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Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Trust 2021-C60

Filed: 29 Jul 21, 2:06pm

  FILED PURSUANT TO RULE 424(b)(2)
  REGISTRATION FILE NO.: 333-226486-21
   

 

$645,696,000 (Approximate)

WELLS FARGO COMMERCIAL MORTGAGE TRUST 2021-C60

(Central Index Key Number 0001867467)

as Issuing Entity

Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Securities, Inc.

(Central Index Key Number 0000850779)

as Depositor

LMF Commercial, LLC

(Central Index Key Number 0001592182)

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association

(Central Index Key Number 0000740906)

Column Financial, Inc.

(Central Index Key Number 0001628601)

UBS AG
(Central Index Key Number 0001685185)

BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC

(Central Index Key Number 0001722518)

Ladder Capital Finance LLC
(Central Index Key Number 0001541468)

as Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers

Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-C60

 

Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Securities, Inc. is offering certain classes of the Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-C60 consisting of the certificate classes identified in the table below. The certificates being offered by this prospectus (and the non-offered Class X-D, Class D, Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR, Class M-RR, Class V and Class R certificates) represent the beneficial ownership interests in the issuing entity, which will be a New York common law trust named Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Trust 2021-C60. The assets of the issuing entity will primarily consist of a pool of fixed-rate commercial mortgage loans, which are generally the sole source of payments on the certificates. Credit enhancement will be provided solely by certain classes of subordinate certificates that will be subordinate to certain classes of senior certificates as described under “Description of the Certificates—Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses”. Each class of certificates will be entitled to receive monthly distributions of interest and/or principal on the 4th business day following the 11th day of each month (or if the 11th day is not a business day, the next business day), commencing in August 2021. The rated final distribution date for the certificates is the distribution date in August 2054.

 

Class

Approximate Initial
Certificate Balance or
Notional Amount(1)

Approximate
Initial Pass-
Through Rate

 

Pass-Through
Rate
Description

 

Class

Approximate Initial
Certificate
Balance or
Notional Amount(1)

Approximate
Initial Pass-
Through Rate

 

Pass-Through
Rate Description

Class A-1$17,659,000 0.7330% Fixed(5) Class A-S(6)$58,019,000(6)2.5470% Fixed(5)(6)
Class A-2$45,569,000 2.0420% Fixed(5) Class A-S-1(6)$0(6)2.0470% Fixed(6)
Class A-SB$24,458,000 2.1300% Fixed(5) Class A-S-2(6)$0(6)1.5470% Fixed(6)
Class A-3(6)$121,000,000(6)2.0610% Fixed(5)(6) Class A-S-X1(6)$0(6)0.5000% Fixed(6)
Class A-3-1(6)$0(6)1.5610% Fixed(6) Class A-S-X2(6)$0(6)1.0000% Fixed(6)
Class A-3-2(6)$0(6)1.0610% Fixed(6) Class B(6)$34,624,000(6)2.7300%  Fixed(5)(6)
Class A-3-X1(6)$0(6)0.5000% Fixed(6) Class B-1(6)$0(6)2.2300% Fixed(6)
Class A-3-X2(6)$0(6)1.0000% Fixed(6) Class B-2(6)$0(6)1.7300% Fixed(6)
Class A-4(6)$315,357,000(6)2.3420% Fixed(5)(6) Class B-X1(6)$0(6)0.5000% Fixed(6)
Class A-4-1(6)$0(6)1.8420% Fixed(6) Class B-X2(6)$0(6)1.0000% Fixed(6)
Class A-4-2(6)$0(6)1.3420% Fixed(6) Class C(6)$29,010,000(6)2.7380%  Fixed(5)(6)
Class A-4-X1(6)$0(6)0.5000% Fixed(6) Class C-1(6)$0(6)2.2380% Fixed(6)
Class A-4-X2(6)$0(6)1.0000% Fixed(6) Class C-2(6)$0(6)1.7380% Fixed(6)
Class X-A$524,043,000(7)1.6847% Variable(8) Class C-X1(6)$0(6)0.5000% Fixed(6)
Class X-B$121,653,000(9)1.2270% Variable(10) Class C-X2(6)$0(6)1.0000% Fixed(6)

(Footnotes on table on pages 3 and 4)

 

You should carefully consider the summary of risk factors and the risk factors beginning on page 64 and page 66, respectively, of this prospectus.

 

Neither the certificates nor the mortgage loans are insured or guaranteed by any governmental agency, instrumentality or private issuer or any other person or entity.

 

The certificates will represent interests in the issuing entity only. They will not represent interests in or obligations of the sponsors, depositor, any of their affiliates or any other entity.

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission and state regulators have not approved or disapproved of the offered certificates or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Securities, Inc. will not list the offered certificates on any securities exchange or on any automated quotation system of any securities association.

 

The issuing entity will be relying on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, contained in Section 3(c)(5) of the Investment Company Act or Rule 3a-7 under the Investment Company Act, although there may be additional exclusions or exemptions available to the issuing entity. The issuing entity is being structured so as not to constitute a “covered fund” for purposes of the Volcker Rule under the Dodd-Frank Act (both as defined in this prospectus).

 

The underwriters, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, UBS Securities LLC, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, Academy Securities, Inc., Drexel Hamilton, LLC and Siebert Williams Shank & Co., LLC will purchase the offered certificates from Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Securities, Inc. and will offer them to the public at negotiated prices, plus, in certain cases, accrued interest, determined at the time of sale. Wells Fargo Securities, LLC is acting as co-lead manager and joint bookrunner with respect to approximately 74.4% of each class of offered certificates, UBS Securities LLC is acting as co-lead manager and joint bookrunner with respect to approximately 11.9% of each class of offered certificates and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC is acting as co-lead manager and joint bookrunner with respect to approximately 13.7% of each class of offered certificates. Academy Securities, Inc., Drexel Hamilton, LLC and Siebert Williams Shank & Co., LLC are acting as co-managers.

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the offered certificates to purchasers in book-entry form only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company in the United States and Clearstream Banking, société anonyme and Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, in Europe, against payment in New York, New York on or about July 29, 2021. Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Securities, Inc. expects to receive from this offering approximately 114.1% of the aggregate certificate balance of the offered certificates, plus accrued interest from July 1, 2021, before deducting expenses payable by the depositor.

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each class of
securities to be registered

Amount to be registered

Proposed maximum offering price per unit(1)

Proposed maximum aggregate offering price(1)

Amount of registration fee(2)(3) 

Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates$645,696,000100%$645,696,000$70,445.44

 

 
(1)Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee.

(2)Calculated according to Rule 457(s) of the Securities Act of 1933.

(3)Payment of the registration fee was made in connection with the filing of the preliminary prospectus (accession number: 0001539497-21-001014).

 

Wells Fargo Securities
Co-Lead Manager and Joint Bookrunner
Credit Suisse
Co-Lead Manager and Joint Bookrunner
UBS Securities LLC
Co-Lead Manager and Joint Bookrunner
Academy Securities
Co-Manager
Drexel Hamilton
Co-Manager
Siebert Williams Shank
Co-Manager

July 20, 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary of Certificates

 

Class

Approx. Initial
Certificate
Balance or
Notional
Amount(1)

Approx.
Initial Credit
Support(2)

Approx.
Initial Pass-

Through Rate

Pass-
Through
Rate
Description

Assumed
Final
Distribution
Date(3)

Weighted
Average
Life
(Years)(4)

Expected
Principal
Window(4)

Offered Certificates       
A-1$17,659,000 30.000%0.7330%Fixed(5)June 20262.6208/21 – 06/26
A-2$45,569,000 30.000%2.0420%Fixed(5)July 20264.9206/26 – 07/26
A-SB$24,458,000 30.000%2.1300%Fixed(5)December 20307.2307/26 – 12/30
A-3(6)$121,000,000(6)30.000%2.0610%Fixed(5)(6)April 20319.1401/30 – 04/31
A-4(6)$315,357,000(6)30.000%2.3420%Fixed(5)(6)July 20319.8504/31 – 07/31
X-A$524,043,000(7)NAP1.6847%Variable(8)NAPNAPNAP
X-B$121,653,000(9)NAP1.2270%Variable(10)NAPNAPNAP
A-S(6)$58,019,000(6)22.250%2.5470%Fixed(5)(6)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
B(6)$34,624,000(6)17.625%2.7300%Fixed(5)(6)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
C(6)$29,010,000(6)13.750%2.7380%Fixed(5)(6)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
Non-Offered Certificates       
X-D$11,192,000(11)NAP1.3716%Variable(12)NAPNAPNAP
D$11,192,000 12.255%2.5000%Fixed(5)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
E-RR$14,074,000 10.375%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
F-RR$17,780,000 8.000%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
G-RR$9,358,000 6.750%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
H-RR$9,358,000 5.500%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
J-RR$7,486,000 4.500%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
K-RR$8,422,000 3.375%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
L-RR$11,230,000 1.875%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
M-RR$14,037,042 0.000%3.8716%WAC(13)July 20319.9607/31 – 07/31
V(14) NAP NAPNAPNAPNAPNAPNAP
R(15) NAP NAPNAPNAPNAPNAPNAP

 

 
(1)Approximate, subject to a permitted variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)The approximate initial credit support set forth for the certificates are approximate and, for the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB, Class A-3 and Class A-4 certificates, are presented in the aggregate, taking into account the certificate balances of the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components. The approximate initial credit support set forth for the Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates represents the approximate credit support for the Class A-S, Class B and Class C trust components, respectively.

 

(3)The assumed final distribution dates set forth in this prospectus have been determined on the basis of the assumptions described in “Description of the Certificates—Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date”.

 

(4)The weighted average life and expected principal window during which distributions of principal would be received as set forth in the foregoing table with respect to each class of certificates having a certificate balance are based on the assumptions set forth under “Yield and Maturity Considerations—Weighted Average Life” and on the assumptions that there are no prepayments, modifications or losses in respect of the mortgage loans and that there are no extensions or forbearances of maturity dates or anticipated repayment dates of the mortgage loans.

 

(5)The pass-through rates for the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB, Class A-3, Class A-4, Class A-S, Class B, Class C and Class D certificates for any distribution date will, in each case, be a fixed rate per annum (described in the table as “Fixed”) equal to the pass-through rate set forth opposite such class in the table.

 

(6)The Class A-3-1, Class A-3-2, Class A-3-X1, Class A-3-X2, Class A-4-1, Class A-4-2, Class A-4-X1, Class A-4-X2, Class A-S-1, Class A-S-2, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2, Class B-1, Class B-2, Class B-X1, Class B-X2, Class C-1, Class C-2, Class C-X1 and Class C-X2 certificates are also offered certificates. Such classes of certificates, together with the Class A-3, Class A-4, Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates, constitute the “Exchangeable Certificates”. The Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB, Class D, Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR and Class M-RR certificates, together with the Exchangeable Certificates with a certificate balance, are referred to as the “principal balance certificates”. Each class of Exchangeable Certificates will have the certificate balance or notional amount and pass-through rate described under “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Exchangeable Certificates”.

 

(7)The Class X-A certificates are notional amount certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-A certificates will be equal to the aggregate certificate balance of the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components outstanding from time to time. The Class X-A certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal.

 

(8)The pass-through rate for the Class X-A certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3, Class A-3-X1, Class A-3-X2, Class A-4, Class A-4-X1 and Class A-4-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(9)The Class X-B certificates are notional amount certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-B certificates will be equal to the aggregate certificate balance of the Class A-S, Class B and Class C trust components outstanding from time to time. The Class X-B certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal.

 

(10)The pass-through rate for the Class X-B certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date,

 

 

 

 over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-S, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2, Class B, Class B-X1, Class B-X2, Class C, Class C-X1 and Class C-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(11)The Class X-D certificates are notional amount certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-D certificates will be equal to the certificate balance of the Class D certificates outstanding from time to time. The Class X-D certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal.

 

(12)The pass-through rate for the Class X-D certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the pass-through rate on the Class D certificates for the related distribution date. For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(13)The pass-through rates for the Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR and Class M-RR certificates for any distribution date will, in each case, be a variable rate per annum (described in the table as “WAC”) equal to the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date. For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(14)The Class V certificates will not have a certificate balance, notional amount, credit support, pass-through rate, assumed final distribution date, rated final distribution date or rating. The Class V certificates will only be entitled to a specified portion of distributions of excess interest accrued on the mortgage loans with an anticipated repayment date. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—ARD Loans” in this prospectus.

 

(15)The Class R certificates will not have a certificate balance, notional amount, credit support, pass-through rate, assumed final distribution date, rated final distribution date or rating. The Class R certificates represent the residual interest in each Trust REMIC as further described in this prospectus. The Class R certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal or interest.

 

The Class X-D, Class D, Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR, Class M-RR, Class V and Class R certificates are not offered by this prospectus. Any information in this prospectus concerning certificates other than the offered certificates is presented solely to enhance your understanding of the offered certificates.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Summary of Certificates3
Important Notice Regarding the Offered Certificates16
Important Notice About Information Presented in this Prospectus16
Summary of Terms26
Summary of Risk Factors64
Risk Factors66
Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors66
The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans66
Cyberattacks or Other Security Breaches Could Have a Material Adverse Effect on the Business of the Transaction Parties70
Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans71
Mortgage Loans Are Non-Recourse and Are Not Insured or Guaranteed71
Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally72
Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases74
General74
A Tenant Concentration May Result in Increased Losses75
Mortgaged Properties Leased to Multiple Tenants Also Have Risks75
Mortgaged Properties Leased to Borrowers or Borrower Affiliated Entities Also Have Risks76
Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease76
Leases That Are Not Subordinated to the Lien of the Mortgage or Do Not Contain Attornment Provisions May Have an Adverse Impact at Foreclosure77
Early Lease Termination Options May Reduce Cash Flow77
Sale-Leaseback Transactions Also Have Risks78
Mortgaged Properties Leased to Not-for-Profit Tenants Also Have Risks80
Retail Properties Have Special Risks80
Changes in the Retail Sector, Such as Online Shopping and Other Uses of Technology, Could Affect the Business Models and Viability of Retailers.81
The Performance of the Retail Properties is Subject to Conditions Affecting the Retail Sector.81
Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants.82
Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks83
Industrial Properties Have Special Risks85
Office Properties Have Special Risks86
Self Storage Properties Have Special Risks87
Mixed Use Properties Have Special Risks88
Hospitality Properties Have Special Risks89
Risks Relating to Affiliation with a Franchise or Hotel Management Company91
Leased Fee Properties Have Special Risks92
Manufactured Housing Community Properties Have Special Risks92
Data Centers Have Special Risks94
Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements94
Operation of a Mortgaged Property Depends on the Property Manager’s Performance96

 

 

 

Concentrations Based on Property Type, Geography, Related Borrowers and Other Factors May Disproportionately Increase Losses96
Adverse Environmental Conditions at or Near Mortgaged Properties May Result in Losses98
Risks Related to Redevelopment, Expansion and Renovation at Mortgaged Properties99
Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses100
Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions102
Risks Relating to Inspections of Properties104
Risks Relating to Costs of Compliance with Applicable Laws and Regulations104
Insurance May Not Be Available or Adequate105
Inadequacy of Title Insurers May Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates106
Terrorism Insurance May Not Be Available for All Mortgaged Properties106
Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance108
Condemnation of a Mortgaged Property May Adversely Affect Distributions on Certificates108
Limited Information Causes Uncertainty108
Historical Information108
Ongoing Information109
Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions109
Frequent and Early Occurrence of Borrower Delinquencies and Defaults May Adversely Affect Your Investment110
The Mortgage Loans Have Not Been Reviewed or Re-Underwritten by Us; Some Mortgage Loans May Not Have Complied With Another Originator’s Underwriting Criteria111
Static Pool Data Would Not Be Indicative of the Performance of this Pool112
Seasoned Mortgage Loans Present Additional Risk of Repayment113
Appraisals May Not Reflect Current or Future Market Value of Each Property113
The Performance of a Mortgage Loan and Its Related Mortgaged Property Depends in Part on Who Controls the Borrower and Mortgaged Property115
The Borrower’s Form of Entity May Cause Special Risks115
A Bankruptcy Proceeding May Result in Losses and Delays in Realizing on the Mortgage Loans118
Litigation Regarding the Mortgaged Properties or Borrowers May Impair Your Distributions118
Other Financings or Ability to Incur Other Indebtedness Entails Risk120
Tenancies-in-Common May Hinder Recovery121
Risks Relating to Delaware Statutory Trusts122
Risks Relating to Enforceability of Cross-Collateralization122
Risks Relating to Enforceability of Yield Maintenance Charges, Prepayment Premiums or Defeasance Provisions122
Risks Associated with One Action Rules123
State Law Limitations on Assignments of Leases and Rents May Entail Risks123
Various Other Laws Could Affect the Exercise of Lender’s Rights123
Risks of Anticipated Repayment Date Loans124
The Absence of Lockboxes Entails Risks That Could Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates124
Borrower May Be Unable to Repay Remaining Principal Balance on Maturity Date or Anticipated Repayment Date; Longer Amortization Schedules and Interest-Only Provisions Increase Risk124
Risks Related to Ground Leases and Other Leasehold Interests126
Increases in Real Estate Taxes May Reduce Available Funds128

 

 

 

State and Local Mortgage Recording Taxes May Apply Upon a Foreclosure or Deed-in-Lieu of Foreclosure and Reduce Net Proceeds128
Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest128
Interests and Incentives of the Originators, the Sponsors and Their Affiliates May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests128
Interests and Incentives of the Underwriter Entities May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests131
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Master Servicer and the Special Servicer132
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Operating Advisor135
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Asset Representations Reviewer135
Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Directing Certificateholder and the Companion Holders136
Potential Conflicts of Interest in the Selection of the Underlying Mortgage Loans138
Conflicts of Interest May Occur as a Result of the Rights of the Applicable Directing Certificateholder To Terminate the Special Servicer of the Applicable Whole Loan140
Other Potential Conflicts of Interest May Affect Your Investment140
Other Risks Relating to the Certificates141
EU Securitization Regulation and UK Securitization Regulation Due Diligence Requirements141
Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations May Assign Different Ratings to the Certificates; Ratings of the Certificates Reflect Only the Views of the Applicable Rating Agencies as of the Dates Such Ratings Were Issued; Ratings May Affect ERISA Eligibility; Ratings May Be Downgraded143
Your Yield May Be Affected by Defaults, Prepayments and Other Factors146
General146
The Timing of Prepayments and Repurchases May Change Your Anticipated Yield147
Your Yield May Be Adversely Affected By Prepayments Resulting From Earnout Reserves149
Losses and Shortfalls May Change Your Anticipated Yield149
Risk of Early Termination150
Subordination of the Subordinated Certificates Will Affect the Timing of Distributions and the Application of Losses on the Subordinated Certificates151
Your Lack of Control Over the Issuing Entity and the Mortgage Loans Can Impact Your Investment151
You Have Limited Voting Rights151
The Rights of the Directing Certificateholder and the Operating Advisor Could Adversely Affect Your Investment152
You Have Limited Rights to Replace the Master Servicer, the Special Servicer, the Trustee, the Certificate Administrator, the Operating Advisor or the Asset Representations Reviewer154
The Rights of Companion Holders and Mezzanine Debt May Adversely Affect Your Investment155
Risks Relating to Modifications of the Mortgage Loans157
Sponsors May Not Make Required Repurchases or Substitutions of Defective Mortgage Loans or Pay Any Loss of Value Payment Sufficient to Cover All Losses on a Defective Mortgage Loan158
Risks Relating to Interest on Advances and Special Servicing Compensation159
Bankruptcy of a Servicer May Adversely Affect Collections on the Mortgage Loans and the Ability to Replace the Servicer159

 

 

 

The Sponsors, the Depositor and the Issuing Entity Are Subject to Bankruptcy or Insolvency Laws That May Affect the Issuing Entity’s Ownership of the Mortgage Loans160
The Requirement of the Special Servicer to Obtain FIRREA-Compliant Appraisals May Result in an Increased Cost to the Issuing Entity161
The Master Servicer, any Sub-Servicer, the Special Servicer, the Certificate Administrator or the Custodian May Have Difficulty Performing Under the Pooling and Servicing Agreement or a Related Sub-Servicing Agreement161
Tax Matters and Changes in Tax Law May Adversely Impact the Mortgage Loans or Your Investment162
Tax Considerations Relating to Foreclosure162
Changes to REMIC Restrictions on Loan Modifications May Impact an Investment in the Certificates163
REMIC Status164
Material Federal Tax Considerations Regarding Original Issue Discount164
There Are Risks Relating to the Exchange of Certificates164
General Risks164
The Certificates May Not Be a Suitable Investment for You164
Combination or “Layering” of Multiple Risks May Significantly Increase Risk of Loss165
The Volatile Economy, Credit Crisis and Downturn in the Real Estate Market Have Adversely Affected the Value of CMBS and Similar Factors May in the Future Adversely Affect the Value of CMBS165
Other Events May Affect the Value and Liquidity of Your Investment165
The Certificates Are Limited Obligations166
The Certificates May Have Limited Liquidity and the Market Value of the Certificates May Decline166
Legal and Regulatory Provisions Affecting Investors Could Adversely Affect the Liquidity of the Offered Certificates166
Description of the Mortgage Pool168
General168
Co-Originated or Third-Party Originated Mortgage Loans170
Certain Calculations and Definitions170
Definitions171
Mortgage Pool Characteristics186
Overview186
Property Types188
Retail Properties188
Multifamily Properties189
Industrial Properties190
Office Properties190
Self Storage Properties191
Mixed Use Properties191
Hospitality Properties191
Leased Fee Properties192
Manufactured Housing Community Properties192
Specialty Use Concentrations193
Mortgage Loan Concentrations194
Top Fifteen Mortgage Loans or Groups of Cross-Collateralized Mortgage Loans194
Multi-Property Mortgage Loans, Cross-Collateralized Mortgage Loans and Related Borrower Mortgage Loans194
Geographic Concentrations196
Mortgaged Properties with Limited Prior Operating History197

 

 

 

Tenancies-in-Common or Diversified Ownership197
Delaware Statutory Trusts197
Condominium and Other Shared Interests199
Fee & Leasehold Estates; Ground Leases201
COVID-19 Considerations202
Environmental Considerations206
Redevelopment, Renovation and Expansion209
Assessment of Property Value and Condition209
Litigation and Other Considerations210
Loan Purpose; Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings211
Tenant Issues213
Tenant Concentrations213
Lease Expirations and Terminations213
Expirations213
Terminations214
Other215
Purchase Options and Rights of First Refusal217
Affiliated Leases218
Competition from Certain Nearby Properties219
Insurance Considerations219
Use Restrictions221
Appraised Value222
Non-Recourse Carveout Limitations223
Real Estate and Other Tax Considerations224
Delinquency Information225
Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans225
Amortization of Principal225
Payment Due Dates; Interest Rates; Calculations of Interest226
Single Purpose Entity Covenants227
ARD Loans227
Prepayment Protections and Certain Involuntary Prepayments and Voluntary Prepayments228
Voluntary Prepayments229
“Due-On-Sale” and “Due-On-Encumbrance” Provisions231
Defeasance232
Releases; Partial Releases233
Escrows237
Mortgaged Property Accounts239
Exceptions to Underwriting Guidelines240
Additional Indebtedness241
General241
Whole Loans242
Mezzanine Indebtedness242
Other Secured Indebtedness245
Preferred Equity245
Other Unsecured Indebtedness246
The Whole Loans246
General246
The Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans251
Intercreditor Agreement251
Control Rights with respect to Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans252
Certain Rights of each Non-Controlling Holder252
Sale of Defaulted Mortgage Loan253

 

 

 

The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans253
Intercreditor Agreement254
Control Rights255
Certain Rights of Each Non-Controlling Holder255
Custody of the Mortgage File256
Sale of Defaulted Mortgage Loan256
The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans257
The Grace Building Whole Loan257
The Westchester Whole Loan265
Additional Information270
Transaction Parties271
The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers271
LMF Commercial, LLC271
General271
LMF’s Securitization Program272
LMF’s Underwriting Standards and Loan Analysis272
Review of Mortgage Loans for Which LMF is the Sponsor276
Compliance with Rule 15 Ga-1 under the Exchange Act278
Retained Interests in This Securitization278
Wells Fargo Bank, National Association278
General278
Wells Fargo Bank, National Association’s Commercial Mortgage Securitization Program279
Wells Fargo Bank’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting280
Review of Mortgage Loans for Which Wells Fargo Bank is the Sponsor285
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act287
Retained Interests in This Securitization291
Column Financial, Inc.291
General291
Column’s Securitization Program291
Review of Column Mortgage Loans292
Column’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes294
Exceptions to Column’s Disclosed Underwriting Guidelines299
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act299
Litigation302
Retained Interests in This Securitization303
UBS AG, New York Branch303
General303
UBS AG, New York Branch’s Securitization Program303
Review of the UBS AG, New York Branch Mortgage Loans304
UBS AG, New York Branch’s Underwriting Standards306
Exceptions309
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act309
Retained Interests in This Securitization312
BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC312
General312
BSPRT’s Loan Origination and Acquisition History312
Review of BSPRT Mortgage Loans313
BSPRT’s Underwriting Standards315
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act320
Retained Interests in This Securitization321
Ladder Capital Finance LLC321
General321

 

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Ladder Capital Group’s Securitization Program322
Ladder Capital Group’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes324
Review of LCF Mortgage Loans330
Compliance with Rule 15Ga-1 under the Exchange Act332
Retained Interests in This Securitization332
The Depositor333
The Issuing Entity333
The Trustee334
The Certificate Administrator335
The Master Servicer338
The Special Servicer343
The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer347
Credit Risk Retention348
General348
Qualifying CRE Loans; Required Credit Risk Retention Percentage349
Third Party Purchaser349
Horizontal Risk Retention Certificates350
General350
Material Terms of the Eligible Horizontal Residual Interest351
Hedging, Transfer and Financing Restrictions352
Operating Advisor353
Representations and Warranties354
Description of the Certificates356
General356
Distributions359
Method, Timing and Amount359
Available Funds360
Priority of Distributions362
Pass-Through Rates367
Exchangeable Certificates370
Exchange Limitations373
Exchange Procedures373
Interest Distribution Amount374
Principal Distribution Amount374
Certain Calculations with Respect to Individual Mortgage Loans376
Excess Interest378
Application Priority of Mortgage Loan Collections or Whole Loan Collections378
Allocation of Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums381
Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date385
Prepayment Interest Shortfalls386
Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses388
Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information391
Certificate Administrator Reports391
Information Available Electronically398
Voting Rights403
Delivery, Form, Transfer and Denomination404
Book-Entry Registration404
Definitive Certificates407
Certificateholder Communication408
Access to Certificateholders’ Names and Addresses408
Requests to Communicate408
List of Certificateholders409
Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements409

 

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General409
Dispute Resolution Provisions421
Asset Review Obligations421
Pooling and Servicing Agreement421
General421
Assignment of the Mortgage Loans422
Servicing Standard422
Subservicing424
Advances425
P&I Advances425
Servicing Advances426
Nonrecoverable Advances427
Recovery of Advances428
Accounts430
Withdrawals from the Collection Account432
Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses435
General435
Master Servicing Compensation439
Special Servicing Compensation442
Disclosable Special Servicer Fees447
Certificate Administrator and Trustee Compensation448
Operating Advisor Compensation448
Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation449
CREFC® Intellectual Property Royalty License Fee450
Appraisal Reduction Amounts450
Maintenance of Insurance458
Modifications, Waivers and Amendments462
Enforcement of “Due-on-Sale” and “Due-on-Encumbrance” Provisions467
Inspections468
Collection of Operating Information469
Special Servicing Transfer Event469
Asset Status Report473
Realization Upon Mortgage Loans477
Sale of Defaulted Loans and REO Properties479
The Directing Certificateholder483
General483
Major Decisions485
Asset Status Report487
Replacement of the Special Servicer488
Control Termination Event, Operating Advisor Consultation Event and Consultation Termination Event488
Servicing Override490
Rights of the Directing Certificateholder with respect to Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans490
Rights of the Holders of Serviced Pari Passu Companion Loans491
Limitation on Liability of Directing Certificateholder491
The Operating Advisor492
General492
Duties of Operating Advisor at All Times493
Annual Report494
Additional Duties of the Operating Advisor While an Operating Advisor Consultation Event Has Occurred and Is Continuing496
Recommendation of the Replacement of the Special Servicer496

 

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Eligibility of Operating Advisor496
Other Obligations of Operating Advisor497
Delegation of Operating Advisor’s Duties498
Termination of the Operating Advisor With Cause498
Rights Upon Operating Advisor Termination Event499
Waiver of Operating Advisor Termination Event500
Termination of the Operating Advisor Without Cause500
Resignation of the Operating Advisor500
Operating Advisor Compensation501
The Asset Representations Reviewer501
Asset Review501
Asset Review Trigger501
Asset Review Vote502
Review Materials503
Asset Review504
Eligibility of Asset Representations Reviewer506
Other Obligations of Asset Representations Reviewer507
Delegation of Asset Representations Reviewer’s Duties507
Assignment of Asset Representations Reviewer’s Rights and Obligations508
Asset Representations Reviewer Termination Events508
Rights Upon Asset Representations Reviewer Termination Event509
Termination of the Asset Representations Reviewer Without Cause509
Resignation of Asset Representations Reviewer510
Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation510
Replacement of the Special Servicer Without Cause510
Replacement of the Special Servicer After Operating Advisor Recommendation and Investor Vote513
Resignation of Master Servicer, Trustee, Certificate Administrator, Operating Advisor or Asset Representations Reviewer Upon Prohibited Risk Retention Affiliation514
Termination of the Master Servicer or Special Servicer for Cause515
Servicer Termination Events515
Rights Upon Servicer Termination Event516
Waiver of Servicer Termination Event518
Resignation of the Master Servicer or Special Servicer518
Limitation on Liability; Indemnification519
Enforcement of Mortgage Loan Seller’s Obligations Under the MLPA522
Dispute Resolution Provisions523
Certificateholder’s Rights When a Repurchase Request Is Initially Delivered by a Certificateholder523
Repurchase Request Delivered by a Party to the PSA523
Resolution of a Repurchase Request524
Mediation and Arbitration Provisions527
Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans529
General529
Servicing of The Grace Building Mortgage Loan532
Servicing of The Westchester Mortgage Loan533
Servicing of the 122nd Street Portfolio Mortgage Loan534
Servicing of the Seacrest Homes Mortgage Loan and the Herndon Square Mortgage Loan535
Rating Agency Confirmations536
Evidence as to Compliance538
Limitation on Rights of Certificateholders to Institute a Proceeding540
Termination; Retirement of Certificates540

 

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Amendment541
Resignation and Removal of the Trustee and the Certificate Administrator544
Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; and Consent to Jurisdiction546
Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans546
New York546
California546
General547
Types of Mortgage Instruments547
Leases and Rents548
Personalty548
Foreclosure549
General549
Foreclosure Procedures Vary from State to State549
Judicial Foreclosure549
Equitable and Other Limitations on Enforceability of Certain Provisions549
Nonjudicial Foreclosure/Power of Sale550
Public Sale550
Rights of Redemption551
Anti-Deficiency Legislation552
Leasehold Considerations552
Cooperative Shares553
Bankruptcy Laws553
Environmental Considerations560
General560
Superlien Laws560
CERCLA560
Certain Other Federal and State Laws561
Additional Considerations561
Due-on-Sale and Due-on-Encumbrance Provisions562
Subordinate Financing562
Default Interest and Limitations on Prepayments562
Applicability of Usury Laws562
Americans with Disabilities Act563
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act563
Anti-Money Laundering, Economic Sanctions and Bribery564
Potential Forfeiture of Assets564
Certain Affiliations, Relationships and Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties565
Pending Legal Proceedings Involving Transaction Parties568
Use of Proceeds568
Yield and Maturity Considerations568
Yield Considerations568
General568
Rate and Timing of Principal Payments569
Losses and Shortfalls570
Certain Relevant Factors Affecting Loan Payments and Defaults571
Delay in Payment of Distributions572
Yield on the Certificates with Notional Amounts572
Weighted Average Life573
Pre-Tax Yield to Maturity Tables578
Material Federal Income Tax Considerations587
General587
Qualification as a REMIC588

 

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Exchangeable Certificates590
Taxation of Regular Interests Underlying an Exchangeable Certificate591
Status of Offered Certificates591
Taxation of Regular Interests591
General591
Original Issue Discount592
Acquisition Premium594
Market Discount594
Premium595
Election To Treat All Interest Under the Constant Yield Method596
Treatment of Losses596
Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums597
Sale or Exchange of Regular Interests597
Taxes That May Be Imposed on a REMIC598
Prohibited Transactions598
Contributions to a REMIC After the Startup Day598
Net Income from Foreclosure Property599
REMIC Partnership Representative599
Taxation of Certain Foreign Investors600
FATCA601
Backup Withholding601
Information Reporting601
3.8% Medicare Tax on “Net Investment Income”601
Reporting Requirements602
Certain State and Local Tax Considerations603
Method of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)603
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference607
Where You Can Find More Information608
Financial Information608
Certain ERISA Considerations608
General608
Plan Asset Regulations609
Administrative Exemptions610
Insurance Company General Accounts612
Legal Investment613
Legal Matters614
Ratings614
Index of Defined Terms617

 

ANNEX A-1:Certain Characteristics of the Mortgage Loans and Mortgaged PropertiesA-1-1
   
ANNEX A-2:Mortgage Pool Information (Tables)A-2-1
   
ANNEX A-3:Summaries of the Fifteen Largest Mortgage Loans or Groups of Cross- Collateralized Mortgage LoansA-3-1
   
ANNEX B:Form of Distribution Date StatementB-1
   
ANNEX C:Form of Operating Advisor Annual ReportC-1
   
ANNEX D-1:Mortgage Loan Representations and WarrantiesD-1-1
   
ANNEX D-2:Exceptions to Mortgage Loan Representations and WarrantiesD-2-1
   
ANNEX E:Class A-SB Planned Principal Balance ScheduleE-1

 

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Important Notice Regarding the Offered Certificates

 

WE HAVE FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION A REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, WITH RESPECT TO THE CERTIFICATES OFFERED IN THIS PROSPECTUS. HOWEVER, THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONTAIN ALL OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION REGARDING THE DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROSPECTUS, YOU SHOULD REFER TO OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT AND THE EXHIBITS TO IT. OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT AND THE EXHIBITS TO IT CAN BE OBTAINED ELECTRONICALLY THROUGH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION’S INTERNET WEBSITE (HTTP://WWW.SEC.GOV).

 

THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL OR A SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE OR OTHER JURISDICTION WHERE SUCH OFFER, SOLICITATION OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES REFERRED TO IN THIS PROSPECTUS ARE OFFERED ON A “WHEN, AS AND IF ISSUED” BASIS.

 

THE UNDERWRITERS DESCRIBED IN THESE MATERIALS MAY FROM TIME TO TIME PERFORM INVESTMENT BANKING SERVICES FOR, OR SOLICIT INVESTMENT BANKING BUSINESS FROM, ANY COMPANY NAMED IN THESE MATERIALS. THE UNDERWRITERS AND/OR THEIR RESPECTIVE EMPLOYEES MAY FROM TIME TO TIME HAVE A LONG OR SHORT POSITION IN ANY CONTRACT OR CERTIFICATE DISCUSSED IN THESE MATERIALS.

 

THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PROSPECTUS SUPERSEDES ANY PREVIOUS SUCH INFORMATION DELIVERED TO ANY PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR.

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES DO NOT REPRESENT AN INTEREST IN OR OBLIGATION OF THE DEPOSITOR, THE SPONSORS, THE MORTGAGE LOAN SELLERS, THE MASTER SERVICER, THE SPECIAL SERVICER, THE TRUSTEE, THE OPERATING ADVISOR, THE ASSET REPRESENTATIONS REVIEWER, THE CERTIFICATE ADMINISTRATOR, THE DIRECTING CERTIFICATEHOLDER, THE UNDERWRITERS OR ANY OF THEIR RESPECTIVE AFFILIATES. NEITHER THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES NOR THE MORTGAGE LOANS ARE INSURED OR GUARANTEED BY ANY GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY OR INSTRUMENTALITY OR PRIVATE INSURER.

 

THERE IS CURRENTLY NO SECONDARY MARKET FOR THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. WE CANNOT ASSURE YOU THAT A SECONDARY MARKET WILL DEVELOP OR, IF A SECONDARY MARKET DOES DEVELOP, THAT IT WILL PROVIDE HOLDERS OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES WITH LIQUIDITY OF INVESTMENT OR THAT IT WILL CONTINUE FOR THE TERM OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. THE UNDERWRITERS CURRENTLY INTEND TO MAKE A MARKET IN THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BUT ARE UNDER NO OBLIGATION TO DO SO. ACCORDINGLY, PURCHASERS MUST BE PREPARED TO BEAR THE RISKS OF THEIR INVESTMENTS FOR AN INDEFINITE PERIOD. SEE “RISK FACTORS—GENERAL RISKS—THE CERTIFICATES MAY HAVE LIMITED LIQUIDITY AND THE MARKET VALUE OF THE CERTIFICATES MAY DECLINE” IN THIS PROSPECTUS.

 

Important Notice About Information Presented in this Prospectus

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that contained in

 

16 

 

 

this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus.

 

This prospectus begins with several introductory sections describing the certificates and the issuing entity in abbreviated form:

 

Summary of Certificates, commencing on the page set forth on the table of contents of this prospectus, which sets forth important statistical information relating to the certificates;

 

Summary of Terms, commencing on the page set forth on the table of contents of this prospectus, which gives a brief introduction of the key features of the certificates and a description of the mortgage loans; and

 

Summary of Risk Factors and Risk Factors, commencing on the pages set forth on the table of contents of this prospectus, which describe risks that apply to the certificates.

 

This prospectus includes cross references to sections in this prospectus where you can find further related discussions. The table of contents in this prospectus identifies the pages where these sections are located.

 

Certain capitalized terms are defined and used in this prospectus to assist you in understanding the terms of the offered certificates and this offering. The capitalized terms used in this prospectus are defined on the pages indicated under the caption “Index of Defined Terms” in this prospectus.

 

All annexes and schedules attached to this prospectus are a part of this prospectus.

 

In this prospectus:

 

the terms “depositor”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to Wells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Securities, Inc.;

 

references to any specified mortgage loan should be construed to refer to the mortgage loan secured by the mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) with the same name identified on Annex A-1, representing the approximate percentage of the initial pool balance set forth on Annex A-1;

 

any parenthetical with a percentage next to a mortgage loan name or a group of mortgage loans indicates the approximate percentage (or approximate aggregate percentage) of the initial pool balance that the outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loan (or the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such group of mortgage loans) represents, as set forth on Annex A-1;

 

any parenthetical with a percentage next to a mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) indicates the approximate percentage (or approximate aggregate percentage) of the initial pool balance that the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan (or, if applicable, the allocated loan amount or aggregate allocated loan amount with respect to such mortgaged property or mortgaged properties) represents, as set forth on Annex A-1;

 

references to a “pooling and servicing agreement” (other than the WFCM 2021-C60 pooling and servicing agreement) governing the servicing of any mortgage loan should be construed to refer to any relevant pooling and servicing agreement, trust

 

17 

 

 

and servicing agreement or other primary transaction agreement governing the servicing of such mortgage loan; and

 

references to “lender” or “mortgage lender” with respect to a mortgage loan generally should be construed to mean, from and after the date of initial issuance of the offered certificates, the trustee on behalf of the issuing entity as the holder of record title to the mortgage loans or the master servicer or special servicer, as applicable, with respect to the obligations and rights of the lender as described under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

NOTICE TO INVESTORS: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA

 

PROHIBITION ON SALES TO EU RETAIL INVESTORS

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE NOT INTENDED TO BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, AND SHOULD NOT BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, ANY EU RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA (THE “EEA”). FOR THESE PURPOSES (AND FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE FOLLOWING SECTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS), AN “EU RETAIL INVESTOR” MEANS A PERSON WHO IS ONE (OR MORE) OF THE FOLLOWING: (I) A RETAIL CLIENT AS DEFINED IN POINT (11) OF ARTICLE 4(1) OF DIRECTIVE 2014/65/EU (AS AMENDED, “MIFID II”); OR (II) A CUSTOMER WITHIN THE MEANING OF DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/97 (AS AMENDED), WHERE THAT CUSTOMER WOULD NOT QUALIFY AS A PROFESSIONAL CLIENT AS DEFINED IN POINT (10) OF ARTICLE 4(1) OF MIFID II; OR (III) NOT A QUALIFIED INVESTOR (AN “EU QUALIFIED INVESTOR”) AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 2 OF REGULATION (EU) 2017/1129 (AS AMENDED, THE “EU PROSPECTUS REGULATION”). CONSEQUENTLY NO KEY INFORMATION DOCUMENT REQUIRED BY REGULATION (EU) NO 1286/2014 (AS AMENDED, THE “EU PRIIPS REGULATION”) FOR OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO EU RETAIL INVESTORS IN THE EEA HAS BEEN PREPARED AND THEREFORE OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO ANY EU RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE EEA MAY BE UNLAWFUL UNDER THE EU PRIIPS REGULATION.

 

OTHER EEA OFFERING RESTRICTIONS

 

THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT A PROSPECTUS FOR PURPOSES OF THE EU PROSPECTUS REGULATION. THIS PROSPECTUS HAS BEEN PREPARED ON THE BASIS THAT ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE EEA WILL BE MADE ONLY TO A LEGAL ENTITY WHICH IS AN EU QUALIFIED INVESTOR. ACCORDINGLY, ANY PERSON MAKING OR INTENDING TO MAKE AN OFFER IN THE EEA OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE THE SUBJECT OF THE OFFERING CONTEMPLATED IN THIS PROSPECTUS MAY ONLY DO SO WITH RESPECT TO EU QUALIFIED INVESTORS. NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER HAVE AUTHORIZED, NOR DO THEY AUTHORIZE, THE MAKING OF ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE EEA OTHER THAN TO EU QUALIFIED INVESTORS.

 

MIFID II PRODUCT GOVERNANCE

 

ANY DISTRIBUTOR SUBJECT TO MIFID II THAT IS OFFERING, SELLING OR RECOMMENDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDERTAKING ITS OWN TARGET MARKET ASSESSMENT IN RESPECT OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND DETERMINING APPROPRIATE DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE MIFID II PRODUCT GOVERNANCE RULES UNDER COMMISSION DELEGATED DIRECTIVE (EU) 2017/593 (AS AMENDED, THE “DELEGATED DIRECTIVE”). NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY,

 

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THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER MAKES ANY REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES AS TO A DISTRIBUTOR’S COMPLIANCE WITH THE DELEGATED DIRECTIVE.

 

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA SELLING RESTRICTIONS

 

EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT IT HAS NOT OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE, AND WILL NOT OFFER, SELL OR OTHERWISE MAKE AVAILABLE, ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES TO ANY EU RETAIL INVESTOR (AS DEFINED ABOVE) IN THE EEA. FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS PROVISION, THE EXPRESSION “OFFER” INCLUDES THE COMMUNICATION IN ANY FORM AND BY ANY MEANS OF SUFFICIENT INFORMATION ON THE TERMS OF THE OFFER AND THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES SO AS TO ENABLE AN INVESTOR TO DECIDE TO PURCHASE OR SUBSCRIBE FOR THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES.

 

NOTICE TO INVESTORS: UNITED KINGDOM

 

PROHIBITION ON SALES TO UK RETAIL INVESTORS

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE NOT INTENDED TO BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, AND SHOULD NOT BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, ANY UK RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE UNITED KINGDOM (THE “UK”). FOR THESE PURPOSES (AND FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE FOLLOWING SECTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS), A “UK RETAIL INVESTOR” MEANS A PERSON WHO IS ONE (OR MORE) OF THE FOLLOWING: (I) A RETAIL CLIENT, AS DEFINED IN POINT (8) OF ARTICLE 2 OF COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) 2017/565, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (WITHDRAWAL) ACT 2018 (AS AMENDED, THE “EUWA”) AND AS AMENDED; OR (II) A CUSTOMER WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (AS AMENDED, THE “FSMA”) AND ANY RULES OR REGULATIONS MADE UNDER THE FSMA (SUCH RULES AND REGULATIONS AS AMENDED) TO IMPLEMENT DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/97, WHERE THAT CUSTOMER WOULD NOT QUALIFY AS A PROFESSIONAL CLIENT, AS DEFINED IN POINT (8) OF ARTICLE 2(1) OF REGULATION (EU) NO 600/2014, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED; OR (III) NOT A QUALIFIED INVESTOR (A “UK QUALIFIED INVESTOR”), AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 2 OF REGULATION (EU) 2017/1129, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED (THE “UK PROSPECTUS REGULATION”). CONSEQUENTLY NO KEY INFORMATION DOCUMENT REQUIRED BY REGULATION (EU) NO 1286/2014, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED (THE “UK PRIIPS REGULATION”) FOR OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO UK RETAIL INVESTORS IN THE UK HAS BEEN PREPARED; AND THEREFORE OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO ANY UK RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE UK MAY BE UNLAWFUL UNDER THE UK PRIIPS REGULATION.

 

OTHER UK OFFERING RESTRICTIONS

 

THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT A PROSPECTUS FOR PURPOSES OF THE UK PROSPECTUS REGULATION. THIS PROSPECTUS HAS BEEN PREPARED ON THE BASIS THAT ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE UK WILL BE MADE ONLY TO A LEGAL ENTITY WHICH IS A UK QUALIFIED INVESTOR. ACCORDINGLY, ANY PERSON MAKING OR INTENDING TO MAKE AN OFFER IN THE UK OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE THE SUBJECT OF THE OFFERING CONTEMPLATED IN THIS PROSPECTUS MAY ONLY DO SO WITH RESPECT TO UK QUALIFIED INVESTORS. NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY

 

19 

 

 

UNDERWRITER HAVE AUTHORIZED, NOR DO THEY AUTHORIZE, THE MAKING OF ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE UK OTHER THAN TO UK QUALIFIED INVESTORS.

 

UK MIFIR PRODUCT GOVERNANCE

 

ANY DISTRIBUTOR SUBJECT TO THE FCA HANDBOOK PRODUCT INTERVENTION AND PRODUCT GOVERNANCE SOURCEBOOK (THE “UK MIFIR PRODUCT GOVERNANCE RULES”) THAT IS OFFERING, SELLING OR RECOMMENDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDERTAKING ITS OWN TARGET MARKET ASSESSMENT IN RESPECT OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND DETERMINING APPROPRIATE DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS. NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER MAKES ANY REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES AS TO A DISTRIBUTOR’S COMPLIANCE WITH THE UK MIFIR PRODUCT GOVERNANCE RULES.

 

OTHER UK REGULATORY RESTRICTIONS

 

THE ISSUING ENTITY MAY CONSTITUTE A “COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEME” AS DEFINED BY SECTION 235 OF THE FSMA THAT IS NOT A “RECOGNIZED COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEME” FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE FSMA AND THAT HAS NOT BEEN AUTHORIZED, REGULATED OR OTHERWISE RECOGNIZED OR APPROVED. AS AN UNREGULATED SCHEME, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES CANNOT BE MARKETED IN THE UK TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC, EXCEPT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FSMA.

 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS (A) IF MADE BY A PERSON WHO IS NOT AN AUTHORIZED PERSON UNDER THE FSMA, IS BEING MADE ONLY TO, OR DIRECTED ONLY AT, PERSONS WHO (I) ARE OUTSIDE THE UK, OR (II) HAVE PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE IN MATTERS RELATING TO INVESTMENTS AND QUALIFY AS INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 19(5) OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (FINANCIAL PROMOTION) ORDER 2005 (AS AMENDED, THE “FINANCIAL PROMOTION ORDER”), OR (III) ARE PERSONS FALLING WITHIN ARTICLE 49(2)(A) THROUGH (D) (“HIGH NET WORTH COMPANIES, UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS, ETC.”) OF THE FINANCIAL PROMOTION ORDER, OR (IV) ARE PERSONS TO WHOM THIS PROSPECTUS MAY OTHERWISE LAWFULLY BE COMMUNICATED OR DIRECTED (ALL SUCH PERSONS TOGETHER BEING REFERRED TO AS “FPO PERSONS”); AND (B) IF MADE BY A PERSON WHO IS AN AUTHORIZED PERSON UNDER THE FSMA, IS BEING MADE ONLY TO, OR DIRECTED ONLY AT, PERSONS WHO (I) ARE OUTSIDE THE UK, OR (II) HAVE PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OF PARTICIPATING IN UNREGULATED SCHEMES (AS DEFINED FOR PURPOSES OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES) (EXEMPTIONS) ORDER 2001 (AS AMENDED, THE “PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER”)) AND QUALIFY AS INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 14(5) OF THE PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER, OR (III) ARE PERSONS FALLING WITHIN ARTICLE 22(2)(A) THROUGH (D) (HIGH NET WORTH COMPANIES, UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS, ETC.) OF THE PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER, OR (IV) ARE PERSONS TO WHOM THE ISSUING ENTITY MAY LAWFULLY BE PROMOTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 4.12 OF THE FCA HANDBOOK CONDUCT OF BUSINESS SOURCEBOOK (ALL SUCH PERSONS, TOGETHER WITH THE FPO PERSONS, THE “RELEVANT PERSONS”).

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MUST NOT BE ACTED ON OR RELIED ON BY PERSONS WHO ARE NOT RELEVANT PERSONS. ANY INVESTMENT OR INVESTMENT ACTIVITY TO WHICH THIS PROSPECTUS RELATES, INCLUDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, IS AVAILABLE ONLY TO RELEVANT PERSONS AND WILL BE ENGAGED IN ONLY WITH RELEVANT PERSONS.

 

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PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS IN THE UK ARE ADVISED THAT ALL, OR MOST, OF THE PROTECTIONS AFFORDED BY THE UK REGULATORY SYSTEM WILL NOT APPLY TO AN INVESTMENT IN THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND THAT COMPENSATION WILL NOT BE AVAILABLE UNDER THE UK FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPENSATION SCHEME.

 

UNITED KINGDOM SELLING RESTRICTIONS

 

EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT:

 

PROHIBITION ON SALES TO UK RETAIL INVESTORS

 

(A) IT HAS NOT OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE, AND WILL NOT OFFER, SELL OR OTHERWISE MAKE AVAILABLE, ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE THE SUBJECT OF THE OFFERING CONTEMPLATED BY THIS PROSPECTUS TO ANY UK RETAIL INVESTOR (AS DEFINED ABOVE) IN THE UK (AND FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS PROVISION, THE EXPRESSION “OFFER” INCLUDES THE COMMUNICATION IN ANY FORM AND BY ANY MEANS OF SUFFICIENT INFORMATION ON THE TERMS OF THE OFFER AND THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES SO AS TO ENABLE AN INVESTOR TO DECIDE TO PURCHASE OR SUBSCRIBE FOR THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES);

 

OTHER UK REGULATORY RESTRICTIONS

 

(B) IT HAS ONLY COMMUNICATED OR CAUSED TO BE COMMUNICATED AND WILL ONLY COMMUNICATE OR CAUSE TO BE COMMUNICATED AN INVITATION OR INDUCEMENT TO ENGAGE IN INVESTMENT ACTIVITY (WITHIN THE MEANING OF SECTION 21 OF THE FSMA) RECEIVED BY IT IN CONNECTION WITH THE ISSUE OR SALE OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH SECTION 21(1) OF THE FSMA DOES NOT APPLY TO THE ISSUING ENTITY OR THE DEPOSITOR; AND

 

(C) IT HAS COMPLIED AND WILL COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE PROVISIONS OF THE FSMA WITH RESPECT TO ANYTHING DONE BY IT IN RELATION TO THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN, FROM OR OTHERWISE INVOLVING THE UK.

 

EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION AND UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION

 

NONE OF THE SPONSORS, THE DEPOSITOR OR THE UNDERWRITERS, OR THEIR RESPECTIVE AFFILIATES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON INTENDS TO RETAIN A MATERIAL NET ECONOMIC INTEREST IN THE SECURITIZATION CONSTITUTED BY THE ISSUE OF THE CERTIFICATES, OR TO TAKE ANY OTHER ACTION IN RESPECT OF SUCH SECURITIZATION, IN A MANNER PRESCRIBED OR CONTEMPLATED BY (A) REGULATION (EU) 2017/2402 (THE “EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION”) OR (B) REGULATION (EU) 2017/2402, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED (INCLUDING BY THE SECURITISATION (AMENDMENT) (EU EXIT) REGULATIONS 2019) (THE “UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION”). IN PARTICULAR, NO SUCH PERSON UNDERTAKES TO TAKE ANY ACTION WHICH MAY BE REQUIRED BY ANY PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR OR CERTIFICATEHOLDER FOR THE PURPOSES OF ITS COMPLIANCE WITH ANY REQUIREMENT OF THE EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION OR THE UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION. IN ADDITION, THE ARRANGEMENTS DESCRIBED UNDER “CREDIT RISK RETENTION” IN THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN STRUCTURED WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF ENSURING COMPLIANCE BY ANY PERSON WITH ANY REQUIREMENT OF THE EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION OR THE UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION. CONSEQUENTLY, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY NOT BE A SUITABLE INVESTMENT FOR INVESTORS THAT ARE SUBJECT TO ANY REQUIREMENT OF THE EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION OR THE UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION. SEE “RISK FACTORS—OTHER RISKS RELATING TO THE

 

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CERTIFICATES—EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION AND UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION DUE DILIGENCE REQUIREMENTS” IN THIS PROSPECTUS.

 

PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES WILL NOT BE OFFERED OR SOLD IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (EXCLUDING HONG KONG, MACAU AND TAIWAN, THE “PRC”) AS PART OF THE INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BUT MAY BE AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE BY INVESTORS RESIDENT IN THE PRC FROM OUTSIDE THE PRC.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER TO SELL OR THE SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY ANY SECURITIES IN THE PRC TO ANY PERSON TO WHOM IT IS UNLAWFUL TO MAKE THE OFFER OR SOLICITATION IN THE PRC.

 

THE DEPOSITOR DOES NOT REPRESENT THAT THIS PROSPECTUS MAY BE LAWFULLY DISTRIBUTED, OR THAT ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY BE LAWFULLY OFFERED, IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANY APPLICABLE REGISTRATION OR OTHER REQUIREMENTS IN THE PRC, OR PURSUANT TO AN EXEMPTION AVAILABLE THEREUNDER, OR ASSUME ANY RESPONSIBILITY FOR FACILITATING ANY SUCH DISTRIBUTION OR OFFERING. IN PARTICULAR, NO ACTION HAS BEEN TAKEN BY THE DEPOSITOR WHICH WOULD PERMIT AN OFFERING OF ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR THE DISTRIBUTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS IN THE PRC. ACCORDINGLY, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE NOT BEING OFFERED OR SOLD WITHIN THE PRC BY MEANS OF THIS PROSPECTUS OR ANY OTHER DOCUMENT. NEITHER THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY ADVERTISEMENT OR OTHER OFFERING MATERIAL MAY BE DISTRIBUTED OR PUBLISHED IN THE PRC, EXCEPT UNDER CIRCUMSTANCES THAT WILL RESULT IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANY APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS.

 

HONG KONG

 

THIS PROSPECTUS HAS NOT BEEN DELIVERED FOR REGISTRATION TO THE REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES IN HONG KONG AND THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED OR APPROVED BY ANY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN HONG KONG. THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE NOR INTEND TO BE AN OFFER OR INVITATION TO THE PUBLIC IN HONG KONG TO ACQUIRE THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES.

 

EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED, WARRANTED AND AGREED THAT: (1) IT HAS NOT OFFERED OR SOLD AND WILL NOT OFFER OR SELL IN HONG KONG, BY MEANS OF ANY DOCUMENT, ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES (EXCEPT FOR CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE A “STRUCTURED PRODUCT” AS DEFINED IN THE SECURITIES AND FUTURES ORDINANCE (CAP. 571) (THE “SFO”) OF HONG KONG) OTHER THAN (A) TO “PROFESSIONAL INVESTORS” AS DEFINED IN THE SFO AND ANY RULES OR REGULATIONS MADE UNDER THE SFO; OR (B) IN OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH DO NOT RESULT IN THE DOCUMENT BEING A “PROSPECTUS” AS DEFINED IN THE COMPANIES (WINDING UP AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS) ORDINANCE (CAP. 32) (THE “C(WUMP)O”) OF HONG KONG OR WHICH DO NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER TO THE PUBLIC WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE C(WUMP)O; AND (2) IT HAS NOT ISSUED OR HAD IN ITS POSSESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ISSUE, AND WILL NOT ISSUE OR HAVE IN ITS POSSESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ISSUE, WHETHER IN HONG KONG OR ELSEWHERE, ANY ADVERTISEMENT, INVITATION OR DOCUMENT RELATING TO THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, WHICH IS DIRECTED AT, OR THE CONTENTS OF WHICH ARE LIKELY TO BE ACCESSED OR READ BY, THE PUBLIC OF HONG KONG (EXCEPT IF PERMITTED TO DO SO UNDER THE SECURITIES LAWS OF HONG KONG) OTHER THAN WITH RESPECT TO OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE OR ARE INTENDED TO BE DISPOSED OF ONLY TO PERSONS OUTSIDE HONG KONG OR ONLY TO

 

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PROFESSIONAL INVESTORS” AS DEFINED IN THE SFO AND ANY RULES MADE UNDER THE SFO.

 

W A R N I N G

 

THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED OR APPROVED BY ANY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN HONG KONG. YOU ARE ADVISED TO EXERCISE CAUTION IN RELATION TO THE OFFER. IF YOU ARE IN ANY DOUBT ABOUT ANY OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS, YOU SHOULD OBTAIN INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONAL ADVICE.

 

SINGAPORE

 

NEITHER THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY OTHER DOCUMENT OR MATERIAL IN CONNECTION WITH ANY OFFER OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES HAS BEEN REGISTERED AS A PROSPECTUS WITH THE MONETARY AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE (“MAS”) UNDER THE SECURITIES AND FUTURES ACT (CAP. 289) OF SINGAPORE (THE “SFA”). ACCORDINGLY, MAS ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT A PROSPECTUS AS DEFINED IN THE SFA AND STATUTORY LIABILITY UNDER THE SFA IN RELATION TO THE CONTENTS OF PROSPECTUSES WOULD NOT APPLY. ANY PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR SHOULD CONSIDER CAREFULLY WHETHER THE INVESTMENT IS SUITABLE FOR IT. THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY OTHER DOCUMENT OR MATERIAL IN CONNECTION WITH THE OFFER OR SALE, OR INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY NOT BE CIRCULATED OR DISTRIBUTED, NOR MAY THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BE OFFERED OR SOLD, OR BE MADE THE SUBJECT OF AN INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, WHETHER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, TO PERSONS IN SINGAPORE OTHER THAN (I) TO AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 4A(1)(c) OF THE SFA) PURSUANT TO SECTION 274 OF THE SFA (EACH AN “INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR”), (II) TO A RELEVANT PERSON (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 275(2) OF THE SFA) PURSUANT TO SECTION 275(1), OR ANY PERSON PURSUANT TO SECTION 275(1A) OF THE SFA, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275 OF THE SFA, PROVIDED ALWAYS THAT NONE OF SUCH PERSON SHALL BE AN INDIVIDUAL OTHER THAN AN INDIVIDUAL WHO IS AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 4A(1)(a) OF THE SFA) (EACH, A “RELEVANT INVESTOR”).

 

NO CERTIFICATES ACQUIRED BY (I) AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR; OR (II) A RELEVANT INVESTOR IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275 OF THE SFA MAY BE OFFERED OR SOLD, MADE THE SUBJECT OF AN INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, OR OTHERWISE TRANSFERRED, WHETHER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, TO PERSONS IN SINGAPORE, OTHER THAN TO (I) AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR; OR (II) A RELEVANT INVESTOR IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275 OF THE SFA.

 

WHERE THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE SUBSCRIBED OR PURCHASED UNDER SECTION 275 OF THE SFA BY A RELEVANT PERSON WHICH IS: (A) A CORPORATION (WHICH IS NOT AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 4A OF THE SFA)) THE SOLE BUSINESS OF WHICH IS TO HOLD INVESTMENTS AND THE ENTIRE SHARE CAPITAL OF WHICH IS OWNED BY ONE OR MORE INDIVIDUALS, EACH OF WHOM IS AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR; OR (B) A TRUST (WHERE THE TRUSTEE IS NOT AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR) WHOSE SOLE PURPOSE IS TO HOLD INVESTMENTS AND EACH BENEFICIARY IS AN ACCREDITED INVESTOR, SECURITIES (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 239(1) OF THE SFA) OF THAT CORPORATION OR THE BENEFICIARIES’ RIGHTS AND INTEREST (HOWSOEVER DESCRIBED) IN THAT TRUST SHALL NOT BE TRANSFERABLE FOR 6 MONTHS AFTER THAT CORPORATION OR THAT TRUST HAS ACQUIRED THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES UNDER

 

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SECTION 275 OF THE SFA EXCEPT: (1) TO AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR UNDER SECTION 274 OF THE SFA OR TO A RELEVANT PERSON (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 275(2) OF THE SFA), OR TO ANY PERSON PURSUANT TO AN OFFER THAT IS MADE ON TERMS THAT SUCH SHARES, DEBENTURES AND UNITS OF SHARES AND DEBENTURES OF THAT CORPORATION OR SUCH RIGHTS OR INTEREST IN THAT TRUST ARE ACQUIRED AT A CONSIDERATION OF NOT LESS THAN 200,000 SINGAPORE DOLLARS (OR ITS EQUIVALENT IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY) FOR EACH TRANSACTION, WHETHER SUCH AMOUNT IS TO BE PAID FOR IN CASH OR BY EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES OR OTHER ASSETS, AND FURTHER FOR CORPORATIONS, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 275(1A) OF THE SFA; (2) WHERE NO CONSIDERATION IS GIVEN FOR THE TRANSFER; (3) WHERE THE TRANSFER IS BY OPERATION OF LAW; OR (4) AS SPECIFIED IN SECTION 276(7) OF THE SFA.

 

REPUBLIC OF KOREA

 

THESE CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN REGISTERED WITH THE FINANCIAL SERVICES COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA FOR A PUBLIC OFFERING IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA. THE UNDERWRITERS HAVE THEREFORE REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT THE CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE OFFERED, SOLD OR DELIVERED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OR OFFERED, SOLD OR DELIVERED TO ANY PERSON FOR RE-OFFERING OR RESALE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA OR TO ANY RESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE PERMITTED UNDER APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, INCLUDING THE FINANCIAL INVESTMENT SERVICES AND CAPITAL MARKETS ACT AND THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS LAW AND THE DECREES AND REGULATIONS THEREUNDER.

 

JAPAN

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE REGISTERED UNDER THE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND EXCHANGE LAW OF JAPAN, AS AMENDED (THE “FIEL”), AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE FIEL HAS NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. ACCORDINGLY, EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT IT HAS NOT, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OFFERED OR SOLD AND WILL NOT, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OFFER OR SELL ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN JAPAN OR TO, OR FOR THE BENEFIT OF, ANY RESIDENT OF JAPAN (WHICH TERM AS USED IN THIS PROSPECTUS MEANS ANY PERSON RESIDENT IN JAPAN, INCLUDING ANY CORPORATION OR OTHER ENTITY ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF JAPAN) OR TO OTHERS FOR REOFFERING OR RE-SALE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN JAPAN OR TO, OR FOR THE BENEFIT OF, ANY RESIDENT OF JAPAN EXCEPT PURSUANT TO AN EXEMPTION FROM THE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS OF, AND OTHERWISE IN COMPLIANCE WITH, THE FIEL AND OTHER RELEVANT LAWS, REGULATIONS AND MINISTERIAL GUIDELINES OF JAPAN. AS PART OF THIS OFFERING OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, THE UNDERWRITERS MAY OFFER THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN JAPAN TO UP TO 49 OFFEREES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ABOVE PROVISIONS.

 

JAPANESE RETENTION REQUIREMENT

 

The Japanese Financial Services Agency (“JFSA”) published a risk retention rule as part of the regulatory capital regulation of certain categories of Japanese investors seeking to invest in securitization transactions (the “JRR Rule”). The JRR Rule mandates an “indirect” compliance requirement, meaning that certain categories of Japanese investors will be required to apply higher risk weighting to securitization exposures they hold unless

 

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the relevant originator commits to hold a retention interest in the securities issued in the securitization transaction equal to at least 5% of the exposure of the total underlying assets in the securitization transaction (the “Japanese Retention Requirement”), or such investors determine that the underlying assets were not “inappropriately originated.” In the absence of such a determination by such investors that such underlying assets were not “inappropriately originated,” the Japanese Retention Requirement would apply to an investment by such investors in such securities.

 

No party to the transaction described in this PROSPECTUS has committed to hold a risk retention interest in compliance with the Japanese Retention Requirement, and we make no representation as to whether the transaction described in this PROSPECTUS would otherwise comply with the JRR Rule.

 

NOTICE TO RESIDENTS OF CANADA

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY BE SOLD IN CANADA ONLY TO PURCHASERS PURCHASING, OR DEEMED TO BE PURCHASING, AS PRINCIPAL THAT ARE ACCREDITED INVESTORS, AS DEFINED IN NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 45-106 PROSPECTUS EXEMPTIONS OR SUBSECTION 73.3(1) OF THE SECURITIES ACT (ONTARIO), AND ARE PERMITTED CLIENTS, AS DEFINED IN NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 31-103 REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS, EXEMPTIONS AND ONGOING REGISTRANT OBLIGATIONS. ANY RESALE OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MUST BE MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH AN EXEMPTION FROM, OR IN A TRANSACTION NOT SUBJECT TO, THE PROSPECTUS REQUIREMENTS OF APPLICABLE SECURITIES LAWS.

 

SECURITIES LEGISLATION IN CERTAIN PROVINCES OR TERRITORIES OF CANADA MAY PROVIDE A PURCHASER WITH REMEDIES FOR RESCISSION OR DAMAGES IF THIS PROSPECTUS (INCLUDING ANY AMENDMENT THERETO) CONTAINS A MISREPRESENTATION, PROVIDED THAT THE REMEDIES FOR RESCISSION OR DAMAGES ARE EXERCISED BY THE PURCHASER WITHIN THE TIME LIMIT PRESCRIBED BY THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF THE PURCHASER’S PROVINCE OR TERRITORY. THE PURCHASER SHOULD REFER TO ANY APPLICABLE PROVISIONS OF THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF THE PURCHASER’S PROVINCE OR TERRITORY FOR PARTICULARS OF THESE RIGHTS OR CONSULT WITH A LEGAL ADVISOR.

 

PURSUANT TO SECTION 3A.3 OF NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 33-105 UNDERWRITING CONFLICTS (“NI 33-105”), THE UNDERWRITERS ARE NOT REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH THE DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS OF NI 33-105 REGARDING UNDERWRITER CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN CONNECTION WITH THIS OFFERING.

 

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Summary of Terms

 

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus. It does not contain all of the information you need to consider in making your investment decision. To understand all of the terms of the offering of the offered certificates, read this entire document carefully.

 

Relevant Parties

 

Title of CertificatesCommercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-C60.

 

DepositorWells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Securities, Inc., a North Carolina corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, a national banking association organized under the laws of the United States of America, which is a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of Wells Fargo & Company, a Delaware corporation. The depositor’s address is 301 South College Street, Charlotte, North Carolina 28202–0901 and its telephone number is (704) 374-6161. See “Transaction Parties—The Depositor”.

 

Issuing EntityWells Fargo Commercial Mortgage Trust 2021-C60, a New York common law trust, to be established on the closing date under the pooling and servicing agreement. For more detailed information, see “Transaction Parties—The Issuing Entity”.

 

Sponsors; Mortgage 

Loan Sellers; OriginatorsThe sponsors of this transaction are:

 

LMF Commercial, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company

 

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, a national banking association

 

Column Financial, Inc., a Delaware corporation

 

UBS AG, by and through its branch office at 1285 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York (referred to herein as “UBS AG, New York Branch”), an Office of the Comptroller of the Currency regulated branch of a foreign bank

 

BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company

 

Ladder Capital Finance LLC, a Delaware limited liability company

 

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The sponsors are sometimes also referred to in this prospectus as the “mortgage loan sellers”.

 

The mortgage loan sellers will transfer to the depositor the mortgage loans set forth in the following chart, and the depositor will in turn sell the mortgage loans to the issuing entity.

 

Sellers of the Mortgage Loans

 

 Mortgage Loan Seller Number of Mortgage Loans Aggregate Principal Balance of Mortgage Loans Approx. % of Initial Pool Balance
 LMF Commercial, LLC  24  $226,356,953   30.2%
 Wells Fargo Bank, National Association  10   181,540,000   24.2 
 Column Financial, Inc.  4   102,741,723   13.7 
 UBS AG, New York Branch  6   89,110,000   11.9 
 BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC  10   75,807,589   10.1 
 Ladder Capital Finance LLC  7   73,076,778   9.8 
 Total  61  $748,633,043   100.0%

 

All of the mortgage loans were originated by their respective sellers or affiliates thereof, except (i) those certain mortgage loans that are part of larger whole loan structures that were co-originated by the applicable seller with one or more other lenders and (ii) one (1) mortgage loan (0.8%) to be sold by Column Financial, Inc. that was originated by an unrelated third-party, Oceanview Commercial Mortgage Finance, LLC, and was re-underwritten pursuant to Column Financial’s underwriting guidelines.

 

See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Co-Originated or Third-Party Originated Mortgage Loans”.

 

Master ServicerWells Fargo Bank, National Association will be the master servicer. The master servicer will be responsible for the master servicing and administration of the mortgage loans and any related companion loan pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement (other than any mortgage loan or companion loan that is part of a whole loan and serviced under the related trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, related to the transaction indicated in the table entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below). The principal west coast commercial mortgage master servicing offices of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association are located at MAC A0293-080, 2001 Clayton Road, Concord, California 94520. The principal east coast commercial mortgage master servicing offices of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association are located at Three Wells Fargo, MAC D1050-084, 401 South Tryon

 

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Street, Charlotte, North Carolina 28202. See “Transaction Parties—The Master Servicer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

The non-serviced mortgage loans will be serviced by the master servicer set forth in the table below under the heading “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Special ServicerMidland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National Association, is expected to be the special servicer with respect to the mortgage loans (other than any excluded special servicer loans) and any related companion loan other than with respect to the non-serviced mortgage loans and related companion loan(s) set forth in the table entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below. The special servicer will be primarily responsible for (i) making decisions and performing certain servicing functions with respect to such mortgage loans and any related serviced companion loan as to which a special servicing transfer event (such as a default or an imminent default) has occurred and (ii) reviewing, evaluating, processing and providing or withholding consent as to major decisions and certain other transactions and performing certain enforcement actions relating to such mortgage loans and any related serviced companion loan for which a special servicing transfer event has not occurred, in each case pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction. The principal servicing office of Midland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National Association, as special servicer, is located at 10851 Mastin Street, Building 82, Suite 300, Overland Park, Kansas 66210. See “Transaction Parties—The Special Servicer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

If the special servicer obtains knowledge that it has become a borrower party with respect to any mortgage loan (such mortgage loan referred to herein as an “excluded special servicer loan”), the special servicer will be required to resign as special servicer of that excluded special servicer loan. Prior to the occurrence and continuance of a control termination event under the pooling and servicing agreement, the directing certificateholder will be required to select a separate special servicer that is not a borrower party (referred to herein as an “excluded special servicer”) with respect to any excluded special servicer loan, unless such excluded special servicer loan is also an excluded loan. After the occurrence and during the continuance of a control

 

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termination event or if at any time the applicable excluded special servicer loan is also an excluded loan, the resigning special servicer will be required to use commercially reasonable efforts to select the related excluded special servicer. See “—Directing Certificateholder” below and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Termination of the Master Servicer or Special Servicer for Cause”. Any excluded special servicer will be required to perform all of the obligations of the special servicer and will be entitled to all special servicing compensation with respect to such excluded special servicer loan earned during such time as the related mortgage loan is an excluded special servicer loan.

 

Midland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National Association is expected to be appointed as special servicer by KKR Real Estate Credit Opportunity Partners II L.P. or an affiliate thereof, which, on the closing date, is expected to be appointed (or to appoint an affiliate) as the initial directing certificateholder. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Certificateholder”.

 

The special servicer of each non-serviced mortgage loan is set forth in the table below entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans.

 

TrusteeWilmington Trust, National Association will act as trustee. The corporate trust office of the trustee is located at 1100 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19890, Attention: WFCM 2021-C60. Following the transfer of the mortgage loans, the trustee, on behalf of the issuing entity, will become the mortgagee of record for each mortgage loan (other than a non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related companion loan. See “Transaction Parties—The Trustee” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan, the entity set forth in the table entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below, in its capacity as trustee under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, for the indicated transaction, is the mortgagee of record for that non-serviced mortgage loan and any related companion loan. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Certificate AdministratorWells Fargo Bank, National Association will act as certificate administrator. The certificate administrator will also be required to act as custodian, certificate

 

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registrar, REMIC administrator, 17g-5 information provider and authenticating agent. The corporate trust offices of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association are located at 9062 Old Annapolis Road, Columbia, Maryland 21045, and for certificate transfer purposes are located at 600 South 4th Street, 7th Floor, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415. See “Transaction Parties—The Certificate Administrator” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

The custodian with respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan will be the entity set forth in the table below entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”, as custodian under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, for the indicated transaction. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Operating AdvisorPentalpha Surveillance LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, will be the operating advisor. The operating advisor will have certain review and reporting responsibilities with respect to the performance of the special servicer, and in certain circumstances may recommend to the certificateholders that the special servicer be replaced. The operating advisor will generally have no obligations or consultation rights as operating advisor under the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction with respect to a non-serviced mortgage loan or any related REO property. See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Operating Advisor”.

 

Asset Representations 

ReviewerPentalpha Surveillance LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, will also be serving as the asset representations reviewer. The asset representations reviewer will be required to review certain delinquent mortgage loans after a specified delinquency threshold has been exceeded and the required percentage of certificateholders vote to direct a review of such delinquent mortgage loans. See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Asset Representations Reviewer”.

 

Directing CertificateholderThe directing certificateholder will have certain consent and consultation rights in certain circumstances with respect to the mortgage loans (other than any excluded loan as described in the next paragraph), as further described in this prospectus. The directing certificateholder will generally be the controlling class

 

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certificateholder (or its representative) selected by more than a specified percentage of the controlling class certificateholders (by certificate balance, as certified by the certificate registrar from time to time as provided for in the pooling and servicing agreement). However, in certain circumstances (such as when no directing certificateholder has been appointed and no one holder owns the largest aggregate certificate balance of the controlling class) there may be no directing certificateholder even if there is a controlling class. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Certificateholder”.

 

With respect to the directing certificateholder or the holder of the majority of the controlling class certificates, an “excluded loan” is a mortgage loan or whole loan with respect to which the directing certificateholder or the holder of the majority of the controlling class certificates is a borrower, a mortgagor, a manager of a mortgaged property, the holder of a mezzanine loan that has accelerated the related mezzanine loan (subject to certain exceptions) or commenced foreclosure or enforcement proceedings against the equity collateral pledged to secure the related mezzanine loan, or any borrower party affiliate thereof.

 

The controlling class will be, as of any date of determination, the most subordinate class of the Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR and Class M-RR certificates then outstanding that has an aggregate certificate balance, as notionally reduced by any cumulative appraisal reduction amounts allocable to such class, at least equal to 25% of the initial certificate balance of that class. As of the closing date, the controlling class will be the Class M-RR certificates. No class of certificates, other than as described above, will be eligible to act as the controlling class or appoint a directing certificateholder.

 

It is expected that on the closing date, KKR CMBS II Aggregator Type 2 L.P. will purchase or otherwise acquire a majority of the Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR, Class M-RR and Class V certificates, and that KKR Real Estate Credit Opportunity Partners II L.P. or an affiliate will be appointed as the initial directing certificateholder with respect to each mortgage loan (other than any excluded loan).

 

With respect to any serviced subordinate companion loan described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”, during such time as the holder of

 

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such subordinate companion loan is no longer permitted to exercise control or consultation rights under the related intercreditor agreement, the directing certificateholder will have generally similar (although not necessarily identical) consent and consultation rights with respect to the related mortgage loan as it does for the other mortgage loans in the pool. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”.

 

Each entity identified as an “Initial Directing Party” in the table entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below is the initial directing certificateholder (or the equivalent) under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, for the indicated transaction and will have certain consent and consultation rights with respect to the related non-serviced whole loan, which are substantially similar, but not identical, to those of the directing certificateholder under the pooling and servicing agreement for this securitization, subject to similar appraisal mechanics. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Certain Affiliations 

and RelationshipsThe originators, the sponsors, the underwriters, and parties to the pooling and servicing agreement have various roles in this transaction as well as certain relationships with parties to this transaction and certain of their affiliates. These roles and other potential relationships may give rise to conflicts of interest as further described in this prospectus under “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest” and “Certain Affiliations, Relationships and Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties”.

 

Relevant Dates and Periods

 

Cut-off DateThe mortgage loans will be considered part of the trust fund as of their respective cut-off dates. The cut-off date with respect to each mortgage loan is the respective payment due date for the monthly debt service payment that is due in July 2021 (or, in the case of any mortgage loan that has its first payment due date in August 2021, the date that would have been its payment due date in July 2021 under the terms of that mortgage loan if a monthly debt service payment were scheduled to be due in that month).

 

Closing DateOn or about July 29, 2021.

 

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Distribution DateThe 4th business day following each determination date. The first distribution date will be in August 2021.

 

Determination DateThe 11th day of each month or, if the 11th day is not a business day, then the business day immediately following such 11th day.

 

Record DateWith respect to any distribution date, the last business day of the month preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs.

 

Business DayUnder the pooling and servicing agreement, a business day will be any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, New York, California, Kansas or any of the jurisdictions in which the respective primary servicing offices of the master servicer or the special servicer or the corporate trust offices of either the certificate administrator or the trustee are located, or the New York Stock Exchange or the Federal Reserve System of the United States of America, are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to remain closed.

 

Interest Accrual PeriodThe interest accrual period for each class of offered certificates for each distribution date will be the calendar month immediately preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs.

 

Collection PeriodFor any mortgage loan to be held by the issuing entity and any distribution date, the period commencing on the day immediately following the payment due date for such mortgage loan in the month preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs and ending on and including the payment due date for such mortgage loan in the month in which that distribution date occurs. However, in the event that the last day of a collection period is not a business day, any periodic payments received with respect to the mortgage loans relating to that collection period on the business day immediately following that last day will be deemed to have been received during that collection period and not during any other collection period.

 

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Assumed Final Distribution

Date; Rated Final 

Distribution DateThe assumed final distribution dates set forth below for each class have been determined on the basis of the assumptions described in “Description of the Certificates—Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date”:

 

 

Class 

Assumed Final Distribution Date 

 Class A-1June 2026
 Class A-2July 2026
 Class A-SBDecember 2030
 Class A-3(1)April 2031
 Class A-4(1)July 2031
 Class X-ANAP
 Class X-BNAP
 Class A-S(1)July 2031
 Class B(1)July 2031
 Class C(1)July 2031

   

(1)Each class of Class A-3 Exchangeable Certificates, Class A-4 Exchangeable Certificates, Class A-S Exchangeable Certificates, Class B Exchangeable Certificates and Class C Exchangeable Certificates that are principal balance certificates will have the same assumed final distribution date as the Class A-3, Class A-4, Class A-S, Class B or Class C certificates, respectively, shown in the table.

 

The rated final distribution date will be the distribution date in August 2054.

 

Transaction Overview

 

On the closing date, each sponsor will sell its respective mortgage loans to the depositor, which will in turn deposit the mortgage loans into the issuing entity, a common law trust created on the closing date. The issuing entity will be formed by a pooling and servicing agreement to be entered into among the depositor, the master servicer, the special servicer, the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor and the asset representations reviewer.

 

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The transfers of the mortgage loans from the sponsors to the depositor and from the depositor to the issuing entity in exchange for the offered certificates are illustrated below:

 

(GRAPHIC)

 

Offered Certificates

 

GeneralWe are offering the following classes of commercial mortgage pass-through certificates as part of Series 2021-C60:

 

Class A-1

 

Class A-2

 

Class A-SB

 

Class A-3, Class A-3-1, Class A-3-2, Class A-3-X1, Class A-3-X2

 

Class A-4, Class A-4-1, Class A-4-2, Class A-4-X1, Class A-4-X2

 

Class X-A

 

Class X-B

 

Class A-S, Class A-S-1, Class A-S-2, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2

 

Class B, Class B-1, Class B-2, Class B-X1, Class B-X2

 

Class C, Class C-1, Class C-2, Class C-X1, Class C-X2

 

The certificates of this Series will consist of the above classes and the following classes that are not being offered by this prospectus: Class X-D, Class D, Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR, Class M-RR, Class V and Class R.

 

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Certificate Balances and 

Notional AmountsYour certificates will have the approximate aggregate initial certificate balance or notional amount set forth below, subject to a variance of plus or minus 5%:

 

 

Class 

Approx. Initial
Aggregate
Certificate Balance
or Notional
Amount(1) 

Approx. % of
Initial Pool
Balance 

Approx.
Initial Credit
Support(2) 

 Class A-1$17,659,000 2.36%30.000%
 Class A-2$45,569,000 6.09%30.000%
 Class A-SB$24,458,000 3.27%30.000%
 Class A-3$121,000,000(3)16.16%30.000%
 Class A-4$315,357,000(3)42.12%30.000%
 Class X-A$524,043,000 NAPNAP
 Class X-B$121,653,000 NAPNAP
 Class A-S$58,019,000(3)7.75%22.250%
 Class B$34,624,000(3)4.62%17.625%
 Class C$29,010,000(3)3.88%13.750%

   

(1)Approximate, subject to a permitted variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)The approximate initial credit support with respect to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB, Class A-3 and Class A-4 certificates are presented in the aggregate, taking into account the certificate balances of the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components. The approximate initial credit support set forth for the Class A-S certificates represents the approximate credit support for the Class A-S trust component. The approximate initial credit support set forth for the Class B certificates represents the approximate credit support for the Class B trust component. The approximate initial credit support set forth for the Class C certificates represents the approximate credit support for the Class C trust component.

 

(3)Each class of Exchangeable Certificates will have the certificate balance or notional amount described under “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Exchangeable Certificates”.

 

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Pass-Through Rates

 

A. Offered CertificatesYour certificates will accrue interest at an annual rate called a pass-through rate. The initial approximate pass-through rate is set forth below for each class of certificates:

 

 

Class 

Approx. Initial
Pass-Through
Rate(1) 

 Class A-10.7330%
 Class A-22.0420%
 Class A-SB2.1300%
 Class A-3(2)2.0610%
 Class A-4(2)2.3420%
 Class X-A1.6847%
 Class X-B1.2270%
 Class A-S(2)2.5470%
 Class B(2)2.7300%
 Class C(2)2.7380%

   

(1)The pass-through rates for the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB, Class A-3, Class A-4, Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates for any distribution date will, in each case, be a fixed rate per annum equal to the pass-through rate set forth opposite such class in the table. The pass-through rate for the Class X-A certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3, Class A-3-X1, Class A-3-X2, Class A-4, Class A-4-X1 and Class A-4-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). The pass-through rate for the Class X-B certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-S, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2, Class B, Class B-X1, Class B-X2, Class C, Class C-X1 and Class C-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(2)Each class of Exchangeable Certificates will have the pass-through rate described under “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Exchangeable Certificates”.

 

B. Interest Rate 

Calculation ConventionInterest on the offered certificates at their applicable pass-through rates will be calculated based on a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months, or a “30/360 basis”.

 

For purposes of calculating the pass-through rates on the Class X-A and Class X-B certificates and any other class of certificates that has a pass-through rate limited by, equal to or based on the weighted average net mortgage interest rate (which calculation does not include any companion loan interest rate), the mortgage loan interest rates will not reflect any default interest rate, any loan term modifications agreed to by the

 

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special servicer or any modifications resulting from a borrower’s bankruptcy or insolvency.

 

For purposes of calculating the pass-through rates on the offered certificates, the interest rate for each mortgage loan that accrues interest based on the actual number of days in each month and assuming a 360-day year, or an “actual/360 basis”, will be recalculated, if necessary, so that the amount of interest that would accrue at that recalculated rate in the applicable month, calculated on a 30/360 basis, will equal the amount of interest that is required to be paid on that mortgage loan in that month, subject to certain adjustments as described in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Pass-Through Rates” and “—Interest Distribution Amount”.

 

C. Servicing and 

Administration FeesEach of the master servicer and the special servicer is entitled to a servicing fee or special servicing fee, as the case may be, from the interest payments on each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan with respect to the special servicing fee only), any related serviced companion loan and any related REO loans and, with respect to the special servicing fees, if the related mortgage loan interest payments (or other collections in respect of the related mortgage loan or mortgaged property) are insufficient, then from general collections on all mortgage loans.

 

The servicing fee for each distribution date, including the master servicing fee and the portion of the servicing fee payable to any primary servicer or subservicer, is calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan) at a servicing fee rate equal to a per annum rate ranging from 0.00375% to 0.02500%. In addition, with respect to each serviced companion loan, the master servicer will receive a primary servicing fee, calculated on the outstanding principal amount of such companion loan, at a rate to be specified in the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

The special servicing fee for each distribution date is calculated based on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related serviced companion loan as to which a special servicing transfer event has occurred (including any REO loans), on a loan-by-loan basis at the special servicing fee rate equal to the greater of (i) a per annum rate of 0.25000% and (ii) the per annum rate that would result in a special servicing fee of $3,500 for the related month. The special servicer

 

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will not be entitled to a special servicing fee with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan.

 

Any primary servicing fees or sub-servicing fees with respect to each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related serviced companion loan will be paid by the master servicer or special servicer, respectively, out of the fees described above.

 

The master servicer and special servicer are also entitled to additional fees and amounts, including income on the amounts held in certain accounts and certain permitted investments, liquidation fees and workout fees. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses.

 

The certificate administrator fee for each distribution date is calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (including any REO loan and any non-serviced mortgage loan, but not any companion loan) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00995%. The trustee fee is payable by the certificate administrator from the certificate administrator fee and is equal to $290 per month.

 

The operating advisor will be entitled to an upfront fee of $10,000 on the closing date. As compensation for its routine duties, the operating advisor will be entitled to a fee on each distribution date calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and REO loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan but excluding any related companion loan) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00185%. The operating advisor will also be entitled under certain circumstances to a consulting fee.

 

The asset representations reviewer will be entitled to an upfront fee of $5,000 on the closing date. As compensation for the performance of its routine duties, the asset representations reviewer will be entitled to a fee on each distribution date calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and REO loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan, but excluding any related companion loan(s)) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00030%. Upon the completion of any asset review with respect to each delinquent loan, the asset representations reviewer will be entitled to a per loan fee in an amount described in “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses—Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation”.

 

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Each party to the pooling and servicing agreement will also be entitled to be reimbursed by the issuing entity for costs, expenses and liabilities borne by them in certain circumstances. Fees and expenses payable by the issuing entity to any party to the pooling and servicing agreement are generally payable prior to any distributions to certificateholders.

 

Additionally, with respect to each distribution date, an amount equal to the product of 0.00050% per annum multiplied by the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and any REO loan will be payable to CRE Finance Council® as a license fee for use of its names and trademarks, including an investor reporting package. This fee will be payable prior to any distributions to certificateholders.

 

Payment of the fees and reimbursement of the costs and expenses described above will generally have priority over the distribution of amounts payable to the certificateholders. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses”, “—Termination of the Master Servicer or Special Servicer For Cause” and “—Limitation on Liability; Indemnification.

 

With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan set forth in the table below, the master servicer under the related trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of that mortgage loan will be entitled to a primary servicing fee at a rate equal to a per annum rate set forth in the table below, and the special servicer under the related trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, will be entitled to a special servicing fee at a rate equal to the per annum rate set forth below. In addition, each party to the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of a non-serviced whole loan will be entitled to receive other fees and reimbursements with respect to the related non-serviced mortgage loan in amounts, from sources, and at frequencies, that are similar, but not necessarily identical, to those described above and, in certain cases (for example, with respect to unreimbursed special servicing fees and servicing advances with respect to the related non-serviced whole loan), such amounts will be reimbursable from general collections on the mortgage loans to the extent not recoverable from the related non-serviced whole loan and to the extent allocable to the related non-serviced mortgage loan pursuant to the related intercreditor agreement. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The

 

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Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

NON-SERVICED MORTGAGE LOANS

 

 

Non-Serviced
Mortgage Loan 

Primary Servicing
Fee Rate(1) 

Special Servicing
Fee Rate 

 The Grace Building0.00250% per annum  0.15000% per annum(2)
 The Westchester0.00125% per annum0.25000% per annum
 Seacrest Homes0.00250% per annum   0.25000% per annum(3)
 Herndon Square0.00250% per annum   0.25000% per annum(3)
 122nd Street Portfolio0.00250% per annum   0.25000% per annum(3)

   

 

(1)The primary servicing fee rate described in the table and footnotes thereto is included as part of the Servicing Fee Rate.

 

(2)Subject to a cap of $750,000 per calendar year for the related non-serviced whole loan.

 

(3)The special servicing fee rate is the greater of (i) 0.25000% per annum, and (ii) the rate that would result in a special servicing fee of $3,500 with respect to the related non-serviced whole loan for the related month.

 

Distributions

 

A. Amount and Order of 

Distributions on CertificatesOn each distribution date, funds available for distribution to the certificates (other than any yield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums and any excess interest distributable to the Class V certificates) will be distributed in the following amounts and order of priority:

 

First, to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB, Class X-A, Class X-B and Class X-D certificates and the Class A-3, Class A-3-X1, Class A-3-X2, Class A-4, Class A-4-X1 and Class A-4-X2 trust components, in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those classes of certificates and trust components;

 

Second, to the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components, as follows: (i) to the extent of funds allocated to principal and available for distribution: (a) first, to principal on the Class A-SB certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-SB certificates is reduced to the planned principal balance for the related distribution date set forth in Annex E to this prospectus, (b) second, to principal on the Class A-1 certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-1 certificates has been reduced to zero, (c) third, to principal on the Class A-2 certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-2 certificates has been reduced to zero, (d) fourth, to principal on the Class A-3 trust component, until the certificate balance of the Class A-3 trust component has been reduced to zero, (e) fifth, to principal on the Class A-4 trust component, until the

 

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certificate balance of the Class A-4 trust component has been reduced to zero, and (f) sixth, to principal on the Class A-SB certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-SB certificates has been reduced to zero, or (ii) if the certificate balance of each class of certificates and trust component other than the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates, and the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components has been reduced to zero as a result of the allocation of mortgage loan losses to those classes of certificates or trust components, funds available for distributions of principal will be distributed to the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components remaining outstanding, pro rata, without regard to the distribution priorities described above or the planned principal balance of the Class A-SB certificates;

 

Third, to the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components, to reimburse the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components, first, (i) up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the aggregate previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans allocable to principal that were previously borne by each such class or trust component, then, (ii) up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, all accrued and unpaid interest on the amount set forth in clause (i) at the pass-through rate for such class or trust component;

 

Fourth, to the Class A-S, Class A-S-X1 and Class A-S-X2 trust components as follows: (a) to each such trust component in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those trust components; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class of certificates or trust component with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class A-S trust component until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class A-S trust component, first, in an amount equal to any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans allocable to principal that were previously borne by such trust component, and then in an amount equal to interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such trust component;

 

Fifth, to the Class B, Class B-X1 and Class B-X2 trust components as follows: (a) to each such trust component in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest

 

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entitlements for those trust components; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class of certificates or trust component with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class B trust component until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class B trust component first, in an amount equal to any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans allocable to principal that were previously borne by such trust component, and then in an amount equal to interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such trust component;

 

Sixth, to the Class C, Class C-X1 and Class C-X2 trust components as follows: (a) to each such trust component in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those trust components; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class of certificates or trust component with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class C trust component until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class C trust component first, in an amount equal to any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans allocable to principal that were previously borne by such trust component, and then in an amount equal to interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such trust component;

 

Seventh, to the non-offered certificates (other than the Class X-D, Class V and Class R certificates) in the amounts and order of priority described in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions”; and

 

Eighth, to the Class R certificates, any remaining amounts.

 

Principal and interest payable to the trust components will be distributed pro rata to the corresponding classes of exchangeable certificates representing interests therein in accordance with their class percentage interests therein as described under “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Exchangeable Certificates”.

 

For more detailed information regarding distributions on the certificates, see “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Priority of Distributions”.

  

B. Interest and Principal 

EntitlementsA description of the interest entitlement of each class of certificates (other than the Class V and Class R

 

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certificates) can be found in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Interest Distribution Amount”. As described in that section, there are circumstances in which your interest entitlement for a distribution date could be less than one full month’s interest at the pass-through rate on your certificate’s balance or notional amount.

 

A description of the amount of principal required to be distributed to each class of certificates entitled to principal on a particular distribution date can be found in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Principal Distribution Amount”.

 

C. Yield Maintenance Charges, 

Prepayment PremiumsYield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums with respect to the mortgage loans will be allocated to the certificates as described in “Description of the Certificates—Allocation of Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums”.

 

For an explanation of the calculation of yield maintenance charges, see “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

D. Subordination,

Allocation of Losses  

and Certain ExpensesThe chart below describes the manner in which the payment rights of certain classes of certificates will be senior or subordinate, as the case may be, to the payment rights of other classes of certificates. The chart also shows the manner in which mortgage loan losses are allocated to certain classes of the certificates in ascending order (beginning with the non-offered certificates, other than the Class X-D, Class V and Class R certificates) to reduce the certificate balance of each such class to zero; provided that no principal payments or mortgage loan losses will be allocated to the Class X-A, Class X-B, Class X-D, Class V or Class R certificates or any class of Exchangeable Certificates with an “X” suffix, although principal payments and mortgage loan losses may reduce the notional amounts of the Class X-A, Class X-B and Class X-D certificates and any class of Exchangeable Certificates with an “X” suffix, and, therefore, the amount of interest they accrue.

 

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 (GRAPHIC) 

   

 

(1)The maximum certificate balances of Class A-3, Class A-4, Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates will be issued on the closing date, and the certificate balance or notional amount of each other class of Exchangeable Certificates will be equal to zero on the closing date. The relative priorities of the Exchangeable Certificates are described more fully under “Description of the Certificates—Distribution”.

 

(2)The Class X-A, Class X-B and Class X-D certificates are interest-only certificates.

 

(3)The Class X-D certificates are non-offered certificates.

 

(4)Other than the Class X-D, Class V and Class R certificates.

 

Other than the subordination of certain classes of certificates, as described above, no other form of credit enhancement will be available for the benefit of the holders of the offered certificates.

 

The notional amount of the Class X-A certificates will be reduced by the amount of principal losses or principal payments, if any, allocated to the Class A-1, Class A-2 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-3 and Class A-4 trust components. The notional amount of the Class X-B certificates will be reduced by the amount of principal losses or principal payments, if any, allocated to the Class A-S, Class B and Class C trust components.

 

To the extent funds are available on a subsequent distribution date for distribution on your offered certificates, you will be reimbursed for any losses allocated to your offered certificates with interest at the pass-through rate on those offered certificates in accordance with the distribution priorities.

 

See “Description of the Certificates—Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses” for more detailed information regarding the subordination provisions applicable to the certificates and the allocation of losses to the certificates.

 

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E. Shortfalls in Available 
FundsShortfalls will reduce distributions to the classes of certificates with the lowest payment priorities. Shortfalls may occur as a result of:

 

the payment of special servicing fees and other additional compensation that the special servicer is entitled to receive;

 

interest on advances made by the master servicer, the special servicer or the trustee (to the extent not covered by late payment charges or default interest paid by the related borrower);

 

the application of appraisal reductions to reduce interest advances;

 

extraordinary expenses of the issuing entity including indemnification payments payable to the parties to the pooling and servicing agreement;

 

a modification of a mortgage loan’s interest rate or principal balance; and

 

other unanticipated or default-related expenses of the issuing entity.

 

 In addition, prepayment interest shortfalls on the mortgage loans that are not covered by certain compensating interest payments made by the master servicer are required to be allocated among the classes of certificates (other than the Class V certificates) entitled to interest, on a pro rata basis, to reduce the amount of interest payable on each such class of certificates to the extent described in this prospectus. See “Description of the Certificates—Prepayment Interest Shortfalls”.

 

F. Excess Interest On each distribution date, any excess interest in respect of the increase in the interest rate on any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date after the related anticipated repayment date to the extent actually collected and applied as interest during a collection period will be distributed to the holders of the Class V certificates on the related distribution date as set forth in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Excess Interest”. This excess interest will not be available to make distributions to any other class of certificates or to provide credit support for other classes of certificates or offset any interest shortfalls or to pay any other amounts to any other party under the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

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Advances  
   
A. P&I Advances The master servicer is required to advance a delinquent periodic payment on each mortgage loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan) or any REO loan (other than any portion of an REO loan related to a companion loan), unless in each case, the master servicer or the special servicer determines that the advance would be nonrecoverable. Neither the master servicer nor the trustee will be required to advance balloon payments due at maturity or outstanding on the related anticipated repayment date, as applicable, principal in excess of the regular periodic payment, interest in excess of a mortgage loan’s regular interest rate, default interest, late payment charges, prepayment premiums or yield maintenance charges.

 

 The amount of the interest portion of any advance will be subject to reduction to the extent that an appraisal reduction of the related mortgage loan has occurred (and with respect to any mortgage loan that is part of a whole loan, to the extent the appraisal reduction amount is allocated to the related mortgage loan). There may be other circumstances in which the master servicer will not be required to advance a full month of principal and/or interest. If the master servicer fails to make a required advance, the trustee will be required to make the advance, unless the trustee determines that the advance would be nonrecoverable. If an interest advance is made by the master servicer, the master servicer will not advance the portion of interest that constitutes its servicing fee, but will advance the portion of interest that constitutes the monthly fees payable to the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor, the asset representations reviewer and the CREFC® license fee.

 

 Neither the master servicer nor the trustee will make, or be permitted to make, any principal or interest advance with respect to any companion loan and the special servicer will not make any principal or interest advance with respect to any mortgage loan or companion loan.

 

 See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

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B. Property Protection 
AdvancesThe master servicer may be required to make advances with respect to the mortgage loans (excluding any non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related companion loan to pay delinquent real estate taxes, assessments and hazard insurance premiums and similar expenses necessary to:

 

protect and maintain (and in the case of REO properties, lease and manage) the related mortgaged property;

 

maintain the lien on the related mortgaged property; and/or

 

enforce the related mortgage loan documents.

 

 The special servicer will have no obligation to make any property protection advances (although it may elect to make them in an emergency circumstance). If the special servicer makes a property protection advance, the master servicer will be required to reimburse the special servicer for that advance (unless the master servicer determines that the advance would be nonrecoverable, in which case the advance will be reimbursed out of the collection account) and the master servicer will be deemed to have made that advance as of the date made by the special servicer.

 

 If the master servicer fails to make a required advance of this type, the trustee will be required to make this advance. None of the master servicer, the special servicer or the trustee is required to advance amounts determined by such party to be nonrecoverable.

 

 See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

 With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan, the master servicer (and the trustee, as applicable) under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of that non-serviced whole loan will be required to make similar advances with respect to delinquent real estate taxes, assessments and hazard insurance premiums as described above.

 

C. Interest on Advances The master servicer, the special servicer and the trustee, as applicable, will be entitled to interest on the above described advances at the “Prime Rate” as published in The Wall Street Journal, as described in this prospectus. Interest accrued on outstanding advances may result in reductions in amounts otherwise payable on the certificates. Neither the master servicer nor the trustee will be entitled to interest on advances made

 

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  with respect to principal and interest due on a mortgage loan until the related payment due date has passed and any grace period for late payments applicable to the mortgage loan has expired. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

 With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan, the applicable makers of advances under the related trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, governing the servicing of the non-serviced whole loan will similarly be entitled to interest on advances, and any accrued and unpaid interest on property protection advances made in respect of such non-serviced mortgage loan may be reimbursed from general collections on the other mortgage loans included in the issuing entity to the extent not recoverable from such non-serviced whole loan and to the extent allocable to such non-serviced mortgage loan in accordance with the related intercreditor agreement.

 

The Mortgage Pool

 

The Mortgage Pool The issuing entity’s primary assets will be sixty-one (61) fixed-rate commercial mortgage loans, each evidenced by one or more promissory notes secured by first mortgages, deeds of trust, deeds to secure debt or similar security instruments on the fee and/or leasehold estate of the related borrower in one hundred and seven (107) commercial, multifamily or manufactured housing community properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—General”.

 

 The aggregate principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date will be approximately $748,633,043.

 

Whole Loans

 

 Unless otherwise expressly stated in this prospectus, the term “mortgage loan” refers to each of the sixty-one (61) commercial mortgage loans to be held by the issuing entity. Of the mortgage loans, each mortgage loan in the table below is part of a larger whole loan, which is comprised of the related mortgage loan and one or more loans that are pari passu in right of payment to the related mortgage loan (each referred to in this prospectus as a “pari passu companion loan”) and, in certain cases, one or more loans that are subordinate in right of payment to the related mortgage loan (each referred to in this prospectus as a “subordinate companion loan” and any pari passu companion loan or subordinate companion loan may also be referred to herein as a “companion loan”). The companion loans,

 

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  together with their related mortgage loan, are referred to in this prospectus as a “whole loan”.

 

Whole Loan Summary(1)

 

Mortgage Loan Name

 

Mortgage
Loan Cut-off
Date Balance

 

% of Initial
Pool
Balance

 

Pari Passu
Companion
Loan Cut-off
Date Balance

 

Subordinate
Companion
Loan Cut-off
Date Balance

 

Mortgage Loan
Cut-off Date
LTV Ratio(2)

 

Whole Loan
Cut-off Date
LTV Ratio(3)

 

Mortgage Loan Underwritten
NCF DSCR(2)

 

Whole Loan Underwritten

NCF DSCR(3)

Velocity Industrial Portfolio $65,000,000 8.7% $10,000,000  N/A 57.8% 57.8% 2.72x 2.72x
The Grace Building $50,000,000 6.7% $833,000,000  $367,000,000 41.1% 58.1% 4.25x 3.00x
Rollins Portfolio $24,400,000 3.3% $15,000,000  N/A 65.4% 65.4% 2.94x 2.94x
The Westchester $20,000,000 2.7% $323,000,000  $57,000,000 53.0% 61.8% 3.61x 3.10x
Metro Crossing $20,000,000 2.7% $14,450,000  N/A 64.2% 64.2% 2.05x 2.05x
Seacrest Homes $18,000,000 2.4% $30,000,000  N/A 53.3% 53.3% 2.23x 2.23x
Herndon Square $14,936,855 2.0% $15,434,751  N/A 68.7% 68.7% 1.73x 1.73x
122nd Street Portfolio $  8,000,000 1.1% $15,000,000  N/A 63.7% 63.7% 1.72x 1.72x

 

 
(1)Any unsecuritized pari passu companion loan may be further split.
(2)Calculated including any related pari passu companion loans but excluding any related subordinate companion loans (or other subordinate debt) or related mezzanine debt.
(3)Calculated including any related pari passu companion loans and any related subordinate companion loans but excluding any related mezzanine debt.

 

 Each of the Velocity Industrial Portfolio whole loan, the Metro Crossing whole loan and the Rollins Portfolio whole loan will be serviced by Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as master servicer, and Midland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National Association, as special servicer, pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction and is referred to in this prospectus as a “serviced whole loan”, and each related mortgage loan or companion loan is referred to in this prospectus as a “serviced mortgage loan” or “serviced companion loan”, respectively.

 

 Each whole loan identified in the table below will not be serviced under the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction and instead will be serviced under a separate trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement, as applicable, identified in the table below entered into in connection with the securitization of one or more related companion loan(s) and is referred to in this prospectus as a “non-serviced whole loan”. The related mortgage loan is referred to as a “non-serviced mortgage loan” and the related companion loans are each referred to in this prospectus as a “non-serviced companion loan”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

 For further information regarding the whole loans, see “Description of the Mortgage PoolThe Whole Loans”.

 

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Non-Serviced Whole Loans(1)

 

Mortgage Loan Name

Transaction/
Pooling
Agreement

% of Initial
Pool
Balance

Master Servicer

Special
Servicer

Trustee

The Grace BuildingGRACE 2020-GRCE6.7%Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Situs Holdings, LLCWilmington Trust,
National Association
The WestchesterCSMC 2020-WEST2.7%Midland Loan Services,
a Division of PNC Bank,
National Association
Pacific Life Insurance CompanyWells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Seacrest HomesWFCM 2021-C592.4%Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Argentic Services Company LPWilmington Trust,
National Association
Herndon SquareWFCM 2021-C592.0%Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Argentic Services Company LPWilmington Trust,
National Association
122nd Street PortfolioWFCM 2020-C571.1%Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Midland Loan Services,
a Division of PNC Bank,
National Association
Wilmington Trust,
National Association

 

Mortgage Loan Name

Certificate
Administrator

Custodian

Operating Advisor

Initial Directing
Party(2)

The Grace BuildingWells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Park Bridge Lender
Services LLC
Core Credit Partners A LLC(3)
The WestchesterWells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Pentalpha
Surveillance LLC
Pacific Life Insurance Company(3)
Seacrest HomesWells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association

Pentalpha

Surveillance LLC

Argentic Securities Income USA LLC
Herndon SquareWells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Pentalpha
Surveillance LLC
Argentic Securities Income USA LLC
122nd Street PortfolioWells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Wells Fargo Bank,
National Association
Pentalpha
Surveillance LLC
KKR Real Estate Credit Opportunity Partners II L.P.

 

 
(1)As of the closing date of the related securitization.

 

(2)The entity with the heading “Initial Directing Party” above reflects the party entitled to exercise control and consultation rights with respect to the related mortgage loan similar to those of the directing certificateholder under the pooling and servicing agreement for this securitization until such party’s rights are terminated pursuant to the related pooling and servicing agreement or intercreditor agreement, as applicable.

 

(3)The subject whole loan is an AB whole loan, and the controlling note as of the date hereof is a related subordinate note. Upon the occurrence of certain trigger events specified in the related co-lender agreement, however, control will generally shift to a more senior note (or, if applicable, first to one more senior note and, following certain additional trigger events, to another more senior note) in the subject whole loan, which more senior note will thereafter be the controlling note. The more senior note may be included in another securitization trust, in which case the directing party for the related whole loan will be the party designated under the servicing agreement for such securitization trust. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced AB Whole Loans—The Grace Building Whole Loan” and “—The Westchester Whole Loan”.

 

 For further information regarding the whole loans, see “Description of the Mortgage PoolThe Whole Loans”, and for information regarding the servicing of the non-serviced whole loan, see “Pooling and Servicing AgreementServicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Mortgage Loan Characteristics

 

 The following tables set forth certain anticipated characteristics of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (unless otherwise indicated). Except as specifically provided in this prospectus, various information presented in this prospectus (including loan-to-value

 

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 ratios, debt service coverage ratios, debt yields and cut-off date balances per net rentable square foot, pad, room or unit, as applicable) with respect to any mortgage loan with a pari passu companion loan or subordinate companion loan is calculated including the principal balance and debt service payment of the related pari passu companion loan(s), but is calculated excluding the principal balance and debt service payment of any related subordinate companion loan (or other subordinate debt encumbering the related mortgaged property) or any related mezzanine debt or preferred equity.

 

 The sum of the numerical data in any column may not equal the indicated total due to rounding. Unless otherwise indicated, all figures and percentages presented in this “Summary of Terms” are calculated as described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” and, unless otherwise indicated, such figures and percentages are approximate and in each case, represent the indicated figure or percentage of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date. The principal balance of each mortgage loan as of the cut-off date assumes (or, in the case of each mortgage loan with a cut-off date prior to the date of this prospectus, reflects) the timely receipt of principal scheduled to be paid on or before the cut-off date and no defaults, delinquencies or prepayments on, or modifications of, any mortgage loan on or prior to the cut-off date. Whenever percentages and other information in this prospectus are presented on the mortgaged property level rather than the mortgage loan level, the information for mortgage loans secured by more than one mortgaged property is based on allocated loan amounts as stated in Annex A-1. All percentages of the mortgage loans and mortgaged properties, or of any specified group of mortgage loans and mortgaged properties, referred to in this prospectus without further description are approximate percentages of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date, by cut-off date balances and/or the allocated loan amount allocated to such mortgaged properties as of the cut-off date.

 

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 The mortgage loans will have the following approximate characteristics as of the cut-off date:

 

Cut-off Date Mortgage Loan Characteristics

 

   

All Mortgage Loans

 Initial Pool Balance(1) $748,633,043
 Number of mortgage loans 61
 Number of mortgaged properties 107
 Number of cross-collateralized mortgage loans 2
 Percentage of Initial Pool Balance consisting of cross-collateralized mortgage loans 1.4%
 Range of Cut-off Date Balances $847,058 to $65,000,000
 Average Cut-off Date Balance per mortgage loan $12,272,673
 Range of Interest Rates 2.692% to 7.068%
 Weighted average Interest Rate 3.766%
 Range of original terms to maturity(2) 60 months to 120 months
 Weighted average original term to maturity(2) 116 months
 Range of remaining terms to maturity(2) 59 months to 120 months
 Weighted average remaining term to maturity(2) 114 months
 Range of original amortization terms(3) 240 months to 360 months
 Weighted average original amortization term(3) 357 months
 Range of remaining amortization terms(3) 238 months to 360 months
 Weighted average remaining amortization term(3) 356 months
 Range of Cut-off Date LTV Ratios(4)(5)(6)(8) 28.2% to 74.4%
 Weighted average Cut-off Date LTV Ratio(4)(5)(6)(8) 59.1%
 Range of LTV Ratios as of the maturity date(2)(4)(5)(6)(8) 28.2% to 68.1%
 Weighted average LTV Ratio as of the maturity date(2)(4)(5)(6)(8) 55.3%
 Range of U/W NCF DSCRs(5)(7)(8) 1.27x to 5.82x
 Weighted average U/W NCF DSCR(5)(7)(8) 2.32x
 Range of U/W NOI Debt Yields(5)(6)(8) 6.9% to 24.1%
 Weighted average U/W NOI Debt Yield(5)(6)(8) 10.0%
 Percentage of Initial Pool Balance consisting of:  
 Interest Only 58.4%
 Interest Only, Amortizing Balloon 20.7%
 Amortizing Balloon 19.8%
 Interest Only - ARD 1.1%

 

    
(1)Subject to a permitted variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)With respect to two (2) mortgage loans with an anticipated repayment date, secured by the mortgaged properties identified on Annex A-1 to this prospectus as Garver Little Rock and Dollar General–Saginaw (E. Washington Road), collectively representing approximately 1.1% of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date, calculated as of the related anticipated repayment date.

 

(3)Excludes twenty-nine (29) mortgage loans (59.5%) that are interest-only for the entire term or until the anticipated repayment date, as applicable.

 

(4)Loan-to-value ratios (such as, for example, the loan-to-value ratios as of the cut-off date and the loan-to-value ratios at the maturity/anticipated repayment date) with respect to the mortgage loans were generally calculated using “as-is” values as described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” in this prospectus; provided that with respect to certain mortgage loans secured by multiple mortgaged properties, the appraised value may be an “as-portfolio” value that assigns a premium to the value of the mortgaged properties as a whole, which value exceeds the sum of their individual appraised values. Such mortgage loans are identified under the definition of “LTV Ratio” set forth under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” in this prospectus.

 

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(5)In the case of eight (8) mortgage loans (29.4%), each of which has one or more pari passu companion loans and/or subordinate companion loans that are not included in the issuing entity, the debt service coverage ratio, loan-to-value ratio and debt yield have been calculated including the related pari passu companion loan(s), but excluding any related subordinate companion loan. The underwritten net cash flow debt service coverage ratio, related loan-to-value ratio as of the cut-off date, loan-to-value ratio as of the maturity date or anticipated repayment date and underwritten net operating income debt yield calculated including the related subordinate companion loan are (a) with respect to The Grace Building mortgage loan (6.7%), the related loan-to-value ratio as of the cut-off date, loan-to-value ratio as of the maturity date, underwritten net cash flow debt service coverage ratio and underwritten net operating income debt yield calculated including the related subordinate companion loans are 58.1%, 58.1%, 3.00x and 8.3%, respectively, (b) with respect to The Westchester mortgage loan (2.7%), the related loan-to-value ratio as of the cut-off date, loan-to-value as of the maturity date, underwritten net cash flow debt service coverage ratio and underwritten net operating income debt yield calculated including the related subordinate companion loans are 61.8%, 61.8%, 3.10x and 10.6%, respectively. In general, when a mortgage loan is cross-collateralized and cross-defaulted with one or more other mortgage loans, we present loan-to-value ratio, debt service coverage ratio and debt yield information for the cross-collateralized group on an aggregate basis in the manner described in this prospectus. On an individual basis, without regard to the cross-collateralization feature, any mortgage loan that is part of a cross-collateralized group of mortgage loans may have a higher loan-to-value ratio, lower debt service coverage ratio and/or lower debt yield than is presented in this prospectus.

 

(6)In the case of two (2) mortgage loans (5.8%) secured by the mortgaged properties identified on Annex A-1 to this prospectus as 2302 Webster and Trader Joe’s LIC, the debt yield has been calculated based on the related principal balance as of the cut-off date less a related earnout or holdback reserve. With respect to the 2302 Webster mortgage loan (3.1%), the underwritten net operating income debt yield, including the related $1,407,692 holdback reserve, is 6.7%. With respect to the Trader Joe’s LIC mortgage loan (2.7%), the underwritten net operating income debt yield, including the related $2,750,000 holdback reserve, is 6.3%.

 

(7)Debt service coverage ratios are calculated using the average of the principal and interest payments for the first twelve payment periods of the mortgage loan following the cut-off date, provided that (i) in the case of a mortgage loan that provides for interest-only payments through maturity or its anticipated repayment date, as applicable, such items are calculated based on the interest payments scheduled to be due on the first payment due date following the cut-off date and the 11 payment due dates thereafter for such mortgage loan and (ii) in the case of a mortgage loan that provides for an initial interest-only period that ends prior to maturity or its anticipated repayment date, as applicable, and provides for scheduled amortization payments thereafter, such items are calculated based on the monthly payment of principal and interest payable for the 12 payment periods immediately following the expiration of the interest-only period.

 

(8)For certain of the mortgage loans, all NOI, NCF and occupancy information, as well as the appraised value, were determined prior to the emergence of the novel coronavirus pandemic and the economic disruption resulting from measures to combat the pandemic, and the DSCR, LTV and Debt Yield metrics were largely calculated, and many of the mortgage loans were underwritten, based on such prior information. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors—The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans” in this prospectus.

 

 All of the mortgage loans accrue interest on an actual/360 basis.

 

 For further information regarding the mortgage loans, see “Description of the Mortgage Pool”.

 

Modified and Refinanced 
LoansAs of the cut-off date, two (2) of the mortgage loans was modified due to a delinquency or refinancing of loans in default at the time of refinancing and/or

 

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 otherwise involved discounted payoffs in connection with the origination of such mortgage loans, as set forth below.

 

 See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Loan Purpose; Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings”.

 

Properties with Limited  
Operating History With respect to thirty-six (36) of the mortgaged properties (24.8%), such mortgaged properties (i) were constructed or the subject of a major renovation that was completed within 12 calendar months prior to the cut-off date and, therefore, the related mortgaged property has either no prior operating history or limited prior operating history, (ii) have a borrower or an affiliate under the related mortgage loan that acquired the related mortgaged property within 12 calendar months prior to the cut-off date and such borrower or affiliate was unable to provide the related mortgage loan seller with historical financial information for such acquired mortgaged property or (iii) are single tenant properties subject to triple-net leases with the related tenant where the related borrower did not provide the related mortgage loan seller with historical financial information for the related mortgaged property.

 

 See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Mortgaged Properties With Limited Prior Operating History”.

 

Certain Variances from  
Underwriting Standards Certain of the mortgage loans may vary from the related mortgage loan seller’s underwriting guidelines described under “Transaction PartiesThe Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”.

 

 In addition, certain of the mortgage loans were underwritten without taking into account the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, the actual property performance or market conditions may not be consistent with the assumptions made for purposes of underwriting. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans —Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions”.

 

 With respect to one (1) mortgage loan being contributed by Wells Fargo Bank, National Association (1.0%), there was an exception from the applicable mortgage loan seller’s underwriting guidelines with respect to satisfaction of certain underwriting criteria (e.g., occupancy, minimum debt service coverage ratio,

 

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  underwritten management fees, underwritten vacancies, underwritten occupancy, single purpose entity covenants, etc.).

 

 See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Exceptions to Underwriting Guidelines”; “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers— LMF Commercial, LLC—LMF’s Underwriting Standards and Loan Analysis”; “—Wells Fargo Bank, National Association—Wells Fargo Bank’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting”; “—Column Financial, Inc.—Column’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”; “—UBS AG, New York Branch—UBS AG, New York Branch’s Underwriting Standards”; “—BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC—BSPRT’s Underwriting Standards”; and —Ladder Capital Finance LLC—Ladder Capital Group’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”.

 

Additional Aspects of Certificates

 

DenominationsThe offered certificates with certificate balances and the exchangeable certificates with notional amounts that are initially offered and sold to purchasers will be issued in minimum denominations of $10,000 and integral multiples of $1 in excess of $10,000. The certificates with notional amounts (other than any exchangeable certificates) will be issued, maintained and transferred only in minimum denominations of authorized initial notional amounts of not less than $1,000,000 and in integral multiples of $1 in excess of $1,000,000.

 

Registration, Clearance  
and Settlement Each class of offered certificates will initially be registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee of The Depository Trust Company, or DTC.

 

 You may hold offered certificates through: (1) DTC in the United States; or (2) Clearstream Banking, société anonyme or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System. Transfers within DTC, Clearstream Banking, société anonyme or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, will be made in accordance with the usual rules and operating procedures of those systems.

 

 We may elect to terminate the book-entry system through DTC (with the consent of the DTC participants), Clearstream Banking, société anonyme or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, with respect to all or any portion of any class of the offered certificates.

 

 See “Description of the Certificates—Book-Entry Registration”.

 

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Credit Risk Retention For a discussion of the manner in which the U.S. credit risk retention requirements will be satisfied by Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as retaining sponsor, see “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

 This transaction is being structured with a “third party purchaser” that will, on the closing date, acquire an “eligible horizontal residual interest” comprised of the Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR and Class M-RR certificates (the “horizontal risk retention certificates”). KKR CMBS II Aggregator Type 2 L.P. (in satisfaction of the retention obligations of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as the retaining sponsor) will be contractually obligated to retain (or to cause its “majority-owned affiliate” to retain) the horizontal risk retention certificates for a minimum of five years after the closing date, subject to certain permitted exceptions provided for under the risk retention rules. During this time, KKR CMBS II Aggregator Type 2 L.P. will agree to comply with hedging, transfer and financing restrictions that are applicable to third party purchasers under the credit risk retention rules. For additional information, see “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

 None of the sponsors, nor any other party to the transaction, intends to retain a material net economic interest in the securitization constituted by the issue of the certificates, or to take any other action in respect of such securitization, in a manner prescribed or contemplated by the EU Securitization Regulation or the UK Securitization Regulation. In particular, no such person undertakes to take any action which may be required by any prospective investor or certificateholder for the purposes of its compliance with any applicable requirement under the EU Securitization Regulation or the UK Securitization Regulation. Furthermore, the arrangements described under “Credit Risk Retention” have not been structured with the objective of ensuring compliance by any person with any requirements of the EU Securitization Regulation or the UK Securitization Regulation. Consequently, the certificates may not be a suitable investment for investors which are subject to any such requirements. See “Risk Factors—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—EU Securitization Regulation and UK Securitization Regulation Due Diligence Requirements”.

 

Information Available to 
CertificateholdersOn each distribution date, the certificate administrator will prepare and make available to each certificateholder of record, initially expected to be Cede & Co., a statement as to the distributions being made on that

 

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 date. Additionally, under certain circumstances, certificateholders of record may be entitled to certain other information regarding the issuing entity. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information”.

 

Deal Information/Analytics Certain information concerning the mortgage loans and the certificates may be available to subscribers through the following services:

 

Bloomberg, L.P., Trepp, LLC, Intex Solutions, Inc., Interactive Data Corp., Markit Group Limited, BlackRock Financial Management, Inc., CMBS.com, Inc., Moody’s Analytics, Inc., Morningstar Credit Information & Analytics, LLC, KBRA Analytics, LLC, MBS Data, LLC, RealInsight and Thomson Reuters Corporation;

 

The certificate administrator’s website initially located at www.ctslink.com; and

 

The master servicer’s website initially located at www.wellsfargo.com/com.

 

Optional Termination On any distribution date on which the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans is less than 1.0% of the aggregate principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (solely for the purposes of this calculation, if such right is being exercised after the distribution date in July 2031 and the Garver Little Rock mortgage loan or Dollar General-Saginaw (E. Washington Road) mortgage loan is still an asset of the issuing entity, then such mortgage loan(s) will be excluded from the then-aggregate stated principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans and from the initial pool balance), certain entities specified in this prospectus will have the option to purchase all of the remaining mortgage loans (and all property acquired through exercise of remedies in respect of any mortgage loan) at the price specified in this prospectus.

 

 The issuing entity may also be terminated in connection with a voluntary exchange of all of the then-outstanding certificates (other than the Class V and Class R certificates) for the mortgage loans then held by the issuing entity; provided that (i) the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB and Class D certificates and the Class A-3, Class A-4, Class A-S, Class B and Class C trust components are no longer outstanding, (ii) there is only one holder (or multiple holders acting unanimously) of the outstanding certificates (other than the Class V and Class R certificates) and (iii) the master servicer consents to the exchange.

 

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 See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Termination; Retirement of Certificates”.

 

Required Repurchases or  
Substitutions of  
Mortgage Loans;  
Loss of Value Payment Under certain circumstances, the related mortgage loan seller (or Benefit Street Partners Realty Trust Inc., as guarantor of the repurchase and substitution obligations of BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC) may be obligated to (i) repurchase (without payment of any yield maintenance charge or prepayment premium) or substitute an affected mortgage loan from the issuing entity or (ii) make a cash payment that would be deemed sufficient to compensate the issuing entity in the event of a document defect or a breach of a representation and warranty made by the related mortgage loan seller with respect to the mortgage loan in the related mortgage loan purchase agreement that materially and adversely affects the value of the mortgage loan, the value of the related mortgaged property or the interests of any certificateholders in the mortgage loan or mortgaged property or causes the mortgage loan to be other than a “qualified mortgage” within the meaning of Section 860G(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (but without regard to the rule of Treasury Regulations Section 1.860G-2(f)(2) that causes a defective loan to be treated as a “qualified mortgage”). In addition, Ladder Capital Finance Holdings LLLP, Series REIT of Ladder Capital Finance Holdings LLLP and Series TRS of Ladder Capital Finance Holdings LLLP are expected to agree, pursuant to the related mortgage loan purchase agreement, to guarantee payment in connection with the performance of such obligations on the part of Ladder Capital Finance LLC. See “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements—General”.

 

Sale of Defaulted Loans Pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement, under certain circumstances the special servicer is required to use reasonable efforts to solicit offers for defaulted mortgage loans (other than non-serviced mortgage loans) or a defaulted serviced whole loan and/or related REO properties and, in the absence of a cash offer at least equal to its outstanding principal balance plus all accrued and unpaid interest and outstanding costs and expenses and certain other amounts under the pooling and servicing agreement, may accept the first (and, if multiple offers are received, the highest) cash offer from any person that constitutes a fair price for the defaulted mortgage loan (other than non-serviced mortgage loans), defaulted serviced whole loan or related REO property, determined as described in “Pooling and

 

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 Servicing Agreement—Realization Upon Mortgage Loans” and “—Sale of Defaulted Loans and REO Properties”, unless the special servicer determines, in accordance with the servicing standard (and subject to the requirements of any related intercreditor agreement), that rejection of such offer would be in the best interests of the certificateholders and any related companion loan holders (as a collective whole as if such certificateholders and such companion loan holders constituted a single lender).

 

 With respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan, if a related pari passu companion loan becomes a defaulted mortgage loan under the trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement for the related pari passu companion loan and the special servicer under the related trust and servicing agreement or pooling and servicing agreement for the related pari passu companion loan(s) determines to sell such pari passu companion loan(s), then such special servicer will be required to sell such non-serviced mortgage loan together with the related pari passu companion loan(s) and, in certain cases, the related subordinate companion loan(s), in a manner similar to that described above. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”.

 

 Pursuant to each mezzanine loan intercreditor agreement with respect to the mortgage loans with mezzanine indebtedness, the holder of the related mezzanine loan has the right to purchase the related mortgage loan as described in “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness—Mezzanine Indebtedness”. Additionally, in the case of mortgage loans that permit certain equity owners of the borrower to incur future mezzanine debt as described in “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness—Mezzanine Indebtedness”, the related mezzanine lender may have the option to purchase the related mortgage loan after certain defaults. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Realization Upon Mortgage Loans”, “—Sale of Defaulted Loans and REO Properties” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”.

 

Tax Status Elections will be made to treat designated portions of the issuing entity (exclusive of the portion of the issuing entity consisting of the entitlement to collections of excess interest accrued on any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date and the related distribution account) as two separate REMICs (the “Lower-Tier REMIC” and the “Upper-Tier REMIC”) for federal income tax purposes. In addition, (i) a REMIC was formed on

 

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 January 26, 2021, by Column Financial, Inc. (“The Westchester Loan REMIC”) with respect to The Westchester mortgage loan, which issued two classes of regular interests (“The Westchester Regular Interests”) (of which the trust will own an approximately 26.667% interest in one such regular interest and 0% interest in the other regular interest) and a single residual interest (of which the trust will own a 0% interest), (ii) a REMIC was formed on March 1, 2021, by an affiliate of Ladder Capital Finance LLC (the “122nd Street Portfolio Loan REMIC”) with respect to the 122nd Street Portfolio mortgage loan, which issued a class of regular interests (the “122nd Street Portfolio Regular Interest”) (of which the trust will own a 100% interest) and a single residual interest (of which the trust will own a 100% interest), and (iii) a REMIC was formed on December 10, 2020 by an affiliate of Ladder Capital Finance LLC (the “Federales Chicago Loan REMIC”) with respect to the Federales Chicago mortgage loan, which issued a class of regular interests (the “Federales Chicago Regular Interest”) and a single residual interest (of which the trust will own a 100% interest). The Westchester Loan REMIC, the 122nd Street Portfolio Loan REMIC and the Federales Chicago Loan REMIC will be designated as the “Loan REMICs”. The 122nd Street Portfolio Loan REMIC, the Federales Chicago Loan REMIC, the Upper-Tier REMIC and the Lower-Tier REMIC will be designated as the “Trust REMICs”.

 

 The Westchester Loan REMIC, created pursuant to a REMIC declaration effective as of January 26, 2021, holds The Westchester mortgage loan and other related assets and has issued two classes of uncertificated regular interests (1) one of which has a principal balance of $75,000,000, an approximately 26.667% interest of which is to be held by the Lower-Tier REMIC and (2) the other of which has a principal balance of $25,000,000, of which the trust will not own an interest.

 

 The 122nd Street Portfolio Loan REMIC, created pursuant to a REMIC declaration effective as of March 1, 2021, holds the 122nd Street Portfolio mortgage loan and other related assets and has issued a class of uncertificated regular interests, an approximately 100% interest in which is to be held by the Lower-Tier REMIC.

 

 The Federales Chicago Loan REMIC, created pursuant to a REMIC declaration effective as of December 10, 2020, holds the Federales Chicago mortgage loan and other related assets and has issued a class of uncertificated regular interests, an approximately 100% interest in which is to be held by the Lower-Tier REMIC.

 

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 The Upper-Tier REMIC will issue several classes of uncertificated REMIC regular interests, all of which will be held by the grantor trust. The grantor trust will issue the Exchangeable Certificates, all of which will represent beneficial ownership of one or more of REMIC “regular interests” issued by the Upper-Tier REMIC, as further described under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations”.

 

 In addition, (1) the portion of the issuing entity consisting of the entitlement to collections of excess interest accrued on any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date and the related distribution account will be treated as a trust and the holders of the Class V certificates will be treated as the beneficial owners of such entitlement for federal income tax purposes (a “grantor trust”), and (2) the Class R certificates will represent beneficial ownership of the respective residual interests issued by the 122nd Street Portfolio Loan REMIC and the Federales Chicago Loan REMIC, as further described under “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations”.

 

 Pertinent federal income tax consequences of an investment in the offered certificates include:

 

Each class of offered certificates will represent beneficial ownership of one or more REMIC “regular interests”.

 

The offered certificates will be treated as newly originated debt instruments for federal income tax purposes.

 

You will be required to report income on your offered certificates using the accrual method of accounting.

 

It is anticipated that the Class D, Class E-RR, Class F-RR, Class G-RR, Class H-RR, Class J-RR, Class K-RR, Class L-RR and Class M-RR certificates will represent regular interests issued with original issue discount and that the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-SB, Class A-3, Class A-4, Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates will represent regular interests issued at a premium for federal income tax purposes.

 

 See “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations”.

 

Certain ERISA Considerations Subject to important considerations described under “Certain ERISA Considerations”, the offered certificates are eligible for purchase by persons investing assets of employee benefit plans or individual retirement accounts.

 

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Legal Investment None of the certificates will constitute “mortgage related securities” for purposes of the Secondary Mortgage Market Enhancement Act of 1984, as amended.

 

 If your investment activities are subject to legal investment laws and regulations, regulatory capital requirements, or review by regulatory authorities, then you may be subject to restrictions on investment in the

 

 certificates. You should consult your own legal advisors for assistance in determining the suitability of and consequences to you of the purchase, ownership, and sale of the certificates.

 

 The issuing entity will not be registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The issuing entity will be relying on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, contained in Section 3(c)(5) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or Rule 3a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, although there may be additional exclusions or exemptions available to the issuing entity. The issuing entity is being structured so as not to constitute a “covered fund” for purposes of the Volcker Rule under the Dodd-Frank Act (both as defined in this prospectus). See “Legal Investment”.

 

RatingsThe offered certificates will not be issued unless each of the offered classes receives a credit rating from one or more of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations engaged by the depositor to rate the offered certificates. The decision not to engage one or more other rating agencies in the rating of certain classes of certificates to be issued in connection with this transaction, may negatively impact the liquidity, market value and regulatory characteristics of those classes of certificates. Neither the depositor nor any other person or entity will have any duty to notify you if any other nationally recognized statistical rating organization issues, or delivers notice of its intention to issue, unsolicited ratings on one or more classes of certificates after the date of this prospectus.

 

 See “Risk Factors—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations May Assign Different Ratings to the Certificates; Ratings of the Certificates Reflect Only the Views of the Applicable Rating Agencies as of the Dates Such Ratings Were Issued; Ratings May Affect ERISA Eligibility; Ratings May Be Downgraded” and “Ratings”.

 

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Summary of Risk Factors

 

Investing in the certificates involves risks. Any of the risks set forth in this prospectus under the heading “Risk Factors” may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow on one or more mortgaged properties, the related borrowers’ ability to meet their respective payment obligations under the mortgage loans, and/or on your certificates. As a result, the market price of the certificates could decline significantly and you could lose a part or all of your investment. You should carefully consider all the information set forth in this prospectus and, in particular, evaluate the risks set forth in this prospectus under the heading “Risk Factors” before deciding to invest in the certificates. The following is a summary of some of the principal risks associated with an investment in the certificates:

 

Special Risks

 

 

 

COVID-19: Economic conditions and restrictions on enforcing landlord rights due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related governmental countermeasures may adversely affect the borrowers and/or the tenants and, therefore, the certificates. In addition, the underwriting of certain mortgage loans and the appraisals and property condition reports for certain mortgaged properties were conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic or may be based largely on pre-pandemic property performance and therefore may not reflect current conditions with respect to the mortgaged properties or the borrowers.

 

Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans

 

 

Non-Recourse Loans: The mortgage loans are non-recourse loans, and in the event of a default on a mortgage loan, recourse generally may only be had against the specific mortgaged property(ies) and other assets that have been pledged to secure the mortgage loan. Consequently, payment on the certificates is dependent primarily on the sufficiency of the net operating income or market value of the mortgaged properties, each of which may be volatile.

 

 

Borrowers: Frequent and early occurrence of borrower delinquencies and defaults may adversely affect your investment. Bankruptcy proceedings involving borrowers, borrower organizational structures and additional debt incurred by a borrower or its sponsors may increase risk of loss. In addition, borrowers may be unable to refinance or repay their mortgage loans at the maturity date or anticipated repayment date.

 

 

Property Performance: Certificateholders are exposed to risks associated with the performance of the mortgaged properties, including location, competition, condition (including environmental conditions), maintenance, ownership, management, and litigation. Property values may decrease even when current operating income does not. The property type (e.g., office, mixed use, retail, hospitality, industrial, multifamily, leased fee, self-storage and parking) may present additional risks.

 

 

Loan Concentration: Certain of the mortgage loans represent significant concentrations of the mortgage pool as of the cut-off date. A default on one or more of such mortgage loans may have a disproportionate impact on the performance of the certificates.

 

 

Property Type Concentration: Certain property types represent significant concentrations of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage pool as of the cut-off date, based on allocated loan amounts. Adverse developments with respect to those property types or related industries may have a disproportionate impact on the performance of the certificates.

 

 

Other Concentrations: Losses on loans to related borrowers or cross-collateralized and cross-defaulted loan groups, geographical concentration of the mortgaged  properties, and concentration of tenants among the mortgaged properties, may disproportionately affect distributions on the offered certificates.

 

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Tenant Performance: The repayment of a commercial, multifamily or manufactured housing community mortgage loan is typically dependent upon the ability of the related mortgaged property to produce cash flow through the collection of rents. Therefore, the performance of the mortgage loans will be highly dependent on the performance of tenants and tenant leases.

 

 

Significant Tenants: Properties that are leased to a single tenant or a tenant that comprises a significant portion of the rental income are disproportionately susceptible to interruptions of cash flow in the event of a lease expiration or termination or a downturn in the tenant’s business.

 

 

Underwritten Net Cash Flow: Underwritten net cash flow for the mortgaged properties could be based on incorrect or flawed assumptions.

 

 

Appraisals: Appraisals may not reflect the current or future market value of the mortgaged properties.

 

 

Inspections: Property inspections may not identify all conditions requiring repair or replacement.

 

 

Insurance: The absence or inadequacy of terrorism, fire, flood, earthquake and other insurance may adversely affect payment on the certificates.

 

 

Zoning: Changes in zoning laws may affect the ability to repair or restore a mortgaged property. Properties or structures considered to be “legal non-conforming” may not be able to be restored or rebuilt “as-is” following a casualty or loss.

 

Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest

 

 

Transaction Parties: Conflicts of interest may arise from the transaction parties’ relationships with each other or their economic interests in the transaction.

 

 

Directing Holder and Companion Holders: Certain certificateholders and companion loan holders have control and/or consent rights regarding the servicing of the mortgage loans and related whole loans. Such rights include rights to remove and replace the special servicer without cause and/or to direct or recommend the applicable special servicer or non-serviced special servicer to take actions that conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of certificates. The right to remove and replace the special servicer may give the directing holder the ability to influence the special servicer’s servicing actions in a manner that may be more favorable to the directing holder relative to other certificateholders.

 

Other Risks Relating to the Certificates

 

 

Limited Obligations: The certificates will only represent ownership interests in the issuing entity, and will not be guaranteed by the sponsors, the depositor or any other person. The issuing entity’s assets may be insufficient to repay the offered certificates in full.

 

 

Uncertain Yields to Maturity: The offered certificates have uncertain yields to maturity. Prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans will affect the average lives of the certificates; and the rate and timing of prepayments may be highly unpredictable. Optional early termination of the issuing entity may also adversely impact your yield or may result in a loss.

 

 

Rating Agency Feedback: Future events could adversely impact the credit ratings and value of your certificates.

 

 

Limited Credit Support: Credit support provided by subordination of certain certificates is limited and may not be sufficient to prevent loss on the offered certificates.

 

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Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the following risks before making an investment decision. In particular, distributions on your certificates will depend on payments received on, and other recoveries with respect to the mortgage loans. Therefore, you should carefully consider the risk factors relating to the mortgage loans and the mortgaged properties.

 

If any of the following events or circumstances identified as risks actually occur or materialize, your investment could be materially and adversely affected. We note that additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us may also impair your investment.

 

This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described below and elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

If you are considering an investment in a class of exchangeable certificates, you should carefully consider the risks that are specifically applicable to the related class(es) of certificates exchangeable therefor, since they would generally apply to your certificates if you make an exchange.

 

Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors

 

The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans

 

There has been a global outbreak of a novel coronavirus and a related respiratory disease (“COVID-19”) that has spread throughout the world, including the United States, causing a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has been declared to be a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization, and the former president of the United States made a declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. A significant number of countries and the majority of state governments in the United States have also made emergency declarations and have attempted to slow the spread of the virus by providing social distancing guidelines, issuing stay-at-home orders and mandating the closure of certain non-essential businesses. There can be no assurance as to when states will permit full resumption of economic activity, as to whether or when people will feel comfortable in resuming economic activity, that containment or other measures will be successful in limiting the spread of the virus or that future regional or broader outbreaks of COVID-19 or other diseases will not result in resumed or additional countermeasures from governments.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic and the responses thereto have led, and will likely continue to lead, to disruptions in global financial markets, significant increases in unemployment, significant reductions in consumer demand and downturns in the economies of many nations, including the United States, and the global economy in general. The long-term effects of the social, economic and financial disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. While the United States government and other governments have implemented unprecedented financial support and relief measures (such as the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 and the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021), the effectiveness of such measures cannot be predicted. The United States economy has experienced contraction and expansion during

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the pandemic, and it is unclear when any contractions will cease and when steady economic expansion will resume. 

 

With respect to the mortgage pool, it is unclear how many borrowers have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is expected that many borrowers will be (or continue to be) adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, borrowers may not and/or may be unable to meet their payment obligations under the mortgage loans, which may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest and/or principal to the holders of the certificates, and ultimately losses on the certificates. Shortfalls and losses will be particularly pronounced to the extent that the related mortgaged properties are located in geographic areas with significant numbers of COVID-19 cases or relatively restrictive COVID-19 countermeasures. Some borrowers may seek forbearance arrangements at some point in the near future (if they have not already made such requests). See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—COVID-19 Considerations”. You should be prepared for the possibility that a significant number of borrowers will not make timely payments on their mortgage loans at some point during the continuance of the COVID-19 pandemic. In response, the master servicer and the special servicer may implement a range of actions with respect to affected borrowers and the related mortgage loans to forbear or extend or otherwise modify the loan terms consistent with the applicable servicer’s customary servicing practices. Such actions may also lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

Certain geographic regions of the United States have experienced a larger concentration of COVID-19 infections and deaths than other regions, which is expected to result in slower resumption of economic activity than in other less-impacted regions. However, as the COVID-19 emergency has continued, various regions of the United States have seen fluctuations in rates of COVID-19 cases. Therefore, we cannot assure you that any region will not experience an increase in such rates, and corresponding governmental countermeasures and economic distress.

 

While the COVID-19 pandemic has created personnel, supply-chain and other logistical issues that affect all property types, the effects are particularly severe for certain property types. For example:

 

 

hospitality properties, due to travel and occupancy limitations implemented by governments and businesses as well as reduced interest in travel generally, and the use of entertainment complexes operated by some hospitality properties;

 

 

retail properties, due to store closures, either government-mandated or voluntary, tenants refusing to pay rent, and restrictions on and reduced interest in social gatherings, on which retail properties rely;

 

 

office properties, due to prohibitions on use of space at full capacity and changes to leasing activity arising from the need for increased distancing between workers, changes to elevator practices, increased prevalence of telework and changes to the willingness of employees to commute;

 

 

multifamily and manufactured housing community properties, which also have rental payment streams that are sensitive to unemployment and reductions in disposable income, as well as federal, state and local moratoria on eviction proceedings and other mandated tenant forbearance programs, and with respect to student housing properties, may be affected by closures of, or ongoing social distancing measures instituted at, colleges and universities;

 

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properties with significant tenants that operate co-working or office-sharing spaces, due to restrictions on and reduced interest in such spaces, which risk is enhanced by the fact that subtenants of such spaces typically operate under short term leases; and

 

 

properties with significant tenants with executed leases that are not yet in place and whose leases are conditioned on tenant improvements being completed, the delivery of premises, or the vacancy of a current tenant by a date certain, due to lack of access to the mortgaged property and disruptions in labor and the global supply chain.

 

With respect to all the property types listed above, the borrowers with respect to mortgage loans secured by such property types may face increased incidence of non-payment of rent due to the COVID-19 pandemic and may have difficulty evicting non-paying tenants due to a variety of factors. Federal, state and local governmental authorities have implemented (and may implement additional) measures designed to provide relief to borrowers and tenants, including moratoria on foreclosure or eviction proceedings and mandated forbearance programs. Any such measures may lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

Investors should understand that the underwriting of certain mortgage loans and the appraisals and property condition reports for certain mortgaged properties were conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore may not reflect current conditions with respect to the mortgaged properties or the borrowers. In addition, the underwriting of mortgage loans originated during the COVID-19 pandemic may be based on assumptions that do not reflect current conditions.  When evaluating the financial information, occupancy percentages and mortgaged property valuations presented in this prospectus (including certain information set forth in “Summary of Certificates”, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics”, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”, Annex A-1, Annex A-2 and Annex A-3), investors should take into consideration the dates as of which historical financial information and occupancy percentages are presented and appraisals and property condition reports were conducted and that the underwritten information may not reflect (or fully reflect) the events described in this risk factor or any potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because a pandemic of the scale and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic has not occurred in recent history, historical delinquency and loss experience is unlikely to accurately predict the performance of the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool. Investors should expect higher-than-average delinquencies and losses on the mortgage loans. The master servicer will be obligated under and subject to the terms of the pooling and servicing agreement to advance any scheduled monthly payment of interest (other than any balloon payment) on the mortgage loans that the borrowers fail to pay that is required to be made under the mortgage loan documents. The aggregate number and size of delinquent loans in a given collection period may be significant, and the master servicer may determine that advances of payments on such mortgage loans are not or would not be recoverable or may not be able to make such advances given the severity of delinquencies (in this transaction or other transactions), which would result in shortfalls and losses on the certificates. The master servicer’s obligation to make an advance is dependent on the terms of the mortgage loan documents as of the date of determination, as modified, including as a result of a modification resulting from a Payment Accommodation, and in any event the master servicer will remain obligated to make an advance only to the extent a borrower fails to make a required scheduled monthly payment of interest. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Definitions”.

 

In addition, businesses are adjusting their business plans in response to government actions and new industry practices in order to change how, how many and from where staff members work.  Such changes may lead to reduced or modified levels of service, including

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in the services provided by the master servicer, special servicer, the certificate administrator and the other parties to this transaction. Such parties’ ability to perform their respective obligations under the transaction documents may be adversely affected by such changes. Furthermore, because the master servicer and special servicer operate according to a servicing standard that is in part based on accepted industry practices, the servicing actions taken by such parties may vary from historical norms to the extent that such accepted industry practices change.

 

We cannot assure you that the cash flow at the mortgaged properties will be sufficient for the borrowers to pay all required insurance premiums. While certain mortgage loans provide for insurance premium reserves, we cannot assure you that the borrowers will be able to continue to fund such reserves or that such reserves will be sufficient to pay all required insurance premiums. Although each mortgage loan generally requires the related borrower to maintain business interruption insurance, certain insurance companies have reportedly taken the position that such insurance does not cover closures due to the COVID-19 emergency. In addition, the COVID-19 emergency could adversely affect future availability and coverage of business interruption insurance. Furthermore, it is unclear whether such closures due to COVID-19 will trigger co-tenancy provisions.

 

There can be no assurances that the NRSROs engaged by the depositor will issue the expected ratings on the closing date (or at all) or that such ratings will not be withdrawn or placed on watch immediately or shortly after the closing date. We cannot assure you that the decline in economic conditions precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures implemented by governments to combat the pandemic will not result in downgrades to the ratings of the certificates.

 

The mortgage loan sellers will agree to make certain limited representations and warranties with respect to the mortgage loans as set forth on Annex D-1 hereto; however, absent a breach of such a representation or warranty, no mortgage loan seller (or (i) Benefit Street Partners Realty Trust, Inc., as guarantor of the repurchase and substitution obligations of BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC or (ii) Ladder Capital Finance Holdings LLLP, Series TRS of Ladder Capital Finance Holdings LLLP and Series REIT of Ladder Capital Finance Holdings LLLP, as guarantor of payment in connection with the repurchase obligations of Ladder Capital Finance LLC) will have any obligation to repurchase a mortgage loan with respect to which the related borrower was adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. See also “—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—Sponsors May Not Make Required Repurchases or Substitutions of Defective Mortgage Loans or Pay Any Loss of Value Payment Sufficient to Cover All Losses on a Defective Mortgage Loan” below.

 

Tenants may be unable to meet their rent obligations as a result of extended periods of unemployment and business slowdowns and shutdowns. Accordingly, tenants at certain of the mortgaged properties have sought and are expected to continue to seek rent relief at the mortgaged properties, and it would be expected that rent collections and/or occupancy rates may decline. Even as areas of the country reopen, there can be no assurance as to if and when the operations of commercial tenants and the income earning capacity of residential tenants will reach pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels. Prospective investors should also consider as the country reopens the impact that a surge in COVID-19 cases could have on economic conditions.

 

Some borrowers may seek forbearance arrangements at some point in the near future, if they have not already sought such arrangements. We cannot assure you that the borrowers will be able to make debt service payments (including deferred amounts that were previously subject to forbearance) after the expiration of any such forbearance period. Some borrowers may also seek to use funds on deposit in reserve or escrow accounts to

 

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make debt service payments, rather than for the explicit purpose set forth in the mortgage loan documents. We cannot assure you that the cash flow at the mortgaged properties will be sufficient for the borrowers to replenish those reserves or escrows, which would then be unavailable for their original intended use.

 

In addition, servicers have reported an increase in borrower requests as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is likely that the volume of requests will continue to increase as the COVID-19 pandemic progresses. The increased volume of borrower requests and communication may result in delays in the servicers’ ability to respond to such requests and their ability to perform their respective obligations under the related transaction documents.

 

Further, some federal, state and local administrative offices and courts have closed due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Foreclosures, recordings of assignments and similar activities may not be processed in such offices and courts until such offices and courts reopen and may be further delayed as such offices and courts address any backlogs of such actions that accumulated during the period they were closed. Furthermore, to the extent the related jurisdiction has implemented a moratorium on foreclosures as discussed above, any processing of foreclosure actions would not commence until such moratorium has ended.

 

The borrowers have provided additional information regarding the status of the mortgage loans and mortgaged properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—COVID-19 Considerations” and see also Annex A-3 for additional information at the mortgaged properties securing the 15 largest mortgage loans or groups of cross-collateralized mortgage loans. We cannot assure you that the information in that section is indicative of future performance or that tenants or borrowers will not seek rent or debt service relief (including forbearance arrangements) or other lease or loan modifications in the future. Such actions may lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

Although certain borrowers and tenants may have made their March 2021 debt service and rent payments, we cannot assure you that they will be able to make future payments. While certain mortgage loans may provide for debt service or rent reserves, we cannot assure you that any such reserve will be sufficient to satisfy any or all debt service payments on the affected mortgage loans.

 

Furthermore, we cannot assure you that future failure to make rent or debt service payments will not trigger cash sweeps or defaults under the mortgage loan documents.

 

The widespread and cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including those described above, also heighten many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as those related to timely payments by borrowers and tenants, mortgaged property values and the performance, market value, credit ratings and secondary market liquidity of your certificates.

 

Cyberattacks or Other Security Breaches Could Have a Material Adverse Effect on the Business of the Transaction Parties

 

In the normal course of business, the sponsors, the master servicer, the special servicer and the other transaction parties may collect, process and retain confidential or sensitive information regarding their customers (including mortgage loan borrowers and applicants). The sharing, use, disclosure and protection of this information is governed by the privacy and data security policies of such parties. Moreover, there are federal, state and international laws regarding privacy and the storing, sharing, use, disclosure and protection of personally identifiable information and user data. Although the transaction parties may

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devote significant resources and management focus to ensuring the integrity of their systems through information security and business continuity programs, their facilities and systems, and those of their third-party service providers, may be subject to external or internal security breaches, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming or human errors, or other similar events. The access by unauthorized persons to, or the improper disclosure by the sponsors, the master servicer, the special servicer or any other transaction party of, confidential information regarding their customers or their own proprietary information, software, methodologies and business secrets could result in business disruptions, legal or regulatory proceedings, reputational damage, or other adverse consequences, any of which could materially adversely affect their financial condition or results of operations (including the servicing of the mortgage loans). Cybersecurity risks for organizations like the sponsors, the master servicer, the special servicer and the other transaction parties have increased recently in part because of new technologies, the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies (including mobile and other connected devices) to conduct financial and other business transactions, the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, perpetrators of fraud, hackers, terrorists and others, and the evolving nature of these threats. For example, hackers recently have engaged in attacks against organizations that are designed to disrupt key business services. There can be no assurance that the sponsors, the master servicer, the special servicer or the other transaction parties will not suffer any such losses in the future.

 

Cyberattacks or other breaches, whether affecting the sponsors, the master servicer, the special servicer or other transaction parties, could result in heightened consumer concern and regulatory focus and increased costs, which could have a material adverse effect on the sponsors’, the master servicer’s, the special servicer’s or another transaction party’s businesses. If the business of the sponsors or any of their affiliates is materially adversely affected by such events, the sponsors may not be able to fulfill their remedy obligations with respect to a mortgage loan.

 

In addition, due to the transition to remote working environments as a result of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an elevated risk of such events occurring.

 

Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans

 

Mortgage Loans Are Non-Recourse and Are Not Insured or Guaranteed

 

The mortgage loans are not insured or guaranteed by any person or entity, governmental or otherwise, unrelated to the related borrowers.

 

Investors should treat each mortgage loan as a non-recourse loan. If a default occurs on a non-recourse loan, recourse generally may be had only against the specific mortgaged properties and other assets that have been pledged to secure the mortgage loan. Consequently, payment prior to maturity is dependent primarily on the sufficiency of the net operating income of the mortgaged property. Payment at maturity or an anticipated repayment date is primarily dependent upon the market value of the mortgaged property or the borrower’s ability to refinance or sell the mortgaged property.

 

Although the mortgage loans generally are non-recourse in nature, certain mortgage loans contain non-recourse carveouts for liabilities such as liabilities as a result of fraud by the borrower, certain voluntary insolvency proceedings or other matters. Certain mortgage loans set forth under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Non-Recourse Carveout Limitations” either do not contain non-recourse carveouts or contain material limitations to non-recourse carveouts. Often these obligations are guaranteed by an affiliate of the related borrower, although liability under any such guaranty may be capped or otherwise limited in

 

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amount or scope. Furthermore, certain guarantors may be foreign entities or individuals which, while subject to the domestic governing law provisions in the guaranty and related mortgage loan documents, could nevertheless require enforcement of any judgment in relation to a guaranty in a foreign jurisdiction, which could, in turn, cause a significant time delay or result in the inability to enforce the guaranty under foreign law. Additionally, the guarantor’s net worth and liquidity may be less (and in some cases, materially less) than amounts due under the related mortgage loan or the guarantor’s sole asset may be its interest in the related borrower. Certain mortgage loans may have the benefit of a general payment guaranty of all or a portion of the indebtedness under the mortgage loan. In all cases, however, the mortgage loans should be considered to be non-recourse obligations because neither the depositor nor the sponsors make any representation or warranty as to the obligation or ability of any borrower or guarantor to pay any deficiencies between any foreclosure proceeds and the mortgage loan indebtedness. In addition, certain mortgage loans may provide for recourse to a guarantor for all or a portion of the indebtedness or for any loss or costs that may be incurred by the borrower or the lender with respect to certain borrower obligations under the related mortgage loan documents. In such cases, we cannot assure you any recovery from such guarantor will be made or that such guarantor will have assets sufficient to pay any otherwise recoverable claim under a guaranty.

 

Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally

 

The mortgage loans will be secured by various income-producing commercial and multifamily properties. The repayment of a commercial or multifamily loan is typically dependent upon the ability of the related mortgaged property to produce cash flow through the collection of rents. Even the liquidation value of a commercial property is determined, in substantial part, by the capitalization of the property’s ability to produce cash flow. However, net operating income can be volatile and may be insufficient to cover debt service on the loan at any given time.

 

The net operating incomes and property values of the mortgaged properties may be adversely affected by a large number of factors. Some of these factors relate to the properties themselves, such as:

 

 

the age, design and construction quality of the properties;

 

 

perceptions regarding the safety, convenience and attractiveness of the properties;

 

 

the characteristics and desirability of the area where the property is located;

 

 

the strength and nature of the local economy, including labor costs and quality, tax environment and quality of life for employees;

 

 

the proximity and attractiveness of competing properties;

 

 

the adequacy of the property’s management and maintenance;

 

 

increases in interest rates, real estate taxes and operating expenses at the property and in relation to competing properties;

 

 

an increase in the capital expenditures needed to maintain the properties or make improvements;

 

 

the dependence upon a single tenant or concentration of tenants in a particular business or industry;

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a decline in the businesses operated by tenants or in their financial condition;

 

 

an increase in vacancy rates; and

 

 

a decline in rental rates as leases are renewed or entered into with new tenants.

 

Other factors are more general in nature, such as:

 

 

national or regional economic conditions, including plant closings, military base closings, industry slowdowns, oil and/or gas drilling facility slowdowns or closings and unemployment rates;

 

 

local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of competing properties, retail space, office space, multifamily housing or hotel capacity;

 

 

demographic factors;

 

 

consumer confidence;

 

 

consumer tastes and preferences;

 

 

political factors;

 

 

environmental factors;

 

 

seismic activity risk;

 

 

retroactive changes in building codes;

 

 

changes or continued weakness in specific industry segments;

 

 

location of certain mortgaged properties in less densely populated or less affluent areas; and

 

 

the public perception of safety for customers and clients.

 

The volatility of net operating income will be influenced by many of the foregoing factors, as well as by:

 

 

the length of tenant leases (including that in certain cases, all or substantially all of the tenants, or one or more sole, anchor or other major tenants, at a particular mortgaged property may have leases that expire or permit the tenant(s) to terminate its lease during the term of the loan);

 

 

the quality and creditworthiness of tenants;

 

 

tenant defaults;

 

 

in the case of rental properties, the rate at which new rentals occur; and

 

 

the property’s “operating leverage”, which is generally the percentage of total property expenses in relation to revenue, the ratio of fixed operating expenses to those that vary with revenues, and the level of capital expenditures required to maintain the property and to retain or replace tenants.

 

A decline in the real estate market or in the financial condition of a major tenant will tend to have a more immediate effect on the net operating income of properties with

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relatively higher operating leverage or short term revenue sources, such as short term or month-to-month leases, and may lead to higher rates of delinquency or defaults.

 

Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases

 

General

 

Any tenant may, from time to time, experience a downturn in its business, which may weaken its financial condition and result in a reduction or failure to make rental payments when due. Tenants under certain leases included in the underwritten net cash flow, underwritten net operating income or occupancy may nonetheless be in financial distress. If tenants’ sales were to decline, percentage rents may decline and, further, tenants may be unable to pay their base rent or other occupancy costs. If a tenant defaults in its obligations to a property owner, that property owner may experience delays in enforcing its rights as lessor and may incur substantial costs and experience significant delays associated with protecting its investment, including costs incurred in renovating and reletting the property.

 

Additionally, the income from, and market value of, the mortgaged properties leased to various tenants would be adversely affected if:

 

 

space in the mortgaged properties could not be leased or re-leased or substantial re-leasing costs were required and/or the cost of performing landlord obligations under existing leases materially increased;

 

 

leasing or re-leasing is restricted by exclusive rights of tenants to lease the mortgaged properties or other covenants not to lease space for certain uses or activities, or covenants limiting the types of tenants to which space may be leased;

 

 

a significant tenant were to become a debtor in a bankruptcy case;

 

 

rental payments could not be collected for any other reason; or

 

 

a borrower fails to perform its obligations under a lease resulting in the related tenant having a right to terminate such lease.

 

In addition, certain tenants may be part of a chain that is in financial distress as a whole, or the tenant’s parent company may have implemented or expressed an intent to implement a plan to consolidate or reorganize its operations, close a number of stores in the chain, reduce exposure, relocate stores or otherwise reorganize its business to cut costs.

 

There may be (and there may exist from time to time) pending or threatened legal proceedings against, or disputes with, certain tenants and/or their parent companies that may have a material adverse effect on the related tenant’s ability to pay rent or remain open for business. We cannot assure you that any such litigation or dispute will not result in a material decline in net operating income at the related mortgaged property.

 

Certain tenants currently may be in a rent abatement period. We cannot assure you that such tenants will be in a position to pay full rent when the abatement period expires. We cannot assure you that the net operating income contributed by the mortgaged properties will remain at its current or past levels.

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A Tenant Concentration May Result in Increased Losses

 

Mortgaged properties that are owner-occupied or leased to a single tenant, or a tenant that makes up a significant portion of the rental income, also are more susceptible to interruptions of cash flow if that tenant’s business operations are negatively impacted or if such tenant fails to renew its lease. This is so because:

 

 

the financial effect of the absence of rental income may be severe;

 

 

more time may be required to re-lease the space; and

 

 

substantial capital costs may be incurred to make the space appropriate for replacement tenants.

 

In the event of a default by that tenant, if the related lease expires prior to the mortgage loan maturity date and the related tenant fails to renew its lease or if such tenant exercises an early termination option, there would likely be an interruption of rental payments under the lease and, accordingly, insufficient funds available to the borrower to pay the debt service on the mortgage loan. In certain cases where the tenant owns the improvements on the mortgaged property, the related borrower may be required to purchase such improvements in connection with the exercise of its remedies.

 

With respect to certain of these mortgaged properties that are leased to a single tenant, the related leases may expire prior to, or soon after, the maturity dates of the mortgage loans or the related tenant may have the right to terminate the lease prior to the maturity date of the mortgage loan. If the current tenant does not renew its lease on comparable economic terms to the expired lease, if a single tenant terminates its lease or if a suitable replacement tenant does not enter into a new lease on similar economic terms, there could be a negative impact on the payments on the related mortgage loan.

 

A deterioration in the financial condition of a tenant, the failure of a tenant to renew its lease or the exercise by a tenant of an early termination right can be particularly significant if a mortgaged property is owner-occupied, leased to a single tenant, or if any tenant makes up a significant portion of the rental income at the mortgaged property.

 

Concentrations of particular tenants among the mortgaged properties or within a particular business or industry at one or multiple mortgaged properties increase the possibility that financial problems with such tenants or such business or industry sectors could affect the mortgage loans. In addition, the mortgage loans may be adversely affected if a tenant at the mortgaged property is highly specialized, or dependent on a single industry or only a few customers for its revenue. See “—Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease” below, and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Tenant Concentrations” for information on tenant concentrations in the mortgage pool.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Multiple Tenants Also Have Risks

 

If a mortgaged property has multiple tenants, re-leasing expenditures may be more frequent than in the case of mortgaged properties with fewer tenants, thereby reducing the cash flow available for payments on the related mortgage loan. Multi-tenant mortgaged properties also may experience higher continuing vacancy rates and greater volatility in rental income and expenses. See Annex A-1 for tenant lease expiration dates for the 5 largest tenants at each mortgaged property.

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Mortgaged Properties Leased to Borrowers or Borrower Affiliated Entities Also Have Risks

 

If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower under the mortgage loan or to an affiliate of the borrower, there may be conflicts of interest. For instance, it is more likely a landlord will waive lease conditions for an affiliated tenant than it would for an unaffiliated tenant. We cannot assure you that the conflicts of interest arising where a borrower is affiliated with a tenant at a mortgaged property will not adversely impact the value of the related mortgage loan.

 

In certain cases, an affiliated lessee may be a tenant under a master lease with the related borrower, under which the tenant is obligated to make rent payments but does not occupy any space at the mortgaged property. Master leases in these circumstances may be used to bring occupancy to a “stabilized” level with the intent of finding additional tenants to occupy some or all of the master leased space, but may not provide additional economic support for the mortgage loan. If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower or to an affiliate of the borrower, a deterioration in the financial condition of the borrower or its affiliate could significantly affect the borrower’s ability to perform under the mortgage loan as it would directly interrupt the cash flow from the mortgaged property if the borrower’s or its affiliate’s financial condition worsens. We cannot assure you that any space leased by a borrower or an affiliate of the borrower will eventually be occupied by third party tenants.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Affiliated Leases” for information on properties leased in whole or in part to borrowers and their affiliates.

 

Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease

 

The bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant or a number of smaller tenants, such as in retail properties, may have an adverse impact on the mortgaged properties affected and the income produced by such mortgaged properties. Under the federal bankruptcy code, a tenant has the option of assuming or rejecting or, subject to certain conditions, assuming and assigning to a third party, any unexpired lease. If the tenant rejects the lease, the landlord’s claim for breach of the lease would (absent collateral securing the claim) be treated as a general unsecured claim against the tenant and a lessor’s damages for lease rejection are generally subject to certain limitations. We cannot assure you that tenants of the mortgaged properties will continue making payments under their leases or that tenants will not file for bankruptcy protection in the future or, if any tenants do file, that they will continue to make rental payments in a timely manner. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Foreclosure—Bankruptcy Laws”. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Loan Purpose; Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings” for information regarding bankruptcy issues with respect to certain mortgage loans.

 

In the case of certain mortgage loans included in the mortgage pool, it may be possible that the related master lease could be construed in a bankruptcy as a financing lease or other arrangement under which the related master lessee (and/or its affiliates) would be deemed as effectively the owner of the related mortgaged property, rather than a tenant, which could result in potentially adverse consequences for the trust, as the holder of such mortgage loan, including a potentially greater risk of an unfavorable plan of reorganization and competing claims of creditors of the related master lessee and/or its affiliates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Affiliated Leases”.

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Leases That Are Not Subordinated to the Lien of the Mortgage or Do Not Contain Attornment Provisions May Have an Adverse Impact at Foreclosure

 

In certain jurisdictions, if tenant leases are subordinated to the liens created by the mortgage but do not contain attornment provisions that require the tenant to recognize a successor owner, the tenants may terminate their leases upon the transfer of the property to a foreclosing lender or purchaser at foreclosure. Accordingly, if a mortgaged property is located in such a jurisdiction and is leased to one or more desirable tenants under leases that are subordinate to the mortgage and do not contain attornment provisions, such mortgaged property could experience a further decline in value if such tenants’ leases were terminated. This is particularly likely if those tenants were paying above-market rents or could not be replaced. If a lease is not subordinate to a mortgage, the issuing entity will not possess the right to dispossess the tenant upon foreclosure of the mortgaged property (unless otherwise agreed to with the tenant). Also, if the lease contains provisions inconsistent with the mortgage (e.g., provisions relating to application of insurance proceeds or condemnation awards) or which could affect the enforcement of the lender’s rights (e.g., a right of first refusal to purchase the property), the provisions of the lease will take precedence over the provisions of the mortgage. Not all leases were reviewed to ascertain the existence of attornment or subordination provisions.

 

With respect to certain of the mortgage loans, the related borrower may have given to certain tenants or others an option to purchase, a right of first refusal and/or a right of first offer to purchase all or a portion of the mortgaged property in the event a sale is contemplated, and such right is not subordinate to the related mortgage. This may impede the mortgagee’s ability to sell the related mortgaged property at foreclosure, or, upon foreclosure, this may affect the value and/or marketability of the related mortgaged property. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Purchase Options and Rights of First Refusal” for information regarding material purchase options and/or rights of first refusal, if any, with respect to mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans.

 

Early Lease Termination Options May Reduce Cash Flow

 

Leases often give tenants the right to terminate the related lease, abate or reduce the related rent, and/or exercise certain remedies against the related borrower for various reasons or upon various conditions, including:

 

 

if the borrower for the applicable mortgaged property allows uses at the mortgaged property in violation of use restrictions in current tenant leases,

 

 

if the borrower or any of its affiliates owns other properties within a certain radius of the mortgaged property and allows uses at those properties in violation of use restrictions,

 

 

if the related borrower fails to provide a designated number of parking spaces,

 

 

if there is construction at the related mortgaged property or an adjacent property (whether or not such adjacent property is owned or controlled by the borrower or any of its affiliates) that may interfere with visibility of, access to or a tenant’s use of the mortgaged property or otherwise violate the terms of a tenant’s lease,

 

 

upon casualty or condemnation with respect to all or a portion of the mortgaged property that renders such mortgaged property unsuitable for a tenant’s use or if the borrower fails to rebuild such mortgaged property within a certain time,

 

 

if a tenant’s use is not permitted by zoning or applicable law,

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if the tenant is unable to exercise an expansion right,

 

 

if the landlord defaults on its obligations under the lease,

 

 

if a landlord leases space at the mortgaged property or within a certain radius of the mortgaged property to a competitor,

 

 

if the tenant fails to meet certain sales targets or other business objectives for a specified period of time,

 

 

if significant tenants at the subject property go dark or terminate their leases, or if a specified percentage of the mortgaged property is unoccupied,

 

 

if the landlord violates the tenant’s exclusive use rights for a specified period of time,

 

 

if the related borrower violates covenants under the related lease or if third parties take certain actions that adversely affect such tenants’ business or operations,

 

 

in the case of government sponsored tenants, at any time or for lack of appropriations, or

 

 

if the related borrower violates covenants under the related lease or if third parties take certain actions that adversely affect such tenants’ business or operations.

 

In certain cases, compliance or satisfaction of landlord covenants may be the responsibility of a third party affiliated with the borrower or, in the event that partial releases of the applicable mortgaged property are permitted, an unaffiliated or affiliated third party.

 

Any exercise of a termination right by a tenant at a mortgaged property could result in vacant space at the related mortgaged property, renegotiation of the lease with the related tenant or re-letting of the space. Any such vacated space may not be re-let. Furthermore, such foregoing termination and/or abatement rights may arise in the future or materially adversely affect the related borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan documents. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Lease Expirations and Terminations” for information on material tenant lease expirations and early termination options.

 

Sale-Leaseback Transactions Also Have Risks

 

The Rollins Portfolio (3.3%), Garver Little Rock (1.0%) and Federales Chicago (0.6%) mortgaged properties were each the subject of a sale-leaseback transaction in connection with the acquisition of such property by the related borrower or by the immediately preceding property owner. Each of these mortgaged properties are leased to a tenant, who is a former owner or an affiliate of a former owner of the mortgaged property, pursuant to a lease. We cannot assure you that any of these tenants will not file for bankruptcy protection.

 

A bankruptcy with respect to a tenant in a sale-leaseback transaction could result in the related lease being recharacterized as a loan from the borrower to the tenant. If the lease were recharacterized as a loan, the lease would be a deemed loan and the tenant would gain a number of potential benefits in a bankruptcy case. The tenant could retain possession of the mortgaged property during the pendency of its bankruptcy case without having to comply with the ongoing post-petition rent requirements of section 365(d)(3) of the Bankruptcy Code, which requires a tenant to start paying rent within 60 days following

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the commencement of its bankruptcy case, while deciding whether to assume or reject a lease of nonresidential real property. The tenant desiring to remain in possession of the mortgaged property would not have to assume the lease within 210 days following the commencement of its bankruptcy case pursuant to section 365(d)(4) of the Bankruptcy Code or comply with the conditions precedent to assumption, including curing all defaults, compensating for damages and giving adequate assurance of future performance. To the extent the deemed loan is under-secured, the tenant would be able to limit the secured claim to the then-current value of the mortgaged property and treat the balance as a general unsecured claim. The tenant also might assert that the entire claim on the deemed loan is an unsecured claim. In Liona Corp., Inc. v. PCH Associates (In re PCH Associates), 949 F.2d 585 (2d Cir. 1991), the court considered the effect of recharacterizing a sale-leaseback transaction as a financing rather than a true lease. The court held that the landlord’s record title to the leased property should be treated as an equitable mortgage securing the deemed loan. Under the reasoning of that case, if a lease were recharacterized as a loan, the related borrower would have a claim against the tenant secured by an equitable mortgage. That secured claim has been collaterally assigned to the mortgagees. However, the legal authority considering the effects of such a recharacterization is limited, and we cannot assure you that a bankruptcy court would follow the reasoning of the PCH Associates case.

 

There is also a risk that a tenant that files for bankruptcy protection may reject the related lease. Pursuant to section 502(b)(6) of the Bankruptcy Code, a lessor’s damages for lease rejection are limited to the amount owed for the unpaid rent reserved under the lease for the periods prior to the bankruptcy petition (or earlier surrender of the leased premises) which are unrelated to the rejection, plus the greater of one year’s rent or 15% of the remaining rent reserved under the lease (but not to exceed three years’ rent).

 

It is likely that each lease constitutes an “unexpired lease” for purposes of the Bankruptcy Code. Federal bankruptcy law provides generally that rights and obligations under an unexpired lease of a debtor may not be terminated or modified at any time after the commencement of a case under the Bankruptcy Code solely on the basis of a provision in such contract to such effect or because of certain other similar events. This prohibition on so called “ipso facto clauses” could limit the ability of a borrower to exercise certain contractual remedies with respect to a lease. In addition, the Bankruptcy Code provides that a trustee in bankruptcy or debtor in possession may, subject to approval of the court, (a) assume an unexpired lease and (i) retain it or (ii) unless applicable law excuses a party other than the debtor from accepting performance from or rendering performance to an entity other than the debtor, assign it to a third party (notwithstanding any other restrictions or prohibitions on assignment) or (b) reject such contract. In a bankruptcy case of a tenant, if the lease were to be assumed, the trustee in bankruptcy on behalf of the tenant, or the tenant as debtor in possession, or the assignee, if applicable, must cure any defaults under the lease, compensate the related borrower for its losses and provide such borrower with “adequate assurance” of future performance. Such remedies may be insufficient, however, as the borrower may be forced to continue under the lease with a tenant that is a poor credit risk or an unfamiliar tenant if the lease was assigned (if applicable state law does not otherwise prevent such an assignment), and any assurances provided to the borrower may, in fact, be inadequate. If the lease is rejected, such rejection generally constitutes a breach of the lease immediately before the date of the filing of the petition. As a consequence, the borrower would have only an unsecured claim against the tenant for damages resulting from such breach, which could adversely affect the security for the certificates.

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Furthermore, there is likely to be a period of time between the date upon which a tenant files a bankruptcy petition and the date upon which the lease is assumed or rejected. Although the tenant is obligated to make all lease payments within 60 days following the commencement of the bankruptcy case, there is a risk that such payments will not be made due to the tenant’s poor financial condition. If the lease is rejected, the lessor will be treated as an unsecured creditor with respect to its claim for damages for termination of the lease and the borrower must re-let the mortgaged property before the flow of lease payments will recommence. In addition, pursuant to section 502(b)(6) of the Bankruptcy Code, a lessor’s damages for lease rejection are limited to the amount owed for the unpaid rent reserved under the lease for the periods prior to the bankruptcy petition (or earlier surrender of the leased premises) which are unrelated to the rejection, plus the greater of one year’s rent or 15% of the remaining rent reserved under the lease (but not to exceed three years’ rent).

 

As discussed above, bankruptcy courts, in the exercise of their equitable powers, have the authority to recharacterize a lease as a financing. We cannot assure you such recharacterization would not occur with respect to the mortgage loans that are subject to sale-leaseback transactions.

 

The application of any of these doctrines to any one of the sale-leaseback transactions could result in substantial, direct and material impairment of the rights of the certificateholders.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Not-for-Profit Tenants Also Have Risks

 

Certain mortgaged properties may have tenants that are charitable institutions that generally rely on contributions from individuals and government grants or other subsidies to pay rent on office space and other operating expenses. We cannot assure you that the rate, frequency and level of individual contributions or governmental grants and subsidies will continue with respect to any such institution. A reduction in contributions or grants may impact the ability of the related institution to pay rent, and we cannot assure you that the related borrower will be in a position to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan documents if such tenant fails to pay its rent.

 

Retail Properties Have Special Risks

 

Some of the mortgage loans are secured by retail properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Retail Properties”. The value of retail properties is significantly affected by the quality of the tenants as well as fundamental aspects of real estate, such as location and market demographics, and by changes in shopping methods and choices. Some of the risks related to these matters are further described in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, and “—Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants” below.

 

Rental payments from tenants of retail properties typically comprise the largest portion of the net operating income of those mortgaged properties. The correlation between success of tenant business and a retail property’s value may be more direct with respect to retail properties than other types of commercial property because a component of the total rent paid by certain retail tenants is often tied to a percentage of gross sales. To the extent that a tenant changes the manner in which its gross sales are reported it could result in lower rent paid by the tenant. For example, if a tenant takes into account customer returns of merchandise purchased online and reduces the gross sales, this could result in lower gross

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sales relative to gross sales previously reported at that location even if the actual performance of the store remains unchanged. We cannot assure you that the net operating income contributed by the retail mortgaged properties or the rates of occupancy at the retail stores will remain at the levels specified in this prospectus or remain consistent with past performance.

 

Changes in the Retail Sector, Such as Online Shopping and Other Uses of Technology, Could Affect the Business Models and Viability of Retailers.

 

Online shopping and the use of technology, such as smartphone shopping applications, to transact purchases or to aid purchasing decisions have increased in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the future. This trend is affecting business models, sales and profitability of some retailers and could adversely affect the demand for retail real estate and occupancy at retail properties securing the mortgage loans. Any resulting decreases in rental revenue could have a material adverse effect on the value of retail properties securing the mortgage loans.

 

Some of these developments in the retail sector have led to many retailers, including several national retailers, filing for bankruptcy and/or voluntarily closing certain of their stores. Borrowers may be unable to re-lease such space or to re-lease it on comparable or more favorable terms. As a result, the bankruptcy or closure of a national tenant may adversely affect a retail borrower’s revenues. In addition, such closings may allow other tenants to modify their leases to terms that are less favorable for borrowers or to terminate their leases, also adversely impacting their revenues. See also “—Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants” below.

 

In addition to competition from online shopping, retail properties face competition from sources outside a specific geographical real estate market. For example, all of the following compete with more traditional retail properties for consumer dollars: factory outlet centers, discount shopping centers and clubs, catalog retailers, home shopping networks, and telemarketing. Continued growth of these alternative retail outlets (which often have lower operating costs) could adversely affect the rents collectible at the retail properties included in the pool of mortgage loans, as well as the income from, and market value of, the mortgaged properties and the related borrower’s ability to refinance such property. Moreover, additional competing retail properties may be built in the areas where the retail properties are located.

 

We cannot assure you that these developments in the retail sector will not adversely affect the performance of retail properties securing the mortgage loans.

 

The Performance of the Retail Properties is Subject to Conditions Affecting the Retail Sector.

 

Retail properties are also subject to conditions that could negatively affect the retail sector, such as increased unemployment, increased federal income and payroll taxes, increased health care costs, increased state and local taxes, increased real estate taxes, industry slowdowns, lack of availability of consumer credit, weak income growth, increased levels of consumer debt, poor housing market conditions, adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, plant closings, and other factors. Similarly, local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of, or a reduction in demand for, retail space or retail goods, and the supply and creditworthiness of current and prospective tenants may negatively impact those retail properties.

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In addition, the limited adaptability of certain shopping malls that have proven unprofitable may result in high (and possibly extremely high) loss severities on mortgage loans secured by those shopping malls. For example, it is possible that a significant amount of advances made by the applicable servicer(s) of a mortgage loan secured by a shopping mall property, combined with low liquidation proceeds in respect of that property, may result in a loss severity exceeding 100% of the outstanding principal balance of that mortgage loan.

 

Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants.

 

The presence or absence of an “anchor tenant” or a “shadow anchor tenant” in or near a retail property also can be important to the performance of a retail property because anchors play a key role in generating customer traffic and making a retail property desirable for other tenants. Retail properties may also have shadow anchor tenants. An “anchor tenant” is located on the related mortgaged property, usually proportionately larger in size than most or all other tenants at the mortgaged property, and is vital in attracting customers to a retail property. A “shadow anchor tenant” is usually proportionally larger in size than most tenants at the mortgaged property, is important in attracting customers to a retail property and is located sufficiently close and convenient to the mortgaged property so as to influence and attract potential customers, but is not located on the mortgaged property.

 

If anchor stores in a mortgaged property were to close, the related borrower may be unable to replace those anchors in a timely manner or without suffering adverse economic consequences. In addition, anchor tenants and non-anchor tenants at anchored or shadow anchored retail centers may have co-tenancy clauses and/or operating covenants in their leases or operating agreements that permit those tenants or anchor stores to cease operating, reduce rent or terminate their leases if the anchor tenant, the shadow anchor tenant or another major tenant goes dark, a specified percentage of the property is vacant or if the subject store is not meeting the minimum sales requirement under its lease. Even if non-anchor tenants do not have termination or rent abatement rights, the loss of an anchor tenant or a shadow anchor tenant may have a material adverse impact on the non-anchor tenant’s ability to operate because the anchor tenant or shadow anchor tenant plays a key role in generating customer traffic and making a center desirable for other tenants. This, in turn, may adversely impact the borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan documents. In addition, in the event that a “shadow anchor” fails to renew its lease, terminates its lease or otherwise ceases to conduct business within a close proximity to the mortgaged property, customer traffic at the mortgaged property may be substantially reduced. If an anchor tenant goes dark, generally the borrower’s only remedy may be to terminate that lease after the anchor tenant has been dark for a specified amount of time.

 

Certain anchor tenants may have the right to demolish and rebuild, or substantially alter, their premises. Exercise of such rights may result in disruptions at the mortgaged property or reduce traffic to the mortgaged property, may trigger co-tenancy clauses if such activities result in the anchor tenants being dark for the period specified in the co-tenancy clause, and may result in reduced value of the structure or in loss of the structure if the tenant fails to rebuild.

 

If anchor tenants or shadow anchor tenants at a particular mortgaged property were to close or otherwise become vacant or remain vacant, we cannot assure you that the related borrower’s ability to repay its mortgage loan would not be materially and adversely affected.

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Certain anchor tenant and tenant estoppels will have been obtained in connection with the origination of the mortgage loans. These estoppels may identify disputes between the related borrower and the applicable anchor tenant or tenant, or alleged defaults or potential defaults by the applicable property owner under the lease or a reciprocal easement and/or operating agreement (each, an “REA”). Such disputes, defaults or potential defaults could lead to a termination or attempted termination of the applicable lease or REA by the anchor tenant or tenant, the tenant withholding some or all of its rental payments or litigation against the related borrower. We cannot assure you that the anchor tenant or tenant estoppels obtained identify all potential disputes that may arise with respect to the retail mortgaged properties, or that anchor tenant or tenant disputes will not have a material adverse effect on the ability of borrowers to repay their mortgage loans.

 

Certain retail properties have specialty use tenants. See “—Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses” below. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Retail Properties” and “—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Specialty Use Concentrations”.

 

Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of multifamily properties, including:

 

 

the quality of property management;

 

 

the ability of management to provide adequate maintenance and insurance;

 

 

the types of services or amenities that the property provides;

 

 

the property’s reputation;

 

 

the level of mortgage interest rates, which may encourage tenants to purchase rather than lease housing;

 

 

the generally short terms of residential leases and the need for continued reletting;

 

 

rent concessions and month-to-month leases, which may impact cash flow at the property;

 

 

the tenant mix, such as the tenant population being predominantly students or being heavily dependent on workers from a particular business or industry or personnel from or workers related to a local military base or oil and/or gas drilling industries;

 

 

in the case of student housing facilities or properties leased primarily to students, which may be more susceptible to damage or wear and tear than other types of multifamily housing, the reliance on the financial well-being of the college or university to which it relates, competition from on campus housing units, which may adversely affect occupancy, the physical layout of the housing, which may not be readily convertible to traditional multifamily use, student tenants having a higher turnover rate than other types of multifamily tenants, which in certain cases is compounded by the fact that student leases are available for periods of less than 12 months, and closures of, or ongoing social distancing measures that may be instituted by, colleges and universities due to the coronavirus pandemic;

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certain multifamily properties may be considered to be “flexible apartment properties”. Such properties have a significant percentage of units leased to tenants under short-term leases (less than one year in term), which creates a higher turnover rate than for other types of multifamily properties;

 

 

certain properties may be master leased in whole or part and be subject to concentrated vacancy risk in the event of the termination or non-renewal of the related master lease;

 

 

restrictions on the age or income of tenants who may reside at the property;

 

 

dependence upon governmental programs that provide rent subsidies to tenants pursuant to tenant voucher programs, which vouchers may be used at other properties and influence tenant mobility;

 

 

adverse local, regional or national economic conditions, which may limit the amount of rent that may be charged and may result in a reduction of timely rent payments or a reduction in occupancy levels;

 

 

state and local regulations, which may affect the building owner’s ability to increase rent to market rent for an equivalent apartment; and

 

 

the existence of government assistance/rent subsidy programs, and whether or not they continue and provide the same level of assistance or subsidies.

 

Certain states regulate the relationship between an owner and its tenants. Commonly, these laws require a written lease, good cause for eviction, disclosure of fees, and notification to residents of changed land use, while prohibiting unreasonable rules, retaliatory evictions, and restrictions on a resident’s choice of unit vendors. Apartment building owners have been the subject of suits under state “Unfair and Deceptive Practices Acts” and other general consumer protection statutes for coercive, abusive or unconscionable leasing and sales practices. A few states offer more significant protection. For example, in some states, there are provisions that limit the bases on which a landlord may terminate a tenancy or increase a tenant’s rent or prohibit a landlord from terminating a tenancy solely by reason of the sale of the owner’s building.

 

In addition to state regulation of the landlord tenant relationship, numerous counties and municipalities impose rent control on apartment buildings. These ordinances may limit rent increases to fixed percentages, to percentages of increases in the consumer price index, to increases set or approved by a governmental agency, or to increases determined through mediation or binding arbitration. Any limitations on a borrower’s ability to raise property rents may impair such borrower’s ability to repay its multifamily loan from its net operating income or the proceeds of a sale or refinancing of the related multifamily property.

 

Certain of the mortgage loans may be secured in the future by mortgaged properties that are subject to certain affordable housing covenants and other covenants and restrictions with respect to various tax credit, city, state and federal housing subsidies, rent stabilization or similar programs, in respect of various units within the mortgaged properties. The limitations and restrictions imposed by these programs could result in losses on the mortgage loans. In addition, in the event that the program is cancelled, it could result in less income for the project. These programs may include, among others:

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rent limitations that would adversely affect the ability of borrowers to increase rents to maintain the condition of their mortgaged properties and satisfy operating expenses; and

 

 

tenant income restrictions that may reduce the number of eligible tenants in those mortgaged properties and result in a reduction in occupancy rates.

 

The difference in rents between subsidized or supported properties and other multifamily rental properties in the same area may not be a sufficient economic incentive for some eligible tenants to reside at a subsidized or supported property that may have fewer amenities or be less attractive as a residence. As a result, occupancy levels at a subsidized or supported property may decline, which may adversely affect the value and successful operation of such property.

 

Moreover, legislative or judicial actions concerning the status of rent-stabilized properties may adversely affect existing market rent units and a borrower’s ability to convert rent-stabilized units to market rent units in the future and may give rise to liability in connection with previously converted units.

 

Some counties and municipalities may later impose stricter rent control regulations on apartment buildings. For example, on June 14, 2019, the New York State Senate passed, and New York Governor Andrew Cuomo signed, the Housing Stability and Tenant Protection Act of 2019 (the “HSTP Act”), which, among other things, limits the ability of landlords to increase rents in rent stabilized apartments at the time of lease renewal and after a vacancy. The HSTP Act also limits potential rent increases for major capital improvements and for individual apartment improvements. In addition, the HSTP Act permits certain qualified localities in the State of New York to implement the rent stabilization system.

 

We cannot assure you that the rent stabilization laws or regulations will not cause a reduction in rental income or the appraised value of mortgaged real properties. If rents are reduced, we cannot assure you that any such mortgaged real property will be able to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy debt service payments and operating expenses.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Multifamily Properties”.

 

Industrial Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of industrial properties, including:

 

 

reduced demand for industrial space because of a decline in a particular industry segment;

 

 

the property becoming functionally obsolete;

 

 

building design and adaptability;

 

 

unavailability of labor sources;

 

 

changes in access, energy prices, strikes, relocation of highways, the construction of additional highways or other factors;

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changes in proximity of supply sources;

 

 

the expenses of converting a previously adapted space to general use; and

 

 

the location of the property.

 

Industrial properties may be adversely affected by reduced demand for industrial space occasioned by a decline in a particular industry segment in which the related tenants conduct their businesses (for example, a decline in consumer demand for products sold by a tenant using the property as a distribution center). In addition, a particular industrial or warehouse property that suited the needs of its original tenant may be difficult to relet to another tenant or may become functionally obsolete relative to newer properties. Furthermore, lease terms with respect to industrial properties are generally for shorter periods of time and may result in a substantial percentage of leases expiring in the same year at any particular industrial property. In addition, mortgaged properties used for many industrial purposes are more prone to environmental concerns than other property types.

 

Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of an industrial property. Site characteristics that are generally desirable to a warehouse/industrial property include high clear ceiling heights, wide column spacing, a large number of bays (loading docks) and large bay depths, divisibility, a layout that can accommodate large truck minimum turning radii and overall functionality and accessibility.

 

In addition, because of unique construction requirements of many industrial properties, any vacant industrial property space may not be easily converted to other uses. Thus, if the operation of any of the industrial properties becomes unprofitable due to competition, age of the improvements or other factors such that the borrower becomes unable to meet its obligations on the related mortgage loan, the liquidation value of that industrial property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the related mortgage loan, than would be the case if the industrial property were readily adaptable to other uses.

 

Location is also important because an industrial property requires the availability of labor sources, proximity to supply sources and customers and accessibility to rail lines, major roadways and other distribution channels.

 

Further, certain of the industrial properties may have tenants that are subject to risks unique to their business, such as cold storage facilities. Cold storage facilities may have unique risks such as short lease terms due to seasonal use, making income potentially more volatile than for properties with longer term leases, and customized refrigeration design, rendering such facilities less readily convertible to alternative uses.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Industrial Properties”.

 

Office Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of office properties, including:

 

 

the physical attributes of the building in relation to competing buildings (e.g., age, condition, design, appearance, access to transportation and ability to offer certain amenities, such as sophisticated building systems and/or business wiring requirements);

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the adaptability of the building to changes in the technological needs of the tenants;

 

 

an adverse change in population, patterns of telecommuting or sharing of office space, and employment growth (which creates demand for office space);

 

 

in the case of a medical office property, (a) the proximity of such property to a hospital or other healthcare establishment, (b) reimbursements for patient fees from private or government sponsored insurers, (c) its ability to attract doctors and nurses to be on staff, and (d) its ability to afford and acquire the latest medical equipment. Issues related to reimbursement (ranging from nonpayment to delays in payment) from such insurers could adversely impact cash flow at such mortgaged property; and

 

 

in the case of tenants that offer co-working or office-sharing space designed for multiple, unaffiliated space users, licenses or subleases of space to users are of shorter-term duration and user turnover is greater than with typical office leases. Co-working tenants may experience higher operating costs than typical office tenants, and revenues may lag expenses until the co-working space is filled out. Further, if office rents decrease, shorter-term space users may move to properties with lower rent, while co-working tenants would be left with longer-term lease obligations.

 

Moreover, the cost of refitting office space for a new tenant is often higher than the cost of refitting other types of properties for new tenants.

 

Certain office tenants at the mortgaged properties may use their leased space to create shared workspaces that they lease to other businesses. Shared workspaces are generally rented by customers on a short term basis and for less square feet. Short term, smaller space users may be more impacted by economic fluctuations compared to traditional long term, larger office leases, which has the potential to impact operating profitability of the company offering the shared space and, in turn, its ability to maintain its lease payments. This may subject the related mortgage loan to increased risk of default and loss. In addition, the business model for co-working tenants is evolving, and in markets where co-working tenants represent significant market share, deteriorating performance at any one location may create disruption across other co-working locations and affect the broader office market as well.

 

If one or more major tenants at a particular office property were to close or remain vacant, we cannot assure you that such tenants would be replaced in a timely manner or without incurring material additional costs to the related borrower and resulting in an adverse effect on the financial performance of the property.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Office Properties”.

 

Self Storage Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of self storage properties, including:

 

 

decreased demand;

 

 

lack of proximity to apartment complexes or commercial users;

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apartment tenants moving to single family homes;

 

 

decline in services rendered, including security;

 

 

dependence on business activity ancillary to renting units;

 

 

security concerns;

 

 

age of improvements; or

 

 

competition or other factors.

 

Self storage properties are considered vulnerable to competition, because both acquisition costs and break-even occupancy are relatively low. The conversion of self storage facilities to alternative uses would generally require substantial capital expenditures. Thus, if the operation of any of the self storage properties becomes unprofitable, the liquidation value of that self storage mortgaged property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the mortgage loan, than if the self storage mortgaged property were readily adaptable to other uses. In addition, storage units are typically engaged for shorter time frames than traditional commercial leases for office or retail space.

 

Tenants at self storage properties tend to require and receive privacy, anonymity and efficient access, each of which may heighten environmental and other risks related to such property as the borrower may be unaware of the contents in any self storage unit. No environmental assessment of a self storage mortgaged property included an inspection of the contents of the self storage units at that mortgaged property, and there is no assurance that all of the units included in the self storage mortgaged properties are free from hazardous substances or other pollutants or contaminants or will remain so in the future.

 

Certain mortgage loans secured by self storage properties may be affiliated with a franchise company through a franchise agreement. The performance of a self storage property affiliated with a franchise company may be affected by the continued existence and financial strength of the franchisor, the public perception of a service mark, and the duration of the franchise agreement. The transferability of franchise license agreements is restricted. In the event of a foreclosure, the lender or its agent would not have the right to use the franchise license without the franchisor’s consent. In addition, certain self storage properties may derive a material portion of revenue from business activities ancillary to self storage such as truck rentals, parking fees and similar activities which require special use permits or other discretionary zoning approvals and/or from leasing a portion of the subject property for office or retail purposes. See Annex A-1 and the footnotes related thereto.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Self Storage Properties”.

 

Mixed Use Properties Have Special Risks

 

Certain properties are mixed use properties. Such mortgaged properties are subject to the risks relating to the property types described in “—Office Properties Have Special Risks”, “—Retail Properties Have Special Risks” and “—Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses”, as applicable. See Annex A-1 for the five largest tenants (by net rentable area leased) at each mixed use property. A mixed use property may be subject to additional risks, including the property manager’s inexperience in managing the different property types that comprise such mixed use property.

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See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Mixed Use Properties”.

 

Hospitality Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” above, various other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of hospitality properties, including:

 

 

adverse economic and social conditions, either local, regional or national (which may limit the amount that can be charged for a room and reduce occupancy levels);

 

 

continuing expenditures for modernizing, refurbishing and maintaining existing facilities prior to the expiration of their anticipated useful lives;

 

 

ability to convert to alternative uses which may not be readily made;

 

 

a deterioration in the financial strength or managerial capabilities of the owner or operator of a hospitality property;

 

 

changes in travel patterns caused by general adverse economic conditions, fear of terrorist attacks, adverse weather conditions, pandemics and changes in access, energy prices, strikes, travel costs, relocation of highways, the construction of additional highways, concerns about travel safety or other factors;

 

 

relative illiquidity of hospitality investments which limits the ability of the borrowers and property managers to respond to changes in economic or other conditions; and

 

 

competition.

 

Because hotel rooms are generally rented for short periods of time, the financial performance of hospitality properties tends to be affected by adverse economic conditions and competition more quickly than other commercial properties. Additionally, as a result of high operating costs, relatively small decreases in revenue can cause significant stress on a property’s cash flow.

 

Moreover, the hospitality and lodging industry is generally seasonal in nature and different seasons affect different hospitality properties differently depending on type and location. This seasonality can be expected to cause periodic fluctuations in a hospitality property’s room and restaurant revenues, occupancy levels, room rates and operating expenses. We cannot assure you that cash flow will be sufficient to offset any shortfalls that occur at the mortgaged property during slower periods or that the related mortgage loans provide for seasonality reserves, or if seasonality reserves are provided for, that such reserves will be funded or will be sufficient or available to fund such shortfalls.

 

In addition, certain hospitality properties are limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels. Hospitality properties that are limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels may subject a lender to more risk than full-service hospitality properties as they generally require less capital for construction than full-service hospitality properties. In addition, as limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels generally offer fewer amenities than full-service hospitality properties, they are less distinguishable from each other. As a result, it is easier for limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels to experience increased or unforeseen competition.

 

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In addition to hotel operations, some hospitality properties also operate entertainment complexes that include restaurants, lounges, nightclubs and/or banquet and meeting spaces and may derive a significant portion of the related property’s revenue from such operations. Consumer demand for entertainment resorts is particularly sensitive to downturns in the economy and the corresponding impact on discretionary spending on leisure activities. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences could be driven by factors such as perceived or actual general economic conditions, high energy, fuel and food costs, the increased cost of travel, the weakened job market, perceived or actual disposable consumer income and wealth, fears of recession and changes in consumer confidence in the economy, or fears of war and future acts of terrorism. These factors could reduce consumer demand for the leisure activities that the property offers, thus imposing practical limits on pricing and harming operations. Restaurants and nightclubs are particularly vulnerable to changes in consumer preferences. In addition, a nightclub’s, restaurant’s or bar’s revenue is extremely dependent on its popularity and perception. These characteristics are subject to change rapidly and we cannot assure you that any of a hospitality property’s nightclubs, restaurants or bars will maintain their current level of popularity or perception in the market.  Any such change could have a material adverse effect on the net cash flow of the property.

 

Some of the hospitality properties have liquor licenses associated with the mortgaged property. The liquor licenses for these mortgaged properties are generally held by affiliates of the related borrowers, unaffiliated managers or operating lessees. The laws and regulations relating to liquor licenses generally prohibit the transfer of such licenses to any person, or condition such transfer on the prior approval of the governmental authority that issued the license. In the event of a foreclosure of a hospitality property that holds a liquor license, the special servicer on behalf of the issuing entity or a purchaser in a foreclosure sale would likely have to apply for a new license, which might not be granted or might be granted only after a delay that could be significant. We cannot assure you that a new license could be obtained promptly or at all. The lack of a liquor license in a hospitality property could have an adverse impact on the revenue from the related mortgaged property or on the hospitality property’s occupancy rate.

 

In addition, hospitality properties may be structured with a master lease (or operating lease) in order to minimize potential liabilities of the borrower. Under the master lease structure, an operating lessee (typically affiliated with the borrower) is also an obligor under the related mortgage loan and the operating lessee borrower pays rent to the fee owner borrower. See “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases—Mortgaged Properties Leased to Borrowers or Borrower Affiliated Entities Also Have Risks” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Affiliated Leases”.

 

In addition, there may be risks associated with hospitality properties that have not entered into or become a party to any franchise agreement, license agreement or other “flag”. Hospitality properties often enter into these types of agreements in order to align the hospitality property with a certain public perception or to benefit from a centralized reservation system. We cannot assure you that hospitality properties that lack such benefits will be able to operate successfully on an independent basis.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Hospitality Properties”.

 

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Risks Relating to Affiliation with a Franchise or Hotel Management Company

 

The performance of a hospitality property affiliated with a franchise or hotel management company depends in part on:

 

 

the continued existence and financial strength of the franchisor or hotel management company;

 

 

the public perception of the franchise or hotel chain service mark; and

 

 

the duration of the franchise licensing or management agreements.

 

The continuation of a franchise agreement, license agreement or management agreement is subject to specified operating standards and other terms and conditions set forth in such agreements. The failure of a borrower to maintain such standards or adhere to other applicable terms and conditions, such as property improvement plans, could result in the loss or cancellation of their rights under the franchise, license or hotel management agreement. We cannot assure you that a replacement franchise could be obtained in the event of termination or that such replacement franchise affiliation would be of equal quality to the terminated franchise affiliation. In addition, a replacement franchise, license and/or hospitality property manager may require significantly higher fees as well as the investment of capital to bring the hospitality property into compliance with the requirements of the replacement franchisor, licensor and/or hospitality property manager. Any provision in a franchise agreement, license agreement or management agreement providing for termination because of a bankruptcy of a franchisor, licensor or manager generally will not be enforceable. 

 

The transferability of franchise agreements, license agreements and property management agreements may be restricted. In the event of a foreclosure, the lender may not have the right to use the franchise license without the franchisor’s consent or the manager might be able to terminate the management agreement. Conversely, in the case of certain mortgage loans, the lender may be unable to remove a franchisor/licensor or a hotel management company that it desires to replace following a foreclosure and, further, may be limited as regards the pool of potential transferees for a foreclosure or real estate owned property.

 

In some cases where a hospitality property is subject to a license, franchise or management agreement, the licensor, franchisor or manager has required or may in the future require the completion of various repairs and/or renovations pursuant to a property improvement plan issued by the licensor, franchisor or manager. Failure to complete those repairs and/or renovations in accordance with the plan could result in the hospitality property losing its license or franchise or in the termination of the management agreement. Annex A-1 and the related footnotes set forth the amount of reserves, if any, established under the related mortgage loans in connection with any of those repairs and/or renovations. We cannot assure you that any amounts reserved will be sufficient to complete the repairs and/or renovations required with respect to any affected hospitality property. In addition, in some cases, those reserves will be maintained by the franchisor, licensor or property manager. Furthermore, the lender may not require a reserve for repairs and/or renovations in all instances.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Hospitality Properties”.

 

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Leased Fee Properties Have Special Risks

 

Land subject to a ground lease presents special risks. In such cases, where the borrower owns the fee interest but not the related improvements, such borrower will only receive the rental income from the ground lease and not from the operation of any related improvements.  Any default by the ground lessee would adversely affect the borrower’s ability to make payments on the related mortgage loan. While ground leases may contain certain restrictions on the use and operation of the related mortgaged property, the ground lessee generally enjoys the rights and privileges of a fee owner, including the right to construct, alter and remove improvements and fixtures from the land and to assign and sublet the ground leasehold interest.  However, the borrower has the same risk of interruptions in cash flow if such ground lessee defaults under its lease as it would on another single tenant commercial property, without the control over the premises that it would ordinarily have as landlord. In addition, in the event of a condemnation, the borrower would only be entitled to an allocable share of the condemnation proceeds. Furthermore, the insurance requirements are often governed by the terms of the ground lease and, in some cases, certain tenants or subtenants may be allowed to self-insure. The ground lessee is commonly permitted to mortgage its ground leasehold interest, and the leasehold lender will often have notice and cure rights with respect to material defaults under the ground lease. In addition, leased fee interests are less frequently purchased and sold than other interests in commercial real property. It may be difficult for the issuing entity, if it became a foreclosing lender, to sell the fee interest if the tenant and its improvements remain on the land. In addition, if the improvements are nearing the end of their useful life, there could be a risk that the tenant defaults in lieu of performing any obligations it may otherwise have to raze the structure and return the land in raw form to the developer.  Furthermore, leased fee interests are generally subject to the same risks associated with the property type of the ground lessee’s use of the premises because that use is a source of revenue for the payment of ground rent. See representation and warranty no. 18 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1). 

 

Manufactured Housing Community Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of manufactured housing community properties, including:

 

 

the number of competing residential developments in the local market, such as other manufactured housing community properties, apartment buildings and site-built single family homes;

 

 

the physical attributes of the community, including its age and appearance;

 

 

the location of the manufactured housing community property;

 

 

the presence and/or continued presence of sufficient manufactured homes at the manufactured housing community property (manufactured homes are not generally part of the collateral for a mortgage loan secured by a manufactured housing community property; rather, the pads upon which manufactured homes are located are leased to the owners of such manufactured homes; accordingly, manufactured homes may be moved from a manufactured housing community property);

 

 

the type of services or amenities it provides;

 

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any age restrictions;

 

 

the property’s reputation; and

 

 

state and local regulations, including rent control and rent stabilization, and tenant association rights.

 

The manufactured housing community properties have few improvements (which are highly specialized) and are “single-purpose” properties that could not be readily converted to general residential, retail or office use. Thus, if the operation of any of the manufactured housing community properties becomes unprofitable due to competition, age of the improvements or other factors such that the borrower becomes unable to meet its obligations on the related mortgage loan, the liquidation value of that manufactured housing community property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the related mortgage loan, than would be the case if the manufactured housing community property were readily adaptable to other uses.

 

Some manufactured housing community properties are either recreational vehicle resorts or have a significant portion of the properties that are intended for short-term recreational vehicle hook-ups, and tenancy of these communities may vary significantly by season.  This seasonality may cause periodic fluctuations in revenues, tenancy levels, rental rates and operating expenses for these properties.

 

Some of the manufactured housing community mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans in the trust may have a material number of leased homes that are currently owned by the related borrower or an affiliate thereof and rented by the respective tenants like apartments. In circumstances where the leased homes are owned by an affiliate of the borrower, the related pads may, in some cases, be subject to a master lease with that affiliate. In such cases, the tenants will tend to be more transient and less tied to the property than if they owned their own home.  Such leased homes do not, in all (or, possibly, in any) such cases, constitute collateral for the related mortgage loan. Some of the leased homes that are not collateral for the related mortgage loan are rented on a lease-to-own basis. In some cases, the borrower itself owns, leases, sells and/or finances the sale of homes, although generally the related income therefrom will be excluded for loan underwriting purposes. See also representation and warranty no. 33 on Annex D-1 to this prospectus and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 to this prospectus (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 to this prospectus). Some of the leased homes owned by a borrower or its affiliate may be financed and a default on that financing may materially adversely affect the performance of the manufactured housing community mortgaged property. 

 

Certain of the manufactured housing community mortgaged properties may not be connected in their entirety to public water and/or sewer systems. In such cases, the borrower could incur a substantial expense if it were required to connect the property to such systems in the future. In addition, the use of well water enhances the likelihood that the property could be adversely affected by a recognized environmental condition that impacts soil and groundwater.

 

Furthermore, certain of the manufactured housing communities are, in whole or in part, in a flood zone. Even if no material borrower-owned improvements are located in the flood zone, the related borrower’s business could be adversely affected by flooding or the potential of flooding.

 

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In addition, certain of the manufactured housing community properties are subject to government rent control regulations, which can limit the borrower’s ability to institute, and/or the amount of, periodic tenant rent increases.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Manufactured Housing Community Properties”.

 

Data Centers Have Special Risks

 

The primary function of a data center is to provide a secure location for back-up data storage. Data centers are subject to similar risks as office buildings. The value of a data center will be affected by its telecommunications capacity, availability of sufficient power, and availability of support systems including environmental, temperature and hazard risk control, physical security, and redundant backup systems. As data centers contain sensitive and highly costly equipment and connections, they are subject to heightened risk in the event of fire, natural disaster or terrorism. In addition, data centers can be the subject of build-to-suit construction to specific user requirements. As such, if the lease with a data center user is terminated for any reason, the cost and time to adapt the space to other users may be considerable. Further, data center properties may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable, or if the leased spaces were to become vacant, for any reason. See “—Office Properties Have Special Risks” and “—Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses”.

 

Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements

 

The management and operation of a condominium is generally controlled by a condominium board representing the owners of the individual condominium units, subject to the terms of the related condominium rules or by-laws. Generally, the consent of a majority of the board members is required for any actions of the condominium board and a unit owner’s ability to control decisions of the board are generally related to the number of units owned by such owner as a percentage of the total number of units in the condominium. In certain cases, the related borrower does not have a majority of votes on the condominium board, which result in the related borrower not having control of the related condominium or owners association.

 

The board of managers or directors of the related condominium generally has discretion to make decisions affecting the condominium, and we cannot assure you that the related borrower under a mortgage loan secured by one or more interests in that condominium will have any control over decisions made by the related board of managers or directors. Even if a borrower or its designated board members, either through control of the appointment and voting of sufficient members of the related condominium board or by virtue of other provisions in the related condominium documents, has consent rights over actions by the related condominium associations or owners, we cannot assure you that the related condominium board will not take actions that would materially adversely affect the related borrower’s unit. Thus, decisions made by that board of managers or directors, including regarding assessments to be paid by the unit owners, insurance to be maintained on the condominium and many other decisions affecting the maintenance of that condominium, may have a significant adverse impact on the related mortgage loans in the issuing entity that are secured by mortgaged properties consisting of such condominium interests. We cannot assure you that the related board of managers or directors will always act in the best interests of the related borrower under the related mortgage loans.

 

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The condominium board is generally responsible for administration of the affairs of the condominium, including providing for maintenance and repair of common areas, adopting rules and regulations regarding common areas, and obtaining insurance and repairing and restoring the common areas of the property after a casualty. Notwithstanding the insurance and casualty provisions of the related mortgage loan documents, the condominium board may have the right to control the use of casualty proceeds.

 

In addition, the condominium board generally has the right to assess individual unit owners for their share of expenses related to the operation and maintenance of the common elements. In the event that an owner of another unit fails to pay its allocated assessments, the related borrower may be required to pay such assessments in order to properly maintain and operate the common elements of the property. Although the condominium board generally may obtain a lien against any unit owner for common expenses that are not paid, such lien generally is extinguished if a lender takes possession pursuant to a foreclosure. Each unit owner is responsible for maintenance of its respective unit and retains essential operational control over its unit.

 

In addition, due to the nature of condominiums, a default on the part of the borrower with respect to such mortgaged properties will not allow the special servicer the same flexibility in realizing on the collateral as is generally available with respect to commercial properties that are not condominium units. The rights of other unit or property owners, the documents governing the management of the condominium units and the state and local laws applicable to condominium units must be considered. In addition, in the event of a casualty with respect to a condominium, due to the possible existence of multiple loss payees on any insurance policy covering such property, there could be a delay in the allocation of related insurance proceeds, if any. Consequently, servicing and realizing upon the collateral described above could subject the certificateholders to a greater delay, expense and risk than with respect to a mortgage loan secured by a commercial property that is not a condominium unit.

 

Certain condominium declarations and/or local laws provide for the withdrawal of a property from a condominium structure under certain circumstances. For example, the New York Condominium Act provides for a withdrawal of the property from a condominium structure by vote of 80% of unit owners. If the condominium is terminated, the building will be subject to an action for partition by any unit owner or lienor as if owned in common. This could cause an early and unanticipated prepayment of the mortgage loan. We cannot assure you that the proceeds from partition would be sufficient to satisfy borrower’s obligations under the mortgage loan. See also “—Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions” for certain risks relating to use restrictions imposed pursuant to condominium declarations or other condominium especially in a situation where the mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium building.

 

A condominium regime can also be established with respect to land only, as an alternative to land subdivision in those jurisdictions where it is so permitted. In such circumstances, the condominium board’s responsibilities are typically limited to matters such as landscaping and maintenance of common areas, including private roadways, while individual unit owners have responsibility for the buildings constructed on their respective land units. Likewise, in land condominium regimes, individual unit owners would typically have responsibility for property insurance, although the condominium board might maintain liability insurance for the common areas. Accordingly, while some attributes of a building condominium form are shared by a land condominium, the latter would have a more limited scope of board responsibilities and shared costs.

 

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See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Condominium and Other Shared Interests”. 

 

Operation of a Mortgaged Property Depends on the Property Manager’s Performance

 

The successful operation of a real estate project depends upon the property manager’s performance and viability. The property manager is responsible for:

 

 

responding to changes in the local market;

 

 

planning and implementing the rental structure;

 

 

operating the property and providing building services;

 

 

managing operating expenses; and

 

 

assuring that maintenance and capital improvements are carried out in a timely fashion.

 

Properties deriving revenues primarily from short term sources, such as hotel guests or short term or month-to-month leases, are generally more management intensive than properties leased to creditworthy tenants under long term leases.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties will be managed by affiliates of the related borrower. If a mortgage loan is in default or undergoing special servicing, such relationship could disrupt the management of the related mortgaged property, which may adversely affect cash flow. However, the related mortgage loans will generally permit, in the case of mortgaged properties managed by borrower affiliates, the lender to remove the related property manager upon the occurrence of an event of default under the related mortgage loan beyond applicable cure periods (or, in some cases, in the event of a foreclosure following such default), and in some cases a decline in cash flow below a specified level or the failure to satisfy some other specified performance trigger.

 

Concentrations Based on Property Type, Geography, Related Borrowers and Other Factors May Disproportionately Increase Losses

 

The effect of mortgage pool loan losses will be more severe if the losses relate to mortgage loans that account for a disproportionately large percentage of the pool’s aggregate principal balance. As mortgage loans pay down or properties are released, the remaining certificateholders may face a higher risk with respect to the diversity of property types and property characteristics and with respect to the number of borrowers.

 

See the table entitled “Range of Remaining Terms to Maturity or ARD as of the Cut-off Date” in Annex A-2 for a stratification of the remaining terms to maturity or anticipated repayment date of the mortgage loans. Because principal on the certificates is payable in sequential order of payment priority, and a class receives principal only after the preceding class(es) have been paid in full, classes that have a lower sequential priority are more likely to face these types of risks of concentration than classes with a higher sequential priority.

 

Several of the mortgage loans have cut-off date balances that are substantially higher than the average cut-off date balance. In general, concentrations in mortgage loans with larger-than-average balances can result in losses that are more severe, relative to the size of the mortgage loan pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the mortgage loan pool were more evenly distributed.

 

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A concentration of mortgage loans secured by the same mortgaged property types can increase the risk that a decline in a particular industry or business would have a disproportionately large impact on the pool of mortgage loans. Mortgaged property types representing 5.0% or more of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (based on allocated loan amount) are retail, multifamily, industrial, office and self storage. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types” for information on the types of mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool. 

 

Repayments by borrowers and the market value of the related mortgaged properties could be affected by economic conditions generally or specific to particular geographic areas or regions of the United States, and concentrations of mortgaged properties in particular geographic areas may increase the risk that conditions in the real estate market where the mortgaged property is located, or other adverse economic or other developments or natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, floods, forest fires, tornadoes or hurricanes or changes in governmental rules or fiscal policies) affecting a particular region of the country, could increase the frequency and severity of losses on mortgage loans secured by those mortgaged properties. As a result, areas affected by such events may experience disruptions in travel, transportation and tourism, loss of jobs, an overall decrease in consumer activity, or a decline in real estate-related investments. We cannot assure you that the economies in such impacted areas will recover sufficiently to support income-producing real estate at pre-event levels or that the costs of the related clean-up will not have a material adverse effect on the local or national economy. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations” in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that any hurricane damage would be covered by insurance.

 

Mortgaged properties securing 5.0% or more (in the aggregate) of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (based on allocated loan amount) are located in New York, California, Arizona, Pennsylvania and Illinois. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations”.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties are located in areas that, based on low population density, poor economic demographics (such as higher than average unemployment rates, lower than average annual household income and/or overall loss of jobs) and/or negative trends in such regards, would be considered secondary or tertiary markets.

 

A concentration of mortgage loans with the same borrower or related borrowers also can pose increased risks, such as:

 

 

if a borrower that owns or controls several properties (whether or not all of them secure mortgage loans in the mortgage pool) experiences financial difficulty at one such property, it could defer maintenance at a mortgaged property or debt service payments on the related mortgage loan in order to satisfy current expenses with respect to the first property or, alternatively, it could direct leasing activity in ways that are adverse to the mortgaged property;

 

 

a borrower could also attempt to avert foreclosure by filing a bankruptcy petition that might have the effect of interrupting debt service payments on the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool secured by that borrower’s mortgaged properties (subject to the master servicer’s and the trustee’s obligation to make advances for monthly payments) for an indefinite period; and

 

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mortgaged properties owned by the same borrower or related borrowers are likely to have common management, common general partners and/or common managing members, thereby increasing the risk that financial or other difficulties experienced by such related parties could have a greater impact on the pool of mortgage loans. See “—A Bankruptcy Proceeding May Result in Losses and Delays in Realizing on the Mortgage Loans” below.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics” for information on the composition of the mortgage pool by property type and geographic distribution and loan concentration.

 

Adverse Environmental Conditions at or Near Mortgaged Properties May Result in Losses

 

The issuing entity could become liable for a material adverse environmental condition at an underlying mortgaged property. Any such potential liability could reduce or delay payments on the offered certificates.

 

Each of the mortgaged properties was either (i) subject to environmental site assessments prior to the time of origination of the related mortgage loan (or, in certain limited cases, after origination) including Phase I environmental site assessments or updates of previously performed Phase I environmental site assessments, or (ii) subject to a secured creditor environmental insurance policy or other environmental insurance policy. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations”. 

 

We cannot assure you that the environmental assessments revealed all existing or potential environmental risks or that all adverse environmental conditions have been or will be completely abated or remediated or that any reserves, insurance or operations and maintenance plans will be sufficient to remediate the environmental conditions. Moreover, we cannot assure you that:

 

 

future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability; or

 

 

the current environmental condition of the mortgaged properties will not be adversely affected by tenants or by the condition of land or operations in the vicinity of the mortgaged properties (such as underground storage tanks (“USTs”)).

 

We cannot assure you that with respect to any mortgaged property any remediation plan or any projected remedial costs or time is accurate or sufficient to complete the remediation objectives, or that no additional contamination requiring environmental investigation or remediation will be discovered on any mortgaged property. Likewise, all environmental policies naming the lender as named insured cover certain risks or events specifically identified in the policy, but the coverage is limited by its terms, conditions, limitations and exclusions, and does not purport to cover all environmental conditions whatsoever affecting the applicable mortgaged property, and we cannot assure you that any environmental conditions currently known, suspected, or unknown and discovered in the future will be covered by the terms of the policy.

 

Before the trustee or the special servicer, as applicable, acquires title to a mortgaged property on behalf of the issuing entity or assumes operation of the property, it will be required to obtain an environmental assessment of such mortgaged property, or rely on a recent environmental assessment. This requirement is intended to mitigate the risk that the issuing entity will become liable under any environmental law. There is accordingly some

 

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risk that the mortgaged property will decline in value while this assessment is being obtained or remedial action is being taken. Moreover, we cannot assure you that this requirement will effectively insulate the issuing entity from potential liability under environmental laws. Any such potential liability could reduce or delay distributions to certificateholders.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations” for additional information on environmental conditions at mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans in the issuing entity. See also representation and warranty no. 43 on Annex D-1 to this prospectus and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 to this prospectus (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 to this prospectus).

 

See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—LMF Commercial, LLC—LMF’s Underwriting Standards and Loan Analysis”; “—Wells Fargo Bank, National Association—Wells Fargo Bank’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting”; “—Column Financial, Inc.—Column’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”; “—UBS AG, New York Branch—UBS AG, New York Branch’s Underwriting Standards”; “—BSPRT CMBS Finance, LLC—BSPRT’s Underwriting Standards”; “—Ladder Capital Finance LLC—Ladder Capital Group’s Underwriting Guidelines and Processes”; 
 “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Realization Upon Mortgage Loans”; and “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans”.

 

See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Environmental Considerations”.

 

Risks Related to Redevelopment, Expansion and Renovation at Mortgaged Properties

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are currently undergoing or, in the future, are expected to undergo redevelopment, expansion or renovation. In addition, the related borrower may be permitted under the related mortgage loan documents, at its option and cost but subject to certain conditions, to undergo future construction, renovation or alterations of the mortgaged property. To the extent applicable, we cannot assure you that any escrow or reserve collected, if any, will be sufficient to complete the current renovation or be otherwise sufficient to satisfy any tenant improvement expenses at a mortgaged property. Failure to complete those planned improvements may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow at the mortgaged property and the related borrower’s ability to meet its payment obligations under the mortgage loan documents.

 

Certain of the hospitality properties securing the mortgage loans are currently undergoing or are scheduled to undergo renovations or property improvement plans. In some circumstances, these renovations or property improvement plans may necessitate taking a portion of the available guest rooms temporarily offline, temporarily decreasing the number of available rooms and the revenue generating capacity of the related hospitality property. In other cases, these renovations may involve renovations of common spaces or external features of the related hospitality property, which may cause disruptions or otherwise decrease the attractiveness of the related hospitality property to potential guests. These property improvement plans may be required under the related franchise or management agreement and a failure to timely complete them may result in a termination or expiration of a franchise or management agreement and may be an event of default under the related mortgage loan.

 

Certain of the properties securing the mortgage loans may currently be undergoing or are scheduled to undergo renovations or property expansions. Such renovations or expansions may be required under tenant leases and a failure to timely complete such

 

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renovations or expansions may result in a termination of such lease and may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow at the mortgaged property and the related borrower’s ability to meet its payment obligations under the mortgage loan documents.

 

We cannot assure you that current or planned redevelopment, expansion or renovation will be completed at all, that such redevelopment, expansion or renovation will be completed in the time frame contemplated, or that, when and if such redevelopment, expansion or renovation is completed, such redevelopment, expansion or renovation will improve the operations at, or increase the value of, the related mortgaged property. Failure of any of the foregoing to occur could have a material negative impact on the related mortgaged property, which could affect the ability of the related borrower to repay the related mortgage loan.

 

In the event the related borrower fails to pay the costs for work completed or material delivered in connection with such ongoing redevelopment, expansion or renovation, the portion of the mortgaged property on which there are renovations may be subject to mechanic’s or materialmen’s liens that may be senior to the lien of the related mortgage loan.

 

The existence of construction or renovation at a mortgaged property may take rental units or rooms or leasable space “off-line” or otherwise make space unavailable for rental, impair access or traffic at or near the mortgaged property, or, in general, make that mortgaged property less attractive to tenants or their customers, and accordingly could have a negative effect on net operating income. In addition, any such construction or renovation at a mortgaged property may temporarily interfere with the use and operation of any portion of such mortgaged property. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Redevelopment, Renovation and Expansion” for information regarding mortgaged properties which are currently undergoing or, in the future, are expected to undergo redevelopment, expansion or renovation. See also Annex A-3 to this prospectus for additional information on redevelopment, renovation and expansion at the mortgaged properties securing the 15 largest mortgage loans or groups of cross-collateralized mortgage loans.

 

Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses

 

Certain mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans may have specialty use tenants and may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable for any reason.

 

For example, retail, mixed-use or office properties may have theater tenants. Properties with theater tenants are exposed to certain unique risks. Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of a theater. In addition, decreasing attendance at a theater could adversely affect revenue of the theater, which may, in turn, cause the tenant to experience financial difficulties, resulting in downgrades in their credit ratings and, in certain cases, bankruptcy filings. In addition, because of unique construction requirements of theaters, any vacant theater space would not easily be converted to other uses. 

 

Retail, mixed-use or office properties may also have health clubs as tenants. Several factors may adversely affect the value and successful operation of a health club, including:

 

 

the physical attributes of the health club (e.g., its age, appearance and layout);

 

 

the reputation, safety, convenience and attractiveness of the property to users;

 

 

management’s ability to control membership growth and attrition;

 

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competition in the tenant’s marketplace from other health clubs and alternatives to health clubs; and

 

 

adverse changes in economic and social conditions and demographic changes (e.g., population decreases or changes in average age or income), which may result in decreased demand.

 

In addition, there may be significant costs associated with changing consumer preferences (e.g., multipurpose clubs from single-purpose clubs or varieties of equipment, classes, services and amenities). In addition, health clubs may not be readily convertible to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable for any reason. The liquidation value of any such health club consequently may be less than would be the case if the property were readily adaptable to changing consumer preferences for other uses.

 

Certain retail, mixed use or office properties may be partially comprised of a parking garage, or certain properties may be entirely comprised of a parking garage. Parking garages and parking lots present risks not associated with other properties. The primary source of income for parking lots and garages is the rental fees charged for parking spaces.

 

Factors affecting the success of a parking lot or garage include:

 

 

the number of rentable parking spaces and rates charged;

 

 

the location of the lot or garage and, in particular, its proximity to places where large numbers of people work, shop or live;

 

 

the amount of alternative parking spaces in the area;

 

 

the availability of mass transit; and

 

 

the perceptions of the safety, convenience and services of the lot or garage.

 

In instances where a parking garage does not have a long-term leasing arrangement with a parking lessee, but rather relies on individual short-term (i.e., daily or weekly) parking tenants for parking revenues, variations in any or all of the foregoing factors can result in increased volatility in the net operating income for such parking garage.

 

Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of a parking garage facility. Site characteristics that are valuable to a parking garage facility include location, clear ceiling heights, column spacing, zoning restrictions, number of spaces and overall functionality and accessibility.

 

In addition, because of the unique construction requirements of many parking garages and because a parking lot is often vacant paved land without any structure, a vacant parking garage facility or parking lot may not be easily converted to other uses.

 

Mortgaged properties may have other specialty use tenants, such as retail branches, medical and dental offices, lab space, gas stations, data centers, urgent care facilities, daycare centers, design showrooms and/or restaurants, as part of the mortgaged property.

 

In the case of specialty use tenants such as restaurants and theaters, aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of such properties and other retailers at the mortgaged property. Decreasing patronage at such properties could adversely affect revenue of the property, which may, in turn, cause the tenants to experience financial difficulties, resulting in downgrades in their credit ratings, lease defaults and, in certain

 

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cases, bankruptcy filings. See “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases—Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease” above. Additionally, receipts at such properties are also affected not only by objective factors but by subjective factors. For instance, restaurant receipts are affected by such varied influences as the current personal income levels in the community, an individual consumer’s preference for type of food, style of dining and restaurant atmosphere, the perceived popularity of the restaurant, food safety concerns related to personal health with the handling of food items at the restaurant or by food suppliers and the actions and/or behaviors of staff and management and level of service to the customers. In addition, because of unique construction requirements of such properties, any vacant space would not easily be converted to other uses.

 

Retail bank branches are specialty use tenants that are often outfitted with vaults, teller counters and other customary installations and equipment that may have required significant capital expenditures to install. The ability to lease these types of properties may be difficult due to the added cost and time to retrofit the property to allow for other uses.

 

Mortgaged properties with specialty use tenants may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable, or the leased spaces were to become vacant, for any reason due to their unique construction requirements. In addition, converting commercial properties to alternate uses generally requires substantial capital expenditures and could result in a significant adverse effect on, or interruption of, the revenues generated by such properties.

 

In addition, a mortgaged property may not be readily convertible due to restrictive covenants related to such mortgaged property, including in the case of mortgaged properties that are subject to a condominium regime or subject to a ground lease, the use and other restrictions imposed by the condominium declaration and other related documents, especially in a situation where a mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium regime. See “—Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements above.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties may be part of tax-reduction programs that apply only if the mortgaged properties are used for certain purposes. Such properties may be restricted from being converted to alternative uses because of such restrictions.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties have government tenants or other tenants which may have space that was “built to suit” that particular tenant’s uses and needs. For example, a government tenant may require enhanced security features that required additional construction or renovation costs and for which the related tenant may pay above market rent. However, such enhanced features may not be necessary for a new tenant (and such new tenant may not be willing to pay the higher rent associated with such features). While a government office building or government leased space may be usable as a regular office building or tenant space, the rents that may be collected in the event the government tenant does not renew its lease may be significantly lower than the rent currently collected.

 

Additionally, zoning, historical preservation or other restrictions also may prevent alternative uses. See “—Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions” below.

 

Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions 

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties may not comply with current zoning laws, including use, density, parking, height, landscaping, open space and set back requirements, due to

 

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changes in zoning requirements after such mortgaged properties were constructed. These properties, as well as those for which variances or special permits were issued or for which non-conformity with current zoning laws is otherwise permitted, are considered to be a “legal non-conforming use” and/or the improvements are considered to be “legal non-conforming structures”. This means that the borrower is not required to alter its structure to comply with the existing or new law; however, the borrower may not be able to rebuild the premises “as-is” in the event of a substantial casualty loss. This may adversely affect the cash flow of the property following the loss. If a substantial casualty were to occur, we cannot assure you that insurance proceeds would be available to pay the mortgage loan in full. In addition, if a non-conforming use were to be discontinued and/or the property were repaired or restored in conformity with the current law, the value of the property or the revenue-producing potential of the property may not be equal to that before the casualty.

 

In some cases, the related borrower has obtained law and ordinance insurance to cover additional costs that result from rebuilding the mortgaged property in accordance with current zoning requirements, including, within the policy’s limitations, demolition costs, increased costs of construction due to code compliance and loss of value to undamaged improvements resulting from the application of zoning laws. However, if as a result of the applicable zoning laws the rebuilt improvements are smaller or less attractive to tenants than the original improvements, you should not assume that the resulting loss in income will be covered by law and ordinance insurance. Zoning protection insurance, if obtained, will generally reimburse the lender for the difference between (i) the mortgage loan balance on the date of damage loss to the mortgaged property from an insured peril and (ii) the total insurance proceeds at the time of the damage to the mortgaged property if such mortgaged property cannot be rebuilt to its former use due to new zoning ordinances.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties that do not conform to current zoning laws may not be “legal non-conforming uses” or “legal non-conforming structures”, thus constituting a zoning violation. The failure of a mortgaged property to comply with zoning laws or to be a “legal non-conforming use” or “legal non-conforming structure” may adversely affect the market value of the mortgaged property or the borrower’s ability to continue to use it in the manner it is currently being used or may necessitate material additional expenditures to remedy non-conformities. See representation and warranty no. 26 on Annex D-1 to this prospectus and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 to this prospectus (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 to this prospectus).

 

The limited availability of zoning information and/or extent of zoning diligence may also present risks. Zoning information contained in appraisals may be based on limited investigation, and zoning comfort letters obtained from jurisdictions, while based on available records, do not customarily involve any contemporaneous site inspection. The extent of zoning diligence will also be determined based on perceived risk and the cost and benefit of obtaining additional information. Even if law and ordinance insurance is required to mitigate rebuilding-related risks, we cannot assure you that other risks related to material zoning violations will have been identified under such circumstances, and that appropriate borrower covenants or other structural mitigants will have been required as a result.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties may be subject to certain use restrictions and/or operational requirements imposed pursuant to development agreements, regulatory agreements, ground leases, restrictive covenants, environmental restrictions, reciprocal easement agreements or operating agreements or historical landmark

 

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designations or, in the case of those mortgaged properties that are condominiums, condominium declarations or other condominium use restrictions or regulations, especially in a situation where the mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium building. Such use restrictions could include, for example, limitations on the character of the improvements or the properties, limitations affecting noise and parking requirements, among other things, and limitations on the borrowers’ right to operate certain types of facilities within a prescribed radius. These limitations impose upon the borrower stricter requirements with respect to repairs and alterations, including following a casualty loss. These limitations could adversely affect the ability of the related borrower to lease the mortgaged property on favorable terms, thus adversely affecting the borrower’s ability to fulfill its obligations under the related mortgage loan. In addition, any alteration, reconstruction, demolition, or new construction affecting a mortgaged property designated a historical landmark may require prior approval. Any such approval process, even if successful, could delay any redevelopment or alteration of a related property. The liquidation value of such property, to the extent subject to limitations of the kind described above or other limitations on convertibility of use, may be substantially less than would be the case if such property was readily adaptable to other uses or redevelopment. Further, such agreements may give a related owners’ association the right to impose assessments which, if unpaid, would constitute a lien prior to that of the Mortgage Loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Use Restrictions” for examples of mortgaged properties that are subject to restrictions relating to the use of the mortgaged properties. 

 

Additionally, some of the mortgaged properties may have current or past tenants that handle or have handled hazardous materials and, in some cases, related contamination at some of the mortgaged properties was previously investigated and, as warranted, remediated with regulatory closure, the conditions of which in some cases may include restrictions against any future redevelopment for residential use or other land use restrictions. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations” for additional information on environmental conditions at mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans in the issuing entity. See also representation and warranty no. 43 in Annex D-1 and any exceptions thereto in Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

Risks Relating to Inspections of Properties

 

Licensed engineers or consultants inspected the mortgaged properties at or about the time of the origination of the mortgage loans to assess items such as structural integrity of the buildings and other improvements on the mortgaged property, including exterior walls, roofing, interior construction, mechanical and electrical systems and general condition of the site, buildings and other improvements. However, we cannot assure you that all conditions requiring repair or replacement were identified. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in less access to tenant spaces, which may impact whether all conditions requiring repair or replacement were identified. No additional property inspections were conducted in connection with the issuance of the offered certificates.

 

Risks Relating to Costs of Compliance with Applicable Laws and Regulations

 

A borrower may be required to incur costs to comply with various existing and future federal, state or local laws and regulations applicable to the related mortgaged property, for example, zoning laws and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, which requires all public accommodations to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by persons with disabilities. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Americans with Disabilities Act”. The expenditure of these costs or the imposition of

 

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injunctive relief, penalties or fines in connection with the borrower’s noncompliance could negatively impact the borrower’s cash flow and, consequently, its ability to pay its mortgage loan.

 

Insurance May Not Be Available or Adequate

 

Although the mortgaged properties are required to be insured, or self-insured by a sole tenant of a related building or group of buildings, against certain risks, there is a possibility of casualty loss with respect to the mortgaged properties for which insurance proceeds may not be adequate or which may result from risks not covered by insurance.

 

In addition, certain types of mortgaged properties, such as manufactured housing and recreational vehicle communities, have few or no insurable buildings or improvements and thus do not have casualty insurance or low limits of casualty insurance in comparison with the related mortgage loan balances.

 

In addition, hazard insurance policies will typically contain co-insurance clauses that in effect require an insured at all times to carry insurance of a specified percentage, generally 80% to 90%, of the full replacement value of the improvements on the related mortgaged property in order to recover the full amount of any partial loss. As a result, even if insurance coverage is maintained, if the insured’s coverage falls below this specified percentage, those clauses generally provide that the insurer’s liability in the event of partial loss does not exceed the lesser of (1) the replacement cost of the improvements less physical depreciation and (2) that proportion of the loss as the amount of insurance carried bears to the specified percentage of the full replacement cost of those improvements. 

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties may be located in areas that are considered a high earthquake risk (seismic zones 3 or 4). See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations”.

 

Furthermore, with respect to certain mortgage loans, the insurable value of the related mortgaged property as of the origination date of the related mortgage loan was lower than the principal balance of the related mortgage loan. In the event of a casualty when a borrower is not required to rebuild or cannot rebuild, we cannot assure you that the insurance required with respect to the related mortgaged property will be sufficient to pay the related mortgage loan in full and there is no “gap” insurance required under such mortgage loan to cover any difference. In those circumstances, a casualty that occurs near the maturity date may result in an extension of the maturity date of the mortgage loan if the special servicer, in accordance with the servicing standard, determines that such extension was in the best interest of certificateholders.

 

The mortgage loans do not all require flood insurance on the related mortgaged properties unless they are in a flood zone and flood insurance is available and, in certain instances, even where the related mortgaged property was in a flood zone and flood insurance was available, flood insurance was not required.

 

The National Flood Insurance Program is scheduled to expire on September 30, 2021. We cannot assure you if or when the program will be reauthorized by Congress. If the program is not reauthorized, it could have an adverse effect on the value of properties in flood zones or their ability to be repaired after flood damage.

 

We cannot assure you that the borrowers will in the future be able to comply with requirements to maintain adequate insurance with respect to the mortgaged properties, and any uninsured loss could have a material adverse impact on the amount available to make

 

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payments on the related mortgage loan, and consequently, the offered certificates. As with all real estate, if reconstruction (for example, following fire or other casualty) or any major repair or improvement is required to the damaged property, changes in laws and governmental regulations may be applicable and may materially affect the cost to, or ability of, the borrowers to effect such reconstruction, major repair or improvement. As a result, the amount realized with respect to the mortgaged properties, and the amount available to make payments on the related mortgage loan, and consequently, the offered certificates, could be reduced. In addition, we cannot assure you that the amount of insurance required or provided would be sufficient to cover damages caused by any casualty, or that such insurance will be available in the future at commercially reasonable rates. See representation and warranty no. 18 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

Inadequacy of Title Insurers May Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates

 

Title insurance for a mortgaged property generally insures a lender against risks relating to a lender not having a first lien with respect to a mortgaged property, and in some cases can insure a lender against specific other risks. The protection afforded by title insurance depends on the ability of the title insurer to pay claims made upon it. We cannot assure you that with respect to any mortgage loan:

 

 

a title insurer will have the ability to pay title insurance claims made upon it;

 

 

the title insurer will maintain its present financial strength; or

 

 

a title insurer will not contest claims made upon it.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are either completing initial construction or undergoing renovation or redevelopment. Under such circumstances, there may be limitations to the amount of coverage or other exceptions to coverage that could adversely affect the issuing entity if losses are suffered. 

 

Terrorism Insurance May Not Be Available for All Mortgaged Properties

 

The occurrence or the possibility of terrorist attacks could (1) lead to damage to one or more of the mortgaged properties if any terrorist attacks occur or (2) result in higher costs for security and insurance premiums or diminish the availability of insurance coverage for losses related to terrorist attacks, particularly for large properties, which could adversely affect the cash flow at those mortgaged properties.

 

After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City and the Washington, D.C. area, all forms of insurance were impacted, particularly from a cost and availability perspective, including comprehensive general liability and business interruption or rent loss insurance policies required by typical mortgage loans. To give time for private markets to develop a pricing mechanism for terrorism risk and to build capacity to absorb future losses that may occur due to terrorism, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 was enacted on November 26, 2002 (as amended, “TRIPRA”), establishing the Terrorism Insurance Program. The Terrorism Insurance Program was reauthorized on December 20, 2019 through December 31, 2027 pursuant to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2019.

 

The Terrorism Insurance Program requires insurance carriers to provide terrorism coverage in their basic “all-risk” policies. Any commercial property and casualty terrorism

 

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insurance exclusion that was in force on November 26, 2002 is automatically void to the extent that it excluded losses that would otherwise be insured losses. Any state approval of those types of exclusions in force on November 26, 2002 is also void.

 

Under the Terrorism Insurance Program, the federal government shares in the risk of losses occurring within the United States resulting from acts committed in an effort to influence or coerce United States civilians or the United States government. The federal share of compensation for insured losses of an insurer equals 80% of the portion of such insured losses that exceed a deductible equal to 20% of the value of the insurer’s direct earned premiums over the calendar year immediately preceding that program year. Federal compensation in any program year is capped at $100 billion (with insurers being liable for any amount that exceeds such cap), and no compensation is payable with respect to a terrorist act unless the aggregate industry losses relating to such act exceed $200 million. The Terrorism Insurance Program does not cover nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological attacks. Unless a borrower obtains separate coverage for events that do not meet the thresholds or other requirements above, such events will not be covered.

 

If the Terrorism Insurance Program is not reenacted after its expiration in 2027, premiums for terrorism insurance coverage will likely increase and the terms of such insurance policies may be materially amended to increase stated exclusions or to otherwise effectively decrease the scope of coverage available (perhaps to the point where it is effectively not available). In addition, to the extent that any insurance policies contain “sunset clauses” (i.e., clauses that void terrorism coverage if the federal insurance backstop program is not renewed), such policies may cease to provide terrorism insurance upon the expiration of the Terrorism Insurance Program. We cannot assure you that the Terrorism Insurance Program or any successor program will create any long term changes in the availability and cost of such insurance. Moreover, future legislation, including regulations expected to be adopted by the Treasury Department pursuant to TRIPRA, may have a material effect on the availability of federal assistance in the terrorism insurance market. To the extent that uninsured or underinsured casualty losses occur with respect to the related mortgaged properties, losses on the mortgage loans may result. In addition, the failure to maintain such terrorism insurance may constitute a default under the related mortgage loan. 

 

Some of the mortgage loans do not require the related borrower to maintain terrorism insurance. In addition, most of the mortgage loans contain limitations on the related borrower’s obligation to obtain terrorism insurance, such as (i) waiving the requirement that such borrower maintain terrorism insurance if such insurance is not available at commercially reasonable rates, (ii) providing that the related borrower is not required to spend in excess of a specified dollar amount (or in some cases, a specified multiple of what is spent on other insurance) in order to obtain such terrorism insurance, (iii) requiring coverage only for as long as the TRIPRA is in effect, or (iv) requiring coverage only for losses arising from domestic acts of terrorism or from terrorist acts certified by the federal government as “acts of terrorism” under the TRIPRA. See Annex A-3 to this prospectus for a summary of the terrorism insurance requirements under each of the 15 largest mortgage loans or groups of cross-collateralized mortgage loans. See representation and warranty no. 31 on Annex D-1 to this prospectus and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 to this prospectus (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1 to this prospectus).

 

We cannot assure you that all of the mortgaged properties will be insured against the risks of terrorism and similar acts. As a result of any of the foregoing, the amount available to make distributions on your certificates could be reduced.

 

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Other mortgaged properties securing mortgage loans may also be insured under a blanket policy or self-insured or insured by a sole tenant. See “—Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance” below.

 

Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are covered by blanket insurance policies, which also cover other properties of the related borrower or its affiliates (including certain properties in close proximity to the mortgaged properties). In the event that such policies are drawn on to cover losses on such other properties, the amount of insurance coverage available under such policies would thereby be reduced and could be insufficient to cover each mortgaged property’s insurable risks.

 

Additionally, the risks related to blanket insurance may be aggravated if the mortgage loans that allow such coverage are part of a group of mortgage loans with related borrowers, and some or all of the related mortgaged properties are covered under the same blanket insurance policy, which may also cover other properties owned by affiliates of such borrowers.

 

Certain mortgaged properties may also be insured or self-insured by a sole or significant tenant, as further described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Insurance Considerations”. We cannot assure you that any insurance obtained by a sole or significant tenant will be adequate or that such sole or significant tenant will comply with any requirements to maintain adequate insurance. Additionally, to the extent that insurance coverage relies on self-insurance, there is a risk that the “insurer” will not be willing or have the financial ability to satisfy a claim if a loss occurs. See representation and warranty nos. 18 and 31 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

Condemnation of a Mortgaged Property May Adversely Affect Distributions on Certificates

 

From time to time, there may be condemnations pending or threatened against one or more of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans. The proceeds payable in connection with a total condemnation may not be sufficient to restore the related mortgaged property or to satisfy the remaining indebtedness of the related mortgage loan. The occurrence of a partial condemnation may have a material adverse effect on the continued use of, or income generated by, the affected mortgaged property. The application of condemnation proceeds may be subject to the leases of certain major tenants and, in some cases, the tenant may be entitled to a portion of the condemnation proceeds. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the occurrence of any condemnation will not have a negative impact upon distributions on your offered certificates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Litigation and Other Considerations” in this prospectus. 

 

Limited Information Causes Uncertainty

 

Historical Information

 

Some of the mortgage loans that we intend to include in the issuing entity are secured in whole or in part by mortgaged properties for which limited or no historical operating information is available. As a result, you may find it difficult to analyze the historical performance of those mortgaged properties.

 

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A mortgaged property may lack prior operating history or historical financial information because it is newly constructed or renovated, it is a recent acquisition by the related borrower or it is a single-tenant property that is subject to a triple-net lease. In addition, a tenant’s lease may contain confidentiality provisions that restrict the sponsors’ access to or disclosure of such tenant’s financial information. The underwritten net cash flows and underwritten net operating income for such mortgaged properties are derived principally from current rent rolls or tenant leases and historical expenses, adjusted to account for, among other things, inflation, rent steps, significant occupancy increases and/or a market rate management fee. In some cases, underwritten net cash flows and underwritten net operating income for mortgaged properties are based all or in part on leases (or letters of intent) that are not yet in place (and may still be under negotiation) or on tenants that may have signed a lease (or letter of intent), or lease amendment expanding the leased space, but are not yet in occupancy and/or paying rent, which present certain risks described in “—Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions” below and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” and “—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Mortgaged Properties with Limited Prior Operating History” in this prospectus.

 

See Annex A-1 for certain historical financial information relating to the mortgaged properties, including net operating income for the most recent reporting period and prior three calendar years, to the extent available.

 

Ongoing Information

 

The primary source of ongoing information regarding the offered certificates, including information regarding the status of the related mortgage loans and any credit support for the offered certificates, will be the periodic reports delivered to you. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information”. We cannot assure you that any additional ongoing information regarding the offered certificates will be available through any other source. The limited nature of the available information in respect of the offered certificates may adversely affect their liquidity, even if a secondary market for the offered certificates does develop.

 

We are not aware of any source through which pricing information regarding the offered certificates will be generally available on an ongoing basis or on any particular date.

 

Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions

 

As described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”, underwritten net cash flow generally includes cash flow (including any cash flow from master leases) adjusted based on a number of assumptions used by the sponsors. We make no representation that the underwritten net cash flow set forth in this prospectus as of the cut-off date or any other date represents actual future net cash flows. For example, with respect to certain mortgage loans included in the issuing entity, the occupancy of the related mortgaged property reflects tenants that (i) may not have yet actually executed leases (but have in some instances signed letters of intent), (ii) have signed leases but have not yet taken occupancy and/or are not paying full contractual rent, (iii) are seeking or may in the future seek to sublet all or a portion of their respective spaces, (iv) are “dark” tenants but paying rent, or (v) are affiliates of the related borrower and are leasing space pursuant to a master lease or a space lease. Similarly, with respect to certain mortgage loans included in the issuing entity, the underwritten net cash flow may be based on certain tenants that have not yet executed leases or that have signed leases but are not yet in place and/or are not yet paying rent, or have a signed lease or lease amendment expanding the leased space, but are not yet in occupancy of all or a portion of

 

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their space and/or paying rent, or may assume that future contractual rent steps (during some or all of the remaining term of a lease) have occurred. In many cases, co-tenancy provisions were assumed to be satisfied and vacant space was assumed to be occupied and space that was due to expire was assumed to have been re-let, in each case at market rates that may have exceeded current rent. You should review these and other similar assumptions and make your own determination of the appropriate assumptions to be used in determining underwritten net cash flow. 

 

In addition, underwritten or adjusted cash flows, by their nature, are speculative and are based upon certain assumptions and projections. For example, as described under “—Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors—The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”, the assumptions and projections used to prepare underwritten cash flows for the mortgage pool do not reflect any potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic with respect to certain of the mortgage loans. The failure of these assumptions or projections in whole or in part could cause the underwritten net operating income (calculated as described in “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”) to vary substantially from the actual net operating income of a mortgaged property.

 

In the event of the inaccuracy of any assumptions or projections used in connection with the calculation of underwritten net cash flow, the actual net cash flow could be significantly different (and, in some cases, may be materially less) than the underwritten net cash flow presented in this prospectus, and this would change other numerical information presented in this prospectus based on or derived from the underwritten net cash flow, such as the debt service coverage ratios or debt yield presented in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that any such assumptions or projections made with respect to any mortgaged property will, in fact, be consistent with that mortgaged property’s actual performance.

 

In addition, the debt service coverage ratios set forth in this prospectus for the mortgage loans and the mortgaged properties vary, and may vary substantially, from the debt service coverage ratios for the mortgage loans and the mortgaged properties as calculated pursuant to the definition of such ratios as set forth in the related mortgage loan documents. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” in this prospectus for additional information on certain of the mortgage loans in the issuing entity.

 

Frequent and Early Occurrence of Borrower Delinquencies and Defaults May Adversely Affect Your Investment

 

If you calculate the anticipated yield of your offered certificates based on a rate of default or amount of losses lower than that actually experienced on the mortgage loans and those additional losses result in a reduction of the total distributions on, or the certificate balance of, your offered certificates, your actual yield to maturity will be lower than expected and could be negative under certain extreme scenarios. The timing of any loss on a liquidated mortgage loan that results in a reduction of the total distributions on or the certificate balance of your offered certificates will also affect the actual yield to maturity of your offered certificates, even if the rate of defaults and severity of losses are consistent with your expectations. In general, the earlier a loss is borne by you, the greater the effect on your yield to maturity. 

 

Delinquencies on the mortgage loans, if the delinquent amounts are not advanced, may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest and/or principal to the holders of the offered certificates for the current month. Furthermore, no interest will accrue on this shortfall

 

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during the period of time that the payment is delinquent. Additionally, in instances where the principal portion of any balloon payment scheduled with respect to a mortgage loan is collected by the master servicer following the end of the related collection period, no portion of the principal received on such payment will be passed through for distribution to the certificateholders until the subsequent distribution date, which may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest to the holders of the offered certificates in the following month. Furthermore, in such instances no provision is made for the master servicer or any other party to cover any such interest shortfalls that may occur as a result. In addition, if interest and/or principal advances and/or servicing advances are made with respect to a mortgage loan after a default and the related mortgage loan is thereafter worked out under terms that do not provide for the repayment of those advances in full at the time of the workout, then any reimbursements of those advances prior to the actual collection of the amount for which the advance was made may also result in shortfalls in distributions of principal to the holders of the offered certificates with certificate balances for the current month. Even if losses on the mortgage loans are not allocated to a particular class of offered certificates with certificate balances, the losse