the Sponsor Indemnified Parties will survive the termination of the Trust Agreement.

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PROVISIONS OF LAW

According to applicable law, indemnification of the Sponsor is payable only if the Sponsor determined, in good faith, that the act, omission or conduct that gave rise to the claim for indemnification was in the best interest of the Trust and the act, omission or activity that was the basis for such loss, liability, damage, cost or expense was not the result of negligence or misconduct and such liability or loss was not the result of negligence or misconduct by the Sponsor, and such indemnification or agreement to hold harmless is recoverable only out of the assets of the Trust.

Provisions of Federal and State Securities Laws

This offering is made pursuant to federal and state securities laws. The SEC and state securities agencies take the position that indemnification of the Sponsor that arises out of an alleged violation of such laws is prohibited unless certain conditions are met.

These conditions require that no indemnification of the Sponsor or any underwriter for the Trust may be made in respect of any losses, liabilities or expenses arising from or out of an alleged violation of federal or state securities laws unless: (i) there has been a successful adjudication on the merits of each count involving alleged securities law violations as to the party seeking indemnification and the court approves the indemnification; (ii) such claim has been dismissed with prejudice on the merits by a court of competent jurisdiction as to the party seeking indemnification; or (iii) a court of competent jurisdiction approves a settlement of the claims against the party seeking indemnification and finds that indemnification of the settlement and related costs should be made, provided that, before seeking such approval, the Sponsor or other indemnitee must apprise the court of the position held by regulatory agencies against such indemnification. These agencies are the SEC and the securities administrator of the State or States in which the plaintiffs claim they were offered or sold interests.

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MANAGEMENT; VOTING BY SHAREHOLDERS

The Shareholders of the Trust take no part in the management or control, and have no voice in, the Trust’s operations or business. Except in limited circumstances, Shareholders have no voting rights under the Trust Agreement.

The Sponsor generally has the right to amend the Trust Agreement as it applies to the Trust provided that the Shareholders have the right to vote only if expressly required under Delaware or federal law or rules or regulations of the Exchange, or if submitted to the Shareholders by the Sponsor in its sole discretion. No amendment affecting the Trustee will be binding upon or effective against the Trustee unless consented to by the Trustee in the form of an instruction letter.

The Trust does not have any directors, officers or employees. The creation and operation of the Trust has been arranged by the Sponsor. The Sponsor is not governed by a board of directors. The following persons, in their respective capacities as directors or executive officers of the Sponsor perform certain functions with respect to the Trust that, if the Trust had directors or executive officers, would typically be performed by them. The principals and executive officers of the Sponsor are as follows:

[  ]

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BOOKS AND RECORDS

The Trust keeps its books of record and account at the office of the Sponsor located at 666 Third Avenue, 9th Floor, New York, New York 10017, or at the offices of the Administrator, or such office, including of an administrative agent, as it may subsequently designate upon notice. The books and records are open to inspection by any person who establishes to the Trust’s satisfaction that such person is a Shareholder upon reasonable advance notice at all reasonable times during usual business hours of the Trust.

The Trust keeps a copy of the Trust Agreement on file in the Sponsor’s office which will be available for inspection by any Shareholder at all times during its usual business hours upon reasonable advance notice.

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STATEMENTS, FILINGS, AND REPORTS TO SHAREHOLDERS

After the end of each fiscal year, the Sponsor will cause to be prepared an annual report for the Trust containing audited financial statements. The annual report will be in such form and contain such information as will be required by applicable laws, rules and regulations and may contain such additional information which the Sponsor determines shall be included. The annual report will be filed with the SEC and the Exchange and will be distributed to such persons and in such manner, as is required by applicable laws, rules and regulations.

The Sponsor is responsible for the registration and qualification of the Shares under the federal securities laws. The Sponsor will also prepare, or cause to be prepared, and file any periodic reports or updates required under the Exchange Act. The Administrator will assist and support the Sponsor in the preparation of such reports.

The Administrator will make such elections, file such tax returns, and prepare, disseminate and file such tax reports, as it is advised to by its counsel or accountants or as required from time to time by any applicable statute, rule or regulation.

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FISCAL YEAR

[The fiscal year of the Trust is the calendar year. The Sponsor may select an alternate fiscal year.]

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GOVERNING LAW; CONSENT TO DELAWARE JURISDICTION

The rights of the Sponsor, the Trust, DTC (as registered owner of the Trust’s global certificate for Shares) and the Shareholders are governed by the laws of the State of Delaware. The Sponsor, the Trust and DTC and, by accepting Shares, each DTC Participant and each Shareholder, consent to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of the State of Delaware and any federal courts located in Delaware. Such consent is not required for any person to assert a claim of Delaware jurisdiction over the Sponsor, the Trust.

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LEGAL MATTERS

Litigation and Claims

Within the past five years of the date of this Prospectus, there have been no material administrative, civil or criminal actions against the Sponsor, the Trust or any principal or affiliate of any of them. This includes any actions pending, on appeal, concluded, threatened, or otherwise known to them.

Legal Opinion

Clifford Chance US LLP has advised the Sponsor in connection with the Shares being offered. Clifford Chance US LLP also advises the Sponsor with respect to its responsibilities as sponsor of, and with respect to matters relating to, the Trust. Certain opinions of counsel will be filed with the SEC as exhibits to the Registration Statement of which this Prospectus is a part.

EXPERTS

The financial statements of the VanEck Bitcoin Trust will be included herein in reliance on the report of [  ], an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

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MATERIAL CONTRACTS

Administrative Agency Agreement

[To be provided by subsequent amendment.]

Custodian Agreement

[To be provided by subsequent amendment.]

Distribution Agreement

[To be provided by subsequent amendment.]

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UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES

The following discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences that generally will apply to the purchase, ownership and disposition of Shares by a U.S. Shareholder (as defined below), and certain U.S. federal income consequences that may apply to an investment in Shares by a Non-U.S. Shareholder (as defined below), represents, insofar as it describes conclusions as to U.S. federal income tax law and subject to the limitations and qualifications described therein, the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP, special U.S. federal income tax counsel to the Sponsor. The discussion below is based on the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder and judicial and administrative interpretations of the Code, all as in effect on the date of this Prospectus and all of which are subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. The tax treatment of Shareholders may vary depending upon their own particular circumstances. Certain Shareholders (including but not limited to banks, financial institutions, insurance companies, regulated investment companies, real estate investment trusts, tax-exempt organizations, tax-exempt or tax-advantaged retirement plans or accounts, brokers or dealers, traders, partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes, persons holding Shares as a position in a “hedging,” “straddle,” “conversion,” “constructive sale” or other integrated transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes, persons whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar, persons required for U.S. federal income tax purposes to accelerate the recognition of any item of gross income with respect to the Shares as a result of such income being recognized on an applicable financial statement, or other investors with special circumstances) may be subject to special rules not discussed below. In addition, the following discussion applies only to investors who will hold Shares as “capital assets” (generally, property held for investment). Moreover, the discussion below does not address the effect of any state, local or foreign tax law consequences that may apply to an investment in Shares. Purchasers of Shares are urged to consult their own tax advisers with respect to all federal, state, local and foreign tax law considerations potentially applicable to their investment in Shares.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Shareholder” is a Shareholder that is:

 

 

an individual who is treated as a citizen or resident of the United States for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

 

a corporation (or entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

 

an estate, the income of which is includible in gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes regardless of its source; or

 

 

a trust, if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust.

If a partnership or other entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds Shares, the tax treatment of a partner generally depends upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding Shares, the discussion below may not be applicable and we urge you to consult your own tax adviser for the U.S. federal income tax implications of the purchase, ownership and disposition of such Shares.

Taxation of the Trust

The Sponsor and the Trustee will treat the Trust as a “grantor trust” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP, although not free from doubt due to the lack of directly governing authority, the Trust should be classified as a “grantor trust” for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and the following discussion assumes such classification). As a result, the Trust itself should not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. Instead, the Trust’s income and expenses should “flow through” to the Shareholders, and the Trustee will report the Trust’s income, gains, losses and deductions to the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) on that basis. The opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP is not binding on the IRS or any court. Accordingly, there can be no

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assurance that the IRS will agree with the conclusions of counsel’s opinion and it is possible that the IRS or another tax authority could assert a position contrary to one or all of those conclusions and that a court could sustain that contrary position. Neither the Sponsor nor the Trustee will request a ruling from the IRS with respect to the classification of the Trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes or with respect to any other matter. If the IRS were to assert successfully that the Trust is not classified as a “grantor trust,” the Trust would likely be classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which may affect the timing and other tax consequences to the Shareholders, and might be classified as a publicly traded partnership that would be taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in which case the Trust would be taxed in the same manner as a regular corporation on its taxable income and distributions to Shareholders out of the earnings and profits of the Trust would be taxed to Shareholders as ordinary dividend income. However, due to the uncertain treatment of digital currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes, there can be no assurance in this regard. Except as otherwise indicated, the remainder of this discussion assumes that the Trust is classified as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Taxation of U.S. Shareholders

Shareholders will be treated, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as if they directly owned a pro rata share of the underlying assets held in the Trust. Shareholders also will be treated as if they directly received their respective pro rata shares of the Trust’s income, if any, and as if they directly incurred their respective pro rata shares of the Trust’s expenses. In the case of a Shareholder that acquires its Shares as part of the creation of a Basket, the delivery of bitcoin to the Trust in exchange for a pro rata share of the underlying bitcoin represented by the Shares will not be a taxable event to the Shareholder, and the Shareholder’s tax basis and holding period for the Shareholder’s pro rata share of the bitcoin held in the Trust will be the same as its tax basis and holding period for the bitcoin delivered in exchange therefor. For purposes of this discussion, and unless stated otherwise, it is assumed that all of a Shareholder’s Shares are acquired on the same date and at the same price per Share. Shareholders that hold multiple lots of Shares, or that are contemplating acquiring multiple lots of Shares, should consult their own tax advisers as to the determination of the tax basis and holding period for the underlying bitcoin related to such Shares.

Current IRS guidance on the treatment of convertible virtual currencies classifies bitcoin as “property” that is not currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes and clarifies that bitcoin could be held as a capital asset, but it does not address several other aspects of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of bitcoin. Because bitcoin is a new technological innovation, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of bitcoin or transactions relating to investments in bitcoin may evolve and change from those discussed below, possibly with retroactive effect. In this regard, the IRS indicated that it has made it a priority to issue additional guidance related to the taxation of virtual currency transactions, such as transactions involving bitcoin. While it has started to issue such additional guidance, whether any future guidance will adversely affect the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in bitcoin or in transactions relating to investments in bitcoin is unknown. Moreover, future developments that may arise with respect to digital currencies may increase the uncertainty with respect to the treatment of digital currencies for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This discussion assumes that any bitcoin the Trust may hold is properly treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as property that may be held as a capital asset and is not currency for purposes of the provisions of the Code relating to foreign currency gain and loss.

Although the Trust does not intend to sell bitcoin, it will use bitcoin to pay certain expenses of the Trust, which under current IRS guidance will be treated as a sale of such bitcoin. If the Trust sells bitcoin (for example to generate cash to pay fees or expenses) or is treated as selling bitcoin (for example by using bitcoin to pay fees or expenses), a Shareholder will recognize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between (a) the Shareholder’s pro rata share of the amount realized by the Trust upon the sale and (b) the Shareholder’s tax basis for its pro rata share of the bitcoin that was sold. A Shareholder’s tax basis for its share of any bitcoin sold by the Trust should generally be determined by multiplying the Shareholder’s total basis for its share of all of the bitcoin held in the Trust immediately prior to the sale, by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount of bitcoin sold, and the denominator of which is the total amount of the bitcoin held in the Trust

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immediately prior to the sale. After any such sale, a Shareholder’s tax basis for its pro rata share of the bitcoin remaining in the Trust should be equal to its tax basis for its share of the total amount of the bitcoin held in the Trust immediately prior to the sale, less the portion of such basis allocable to its share of the bitcoin that was sold.

Upon a Shareholder’s sale of some or all of its Shares, the Shareholder will be treated as having sold the portion or all, respectively, of its pro rata share of the bitcoin held in the Trust at the time of the sale that is attributable to the Shares sold. Accordingly, the Shareholder generally will recognize gain or loss on the sale in an amount equal to the difference between (a) the amount realized pursuant to the sale of the Shares, and (b) the Shareholder’s tax basis for the portion of its pro rata share of the bitcoin held in the Trust at the time of sale that is attributable to the Shares sold, as determined in the manner described in the preceding paragraph. Based on current IRS guidance, such gain or loss (as well as any gain or loss realized by a Shareholder on account of the Trust selling bitcoin) will generally be long-term or short-term capital gain or loss, depending upon whether the Shareholder has a holding period of greater than one year in its pro rata share of the bitcoin that was sold.

A redemption of some or all of a Shareholder’s Shares in exchange for the underlying bitcoin represented by the Shares redeemed generally will not be a taxable event to the Shareholder. The Shareholder’s tax basis for the bitcoin received in the redemption generally will be the same as the Shareholder’s tax basis for the portion of its pro rata share of the bitcoin held in the Trust immediately prior to the redemption that is attributable to the Shares redeemed. The Shareholder’s holding period with respect to the bitcoin received should include the period during which the Shareholder held the Shares redeemed. A subsequent sale of the bitcoin received by the Shareholder will be a taxable event, unless a nonrecognition provision of the Code applies to such sale.

After any sale or redemption of less than all of a Shareholder’s Shares, the Shareholder’s tax basis for its pro rata share of the bitcoin held in the Trust immediately after such sale or redemption generally will be equal to its tax basis for its share of the total amount of the bitcoin held in the Trust immediately prior to the sale or redemption, less the portion of such basis which is taken into account in determining the amount of gain or loss recognized by the Shareholder upon such sale or, in the case of a redemption, that is treated as the basis of the bitcoin received by the Shareholder in the redemption.

If a hard fork occurs in the Bitcoin Blockchain, the Trust could hold both the original bitcoin and the alternative new asset. The IRS has held that a hark fork resulting in the creation of new units of cryptocurrency is a taxable event giving rise to ordinary income. Moreover, the Trust Agreement requires that, if such a transaction occurs, the Trust will as soon as possible direct the Bitcoin Custodian to distribute the alternative new asset in-kind to the Sponsor, as agent for the Shareholders, and the Sponsor will arrange to sell the new alternative asset and for the proceeds to be distributed to the Shareholders. The receipt, distribution and/or sale of the new alternative asset may cause Shareholders to incur a U.S. federal income tax liability. While the IRS has not addressed all situations in which airdrops occur, it is clear from the reasoning of the IRS’s current guidance that it generally would treat an airdrop as a taxable event giving rise to ordinary income.

3.8% Tax on Net Investment Income

Certain U.S. Shareholders who are individuals are required to pay a 3.8% tax on the lesser of the excess of their modified adjusted gross income over a threshold amount ($250,000 for married persons filing jointly and $200,000 for single taxpayers) or their “net investment income,” which generally includes capital gains from the disposition of property. This tax is in addition to any capital gains taxes due on such investment income. A similar tax applies to estates and trusts. U.S. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisers regarding the effect, if any, this tax may have on their investment in the Shares.

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Brokerage Fees and Trust Expenses

Any brokerage or other transaction fee incurred by a Shareholder in purchasing Shares will be treated as part of the Shareholder’s tax basis in the underlying assets of the Trust. Similarly, any brokerage fee incurred by a Shareholder in selling Shares will reduce the amount realized by the Shareholder with respect to the sale.

Shareholders will be required to recognize the full amount of gain or loss upon a sale or deemed sale of bitcoin by the Trust (as discussed above), even though some or all of the proceeds of such sale are used by the Trustee to pay Trust expenses. Shareholders may deduct their respective pro rata shares of each expense incurred by the Trust to the same extent as if they directly incurred the expense. Shareholders who are individuals, estates or trusts, however, may be required to treat some or all of the expenses of the Trust as miscellaneous itemized deductions. An individual may not deduct miscellaneous itemized deductions for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. For tax years beginning after December 31, 2025, individuals may deduct certain miscellaneous itemized deductions only to the extent they exceed in the aggregate 2% of the individual’s adjusted gross income. Similar rules apply to certain miscellaneous itemized deductions of estates and trusts. In addition, such deductions may be subject to phase outs and other limitations under applicable provisions of the Code.

Investment by Certain Retirement Plans

Individual retirement accounts (“IRAs”) and participant-directed accounts under tax-qualified retirement plans are limited in the types of investments they may make under the Code. Potential purchasers of Shares that are IRAs or participant-directed accounts under a Code section 401(a) plan should consult with their own tax advisors as to the tax consequences of a purchase of Shares.

United States Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

The Trustee will file certain information returns with the IRS, and provide certain tax-related information to Shareholders, in connection with the Trust. To the extent required by applicable regulations, each Shareholder will be provided with information regarding its allocable portion of the Trust’s annual income, expenses, gains and losses (if any). A U.S. Shareholder may be subject to United States backup withholding tax in certain circumstances unless it provides its taxpayer identification number and complies with certain certification procedures. Non-U.S. Shareholders may have to comply with certification procedures to establish that they are not a United States person, and some Non-U.S. Shareholders may be required to meet certain information reporting or certification requirements imposed by the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, in order to avoid certain information reporting and withholding tax requirements.

The amount of any backup withholding will be allowed as a credit against a Shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability and may entitle the Shareholder to a refund, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS in a timely manner.

Taxation in Jurisdictions Other Than the United States

Prospective purchasers of Shares that are based in or acting out of a jurisdiction other than the United States are advised to consult their own tax advisers as to the tax consequences under the laws of such jurisdiction (or any other jurisdiction other than the United States to which they are subject) of their purchase, holding, sale and redemption of or any other dealing in Shares and, in particular, as to whether any value added tax, other consumption tax or transfer tax is payable in relation to such purchase, holding, sale, redemption or other dealing.

PROSPECTIVE SHAREHOLDERS ARE URGED TO CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISERS BEFORE DECIDING WHETHER TO INVEST IN THE SHARES OF THE TRUST.

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PURCHASES BY EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) and/or Section 4975 of the Code impose certain requirements on: (i) employee benefit plans and certain other plans and arrangements, including individual retirement accounts and annuities, Keogh plans and certain collective investment funds or insurance company general or separate accounts in which such plans or arrangements are invested, that are subject to Title I of ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code (collectively, “Plans”); and (ii) persons who are fiduciaries with respect to the investment of assets treated as “plan assets” within the meaning of U.S. Department of Labor (the “DOL”) regulation 29 C.F.R. § 2510.3-101, as modified by Section 3(42) of ERISA (the “Plan Assets Regulation”), of a Plan. Investments by Plans are subject to the fiduciary requirements and the applicability of prohibited transaction restrictions under ERISA and the Code.

“Governmental plans” within the meaning of Section 3(32) of ERISA, certain “church plans” within the meaning of Section 3(33) of ERISA and “non-U.S. plans” described in Section 4(b)(4) of ERISA, while not subject to the fiduciary responsibility and prohibited transaction provisions of Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, may be subject to any federal, state, local, non-U.S. or other law or regulation that is substantially similar to the foregoing provisions of ERISA and the Code. Fiduciaries of any such plans are advised to consult with their counsel prior to an investment in the Shares.

In contemplating an investment of a portion of Plan assets in the Shares, the Plan fiduciary responsible for making such investment should carefully consider, taking into account the facts and circumstances of the Plan, the “Risk Factors” discussed above and whether such investment is consistent with its fiduciary responsibilities. The Plan fiduciary should consider, among other issues, whether: (1) the fiduciary has the authority to make the investment under the appropriate governing plan instrument; (2) the investment would constitute a direct or indirect non-exempt prohibited transaction with a “party in interest” or “disqualified person” within the meaning of ERISA and Section 4975 of the Code respectively; (3) the investment is in accordance with the Plan’s funding objectives; and (4) such investment is appropriate for the Plan under the general fiduciary standards of investment prudence and diversification, taking into account the overall investment policy of the Plan, the composition of the Plan’s investment portfolio and the Plan’s need for sufficient liquidity to pay benefits when due. When evaluating the prudence of an investment in the Shares, the Plan fiduciary should consider the DOL’s regulation on investment duties, which can be found at 29 C.F.R. § 2550.404a-1.

It is intended that: (a) none of the Sponsor, the Trustee, the Custodian or any of their respective affiliates (the “Transaction Parties”) has through this report and related materials provided any investment advice within the meaning of Section 3(21) of ERISA to the Plan in connection with the decision to purchase or acquire such Shares; and (b) the information provided in this report and related materials will not make a Transaction Party a fiduciary to the Plan

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INFORMATION YOU SHOULD KNOW

This Prospectus contains information you should consider when making an investment decision about the Shares. You should rely only on the information contained in this Prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. None of the Trust or the Sponsor has authorized any person to provide you with different information and, if anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell the Shares in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale of the Shares is not permitted.

The information contained in this Prospectus was obtained from us and other sources we believe to be reliable.

You should disregard anything we said in an earlier document that is inconsistent with what is included in this Prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. Where the context requires, when we refer to this “Prospectus,” we are referring to this Prospectus and (if applicable) the relevant prospectus supplement.

You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement is current as of any date other than the date on the front page of this Prospectus or the date on the front page of any applicable prospectus supplement.

We include cross references in this Prospectus to captions in these materials where you can find further related discussions. The table of contents tells you where to find these captions.

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SUMMARY OF PROMOTIONAL AND SALES MATERIAL

The Trust expects to use the following sales material it has prepared:

 

 

the Trust’s website, www.[  ].com; and

 

 

the Trust Fact Sheet found on the Trust’s website.

The materials described above are not a part of this Prospectus or the registration statement of which this Prospectus is a part.

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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

The Sponsor owns trademark registrations for the Trust. The Sponsor relies upon these trademarks through which it markets its services and strives to build and maintain brand recognition in the market and among current and potential investors. So long as the Sponsor continues to use these trademarks to identify its services, without challenge from any third party, and properly maintains and renews the trademark registrations under applicable laws, rules and regulations, it will continue to have indefinite protection for these trademarks under current laws, rules and regulations.

The Sponsor also owns trademark registrations for the Sponsor. The Sponsor relies upon these trademarks through which it markets its services and strives to build and maintain brand recognition in the market and among current and potential investors. So long as the Sponsor continues to use these trademarks to identify its services, without challenge from any third party, and properly maintains and renews the trademark registrations under applicable laws, rules and regulations; it will continue to have indefinite protection for these trademarks under current laws, rules and regulations.

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

The Trust has filed a registration statement on Form S-1 with the SEC under the 1933 Act. This Prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement (including the exhibits to the registration statement), parts of which have been omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information about the Trust or the Shares, please refer to the registration statement, which is available online at www.sec.gov.

Information about the Trust and the Shares can also be obtained from the Trust’s website, which is www.[  ].com. The Trust’s website address is only provided here as a convenience to you and the information contained on or connected to the website is not part of this Prospectus or the registration statement of which this Prospectus is part. The Trust is subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and will file certain reports and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act.

The reports and other information is available online at www.sec.gov.

79


 

PRIVACY POLICY

The Trust and the Sponsor may collect or have access to certain nonpublic personal information about current and former Shareholders. Nonpublic personal information may include information received from Shareholders, such as a Shareholder’s name, social security number and address, as well as information received from brokerage firms about Shareholder holdings and transactions in Shares of the Trust.

The Trust and the Sponsor do not disclose nonpublic personal information except as required by law or as described in their Privacy Policy. In general, the Trust and the Sponsor restrict access to the nonpublic personal information they collect about Shareholders to those of their and their affiliates’ employees and service providers who need access to such information to provide products and services to Shareholders.

The Trust and the Sponsor maintain safeguards that comply with federal law to protect Shareholders’ nonpublic personal information. These safeguards are reasonably designed to (1) ensure the security and confidentiality of Shareholders’ records and information, (2) protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of Shareholders’ records and information, and (3) protect against unauthorized access to or use of Shareholders’ records or information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any Shareholder.

Third-party service providers with whom the Trust and the Sponsor share nonpublic personal information about Shareholders must agree to follow appropriate standards of security and confidentiality, which includes safeguarding such nonpublic personal information physically, electronically and procedurally.

A copy of the Sponsor’s current Privacy Policy, which is applicable to the Trust, is provided to Shareholders annually and is also available at [  ].

80


 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

[To be provided by amendment]

81


 

APPENDIX A

GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS

In this Prospectus, each of the following terms have the meanings set forth after such term:

“1933 Act”: The Securities Act of 1933.

“1940 Act”: Investment Company Act of 1940.

“Administrator”: [  ].

“Authorized Participant”: One that purchases or redeems Creation Baskets from or to the Trust.

“Bitcoin Custodian”: [  ]

“Business Day”: Any day other than a day when the Exchange or the New York Stock Exchange is closed for regular trading.

“CEA”: Commodity Exchange Act.

“CFTC”: Commodity Futures Trading Commission, an independent agency with the mandate to regulate commodity futures and options in the United States.

“Code”: Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“Creation Basket”: A block of [  ] Shares used by the Trust to issue or redeem Shares.

“Creation Basket Deposit”: The total deposit required to create each basket.

“DTC”: The Depository Trust Company. DTC will act as the securities depository for the Shares.

“DTC Participant”: An entity that has an account with DTC.

“Exchange”: [  ]

“Exchange Act”: The Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

“FINRA”: Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, formerly the National Association of Securities Dealers.

“Indirect Participants”: Banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly.

“IRS”: U.S. Internal Revenue Service.

“Marketing Agent”: Van Eck Securities Corporation.

“NAV”: Net asset value of the Trust.

“NFA”: National Futures Association.

“Redemption Order Date”: The date a redemption order is received in satisfactory form and approved by the Marketing Agent.

“Register”: The record of all shareholders and holders of the Shares in certificated form kept by the Administrator.

“SEC”: The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Shares”: Common shares representing fractional undivided beneficial interests in the Trust.

“Shareholders”: Holders of Shares.

“Transfer Agent”: [  ].

“Trust Agreement”: Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement of VanEck Bitcoin Trust.

“The Sponsor”: VanEck Digital Assets, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.

“The Trust”: VanEck Bitcoin Trust.

“Trustee”: Delaware Trust Company, a Delaware trust company.

“You”: The owner or holder of Shares.

A-1


 

 

 

VANECK BITCOIN TRUST

 SHARES

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 , 2021

Until  , 2021 (25 calendar days after the date of this Prospectus) all dealers that effect transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to the dealers’ obligation to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

 


 

PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 13. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

Set forth below is an estimate (except as indicated) of the amount of fees and expenses (other than underwriting commissions and discounts) payable by the registrant in connection with the issuance and distribution of the Shares pursuant to the Prospectus contained in this registration statement.

 

 

 

SEC registration fee (actual)

 

 

 

$[_____]*

 

Listing fee (actual)

 

 

 

$[_____]*

 

Auditor’s fees and expenses

 

 

 

$[_____]*

 

Legal fees and expenses

 

 

 

$[_____]*

 

Printing expenses

 

 

 

$[_____]*

 

Miscellaneous expenses

 

 

 

$[_____]*

 

Total

 

 

 

$[_____]*

 

 

 

*

 

To be provided by amendment.

Item 14. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

The Trust Agreement provides that the Sponsor and its shareholders, members, directors, officers, employees, Affiliates and subsidiaries (each a “Sponsor Indemnified Party”) will be indemnified by the Trust and held harmless against any loss, liability or expense incurred under the Trust Agreement without gross negligence, bad faith, or willful misconduct on the part of such Sponsor Indemnified Party arising out of or in connection with the performance of its obligations hereunder or any actions taken in accordance with the provisions of the Trust Agreement. Any amounts payable to a Sponsor Indemnified Party under the Trust Agreement may be payable in advance or will be secured by a lien on the Trust. The Sponsor will not be under any obligation to appear in, prosecute or defend any legal action that in its opinion may involve it in any expense or liability; provided, however, that the Sponsor may, in its discretion, undertake any action that it may deem necessary or desirable in respect of the Trust Agreement and the rights and duties of the parties hereto and the interests of the Shareholders and, in such event, the legal expenses and costs of any such action will be expenses and costs of the Trust and the Sponsor will be entitled to be reimbursed therefor by the Trust. The obligations of the Trust to indemnify the Sponsor Indemnified Parties will survive the termination of the Trust Agreement.

Item 15. Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities.

None.

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.

 

(a)

 

Exhibit.

   

The exhibits to this registration statement are listed in the Exhibit Index to this registration statement, which is incorporated herein by reference.

 

(b)

 

Financial Statement Schedules.

   

Not applicable.

Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)

 

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

II-1


 

 

(i)

 

to include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii)

 

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii)

 

to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

(2)

 

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)

 

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)

 

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i)

 

If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B:

 

(A)

 

each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(B)

 

each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or

 

(ii)

 

If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or

II-2


 

 

 

 

made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

 

(5)

 

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

   

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)

 

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)

 

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii)

 

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)

 

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6)

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

II-3


 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized in the City of Tampa, State of Florida, on December 30, 2020.

VANECK BITCOIN TRUST

By: VanEck Digital Assets, LLC, as Sponsor of the Trust

By:

 

/S/ JONATHAN R. SIMON

 

Name: Jonathan R. Simon
Title: Senior Vice President, General Counsel and
Secretary

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities* and on the dates indicated.

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

/S/ JAN F. VAN ECK

 

 

Jan F. van Eck
President and Chief Executive
Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)

 


December 30, 2020

 

/S/ JOHN J. CRIMMINS

 

 

John J. Crimmins
Vice President, Chief Financial
Officer and Treasurer
(Principal Financial Officer and
Principal Accounting Officer)

 


December 30, 2020

 

*

 

The registrant will be a trust and the persons are signing in their capacities as officers of VanEck Digital Assets, LLC, the Sponsor of the registrant.

II-4


 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

 

 

Exhibit No.

 

Exhibit Description

 

3.1

  

Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement*

 

 

3.2

  

Certificate of Trust

 

5.1

  

Opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP as to legality*

 

 

8.1

  

Opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP as to tax matters*

 

10.1

  

Form of Sponsor Agreement*

 

 

10.2

  

Form of Initial Authorized Participant Agreement*

 

10.3

  

Form of Marketing Agreement*

 

 

10.4

  

Form of Bitcoin Custodian Agreement*

 

10.5

  

Form of Trust Administration and Accounting Agreement*

 

 

10.6

  

Form of Transfer Agency Agreement*

 

23.1

  

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm*

 

 

23.2

  

Consent of Clifford Chance US LLP (included in Exhibits 5.1 and 8.1)*

 

 

*

 

To be filed by amendment.