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Bank 2021-BNK36

Filed: 7 Oct 21, 3:52pm

 

  FILED PURSUANT TO RULE 424(b)(2)
  REGISTRATION FILE NO.: 333-228375-07
   

 

PROSPECTUS

 

$1,060,719,000 (Approximate)

 

BANK 2021-BNK36
(Central Index Key Number 0001880921)

as Issuing Entity

 

Banc of America Merrill Lynch Commercial Mortgage Inc.
(Central Index Key Number 0001005007)

as Depositor

 

Bank of America, National Association
(Central Index Key Number 0001102113)

 

Morgan Stanley Mortgage Capital Holdings LLC
(Central Index Key Number 0001541557)

 

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association
(Central Index Key Number 0000740906)

 

National Cooperative Bank, N.A.
(Central Index Key Number 0001577313)

as Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers

 

Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-BNK36

 

Banc of America Merrill Lynch Commercial Mortgage Inc. is offering certain classes of the Commercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-BNK36 consisting of the certificate classes identified in the table below. The certificates being offered by this prospectus (and the non-offered Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G, Class X-H, Class D, Class E, Class F, Class G, Class H, Class V and Class R certificates and the RR Interest) represent the beneficial ownership interests in the issuing entity, which will be a New York common law trust named BANK 2021-BNK36. The assets of the issuing entity will primarily consist of a pool of fixed rate commercial mortgage loans, which are generally the sole source of payments on the certificates. Credit enhancement will be provided solely by certain classes of subordinate certificates that will be subordinate to certain classes of senior certificates as described under “Description of the Certificates—Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses”. Each class of certificates will be entitled to receive monthly distributions of interest and/or principal on the 4th business day following the 11th day of each month (or if the 11th day is not a business day, the next business day), commencing in November 2021. The rated final distribution date for the certificates is the distribution date in September 2064.

 

Class

 

Approximate Initial
Certificate Balance or Notional Amount(1)

 

Approximate Initial Pass-Through Rate

 

Pass-Through Rate Description

 

Class

 

Approximate Initial
Certificate Balance or Notional Amount(1)

 

Approximate Initial Pass-Through Rate

 

Pass-Through Rate Description

Class A-1 

 

$27,581,000

 

0.80100%

 

Fixed(5)

 

Class A-S(6)

 

$107,588,000(6)

 

2.69500%

 

WAC Cap(6)

Class A-2 

 

    $157,181,000

 

2.13100%

 

Fixed(5)

 

Class A-S-1(6)

 

$0(6)

 

2.19500%

 

WAC Cap(6)

Class A-3 

 

     $10,640,000

 

1.89500%

 

Fixed(5)

 

Class A-S-2(6)

 

$0(6)

 

1.69500%

 

WAC Cap(6)

Class A-SB 

 

     $27,535,000

 

2.28300%

 

Fixed(5)

 

Class A-S-X1(6)

 

$0(6)

 

0.50000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

Class A-4(6) 

 

$200,000,000(6)

 

2.21800%

 

Fixed(5)(6)

 

Class A-S-X2(6)

 

$0(6)

 

1.00000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

Class A-4-1(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

1.71800%

 

Fixed(6)

 

Class B(6)

 

$53,036,000(6)

 

2.86700%

 

WAC Cap(5)(6)

Class A-4-2(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

1.21800%

 

Fixed(6)

 

Class B-1(6)

 

$0(6)

 

2.36700%

 

WAC Cap(6)

Class A-4-X1(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

0.50000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

 

Class B-2(6)

 

$0(6)

 

1.86700%

 

WAC Cap(6)

Class A-4-X2(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

1.00000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

 

Class B-X1(6)

 

$0(6)

 

0.50000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

Class A-5(6) 

 

$425,638,000(6)

 

2.47000%

 

Fixed(5)(6)

 

Class B-X2(6)

 

$0(6)

 

1.00000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

Class A-5-1(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

1.97000%

 

Fixed(6)

 

Class C(6)

 

$51,520,000(6)

 

3.30760%

 

WAC(5)(6)

Class A-5-2(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

1.47000%

 

Fixed(6)

 

Class C-1(6)

 

$0(6)

 

2.80760%

 

WAC – 0.5000%(6)

Class A-5-X1(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

0.50000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

 

Class C-2(6)

 

$0(6)

 

2.30760%

 

WAC – 1.0000%(6)

Class A-5-X2(6) 

 

$0(6)

 

1.00000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

 

Class C-X1(6)

 

$0(6)

 

0.50000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

Class X-A 

 

$848,575,000(7)

 

1.02731%

 

Variable(8)

 

Class C-X2(6)

 

$0(6)

 

1.00000%

 

Fixed IO(6)

Class X-B 

 

$160,624,000(9)

 

0.55581%

 

Variable(10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Footnotes to this table begin on page 3)

 

You should carefully consider the summary of risk factors and the risk factors beginning on page 66 and page 68, respectively, of this prospectus.

Neither the certificates nor the mortgage loans are insured or guaranteed by any governmental agency, instrumentality or private issuer or any other person or entity.

The certificates will represent interests in the issuing entity only. They will not represent interests in or obligations of the sponsors, depositor, any of their affiliates or any other entity.

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission and state regulators have not approved or disapproved of the offered certificates or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. Banc of America Merrill Lynch Commercial Mortgage Inc. will not list the offered certificates on any securities exchange or on any automated quotation system of any securities association.

 

The issuing entity will be relying on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, contained in Section 3(c)(5) of the Investment Company Act or Rule 3a-7 under the Investment Company Act, although there may be additional exclusions or exemptions available to the issuing entity. The issuing entity is being structured so as not to constitute a “covered fund” for purposes of the Volcker Rule under the Dodd-Frank Act (both as defined in this prospectus).

 

The underwriters, BofA Securities, Inc., Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, Academy Securities, Inc. and Drexel Hamilton, LLC, will purchase the offered certificates from Banc of America Merrill Lynch Commercial Mortgage Inc. and will offer them to the public at negotiated prices, plus, in certain cases, accrued interest, determined at the time of sale. BofA Securities, Inc., Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC are acting as co-lead managers and joint bookrunners in the following manner: BofA Securities, Inc. is acting as sole bookrunning manager with respect to 46.8% of each class of offered certificates, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC is acting as sole bookrunning manager with respect to 27.4% of each class of offered certificates and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC is acting as sole bookrunning manager with respect to 25.7% of each class of offered certificates. Academy Securities, Inc. and Drexel Hamilton, LLC are acting as co-managers.

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the offered certificates to purchasers in book-entry form only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company in the United States and Clearstream Banking, Luxembourg and Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, in Europe, against payment in New York, New York on or about October 7, 2021. Banc of America Merrill Lynch Commercial Mortgage Inc. expects to receive from this offering approximately 108.2% of the aggregate certificate balance of the offered certificates, plus accrued interest from October 1, 2021, before deducting expenses payable by the depositor.

 

BofA Securities

Wells Fargo Securities

Morgan Stanley

Co-Lead Manager and Joint Bookrunner

Co-Lead Manager and Joint Bookrunner

Co-Lead Manager and Joint Bookrunner

Academy Securities, Inc.

Co-Manager

 

Drexel Hamilton

Co-Manager

September 27, 2021

 

 

 

 

image

 

 

 

 

Summary of Certificates

 

Class or Interest

 

Approx.
Initial Certificate
Balance or
Notional
Amount(1)

 

Approx.
Initial

Credit
Support(2)

 

Approx.
Initial
Pass-
Through
Rate

 

Pass-Through
Rate Description

 

Assumed
Final
Distribution
Date(3)

 

Weighted
Average
Life
(Years)(4)

 

Expected
Principal
Window
(Months)(4)

Offered Certificates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class A-1

 

   $

27,581,000   

 

30.000%

 

0.80100%

 

Fixed(5)

 

July 2026

 

2.66

 

1 – 57

Class A-2

 

$

157,181,000   

 

30.000%

 

2.13100%

 

Fixed(5)

 

October 2026

 

4.90

 

57 – 60

Class A-3

 

   $

10,640,000   

 

30.000%

 

1.89500%

 

Fixed(5)

 

September 2028

 

6.94

 

83 – 83

Class A-SB

 

   $

 27,535,000   

 

30.000%

 

2.28300%

 

Fixed(5)

 

November 2030

 

7.15

 

60 – 109

Class A-4(6)

 

   $

200,000,000(6)

 

30.000%

 

2.21800%

 

Fixed(5)(6)

 

August 2031

 

9.76

 

109 – 118

Class A-5(6)

 

   $

425,638,000(6)

 

30.000%

 

2.47000%

 

Fixed(5)(6)

 

September 2031

 

9.91

 

118 – 119

Class X-A

 

   $

848,575,000(7)

 

NAP

 

1.02731%

 

Variable(8)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Class X-B

 

   $

160,624,000(9)

 

NAP

 

0.55581%

 

Variable(10)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Class A-S(6)

 

   $

107,588,000(6)

 

21.125%

 

2.69500%

 

WAC Cap(5)(6)

 

October 2031

 

9.99

 

119 – 120

Class B(6)

 

   $

 53,036,000(6)

 

16.750%

 

2.86700%

 

WAC Cap(5)(6)

 

October 2031

 

10.02

 

120 – 120

Class C(6)

 

   $

 51,520,000(6)

 

12.500%

 

3.30760%

 

WAC(5)(6)

 

October 2031

 

10.02

 

120 – 120

Non-Offered Certificates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Class X-D

 

   $

 65,159,000(11)

 

NAP

 

0.80760%

 

Variable(12)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Class X-F

 

   $

 28,791,000(11)

 

NAP

 

0.80760%

 

Variable(12)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Class X-G

 

   $

 12,122,000(11)

 

NAP

 

0.80760%

 

Variable(12)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Class X-H

 

   $

 45,460,314(11)

 

NAP

 

0.80760%

 

Variable(12)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Class D

 

   $

 34,853,000   

 

9.625%

 

2.50000%

 

WAC Cap(5)

 

October 2031

 

10.02

 

120 – 120

Class E

 

   $

30,306,000   

 

7.125%

 

2.50000%

 

WAC Cap(5)

 

October 2031

 

10.02

 

120 – 120

Class F

 

   $

28,791,000   

 

4.750%

 

2.50000%

 

WAC Cap(5)

 

October 2031

 

10.02

 

120 – 120

Class G

 

   $

12,122,000   

 

3.750%

 

2.50000%

 

WAC Cap(5)

 

October 2031

 

10.02

 

120 – 120

Class H

 

   $

45,460,314   

 

0.000%

 

2.50000%

 

WAC Cap(5)

 

October 2031

 

10.02

 

120 – 120

Class V(13)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Class R(14)

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

 

NAP

Non-Offered Eligible Vertical Interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

RR Interest

 

   $

63,802,700.76   

 

NAP

 

3.30760%

 

(15)

 

October 2031

 

9.01

 

1 – 120

 

 

(1)Approximate, subject to a permitted variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)

The approximate initial credit support percentages set forth for the certificates are approximate and, for the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class A-4 and Class A-5 certificates, are presented in the aggregate, taking into account the certificate balances of the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components. The approximate initial credit support percentages set forth for the Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates represent the approximate credit support for the underlying Class A-S, Class B and Class C trust components, respectively. The RR Interest provides credit support only to the limited extent that it is allocated a portion of any losses incurred on the underlying mortgage loans, which such losses are allocated between it, on the one hand, and the non-retained certificates, on the other hand, pro rata in accordance with their respective percentage allocation entitlements. See “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

(3)

The assumed final distribution dates set forth in this prospectus have been determined on the basis of the assumptions described in “Description of the Certificates—Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date”.

 

(4)

The weighted average life and expected principal window during which distributions of principal would be received as set forth in the foregoing table with respect to each class of certificates having a certificate balance are based on the assumptions set forth under “Yield and Maturity Considerations—Weighted Average Life” and on the assumptions that there are no prepayments, modifications or losses in respect of the mortgage loans and that there are no extensions or forbearances of maturity dates or anticipated repayment dates of the mortgage loans.

 

(5)

The pass-through rate for each class of the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class A-4 and Class A-5 certificates for any distribution date will be a fixed pass-through rate set forth opposite such class of certificates in the table. The pass-through rate for each class of the Class A-S, Class B, Class D, Class E, Class F, Class G and Class H certificates for any distribution date will be a variable rate per annum equal to the lesser of (a) the pass-through rate set forth opposite such class of certificates in the table and (b) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date. The pass-through rate for the Class C certificates for any distribution date will be a variable rate per annum equal to the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date. For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(6)

The Class A-4-1, Class A-4-2, Class A-4-X1, Class A-4-X2, Class A-5-1, Class A-5-2, Class A-5-X1, Class A-5-X2, Class A-S-1, Class A-S-2, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2, Class B-1, Class B-2, Class B-X1, Class B-X2, Class C-1, Class C-2, Class C-X1 and Class C-X2 certificates are also offered certificates. Such classes of certificates, together with the Class A-4, Class A-5, Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates, constitute the “Exchangeable Certificates”. The Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class D, Class E, Class F, Class G and Class H certificates, together with the RR Interest and the Exchangeable Certificates with a certificate balance, are referred to as the “principal balance certificates.”

 

(7)

The Class X-A certificates are notional amount certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-A certificates will be equal to the aggregate certificate balance of the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components outstanding from time to time. The Class X-A certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal.

3

 

 

(8)

The pass-through rate for the Class X-A certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4, Class A-4-X1, Class A-4-X2, Class A-5, Class A-5-X1 and Class A-5-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(9)

The Class X-B certificates are notional amount certificates. The notional amount of the Class X-B certificates will be equal to the aggregate certificate balances of the Class A-S and Class B trust components outstanding from time to time. The Class X-B certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal.

 

(10)

The pass-through rate for the Class X-B certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-S, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2, Class B, Class B-X1 and Class B-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(11)

The Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G and Class X-H certificates are notional amount certificates and will not be entitled to distributions of principal. The notional amount of the Class X-D certificates will be equal to the aggregate certificate balance of the Class D and Class E certificates outstanding from time to time. The notional amount of each class of the Class X-F, Class X-G and Class X-H certificates will be equal to the certificate balance of the class of principal balance certificates that, with the addition of “X-,” has the same alphabetical designation as the subject class of Class X certificates.

 

(12)

The pass-through rate for the Class X-D certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class D and Class E certificates for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date. The pass-through rate for each class of the Class X-F, Class X-G and Class X-H certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the pass-through rate for the related distribution date on the class of principal balance certificates that, with the addition of “X-,” has the same alphabetical designation as the subject class of Class X certificates. For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(13)

The Class V certificates will not have a certificate balance, notional amount, credit support, pass-through rate, assumed final distribution date, rated final distribution date or rating. The Class V certificates will only be entitled to a specified portion of distributions of excess interest accrued on the mortgage loans with an anticipated repayment date. As of the closing date, there are no mortgage loans with an anticipated repayment date included in the trust, and consequently there will be no excess interest payable on the Class V certificates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—ARD Loans” in this prospectus.

 

(14)

The Class R certificates will not have a certificate balance, notional amount, credit support, pass-through rate, assumed final distribution date, rated final distribution date or rating. The Class R certificates represent the residual interest in each Trust REMIC as further described in this prospectus.  The Class R certificates will not be entitled to distributions of principal or interest.

 

(15)

Although it does not have a specified pass-through rate (other than for tax reporting purposes), the effective RR Interest rate will be a per annum rate equal to the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, which mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

The Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G, Class X-H, Class D, Class E, Class F, Class G, Class H, Class V and Class R certificates and the RR Interest are not offered by this prospectus. Any information in this prospectus concerning these certificates or the RR Interest is presented solely to enhance your understanding of the offered certificates.

 

4

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

SUMMARY OF CERTIFICATES

3

IMPORTANT NOTICE REGARDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES

15

IMPORTANT NOTICE ABOUT INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THIS PROSPECTUS

15

SUMMARY OF TERMS

25

SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS

66

RISK FACTORS

68

Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors

68

The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans

68

Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans

72

Mortgage Loans Are Non-Recourse and Are Not Insured or Guaranteed

72

Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally

73

Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases

75

Retail Properties Have Special Risks

80

Office Properties Have Special Risks

83

Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks

84

Residential Cooperative Properties Have Special Risks

87

Mixed Use Properties Have Special Risks

92

Industrial Properties Have Special Risks

92

Self Storage Properties Have Special Risks

94

Hospitality Properties Have Special Risks

95

Manufactured Housing Properties Have Special Risks

97

Leased Fee Properties Have Special Risks

98

Data Center Properties Have Special Risks

99

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Startup Companies Have Special Risks

99

Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements

99

Operation of a Mortgaged Property Depends on the Property Manager’s Performance

101

Concentrations Based on Property Type, Geography, Related Borrowers and Other Factors May Disproportionately Increase Losses

102

Adverse Environmental Conditions at or Near Mortgaged Properties May Result in Losses

103

Risks Related to Redevelopment, Expansion and Renovation at Mortgaged Properties

105

Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses

106

Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions

108

Risks Relating to Inspections of Properties

110

Risks Relating to Costs of Compliance with Applicable Laws and Regulations

110

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards Set By New York City’s Local Law 97 May Adversely Affect Future Net Operating Income at Mortgaged Real Properties Located in New York City

110

Insurance May Not Be Available or Adequate

110

Inadequacy of Title Insurers May Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates

112

Terrorism Insurance May Not Be Available for All Mortgaged Properties

112

Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance

114

Condemnation of a Mortgaged Property May Adversely Affect Distributions on Certificates

114

Limited Information Causes Uncertainty

114

5

 

 

Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions

115

Frequent and Early Occurrence of Borrower Delinquencies and Defaults May Adversely Affect Your Investment

116

The Mortgage Loans Have Not Been Reviewed or Re-Underwritten by Us; Some Mortgage Loans May Not Have Complied With Another Originator’s Underwriting Criteria

117

Static Pool Data Would Not Be Indicative of the Performance of this Pool

118

Appraisals May Not Reflect Current or Future Market Value of Each Property

119

The Performance of a Mortgage Loan and Its Related Mortgaged Property Depends in Part on Who Controls the Borrower and Mortgaged Property

122

The Borrower’s Form of Entity May Cause Special Risks

122

A Bankruptcy Proceeding May Result in Losses and Delays in Realizing on the Mortgage Loans

125

Litigation Regarding the Mortgaged Properties or Borrowers May Impair Your Distributions

126

Other Financings or Ability to Incur Other Indebtedness Entails Risk

127

Tenancies-in-Common May Hinder Recovery

129

Risks Relating to Enforceability of Cross-Collateralization

129

Risks Relating to Enforceability of Yield Maintenance Charges, Prepayment Premiums or Defeasance Provisions

130

Risks Associated with One Action Rules

130

State Law Limitations on Assignments of Leases and Rents May Entail Risks

130

Various Other Laws Could Affect the Exercise of Lender’s Rights

131

The Absence of Lockboxes Entails Risks That Could Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates

131

Borrower May Be Unable To Repay Remaining Principal Balance on Maturity Date or Anticipated Repayment Date; Longer Amortization Schedules and Interest-Only Provisions Increase Risk

132

Risks Related to Ground Leases and Other Leasehold Interests

133

Increases in Real Estate Taxes May Reduce Available Funds

135

State and Local Mortgage Recording Taxes May Apply Upon a Foreclosure or Deed-in-Lieu of Foreclosure and Reduce Net Proceeds

135

Risks Related to Loans Secured by Mortgaged Properties Located in Puerto Rico

135

Puerto Rico Withholding Taxes

140

Risks Relating to Delaware Statutory Trusts

140

Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest

140

Interests and Incentives of the Originators, the Sponsors and Their Affiliates May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests

140

The Servicing of Servicing Shift Whole Loans Will Shift to Other Servicers

143

Interests and Incentives of the Underwriter Entities May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests

144

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Master Servicers and the Special Servicers

145

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Operating Advisor

148

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Asset Representations Reviewer

149

Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Directing Certificateholder and the Companion Holders

150

Potential Conflicts of Interest in the Selection of the Underlying Mortgage Loans

153

6

 

 

Conflicts of Interest May Occur as a Result of the Rights of the Applicable Directing Certificateholder to Terminate the Applicable Special Servicer of the Applicable Whole Loan

154

Other Potential Conflicts of Interest May Affect Your Investment

154

Other Risks Relating to the Certificates

155

EU Securitization Regulation and UK Securitization Regulation

155

Recent Developments Concerning the Proposed Japanese Retention Requirements

157

Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations May Assign Different Ratings to the Certificates; Ratings of the Certificates Reflect Only the Views of the Applicable Rating Agencies as of the Dates Such Ratings Were Issued; Ratings May Affect ERISA Eligibility; Ratings May Be Downgraded

158

Your Yield May Be Affected by Defaults, Prepayments and Other Factors

161

Subordination of the Subordinated Certificates Will Affect the Timing of Distributions and the Application of Losses on the Subordinated Certificates

166

Payments Allocated to the RR Interest or the Non-Retained Certificates Will Not Be Available to the Non-Retained Certificates or the RR Interest, Respectively

166

Your Lack of Control Over the Issuing Entity and the Mortgage Loans Can Impact Your Investment

166

Risks Relating to Modifications of the Mortgage Loans

172

Sponsors May Not Make Required Repurchases or Substitutions of Defective Mortgage Loans or Pay Any Loss of Value Payment Sufficient to Cover All Losses on a Defective Mortgage Loan

173

Pro Rata Allocation of Principal Between and Among the Subordinate Companion Loans and the Related Mortgage Loan Prior to a Material Mortgage Loan Event Default

174

Risks Relating to Interest on Advances and Special Servicing Compensation

175

Bankruptcy of a Servicer May Adversely Affect Collections on the Mortgage Loans and the Ability to Replace the Servicer

175

The Sponsors, the Depositor and the Issuing Entity Are Subject to Bankruptcy or Insolvency Laws That May Affect the Issuing Entity’s Ownership of the Mortgage Loans

176

The Requirement of the Special Servicers to Obtain FIRREA-Compliant Appraisals May Result in an Increased Cost to the Issuing Entity

177

The Master Servicers, any Sub-Servicer, the Special Servicers, the Certificate Administrator or the Custodian May Have Difficulty Performing Under the Pooling and Servicing Agreement or a Related Sub-Servicing Agreement

177

Tax Matters and Changes in Tax Law May Adversely Impact the Mortgage Loans or Your Investment

178

General

181

The Certificates May Not Be a Suitable Investment for You

181

Combination or “Layering” of Multiple Risks May Significantly Increase Risk of Loss

182

The Volatile Economy, Credit Crisis and Downturn in the Real Estate Market Have Adversely Affected and May Continue To Adversely Affect the Value of CMBS

182

Other Events May Affect the Value and Liquidity of Your Investment

182

The Certificates Are Limited Obligations

182

The Certificates May Have Limited Liquidity and the Market Value of the Certificates May Decline

183

7

 

 

Legal and Regulatory Provisions Affecting Investors Could Adversely Affect the Liquidity of the Offered Certificates

183

DESCRIPTION OF THE MORTGAGE POOL

186

General

186

Co-Originated and Third-Party Originated Mortgage Loans

187

Certain Calculations and Definitions

188

Definitions

188

Certain Characteristics of Mortgage Loans Secured by Residential Cooperatives

204

Mortgage Pool Characteristics

207

Overview

207

Property Types

208

Significant Obligors

214

Mortgage Loan Concentrations

215

Multi-Property Mortgage Loans and Related Borrower Mortgage Loans

216

Geographic Concentrations

217

Mortgaged Properties With Limited Prior Operating History

218

Tenancies-in-Common and Crowd-Funded Entities

218

Delaware Statutory Trusts

219

Condominium and Other Shared Interests

219

Residential Cooperatives

220

Fee & Leasehold Estates; Ground Leases

220

Environmental Considerations

221

Redevelopment, Renovation and Expansion

226

COVID-19 Considerations

227

Assessment of Property Value and Condition

231

Litigation and Other Considerations

231

Condemnations

233

Loan Purpose; Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings

233

Tenant Issues

235

Tenant Concentrations

235

Lease Expirations and Terminations

236

Purchase Options and Rights of First Refusal

240

Affiliated Leases

241

Competition from Certain Nearby Properties

242

Insurance Considerations

242

Use Restrictions

245

Appraised Value

246

Non-Recourse Carveout Limitations

247

Real Estate and Other Tax Considerations

248

Delinquency Information

250

Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans

250

Amortization of Principal

250

Due Dates; Mortgage Rates; Calculations of Interest

251

ARD Loans

251

Single-Purpose Entity Covenants

252

Prepayment Protections and Certain Involuntary Prepayments and Voluntary Prepayments

252

“Due-On-Sale” and “Due-On-Encumbrance” Provisions

255

Defeasance

256

Releases; Partial Releases; Property Additions

257

Escrows

260

Mortgaged Property Accounts

261

Exceptions to Underwriting Guidelines

263

8

 

 

Additional Indebtedness

264

General

264

Whole Loans

265

Mezzanine Indebtedness

265

Other Secured Indebtedness

267

Preferred Equity

271

Other Unsecured Indebtedness

271

The Whole Loans

272

General

272

The Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans

276

The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans

279

The Serviced A/B Whole Loan

283

The Non-Serviced A/B Whole Loans

292

Additional Information

301

TRANSACTION PARTIES

302

The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers

302

Bank of America, National Association

302

Morgan Stanley Mortgage Capital Holdings LLC

318

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association

332

National Cooperative Bank, N.A.

345

The Depositor

354

The Issuing Entity

355

The Trustee

355

The Certificate Administrator

357

The Master Servicers

359

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association

359

National Cooperative Bank, N.A.

364

The Special Servicers

368

Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC

368

National Cooperative Bank, N.A.

372

The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer

376

CREDIT RISK RETENTION

377

General

377

RR Interest

379

Qualifying CRE Loans

381

DESCRIPTION OF THE CERTIFICATES

381

General

381

Distributions

384

Method, Timing and Amount

384

Available Funds

385

Priority of Distributions

386

Pass-Through Rates

390

Exchangeable Certificates

392

Interest Distribution Amount

396

Principal Distribution Amount

396

Certain Calculations with Respect to Individual Mortgage Loans

398

Excess Interest

400

Application Priority of Mortgage Loan Collections or Whole Loan Collections

400

Allocation of Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums

403

Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date

408

Prepayment Interest Shortfalls

408

Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses

410

Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information

413

9

 

 

Certificate Administrator Reports

413

Information Available Electronically

420

Voting Rights

425

Delivery, Form, Transfer and Denomination

426

Book-Entry Registration

426

Definitive Certificates

429

Certificateholder Communication

430

Access to Certificateholders’ Names and Addresses

430

Requests to Communicate

430

List of Certificateholders

431

DESCRIPTION OF THE MORTGAGE LOAN PURCHASE AGREEMENTS

431

General

431

Dispute Resolution Provisions

443

Asset Review Obligations

444

POOLING AND SERVICING AGREEMENT

444

General

444

Assignment of the Mortgage Loans

445

Servicing Standard

445

Subservicing

447

Advances

448

P&I Advances

448

Servicing Advances

449

Nonrecoverable Advances

450

Recovery of Advances

451

Accounts

453

Withdrawals from the Collection Account

455

Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses

458

General

458

Master Servicing Compensation

465

Special Servicing Compensation

468

Disclosable Special Servicer Fees

473

Certificate Administrator and Trustee Compensation

474

Operating Advisor Compensation

474

Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation

475

CREFC® Intellectual Property Royalty License Fee

476

Appraisal Reduction Amounts

476

Maintenance of Insurance

484

Modifications, Waivers and Amendments

488

Enforcement of “Due-on-Sale” and “Due-on-Encumbrance” Provisions

496

Inspections

498

Collection of Operating Information

499

Special Servicing Transfer Event

500

Asset Status Report

503

Realization Upon Mortgage Loans

507

Sale of Defaulted Loans and REO Properties

509

The Directing Certificateholder

513

General

513

Major Decisions

516

Asset Status Report

520

Replacement of a Special Servicer

521

Control Termination Event and Consultation Termination Event

521

Servicing Override

524

10

 

 

Rights of the Directing Certificateholder with respect to Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans or Servicing Shift Whole Loans

525

Rights of the Holders of Serviced Pari Passu Companion Loans

525

Limitation on Liability of Directing Certificateholder

525

The Operating Advisor

526

General

526

Duties of Operating Advisor While No Control Termination Event Has Occurred and Is Continuing

527

Duties of Operating Advisor While a Control Termination Event Has Occurred and Is Continuing

528

Recommendation of the Replacement of a Special Servicer

531

Eligibility of Operating Advisor

531

Other Obligations of Operating Advisor

532

Delegation of Operating Advisor’s Duties

533

Termination of the Operating Advisor With Cause

533

Rights Upon Operating Advisor Termination Event

534

Waiver of Operating Advisor Termination Event

534

Termination of the Operating Advisor Without Cause

535

Resignation of the Operating Advisor

535

Operating Advisor Compensation

535

The Asset Representations Reviewer

536

Asset Review

536

Eligibility of Asset Representations Reviewer

541

Other Obligations of Asset Representations Reviewer

542

Delegation of Asset Representations Reviewer’s Duties

543

Asset Representations Reviewer Termination Events

543

Rights Upon Asset Representations Reviewer Termination Event

544

Termination of the Asset Representations Reviewer Without Cause

544

Resignation of Asset Representations Reviewer

545

Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation

545

Limitation on Liability of Risk Retention Consultation Party

545

Replacement of a Special Servicer Without Cause

546

Replacement of a Special Servicer After Operating Advisor Recommendation and Certificateholder Vote

548

Termination of a Master Servicer or Special Servicer for Cause

550

Servicer Termination Events

550

Rights Upon Servicer Termination Event

551

Waiver of Servicer Termination Event

553

Resignation of a Master Servicer or Special Servicer

553

Limitation on Liability; Indemnification

554

Enforcement of Mortgage Loan Seller’s Obligations Under the MLPA

557

Dispute Resolution Provisions

558

Certificateholder’s Rights When a Repurchase Request Is Initially Delivered by a Certificateholder

558

Repurchase Request Delivered by a Party to the PSA

559

Resolution of a Repurchase Request

559

Mediation and Arbitration Provisions

562

Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans

563

General

563

Servicing of the Newport Pavilion Mortgage Loan

566

Servicing of the Metro Crossing Mortgage Loan and the Velocity Industrial Portfolio Mortgage Loan

567

Servicing of the McDonald’s Global HQ Mortgage Loan

568

 

11

 

 

Servicing of the Servicing Shift Mortgage Loans

569

Rating Agency Confirmations

570

Evidence as to Compliance

572

Limitation on Rights of Certificateholders to Institute a Proceeding

574

Termination; Retirement of Certificates

574

Amendment

576

Resignation and Removal of the Trustee and the Certificate Administrator

578

Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; and Consent to Jurisdiction

580

CERTAIN LEGAL ASPECTS OF MORTGAGE LOANS

580

General

581

Types of Mortgage Instruments

582

Leases and Rents

582

Personalty

583

Foreclosure

583

General

583

Foreclosure Procedures Vary from State to State

583

Judicial Foreclosure

584

Equitable and Other Limitations on Enforceability of Certain Provisions

584

Nonjudicial Foreclosure/Power of Sale

584

Public Sale

585

Rights of Redemption

586

Anti-Deficiency Legislation

586

Leasehold Considerations

587

Cooperative Shares

587

Bankruptcy Laws

588

Environmental Considerations

595

General

595

Superlien Laws

595

CERCLA

595

Certain Other Federal and State Laws

596

Additional Considerations

597

Due-on-Sale and Due-on-Encumbrance Provisions

597

Subordinate Financing

597

Default Interest and Limitations on Prepayments

598

Applicability of Usury Laws

598

Americans with Disabilities Act

598

Servicemembers Civil Relief Act

599

Anti-Money Laundering, Economic Sanctions and Bribery

599

Potential Forfeiture of Assets

600

CERTAIN AFFILIATIONS, RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING TRANSACTION PARTIES

600

PENDING LEGAL PROCEEDINGS INVOLVING TRANSACTION PARTIES

602

USE OF PROCEEDS

603

YIELD AND MATURITY CONSIDERATIONS

603

Yield Considerations

603

General

603

Rate and Timing of Principal Payments

603

Losses and Shortfalls

605

Certain Relevant Factors Affecting Loan Payments and Defaults

606

Delay in Payment of Distributions

607

Yield on the Certificates with Notional Amounts

607

Weighted Average Life

607

Pre-Tax Yield to Maturity Tables

613

12

 

 

MATERIAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

625

General

625

Qualification as a REMIC

626

Exchangeable Certificates

628

Taxation of Regular Interests Underlying an Exchangeable Certificate

628

Status of Offered Certificates

628

Taxation of Regular Interests

629

General

629

Original Issue Discount

629

Acquisition Premium

632

Market Discount

632

Premium

633

Election To Treat All Interest Under the Constant Yield Method

633

Treatment of Losses

634

Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums

635

Sale or Exchange of Regular Interests

635

3.8% Medicare Tax on “Net Investment Income”

636

Information Reporting

636

Taxation of Certain Foreign Investors

636

FATCA

637

Backup Withholding

637

Taxes That May Be Imposed on a REMIC

638

Prohibited Transactions

638

Contributions to a REMIC After the Startup Day

638

Net Income from Foreclosure Property

638

Administrative Matters

639

REMIC Partnership Representative

639

Reporting Requirements

639

CERTAIN STATE AND LOCAL TAX CONSIDERATIONS

640

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)

641

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

645

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

646

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

646

CERTAIN ERISA CONSIDERATIONS

646

General

646

Plan Asset Regulations

647

Administrative Exemptions

648

Insurance Company General Accounts

650

LEGAL INVESTMENT

651

LEGAL MATTERS

652

RATINGS

652

INDEX OF DEFINED TERMS

655

 

Annex A-1:

Certain Characteristics of the Mortgage Loans and Mortgaged Properties

A-1-1

Annex A-2:

Mortgage Pool Information (Tables)

A-2-1

Annex A-3:

Summaries of the Fifteen Largest Mortgage Loans

A-3-1

Annex A-4:

McDonald’s Global HQ Mortgage Loan Amortization Schedule

A-4-1

Annex B:

Form of Distribution Date Statement

B-1

Annex C:

Form of Operating Advisor Annual Report

C-1

Annex D-1:

Mortgage Loan Representations and Warranties

D-1-1

Annex D-2:

Exceptions to Mortgage Loan Representations and Warranties

D-2-1

Annex E:

Class A-SB Planned Principal Balance Schedule

E-1

13

 

 

[THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

14

 

 

Important Notice Regarding the Offered Certificates

 

WE HAVE FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION A REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, WITH RESPECT TO THE CERTIFICATES OFFERED IN THIS PROSPECTUS; HOWEVER, THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONTAIN ALL OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION REGARDING THE DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROSPECTUS, YOU SHOULD REFER TO OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT AND THE EXHIBITS TO IT. OUR REGISTRATION STATEMENT AND THE EXHIBITS TO IT CAN BE OBTAINED ELECTRONICALLY THROUGH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION’S INTERNET WEBSITE (HTTP://WWW.SEC.GOV).

 

THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL OR A SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE OR OTHER JURISDICTION WHERE SUCH OFFER, SOLICITATION OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES REFERRED TO IN THIS PROSPECTUS ARE OFFERED ON A “WHEN, AS AND IF ISSUED” BASIS.

 

THE UNDERWRITERS DESCRIBED IN THESE MATERIALS MAY FROM TIME TO TIME PERFORM INVESTMENT BANKING SERVICES FOR, OR SOLICIT INVESTMENT BANKING BUSINESS FROM, ANY COMPANY NAMED IN THESE MATERIALS. THE UNDERWRITERS AND/OR THEIR RESPECTIVE EMPLOYEES MAY FROM TIME TO TIME HAVE A LONG OR SHORT POSITION IN ANY CONTRACT OR CERTIFICATE DISCUSSED IN THESE MATERIALS.

 

THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PROSPECTUS SUPERSEDES ANY PREVIOUS SUCH INFORMATION DELIVERED TO ANY PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR.

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES DO NOT REPRESENT AN INTEREST IN OR OBLIGATION OF THE DEPOSITOR, THE SPONSORS, THE MORTGAGE LOAN SELLERS, ANY MASTER SERVICER, ANY SPECIAL SERVICER, THE TRUSTEE, THE OPERATING ADVISOR, THE ASSET REPRESENTATIONS REVIEWER, THE CERTIFICATE ADMINISTRATOR, THE DIRECTING CERTIFICATEHOLDER, THE RISK RETENTION CONSULTATION PARTY, THE UNDERWRITERS OR ANY OF THEIR RESPECTIVE AFFILIATES. NEITHER THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES NOR THE MORTGAGE LOANS ARE INSURED OR GUARANTEED BY ANY GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY OR INSTRUMENTALITY OR PRIVATE INSURER.

 

THERE IS CURRENTLY NO SECONDARY MARKET FOR THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. WE CANNOT ASSURE YOU THAT A SECONDARY MARKET WILL DEVELOP OR, IF A SECONDARY MARKET DOES DEVELOP, THAT IT WILL PROVIDE HOLDERS OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES WITH LIQUIDITY OF INVESTMENT OR THAT IT WILL CONTINUE FOR THE TERM OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. THE UNDERWRITERS CURRENTLY INTEND TO MAKE A MARKET IN THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BUT ARE UNDER NO OBLIGATION TO DO SO. ACCORDINGLY, PURCHASERS MUST BE PREPARED TO BEAR THE RISKS OF THEIR INVESTMENTS FOR AN INDEFINITE PERIOD. SEE “RISK FACTORS—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—The Certificates May Have Limited Liquidity and the Market Value of the Certificates May Decline” IN THIS PROSPECTUS.

 

Important Notice About Information Presented in this Prospectus

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that

 

15

 

 

contained in this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus.

 

This prospectus begins with several introductory sections describing the certificates and the issuing entity in abbreviated form:

 

 

Summary of Certificates, which sets forth important statistical information relating to the certificates;

 

 

Summary of Terms, which gives a brief introduction of the key features of the certificates and a description of the mortgage loans; and

 

 

Summary of Risk Factors and Risk Factors, which describe risks that apply to the certificates.

 

This prospectus includes cross references to sections in this prospectus where you can find further related discussions.  The table of contents in this prospectus identifies the pages where these sections are located.

 

Certain capitalized terms are defined and used in this prospectus to assist you in understanding the terms of the offered certificates and this offering. The capitalized terms used in this prospectus are defined on the pages indicated under the caption “Index of Defined Terms”.

 

All annexes and schedules attached to this prospectus are a part of this prospectus.

 

In this prospectus:

 

 

the terms “depositor”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to Banc of America Merrill Lynch Commercial Mortgage Inc.;

 

 

references to any specified mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) refer to the mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) with the same name identified on Annex A-1;

 

 

references to any specified mortgage loan should be construed to refer to the mortgage loan secured by the mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) with the same name identified on Annex A-1, representing the approximate percentage of the initial pool balance set forth on Annex A-1;

 

 

any parenthetical with a percentage next to a mortgage loan name or a group of mortgage loans indicates the approximate percentage (or approximate aggregate percentage) of the initial pool balance that the outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loan (or the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such group of mortgage loans) represents, as set forth on Annex A-1;

 

 

any parenthetical with a percentage next to a mortgaged property (or portfolio of mortgaged properties) indicates the approximate percentage (or approximate aggregate percentage) of the initial pool balance that the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan (or, if applicable, the allocated loan amount or aggregate allocated loan amount with respect to such mortgaged property or mortgaged properties) represents, as set forth on Annex A-1;

 

 

references to a “pooling and servicing agreement” (other than the BANK 2021-BNK36 pooling and servicing agreement) governing the servicing of any mortgage loan

16

 

 

should be construed to refer to any relevant pooling and servicing agreement, trust and servicing agreement or other primary transaction agreement governing the servicing of such mortgage loan; and

 

 

references to “lender” or “mortgage lender” with respect to a mortgage loan generally should be construed to mean, from and after the date of initial issuance of the offered certificates, the trustee on behalf of the issuing entity as the holder of record title to the mortgage loans or the applicable master servicer or special servicer, as applicable, with respect to the obligations and rights of the lender as described under “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

Until ninety days after the date of this prospectus, all dealers that buy, sell or trade the offered certificates, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the dealers’ obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

 

This prospectus presents a number of non-GAAP financial measures, including Underwritten Net Cash Flow as well as other terms used to measure and present information relating to operation and performance of the Mortgaged Properties that are commonly used in the commercial real estate and real estate finance industries. In addition, the presentation of Net Operating Income includes adjustments that reflect various non-GAAP measures.

 

As presented in this prospectus, these terms are measures that are not presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). They are not measurements of financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP or as alternatives to net income or cash flows from operating activities or as illustrative measures of liquidity. While some of these terms are widely-used within the commercial real estate and real estate finance industries, these terms have limitations as analytical tools, and investors should not consider them in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of results as if reported under GAAP.

 

The non-GAAP financial measures presented are not intended as alternatives to any measures of performance in conformity with GAAP. Investors should therefore not place undue reliance on non-GAAP financial measures or ratios calculated using those measures.

 

The SEC has adopted rules to regulate the use in filings with the SEC and public disclosures and press releases of non-GAAP financial measures that are derived on the basis of methodologies other than in accordance with GAAP. The non-GAAP financial measures presented in this prospectus may not comply with these rules.

 

NOTICE TO INVESTORS: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA

 

PROHIBITION ON SALES TO EU RETAIL INVESTORS

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE NOT INTENDED TO BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, AND SHOULD NOT BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, ANY EU RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA (THE “EEA”). FOR THESE PURPOSES (AND FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE FOLLOWING SECTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS), AN “EU RETAIL INVESTOR” MEANS A PERSON WHO IS ONE (OR MORE) OF THE FOLLOWING: (I) A RETAIL CLIENT AS DEFINED IN POINT (11) OF ARTICLE 4(1) OF DIRECTIVE 2014/65/EU (AS AMENDED, “MIFID II”); OR (II) A CUSTOMER WITHIN THE MEANING OF DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/97 (AS AMENDED), WHERE THAT CUSTOMER WOULD NOT QUALIFY AS

17

 

 

A PROFESSIONAL CLIENT AS DEFINED IN POINT (10) OF ARTICLE 4(1) OF MIFID II; OR (III) NOT A QUALIFIED INVESTOR (AN “EU QUALIFIED INVESTOR”) AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 2 OF REGULATION (EU) 2017/1129 (AS AMENDED, THE “EU PROSPECTUS REGULATION”). CONSEQUENTLY NO KEY INFORMATION DOCUMENT REQUIRED BY REGULATION (EU) NO 1286/2014 (AS AMENDED, THE “EU PRIIPS REGULATION”) FOR OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO EU RETAIL INVESTORS IN THE EEA HAS BEEN PREPARED AND THEREFORE OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO ANY EU RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE EEA MAY BE UNLAWFUL UNDER THE EU PRIIPS REGULATION.

 

OTHER EEA OFFERING RESTRICTIONS

 

THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT A PROSPECTUS FOR PURPOSES OF THE EU PROSPECTUS REGULATION. THIS PROSPECTUS HAS BEEN PREPARED ON THE BASIS THAT ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE EEA WILL BE MADE ONLY TO A LEGAL ENTITY WHICH IS AN EU QUALIFIED INVESTOR. ACCORDINGLY, ANY PERSON MAKING OR INTENDING TO MAKE AN OFFER IN THE EEA OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE THE SUBJECT OF THE OFFERING CONTEMPLATED IN THIS PROSPECTUS MAY ONLY DO SO WITH RESPECT TO EU QUALIFIED INVESTORS. NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER HAVE AUTHORIZED, NOR DO THEY AUTHORIZE, THE MAKING OF ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE EEA OTHER THAN TO EU QUALIFIED INVESTORS.

 

MIFID II PRODUCT GOVERNANCE

 

ANY DISTRIBUTOR SUBJECT TO MIFID II THAT IS OFFERING, SELLING OR RECOMMENDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDERTAKING ITS OWN TARGET MARKET ASSESSMENT IN RESPECT OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND DETERMINING ITS OWN DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE MIFID II PRODUCT GOVERNANCE RULES UNDER COMMISSION DELEGATED DIRECTIVE (EU) 2017/593 (AS AMENDED, THE “DELEGATED DIRECTIVE”). NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER MAKES ANY REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES AS TO A DISTRIBUTOR’S COMPLIANCE WITH THE DELEGATED DIRECTIVE.

 

NOTICE TO INVESTORS: UNITED KINGDOM

 

PROHIBITION ON SALES TO UK RETAIL INVESTORS

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE NOT INTENDED TO BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, AND SHOULD NOT BE OFFERED, SOLD OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO, ANY UK RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE UNITED KINGDOM (THE “UK”).  FOR THESE PURPOSES (AND FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE FOLLOWING SECTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS), A “UK RETAIL INVESTOR” MEANS A PERSON WHO IS ONE (OR MORE) OF THE FOLLOWING: (I) A RETAIL CLIENT, AS DEFINED IN POINT (8) OF ARTICLE 2 OF COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) 2017/565, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (WITHDRAWAL) ACT 2018 (AS AMENDED, THE “EUWA”) AND AS AMENDED; OR (II) A CUSTOMER WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (AS AMENDED, THE “FSMA”) AND ANY RULES OR REGULATIONS MADE UNDER THE FSMA (SUCH RULES AND REGULATIONS AS AMENDED) TO IMPLEMENT DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/97, WHERE THAT CUSTOMER WOULD NOT QUALIFY AS A PROFESSIONAL CLIENT, AS DEFINED IN POINT (8) OF ARTICLE 2(1) OF REGULATION (EU) NO 600/2014, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED; OR (III) NOT A QUALIFIED INVESTOR (A “UK QUALIFIED INVESTOR”), AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 2 OF REGULATION (EU) 2017/1129, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED (THE “UK PROSPECTUS REGULATION”). 

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CONSEQUENTLY NO KEY INFORMATION DOCUMENT REQUIRED BY REGULATION (EU) NO 1286/2014, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED (THE “UK PRIIPS REGULATION”) FOR OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO UK RETAIL INVESTORS IN THE UK HAS BEEN PREPARED; AND THEREFORE OFFERING OR SELLING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR OTHERWISE MAKING THEM AVAILABLE TO ANY UK RETAIL INVESTOR IN THE UK MAY BE UNLAWFUL UNDER THE UK PRIIPS REGULATION.

 

OTHER UK OFFERING RESTRICTIONS

 

THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT A PROSPECTUS FOR PURPOSES OF THE UK PROSPECTUS REGULATION. THIS PROSPECTUS HAS BEEN PREPARED ON THE BASIS THAT ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE UK WILL BE MADE ONLY TO A LEGAL ENTITY WHICH IS A UK QUALIFIED INVESTOR. ACCORDINGLY, ANY PERSON MAKING OR INTENDING TO MAKE AN OFFER IN THE UK OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE THE SUBJECT OF THE OFFERING CONTEMPLATED IN THIS PROSPECTUS MAY ONLY DO SO WITH RESPECT TO UK QUALIFIED INVESTORS. NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER HAVE AUTHORIZED, NOR DO THEY AUTHORIZE, THE MAKING OF ANY OFFER OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN THE UK OTHER THAN TO UK QUALIFIED INVESTORS.

 

UK MIFIR PRODUCT GOVERNANCE

 

ANY DISTRIBUTOR SUBJECT TO THE FCA HANDBOOK PRODUCT INTERVENTION AND PRODUCT GOVERNANCE SOURCEBOOK (THE “UK MIFIR PRODUCT GOVERNANCE RULES”) THAT IS OFFERING, SELLING OR RECOMMENDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDERTAKING ITS OWN TARGET MARKET ASSESSMENT IN RESPECT OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND DETERMINING APPROPRIATE DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS. NEITHER THE ISSUING ENTITY, THE DEPOSITOR NOR ANY UNDERWRITER MAKES ANY REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES AS TO A DISTRIBUTOR’S COMPLIANCE WITH THE UK MIFIR PRODUCT GOVERNANCE RULES.

 

OTHER UK REGULATORY RESTRICTIONS

 

THE ISSUING ENTITY MAY CONSTITUTE A “COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEME” AS DEFINED BY SECTION 235 OF THE FSMA THAT IS NOT A “RECOGNIZED COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEME” FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE FSMA AND THAT HAS NOT BEEN AUTHORIZED, REGULATED OR OTHERWISE RECOGNIZED OR APPROVED. AS AN UNREGULATED SCHEME, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES CANNOT BE MARKETED IN THE UK TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC, EXCEPT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FSMA.

 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS (A) IF MADE BY A PERSON WHO IS NOT AN AUTHORIZED PERSON UNDER THE FSMA, IS BEING MADE ONLY TO, OR DIRECTED ONLY AT, PERSONS WHO (I) ARE OUTSIDE THE UK, OR (II) HAVE PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE IN MATTERS RELATING TO INVESTMENTS AND QUALIFY AS INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 19(5) OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 (FINANCIAL PROMOTION) ORDER 2005 (AS AMENDED, THE “FINANCIAL PROMOTION ORDER”), OR (III) ARE PERSONS FALLING WITHIN ARTICLE 49(2)(A) THROUGH (D) (“HIGH NET WORTH COMPANIES, UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS, ETC.”) OF THE FINANCIAL PROMOTION ORDER, OR (IV) ARE PERSONS TO WHOM THIS PROSPECTUS MAY OTHERWISE LAWFULLY BE COMMUNICATED OR DIRECTED (ALL SUCH PERSONS TOGETHER BEING REFERRED TO AS “FPO PERSONS”); AND (B) IF MADE BY A PERSON WHO IS AN AUTHORIZED PERSON UNDER THE FSMA, IS BEING MADE ONLY TO, OR DIRECTED ONLY AT, PERSONS WHO (I) ARE OUTSIDE THE UK, OR (II) HAVE PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OF PARTICIPATING IN UNREGULATED SCHEMES (AS DEFINED FOR PURPOSES OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND

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MARKETS ACT 2000 (PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES) (EXEMPTIONS) ORDER 2001 (AS AMENDED, THE “PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER”)) AND QUALIFY AS INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 14(5) OF THE PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER, OR (III) ARE PERSONS FALLING WITHIN ARTICLE 22(2)(A) THROUGH (D) (HIGH NET WORTH COMPANIES, UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS, ETC.) OF THE PROMOTION OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEMES EXEMPTIONS ORDER, OR (IV) ARE PERSONS TO WHOM THE ISSUING ENTITY MAY LAWFULLY BE PROMOTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 4.12 OF THE FCA HANDBOOK CONDUCT OF BUSINESS SOURCEBOOK (ALL SUCH PERSONS, TOGETHER WITH THE FPO PERSONS, THE “RELEVANT PERSONS”).

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MUST NOT BE ACTED ON OR RELIED ON BY PERSONS WHO ARE NOT RELEVANT PERSONS. ANY INVESTMENT OR INVESTMENT ACTIVITY TO WHICH THIS PROSPECTUS RELATES, INCLUDING THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, IS AVAILABLE ONLY TO RELEVANT PERSONS AND WILL BE ENGAGED IN ONLY WITH RELEVANT PERSONS.

 

POTENTIAL INVESTORS IN THE UK ARE ADVISED THAT ALL, OR MOST, OF THE PROTECTIONS AFFORDED BY THE UK REGULATORY SYSTEM WILL NOT APPLY TO AN INVESTMENT IN THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES AND THAT COMPENSATION WILL NOT BE AVAILABLE UNDER THE UK FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPENSATION SCHEME.

 

EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION AND UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION

 

NONE OF THE SPONSORS, THE DEPOSITOR OR THE UNDERWRITERS, OR THEIR RESPECTIVE AFFILIATES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON INTENDS TO RETAIN A MATERIAL NET ECONOMIC INTEREST IN THE SECURITIZATION CONSTITUTED BY THE ISSUE OF THE CERTIFICATES, OR TO TAKE ANY OTHER ACTION IN RESPECT OF SUCH SECURITIZATION, IN A MANNER PRESCRIBED OR CONTEMPLATED BY (A) REGULATION (EU) 2017/2402 (THE “EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION”) OR (B) REGULATION (EU) 2017/2402, AS IT FORMS PART OF UK DOMESTIC LAW BY VIRTUE OF THE EUWA AND AS AMENDED (INCLUDING BY THE SECURITISATION (AMENDMENT) (EU EXIT) REGULATIONS 2019) (THE “UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION”). IN PARTICULAR, NO SUCH PERSON UNDERTAKES TO TAKE ANY ACTION WHICH MAY BE REQUIRED BY ANY POTENTIAL INVESTOR OR CERTIFICATEHOLDER FOR THE PURPOSES OF ITS COMPLIANCE WITH ANY REQUIREMENT OF THE EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION OR THE UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION. IN ADDITION, THE ARRANGEMENTS DESCRIBED UNDER “CREDIT RISK RETENTION” IN THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN STRUCTURED WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF ENSURING COMPLIANCE BY ANY PERSON WITH ANY REQUIREMENT OF THE EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION OR THE UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION. CONSEQUENTLY, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY NOT BE A SUITABLE INVESTMENT FOR INVESTORS THAT ARE SUBJECT TO ANY REQUIREMENT OF THE EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION OR THE UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION.  SEE “RISK FACTORS—OTHER RISKS RELATING TO THE CERTIFICATES—EU SECURITIZATION REGULATION AND UK SECURITIZATION REGULATION” IN THIS PROSPECTUS.

 

 

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PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES WILL NOT BE OFFERED OR SOLD IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (EXCLUDING HONG KONG, MACAU AND TAIWAN, THE “PRC”) AS PART OF THE INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BUT MAY BE AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE BY INVESTORS RESIDENT IN THE PRC FROM OUTSIDE THE PRC.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER TO SELL OR THE SOLICITATION OF AN OFFER TO BUY ANY SECURITIES IN THE PRC TO ANY PERSON TO WHOM IT IS UNLAWFUL TO MAKE THE OFFER OR SOLICITATION IN THE PRC.

 

THE DEPOSITOR DOES NOT REPRESENT THAT THIS PROSPECTUS MAY BE LAWFULLY DISTRIBUTED, OR THAT ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY BE LAWFULLY OFFERED, IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANY APPLICABLE REGISTRATION OR OTHER REQUIREMENTS IN THE PRC, OR PURSUANT TO AN EXEMPTION AVAILABLE THEREUNDER, OR ASSUME ANY RESPONSIBILITY FOR FACILITATING ANY SUCH DISTRIBUTION OR OFFERING.  IN PARTICULAR, NO ACTION HAS BEEN TAKEN BY THE DEPOSITOR WHICH WOULD PERMIT AN OFFERING OF ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES OR THE DISTRIBUTION OF THIS PROSPECTUS IN THE PRC. ACCORDINGLY, THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE NOT BEING OFFERED OR SOLD WITHIN THE PRC BY MEANS OF THIS PROSPECTUS OR ANY OTHER DOCUMENT. NEITHER THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY ADVERTISEMENT OR OTHER OFFERING MATERIAL MAY BE DISTRIBUTED OR PUBLISHED IN THE PRC, EXCEPT UNDER CIRCUMSTANCES THAT WILL RESULT IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANY APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS.

 

HONG KONG

 

THIS PROSPECTUS HAS NOT BEEN DELIVERED FOR REGISTRATION TO THE REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES IN HONG KONG AND THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED OR APPROVED BY ANY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN HONG KONG. THIS PROSPECTUS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE NOR INTEND TO BE AN OFFER OR INVITATION TO THE PUBLIC IN HONG KONG TO ACQUIRE THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES.

 

EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED, WARRANTED AND AGREED THAT: (1) IT HAS NOT OFFERED OR SOLD AND WILL NOT OFFER OR SELL IN HONG KONG, BY MEANS OF ANY DOCUMENT, ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES (EXCEPT FOR CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE A “STRUCTURED PRODUCT” AS DEFINED IN THE SECURITIES AND FUTURES ORDINANCE (CAP. 571) (THE “SFO”) OF HONG KONG) OTHER THAN (A) TO “PROFESSIONAL INVESTORS” AS DEFINED IN THE SFO AND ANY RULES OR REGULATIONS MADE UNDER THE SFO; OR (B) IN OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH DO NOT RESULT IN THE DOCUMENT BEING A “PROSPECTUS” AS DEFINED IN THE COMPANIES (WINDING UP AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS) ORDINANCE (CAP. 32) (THE “C(WUMP)O”) OF HONG KONG OR WHICH DO NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER TO THE PUBLIC WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE C(WUMP)O; AND (2) IT HAS NOT ISSUED OR HAD IN ITS POSSESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ISSUE, AND WILL NOT ISSUE OR HAVE IN ITS POSSESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ISSUE, WHETHER IN HONG KONG OR ELSEWHERE, ANY ADVERTISEMENT, INVITATION OR DOCUMENT RELATING TO THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, WHICH IS DIRECTED AT, OR THE CONTENTS OF WHICH ARE LIKELY TO BE ACCESSED OR READ BY, THE PUBLIC OF HONG KONG (EXCEPT IF PERMITTED TO DO SO UNDER THE SECURITIES LAWS OF HONG KONG) OTHER THAN WITH RESPECT TO OFFERED CERTIFICATES WHICH ARE OR ARE INTENDED TO BE DISPOSED OF ONLY TO PERSONS OUTSIDE HONG KONG OR ONLY TO “PROFESSIONAL INVESTORS” AS DEFINED IN THE SFO AND ANY RULES MADE UNDER THE SFO.

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W A R N I N G

 

THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED OR APPROVED BY ANY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN HONG KONG. YOU ARE ADVISED TO EXERCISE CAUTION IN RELATION TO THE OFFER. IF YOU ARE IN ANY DOUBT ABOUT ANY OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS, YOU SHOULD OBTAIN INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONAL ADVICE.

 

SINGAPORE

 

NEITHER THIS PROSPECTUS NOR ANY OTHER DOCUMENT OR MATERIAL IN CONNECTION WITH ANY OFFER OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES HAS BEEN OR WILL BE REGISTERED AS A PROSPECTUS WITH THE MONETARY AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE (“MAS”) UNDER THE SECURITIES AND FUTURES ACT (CAP. 289) OF SINGAPORE (THE “SFA”). ACCORDINGLY, MAS ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONTENTS OF THIS PROSPECTUS. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT A PROSPECTUS AS DEFINED IN THE SFA AND STATUTORY LIABILITY UNDER THE SFA IN RELATION TO THE CONTENTS OF PROSPECTUSES WOULD NOT APPLY. ANY PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR SHOULD CONSIDER CAREFULLY WHETHER THE INVESTMENT IS SUITABLE FOR IT. THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY OTHER DOCUMENTS OR MATERIALS IN CONNECTION WITH THE OFFER OR SALE, OR INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY NOT BE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ISSUED, CIRCULATED OR DISTRIBUTED, NOR MAY THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES BE OFFERED OR SOLD, OR BE MADE THE SUBJECT OF AN INVITATION FOR SUBSCRIPTION OR PURCHASE, WHETHER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, TO PERSONS IN SINGAPORE OTHER THAN TO AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 4A(1)(C) OF THE SFA) (“INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR”) PURSUANT SECTION 304 OF THE SFA. UNLESS SUCH OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE OF THE SAME CLASS AS OTHER OFFERED CERTIFICATES OF THE ISSUING ENTITY THAT ARE LISTED FOR QUOTATION ON AN APPROVED EXCHANGE (AS DEFINED IN SECTION 2(1) OF THE SFA) (“APPROVED EXCHANGE”) AND IN RESPECT OF WHICH ANY OFFER INFORMATION STATEMENT, INTRODUCTORY DOCUMENT, SHAREHOLDERS’ CIRCULAR FOR A REVERSE TAKE-OVER, DOCUMENT ISSUED FOR THE PURPOSES OF A TRUST SCHEME, OR ANY OTHER SIMILAR DOCUMENT APPROVED BY AN APPROVED EXCHANGE, WAS ISSUED IN CONNECTION WITH AN OFFER, OR THE LISTING FOR QUOTATION, OF THOSE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, ANY SUBSEQUENT OFFERS IN SINGAPORE OF OFFERED CERTIFICATES ACQUIRED PURSUANT TO AN INITIAL OFFER MADE HEREUNDER MAY ONLY BE MADE, PURSUANT TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF SECTION 304A, TO PERSONS WHO ARE INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS.

 

AS THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES ARE ONLY OFFERED TO PERSONS IN SINGAPORE WHO QUALIFY AS AN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR, THE ISSUING ENTITY IS NOT REQUIRED TO DETERMINE THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES PURSUANT TO SECTION 309B OF THE SFA.

 

NOTHING SET OUT IN THIS NOTICE SHALL BE CONSTRUED AS LEGAL ADVICE AND EACH PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR SHOULD CONSULT ITS OWN LEGAL COUNSEL. THIS NOTICE IS FURTHER SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE SFA AND ITS REGULATIONS, AS THE SAME MAY BE AMENDED OR CONSOLIDATED FROM TIME TO TIME, AND DOES NOT PURPORT TO BE EXHAUSTIVE IN ANY RESPECT.

 

THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

 

THESE CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN REGISTERED WITH THE FINANCIAL SERVICES COMMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA FOR A PUBLIC OFFERING IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA. THE UNDERWRITERS HAVE THEREFORE REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT THE CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE OFFERED, SOLD OR DELIVERED DIRECTLY

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OR INDIRECTLY, OR OFFERED, SOLD OR DELIVERED TO ANY PERSON FOR RE-OFFERING OR RESALE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA OR TO ANY RESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE PERMITTED UNDER APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA, INCLUDING THE FINANCIAL INVESTMENT SERVICES AND CAPITAL MARKETS ACT AND THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS LAW AND THE DECREES AND REGULATIONS THEREUNDER.

 

JAPAN

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES HAVE NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE REGISTERED UNDER THE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND EXCHANGE LAW OF JAPAN, AS AMENDED (THE “FIEL”), AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE FIEL HAS NOT BEEN AND WILL NOT BE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES. ACCORDINGLY, EACH UNDERWRITER HAS REPRESENTED AND AGREED THAT IT HAS NOT, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OFFERED OR SOLD AND WILL NOT, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, OFFER OR SELL ANY OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN JAPAN OR TO, OR FOR THE BENEFIT OF, ANY RESIDENT OF JAPAN (WHICH TERM AS USED IN THIS PROSPECTUS MEANS ANY PERSON RESIDENT IN JAPAN, INCLUDING ANY CORPORATION OR OTHER ENTITY ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF JAPAN) OR TO OTHERS FOR REOFFERING OR RE-SALE, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, IN JAPAN OR TO, OR FOR THE BENEFIT OF, ANY RESIDENT OF JAPAN EXCEPT PURSUANT TO AN EXEMPTION FROM THE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS OF, AND OTHERWISE IN COMPLIANCE WITH, THE FIEL AND OTHER RELEVANT LAWS, REGULATIONS AND MINISTERIAL GUIDELINES OF JAPAN. AS PART OF THIS OFFERING OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES, THE UNDERWRITERS MAY OFFER THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES IN JAPAN TO UP TO 49 OFFEREES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ABOVE PROVISIONS.

 

JAPANESE RISK RETENTION REQUIREMENTS

 

NO REPRESENTATION IS MADE AS TO WHETHER THE TRANSACTION DESCRIBED HEREIN WOULD COMPLY WITH THE JAPANESE FINANCIAL SERVICES AGENCY (“JFSA”) RISK RETENTION RULE (AS MORE FULLY DESCRIBED UNDER “RISK FACTORS—OTHER RISKS RELATING TO THE CERTIFICATES—RECENT DEVELOPMENTS CONCERNING THE PROPOSED JAPANESE RETENTION REQUIREMENTS” BELOW) AND NO PARTY TO THE TRANSACTION DESCRIBED HEREIN HAS COMMITTED TO RETAIN A NET ECONOMIC INTEREST IN THE SECURITIZATION CALCULATED FOR THE PURPOSE OF COMPLYING WITH SUCH REQUIREMENTS.

 

NOTICE TO RESIDENTS OF CANADA

 

THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MAY BE SOLD IN CANADA ONLY TO PURCHASERS PURCHASING, OR DEEMED TO BE PURCHASING, AS PRINCIPAL THAT ARE ACCREDITED INVESTORS, AS DEFINED IN NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 45-106 PROSPECTUS EXEMPTIONS OR SUBSECTION 73.3(1) OF THE SECURITIES ACT (ONTARIO), AND ARE PERMITTED CLIENTS, AS DEFINED IN NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 31-103 REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS, EXEMPTIONS AND ONGOING REGISTRANT OBLIGATIONS. ANY RESALE OF THE OFFERED CERTIFICATES MUST BE MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH AN EXEMPTION FROM, OR IN A TRANSACTION NOT SUBJECT TO, THE PROSPECTUS REQUIREMENTS OF APPLICABLE SECURITIES LAWS.

 

SECURITIES LEGISLATION IN CERTAIN PROVINCES OR TERRITORIES OF CANADA MAY PROVIDE A PURCHASER WITH REMEDIES FOR RESCISSION OR DAMAGES IF THIS PROSPECTUS (INCLUDING ANY AMENDMENT HERETO) CONTAINS A MISREPRESENTATION, PROVIDED THAT THE REMEDIES FOR RESCISSION OR DAMAGES ARE EXERCISED BY THE PURCHASER WITHIN THE TIME LIMIT PRESCRIBED BY THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF

 

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THE PURCHASER’S PROVINCE OR TERRITORY. THE PURCHASER SHOULD REFER TO ANY APPLICABLE PROVISIONS OF THE SECURITIES LEGISLATION OF THE PURCHASER’S PROVINCE OR TERRITORY FOR PARTICULARS OF THESE RIGHTS OR CONSULT WITH A LEGAL ADVISOR.

 

PURSUANT TO SECTION 3A.3 OF NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 33-105 UNDERWRITING CONFLICTS (“NI 33-105”), THE UNDERWRITERS ARE NOT REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH THE DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS OF NI 33-105 REGARDING UNDERWRITER CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN CONNECTION WITH THIS OFFERING.

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Summary of Terms

 

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus. It does not contain all of the information you need to consider in making your investment decision. To understand all of the terms of the offering of the offered certificates, read this entire document carefully.

 

Relevant Parties

 

Title of CertificatesCommercial Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, Series 2021-BNK36.

 

DepositorBanc of America Merrill Lynch Commercial Mortgage Inc., a Delaware corporation, and a wholly owned subsidiary of Bank of America, National Association, a national banking association organized under the laws of the United States of America, which is a subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation. The depositor’s address is One Bryant Park, New York, New York 10036 and its telephone number is (980) 388-7451. See “Transaction Parties—The Depositor”.

 

Issuing EntityBANK 2021-BNK36, a New York common law trust, to be established on the closing date under the pooling and servicing agreement. For more detailed information, see “Transaction Parties—The Issuing Entity”.

 

Sponsors and OriginatorsThe sponsors of this transaction are:

 

Bank of America, National Association, a national banking association

 

Morgan Stanley Mortgage Capital Holdings LLC, a New York limited liability company

 

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, a national banking association

 

National Cooperative Bank, N.A., a national banking association

 

These entities are sometimes also referred to in this prospectus as the “mortgage loan sellers”.

 

The originators of this transaction are:

 

Bank of America, National Association, a national banking association

 

Morgan Stanley Bank, N.A., a national banking association

 

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, a national banking association

 

National Consumer Cooperative Bank, a federally chartered corporation

 

National Cooperative Bank, N.A., a national banking association

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The sponsors originated, co-originated or acquired and will transfer to the depositor the mortgage loans set forth in the following chart:

 

Sellers of the Mortgage Loans

 

 

Mortgage Loan Seller

 

Originator(1)

 

Number of Mortgage
Loans

 

Aggregate Cut-off Date Balance of Mortgage Loans

 

Approx.
% of
Initial
Pool
Balance

 Bank of America, National Association Bank of America, National Association 23   $497,276,548 39.0%
 Morgan Stanley Mortgage Capital Holdings LLC Morgan Stanley Bank, N.A. 20   316,981,905 24.8 
 Wells Fargo Bank, National Association Wells Fargo Bank, National Association 17   265,964,072 20.8 
 National Cooperative Bank, N.A. National Consumer Cooperative Bank or National Cooperative Bank, N.A.(2) 31   120,943,418 9.5 
 Bank of America, National Association / Wells Fargo Bank, National Association (3) 

1

  

74,888,072

 

5.9 

 
 Total 

92

  

$1,276,054,015 

 

100.0

%
   
(1)Certain of the mortgage loans are part of whole loans that were co-originated by the related mortgage loan seller (or one of its affiliates) and another entity or were originated by another entity that is not affiliated with the mortgage loan seller and transferred to the mortgage loan seller. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Co-Originated and Third-Party Originated Mortgage Loans”.

(2)With respect to the mortgage loans to be contributed by National Cooperative Bank, N.A., 23 of such mortgage loans (7.0%) were originated by National Consumer Cooperative Bank and 8 of such mortgage loans (2.4%) were originated by National Cooperative Bank, N.A.

(3)The Arizona Mills mortgage loan (5.9%) is part of a whole loan that was co-originated by Bank of America, National Association and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association. Bank of America, National Association is acting as mortgage loan seller and originator with respect to Note A-1 and Note A-3-2, with outstanding principal balances as of the cut-off date of $38,442,543 and $4,992,538, respectively. Wells Fargo Bank, National Association is acting as mortgage loan seller and originator with respect to Note A-2, with an outstanding principal balance as of the cut-off date of $31,452,990.

 

See “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”.

 

Master ServicersWells Fargo Bank, National Association will be the master servicer with respect to 61 of the mortgage loans (90.5%). National Cooperative Bank, N.A. will act as the master servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement with respect to 31 of the mortgage loans (namely, those mortgage loans that are secured by residential cooperative properties and are expected to

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 be sold to the depositor by National Cooperative Bank, N.A.) (9.5%). Each master servicer will be responsible for the master servicing and administration of the applicable mortgage loans and any related companion loan serviced pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement. The principal west coast commercial mortgage master servicing offices of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association are located at MAC A0293-080, 2001 Clayton Road, Concord, California 94520. The principal east coast commercial mortgage master servicing offices of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association are located at Three Wells Fargo, MAC D1050-084, 401 South Tryon Street, Charlotte, North Carolina 28202. The principal servicing offices of National Cooperative Bank, N.A. are located at 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 800, Arlington, VA 22202. See “Transaction Parties—The Master Servicers” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

Prior to the applicable servicing shift securitization date, any servicing shift whole loan will be serviced by the applicable master servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement. From and after the related servicing shift securitization date, any such servicing shift whole loan will be serviced under, and by the master servicer designated in, the related servicing shift pooling and servicing agreement. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Servicing Shift Mortgage Loans”.

 

Certain mortgage loans will be serviced by the master servicer under another pooling and servicing agreement as set forth in the table below under the heading “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Special ServicersRialto Capital Advisors, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, is expected to act as the initial general special servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement with respect to 57 of the mortgage loans (85.8%), together with any related serviced companion loans. National Cooperative Bank, N.A. will act as the special servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement with respect to 31 of the mortgage loans (namely, those mortgage loans that are secured by residential cooperative properties and are expected to be sold to the depositor by National Cooperative Bank, N.A.) (9.5%). Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC and National Cooperative Bank, N.A. will each act as special servicer with respect to the applicable mortgage loans (other than any excluded special servicer loans) and any related companion loan

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other than with respect to the non-serviced mortgage loans and related companion loan(s) set forth in the table entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below. The applicable special servicer will be primarily responsible for (i) making decisions and performing certain servicing functions with respect to such mortgage loans and related companion loans as to which a special servicing transfer event (such as a default or an imminent default) has occurred and (ii) in certain circumstances, reviewing, evaluating and processing and/or providing or withholding consent as to certain special servicer decisions and major decisions relating to such mortgage loans and related companion loans as to which a special servicing transfer event has not occurred, in each case pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction. The principal servicing offices of Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC are located at 200 S. Biscayne Blvd, Suite 3550, Miami, Florida 33131. The principal servicing offices of National Cooperative Bank, N.A. are located at 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 800, Arlington, VA 22202. See “Transaction Parties—The Special Servicers” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

If the applicable special servicer obtains knowledge that it has become a borrower party with respect to any mortgage loan (such mortgage loan referred to herein as an “excluded special servicer loan”), the applicable special servicer will be required to resign as special servicer of that excluded special servicer loan. Prior to the occurrence of a control termination event under the pooling and servicing agreement, the directing certificateholder will be required to select a separate special servicer that is not a borrower party (referred to herein as an “excluded special servicer”) with respect to any excluded special servicer loan, unless such excluded special servicer loan is also an excluded loan (as to the directing certificateholder or the holder of the majority of the controlling class of certificates). For the avoidance of doubt, with respect to a mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property, a person will not be considered a borrower party solely by reason of such person holding one or more cooperative unit loans that are secured by direct equity interests in the related borrower or owning one or more residential cooperative units comprising the related mortgaged property as a result of any foreclosure, transfer in lieu of foreclosure or other exercise of remedies with respect to any such unit loan(s). After the occurrence and during the continuance of a control termination event, if at any time the applicable excluded special servicer loan is also an excluded loan (as to the directing certificateholder or the holder of the majority of the controlling class of

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certificates) or if the directing certificateholder is entitled to appoint the excluded special servicer but does not so appoint within 30 days of notice of resignation, the resigning special servicer will be required to use reasonable efforts to select the related excluded special servicer. See “—Directing Certificateholder” below and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Termination of a Master Servicer or Special Servicer for Cause”. Any excluded special servicer will be required to perform all of the obligations of the applicable special servicer and will be entitled to all special servicing compensation with respect to such excluded special servicer loan earned during such time as the related mortgage loan is an excluded special servicer loan.

 

Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC is expected to be appointed a special servicer by RREF IV Debt AIV, LP (or another affiliate of Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC), which, on the closing date, is expected to be appointed (or to appoint an affiliate) as the initial directing certificateholder. RREF IV Debt AIV, LP is expected to also consent to the appointment of National Cooperative Bank, N.A. as special servicer with respect to the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties that are expected to be sold to the depositor by National Cooperative Bank, N.A., and may replace National Cooperative Bank, N.A. in such capacity pursuant to the terms of the pooling and servicing agreement. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Certificateholder”.

 

Prior to the applicable servicing shift securitization date, any servicing shift whole loan, if necessary, will be specially serviced by the applicable special servicer under the pooling and servicing agreement. From and after the related servicing shift securitization date, any such servicing shift whole loan will be specially serviced, if necessary, under, and by the special servicer designated in, the related servicing shift pooling and servicing agreement. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Servicing Shift Mortgage Loans”.

 

Certain mortgage loans will be specially serviced, if necessary, by the special servicer under another pooling and servicing agreement as set forth in the table below entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

TrusteeWilmington Trust, National Association will act as trustee. The corporate trust office of the trustee is

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located at 1100 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19890, Attention: CMBS Trustee BANK 2021-BNK36. Following the transfer of the mortgage loans, the trustee, on behalf of the issuing entity, will become the mortgagee of record for each mortgage loan (other than a non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related companion loan. See “Transaction Parties—The Trustee” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

The trustee under the pooling and servicing agreement will become the mortgagee of record with respect to any servicing shift mortgage loans if the related whole loan becomes a specially serviced loan prior to the related servicing shift securitization date. From and after the related servicing shift securitization date, the mortgagee of record with respect to any servicing shift mortgage loan will be the trustee designated in the related servicing shift pooling and servicing agreement.

 

With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan, the entity set forth in the table entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below, in its capacity as trustee under the pooling and servicing agreement for the indicated transaction, is the mortgagee of record for that non-serviced mortgage loan and any related companion loan. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Certificate AdministratorWells Fargo Bank, National Association will act as certificate administrator. The certificate administrator will also be required to act as custodian, certificate registrar, REMIC administrator, 17g-5 information provider and authenticating agent. The corporate trust offices of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association are located at 9062 Old Annapolis Road, Columbia, Maryland 21045, and for certificate transfer purposes are located at 600 South 4th Street, 7th Floor, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415. See “Transaction Parties—The Certificate Administrator” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement”.

 

The custodian with respect to any servicing shift mortgage loans will be the certificate administrator, in its capacity as custodian under the pooling and servicing agreement. After the related servicing shift securitization date, the custodian of the mortgage file for a servicing shift mortgage loan (other than the promissory note evidencing the related servicing shift mortgage loan) will be the custodian under the related servicing shift pooling and servicing agreement. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

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The custodian with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan will be the entity set forth in the table below entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Operating AdvisorPentalpha Surveillance LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, will be the operating advisor. The operating advisor will have certain review and reporting responsibilities with respect to the performance of the special servicers, and in certain circumstances may recommend to the certificateholders that a special servicer be replaced. The operating advisor will generally have no obligations or consultation rights as operating advisor under the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction with respect to a non-serviced whole loan or servicing shift whole loan or any related REO property. See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Operating Advisor”.

 

Asset Representations

ReviewerPentalpha Surveillance LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, will also be serving as the asset representations reviewer. The asset representations reviewer will be required to review certain delinquent mortgage loans after a specified delinquency threshold has been exceeded and the required percentage of certificateholders vote to direct a review of such delinquent mortgage loans. See “Transaction Parties—The Operating Advisor and Asset Representations Reviewer” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Asset Representations Reviewer”.

 

Directing CertificateholderSubject to the rights of the holders of subordinate companion loans solely with respect to any serviced A/B whole loan described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”, the directing certificateholder will have certain consent and consultation rights in certain circumstances with respect to the mortgage loans (other than (i) any servicing shift mortgage loan and (ii) any excluded loans as described in the next paragraph), as further described in this prospectus. The directing certificateholder will generally be the controlling class certificateholder (or its representative) selected by more than a specified percentage (by certificate balance) of the controlling class certificateholders. In certain circumstances (such as when no directing certificateholder has been appointed and no one holder owns the largest aggregate certificate balance of the controlling class) there may be no

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directing certificateholder even though there is a controlling class. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—The Directing Certificateholder”.

 

With respect to the directing certificateholder or the holder of the majority of the controlling class certificates, an “excluded loan” is a mortgage loan or whole loan with respect to which such party is a borrower, a mortgagor, a manager of a mortgaged property, the holder of a mezzanine loan that has been accelerated or as to which foreclosure or enforcement proceedings have been commenced against the equity collateral pledged to secure the related mezzanine loan, or certain affiliates thereof.

 

The controlling class will be the most subordinate class of the Class G and Class H certificates then-outstanding that has an aggregate certificate balance, as notionally reduced by any cumulative appraisal reduction amounts allocable to such class, at least equal to 25% of the initial certificate balance of that class; provided, however, that if at any time the certificate balances of the principal balance certificates other than the control eligible certificates and the RR Interest have been reduced to zero as a result of principal payments on the mortgage loans, then the controlling class will be the most subordinate class of control eligible certificates that has a certificate balance greater than zero without regard to any cumulative appraisal reduction amounts. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, during such time as the Class G certificates would be the controlling class, the holders of such certificates will have the right to irrevocably waive their right to appoint a directing certificateholder or to exercise any of the rights of the controlling class certificateholder. No class of certificates, other than as described above, will be eligible to act as the controlling class or appoint a directing certificateholder. As of the closing date, the controlling class will be the Class H certificates.

 

It is expected that on the closing date (i) RREF IV Debt AIV, LP (or another affiliate of Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC) will purchase the Class X-G, Class X-H, Class G and Class H certificates and will receive the Class V certificates, (ii) Rialto Real Estate Fund IV-Debt, LP (or other affiliate of Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC) will purchase the Class F and Class X-F certificates, (iii) RREF IV Debt AIV, LP (or another affiliate of Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC) will be appointed as the initial directing certificateholder and (iv) Rialto Relative Value Credit Fund, LP (or other affiliate of Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC) will purchase a portion of the Class E Certificates. Although (i) Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC is

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an affiliate of Rialto Capital Management, LLC (a Securities and Exchange Commission registered investment advisor and the investment manager of and which indirectly controls each of (A) RREF IV Debt AIV, LP, (B) Rialto Real Estate Fund IV-Debt, LP and (C) Rialto Relative Value Credit Fund, LP) and (ii) RREF IV Debt AIV, LP and Rialto Real Estate Fund IV-Debt, LP have the same beneficial owners, Rialto Relative Value Credit Fund, LP has different beneficial owners than both of RREF IV Debt AIV, LP and Rialto Real Estate Fund IV-Debt, LP.

With respect to a servicing shift whole loan, the holder of the related companion loan identified in the related intercreditor agreement as the controlling note will be the controlling noteholder with respect to such servicing shift whole loan, and will be entitled to certain consent and consultation rights with respect to such servicing shift whole loan, which are substantially similar, but not identical, to those of the directing certificateholder under the pooling and servicing agreement for this securitization. From and after the servicing shift securitization date, the rights of the controlling noteholder of the related servicing shift whole loan (if the related control note is included in the related future securitization) are expected to be exercisable by the directing certificateholder under the related servicing shift pooling and servicing agreement. The directing certificateholder of this securitization will generally only have limited consultation rights with respect to certain servicing matters or mortgage loan modifications affecting a servicing shift mortgage loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”.

 

With respect to any serviced subordinate companion loan described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”, during such time as the holder of such subordinate companion loan is no longer permitted to exercise control or consultation rights under the related intercreditor agreement, the directing certificateholder will have generally similar (although not necessarily identical) consent and consultation rights with respect to the related mortgage loan as it does for the other mortgage loans in the pool. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”.

 

With respect to any non-serviced whole loan, the entity identified in the table entitled “Non-Serviced Whole Loans” under “—The Mortgage Pool—Whole Loans” below is the initial directing certificateholder (or the equivalent) under the pooling and servicing agreement for the indicated transaction (or other indicated party) and will have certain consent and consultation rights

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 with respect to such whole loan, which are substantially similar, but not identical, to those of the directing certificateholder under the pooling and servicing agreement for this securitization, subject to similar appraisal mechanics. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Risk Retention

Consultation PartyThe risk retention consultation party will have certain non-binding consultation rights in certain circumstances with respect to the mortgage loans (other than certain excluded loans as described in the next paragraph), as further described in this prospectus. The risk retention consultation party will generally be the party selected by the holder or holders of more than 50% of the RR Interest (by certificate balance). Bank of America, National Association is expected to be appointed as the initial risk retention consultation party.

 

With respect to the risk retention consultation party or the holder of the majority of the RR Interest, an “excluded loan” is a mortgage loan or whole loan with respect to which such party is a borrower, a mortgagor, a manager of a mortgaged property, the holder of a mezzanine loan that has been accelerated or as to which foreclosure or enforcement proceedings have been commenced against the equity collateral pledged to secure the related mezzanine loan, or certain affiliates thereof.

 

Certain Affiliations

and RelationshipsThe originators, the sponsors, the underwriters, and parties to the pooling and servicing agreement have various roles in this transaction as well as certain relationships with parties to this transaction and certain of their affiliates. These roles and other potential relationships may give rise to conflicts of interest as further described in this prospectus under “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest” and “Certain Affiliations, Relationships and Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties”.

 

Significant ObligorThere are no significant obligors related to the issuing entity.

 

Relevant Dates And Periods

 

Cut-off DateThe mortgage loans will be considered part of the trust fund as of their respective cut-off dates. The cut-off date with respect to each mortgage loan is the respective due date for the monthly debt service payment that is due in October 2021 (or, in the case of

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 any mortgage loan that has its first due date after October 2021, the date that would have been its due date in October 2021 under the terms of that mortgage loan if a monthly debt service payment were scheduled to be due in that month).

 

Closing DateOn or about October 7, 2021.

 

Distribution DateThe 4th business day following each determination date. The first distribution date will be in November 2021.

 

Determination DateThe 11th day of each month or, if the 11th day is not a business day, then the business day immediately following such 11th day.

 

Record DateWith respect to any distribution date, the last business day of the month preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs.

 

Business DayUnder the pooling and servicing agreement, a business day will be any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in California, Kansas, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, or any of the jurisdictions in which the respective primary servicing offices of any master servicer or special servicer or the corporate trust offices of either the certificate administrator or the trustee are located, or the New York Stock Exchange or the Federal Reserve System of the United States of America, are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to remain closed.

 

Interest Accrual PeriodThe interest accrual period for each class of offered certificates for each distribution date will be the calendar month immediately preceding the month in which that distribution date occurs.

 

Collection PeriodFor any mortgage loan and any distribution date, the collection period will be the period beginning with the day after the determination date in the month preceding the month in which such distribution date occurs (or, in the case of the first distribution date, commencing immediately following the cut-off date) and ending with the determination date occurring in the month in which such distribution date occurs.

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Assumed Final

Distribution Date; Rated

Final Distribution DateThe assumed final distribution dates set forth below for each class have been determined on the basis of the assumptions described in “Description of the Certificates—Assumed Final Distribution Date; Rated Final Distribution Date”:

 

 

Class

Assumed
Final Distribution Date

 Class A-1July 2026
 Class A-2October 2026
 Class A-3September 2028
 Class A-SBNovember 2030
 Class A-4August 2031(1)
 Class A-5September 2031(1)
 Class X-ANAP
 Class X-BNAP
 Class A-SOctober 2031(1)
 Class BOctober 2031(1)
 Class COctober 2031(1)
   

 

(1)Each class of Class A-4 Exchangeable Certificates, Class A-5 Exchangeable Certificates, Class A-S Exchangeable Certificates, Class B Exchangeable Certificates and Class C Exchangeable Certificates that are principal balance certificates will have the same assumed final distribution date as the Class A-4, Class A-5, Class A-S, Class B or Class C certificates, respectively, shown in the table.

 

The rated final distribution date will be the distribution date in September 2064.

 

Transaction Overview

 

On the closing date, each sponsor will sell its respective mortgage loans to the depositor, which will in turn deposit the mortgage loans into the issuing entity, a common law trust created on the closing date. The issuing entity will be formed by a pooling and servicing agreement to be entered into by the depositor, the master servicers, the special servicers, the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor and the asset representations reviewer.

 

The transfers of the mortgage loans from the sponsors to the depositor and from the depositor to the issuing entity in exchange for the offered certificates are illustrated below:

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Offered Certificates

 

GeneralWe are offering the following classes of commercial mortgage pass-through certificates as part of Series 2021-BNK36: Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class A-4, Class A-4-1, Class A-4-2, Class A-4-X1, Class A-4-X2, Class A-5, Class A-5-1, Class A-5-2, Class A-5-X1, Class A-5-X2, Class X-A, Class X-B, Class A-S, Class A-S-1, Class A-S-2, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2, Class B, Class B-1, Class B-2, Class B-X1, Class B-X2, Class C, Class C-1, Class C-2, Class C-X1 and Class C-X2.

 

The certificates of this Series will consist of the above classes and the RR Interest and the following classes that are not being offered by this prospectus: Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G, Class X-H, Class D, Class E, Class F, Class G, Class H, Class V and Class R. The RR Interest is not being offered by this prospectus.

 

Certificate Balances and Notional AmountsYour certificates will have the approximate aggregate initial certificate balance or notional amount set forth below, subject to a variance of plus or minus 5%:

 

 

Class

 

Approx. Initial Aggregate Certificate Balance or Notional Amount

 

Approx. % of Initial Pool Balance

 

Approx. Initial Credit
Support(1)

 Class A-1 $27,581,000  2.16% 30.000%
 Class A-2 $157,181,000  12.32% 30.000%
 Class A-3 $10,640,000  0.83% 30.000%
 Class A-SB $27,535,000  2.16% 30.000%
 Class A-4 $200,000,000(2) 15.67%(2) 30.000%
 Class A-5 $425,638,000(2) 33.36%(2) 30.000%
 Class X-A $848,575,000  NAP  NAP
 Class X-B $160,624,000  NAP  NAP
 Class A-S $107,588,000(2) 8.43%(2) 21.125%
 Class B $53,036,000(2) 4.16%(2) 16.750%
 Class C $51,520,000(2) 4.04%(2) 12.500%

   

 

(1)The approximate initial credit support percentages with respect to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class A-4 and Class A-5

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certificates are represented in the aggregate, taking into account the certificate balances of the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components. The approximate initial credit support percentage set forth for the Class A-S certificates represents the approximate credit support for the underlying Class A-S trust component. The approximate initial credit support percentage set forth for the Class B certificates represents the approximate credit support for the underlying Class B trust component. The approximate initial credit support percentage set forth for the Class C certificates represents the approximate credit support for the underlying Class C trust component. The RR Interest provides credit support only to the limited extent that it is allocated a portion of any losses incurred on the underlying mortgage loans, which such losses are allocated between it, on the one hand, and the non-retained certificates, on the other hand, pro rata in accordance with their respective percentage allocation entitlements. See “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

(2)Each class of Exchangeable Certificates will have the certificate balance or notional amount described under “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Exchangeable Certificates.”

 

Pass-Through Rates

A. Offered CertificatesYour certificates will accrue interest at an annual rate called a pass-through rate. The initial approximate pass-through rate is set forth below for each class of certificates:

 

 

Class

Approx. Initial
Pass-Through Rate(1)

 Class A-10.80100%
 Class A-22.13100%
 Class A-31.89500%
 Class A-SB2.28300%
 Class A-4(2)2.21800%
 Class A-5(2)2.47000%
 Class X-A1.02731%
 Class X-B0.55581%
 Class A-S(2)2.69500%
 Class B(2)2.86700%
 Class C(2)3.30760%

   

 

(1)The pass-through rate for each class of the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class A-4 and Class A-5 certificates for any distribution date will be a fixed rate per annum equal to the pass-through rate set forth opposite such class of certificates in the table. The pass-through rate for each class of the Class A-S and Class B certificates for any distribution date will be a variable rate per annum equal to the lesser of (a) the pass-through rate set forth opposite such class of certificates in the table and (b) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date. The pass-through rate for the Class C certificates for any distribution date will be a variable rate per annum equal to the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date. The pass-through rate for the Class X-A certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4, Class A-4-X1, Class A-4-X2, Class A-5, Class A-5-X1 and Class A-5-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional

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amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). The pass-through rate for the Class X-B certificates for any distribution date will be a per annum rate equal to the excess, if any, of (a) the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for the related distribution date, over (b) the weighted average of the pass-through rates on the Class A-S, Class A-S-X1, Class A-S-X2, Class B, Class B-X1 and Class B-X2 trust components for the related distribution date, weighted on the basis of their respective aggregate certificate balances or notional amounts outstanding immediately prior to that distribution date (but excluding trust components with a notional amount in the denominator of such weighted average calculation). For purposes of the calculation of the weighted average of the net mortgage interest rates on the mortgage loans for each distribution date, the mortgage interest rates will be adjusted as necessary to a 30/360 basis.

 

(2)Each class of Exchangeable Certificates will have the pass-through rate described under “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Exchangeable Certificates.”

 

B. Interest Rate

Calculation ConventionInterest on the offered certificates at their applicable pass-through rates will be calculated based on a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months, or a “30/360 basis”.

 

For purposes of calculating the pass-through rates on the Class X-A and Class X-B certificates and any other class of certificates that has a pass-through rate limited by, equal to or based on the weighted average net mortgage interest rate, the mortgage loan interest rates will not reflect any default interest rate, any loan term modifications agreed to by any special servicer or any modifications resulting from a borrower’s bankruptcy or insolvency.

 

For purposes of calculating the pass-through rates on the offered certificates, the interest rate for each mortgage loan that accrues interest based on the actual number of days in each month and assuming a 360-day year, or an “actual/360 basis”, will be recalculated, if necessary, so that the amount of interest that would accrue at that recalculated rate in the applicable month, calculated on a 30/360 basis, will equal the amount of interest that is required to be paid on that mortgage loan in that month, subject to certain adjustments as described in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Pass-Through Rates” and “—Interest Distribution Amount”.

 

C. Servicing and

Administration FeesEach of the master servicers and special servicers is entitled to a servicing fee or special servicing fee, as the case may be, from the interest payments on each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan with respect to the special servicing fee only), any

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related serviced companion loan and any related REO loans and, with respect to the special servicing fees, if the related mortgage loan interest payments (or other collections in respect of the related mortgage loan or mortgaged property) are insufficient, then from general collections on all mortgage loans.

 

The servicing fee for each distribution date, including the master servicing fee and the portion of the servicing fee payable to any primary servicer or subservicer, is calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan) at a servicing fee rate equal to a per annum rate ranging from 0.00500% to 0.21680%.

 

The special servicing fee for each distribution date is calculated based on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related serviced companion loan as to which a special servicing transfer event has occurred (including any REO loans), on a loan-by-loan basis at the special servicing fee rate equal to (a) with respect to Rialto Capital Advisors, LLC, the greater of a per annum rate of 0.25000% and the per annum rate that would result in a special servicing fee for the related month of $5,000 and (b) with respect to National Cooperative Bank, N.A., the greater of 0.25000% and the per annum rate that would result in a special servicing fee of $1,000 for the related month. No special servicer will be entitled to a special servicing fee with respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan.

 

Any primary servicing fees or sub-servicing fees with respect to each serviced mortgage loan and any related serviced companion loan will be paid by the applicable master servicer or special servicer, respectively, out of the fees described above.

 

The master servicers and special servicers are also entitled to additional fees and amounts, including income on the amounts held in certain accounts and certain permitted investments, liquidation fees and workout fees. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses”.

 

The certificate administrator fee for each distribution date is calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan (including any REO loan and any non-serviced mortgage loan) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00603%. The trustee fee is payable by the certificate administrator from the certificate administrator fee and is equal to $290 per month.

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The operating advisor will be entitled to an upfront fee of $10,000 on the closing date. As compensation for the performance of its routine duties, the operating advisor will be entitled to a fee on each distribution date calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and successor REO loan (excluding any related companion loans) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00110%. The operating advisor will also be entitled under certain circumstances to a consulting fee.

 

The asset representations reviewer will be entitled to an upfront fee of $5,000 on the closing date. As compensation for the performance of its routine duties, the asset representations reviewer will be entitled to a fee on each distribution date calculated on the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and successor REO loan (excluding any related companion loans) at a per annum rate equal to 0.00020%. Upon the completion of any asset review with respect to each delinquent loan, the asset representations reviewer will be entitled to a per loan fee in an amount described in “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses—Asset Representations Reviewer Compensation”.

 

Each party to the pooling and servicing agreement will also be entitled to be reimbursed by the issuing entity for costs, expenses and liabilities borne by them in certain circumstances.

 

Additionally, with respect to each distribution date, an amount equal to the product of 0.00050% per annum multiplied by the outstanding principal amount of each mortgage loan and any successor REO loan will be payable to CRE Finance Council® as a license fee for use of their names and trademarks, including an investor reporting package.

 

Payment of the fees and reimbursement of the costs and expenses described above will generally have priority over the distribution of amounts payable to the certificateholders. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing and Other Compensation and Payment of Expenses” and “—Limitation on Liability; Indemnification”.

 

With respect to each non-serviced mortgage loan set forth in the table below, the master servicer under the related pooling and servicing agreement governing the servicing of that mortgage loan will be entitled to a primary servicing fee at a per annum rate set forth in the table below, and the special servicer under the related pooling and servicing agreement will be entitled to a special servicing fee at the per annum rate set forth below. In addition, each party to the pooling and

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servicing agreement governing the servicing of a non-serviced mortgage loan will be entitled to receive other fees and reimbursements with respect to such non-serviced mortgage loan in amounts, from sources, and at frequencies, that are similar, but not necessarily identical, to those described above and, in certain cases (for example, with respect to unreimbursed special servicing fees and servicing advances with respect to the related non-serviced whole loan), such amounts will be reimbursable from general collections on the mortgage loans to the extent not recoverable from the related non-serviced whole loan and to the extent allocable to such non-serviced mortgage loan pursuant to the related intercreditor agreement. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced Pari Passu Whole Loans”, “—The Non-Serviced A/B Whole Loans” and “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

NON-SERVICED MORTGAGE LOANS(1)

 

 

Non-Serviced Mortgage Loan

Primary Servicing Fee Rate(2)

Special Servicing
Fee Rate

 Newport Pavilion0.00500%0.25000%
 Metro Crossing0.00250%0.25000%(3)
 McDonald’s Global HQ0.00250%0.25000%(4)
 Velocity Industrial Portfolio0.00250%0.25000%(3)

   

(1)Does not reflect the Raymour & Flanigan Campus mortgage loan, which is a servicing shift mortgage loan. After the related servicing shift date, the related mortgage loan will also be a non-serviced mortgage loan, and the master servicer and special servicer under such future pooling and servicing agreement will be entitled to the primary servicing fee and special servicing fee, respectively.

 

(2)Included as part of the servicing fee rate.

 

(3)Such fee rate is subject to a minimum amount equal to $3,500 for any month in which such fee is payable.

 

(4)Such fee rate is subject to a minimum amount equal to $3,500 for any month in which such fee is payable (or $5,000 if the related risk retention consultation party is entitled to consult with the special servicer under the related non-serviced pooling and servicing agreement for so long as the related mortgage loan is a specially serviced loan during the occurrence and continuance of a consultation termination event under the related non-serviced pooling and servicing agreement).

 

Distributions

 

A. Allocation between  
 RR Interest and  
 Non-Retained Certificates The aggregate amount available for distributions to holders of the certificates (including the RR Interest) on each distribution date (net of specified expenses of the issuing entity, including fees payable to, and costs and expenses reimbursable to, the master servicers, the special servicers, the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor and the asset representations reviewer) will be allocated between

42

 

 

 amounts available for distribution to the holders of the RR Interest, on the one hand, and for distribution to all other certificates, on the other hand. The certificates other than the Class V and Class R Certificates and other than the RR Interest are referred to in this prospectus as the “non-retained certificates”. The portion of such amount allocable to (a) the RR Interest will at all times be the product of such amount multiplied by 5% and (b) the non-retained certificates will at all times be the product of such amount multiplied by the difference between 100% and the percentage referenced in clause (a), in each case such percentages being referred to in this prospectus as the respective “percentage allocation entitlements”.

 

B. Amount and Order  
 of Distributions  
 on Non-Retained  
 CertificatesOn each distribution date, funds available for distribution to the non-retained certificates (other than (i) any yield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums and (ii) any excess interest) will be distributed in the following amounts and order of priority:

 

  First, to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class X-A, Class X-B, Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G and Class X-H certificates and the Class A-4, Class A-4-X1, Class A-4-X2, Class A-5, Class A-5-X1 and Class A-5-X2 trust components, in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those classes of certificates and trust components;

 

  Second, to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components as follows: (i) to the extent of funds allocated to principal and available for distribution: (a) first, to principal on the Class A-SB certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-SB certificates is reduced to the planned principal balance for the related distribution date set forth in Annex E, (b) second, to principal on the Class A-1 certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-1 certificates has been reduced to zero, (c) third, to principal on the Class A-2 certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-2 certificates has been reduced to zero, (d) fourth, to principal on the Class A-3 certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-3 certificates has been reduced to zero, (e) fifth, to principal on the Class A-4 trust component, until the certificate balance of the Class A-4 trust component has been reduced to zero, (f) sixth, to principal on the Class A-5 trust component, until the certificate balance of the Class A-5 trust component has been reduced to zero, and (g) seventh,

 

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  to principal on the Class A-SB certificates, until the certificate balance of the Class A-SB certificates has been reduced to zero, or (ii) if the certificate balance of each class of certificates and trust components other than the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates, the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components and the RR Interest has been reduced to zero as a result of the allocation of mortgage loan losses to those certificates or trust components, applicable funds available for distributions of principal will be distributed to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components, pro rata, without regard to the distribution priorities described above or the planned principal balance of the Class A-SB certificates;

 

  Third, to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components, to reimburse the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components, pro rata, based upon the aggregate unreimbursed losses previously allocated to each such class or trust component, first, in an amount equal to any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans allocable to principal that were previously borne by those classes or trust components, and then in an amount equal to interest on that amount at the pass-through rate for such class or trust component;

 

  Fourth, to the Class A-S, Class A-S-X1 and Class A-S-X2 trust components, as follows: (a) to each such trust component in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those trust components; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class of certificates or trust component with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class A-S trust component until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class A-S trust component, first in an amount equal to any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans that were previously allocated thereto, and then in an amount equal to interest on that amount at the related pass-through rate for such trust component;
   
  Fifth, to the Class B, Class B-X1 and Class B-X2 trust components, as follows: (a) to each such trust component in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those trust components; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after

 

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  distributions in respect of principal to each class of certificates or trust component with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class B trust component until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class B trust component, first in an amount equal to any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans that were previously allocated thereto, and then in an amount equal to interest on that amount at the related pass-through rate for such trust component;

 

  Sixth, to the Class C, Class C-X1 and Class C-X2 trust components, as follows: (a) to each such trust component in respect of interest, up to an amount equal to, and pro rata in accordance with, the interest entitlements for those trust components; (b) to the extent of funds allocable to principal remaining after distributions in respect of principal to each class of certificates or trust component with a higher priority (as set forth in prior enumerated clauses set forth above), to principal on the Class C trust component until its certificate balance has been reduced to zero; and (c) to reimburse the Class C trust component, first in an amount equal to any previously unreimbursed losses on the mortgage loans that were previously allocated thereto, and then in an amount equal to interest on that amount at the related pass-through rate for such trust component;

 

  Seventh, to the non-offered certificates (other than the Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G, Class X-H, Class V and Class R certificates and the RR Interest) in the amounts and order of priority described in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions”; and

 

  Eighth, to the Class R certificates, any remaining amounts.

 

  Principal and interest payable to the trust components will be distributed pro rata to the corresponding classes of exchangeable certificates representing interests therein in accordance with their class percentage interests therein as described under “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Exchangeable Certificates”.

 

  For more detailed information regarding distributions on the non-retained certificates, see “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Priority of Distributions”.

 

C. Interest and Principal  
  EntitlementsA description of the interest entitlement of each class of certificates (other than the Class V and Class R certificates) and the RR Interest can be found in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Interest

 

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Distribution Amount” and “Credit Risk Retention—RR Interest—Priority of Distributions”. As described in that section, there are circumstances in which your interest entitlement for a distribution date could be less than one full month’s interest at the pass-through rate on your certificate’s balance or notional amount.

 

  A description of the amount of principal required to be distributed to each class of the non-retained certificates entitled to principal on a particular distribution date and the RR Interest can be found in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Principal Distribution Amount” and “Credit Risk Retention—RR Interest—Priority of Distributions”, respectively.

 

D. Yield Maintenance  
 Charges, Prepayment  
 PremiumsYield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums with respect to the mortgage loans will be allocated to the RR Interest, on the one hand, and the non-retained certificates, on the other hand, in accordance with their respective percentage allocation entitlements. Yield maintenance charges and prepayment premiums with respect to the mortgage loans allocated to the non-retained certificates will be further allocated as described in “Description of the Certificates—Allocation of Yield Maintenance Charges and Prepayment Premiums”.

 

  For an explanation of the calculation of yield maintenance charges, see “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

E. Subordination,  
 Allocation of Losses  
 and Certain Expenses The chart below describes the manner in which the payment rights of certain classes of non-retained certificates will be senior or subordinate, as the case may be, to the payment rights of other classes of non-retained certificates. The chart also shows the allocation between the RR Interest and the non-retained certificates and the corresponding entitlement to receive principal and/or interest of certain classes of non-retained certificates (other than excess interest that accrues on each mortgage loan that has an anticipated repayment date) on any distribution date in descending order. It also shows the manner in which mortgage loan losses are allocated between the RR Interest and non-retained certificates and the manner in which the non-retained certificate allocations are further allocated to certain classes of those certificates in ascending order (beginning with the non-offered certificates, other than the Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G, Class X-H, Class V and Class R certificates and the RR Interest) to reduce

 

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  the balance of each such class to zero; provided that no principal payments or mortgage loan losses will be allocated to the Class X-A, Class X-B, Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G, Class X-H, Class V or Class R certificates or any class of Exchangeable Certificates with an “X” suffix, although principal payments and mortgage loan losses may reduce the notional amounts of the Class X-A, Class X-B, Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G and Class X-H certificates and any class of Exchangeable Certificates with an “X” suffix and, therefore, the amount of interest they accrue.
   
  (GRAPHIC) 

 

   

 

(1)The Class X-A, Class X-B, Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G and Class X-H certificates are interest-only certificates.

 

(2)The maximum certificate balances of Class A-4, Class A-5, Class A-S, Class B and Class C certificates will be issued on the closing date, and the certificate balance or notional amount of each other class of Exchangeable Certificates will be equal to zero on the closing date. The relative priorities of the Exchangeable Certificates are described more fully under “Description of the Certificates—Distribution.”

 

(3)The Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G and Class X-H certificates and the RR Interest are non-offered certificates.

 

(4)Other than the Class X-D, Class X-F, Class X-G, Class X-H, Class V and Class R certificates and the RR Interest.

 

  Other than the subordination of certain classes of non-retained certificates, as described above, no other form

 

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  of credit enhancement will be available for the benefit of the holders of the offered certificates. The right to payment of holders of the RR Interest is pro rata and pari passu with the right to payment of holders of the non-retained certificates (as a collective whole), and as described above any losses incurred on the mortgage loans will be allocated between the RR Interest, on the one hand, and the non-retained certificates, on the other hand, pro rata in accordance with their respective percentage allocation entitlements.

 

  The notional amount of the Class X-A certificates will be reduced by the amount of principal losses or principal payments, if any, allocated to the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates and the Class A-4 and Class A-5 trust components. The notional amount of the Class X-B certificates will be reduced by the amount of principal losses or principal payments, if any, allocated to the Class A-S and Class B trust components.

 

  To the extent funds are available on a subsequent distribution date for distribution on your offered certificates, you will be reimbursed for any losses allocated to your offered certificates with interest at the pass-through rate on those offered certificates in accordance with the distribution priorities.

 

  

See “Description of the Certificates—Subordination; Allocation of Realized Losses” and “Credit Risk Retention—RR Interest—Allocation of Retained Certificate Realized Losses” for more detailed information regarding the subordination provisions applicable to the certificates and the allocation of losses to the certificates. 

 

F. Shortfalls in Available  
 FundsShortfalls will reduce the aggregate available funds and will correspondingly reduce the amount allocated to the RR Interest and non-retained certificates. The reduction in amounts available for distribution to the non-retained certificates will reduce distributions to the classes of certificates with the lowest payment priorities.

 

  Shortfalls may occur as a result of:

 

the payment of special servicing fees and other additional compensation that any special servicer is entitled to receive;

 

interest on advances made by any master servicer, any special servicer or the trustee (to the extent not covered by late payment charges or default interest paid by the related borrower);

 

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the application of appraisal reductions to reduce interest advances;

 

extraordinary expenses of the issuing entity including indemnification payments payable to the parties to the pooling and servicing agreement;

 

a modification of a mortgage loan’s interest rate or principal balance; and

 

other unanticipated or default-related expenses of the issuing entity.

 

  In addition, prepayment interest shortfalls on the mortgage loans that are not covered by certain compensating interest payments made by any master servicer will be allocated between the RR Interest, on the one hand, and the non-retained certificates, on the other hand, in accordance with their respective percentage allocation entitlements. The prepayment interest shortfalls allocated to the non-retained certificates are required to be further allocated among the classes of non-retained certificates (other than the Exchangeable Certificates) and all trust components entitled to interest, on a pro rata basis based on their respective amounts of accrued interest for the related distribution date, to reduce the amount of interest payable on each such class of certificates to the extent described in this prospectus. For any distribution date, prepayment interest shortfalls allocated to a trust component will be allocated among the related classes of Exchangeable Certificates, pro rata, in accordance with their respective class percentage interests for that distribution date. See “Description of the Certificates—Prepayment Interest Shortfalls”.

 

G. Excess Interest On each distribution date, any excess interest in respect of the increase in the interest rate on any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date after the related anticipated repayment date to the extent actually collected and applied as interest during a collection period will be distributed to the holders of the Class V certificates and the RR Interest on the related distribution date as set forth in “Description of the Certificates—Distributions—Excess Interest”. This excess interest will not be available to make distributions to any other class of certificates or to provide credit support for other classes of certificates or offset any interest shortfalls or to pay any other amounts to any other party under the pooling and servicing agreement.

 

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Advances  
   
A. P&I Advances Each master servicer is required to advance a delinquent periodic payment on each mortgage loan (including any non-serviced mortgage loan) or any successor REO loan (other than any portion of an REO loan related to a companion loan) serviced by such master servicer, unless in each case, such master servicer or the applicable special servicer determines that the advance would be non-recoverable. None of the master servicers nor the trustee will be required to advance balloon payments due at maturity or outstanding on the related anticipated repayment date in excess of the regular periodic payment, interest in excess of a mortgage loan’s regular interest rate, default interest, late payment charges, prepayment premiums or yield maintenance charges.

 

  The amount of the interest portion of any advance will be subject to reduction to the extent that an appraisal reduction of the related mortgage loan has occurred (and with respect to any mortgage loan that is part of a whole loan, to the extent such appraisal reduction amount is allocated to the related mortgage loan). There may be other circumstances in which a master servicer will not be required to advance a full month of principal and/or interest. If the applicable master servicer fails to make a required advance, the trustee will be required to make the advance, unless the trustee or the special servicer determines that the advance would be non-recoverable. If an interest advance is made by the applicable master servicer, such master servicer will not advance the portion of interest that constitutes its servicing fee, but will advance the portion of interest that constitutes the monthly fees payable to the certificate administrator, the trustee, the operating advisor and the asset representations reviewer and the CREFC® license fee.

 

  None of the master servicers or special servicers or the trustee will make, or be permitted to make, any principal or interest advance with respect to any companion loan.

 

  See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

B. Property Protection  
 AdvancesEach master servicer may be required to make advances with respect to the mortgage loans (other than any non-serviced mortgage loan) and any related companion loan that it is required to service to pay delinquent real estate taxes, assessments and hazard insurance premiums and similar expenses necessary to:

 

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protect and maintain (and in the case of REO properties, lease and manage) the related mortgaged property;

 

maintain the lien on the related mortgaged property; and/or

 

enforce the related mortgage loan documents.

 

  No special servicer will have an obligation to make any property protection advances (although they may elect to make them in an emergency circumstance in their sole discretion). If any special servicer makes a property protection advance, the applicable master servicer will be required to reimburse such special servicer for that advance (unless the applicable master servicer determines that the advance would be non-recoverable, in which case the advance will be reimbursed out of the related collection account) and such master servicer will be deemed to have made that advance as of the date made by the applicable special servicer.

 

  If the applicable master servicer fails to make a required advance of this type, the trustee will be required to make this advance. No master servicer or special servicer or the trustee is required to advance amounts determined by such party to be non-recoverable.

 

  See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

  With respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan, the applicable master servicer (and the trustee, as applicable) under the pooling and servicing agreement governing the servicing of that non-serviced whole loan will be required to make similar advances with respect to delinquent real estate taxes, assessments and hazard insurance premiums as described above.

 

C. Interest on Advances The master servicers, special servicers and the trustee, as applicable, will be entitled to interest on the above described advances at the “Prime Rate” as published in The Wall Street Journal, as described in this prospectus. Interest accrued on outstanding advances may result in reductions in amounts otherwise payable on the certificates. Neither the master servicers nor the trustee will be entitled to interest on advances made with respect to principal and interest due on a mortgage loan until the related due date has passed and any grace period for late payments applicable to the mortgage loan has expired. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Advances”.

 

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  With respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan, the applicable makers of advances under the related pooling and servicing agreement governing the servicing of the non-serviced whole loan will similarly be entitled to interest on advances, and any accrued and unpaid interest on property protection advances made in respect of such non-serviced mortgage loan may be reimbursed from general collections on the other mortgage loans included in the issuing entity to the extent not recoverable from such non-serviced whole loan and to the extent allocable to such non-serviced mortgage loan in accordance with the related intercreditor agreement.

 

  The Mortgage Pool
   
The Mortgage Pool The issuing entity’s primary assets will be 92 fixed rate commercial mortgage loans, each evidenced by one or more promissory notes secured by, generally, first mortgages, deeds of trust, deeds to secure debt or similar security instruments on the fee and/or leasehold estate of the related borrower in 128 commercial, multifamily, manufactured housing and/or residential cooperative properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—General”.

 

  The aggregate principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date will be approximately $1,276,054,015.

 

  Whole Loans

 

  Unless otherwise expressly stated in this prospectus, the term “mortgage loan” refers to each of the commercial mortgage loans to be held by the issuing entity. Of the mortgage loans, each mortgage loan in the table below is part of a larger “whole loan”, which is comprised of the related mortgage loan and one or more loans that are pari passu in right of payment to the related mortgage loan (each referred to in this prospectus as a “pari passu companion loan” or a “companion loan”) and, in certain cases, one or more loans that are subordinate in right of payment to the related mortgage loan (each referred to in this prospectus as a “subordinate companion loan” or a “companion loan”). For further information regarding the whole loans, see “Description of the Mortgage PoolThe Whole Loans”.

 

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Whole Loan Summary

 

Mortgage Loan Name 

 

Mortgage Loan Cut-off Date Balance 

 

% of Initial Pool Balance 

 

Pari Passu Companion Loan Cut-off Date Balance 

 

Subordinate Companion Loan Cut-off Date Balance 

 

Mortgage
Loan Cut-off Date LTV
Ratio(1) 

 

Whole
Loan Cut-off Date LTV
Ratio(2) 

 

Mortgage Loan Underwritten NCF DSCR(1) 

 

Whole Loan Underwritten NCF DSCR(2) 

One North Wacker $127,000,000  9.95% $226,000,000 NAP 53.2% 53.2% 2.96x 2.96x
Arizona Mills $74,888,072  5.9% $24,962,691 NAP 32.4% 32.4% 4.27x 4.27x
Suarez Puerto Rico Industrial Portfolio $60,000,000  4.7% NAP $24,950,000 54.7% 77.4% 3.53x 2.00x
Raymour & Flanigan Campus $30,000,000  2.4% $57,000,000 NAP 58.4% 58.4% 3.03x 3.03x
Newport Pavilion $21,590,000  1.7% $30,000,000 NAP 69.8% 69.8% 3.16x 3.16x
Metro Crossing $14,382,576  1.1% $19,906,679 NAP 63.9% 63.9% 2.05x 2.05x
McDonald’s Global HQ $14,287,548  1.1% $147,637,996 $110,000,000 39.6% 66.5% 1.45x 1.17x
Velocity Industrial Portfolio $10,000,000  0.8% $65,000,000 NAP 57.8% 57.8% 2.72x 2.72x

 

 

(1)Calculated including any related pari passu companion loans but excluding any related subordinate companion loans or mezzanine debt.

 

(2)Calculated including any related pari passu companion loans and any related subordinate companion loans but excluding any mezzanine debt.

 

  Each of the One North Wacker, Arizona Mills and Suarez Puerto Rico Industrial Portfolio whole loans will be serviced by the applicable master servicer and the applicable special servicer pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction and is referred to in this prospectus as a “serviced whole loan”, and each related companion loan is referred to in this prospectus as a “serviced companion loan”.

 

  Each servicing shift whole loan (a “servicing shift whole loan”, and the related mortgage loan, a “servicing shift mortgage loan”) will initially be serviced by the applicable master servicer and the applicable special servicer pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction. From and after the date on which the related controlling companion loan is securitized (each, a “servicing shift securitization date”), it is anticipated that each servicing shift whole loan will be serviced under, and by the applicable master servicer (a “servicing shift master servicer”) and the applicable special servicer (a “servicing shift special servicer”) designated in, the related pooling and servicing agreement entered into in connection with such securitization (a “servicing shift pooling and servicing agreement”). Prior to the applicable servicing shift securitization date, each servicing shift whole loan will be a “serviced whole loan”, the related mortgage loan will be a “serviced mortgage loan” and the related companion loans will be “serviced companion loans”. On and after the applicable servicing shift securitization date, each servicing shift whole loan will be a “non-serviced whole loan”, the related mortgage loan will be a “non-serviced mortgage loan” and the related companion loans will be “non-serviced companion

 

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  loans”. As of the Closing Date, the Raymour & Flanigan Campus whole loan will be a servicing shift whole loan.

 

  Each whole loan identified in the table below will not be serviced under the pooling and servicing agreement for this transaction and instead will be serviced under a separate pooling and servicing agreement identified in the table below entered into in connection with the securitization of one or more related companion loan(s) and is referred to in this prospectus as a “non-serviced whole loan”. The related mortgage loan is referred to as a “non-serviced mortgage loan” and the related companion loans are each referred to in this prospectus as a “non-serviced companion loan” or collectively, as the “non-serviced companion loans”. See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Servicing of the Non-Serviced Mortgage Loans”.

 

Non-Serviced Whole Loans(1)(2)(3)

 

Whole Loan Name 

Transaction/Pooling Agreement 

% of Initial Pool Balance 

Master Servicer 

Special Servicer 

Trustee 

 
Newport PavilionBANK 2021-BNK351.7%Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationKeyBank National AssociationWilmington Trust, National Association 
Metro CrossingWFCM 2021-C601.1%Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationMidland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National AssociationWilmington Trust, National Association 
McDonald’s Global HQBANK 2020-BNK301.1%Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationGreystone Servicing Company LLCWilmington Trust, National Association 
Velocity Industrial PortfolioWFCM 2021-C600.8%Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationMidland Loan Services, a Division of PNC Bank, National AssociationWilmington Trust, National Association 
       

Whole Loan Name 

Certificate Administrator 

Custodian 

Operating Advisor 

Directing Holder 

Newport PavilionWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPark Bridge Lender Services LLCECMBS LLC
Metro CrossingWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPentalpha Surveillance LLCKKR CMBS II Aggregator Type 2 L.P.
McDonald’s Global HQWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPark Bridge Lender Services LLCFortress Credit ABI Advisors LLC(4)
Velocity Industrial PortfolioWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPentalpha Surveillance LLCKKR CMBS II Aggregator Type 2 L.P.
         

 

 

(1)Information in this table is presented as of the closing date of the related securitization or, if such securitization has not yet closed, reflects information regarding the expected parties to such securitization.

 

(2)The Raymour & Flanigan Campus whole loan will constitute a non-serviced whole loan after the related servicing shift securitization date.

 

(3)With respect to each servicing shift whole loan, the right to remove the related special servicer and other control rights will be exercisable by the holder of the related control note designated under the related co-lender agreement. If such control note is included in a securitization trust, the party designated under the related pooling and servicing agreement will be entitled to exercise the rights of the control note holder. See also “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced A/B Whole Loans” in this prospectus.

 

(4)The subject whole loan is an A/B whole loan, and the controlling note as of the date hereof is a related subordinate companion note. Upon the occurrence of certain trigger events specified in the related co-lender agreement, however, control will generally shift to a more senior note (or, if applicable, first to one more senior note and, following certain additional trigger events, to another more senior note) in the subject whole loan, which more senior note will thereafter be the controlling note. The more senior note may be included in another securitization trust, in which case the directing party for the related whole

 

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 loan will be the party designated under the servicing agreement for such securitization trust. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans—The Non-Serviced A/B Whole Loans”.

 

  Mortgage Loan Characteristics

 

  The following tables set forth certain anticipated characteristics of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (unless otherwise indicated). Except as specifically provided in this prospectus, various information presented in this prospectus (including loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios, debt yields and cut-off date balances per net rentable square foot, pad, room or unit, as applicable) with respect to any mortgage loan with a pari passu companion loan or subordinate companion loan is calculated including the principal balance and debt service payment of the related pari passu companion loan(s), but is calculated excluding the principal balance and debt service payment of any related subordinate companion loan (or any subordinate debt encumbering the related mortgaged property or any related mezzanine debt or preferred equity).

 

  In addition, investors should be aware that the appraisals for the mortgaged properties were prepared prior to origination and have not been updated. Certain appraisals were prepared prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and do not account for the effects of the pandemic on the related mortgaged properties. In addition, more recent appraisals may not reflect the complete effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the related mortgaged properties as the cumulative impact of the pandemic may not be known for some time. Similarly, net operating income and occupancy information used in underwriting the mortgage loans may not reflect current conditions, and in particular, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, appraised values, net operating income, occupancy, and related metrics, such as loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios and debt yields, may not accurately reflect the current conditions at the mortgaged properties.

 

  The sum of the numerical data in any column may not equal the indicated total due to rounding. Unless otherwise indicated, all figures and percentages presented in this “Summary of Terms” are calculated as described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” and, unless otherwise indicated, such figures and percentages are approximate and in each case, represent the indicated figure or percentage of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date. The

 

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  principal balance of each mortgage loan as of the cut-off date assumes the timely receipt of principal scheduled to be paid on or before the cut-off date and no defaults, delinquencies or prepayments on, or modifications of, any mortgage loan on or prior to the cut-off date. Whenever percentages and other information in this prospectus are presented on the mortgaged property level rather than the mortgage loan level, the information for mortgage loans secured by more than one mortgaged property (or part of a group of more than one cross-collateralized mortgage loan) is based on allocated loan amounts as stated in Annex A-1.

 

  The mortgage loans will have the following approximate characteristics as of the cut-off date:

 

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  Cut-off Date Mortgage Loan Characteristics

 

  

All Mortgage Loans 

 Initial Pool Balance(1)$1,276,054,015
 Number of mortgage loans92
 Number of mortgaged properties128
 Number of crossed loans0
 Crossed loans as a percentage0.0%
 Range of Cut-off Date Balances$992,951 to $127,000,000
 Average Cut-off Date Balance$13,870,152
 Range of Mortgage Rates2.4350% to 4.7500%
 Weighted average Mortgage Rate3.2249%
 Range of original terms to maturity(2)60 months to 120 months
 Weighted average original term to maturity(2)112 months
 Range of remaining terms to maturity(2)57 months to 120 months
 Weighted average remaining term to maturity(2)110 months
 Range of original amortization terms(3)120 months to 480 months
 Weighted average original amortization term(3)368 months
 Range of remaining amortization terms(3)118 months to 479 months
 Weighted average remaining amortization term(3)366 months
 Range of Cut-off Date LTV Ratios(4)(5)(6)2.0% to 75.0%
 Weighted average Cut-off Date LTV Ratio(4)(5)(6)51.8%
 Range of LTV Ratios as of the maturity date(2)(4)(5)(6)0.0% to 75.0%
 Weighted average LTV Ratio as of the maturity date(2)(4)(5)(6)49.7%
 Range of U/W NCF DSCRs(5)(6)(7)1.37x to 28.86x
 Weighted average U/W NCF DSCR(5)(6)(7)3.43x
 Range of U/W NOI Debt Yields(5)(6)6.8% to 153.4%
 Weighted average U/W NOI Debt Yield(5)(6)13.9%
 Percentage of Initial Pool Balance consisting of: 
 Interest Only70.0%
 Amortizing Balloon19.1%
 Interest Only, Amortizing Balloon10.7%
 Fully Amortizing0.2%

   

 

(1)Subject to a permitted variance of plus or minus 5%.

 

(2)With respect to any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date, if any, calculated as of the related anticipated repayment date.

 

(3)Excludes 53 mortgage loans (70.0%) identified on Annex A-1, which are interest-only for the entire term or until the anticipated repayment date, as applicable.

 

(4)Loan-to-value ratios (such as, for example, the loan-to-value ratios as of the cut-off date and the loan-to-value ratios at the maturity date) with respect to the mortgage loans were generally calculated using “as-is” values (or any equivalent term) as described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations

 

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  and Definitions”; provided, that with respect to certain mortgage loans, the related loan-to-value ratios have been calculated using “as-complete”, “as-stabilized” or similar hypothetical values. In addition, with respect to certain mortgage loans secured by multiple mortgaged properties, the appraised value may be an “as portfolio” value that assigns a premium to the value of the mortgaged properties as a whole, which value exceeds the sum of their individual appraised values. Such mortgage loans are identified under the definition of “Appraised Value” set forth under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions—Definitions”. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans—Appraisals May Not Reflect Current or Future Market Value of Each Property”.

 

(5)In the case of mortgage loans that have one or more pari passu companion loans and/or subordinate companion loans that are not included in the issuing entity, the debt service coverage ratio, loan-to-value ratio and debt yield have been calculated including the related pari passu companion loan(s) but excluding any related subordinate companion loan. With respect to the Suarez Puerto Rico Industrial Portfolio mortgage loan (4.7%), the related loan-to-value ratio as of the cut-off date, loan-to-value ratio as of the maturity date, underwritten net cash flow debt service coverage ratio and underwritten net operating income debt yield calculated including the related subordinate companion loans are 77.4%, 77.4%, 2.00x and 10.1%, respectively. With respect to the McDonald’s Global HQ mortgage loan (1.1%), the related loan-to-value ratio as of the cut-off date, loan-to-value ratio as of the maturity date, underwritten net cash flow debt service coverage ratio and underwritten net operating income debt yield calculated including the related subordinate companion loans are 66.5%, 44.0%, 1.17x and 7.4%, respectively.

 

(6)For mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties, debt service coverage ratios and debt yield information are calculated using the projected net operating income and the projected net cash flow reflected in the most recent appraisal obtained by or otherwise in the possession of the related mortgage loan seller as of the cut-off date assuming such mortgaged property is operated as a rental property. The loan-to-value ratio information for mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties is based upon the appraised value of the residential cooperative property reflected in the most recent appraisal obtained by or otherwise in the possession of the related mortgage loan seller as of the cut-off date determined as if such residential cooperative property is operated as a residential cooperative and, in general, such value equals the sum of (i) the gross share value of all cooperative units in such residential cooperative property (generally applying a discount for sponsor or investor held units that are rent regulated, rent stabilized or rent controlled units, and in certain instances, for market rate units as and if deemed appropriate by the appraiser), based in part on various comparable sales of cooperative apartment units in the market, plus (ii) the amount of the underlying debt encumbering such residential cooperative property; provided, that with respect to the Waldo Gardens, Inc. mortgage loan (0.4%), the loan-to-value ratio information is based upon the value of the related residential cooperative property determined as if such mortgaged property were operated as a multifamily rental property. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans—Residential Cooperative Properties Have Special Risks”.

 

(7)Debt service coverage ratios (such as, for example, underwritten net cash flow debt service coverage ratios or underwritten net operating income debt service coverage ratios) are calculated based on “Annual Debt Service”, as defined under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions—Definitions”.

 

  All of the mortgage loans accrue interest on an actual/360 basis.

 

  For further information regarding the mortgage loans, see “Description of the Mortgage Pool”.

 

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Modified and Refinanced  
LoansNone of the mortgage loans were modified due to a delinquency or were refinancings of loans in default at the time of refinancing and/or otherwise involved discounted payoffs in connection with the origination of the mortgage loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Loan Purpose; Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings”.

 

Properties with Limited  
Operating History 37 of the mortgaged properties (13.3%) (i) were constructed or the subject of a major renovation that was completed within 12 calendar months prior to the cut-off date or are leased fee properties and, therefore, the related mortgaged property has no or limited prior operating history, (ii) have a borrower or an affiliate under the related mortgage loan that acquired the related mortgaged property within 12 calendar months prior to the cut-off date and such borrower or affiliate was unable to provide the related mortgage loan seller with historical financial information for such acquired mortgaged property or (iii) are single tenant properties subject to triple-net leases with the related tenant where the related borrower did not provide the related mortgage loan seller with historical financial information for the related mortgaged property.

 


 See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Mortgaged Properties With Limited Prior Operating History”.

 

Certain Variances from  
Underwriting Standards Each sponsor maintains its own set of underwriting guidelines, which typically relate to credit and collateral analysis, loan approval, debt service coverage ratio and loan-to-value ratio analysis, assessment of property condition, escrow requirements and requirements regarding title insurance policy and property insurance. Certain of the mortgage loans may vary from the related mortgage loan seller’s underwriting guidelines described under “Transaction Parties—The Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers”.

 

  See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Exceptions to Underwriting Guidelines”.

 

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Additional Aspects of Certificates

 

DenominationsThe offered certificates with certificate balances and the exchangeable certificates with notional amounts that are initially offered and sold to purchasers will be issued in minimum denominations of $10,000 and integral multiples of $1 in excess of $10,000. The certificates with notional amounts (other than any exchangeable certificates) will be issued, maintained and transferred only in minimum denominations of authorized initial notional amounts of not less than $1,000,000 and in integral multiples of $1 in excess of $1,000,000.

 

Registration, Clearance  
and Settlement Each class of offered certificates will initially be registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee of The Depository Trust Company, or DTC.

 

  You may hold offered certificates through: (1) DTC in the United States; or (2) Clearstream Banking, Luxembourg or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System. Transfers within DTC, Clearstream Banking, Luxembourg or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, will be made in accordance with the usual rules and operating procedures of those systems.

 

  We may elect to terminate the book-entry system through DTC (with the consent of the DTC participants), Clearstream Banking, Luxembourg or Euroclear Bank, as operator of the Euroclear System, with respect to all or any portion of any class of the offered certificates.

 

  See “Description of the Certificates—Delivery, Form, Transfer and Denomination—Book-Entry Registration”.

 

Credit Risk Retention For a discussion of the manner in which the U.S. credit risk retention requirements will be satisfied by Bank of America, National Association, as retaining sponsor, see “Credit Risk Retention”.

 

EU Securitization Regulation  
and UK Securitization  
RegulationNone of the sponsors, the depositor or the underwriters or their respective affiliates, or any other person, intends to retain a material net economic interest in the securitization constituted by the issue of the certificates, or to take any other action in respect of such securitization, in a manner prescribed or contemplated by the EU Securitization Regulation or the UK Securitization Regulation. In particular, no such person undertakes to take any action which may be required by any potential investor or certificateholder for the purposes of its compliance with any requirement of the

 

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  EU Securitization Regulation or the UK Securitization Regulation. In addition, the arrangements described under “Credit Risk Retention” in this prospectus have not been structured with the objective of ensuring compliance by any person with any requirement of the EU Securitization Regulation or the UK Securitization Regulation. Consequently, the offered certificates may not be a suitable investment for investors that are subject to any requirement of the EU Securitization Regulation or the UK Securitization Regulation. See “Risk Factors—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates— EU Securitization Regulation and UK Securitization Regulation” in this prospectus.

 

Information Available to  
CertificateholdersOn each distribution date, the certificate administrator will prepare and make available to each certificateholder of record, initially expected to be Cede & Co., a statement as to the distributions being made on that date. Additionally, under certain circumstances, certificateholders of record may be entitled to certain other information regarding the issuing entity. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information”.

 

Deal Information/Analytics Certain information concerning the mortgage loans and the certificates will be available to certificateholders through:

 

the certificate administrator’s website initially located at www.ctslink.com; and

 

  may be available to certificateholders through:

 

the master servicers’ website initially located at www.wellsfargo.com/com/comintro (with respect to Wells Fargo Bank, National Association) and www.ncb.coop (with respect to National Cooperative Bank, N.A.).

 

Optional Termination On any distribution date on which the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans is less than 1.0% of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date, certain entities specified in this prospectus will have the option to purchase all of the remaining mortgage loans (and all property acquired through exercise of remedies in respect of any mortgage loan) at the price specified in this prospectus.

 

  The issuing entity may also be terminated in connection with a voluntary exchange of all the then-outstanding certificates (other than the Class V and Class R certificates and the RR Interest) and deemed payment

 

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  of a price specified in this prospectus for the mortgage loans then held by the issuing entity, provided that (i) the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3, Class A-SB, Class D and Class E certificates and the Class A-4, Class A-5, Class A-S, Class B and Class C trust components are no longer outstanding, (ii) there is only one holder (or multiple holders acting unanimously) of the outstanding certificates (other than the Class V and Class R certificates and the RR Interest), (iii) such holder (or holders) pay an amount equal to the RR Interest’s proportionate share of the price specified in this prospectus and (iv) each applicable master servicer consents to the exchange.

 

  See “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Termination; Retirement of Certificates”.

 

Required Repurchases or  
Substitutions of Mortgage  
Loans; Loss of Value  
PaymentUnder certain circumstances, the related mortgage loan seller may be obligated to (i) repurchase (without payment of any yield maintenance charge or prepayment premium) or substitute an affected mortgage loan from the issuing entity or (ii) make a cash payment that would be deemed sufficient to compensate the issuing entity in the event of a document defect or a breach of a representation and warranty made by the related mortgage loan seller with respect to the mortgage loan in the related mortgage loan purchase agreement that materially and adversely affects the value of the mortgage loan, the value of the related mortgaged property or the interests of any certificateholders in the mortgage loan or mortgaged property or causes the mortgage loan to be other than a “qualified mortgage” within the meaning of Section 860G(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (but without regard to the rule of Treasury Regulations Section 1.860G-2(f)(2) that causes a defective loan to be treated as a “qualified mortgage”); provided, that with respect to the Arizona Mills mortgage loan, each related mortgage loan seller will be obligated to take the above remedial actions only with respect to the related promissory note(s) sold by it to the depositor as if the note(s) contributed by each such mortgage loan seller and evidencing such mortgage loan were a separate mortgage loan. See “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements—General”.

 

Sale of Defaulted Loans Pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement, under certain circumstances the applicable special servicer is required to use reasonable efforts to solicit offers for

 

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  defaulted serviced mortgage loans (or a defaulted serviced whole loan and/or related REO properties) and, in the absence of a cash offer at least equal to its outstanding principal balance plus all accrued and unpaid interest and outstanding costs and expenses and certain other amounts under the pooling and servicing agreement, may accept the first (and, if multiple offers are received, the highest) cash offer from any person that constitutes a fair price for the defaulted serviced mortgage loan (or defaulted serviced whole loan) or related REO property, determined as described in “Pooling and Servicing Agreement—Realization Upon Mortgage Loans” and “—Sale of Defaulted Loans and REO Properties”, unless the applicable special servicer determines, in accordance with the servicing standard (and subject to the requirements of any related intercreditor agreement), that rejection of such offer would be in the best interests of the certificateholders and any related companion loan holder (as a collective whole as if such certificateholders and such companion loan holder constituted a single lender).

 

  With respect to any non-serviced mortgage loan, if a related pari passu companion loan becomes a defaulted mortgage loan under the pooling and servicing agreement for the related pari passu companion loan and the special servicer under the related pooling and servicing agreement for the related pari passu companion loan(s) determines to sell such pari passu companion loan(s), then that special servicer will be required to sell such non-serviced mortgage loan together with the related pari passu companion loan(s) and, in certain cases, any related subordinate companion loan(s) in a manner similar to that described above. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—The Whole Loans”.

 

Tax Status Elections will be made to treat designated portions of the issuing entity (exclusive of any entitlement to interest that is deferred after the anticipated repayment date of each mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date and amounts in the excess interest distribution account) as two separate REMICs – the lower-tier REMIC and the upper-tier REMIC – for federal income tax purposes.

 

  In addition, the portion of the issuing entity consisting of entitlement to the excess interest (if any) accrued on any mortgage loan with an anticipated repayment date will be classified as a trust, the beneficial owners of which will be the holders of the Class V certificates and the RR Interest (a “grantor trust”). The upper-tier REMIC will issue several classes of uncertificated REMIC regular interests, some of which will be held by the

 

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  grantor trust. The grantor trust will issue the Exchangeable Certificates, all of which will represent beneficial ownership of one or more of REMIC “regular interests” issued by the upper-tier REMIC.

 

  Pertinent federal income tax consequences of an investment in the offered certificates include:

 

Each class of offered certificates will represent beneficial ownership of one or more REMIC “regular interests”.

 

The offered certificates will be treated as newly originated debt instruments for federal income tax purposes.

 

You will be required to report income on your offered certificates using the accrual method of accounting.

 

It is anticipated that the Class X-A and Class X-B certificates, the Class A-4, Class A-5, Class A-S, Class B and Class C trust components and the exchangeable IO trust components will be issued with original issue discount and that the Class A-1, Class A-2, Class A-3 and Class A-SB certificates will be issued at a premium for federal income tax purposes.

 

  See “Material Federal Income Tax Considerations”.

 

Certain ERISA  
ConsiderationsSubject to important considerations described under “Certain ERISA Considerations”, the offered certificates are eligible for purchase by persons investing assets of employee benefit plans or individual retirement accounts.

 

Legal Investment None of the certificates will constitute “mortgage related securities” for purposes of the Secondary Mortgage Market Enhancement Act of 1984, as amended.

 

  If your investment activities are subject to legal investment laws and regulations, regulatory capital requirements, or review by regulatory authorities, then you may be subject to restrictions on investment in the certificates. You should consult your own legal advisors for assistance in determining the suitability of and consequences to you of the purchase, ownership, and sale of the certificates.

 

  The issuing entity will not be registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The issuing entity will be relying on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, contained in Section 3(c)(5) of the

 

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  Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or Rule 3a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, although there may be additional exclusions or exemptions available to the issuing entity. The issuing entity is being structured so as not to constitute a “covered fund” for purposes of the Volcker Rule under the Dodd-Frank Act (both as defined in this prospectus).

 

  See “Legal Investment”.

 

RatingsThe offered certificates will not be issued unless each of the offered classes receives a credit rating from one or more of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations engaged by the depositor to rate the offered certificates. The decision not to engage one or more other rating agencies in the rating of certain classes of certificates to be issued in connection with this transaction may negatively impact the liquidity, market value and regulatory characteristics of those classes of certificates. Neither the depositor nor any other person or entity will have any duty to notify you if any other nationally recognized statistical rating organization issues, or delivers notice of its intention to issue, unsolicited ratings on one or more classes of certificates after the date of this prospectus.

 

  See “Risk Factors—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations May Assign Different Ratings to the Certificates; Ratings of the Certificates Reflect Only the Views of the Applicable Rating Agencies as of the Dates Such Ratings Were Issued; Ratings May Affect ERISA Eligibility; Ratings May Be Downgraded” and “Ratings”.

 

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Summary of Risk Factors

 

Investing in the certificates involves risks. Any of the risks set forth in this prospectus under the heading “Risk Factors” may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow on one or more mortgaged properties, the related borrowers’ ability to meet their respective payment obligations under the mortgage loans, and/or on your certificates. As a result, the market price of the certificates could decline significantly and you could lose a part or all of your investment. You should carefully consider all the information set forth in this prospectus and, in particular, evaluate the risks set forth in this prospectus under the heading “Risk Factors” before deciding to invest in the certificates. The following is a summary of some of the principal risks associated with an investment in the certificates:

 

Special Risks

 

 

COVID-19: Economic conditions and restrictions on enforcing landlord rights due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related governmental countermeasures may adversely affect the borrowers and/or the tenants and, therefore, the certificates. In addition, the underwriting of certain mortgage loans and the appraisals and property condition reports for certain mortgaged properties were conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic or may be based largely on pre-pandemic property performance and therefore may not reflect current conditions with respect to the mortgaged properties or the borrowers.

 

Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans

 

 

Non-Recourse Loans: The mortgage loans are non-recourse loans, and in the event of a default on a mortgage loan, recourse generally may only be had against the specific mortgaged property(ies) and other assets that have been pledged to secure the mortgage loan. Consequently, payment on the certificates is dependent primarily on the sufficiency of the net operating income or market value of the mortgaged properties, each of which may be volatile.

 

 

Borrowers: Borrower delinquencies and defaults may adversely affect your investment. Bankruptcy proceedings involving borrowers, borrower organizational structures and additional debt incurred by a borrower or its sponsors may increase risk of loss. In addition, borrowers may be unable to refinance or repay their mortgage loans at the maturity date or anticipated repayment date, which may result in non-payment of the mortgage loans.

 

 

Property Performance: Certificateholders are exposed to risks associated with the performance of the mortgaged properties, including location, competition, condition (including environmental conditions), maintenance, ownership, management, and litigation. Property values may decrease even when current operating income does not. The property type (e.g., office, mixed use, retail, hospitality, industrial, multifamily, leased fee, self-storage and parking) may present additional risks.

 

 

Loan Concentration: Certain of the mortgage loans represent significant concentrations of the mortgage pool as of the cut-off date. A default on one or more of such mortgage loans may have a disproportionate impact on the performance of the certificates.

 

 

Property Type Concentration: Certain property types represent significant concentrations of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage pool as of the cut-off date, based on allocated loan amounts. Adverse developments with respect to those property types or related industries may have a disproportionate impact on the performance of the certificates.

 

 

Other Concentrations: Losses on loans to related borrowers or cross-collateralized and cross-defaulted loan groups, geographical concentration of the mortgaged properties, and concentration of tenants among the mortgaged properties, may disproportionately affect distributions on the offered certificates.

 

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Tenant Performance: The repayment of a commercial or multifamily mortgage loan is typically dependent upon the ability of the related mortgaged property to produce cash flow through the collection of rents. Therefore, the performance of the mortgage loans will be highly dependent on the performance of tenants and tenant leases.

 

 

Significant Tenants: Properties that are leased to a single tenant or a tenant that comprises a significant portion of the rental income are disproportionately susceptible to interruptions of cash flow in the event of a lease expiration or termination or a downturn in the tenant’s business.

 

 

Underwritten Net Cash Flow: Underwritten net cash flow for the mortgaged properties could be based on incorrect or flawed assumptions.

 

 

Appraisals: Appraisals may not reflect the current or future market value of the mortgaged properties.

 

 

Inspections: Property inspections may not identify all conditions requiring repair or replacement.

 

 

Insurance: The absence or inadequacy of terrorism, fire, flood, earthquake and other insurance may adversely affect payment on the certificates.

 

 

Zoning: Changes in zoning laws may affect the ability to repair or restore a mortgaged property. Properties or structures considered to be “legal non-conforming” may not be able to be restored or rebuilt “as-is” following a casualty or loss.

 

Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest

 

Transaction Parties: Conflicts of interest may arise from the transaction parties’ relationships with each other or their economic interests in the transaction.

 

Directing Holder and Companion Holders: Certain certificateholders and companion loan holders have control and/or consent rights regarding the servicing of the mortgage loans and related whole loans. Such rights include rights to remove and replace the special servicer without cause and/or to direct or recommend the applicable special servicer or non-serviced special servicer to take actions that conflict with the interests of holders of certain classes of certificates. The right to remove and replace the special servicer may give the directing holder the ability to influence the special servicer’s servicing actions in a manner that may be more favorable to the directing holder relative to other certificateholders.

 

Other Risks Relating to the Certificates

 

Limited Obligations: The certificates will only represent ownership interests in the issuing entity, and will not be guaranteed by the sponsors, the depositor or any other person. The issuing entity’s assets may be insufficient to repay the offered certificates in full.

 

Uncertain Yields to Maturity: The offered certificates have uncertain yields to maturity. Prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans will affect the average lives of the certificates; and the rate and timing of prepayments may be highly unpredictable. Optional early termination of the issuing entity may also adversely impact your yield or may result in a loss.

 

Ratings: Future events could adversely impact the credit ratings and value of your certificates.

 

Limited Credit Support: Credit support provided by subordination of certain certificates is limited and may not be sufficient to prevent loss on the offered certificates.

 

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Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the following risks before making an investment decision. In particular, distributions on your certificates will depend on payments received on, and other recoveries with respect to the mortgage loans. Therefore, you should carefully consider the risk factors relating to the mortgage loans and the mortgaged properties.

 

If any of the following events or circumstances identified as risks actually occur or materialize, your investment could be materially and adversely affected. We note that additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us may also impair your investment.

 

This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described below and elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

If you are considering an investment in a class of exchangeable certificates, you should carefully consider the risks that are specifically applicable to the related class(es) of certificates exchangeable therefor, since they would generally apply to your certificates if you make an exchange.

 

Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors

 

The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans

 

There has been a global outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and a related respiratory disease (“COVID-19”) that has spread throughout the world, including the United States, causing a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has been declared to be a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization, and the president of the United States has made a declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. A significant number of countries and the majority of state governments in the United States have also made emergency declarations and have attempted to slow the spread of the virus by providing social distancing guidelines, issuing stay-at-home orders and mandating the closure of certain non-essential businesses. There can be no assurance as to when states will permit full resumption of economic activity, whether or when people will feel comfortable in resuming economic activity, that containment or other measures will be successful in limiting the spread of the virus or that future regional or broader outbreaks of COVID-19 or other diseases will not result in resumed or additional countermeasures from governments.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic and the responses thereto have led, and will likely continue to lead, to disruptions in the global supply chain, the financial and other markets, significant increases in unemployment, significant reductions in consumer demand and downturns in the economies of many nations, including the United States, and the global economy in general, and those downturns will likely continue for some time. The long-term effects of the social, economic and financial disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. While the United States government and other governments have implemented unprecedented financial support and relief measures (such as the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act), the effectiveness of such measures cannot be predicted. The United States economy has experienced contraction and expansion during the pandemic, and it is unclear when any contractions will cease and when steady economic expansion will resume.

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With respect to the mortgage pool, it is unclear how many borrowers have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is expected that many borrowers will be (or continue to be) adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, borrowers may not and/or may be unable to meet their payment obligations under the mortgage loans, which may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest and/or principal to the holders of the certificates, and ultimately losses on the certificates. Shortfalls and losses will be particularly pronounced to the extent that the related mortgaged properties are located in geographic areas with significant numbers of COVID-19 cases or relatively restrictive COVID-19 countermeasures. Some borrowers may seek forbearance arrangements at some point in the near future (if they have not already made such requests). See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—COVID-19 Considerations”. We cannot assure you that the borrowers will be able to make debt service payments (including deferred amounts that were previously subject to forbearance) after the expiration of any such forbearance period. Some borrowers may also seek to use funds on deposit in reserve or escrow accounts to make debt service payments, rather than for the explicit purpose set forth in the mortgage loan documents. We cannot assure you that the cash flow at the mortgaged properties will be sufficient for the borrowers to replenish those reserves or escrows, which would then be unavailable for their original intended use. You should be prepared for the possibility that a significant number of borrowers will not make timely payments on their mortgage loans at some point during the continuance of the COVID-19 pandemic. In response, the applicable special servicer may implement a range of actions with respect to affected borrowers and the related mortgage loans to forbear or extend or otherwise modify the loan terms consistent with the applicable servicer’s customary servicing practices. Such actions may also lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

Certain geographic regions of the United States have experienced a larger concentration of coronavirus infections and COVID-19 deaths than other regions, which is expected to result in slower resumption of economic activity than in other less-impacted regions. However, as the COVID-19 emergency has continued, various regions of the United States have seen fluctuations in rates of COVID-19 cases. Therefore, we cannot assure you that any region will not experience an increase in such rates, and corresponding governmental countermeasures and economic distress.

 

While the COVID-19 pandemic has created personnel, supply-chain and other logistical issues that affect all property types, the effects may be experienced uniquely by property type. For example:

 

 

retail properties, due to store closures, either government-mandated or voluntary, tenants refusing to pay rent, and restrictions on and reduced interest in social gatherings, on which retail properties rely;

 

 

office properties, particularly those with significant tenants that operate co-working or office-sharing spaces, due to restrictions on and reduced interest in such spaces, which risk is enhanced by the fact that subtenants of such spaces typically operate under short term leases;

 

 

multifamily, residential cooperative and manufactured housing properties, which also have rental payment streams that are sensitive to unemployment and reductions in disposable income and, with respect to student housing properties, may be affected by closures of, or ongoing social distancing measures instituted at, colleges and universities;

 

 

industrial properties, due to restrictions or shutdowns of tenant operations at such properties or as a result of general financial distress of such tenants;

 

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self-storage properties, which have rental payment streams that are sensitive to increased unemployment and reductions in disposable income available for non-essential expenses, and which payment streams are more commonly subject to interruption because of the short-term nature of self-storage tenant leases;

 

 

hospitality properties, due to travel limitations implemented by governments and businesses as well as reduced interest in travel generally; and

 

 

properties with significant tenants with executed leases that are not yet in place and whose leases are conditioned on tenant improvements being completed, the delivery of premises, or the vacancy of a current tenant by a date certain, due to lack of access to the mortgaged property and disruptions in labor and the global supply chain.

 

With respect to all the property types listed above, the borrowers with respect to mortgage loans secured by such property types may face increased incidence of non-payment of rent due to the COVID-19 pandemic and may have difficulty evicting non-paying tenants due to a variety of factors including (but not limited to): government-mandated moratoriums on evictions, court closures and local officials refusing to enforce eviction orders. We cannot assure you that borrowers of mortgage loans secured by any of the property types will not request forbearance or modifications or otherwise fail to make timely debt service payments due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Any such measures may lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors—The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans” and “—COVID-19 Considerations” below.

 

Investors should understand that the underwriting of certain mortgage loans and the appraisals and property condition reports for certain mortgaged properties were conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic or may be based largely on pre-pandemic property performance and therefore may not reflect current conditions with respect to the mortgaged properties or the borrowers. In addition, the underwriting of mortgage loans originated during the COVID-19 pandemic may be based on assumptions that do not reflect current conditions. When evaluating the financial information, occupancy percentages and mortgaged property valuations presented in this prospectus (including certain information set forth in “Summary of Certificates”, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics”, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”, Annex A-1, Annex A-2 and Annex A-3), investors should take into consideration the dates as of which historical financial information and occupancy percentages are presented and appraisals and property condition reports were conducted and that the underwritten information may not reflect (or fully reflect) the events described in this risk factor or any potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because a pandemic of the scale and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic has not occurred in recent history, historical delinquency and loss experience is unlikely to accurately predict the performance of the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool. Investors should expect higher-than-average delinquencies and losses on the mortgage loans. The applicable master servicer will be obligated under and subject to the terms of the pooling and servicing agreement to advance any scheduled monthly payment of interest (other than any balloon payment) on the mortgage loan that the borrowers fail to pay that is required to be made under the mortgage loan documents. The aggregate number and size of delinquent loans in a given collection period may be significant, and the applicable master servicer may determine that advances of payments on such mortgage loans are not or would not be recoverable or may not be able to make such advances given the severity of delinquencies (in this transaction or other transactions), which would result in shortfalls and losses on the certificates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Definitions”.

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In addition, businesses are adjusting their business plans in response to government actions and new industry practices in order to change how, how many and from where staff members work. Such changes may lead to reduced or modified levels of service, including in the services provided by the master servicers, the certificate administrator and the other parties to this transaction. Such parties’ ability to perform their respective obligations under the transaction documents may be adversely affected by such changes. Furthermore, because the master servicers and special servicers operate according to a servicing standard that is in part based on accepted industry practices, the servicing actions taken by such parties may vary from historical norms to the extent that such accepted industry practices change. In addition, some federal, state and local administrative offices and courts have closed due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Foreclosures, recordings of assignments and similar activities may not be processed in such offices and courts until such offices and courts reopen and may be further delayed as such offices and courts address any backlogs of such actions that accumulated during the period they were closed.

 

The loss models used by the rating agencies to rate the certificates may not have accounted for the possible economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or the borrowers’ ability to make payments on the mortgage loans. We cannot assure you that declining economic conditions precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures implemented by governments to combat the pandemic will not result in downgrades to the ratings of the certificates.

 

We cannot assure you that the cash flow at the mortgaged properties will be sufficient for the borrowers to pay all required insurance premiums, that the borrowers will be able to fund any insurance premium reserve or that any such reserve will be sufficient to pay all required insurance premiums. In addition, although the mortgage loans generally require the borrowers to maintain business interruption insurance, certain insurance companies have reportedly taken the position that such insurance does not cover closures due to the COVID-19 emergency. In addition, the COVID-19 emergency could adversely affect future availability and coverage of business interruption insurance. Furthermore, it is unclear whether such closures due to COVID-19 will trigger co-tenancy provisions.

 

The mortgage loan sellers will agree to make certain limited representations and warranties with respect to the mortgage loans as set forth on Annex D-1 hereto; however, absent a breach of such a representation or warranty, no mortgage loan seller will have any obligation to repurchase a mortgage loan with respect to which the related borrower was adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. See also “—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—Sponsors May Not Make Required Repurchases or Substitutions of Defective Mortgage Loans or Pay Any Loss of Value Payment Sufficient to Cover All Losses on a Defective Mortgage Loan” below.

 

Tenants may be unable to meet their rent obligations as a result of extended periods of unemployment and business slowdowns and shutdowns. Accordingly, tenants at the mortgaged properties have sought and are expected to continue to seek rent relief at the mortgaged properties, and it would be expected that rent collections and/or occupancy rates may decline. Even as areas of the country reopen, there can be no assurance as to if and when the operations of commercial tenants and the income earning capacity of residential tenants will reach pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels. Prospective investors should also consider, as the country reopens, the impact that a surge in COVID-19 cases could have on economic conditions.

 

In addition, servicers have reported an increase in borrower requests as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is likely that the volume of requests will continue to increase as the COVID-19 pandemic progresses. The increased volume of borrower requests and

 

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communication may result in delays in the servicers’ ability to respond to such requests and their ability to perform their respective obligations under the related transaction documents.

 

The borrowers have provided additional information regarding the status of the mortgage loans and mortgaged properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—COVID-19 Considerations” and see also Annex A-3 for additional information at the mortgaged properties securing the 15 largest mortgage loans or groups of cross-collateralized mortgage loans. We cannot assure you that the information in that section is indicative of future performance or that tenants or borrowers will not seek rent or debt service relief (including forbearance arrangements) or other lease or loan modifications in the future. Such actions may lead to shortfalls and losses on the certificates.

 

Although certain borrowers and tenants may have made their recent debt service and rent payments, we cannot assure you that they will be able to make future payments. While certain mortgage loans may provide for debt service or rent reserves, we cannot assure you that any such reserve will be sufficient to satisfy any or all debt service payments on the affected mortgage loans.

 

Furthermore, we cannot assure you that future failure to make rent or debt service payments will not trigger cash sweeps or defaults under the mortgage loan documents.

 

The widespread and cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including those described above, also heighten many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as those related to timely payments by borrowers and tenants, mortgaged property values and the performance, market value, credit ratings and secondary market liquidity of your certificates.

 

Risks Relating to the Mortgage Loans

 

Mortgage Loans Are Non-Recourse and Are Not Insured or Guaranteed

 

The mortgage loans are not insured or guaranteed by any person or entity, governmental or otherwise.

 

Investors should treat each mortgage loan as a non-recourse loan, except for residential cooperative loans sold to the trust by National Cooperative Bank, N.A., which are generally fully recourse to the borrower and do not have separate guarantors for non-recourse carveouts. If a default occurs on a non-recourse loan, recourse generally may be had only against the specific mortgaged properties and other assets that have been pledged to secure the mortgage loan. Consequently, payment prior to maturity is dependent primarily on the sufficiency of the net operating income of the mortgaged property. Payment at maturity or anticipated repayment date is primarily dependent upon the market value of the mortgaged property or the borrower’s ability to refinance or sell the mortgaged property.

 

Although the mortgage loans (except for residential cooperative loans sold to the trust by National Cooperative Bank, N.A., which are generally full recourse to the related borrower and do not have separate guarantors for non-recourse carveouts) generally are non-recourse in nature, certain mortgage loans contain non-recourse carveouts for liabilities such as liabilities as a result of fraud by the borrower, certain voluntary insolvency proceedings or other matters. Certain mortgage loans set forth under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Non-Recourse Carveout Limitations” either do not contain non-recourse carveouts or contain material limitations to non-recourse carveouts. Often these obligations are guaranteed by an affiliate of the related borrower, although liability under any such guaranty may be capped or otherwise limited in amount or scope. Furthermore, certain

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guarantors may be foreign entities or individuals which, while subject to the domestic governing law provisions in the guaranty and related mortgage loan documents, could nevertheless require enforcement of any judgment in relation to a guaranty in a foreign jurisdiction, which could, in turn, cause a significant time delay or result in the inability to enforce the guaranty under foreign law. Additionally, the guarantor’s net worth and liquidity may be less (and in some cases, materially and substantially less) than amounts due under the related mortgage loan or the guarantor’s sole asset may be its interest in the related borrower. Moreover, certain mortgage loans may permit the replacement of the guarantor subject to the requirements set forth in the related mortgage loan documents. Certain mortgage loans may have the benefit of a general payment guaranty of a portion of the indebtedness under the mortgage loan.

 

With respect to certain of the mortgage loans the related guaranty and/or environmental indemnity contains provisions to the effect that, provided certain conditions are satisfied, the recourse liability of the guarantor will not apply to any action, event or condition arising after the foreclosure, delivery of a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure, or appointment of a receiver, of the mortgaged property, pursuant to such mortgage loan and/or after the foreclosure, acceptance of a transfer in lieu of foreclosure or appointment of a receiver by a mezzanine lender under any related mezzanine loan.

 

The non-recourse carveout provisions contained in certain of the mortgage loan documents may also limit the liability of the non-recourse carveout guarantor for certain monetary obligations or covenants related to the use and operation of the mortgaged property to the extent that there is sufficient cash flow generated by the mortgaged property and made available to the related borrower and/or non-recourse carveout guarantor to take or prevent such required action.

 

In all cases, the mortgage loans should be considered to be non-recourse obligations because neither the depositor nor the sponsors make any representation or warranty as to the obligation or ability of any borrower or guarantor to pay any deficiencies between any foreclosure proceeds and the mortgage loan indebtedness.

 

Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally

 

The mortgage loans will be secured by various income-producing commercial and multifamily properties. The repayment of a commercial or multifamily loan is typically dependent upon the ability of the related mortgaged property to produce cash flow through the collection of rents. Even the liquidation value of a commercial property is determined, in substantial part, by the capitalization of the property’s ability to produce cash flow. However, net operating income can be volatile and may be insufficient to cover debt service on the loan at any given time.

 

The net operating incomes and property values of the mortgaged properties may be adversely affected by a large number of factors. Some of these factors relate to the properties themselves, such as:

 

 

the age, design and construction quality of the properties;

 

 

perceptions regarding the safety, convenience and attractiveness of the properties, including perceptions as to crime, risk of terrorism or other factors;

 

 

the characteristics and desirability of the area where the property is located;

 

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the strength and nature of the local economy, including labor costs and quality, tax environment and quality of life for employees;

 

 

the proximity and attractiveness of competing properties;

 

 

the adequacy of the property’s management and maintenance;

 

 

increases in interest rates, real estate taxes and operating expenses at the property and in relation to competing properties;

 

 

an increase in the capital expenditures needed to maintain the properties or make improvements;

 

 

the dependence upon a single tenant or concentration of tenants in a particular business or industry;

 

 

a decline in the businesses operated by tenants or in their financial condition;

 

 

an increase in vacancy rates; and

 

 

a decline in rental rates as leases are renewed or entered into with new tenants.

 

Other factors are more general in nature, such as:

 

 

national or regional economic conditions, including plant closings, military base closings, industry slowdowns, oil and/or gas drilling facility slowdowns or closings and unemployment rates;

 

 

local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of competing properties, retail space, office space, multifamily housing or hotel capacity;

 

 

demographic factors;

 

 

consumer confidence;

 

 

consumer tastes and preferences;

 

 

political factors;

 

 

environmental factors;

 

 

seismic activity risk;

 

 

retroactive changes in building codes;

 

 

changes or continued weakness in specific industry segments;

 

 

location of certain mortgaged properties in less densely populated or less affluent areas; and

 

 

the public perception of safety for customers and clients.

 

The volatility of net operating income will be influenced by many of the foregoing factors, as well as by:

 

 

the length of tenant leases (including that in certain cases, all or substantially all of the tenants, or one or more sole, anchor or other major tenants, at a particular

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mortgaged property may have leases that expire or permit the tenant(s) to terminate its lease during the term of the loan);

 

 

 

 

the quality and creditworthiness of tenants;

 

 

tenant defaults;

 

 

in the case of rental properties, the rate at which new rentals occur;

 

 

with respect to residential cooperative loans, the discretion afforded to the cooperative board of directors to establish maintenance charges payable by tenant-shareholders; and

 

 

the property’s “operating leverage”, which is generally the percentage of total property expenses in relation to revenue, the ratio of fixed operating expenses to those that vary with revenues, and the level of capital expenditures required to maintain the property and to retain or replace tenants.

 

A decline in the real estate market or in the financial condition of a major tenant will tend to have a more immediate effect on the net operating income of properties with relatively higher operating leverage or short term revenue sources, such as short term or month to month leases, and may lead to higher rates of delinquency or defaults.

 

Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases

 

General

 

Any tenant may, from time to time, experience a downturn in its business, which may weaken its financial condition and result in a reduction or failure to make rental payments when due. Tenants under certain leases included in the underwritten net cash flow, underwritten net operating income or occupancy may nonetheless be in financial distress. If tenants’ sales were to decline, percentage rents may decline and, further, tenants may be unable to pay their base rent or other occupancy costs. If a tenant defaults in its obligations to a property owner, that property owner may experience delays in enforcing its rights as lessor and may incur substantial costs and experience significant delays associated with protecting its investment, including costs incurred in renovating and reletting the property.

 

Additionally, the income from, and market value of, the mortgaged properties leased to various tenants would be adversely affected if:

 

 

space in the mortgaged properties could not be leased or re-leased or substantial re-leasing costs were required and/or the cost of performing landlord obligations under existing leases materially increased;

 

 

leasing or re-leasing is restricted by exclusive rights of tenants to lease the mortgaged properties or other covenants not to lease space for certain uses or activities, or covenants limiting the types of tenants to which space may be leased;

 

 

a significant tenant were to become a debtor in a bankruptcy case;

 

 

rental payments could not be collected for any other reason; or

 

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a borrower fails to perform its obligations under a lease resulting in the related tenant having a right to terminate such lease.

 

In addition, certain tenants may be part of a chain that is in financial distress as a whole, or the tenant’s parent company may have implemented or expressed an intent to implement a plan to consolidate or reorganize its operations, close a number of stores in the chain, reduce exposure, relocate stores or otherwise reorganize its business to cut costs.

 

There may be (and there may exist from time to time) pending or threatened legal proceedings against, or disputes with, certain tenants and/or their parent companies that may have a material adverse effect on the related tenant’s ability to pay rent or remain open for business. We cannot assure you that any such litigation or dispute will not result in a material decline in net operating income at the related mortgaged property.

 

Certain tenants currently may be in a rent abatement period. We cannot assure you that such tenants will be in a position to pay full rent when the abatement period expires. We cannot assure you that the net operating income contributed by the mortgaged properties will remain at its current or past levels.

 

A Tenant Concentration May Result in Increased Losses

 

Mortgaged properties that are owner-occupied or leased to a single tenant, or a tenant that makes up a significant portion of the rental income, also are more susceptible to interruptions of cash flow if that tenant’s business operations are negatively impacted or if such tenant fails to renew its lease. This is so because:

 

 

the financial effect of the absence of rental income may be severe;

 

 

more time may be required to re-lease the space; and

 

 

substantial capital costs may be incurred to make the space appropriate for replacement tenants.

 

In the event of a default by that tenant, if the related lease expires prior to the mortgage loan maturity date and the related tenant fails to renew its lease or if such tenant exercises an early termination option, there would likely be an interruption of rental payments under the lease and, accordingly, insufficient funds available to the borrower to pay the debt service on the mortgage loan. In certain cases where the tenant owns the improvements on the mortgaged property, the related borrower may be required to purchase such improvements in connection with the exercise of its remedies.

 

With respect to certain of these mortgaged properties that are leased to a single tenant, the related leases may expire prior to, or soon after, the maturity dates of the mortgage loans or the related tenant may have the right to terminate the lease prior to the maturity date of the mortgage loan. If the current tenant does not renew its lease on comparable economic terms to the expired lease, if a single tenant terminates its lease or if a suitable replacement tenant does not enter into a new lease on similar economic terms, there could be a negative impact on the payments on the related mortgage loan.

 

A deterioration in the financial condition of a tenant, the failure of a tenant to renew its lease or the exercise by a tenant of an early termination right can be particularly significant if a mortgaged property is owner-occupied, leased to a single tenant, or if any tenant makes up a significant portion of the rental income at the mortgaged property.

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Concentrations of particular tenants among the mortgaged properties or within a particular business or industry at one or multiple mortgaged properties increase the possibility that financial problems with such tenants or such business or industry sectors could affect the mortgage loans. In addition, the mortgage loans may be adversely affected if a tenant at the mortgaged property is highly specialized, or dependent on a single industry or only a few customers for its revenue. See “—Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease” below, and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Tenant Concentrations” for information on tenant concentrations in the mortgage pool.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Multiple Tenants Also Have Risks

 

If a mortgaged property has multiple tenants, re-leasing expenditures may be more frequent than in the case of mortgaged properties with fewer tenants, thereby reducing the cash flow available for payments on the related mortgage loan. Multi-tenant mortgaged properties also may experience higher continuing vacancy rates and greater volatility in rental income and expenses. See Annex A-1 for tenant lease expiration dates for the 5 largest tenants at each mortgaged property.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Borrowers or Borrower Affiliated Entities Also Have Risks

 

If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower under the mortgage loan or to an affiliate of the borrower, there may be conflicts of interest. For instance, it is more likely a landlord will waive lease conditions for an affiliated tenant than it would for an unaffiliated tenant. We cannot assure you that the conflicts of interest arising where a borrower is affiliated with a tenant at a mortgaged property will not adversely impact the value of the related mortgage loan.

 

In certain cases, an affiliated lessee may be a tenant under a master lease with the related borrower, under which the tenant is obligated to make rent payments but does not occupy any space at the mortgaged property. Master leases in these circumstances may be used to bring occupancy to a “stabilized” level with the intent of finding additional tenants to occupy some or all of the master leased space, but may not provide additional economic support for the mortgage loan. If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower or to an affiliate of the borrower, a deterioration in the financial condition of the borrower or its affiliate could significantly affect the borrower’s ability to perform under the mortgage loan as it would directly interrupt the cash flow from the mortgaged property if the borrower’s or its affiliate’s financial condition worsens. We cannot assure you that any space leased by a borrower or an affiliate of the borrower will eventually be occupied by third party tenants.

 

Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease

 

The bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant or a number of smaller tenants, such as in retail properties, may have an adverse impact on the mortgaged properties affected and the income produced by such mortgaged properties. Under the federal bankruptcy code, a tenant has the option of assuming or rejecting or, subject to certain conditions, assuming and assigning to a third party, any unexpired lease. If the tenant rejects the lease, the landlord’s claim for breach of the lease would (absent collateral securing the claim) be treated as a general unsecured claim against the tenant and a lessor’s damages for lease rejection are generally subject to certain limitations. We cannot assure you that tenants of the mortgaged properties will continue making payments under their leases or that tenants will not file for bankruptcy protection in the future or, if any tenants do file, that they will continue to make rental payments in a timely manner. See “Certain Legal Aspects of

 

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Mortgage Loans—Bankruptcy Laws” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Affiliated Leases”. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Loan Purpose; Default History, Bankruptcy Issues and Other Proceedings” for information regarding bankruptcy issues with respect to certain mortgage loans.

 

In the case of certain mortgage loans included in the mortgage pool, it may be possible that the related master lease could be construed in a bankruptcy as a financing lease or other arrangement under which the related master lessee (and/or its affiliates) would be deemed as effectively the owner of the related mortgaged property, rather than a tenant, which could result in potentially adverse consequences for the trust, as the holder of such mortgage loan, including treatment of the mortgage loan as an unsecured obligation, a potentially greater risk of an unfavorable plan of reorganization and competing claims of creditors of the related master lessee and/or its affiliates.

 

Leases That Are Not Subordinated to the Lien of the Mortgage or Do Not Contain Attornment Provisions May Have an Adverse Impact at Foreclosure

 

In certain jurisdictions, if tenant leases are subordinated to the liens created by the mortgage but do not contain attornment provisions that require the tenant to recognize a successor owner, the tenants may terminate their leases upon the transfer of the property to a foreclosing lender or purchaser at foreclosure. Accordingly, if a mortgaged property is located in such a jurisdiction and is leased to one or more desirable tenants under leases that are subordinate to the mortgage and do not contain attornment provisions, such mortgaged property could experience a further decline in value if such tenants’ leases were terminated. This is particularly likely if those tenants were paying above-market rents or could not be replaced. If a lease is not subordinate to a mortgage, the issuing entity will not possess the right to dispossess the tenant upon foreclosure of the mortgaged property (unless otherwise agreed to with the tenant). Also, if the lease contains provisions inconsistent with the mortgage (e.g., provisions relating to application of insurance proceeds or condemnation awards) or which could affect the enforcement of the lender’s rights (e.g., a right of first refusal to purchase the property), the provisions of the lease will take precedence over the provisions of the mortgage. Not all leases were reviewed to ascertain the existence of attornment or subordination provisions.

 

With respect to certain of the mortgage loans, the related borrower may have given to certain tenants or others an option to purchase, a right of first refusal and/or a right of first offer to purchase all or a portion of the mortgaged property in the event a sale is contemplated, and such right is not subordinate to the related mortgage. This may impede the mortgagee’s ability to sell the related mortgaged property at foreclosure, or, upon foreclosure, this may affect the value and/or marketability of the related mortgaged property. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Purchase Options and Rights of First Refusal” for information regarding material purchase options and/or rights of first refusal, if any, with respect to mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans.

 

Early Lease Termination Options May Reduce Cash Flow

 

Leases often give tenants the right to terminate the related lease, abate or reduce the related rent, and/or exercise certain remedies against the related borrower for various reasons or upon various conditions, including:

 

 

if the borrower for the applicable mortgaged property allows uses at the mortgaged property in violation of use restrictions in current tenant leases,

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if the borrower or any of its affiliates owns other properties within a certain radius of the mortgaged property and allows uses at those properties in violation of use restrictions,

 

 

if the related borrower fails to provide a designated number of parking spaces,

 

 

if there is construction at the related mortgaged property or an adjacent property (whether or not such adjacent property is owned or controlled by the borrower or any of its affiliates) that may interfere with visibility of, access to or a tenant’s use of the mortgaged property or otherwise violate the terms of a tenant’s lease,

 

 

upon casualty or condemnation with respect to all or a portion of the mortgaged property that renders such mortgaged property unsuitable for a tenant’s use or if the borrower fails to rebuild such mortgaged property within a certain time,

 

 

if a tenant’s use is not permitted by zoning or applicable law,

 

 

if the tenant is unable to exercise an expansion right,

 

 

if the landlord defaults on its obligations under the lease,

 

 

if a landlord leases space at the mortgaged property or within a certain radius of the mortgaged property to a competitor,

 

 

if the tenant fails to meet certain sales targets or other business objectives for a specified period of time,

 

 

if significant tenants at the subject property go dark or terminate their leases, or if a specified percentage of the mortgaged property is unoccupied,

 

 

if the landlord violates the tenant’s exclusive use rights for a specified period of time,

 

 

if the related borrower violates covenants under the related lease or if third parties take certain actions that adversely affect such tenants’ business or operations,

 

 

in the case of government sponsored tenants, at any time or for lack of appropriations, or

 

 

if the related borrower violates covenants under the related lease or if third parties take certain actions that adversely affect such tenants’ business or operations.

 

In certain cases, compliance or satisfaction of landlord covenants may be the responsibility of a third party affiliated with the borrower or, in the event that partial releases of the applicable mortgaged property are permitted, an unaffiliated or affiliated third party.

 

Any exercise of a termination right by a tenant at a mortgaged property could result in vacant space at the related mortgaged property, renegotiation of the lease with the related tenant or re-letting of the space. Any such vacated space may not be re-let. Furthermore, such foregoing termination and/or abatement rights may arise in the future or materially adversely affect the related borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan documents. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Lease Expirations and Terminations” for information on material tenant lease expirations and early termination options.

 

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Mortgaged Properties Leased to Not-for-Profit Tenants Also Have Risks

 

Certain mortgaged properties may have tenants that are charitable institutions that generally rely on contributions from individuals and government grants or other subsidies to pay rent on office space and other operating expenses. We cannot assure you that the rate, frequency and level of individual contributions or governmental grants and subsidies will continue with respect to any such institution. A reduction in contributions or grants may impact the ability of the related institution to pay rent, and we cannot assure you that the related borrower will be in a position to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan documents if such tenant fails to pay its rent.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Borrowers or Borrower Affiliated Entities Also Have Risks

 

If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower under the mortgage loan or to an affiliate of the borrower, there may be conflicts of interest. For instance, it is more likely a landlord will waive lease conditions for an affiliated tenant than it would for an unaffiliated tenant. We cannot assure you that the conflicts of interest arising where a borrower is affiliated with a tenant at a mortgaged property will not adversely impact the value of the related mortgage loan.

 

In certain cases, an affiliated lessee may be a tenant under a master lease with the related borrower, under which the tenant is obligated to make rent payments but does not occupy any space at the mortgaged property. Master leases in these circumstances may be used to bring occupancy to a “stabilized” level with the intent of finding additional tenants to occupy some or all of the master leased space, but may not provide additional economic support for the mortgage loan. If a mortgaged property is leased in whole or substantial part to the borrower or to an affiliate of the borrower, a deterioration in the financial condition of the borrower or its affiliate could significantly affect the borrower’s ability to perform under the mortgage loan as it would directly interrupt the cash flow from the mortgaged property if the borrower’s or its affiliate’s financial condition worsens. We cannot assure you that any space leased by a borrower or an affiliate of the borrower will eventually be occupied by third party tenants.

 

Retail Properties Have Special Risks

 

Certain of the mortgage loans are secured by retail properties. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Retail Properties”. The value of retail properties is significantly affected by the quality of the tenants as well as fundamental aspects of real estate, such as location and market demographics, as well as changes in shopping methods and choices. Some of the risks related to these matters are further described in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, “—Changes in the Retail Sector, Such as Online Shopping and Other Uses of Technology, Could Affect the Business Models and Viability of Retailers”, “—The Performance of the Retail Properties is Subject to Conditions Affecting the Retail Sector” and “—Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants” below.

 

Rental payments from tenants of retail properties typically comprise the largest portion of the net operating income of those mortgaged properties. The correlation between success of tenant business and a retail property’s value may be more direct with respect to retail properties than other types of commercial property because a component of the total rent paid by certain retail tenants is often tied to a percentage of gross sales. To the extent that

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a tenant changes the manner in which its gross sales are reported it could result in lower rent paid by that tenant. For example, if a tenant takes into account customer returns of merchandise purchased online and reduces the gross sales, this could result in lower gross sales relative to gross sales previously reported at that location even if the actual performance of the store remained unchanged. We cannot assure you that the net operating income contributed by the retail mortgaged properties or the rates of occupancy at the retail stores will remain at the levels specified in this prospectus or remain consistent with past performance.

 

Changes in the Retail Sector, Such as Online Shopping and Other Uses of Technology, Could Affect the Business Models and Viability of Retailers.

 

Online shopping and the use of technology, such as smartphone shopping applications, to transact purchases or to aid purchasing decisions have increased in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the future. This trend is affecting business models, sales and profitability of some retailers and could adversely affect the demand for retail real estate and occupancy at retail properties securing the mortgage loans. Any resulting decreases in rental revenue could have a material adverse effect on the value of retail properties securing the mortgage loans.

 

Some of these developments in the retail sector have led to retail companies, including several national retailers, filing for bankruptcy and/or voluntarily closing certain of their stores. Borrowers may be unable to re-lease such space or to re-lease it on comparable or more favorable terms. As a result, the bankruptcy or closure of a national tenant may adversely affect a retail borrower’s revenues. In addition, such closings may allow other tenants to modify their leases to terms that are less favorable for borrowers or to terminate their leases, also adversely impacting their revenues. A number of retailers, including retailers that have stores located at the mortgaged properties, have announced ongoing store closures or are in financial distress, and other tenants at the mortgaged properties have co-tenancy clauses related to such retailers. See also “—Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants” below.

 

In addition to competition from online shopping, retail properties face competition from sources outside a specific geographical real estate market. For example, all of the following compete with more traditional retail properties for consumers: factory outlet centers, discount shopping centers and clubs, catalogue retailers, home shopping networks and telemarketing. Continued growth of these alternative retail outlets (which often have lower operating costs) could adversely affect the rents collectible at the retail properties included in the pool of mortgage loans, as well as the income from, and market value of, the mortgaged properties and the related borrower’s ability to refinance such property. Moreover, additional competing retail properties may be built in the areas where the retail properties are located.

 

We cannot assure you that these developments in the retail sector will not adversely affect the performance of retail properties securing the mortgage loans.

 

The Performance of the Retail Properties is Subject to Conditions Affecting the Retail Sector.

 

Retail properties are also subject to conditions that could negatively affect the retail sector, such as increased unemployment, increased federal income and payroll taxes, increased health care costs, increased state and local taxes, increased real estate taxes, industry slowdowns, lack of availability of consumer credit, weak income growth, increased

 

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levels of consumer debt, poor housing market conditions, adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, plant closings, and other factors. Similarly, local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of, or a reduction in demand for, retail space or retail goods, and the supply and creditworthiness of current and prospective tenants may negatively impact those retail properties.

 

In addition, the limited adaptability of certain shopping malls or strip centers that have proven unprofitable may result in high (and possibly extremely high) loss severities on mortgage loans secured by those shopping malls or strip centers. For example, it is possible that a significant amount of advances made by the applicable servicer(s) of a mortgage loan secured by a shopping mall or strip center property, combined with low liquidation proceeds in respect of that property, may result in a loss severity exceeding 100% of the outstanding principal balance of that mortgage loan.

 

Some Retail Properties Depend on Anchor Stores or Major Tenants to Attract Shoppers and Could be Materially Adversely Affected by the Loss of, or a Store Closure by, One or More of These Anchor Stores or Major Tenants.

 

The presence or absence of an “anchor tenant” or a “shadow anchor tenant” in or near a retail property also can be important to the performance of a retail property because anchors play a key role in generating customer traffic and making a retail property desirable for other tenants. Retail properties may also have shadow anchor tenants. An “anchor tenant” is located on the related mortgaged property, usually proportionately larger in size than most or all other tenants at the mortgaged property, and is vital in attracting customers to a retail property. A “shadow anchor tenant” is usually proportionally larger in size than most tenants at the mortgaged property, is important in attracting customers to a retail property and is located sufficiently close and convenient to the mortgaged property so as to influence and attract potential customers, but is not located on the mortgaged property.

 

If anchor stores in a mortgaged property were to close, the related borrower may be unable to replace those anchors in a timely manner or without suffering adverse economic consequences. In addition, anchor tenants and non-anchor tenants at anchored or shadow anchored retail centers may have co-tenancy clauses and/or operating covenants in their leases or operating agreements that permit those tenants or anchor stores to cease operating, reduce rent or terminate their leases if the anchor tenant, shadow anchor tenant or another major tenant goes dark or if the subject store is not meeting the minimum sales requirement under its lease. Even if non-anchor tenants do not have termination or rent abatement rights, the loss of an anchor tenant or a shadow anchor tenant may have a material adverse impact on the non-anchor tenant’s ability to operate because the anchor or shadow anchor tenant plays a key role in generating customer traffic and making a center desirable for other tenants. This, in turn, may adversely impact the borrower’s ability to meet its obligations under the related mortgage loan. In addition, in the event that a “shadow anchor” fails to renew its lease, terminates its lease or otherwise ceases to conduct business within a close proximity to the mortgaged property, customer traffic at the mortgaged property may be substantially reduced. If an anchor tenant goes dark, generally the borrower’s only remedy may be to terminate that lease after the anchor tenant has been dark for a specified amount of time.

 

Certain anchor tenants may have the right to demolish and rebuild, or substantially alter, their premises, which may result in disruptions similar to those described above.

 

Certain anchor tenant and tenant estoppels will have been obtained in connection with the origination of the mortgage loans. These estoppels may identify disputes between the

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related borrower and the applicable anchor tenant or tenant, or alleged defaults or potential defaults by the applicable property owner under the lease or a reciprocal easement and/or operating agreement (each, an “REA”). Such disputes, defaults or potential defaults, could lead to a termination or attempted termination of the applicable lease or REA by the anchor tenant or tenant or to the tenant withholding some or all of its rental payments or to litigation against the related borrower. We cannot assure you that the anchor tenant or tenant estoppels obtained identify all potential disputes that may arise with respect to the mortgaged retail properties, or that anchor tenant or tenant disputes will not have a material adverse effect on the ability of borrowers to repay their mortgage loans.

 

Certain retail properties may have specialty use tenants. See “—Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses” below. See also “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Retail Properties” and “—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Specialty Use Concentrations”.

 

Certain retail properties may have one or more tenants that sell hemp derived cannabidiol-based products. The legality of certain cannabidiol-based products under federal, state and local laws is uncertain, and, as to state and local laws, may vary based on jurisdiction. Retail leases typically require the tenant to comply with applicable law, however, so any governmental action or definitive legal guidance restricting the possession or distribution of some or all cannabidiol-based products would require the affected tenants to cease possessing and/or distributing such products or otherwise be in breach of their respective leases. In addition, certain properties may have one or more tenants that operate a medical marijuana dispensary. Although such operations may comply with applicable state law, the possession and sale of marijuana for medicinal purposes remains illegal under applicable federal law.

 

Office Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of office properties, including:

 

 

the physical attributes of the building in relation to competing buildings (e.g., age, condition, design, appearance, access to transportation and ability to offer certain amenities, such as sophisticated building systems and/or business wiring requirements);

 

 

the adaptability of the building to changes in the technological needs of the tenants;

 

 

an adverse change in population, patterns of telecommuting or sharing of office space, and employment growth (which creates demand for office space); and

 

 

in the case of a medical office property, (a) the proximity of such property to a hospital or other healthcare establishment, (b) reimbursements for patient fees from private or government sponsored insurers, (c) its ability to attract doctors and nurses to be on staff, and (d) its ability to afford and acquire the latest medical equipment. Issues related to reimbursement (ranging from nonpayment to delays in payment) from such insurers could adversely impact cash flow at such mortgaged property.

 

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Moreover, the cost of refitting office space for a new tenant is often higher than the cost of refitting other types of properties for new tenants.

 

In addition, in the case of tenants that offer co-working or office-sharing space designed for multiple, unaffiliated space users, licenses or subleases of space to users are generally of shorter-term duration, and user turnover is generally greater than with typical office leases. Co-working tenants may experience higher operating costs than typical office tenants, and revenues may lag expenses until the co-working space is filled out. Shorter-term space leases and users may be more impacted by economic fluctuations compared to traditional long term office leases. Further, if office rents decrease, shorter-term space users may move to properties with lower rent, while co-working tenants would be left with longer-term lease obligations. Additionally, if there is a concentration of subleases of the co-working space to a single tenant or affiliated tenants, expiration or termination of such subleases may leave a large block of the co-working space unoccupied. The business model for co-working tenants is evolving, and in markets where co-working tenants represent significant market share, deteriorating performance at any one location may create disruption across other co-working locations and affect the broader office market as well. The foregoing factors may subject the related mortgage loan to increased risk of default and loss.

 

If one or more major tenants at a particular office property were to close or remain vacant, we cannot assure you that such tenants would be replaced in a timely manner or without incurring material additional costs to the related borrower and resulting in an adverse effect on the financial performance of the property.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Office Properties”.

 

Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of multifamily properties, including:

 

 

the quality of property management;

 

 

the ability of management to provide adequate maintenance and insurance;

 

 

the types of services or amenities that the property provides;

 

 

the property’s reputation;

 

 

the level of mortgage interest rates, which may encourage tenants to purchase rather than lease housing;

 

 

the generally short terms of residential leases and the need for continued reletting;

 

 

rent concessions and month-to-month leases, which may impact cash flow at the property;

 

 

the tenant mix, such as the tenant population being predominantly students or being heavily dependent on workers from a particular business or industry or personnel from or workers related to a local military base or oil and/or gas drilling industries;

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in the case of student housing facilities or properties leased primarily to students, which may be more susceptible to damage or wear and tear than other types of multifamily housing, the reliance on the financial well-being of the college or university to which it relates, competition from on campus housing units, which may adversely affect occupancy, the physical layout of the housing, which may not be readily convertible to traditional multifamily use, and that student tenants have a higher turnover rate than other types of multifamily tenants, which in certain cases is compounded by the fact that student leases are available for periods of less than 12 months, and closures of, or ongoing social distancing measures that may be instituted by, colleges and universities due to the coronavirus pandemic;

 

 

that certain multifamily properties may be considered to be “flexible apartment properties”, which properties have a significant percentage of units leased to tenants under short-term leases (less than one year in term), which creates a higher turnover rate than for other types of multifamily properties;

 

 

restrictions on the age or income of tenants who may reside at the property;

 

 

dependence upon governmental programs that provide rent subsidies to tenants pursuant to tenant voucher programs, which vouchers may be used at other properties and influence tenant mobility;

 

 

adverse local, regional or national economic conditions, which may limit the amount of rent that may be charged and may result in a reduction of timely rent payments or a reduction in occupancy levels;

 

 

state and local regulations, which may affect the building owner’s ability to increase rent to market rent for an equivalent apartment; and

 

 

the existence of government assistance/rent subsidy programs, and whether or not they continue and provide the same level of assistance or subsidies.

 

Certain states regulate the relationship between an owner and its tenants. Commonly, these laws require a written lease, good cause for eviction, disclosure of fees, and notification to residents of changed land use, while prohibiting unreasonable rules, retaliatory evictions, and restrictions on a resident’s choice of unit vendors. Apartment building owners have been the subject of suits under state “Unfair and Deceptive Practices Acts” and other general consumer protection statutes for coercive, abusive or unconscionable leasing and sales practices. A few states offer more significant protection. For example, in some states, there are provisions that limit the bases on which a landlord may terminate a tenancy or increase a tenant’s rent or prohibit a landlord from terminating a tenancy solely by reason of the sale of the owner’s building.

 

In addition to state regulation of the landlord tenant relationship generally, numerous counties and municipalities, or state law as applicable in designated counties and municipalities, impose rent control or rent stabilization on apartment buildings. These laws and ordinances generally impose limitations on rent increases, with such increases limited to fixed percentages, to percentages of increases in the consumer price index, to increases set or approved by a governmental agency, or to increases determined through mediation or binding arbitration. Any limitations on a borrower’s ability to raise property rents may impair such borrower’s ability to repay its multifamily loan from its net operating income or the proceeds of a sale or refinancing of the related multifamily property. In addition, prospective investors should assume that these laws and ordinances generally entitle existing tenants at rent-controlled and rent-stabilized units to a lease renewal upon the

 

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expiration of their existing lease; entitle certain family members of a tenant the right to a rent stabilized or rent controlled renewal lease notwithstanding the absence of the original tenant upon lease expiration; empower a court or a designated government agency, following a tenant complaint and fact-finding, to order a reduction in rent and impose penalties on the landlord if the tenant’s rights are violated or certain services are not maintained; and, for the purposes of any prohibitions on retaliatory evictions, establish presumptions of landlord retaliation in cases of recent tenant complaints or other prescribed circumstances. These provisions may result in rents that are lower, or operating costs that are higher, than would otherwise be the case, thereby impairing the borrower’s ability to repay its multifamily loan from its net operating income or the proceeds of a sale or refinancing of the related multifamily property.

 

Certain of the mortgage loans may be secured in the future by mortgaged properties that are subject to certain affordable housing covenants and other covenants and restrictions with respect to various tax credit, city, state and federal housing subsidies, rent stabilization or similar programs, in respect of various units within the mortgaged properties. The limitations and restrictions imposed by these programs could result in losses on the mortgage loans. In addition, in the event that the program is cancelled, it could result in less income for the project. In addition, changes to such programs may impose additional limits on rent increases that were not contemplated when the related mortgage loans were originated. These programs may include, among others:

 

 

rent limitations that would adversely affect the ability of borrowers to increase rents to maintain the condition of their mortgaged properties and satisfy operating expenses;

 

 

tenant income restrictions that may reduce the number of eligible tenants in those mortgaged properties and result in a reduction in occupancy rates; and

 

 

with respect to residential cooperative properties, restrictions on the sale price for which units may be re-sold.

 

The difference in rents between subsidized or supported properties and other multifamily rental properties in the same area may not be a sufficient economic incentive for some eligible tenants to reside at a subsidized or supported property that may have fewer amenities or be less attractive as a residence. As a result, occupancy levels at a subsidized or supported property may decline, which may adversely affect the value and successful operation of such property.

 

Certain of the mortgage loans may be subject to New York’s Section 421-a (16) Program, which provides, among other things, that a market rate residential unit will be subject to rent stabilization unless the owner would be entitled to remove such market rate residential unit from rent stabilization upon vacancy of such unit by reason of the monthly rent exceeding any limit established under the rent stabilization laws. In general, in Section 421-a (16) Program buildings, apartments initially rented at a rent amount in excess of the high rent threshold qualify for permanent exemption from the rent regulations. Rent concessions given to a particular tenant may be relevant in determining whether a unit has been initially rented at a rent that is at or above the high rent threshold. However, there is currently no governing statute, judicial decision, or governmental authority regulatory guidance as to whether rent concessions such as free rent, should be included or excluded in determining whether a unit has been initially rented at a rent that is at or above the high rent threshold. Accordingly, if the lower net effective rent (taking any rent concessions into consideration) is used as the relevant rent (rather than the higher contractual stated rent), more units at such property could be subject to rent stabilization.

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Some counties and municipalities may later impose stricter rent control regulations on apartment buildings. For example, on June 14, 2019, the New York State Senate passed the Housing Stability and Tenant Protection Act of 2019 (the “HSTP Act”), which, among other things, limits the ability of landlords to increase rents in rent stabilized apartments at the time of lease renewal and after a vacancy. The HSTP Act also limits potential rent increases for major capital improvements and for individual apartment improvements. In addition, the HSTP Act permits certain qualified localities in the State of New York to implement the rent stabilization system. In particular, the impact of the HSTP Act on the appraised value of mortgaged real properties located in the City of New York that have significant numbers of rent stabilized units is uncertain.

 

Moreover, legislative or judicial actions concerning rent-stabilized properties may adversely affect, among other things, existing market rent units and a borrower’s ability to convert rent-stabilized units to market rent units in the future or may give rise to liability in connection with previously converted units, which may adversely impact the net operating income or the appraised value of the property and/or the value of the property.

 

Certain of the multifamily properties may be operated as residential cooperative properties whereby, generally, a non-profit residential cooperative corporation owns or leases and operates such property. The cooperative owns all the units in the building and all common areas. Its tenants own stock, shares or membership certificates in the corporation. This ownership entitles the tenant-stockholders to proprietary leases or occupancy agreements which confer exclusive rights to occupy specific units. Generally, the tenant-stockholders make monthly maintenance payments which represent their share of the cooperative corporation’s mortgage loan payments, real property taxes, reserve contributions and capital expenditures, maintenance and other expenses, less any income the corporation may receive. These payments are in addition to any payments of principal and interest the tenant-stockholder may be required to make on any loans secured by its shares in the cooperative.

 

A number of factors may adversely affect the value and successful operation of a residential cooperative property. See “—Residential Cooperative Properties Have Special Risks.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Multifamily Properties”.

 

Residential Cooperative Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of residential cooperative properties, including:

 

 

the ability of tenants to remain in a cooperative property after its conversion from a rental property, at below market rents and subject to applicable law, including rent regulation, rent stabilization and rent control laws;

 

 

the primary dependence of a borrower upon maintenance payments and any rental income from units or commercial areas to meet debt service obligations and the discretion afforded to the cooperative board of directors to establish maintenance charges payable by tenant-shareholders;

 

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the concentration of shares relating to units of the sponsor, owner or investor after conversion from rental housing, which may result in an inability to meet debt service obligations on the corporation’s mortgage loan if the sponsor, owner or investor is unable to make the required maintenance payments;

 

 

the failure of a borrower to qualify for favorable tax treatment as a “cooperative housing corporation” in any one or more years, which may reduce the cash flow available to make payments on the related mortgage loan; and

 

 

that, upon foreclosure, in the event a residential cooperative property becomes a rental property, all or portions of such rental property may be subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws as described in “—Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks” above. Certain of the residential cooperative mortgaged properties have a substantial number of units that are owned by the related coop sponsor or an investor, and leased by it to rental tenants. These units may be, or in the future become, subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws and would be expected to continue to be subject to such laws following a foreclosure. In addition, to the extent that other units at a residential cooperative mortgaged property were subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws prior to the conversion to a cooperative (which is likely to be the case if sponsor or investor units are subject to such laws), if the related residential cooperative mortgage loan were to be foreclosed, such units would again be subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws. These laws may affect rental income levels and the marketability and sale proceeds of the rental property as a whole; however, the “Coop-Rental Value” Appraised Values of the residential cooperative mortgaged properties assume that if the mortgaged property were operated as a multifamily rental property all units (other than, in some cases, sponsor or investor units that are subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws) will be rented at market rates.

 

The value and successful operation of a residential cooperative property will generally be impacted by the same factors which may impact the economic performance of a multifamily property; see “—Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks”.

 

With respect to the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties, each mortgaged property is owned or leased by the borrower, which is a non-profit residential cooperative corporation. The borrower’s tenants own stock, shares or membership certificates in the corporation. This ownership entitles the tenant-stockholders to proprietary leases or occupancy agreements which confer exclusive rights to occupy specific units. Generally, the tenant-stockholders make monthly maintenance payments which represent their share of the cooperative corporation’s mortgage loan payments, real property taxes, maintenance, contributions to reserves and other expenses, less any income the corporation may receive. These payments are in addition to any payments of principal and interest the tenant-stockholder may be required to make on any loans secured by its shares in the cooperative.

 

With respect to the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties, due to attributes particular to residential housing cooperatives, certain information presented with respect to such mortgage loans differs from that presented for other mortgage loans included in the trust. Several of these differences are particularly relevant to your consideration of an investment in the offered certificates. In particular, the manner in which loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios and debt yields are calculated for the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties differs from the manner in which such calculations are made for other mortgage loans included in the trust. For

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example, the appraised value of such a residential cooperative property used for purposes of determining the loan-to-value ratio for the related Mortgage Loan as of any date (other than the loan-to-value information for the residential cooperative property securing the Waldo Gardens, Inc. Mortgage Loan) is the value estimate reflected in an appraisal of such residential cooperative property determined as if such residential cooperative property is operated as a residential cooperative and, in general, such value equals the sum of (i) the gross share value of all cooperative units in such residential cooperative property, based in part on various comparable sales of cooperative apartment units in the market, plus (ii) the amount of the underlying debt encumbering such residential cooperative property. This value, based upon the most recent appraisal as of the Cut-off Date, is reflected as the “Appraised Value” of a residential cooperative property on Annex A-1. There is generally a limited market for the sale of sponsor or investor held units that are rent regulated, rent stabilized or rent controlled units, and in certain instances, for the sale of market rate units. Therefore, the appraiser typically applies a discount when deriving a gross share value for such units as and if the appraiser deems appropriate. The amount of such discount will depend on such factors as location, condition, tenancy profile (age of the tenants), and the amount of positive or negative cash flow. In certain instances, in determining the gross share value of market rate sponsor or investor held units occupied by rental tenants, the appraiser has taken into consideration a value for such units determined by capitalizing the anticipated net operating income to be realized from such occupied units. The comparable sales considered in the appraisers’ estimates of gross share values may have occurred at properties where the cooperative entity’s underlying mortgage debt per cooperative unit was substantially more or less than that at the applicable Mortgaged Property. The appraisers generally made no adjustments to comparable sales statistics to account for any such differences, although monthly unit maintenance obligations may have been considered. With respect to limited equity cooperatives (i.e., housing cooperatives in which eligible members purchase shares at below market prices and are subject to various restrictions, including restrictions on the sale price for which units may be re-sold and/or restrictions upon the income or other characteristics of purchasers of such units), the gross share value is calculated without regard to any applicable sale price restrictions. With respect to residential cooperative properties, the “Appraised Value” does not constitute a market value, and should not be considered to be the value that would be realized following a foreclosure of a mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property. Upon a foreclosure of a mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property, it is likely that the operation of such mortgaged property as a residential cooperative property would terminate, and it is likely that the mortgaged property would be operated and sold as a multifamily rental property. A residential cooperative property is also valued as a multifamily rental property to determine a “Coop-Rental Value” as set forth on Annex A-1. The value of a residential cooperative property as a multifamily rental property is the value estimate reflected in an appraisal of such residential cooperative property and, in general, is derived by applying an appropriate capitalization rate (as determined by the appraiser) to the Underwritten Net Cash Flow for such residential cooperative property. In certain instances, the appraiser may have made adjustments to increase or decrease such capitalized value as deemed appropriate by the appraiser (for example, the appraiser may have reduced such capitalized value to reflect the cost of completing material deferred maintenance or may have increased such capitalized value to reflect the existence of certain tax abatements or incentives). In the case of the residential cooperative property securing the Waldo Gardens, Inc. Mortgage Loan, the value reflected as the “Appraised Value” in Annex A-1 is the “Coop-Rental Value” for the related residential cooperative property, and the loan-to-value ratio information for such mortgage loan is determined based on the “Coop-Rental Value” of such residential cooperative property. Certain of the residential cooperative mortgaged properties have a substantial number of units that are owned by the related coop sponsor or an investor, and leased by it to rental tenants, which units are

 

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currently subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws and are expected to continue to be subject to such laws following a foreclosure, and accordingly the rental income that can be expected to be earned from such units (and any other units that are or become subject to such laws) will be limited by the provisions of such laws. In addition, to the extent that other units at a residential cooperative mortgaged property were subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws prior to the conversion to a cooperative (which is likely to be the case if sponsor or investor units are subject to such laws), if the related residential cooperative mortgage loan were to be foreclosed, such units would again be subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws. However, the “Coop-Rental Value” Appraised Values of the residential cooperative mortgaged properties assume that if the mortgaged property were operated as a multifamily rental property all units (other than, in some cases, sponsor or investor units that are subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws) will be rented at market rates. In addition, for purposes of determining the debt service coverage ratio and debt yield for a mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property and for the purpose of determining the value for a residential cooperative property as a multifamily rental property, the underwritten net cash flow for a residential cooperative property and the underwritten net operating income for a residential cooperative property are determined by the appraiser and, in general, equal projected operating income at the property as set forth in the appraisal assuming such property is operated as a rental property with rents and other income set at prevailing market rates (but taking into account the presence of existing rent regulated, rent stabilized or rent controlled rental tenants), reduced by underwritten property operating expenses and a market-rate vacancy assumption and, if applicable, collection loss assumption and, in the case of underwritten net cash flow, further reduced by projected replacement reserves, in each case as determined by the appraiser. However, the projected rental income used in such determinations may differ materially from the scheduled monthly maintenance payments from the tenant-stockholders upon which residential cooperatives depend. The loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios and debt yields presented herein with respect to a mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property may differ from the loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios and debt yields that would have been determined for any such mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property had a different methodology (including the methodology used for calculating such values with respect to the other mortgage loans sold to the depositor) been used.

 

With respect to the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties, each mortgaged property is owned by the borrower, which is a cooperative housing corporation. No individual or entity (other than the borrower) has recourse obligations with respect to the loans, including pursuant to any guaranty or environmental indemnity. Accordingly, no information is presented in the column labeled Sponsor in Annex A-1 with respect to the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties. In addition, with respect to information presented in Annex A-1 with respect to mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties: (1) Coop – Sponsor Units refers to the number of units owned by the original sponsor responsible for the mortgaged property’s conversion into cooperative ownership; such sponsor may rent its units or opt to market them for sale (either individually or as a whole); (2) Coop – Investor Units refers to a bulk number of units owned by a non-tenant investor(s), who can rent or sell the units; (3) Coop – Coop Units refers to the number of units owned by the borrower, which is a cooperative corporation; In this capacity, the cooperative may manage its units as an investor would or use the units for the benefit of its cooperative members; (4) Coop – Unsold Percent refers to the ratio of the total number of units collectively owned by the original sponsor, a non-tenant investor or the cooperative corporation to the number of units with shares allocated; and (5) Coop – Sponsor/Investor Carry is the sponsor’s or the investor’s net cash flow calculated by

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subtracting maintenance charges on the sponsor or investor owned units from the actual rents payable on such units, to the extent available.

 

In addition, due to the specialized nature of residential housing cooperatives, certain information presented in and shown on Annex A-1 with respect to mortgage loans (other than such mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties) is not presented with respect to the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties sold to the depositor for inclusion in the trust and is, instead, reflected as not applicable (NAP). See “—Appraisals May Not Reflect Current or Future Market Value of Each Property” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions—Certain Characteristics of Mortgage Loans Secured by Residential Cooperatives”.

 

In addition, mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties are uniquely structured and, in certain cases, permit the borrower to incur (1) one or more loans to the related mortgage borrower that are secured, on a subordinated basis, by a mortgage lien on a mortgaged property that also secures a mortgage loan included in the trust and (2) unsecured loans to the related borrower. The applicable mortgage loan seller may act as the lender in such arrangements and is permitted pursuant to the pooling and servicing agreement to engage in such lending with respect to the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties included in the trust. In addition, each of the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties permit cooperative unit loans that are secured by direct equity interests in the related borrower. See “—Risks Related to Conflicts of Interest—Interests and Incentives of the Originators, the Sponsors and Their Affiliates May Not Be Aligned With Your Interests”, “—Potential Conflicts of Interest of the Master Servicers and the Special Servicers”, “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness—Other Secured Indebtedness—Additional Debt Financing For Mortgage Loans Secured by Residential Cooperatives Sold to the Depositor by National Cooperative Bank, N.A.”, “Certain Affiliations, Relationships and Related Transactions Involving Transaction Parties” and “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Foreclosure—Cooperative Shares”.

 

In certain instances, a residential cooperative borrower may not own the entire apartment building and the land under the building, but rather owns a condominium unit that is generally comprised of the residential portions of that apartment building. The other condominium units in that apartment building will generally comprise commercial space and will generally be owned by persons or entities other than the residential cooperative borrower. In instances where an apartment building has been converted to the condominium form of ownership, certain of the common areas in that building may be owned by the residential cooperative borrower and other common areas (often including the land under the building) may constitute common elements of the condominium, which common elements are owned in common by the residential cooperative borrower and the owners of the other condominium units. Where the apartment building is subject to the condominium form of ownership, each condominium unit owner will be directly responsible for the payment of real estate taxes on that owner’s unit. Certain specified maintenance and other obligations, including hazard and liability insurance premiums, may not be the direct responsibility of the residential cooperative borrower but rather will be the responsibility of the condominium board of managers. The ability of the condominium board of managers to pay certain expenses of the building will be dependent upon the payment by all condominium unit owners of common charges assessed by the condominium board of managers. As with other condominium structures, with respect to any such mortgage loan, the borrower may not control the appointment and voting of the condominium board or the condominium owners may be able to take actions or cause the condominium association to take actions that would affect the borrower’s unit without the borrower’s consent. Even if the borrower or its designated board members, either through

 

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control of the appointment and voting of sufficient members of the condominium board or by virtue of other provisions in the condominium documents, has consent rights over actions by the condominium associations or owners, we cannot assure you that the condominium board will not take actions that would materially adversely affect the borrower’s unit.

 

In the case of the residential cooperative properties included in the trust, information regarding the five largest tenants has not been reflected on Annex A-1 or otherwise reflected in the portions of this prospectus that discuss characteristics of the five largest tenants at each mortgaged property. Notwithstanding the exclusion of the residential cooperative properties from such discussion, certain residential cooperative properties are heavily dependent on income from commercial tenancies and may, in certain instances, have space that is devoted to specialty uses. These uses may include, without limitation, dental or medical offices, restaurants, and/or parking garages. The specialty use spaces may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those uses were to become unprofitable, or the spaces were to become vacant, for any reason. See
—Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses”. To the extent that a residential cooperative property is dependent upon income from the operation of commercial spaces, the value and successful operation of such residential cooperative property may be impacted by the same factors which may impact the economic performance of a retail property or office property. See “—Office Properties Have Special Risks” and “—Retail Properties Have Special Risks”.

 

Certain of the residential cooperative properties securing mortgage loans included in the trust may be operated as limited equity cooperatives in which eligible members purchase shares at below market prices and are subject to various restrictions, including restrictions on the sale price for which units may be re-sold and/or restrictions upon the income or other characteristics of purchasers of such units. Such restrictions may negatively impact the value and operation of such a mortgaged property.

 

In addition, as noted above, certain of the residential cooperative properties are or may in the future become subject to government rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control regulations which limit the rental payments payable by subtenants of unit owners and which would be applicable to the Mortgaged Property in whole or in part if the same were operated as a multifamily rental property. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types”.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Characteristics of Mortgage Loans Secured by Residential Cooperatives”.

 

Mixed Use Properties Have Special Risks

 

Certain properties are mixed use properties. Such mortgaged properties are subject to the risks relating to the property types described in “—Retail Properties Have Special Risks”, “—Office Properties Have Special Risks”, “—Multifamily Properties Have Special Risks”, and “—Industrial Properties Have Special Risks”, as applicable. See Annex A-1 for the 5 largest tenants (by net rentable area leased) at the mixed use property. A mixed use property may be subject to additional risks, including the property manager’s inexperience in managing the different property types that comprise such mixed use property.

 

Industrial Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the

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Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of industrial properties, including:

 

 

reduced demand for industrial space because of a decline in a particular industry segment;

 

 

the property becoming functionally obsolete;

 

 

building design and adaptability;

 

 

unavailability of labor sources;

 

 

supply chain disruptions;

 

 

changes in access, energy prices, strikes, relocation of highways, the construction of additional highways or other factors;

 

 

changes in proximity of supply sources;

 

 

the expenses of converting a previously adapted space to general use; and

 

 

the location of the property.

 

Industrial properties may be adversely affected by reduced demand for industrial space occasioned by a decline in a particular industry segment in which the related tenants conduct their businesses (for example, a decline in consumer demand for products sold by a tenant using the property as a distribution center). In addition, a particular industrial or warehouse property that suited the needs of its original tenant may be difficult to relet to another tenant or may become functionally obsolete relative to newer properties. Furthermore, lease terms with respect to industrial properties are generally for shorter periods of time and may result in a substantial percentage of leases expiring in the same year at any particular industrial property. In addition, mortgaged properties used for many industrial purposes are more prone to environmental concerns than other property types.

 

Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of an industrial property. Site characteristics that are generally desirable to a warehouse/industrial property include high clear ceiling heights, wide column spacing, a large number of bays (loading docks) and large bay depths, divisibility, a layout that can accommodate large truck minimum turning radii and overall functionality and accessibility.

 

In addition, because of unique construction requirements of many industrial properties, any vacant industrial property space may not be easily converted to other uses. Thus, if the operation of any of the industrial properties becomes unprofitable due to competition, age of the improvements or other factors such that the borrower becomes unable to meet its obligations on the related mortgage loan, the liquidation value of that industrial property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the related mortgage loan, than would be the case if the industrial property were readily adaptable to other uses.

 

Location is also important because an industrial property requires the availability of labor sources, proximity to supply sources and customers and accessibility to rail lines, major roadways and other distribution channels.

 

Further, certain of the industrial properties may have tenants that are subject to risks unique to their business, such as cold storage facilities. Cold storage facilities may have unique risks such as short lease terms due to seasonal use, making income potentially more

 

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volatile than for properties with longer term leases, and customized refrigeration design, rendering such facilities less readily convertible to alternative uses. Because of seasonal use, leases at such facilities are customarily for shorter terms, making income potentially more volatile than for properties with longer term leases. In addition, such facilities require customized refrigeration design, rendering them less readily convertible to alternative uses.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Industrial Properties”.

 

Self Storage Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of self storage properties, including:

 

 

decreased demand;

 

 

lack of proximity to apartment complexes or commercial users;

 

 

apartment tenants moving to single family homes;

 

 

decline in services rendered, including security;

 

 

dependence on business activity ancillary to renting units;

 

 

security concerns;

 

 

age of improvements; or

 

 

competition or other factors.

 

Self storage properties are considered vulnerable to competition, because both acquisition costs and break-even occupancy are relatively low. The conversion of self storage facilities to alternative uses would generally require substantial capital expenditures. Thus, if the operation of any of the self storage properties becomes unprofitable, the liquidation value of that self storage mortgaged property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the mortgage loan, than if the self storage mortgaged property were readily adaptable to other uses.

 

Tenants at self storage properties tend to require and receive privacy, anonymity and efficient access, each of which may heighten environmental and other risks related to such property as the borrower may be unaware of the contents in any self storage unit. No environmental assessment of a self-storage mortgaged property included an inspection of the contents of the self storage units at that mortgaged property, and there is no assurance that all of the units included in the self storage mortgaged properties are free from hazardous substances or other pollutants or contaminants or will remain so in the future.

 

Certain mortgage loans secured by self storage properties may be affiliated with a franchise company through a franchise agreement. The performance of a self-storage property affiliated with a franchise company may be affected by the continued existence and financial strength of the franchisor, the public perception of a service mark, and the duration of the franchise agreement. The transferability of franchise license agreements is restricted. In the event of a foreclosure, the lender or its agent would not have the right to use the franchise license without the franchisor’s consent. In addition, certain self storage properties may derive a material portion of revenue from business activities ancillary to self-

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storage such as truck rentals, parking fees and similar activities which require special use permits or other discretionary zoning approvals. See Annex A-1 and the footnotes related thereto.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Self Storage Properties”.

 

Hospitality Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” above, various other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of hospitality properties, including:

 

 

adverse economic and social conditions, either local, regional or national (which may limit the amount that can be charged for a room and reduce occupancy levels);

 

 

continuing expenditures for modernizing, refurbishing and maintaining existing facilities prior to the expiration of their anticipated useful lives;

 

 

ability to convert to alternative uses which may not be readily made;

 

 

a deterioration in the financial strength or managerial capabilities of the owner or operator of a hospitality property;

 

 

changes in travel patterns caused by general adverse economic conditions, fear of terrorist attacks, adverse weather conditions and changes in access, energy prices, strikes, travel costs, relocation of highways, the construction of additional highways, concerns about travel safety or other factors; and

 

 

relative illiquidity of hospitality investments which limits the ability of the borrowers and property managers to respond to changes in economic or other conditions.

 

Because hotel rooms are generally rented for short periods of time, the financial performance of hospitality properties tends to be affected by adverse economic conditions and competition more quickly than other commercial properties. Additionally, as a result of high operating costs, relatively small decreases in revenue can cause significant stress on a property’s cash flow.

 

Moreover, the hospitality and lodging industry is generally seasonal in nature and different seasons affect different hospitality properties differently depending on type and location. This seasonality can be expected to cause periodic fluctuations in a hospitality property’s room and restaurant revenues, occupancy levels, room rates and operating expenses. We cannot assure you that cash flow will be sufficient to offset any shortfalls that occur at the mortgaged property during slower periods or that the related mortgage loans provide for seasonality reserves, or if seasonality reserves are provided for, that such reserves will be funded or will be sufficient or available to fund such shortfalls.

 

In addition, certain hospitality properties are limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels. Hospitality properties that are limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels may subject a lender to more risk than full-service hospitality properties as they generally require less capital for construction than full-service hospitality properties. In addition, as limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels generally offer fewer amenities than full-service hospitality properties, they are less distinguishable from each

 

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other. As a result, it is easier for limited-service, select service or extended stay hotels to experience increased or unforeseen competition.

 

In addition to hotel operations, some hospitality properties also operate entertainment complexes that include restaurants, lounges, nightclubs, banquet and meeting spaces and/or waterparks and may derive a significant portion of the related property’s revenue from such operations. Consumer demand for entertainment resorts is particularly sensitive to downturns in the economy and the corresponding impact on discretionary spending on leisure activities. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences could be driven by factors such as perceived or actual general economic conditions, high energy, fuel and food costs, the increased cost of travel, the weakened job market, perceived or actual disposable consumer income and wealth, fears of recession and changes in consumer confidence in the economy, or fears of war and future acts of terrorism. These factors could reduce consumer demand for the leisure activities that the property offers, thus imposing practical limits on pricing and harming operations. Restaurants and nightclubs are particularly vulnerable to changes in consumer preferences. In addition, a nightclub’s, restaurant’s, bar’s or waterpark’s revenue is extremely dependent on its popularity and perception. These characteristics are subject to change rapidly and we cannot assure you that any of a hospitality property’s nightclubs, restaurants, bars or waterparks will maintain their current level of popularity or perception in the market. Any such change could have a material adverse effect on the net cash flow of the property.

 

Some of the hospitality properties have liquor licenses associated with the mortgaged property. The liquor licenses for these mortgaged properties are generally held by affiliates of the related borrowers, unaffiliated managers or operating lessees. The laws and regulations relating to liquor licenses generally prohibit the transfer of such licenses to any person, or condition such transfer on the prior approval of the governmental authority that issued the license. In the event of a foreclosure of a hospitality property that holds a liquor license, the special servicer on behalf of the issuing entity or a purchaser in a foreclosure sale would likely have to apply for a new license, which might not be granted or might be granted only after a delay that could be significant. We cannot assure you that a new license could be obtained promptly or at all. The lack of a liquor license in a hospitality property could have an adverse impact on the revenue from the related mortgaged property or on the hospitality property’s occupancy rate.

 

In addition, there may be risks associated with hospitality properties that have not entered into or become a party to any franchise agreement, license agreement or other “flag”. Hospitality properties often enter into these types of agreements in order to align the hospitality property with a certain public perception or to benefit from a centralized reservation system. We cannot assure you that hospitality properties that lack such benefits will be able to operate successfully on an independent basis.

 

In addition, such hospitality properties are subject to the potential risks associated with concentration of the resorts under the same brand. A negative public image or other adverse event that becomes associated with such brand could adversely affect the related borrowers’ business and revenues.

 

If accidents, injuries or sicknesses occur at any such hospitality properties, the related borrowers may be held liable for costs related to the injuries or face litigation proceedings relating to such accidents and sicknesses. There can be no assurance that any liability insurance maintained by the related borrowers against such risks will be adequate or available at all times and in all circumstances to cover any liability for these costs. In addition, many jurisdictions do not insure against punitive damages, and the related borrowers would not be covered if they experienced a judgment including punitive damages.

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Such borrowers’ business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected to the extent claims and associated expenses resulting from accidents or injuries exceed insurance recoveries. See “—Insurance May Not Be Available or Adequate” and “—Litigation Regarding the Mortgaged Properties or Borrowers May Impair Your Distributions”.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Hospitality Properties”.

 

Manufactured Housing Properties Have Special Risks

 

In addition to the factors discussed in “—Risks of Commercial and Multifamily Lending Generally” and “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases” above, other factors may adversely affect the financial performance and value of manufactured housing properties, including:

 

 

the number of competing residential developments in the local market, such as: other manufactured housing properties, apartment buildings and site-built single family homes;

 

 

the physical attributes of the community, including its age and appearance;

 

 

the location of the manufactured housing property;

 

 

the presence and/or continued presence of sufficient manufactured homes at the manufactured housing property (manufactured homes are not generally part of the collateral for a mortgage loan secured by a manufactured housing property; rather, the pads upon which manufactured homes are located are leased to the owners of such manufactured homes; accordingly, manufactured homes may be moved from a manufactured housing property);

 

 

the type of services or amenities it provides;

 

 

any age restrictions;

 

 

the property’s reputation; and

 

 

state and local regulations, including rent control and rent stabilization, and tenant association rights.

 

The manufactured housing properties have few improvements (which are highly specialized) and are “single-purpose” properties that could not be readily converted to general residential, retail or office use. Thus, if the operation of any of the manufactured housing properties becomes unprofitable due to competition, age of the improvements or other factors such that the borrower becomes unable to meet its obligations on the related mortgage loan, the liquidation value of that manufactured housing property may be substantially less, relative to the amount owing on the related mortgage loan, than would be the case if the manufactured housing property were readily adaptable to other uses.

 

Some manufactured housing properties are either recreational vehicle resorts or have a significant portion of the properties that are intended to accommodate short-term occupancy by recreational vehicles, and tenancy of these communities may vary significantly by season. This seasonality may cause periodic fluctuations in revenues, tenancy levels, rental rates and operating expenses for these properties.

 

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Some of the manufactured housing mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans in the trust may have a material number of leased homes that are currently owned by the related borrower or an affiliate thereof and rented by the respective tenants like apartments. In circumstances where the leased homes are owned by an affiliate of the borrower, the related pads may, in some cases, be subject to a master lease with that affiliate. In such cases, the tenants will tend to be more transient and less tied to the property than if they owned their own home. Such leased homes do not, in all (or, possibly, in any) such cases, constitute collateral for the related mortgage loan. Some of the leased homes that are not collateral for the related mortgage loan are rented on a lease-to-own basis. In some cases, the borrower itself owns, leases, sells and/or finances the sale of homes, although generally the related income therefrom will be excluded for loan underwriting purposes. See also representation and warranty no. 33 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1). Some of the leased homes owned by a borrower or its affiliate may be financed and a default on that financing may materially adversely affect the performance of the manufactured housing mortgaged property.

 

Certain of the manufactured housing mortgaged properties may not be connected in their entirety to public water and/or sewer systems. In such cases, the borrower could incur a substantial expense if it were required to connect the property to such systems in the future. In addition, the use of well water enhances the likelihood that the property could be adversely affected by a recognized environmental condition that impacts soil and groundwater.

 

Certain jurisdictions may give the related homeowner’s association or even individual homeowners a right of first refusal with respect to a proposed sale of the manufactured housing property.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Manufactured Housing Properties”.

 

Leased Fee Properties Have Special Risks

 

Land subject to a ground lease presents special risks. In such cases, where the borrower owns the fee interest but not the related improvements, such borrower will only receive the rental income from the ground lease and not from the operation of any related improvements. Any default by the ground lessee would adversely affect the borrower’s ability to make payments on the related mortgage loan. While ground leases may contain certain restrictions on the use and operation of the related mortgaged property, the ground lessee generally enjoys the rights and privileges of a fee owner, including the right to construct, alter and remove improvements and fixtures from the land and to assign and sublet the ground leasehold interest. However, the borrower has the same risk of interruptions in cash flow if such ground lessee defaults under its lease as it would on another single tenant commercial property, without the control over the premises that it would ordinarily have as landlord. In addition, in the event of a condemnation, the borrower would only be entitled to an allocable share of the condemnation proceeds. Furthermore, the insurance requirements are often governed by the terms of the ground lease and, in some cases, certain tenants or subtenants may be allowed to self-insure. The ground lessee is commonly permitted to mortgage its ground leasehold interest, and the leasehold lender will often have notice and cure rights with respect to material defaults under the ground lease. In addition, leased fee interests are less frequently purchased and sold than other interests in commercial real property. It may be difficult for the issuing entity, if it became a foreclosing lender, to sell the fee interest if the tenant and its improvements remain on the land. In addition, if the improvements are nearing the end of

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their useful life, there could be a risk that the tenant defaults in lieu of performing any obligations it may otherwise have to raze the structure and return the land in raw form to the developer. Furthermore, leased fee interests are generally subject to the same risks associated with the property type of the ground lessee’s use of the premises because that use is a source of revenue for the payment of ground rent. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types—Leased Fee Properties”.

 

Data Center Properties Have Special Risks

 

The primary function of a data center is to provide a secure location for back-up data storage. Data centers are subject to similar risks as office buildings. The value of a data center will be affected by its telecommunications capacity, availability of sufficient power, and availability of support systems including environmental, temperature and hazard risk control, physical security, and redundant backup systems. As data centers contain sensitive and highly costly equipment and connections, they are subject to heightened risk in the event of fire, natural disaster or terrorism. Further, data centers require significant quantities of water for cooling. Data centers located in states that are subject to droughts, such as California, therefore face additional risk. In addition, data centers can be the subject of build-to-suit construction to specific user requirements. As such, if the lease with a data center user is terminated for any reason, the cost and time to adapt the space to other users may be considerable. Further, data center properties may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable, or if the leased spaces were to become vacant, for any reason. See “—Office Properties Have Special Risks”.

 

Mortgaged Properties Leased to Startup Companies Have Special Risks

 

Certain mortgaged properties may have tenants that are startup companies. Startup companies are new companies that are seeking to develop a scalable business model. Startup companies have heightened risks. Many startup companies do not generate positive cash flow, and may in fact experience significant negative cash flow. Startup companies that operate at a loss may experience rapid growth through venture capital investments; however, if the source of funding loses confidence in the business model, or is unwilling or unable to continue funding for other reasons, the startup company may be faced with significant losses and be without a source of funding to continue its business or pay its obligations. Furthermore, valuations based on venture capital investment may rapidly decline. Many startups may produce only a single product or service, and therefore face a binary risk of failure if such product or service does not find market acceptance, meets with competition or is otherwise unsuccessful. Further, startup companies may be run by founders who lack significant business or finance experience. Startup companies generally have a low success rate. Accordingly, mortgaged properties leased to startup companies face the risk that the tenant may be unable to pay rent under its lease and may default on its lease.

 

Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements

 

The management and operation of a condominium is generally controlled by a condominium board representing the owners of the individual condominium units, subject to the terms of the related condominium rules or by-laws. Generally, the consent of a majority of the board members is required for any actions of the condominium board and a unit owner’s ability to control decisions of the board are generally related to the number of units owned by such owner as a percentage of the total number of units in the condominium. In certain cases, the related borrower does not have a majority of votes on

 

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the condominium board, which result in the related borrower not having control of the related condominium or owners association.

 

The board of managers or directors of the related condominium generally has discretion to make decisions affecting the condominium, and we cannot assure you that the related borrower under a mortgage loan secured by one or more interests in that condominium will have any control over decisions made by the related board of managers or directors. Even if a borrower or its designated board members, either through control of the appointment and voting of sufficient members of the related condominium board or by virtue of other provisions in the related condominium documents, has consent rights over actions by the related condominium associations or owners, we cannot assure you that the related condominium board will not take actions that would materially adversely affect the related borrower’s unit. Thus, decisions made by that board of managers or directors, including regarding assessments to be paid by the unit owners, insurance to be maintained on the condominium and many other decisions affecting the maintenance of that condominium, may have a significant adverse impact on the related mortgage loans in the issuing entity that are secured by mortgaged properties consisting of such condominium interests. We cannot assure you that the related board of managers or directors will always act in the best interests of the related borrower under the related mortgage loans.

 

The condominium board is generally responsible for administration of the affairs of the condominium, including providing for maintenance and repair of common areas, adopting rules and regulations regarding common areas, and obtaining insurance and repairing and restoring the common areas of the property after a casualty. Notwithstanding the insurance and casualty provisions of the related mortgage loan documents, the condominium board may have the right to control the use of casualty proceeds.

 

In addition, the condominium board generally has the right to assess individual unit owners for their share of expenses related to the operation and maintenance of the common elements. In the event that an owner of another unit fails to pay its allocated assessments, the related borrower may be required to pay such assessments in order to properly maintain and operate the common elements of the property. Although the condominium board generally may obtain a lien against any unit owner for common expenses that are not paid, such lien generally is extinguished if a lender takes possession pursuant to a foreclosure. Each unit owner is responsible for maintenance of its respective unit and retains essential operational control over its unit.

 

In addition, due to the nature of condominiums, a default on the part of the borrower with respect to such mortgaged properties will not allow the applicable special servicer the same flexibility in realizing on the collateral as is generally available with respect to commercial properties that are not condominium units. The rights of other unit or property owners, the documents governing the management of the condominium units and the state and local laws applicable to condominium units must be considered. In addition, in the event of a casualty with respect to a condominium, due to the possible existence of multiple loss payees on any insurance policy covering such property, there could be a delay in the allocation of related insurance proceeds, if any. Consequently, servicing and realizing upon the collateral described above could subject the certificateholders to a greater delay, expense and risk than with respect to a mortgage loan secured by a commercial property that is not a condominium unit.

 

Certain condominium declarations and/or local laws provide for the withdrawal of a property from a condominium structure under certain circumstances. For example, the New York Condominium Act provides for a withdrawal of the property from a condominium structure by vote of 80% of unit owners. If the condominium is terminated, the building will

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be subject to an action for partition by any unit owner or lienor as if owned in common. This could cause an early and unanticipated prepayment of the mortgage loan. We cannot assure you that the proceeds from partition would be sufficient to satisfy borrower’s obligations under the mortgage loan. See also “—Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions” for certain risks relating to use restrictions imposed pursuant to condominium declarations or other condominium especially in a situation where the mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium building.

 

A condominium regime can also be established with respect to land only, as an alternative to land subdivision in those jurisdictions where it is so permitted. In such circumstances, the condominium board’s responsibilities are typically limited to matters such as landscaping and maintenance of common areas, including private roadways, while individual unit owners have responsibility for the buildings constructed on their respective land units. Likewise, in land condominium regimes, individual unit owners would typically have responsibility for property insurance, although the condominium board might maintain liability insurance for the common areas. Accordingly, while some attributes of a building condominium form are shared by a land condominium, the latter would have a more limited scope of board responsibilities and shared costs.

 

In addition, vertical subdivisions and “fee above a plane” structures are property ownership structures in which owners have a fee simple interest in certain ground-level and above-ground parcels. A vertical subdivision or fee above a plane structure is generally governed by a declaration or similar agreement defining the respective owner’s fee estates and relationship; one or more owners typically relies on one or more other owners’ parcels for structural support. Each owner is responsible for maintenance of its respective parcel and retains essential operational control over its parcel. We cannot assure you that owners of parcels supporting collateral interests in vertical subdivision and fee above a plane parcels will perform any maintenance and repair obligations that may be required under the declaration with respect to the supporting parcel, or that proceeds following a casualty would be used to reconstruct a supporting parcel. Owners of interests in a vertical subdivision or fee above a plane structure may be required under the related declaration to pay certain assessments relating to any shared interests in the related property, and a lien may be attached for failure to pay such assessments.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Condominium and Other Shared Interests”.

 

Operation of a Mortgaged Property Depends on the Property Manager’s Performance

 

The successful operation of a real estate project depends upon the property manager’s performance and viability. The property manager is responsible for:

 

 

responding to changes in the local market;

 

 

planning and implementing the rental structure;

 

 

operating the property and providing building services;

 

 

managing operating expenses; and

 

 

assuring that maintenance and capital improvements are carried out in a timely fashion.

 

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Properties deriving revenues primarily from short term sources, such as hotel guests or short term or month to month leases, are generally more management intensive than properties leased to creditworthy tenants under long term leases.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties will be managed by affiliates of the related borrower. If a mortgage loan is in default or undergoing special servicing, such relationship could disrupt the management of the related mortgaged property, which may adversely affect cash flow. However, the related mortgage loans will generally permit, in the case of mortgaged properties managed by borrower affiliates, the lender to remove the related property manager upon the occurrence of an event of default under the related mortgage loan beyond applicable cure periods (or, in some cases, in the event of a foreclosure following such default), and in some cases a decline in cash flow below a specified level or the failure to satisfy some other specified performance trigger.

 

Concentrations Based on Property Type, Geography, Related Borrowers and Other Factors May Disproportionately Increase Losses

 

The effect of mortgage pool loan losses will be more severe if the losses relate to mortgage loans that account for a disproportionately large percentage of the pool’s aggregate principal balance. As mortgage loans pay down or properties are released, the remaining certificateholders may face a higher risk with respect to the diversity of property types and property characteristics and with respect to the number of borrowers.

 

See the tables entitled “Remaining Term to Maturity/ARD in Months” in Annex A-2 for a stratification of the remaining terms to maturity of the mortgage loans. Because principal on the certificates is payable in sequential order of payment priority, and a class receives principal only after the preceding class(es) have been paid in full, classes that have a lower sequential priority are more likely to face these types of risks of concentration than classes with a higher sequential priority.

 

Several of the mortgage loans have cut-off date balances that are substantially higher than the average cut-off date balance. In general, concentrations in mortgage loans with larger-than-average balances can result in losses that are more severe, relative to the size of the mortgage loan pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the mortgage loan pool were more evenly distributed.

 

A concentration of mortgage loans secured by the same mortgaged property types can increase the risk that a decline in a particular industry or business would have a disproportionately large impact on the pool of mortgage loans. Mortgaged property types representing more than 5.0% of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (based on allocated loan amount) are: retail, office, multifamily, mixed use, industrial and self storage. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Property Types” for information on the types of mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool.

 

Repayments by borrowers and the market value of the related mortgaged properties could be affected by economic conditions generally or specific to particular geographic areas or regions of the United States, and concentrations of mortgaged properties in particular geographic areas may increase the risk that conditions in the real estate market where the mortgaged property is located, or other adverse economic or other developments or natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, floods, forest fires, tornadoes or hurricanes or changes in governmental rules or fiscal policies) affecting a particular region of the country, could increase the frequency and severity of losses on mortgage loans secured by those mortgaged properties. As a result, areas affected by such events may experience

 

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disruptions in travel, transportation and tourism, loss of jobs, an overall decrease in consumer activity, or a decline in real estate-related investments. We cannot assure you that the economies in such impacted areas will recover sufficiently to support income producing real estate at pre-event levels or that the costs of the related clean-up will not have a material adverse effect on the local or national economy. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations” in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that any hurricane damage would be covered by insurance.

 

Mortgaged properties securing 5.0% or more of the aggregate principal balance of the pool of mortgage loans as of the cut-off date (based on allocated loan amount) are located in California, Illinois, New York, Texas, Arizona and Pennsylvania. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations”.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties are located in areas that, based on low population density, poor economic demographics (such as higher than average unemployment rates, lower than average annual household income and/or overall loss of jobs) and/or negative trends in such regards, would be considered secondary or tertiary markets.

 

A concentration of mortgage loans with the same borrower or related borrowers also can pose increased risks, such as:

 

 

if a borrower that owns or controls several mortgaged properties (whether or not all of them secure mortgage loans in the mortgage pool) experiences financial difficulty at one such property, it could defer maintenance at a mortgaged property or debt service payments on the related mortgage loan in order to satisfy current expenses with respect to the first property or, alternatively, it could direct leasing activity in ways that are adverse to the mortgaged property;

 

 

 

 

a borrower could also attempt to avert foreclosure by filing a bankruptcy petition that might have the effect of interrupting debt service payments on the mortgage loans in the mortgage pool secured by that borrower’s mortgaged properties (subject to the applicable master servicer’s and the trustee’s obligation to make advances for monthly payments) for an indefinite period; and

 

 

mortgaged properties owned by the same borrower or related borrowers are likely to have common management, common general partners and/or common managing members, thereby increasing the risk that financial or other difficulties experienced by such related parties could have a greater impact on the pool of mortgage loans. See “—A Bankruptcy Proceeding May Result in Losses and Delays in Realizing on the Mortgage Loans” below.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics” for information on the composition of the mortgage pool by property type and geographic distribution and loan concentration.

 

Adverse Environmental Conditions at or Near Mortgaged Properties May Result in Losses

 

The issuing entity could become liable for a material adverse environmental condition at an underlying mortgaged property. Any such potential liability could reduce or delay payments on the offered certificates.

 

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Each of the mortgaged properties was either (i) subject to environmental site assessments prior to the time of origination of the related mortgage loan (or, in certain limited cases, after origination) including Phase I environmental site assessments or updates of previously performed Phase I environmental site assessments, or (ii) subject to a secured creditor environmental insurance policy or other environmental insurance policy. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations”.

 

We cannot assure you that the environmental assessments revealed all existing or potential environmental risks or that all adverse environmental conditions have been or will be completely abated or remediated or that any reserves, insurance or operations and maintenance plans will be sufficient to remediate the environmental conditions. Moreover, we cannot assure you that:

 

 

future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability; or

 

 

the current environmental condition of the mortgaged properties will not be adversely affected by tenants or by the condition of land or operations in the vicinity of the mortgaged properties (such as underground storage tanks).

 

We cannot assure you that with respect to any mortgaged property any remediation plan or any projected remedial costs or time is accurate or sufficient to complete the remediation objectives, or that no additional contamination requiring environmental investigation or remediation will be discovered on any mortgaged property. Likewise, all environmental policies naming the lender as named insured cover certain risks or events specifically identified in the policy, but the coverage is limited by its terms, conditions, limitations and exclusions, and does not purport to cover all environmental conditions whatsoever affecting the applicable mortgaged property, and we cannot assure you that any environmental conditions currently known, suspected, or unknown and discovered in the future will be covered by the terms of the policy.

 

Before the trustee or the applicable special servicer, as applicable, acquires title to a mortgaged property on behalf of the issuing entity or assumes operation of the property, it will be required to obtain an environmental assessment of such mortgaged property, or rely on a recent environmental assessment. This requirement is intended to mitigate the risk that the issuing entity will become liable under any environmental law. There is accordingly some risk that the mortgaged property will decline in value while this assessment is being obtained or remedial action is being taken. Moreover, we cannot assure you that this requirement will effectively insulate the issuing entity from potential liability under environmental laws. Any such potential liability could reduce or delay distributions to certificateholders.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Environmental Considerations” for additional information on environmental conditions at mortgaged properties securing certain mortgage loans in the issuing entity. See also representation and warranty no. 43 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

See “Transaction PartiesThe Sponsors and Mortgage Loan SellersBank of America, National Association—Bank of America’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting Standards”; “—Morgan Stanley Mortgage Capital Holdings LLC—The Morgan Stanley Group’s Underwriting Standards”; “—Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank’s

 

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Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting”; and “—National Cooperative Bank, N.A.—National Cooperative Bank, N.A.’s Underwriting Standards and Processes”.

 

See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Environmental Considerations”.

 

Risks Related to Redevelopment, Expansion and Renovation at Mortgaged Properties

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are currently undergoing or, in the future, are expected to undergo redevelopment, expansion or renovation. In addition, the related borrower may be permitted under the related mortgage loan documents, at its option and cost but subject to certain conditions, to undergo future construction, renovation or alterations of the mortgaged property. To the extent applicable, we cannot assure you that any escrow or reserve collected, if any, will be sufficient to complete the current renovation or be otherwise sufficient to satisfy any tenant improvement expenses at a mortgaged property. Failure to complete those planned improvements may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow at the mortgaged property and the related borrower’s ability to meet its payment obligations under the mortgage loan documents.

 

Certain of the hospitality properties securing the mortgage loans are currently undergoing or are scheduled to undergo renovations or property improvement plans. In some circumstances, these renovations or property improvement plans may necessitate taking a portion of the available guest rooms temporarily offline, temporarily decreasing the number of available rooms and the revenue generating capacity of the related hospitality property. In other cases, these renovations may involve renovations of common spaces or external features of the related hospitality property, which may cause disruptions or otherwise decrease the attractiveness of the related hospitality property to potential guests. These property improvement plans may be required under the related franchise or management agreement and a failure to timely complete them may result in a termination or expiration of a franchise or management agreement and may be an event of default under the related mortgage loan.

 

Certain of the properties securing the mortgage loans may currently be undergoing or are scheduled to undergo renovations or property expansions. Such renovations or expansions may be required under tenant leases and a failure to timely complete such renovations or expansions may result in a termination of such lease and may have a material adverse effect on the cash flow at the mortgaged property and the related borrower’s ability to meet its payment obligations under the mortgage loan documents.

 

We cannot assure you that current or planned redevelopment, expansion or renovation will be completed at all, that such redevelopment, expansion or renovation will be completed in the time frame contemplated, or that, when and if such redevelopment, expansion or renovation is completed, such redevelopment, expansion or renovation will improve the operations at, or increase the value of, the related mortgaged property. Failure of any of the foregoing to occur could have a material negative impact on the related mortgaged property, which could affect the ability of the related borrower to repay the related mortgage loan.

 

In the event the related borrower fails to pay the costs for work completed or material delivered in connection with such ongoing redevelopment, expansion or renovation, the portion of the mortgaged property on which there are renovations may be subject to mechanic’s or materialmen’s liens that may be senior to the lien of the related mortgage loan.

 

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The existence of construction or renovation at a mortgaged property may take rental units or rooms or leasable space “off-line” or otherwise make space unavailable for rental, impair access or traffic at or near the mortgaged property, or, in general, make that mortgaged property less attractive to tenants or their customers, and accordingly could have a negative effect on net operating income. In addition, any such construction or renovation at a mortgaged property may temporarily interfere with the use and operation of any portion of such mortgaged property. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Redevelopment, Renovation and Expansion” for information regarding mortgaged properties which are currently undergoing or, in the future, are expected to undergo redevelopment, expansion or renovation. See also Annex A-3 for additional information on redevelopment, renovation and expansion at the mortgaged properties securing the 15 largest mortgage loans or groups of cross-collateralized mortgage loans.

 

Some Mortgaged Properties May Not Be Readily Convertible to Alternative Uses

 

Certain mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans may have specialty use tenants and may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable for any reason.

 

For example, retail, office or mixed use properties may have theater tenants. Properties with theater tenants are exposed to certain unique risks. Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of a theater. In addition, decreasing attendance at a theater could adversely affect revenue of such theater, which may, in turn, cause the tenant to experience financial difficulties, resulting in downgrades in their credit ratings and, in certain cases, bankruptcy filings. In addition, because of unique construction requirements of theaters, any vacant theater space would not easily be converted to other uses.

 

Retail, office or mixed use properties may also have health clubs as tenants. Several factors may adversely affect the value and successful operation of a health club, including:

 

 

the physical attributes of the health club (e.g., its age, appearance and layout);

 

 

the reputation, safety, convenience and attractiveness of the property to users;

 

 

management’s ability to control membership growth and attrition;

 

 

competition in the tenant’s marketplace from other health clubs and alternatives to health clubs; and

 

 

adverse changes in economic and social conditions and demographic changes (e.g., population decreases or changes in average age or income), which may result in decreased demand.

 

In addition, there may be significant costs associated with changing consumer preferences (e.g., multipurpose clubs from single-purpose clubs or varieties of equipment, classes, services and amenities). In addition, health clubs may not be readily convertible to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable for any reason. The liquidation value of any such health club consequently may be less than would be the case if the property were readily adaptable to changing consumer preferences for other uses.

 

Certain retail, office or mixed use properties may be partially comprised of a parking garage, or certain properties may be entirely comprised of a parking garage. Parking garages and parking lots present risks not associated with other properties. The primary source of income for parking lots and garages is the rental fees charged for parking spaces.

 

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Factors affecting the success of a parking lot or garage include:

 

 

the number of rentable parking spaces and rates charged;

 

 

the location of the lot or garage and, in particular, its proximity to places where large numbers of people work, shop or live;

 

 

the amount of alternative parking spaces in the area;

 

 

the availability of mass transit; and

 

 

the perceptions of the safety, convenience and services of the lot or garage.

 

In instances where a parking garage does not have a long-term leasing arrangement with a parking lessee, but rather relies on individual short-term (i.e., daily or weekly) parking tenants for parking revenues, variations in any or all of the foregoing factors can result in increased volatility in the net operating income for such parking garage.

 

Aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of a parking garage facility. Site characteristics that are valuable to a parking garage facility include location, clear ceiling heights, column spacing, zoning restrictions, number of spaces and overall functionality and accessibility.

 

In addition, because of the unique construction requirements of many parking garages and because a parking lot is often vacant paved land without any structure, a vacant parking garage facility or parking lot may not be easily converted to other uses.

 

Mortgaged properties may have other specialty use tenants, such as retail bank branches, medical and dental offices, lab space, gas stations, data centers, urgent care facilities, daycare centers and/or restaurants, as part of the mortgaged property.

 

In the case of specialty use tenants such as restaurants and theaters, aspects of building site design and adaptability affect the value of such properties and other retailers at the mortgaged property. Decreasing patronage at such properties could adversely affect revenue of the property, which may, in turn, cause the tenants to experience financial difficulties, resulting in downgrades in their credit ratings, lease defaults and, in certain cases, bankruptcy filings. See “—Performance of the Mortgage Loans Will Be Highly Dependent on the Performance of Tenants and Tenant Leases—Tenant Bankruptcy Could Result in a Rejection of the Related Lease” above. Additionally, receipts at such properties are also affected not only by objective factors but by subjective factors. For instance, restaurant receipts are affected by such varied influences as the current personal income levels in the community, an individual consumer’s preference for type of food, style of dining and restaurant atmosphere, the perceived popularity of the restaurant, food safety concerns related to personal health with the handling of food items at the restaurant or by food suppliers and the actions and/or behaviors of staff and management and level of service to the customers. In addition, because of unique construction requirements of such properties, any vacant space would not easily be converted to other uses.

 

Retail bank branches are specialty use tenants that are often outfitted with vaults, teller counters and other customary installations and equipment that may have required significant capital expenditures to install. The ability to lease these types of properties may be difficult due to the added cost and time to retrofit the property to allow for other uses.

 

Mortgaged properties with specialty use tenants may not be readily convertible (or convertible at all) to alternative uses if those properties were to become unprofitable, or the

 

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leased spaces were to become vacant, for any reason due to their unique construction requirements. In addition, converting commercial properties to alternate uses generally requires substantial capital expenditures and could result in a significant adverse effect on, or interruption of, the revenues generated by such properties.

 

In addition, a mortgaged property may not be readily convertible due to restrictive covenants related to such mortgaged property, including in the case of mortgaged properties that are subject to a condominium regime or subject to a ground lease, the use and other restrictions imposed by the condominium declaration and other related documents, especially in a situation where a mortgaged property does not represent the entire condominium regime. See “—Condominium Ownership May Limit Use and Improvements” above.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties may be part of tax-reduction programs that apply only if the mortgaged properties are used for certain purposes. Such properties may be restricted from being converted to alternative uses because of such restrictions.

 

Some of the mortgaged properties have government tenants or other tenants which may have space that was “built to suit” that particular tenant’s uses and needs. For example, a government tenant may require enhanced security features that required additional construction or renovation costs and for which the related tenant may pay above market rent. However, such enhanced features may not be necessary for a new tenant (and such new tenant may not be willing to pay the higher rent associated with such features). While a government office building or government leased space may be usable as a regular office building or tenant space, the rents that may be collected in the event the government tenant does not renew its lease may be significantly lower than the rent currently collected.

 

Additionally, zoning, historical preservation or other restrictions also may prevent alternative uses. See “—Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions” below.

 

Risks Related to Zoning Non-Compliance and Use Restrictions

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties may not comply with current zoning laws, including use, density, parking, height, landscaping, open space and set back requirements, due to changes in zoning requirements after such mortgaged properties were constructed. These properties, as well as those for which variances or special permits were issued or for which non-conformity with current zoning laws is otherwise permitted, are considered to be a “legal non-conforming use” and/or the improvements are considered to be “legal non-conforming structures”. This means that the borrower is not required to alter its structure to comply with the existing or new law; however, the borrower may not be able to rebuild the premises “as-is” in the event of a substantial casualty loss. This may adversely affect the cash flow of the property following the loss. If a substantial casualty were to occur, we cannot assure you that insurance proceeds would be available to pay the mortgage loan in full. In addition, if a non-conforming use were to be discontinued and/or the property were repaired or restored in conformity with the current law, the value of the property or the revenue-producing potential of the property may not be equal to that before the casualty.

 

In some cases, the related borrower has obtained law and ordinance insurance to cover additional costs that result from rebuilding the mortgaged property in accordance with current zoning requirements, including, within the policy’s limitations, demolition costs, increased costs of construction due to code compliance and loss of value to undamaged improvements resulting from the application of zoning laws. However, if as a result of the

 

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applicable zoning laws the rebuilt improvements are smaller or less attractive to tenants than the original improvements, you should not assume that the resulting loss in income will be covered by law and ordinance insurance. Zoning protection insurance, if obtained, will generally reimburse the lender for the difference between (i) the mortgage loan balance on the date of damage loss to the mortgaged property from an insured peril and (ii) the total insurance proceeds at the time of the damage to the mortgaged property if such mortgaged property cannot be rebuilt to its former use due to new zoning ordinances.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties that do not conform to current zoning laws may not be “legal non-conforming uses” or “legal non-conforming structures”, thus constituting a zoning violation. The failure of a mortgaged property to comply with zoning laws or to be a “legal non-conforming use” or “legal non-conforming structure” may adversely affect the market value of the mortgaged property or the borrower’s ability to continue to use it in the manner it is currently being used or may necessitate material additional expenditures to remedy non-conformities. See representation and warranty no. 26 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

The limited availability of zoning information and/or extent of zoning diligence may also present risks. Zoning information contained in appraisals may be based on limited investigation, and zoning comfort letters obtained from jurisdictions, while based on available records, do not customarily involve any contemporaneous site inspection. For loans secured by residential cooperative properties, for example, the zoning diligence is typically limited to appraisals, available zoning comfort letters from the jurisdiction, certificates of occupancy and/or review of the municipal reports accompanying the title insurance commitment, and third party-prepared zoning reports are not customarily obtained. The extent of zoning diligence will also be determined based on perceived risk and the cost and benefit of obtaining additional information. Even if law and ordinance insurance is required to mitigate rebuilding-related risks, we cannot assure you that other risks related to material zoning violations will have been identified under such circumstances, and that appropriate borrower covenants or other structural mitigants will have been required as a result.

 

In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties may be subject to certain use restrictions and/or operational requirements imposed pursuant to development agreements, regulatory agreements, ground leases, restrictive covenants, environmental restrictions, reciprocal easement agreements or operating agreements or historical landmark designations. Such use restrictions could include, for example, limitations on the character of the improvements or the properties, limitations affecting noise and parking requirements, among other things, and limitations on the borrowers’ right to operate certain types of facilities within a prescribed radius. These limitations impose upon the borrower stricter requirements with respect to repairs and alterations, including following a casualty loss. These limitations could adversely affect the ability of the related borrower to lease the mortgaged property on favorable terms, thus adversely affecting the borrower’s ability to fulfill its obligations under the related mortgage loan. In addition, any alteration, reconstruction, demolition, or new construction affecting a mortgaged property designated a historical landmark may require prior approval. Any such approval process, even if successful, could delay any redevelopment or alteration of a related property. The liquidation value of such property, to the extent subject to limitations of the kind described above or other limitations on convertibility of use, may be substantially less than would be the case if such property was readily adaptable to other uses or redevelopment. Further, such agreements may give the related owners’ association the right to impose assessments which, if unpaid, would constitute a lien prior to that of the Mortgage Loan. See “Description

 

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of the Mortgage Pool—Use Restrictions” for examples of mortgaged properties that are subject to restrictions relating to the use of the mortgaged properties.

 

Risks Relating to Inspections of Properties

 

Licensed engineers or consultants inspected the mortgaged properties at or about the time of the origination of the mortgage loans to assess items such as structural integrity of the buildings and other improvements on the mortgaged property, including exterior walls, roofing, interior construction, mechanical and electrical systems and general condition of the site, buildings and other improvements. However, we cannot assure you that all conditions requiring repair or replacement were identified. No additional property inspections were conducted in connection with the issuance of the offered certificates.

 

Risks Relating to Costs of Compliance with Applicable Laws and Regulations

 

A borrower may be required to incur costs to comply with various existing and future federal, state or local laws and regulations applicable to the related mortgaged property, for example, zoning laws and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, which requires all public accommodations to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by persons with disabilities. See “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Americans with Disabilities Act”. The expenditure of these costs or the imposition of injunctive relief, penalties or fines in connection with the borrower’s noncompliance could negatively impact the borrower’s cash flow and, consequently, its ability to pay its mortgage loan.

 

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards Set By New York City’s Local Law 97 May Adversely Affect Future Net Operating Income at Mortgaged Real Properties Located in New York City

 

With respect to any of the underlying mortgage loans secured by mortgaged real properties located in New York City, the related borrowers may face fines or retrofitting costs related to compliance with New York City Local Law 97 of 2019 (“Local Law 97”). Local Law 97 generally requires, with some exceptions, that (i) buildings that exceed 25,000 gross square feet, (ii) two or more buildings on the same tax lot that together exceed 50,000 square feet and (iii) two or more buildings owned by a condominium association that are governed by the same board of managers and that together exceed 50,000 square feet meet new energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions limits by 2024, with stricter limits coming into effect in 2030. Noncompliant building owners may face fines starting in 2025, unless they are able to bring their building into timely compliance by retrofitting their buildings. We cannot assure you that fines or retrofitting costs as a result of Local Law 97 will not adversely affect the future net operating income at of any mortgaged real properties located in New York City.

 

Insurance May Not Be Available or Adequate

 

Although the mortgaged properties are required to be insured, or self-insured by a sole tenant of a related building or group of buildings, against certain risks, there is a possibility of casualty loss with respect to the mortgaged properties for which insurance proceeds may not be adequate or which may result from risks not covered by insurance.

 

In addition, certain types of mortgaged properties, such as manufactured housing and recreational vehicle communities, have few or no insurable buildings or improvements and thus do not have casualty insurance or low limits of casualty insurance in comparison with the related mortgage loan balances.

 

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In addition, hazard insurance policies will typically contain co-insurance clauses that in effect require an insured at all times to carry insurance of a specified percentage, generally 80% to 90%, of the full replacement value of the improvements on the related mortgaged property in order to recover the full amount of any partial loss. As a result, even if insurance coverage is maintained, if the insured’s coverage falls below this specified percentage, those clauses generally provide that the insurer’s liability in the event of partial loss does not exceed the lesser of (1) the replacement cost of the improvements less physical depreciation and (2) that proportion of the loss as the amount of insurance carried bears to the specified percentage of the full replacement cost of those improvements.

 

Certain improvements and building systems on the Mortgaged Properties securing the Netherland Gardens Corp. f/k/a Netherland Tenants Corp. Mortgage Loan (1.3%) and the White Oak Cooperative Housing Corp. Mortgage Loan (0.2%) suffered material damage as a result of Hurricane Ida. The residential occupancy of such Mortgaged Properties has, in general, continued without material disruption although the damage has impacted, without limitation, boiler equipment, sewer systems and cellar-level improvements (including laundry facilities, gym facilities and parking areas). As of the Cut-off date, the related borrowers have not received estimates for the repair and remediation costs associated with the damage, nor have the related borrowers provided a definitive assessment of insurance coverage which may be available for potential repair and remediation costs. Consequently, we cannot assure you that such damage will not affect materially and adversely the use or value of such Mortgaged Properties as security for their respective Mortgage Loans.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties may be located in areas that are considered a high earthquake risk (seismic zones 3 or 4). See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Mortgage Pool Characteristics—Geographic Concentrations”.

 

Furthermore, with respect to certain mortgage loans, the insurable value of the related mortgaged property as of the origination date of the related mortgage loan was lower than the principal balance of the related mortgage loan. In the event of a casualty when a borrower is not required to rebuild or cannot rebuild, we cannot assure you that the insurance required with respect to the related mortgaged property will be sufficient to pay the related mortgage loan in full and there is no “gap” insurance required under such mortgage loan to cover any difference. In those circumstances, a casualty that occurs near the maturity date may result in an extension of the maturity date of the mortgage loan if the applicable special servicer, in accordance with the servicing standard, determines that such extension was in the best interest of certificateholders.

 

The mortgage loans do not all require flood insurance on the related mortgaged properties unless they are in a flood zone and flood insurance is available and, in certain instances, even where the related mortgaged property was in a flood zone and flood insurance was available, flood insurance was not required.

 

The National Flood Insurance Program (the “NFIP”) is scheduled to expire on December 3, 2021. We cannot assure you if or when the program will be reauthorized. Expiration of the NFIP could have an adverse effect on the value of properties in flood zones or their ability to be repaired or rebuilt after flood damage.

 

We cannot assure you that the borrowers will in the future be able to comply with requirements to maintain adequate insurance with respect to the mortgaged properties, and any uninsured loss could have a material adverse impact on the amount available to make payments on the related mortgage loan, and consequently, the offered certificates. As with all real estate, if reconstruction (for example, following fire or other casualty) or any major repair or improvement is required to the damaged property, changes in laws and

 

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governmental regulations may be applicable and may materially affect the cost to, or ability of, the borrowers to effect such reconstruction, major repair or improvement. As a result, the amount realized with respect to the mortgaged properties, and the amount available to make payments on the related mortgage loan, and consequently, the offered certificates, could be reduced. In addition, we cannot assure you that the amount of insurance required or provided would be sufficient to cover damages caused by any casualty, or that such insurance will be available in the future at commercially reasonable rates. See representation and warranty no. 18 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

Inadequacy of Title Insurers May Adversely Affect Distributions on Your Certificates

 

Title insurance for a mortgaged property generally insures a lender against risks relating to a lender not having a first lien with respect to a mortgaged property, and in some cases can insure a lender against specific other risks. The protection afforded by title insurance depends on the ability of the title insurer to pay claims made upon it. We cannot assure you that with respect to any mortgage loan:

 

 

a title insurer will have the ability to pay title insurance claims made upon it;

 

 

the title insurer will maintain its present financial strength; or

 

 

a title insurer will not contest claims made upon it.

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are either completing initial construction or undergoing renovation or redevelopment. Under such circumstances, there may be limitations to the amount of coverage or other exceptions to coverage that could adversely affect the issuing entity if losses are suffered.

 

Terrorism Insurance May Not Be Available for All Mortgaged Properties

 

The occurrence or the possibility of terrorist attacks could (1) lead to damage to one or more of the mortgaged properties if any terrorist attacks occur or (2) result in higher costs for security and insurance premiums or diminish the availability of insurance coverage for losses related to terrorist attacks, particularly for large properties, which could adversely affect the cash flow at those mortgaged properties.

 

After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City and the Washington, D.C. area, all forms of insurance were impacted, particularly from a cost and availability perspective, including comprehensive general liability and business interruption or rent loss insurance policies required by typical mortgage loans. To give time for private markets to develop a pricing mechanism for terrorism risk and to build capacity to absorb future losses that may occur due to terrorism, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 was enacted on November 26, 2002 (as amended, “TRIPRA”), establishing the Terrorism Insurance Program. The Terrorism Insurance Program has since been extended and reauthorized a few times. Most recently, it was reauthorized on December 20, 2019 for a period of seven years through December 31, 2027 pursuant to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2019.

 

The Terrorism Insurance Program requires insurance carriers to provide terrorism coverage in their basic “all-risk” policies. Any commercial property and casualty terrorism insurance exclusion that was in force on November 26, 2002 is automatically void to the

 

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extent that it excluded losses that would otherwise be insured losses. Any state approval of those types of exclusions in force on November 26, 2002 is also void.

 

Under the Terrorism Insurance Program, the federal government shares in the risk of losses occurring within the United States resulting from acts committed in an effort to influence or coerce United States civilians or the United States government. The federal share of compensation for insured losses of an insurer equals 80% of the portion of such insured losses that exceed a deductible equal to 20% of the value of the insurer’s direct earned premiums over the immediately preceding calendar year. Federal compensation in any program year is capped at $100 billion (with insurers being liable for any amount that exceeds such cap), and no compensation is payable with respect to a terrorist act unless the aggregate industry losses relating to such act exceed $200 million. The Terrorism Insurance Program does not cover nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological attacks. Unless a borrower obtains separate coverage for events that do not meet the thresholds or other requirements above, such events will not be covered.

 

If the Terrorism Insurance Program is not reenacted after its expiration in 2027, premiums for terrorism insurance coverage will likely increase and the terms of such insurance policies may be materially amended to increase stated exclusions or to otherwise effectively decrease the scope of coverage available (perhaps to the point where it is effectively not available). In addition, to the extent that any insurance policies contain “sunset clauses” (i.e., clauses that void terrorism coverage if the federal insurance backstop program is not renewed), such policies may cease to provide terrorism insurance upon the expiration of the Terrorism Insurance Program. We cannot assure you that the Terrorism Insurance Program or any successor program will create any long term changes in the availability and cost of such insurance. Moreover, future legislation, including regulations expected to be adopted by the Treasury Department pursuant to TRIPRA, may have a material effect on the availability of federal assistance in the terrorism insurance market. To the extent that uninsured or underinsured casualty losses occur with respect to the related mortgaged properties, losses on the mortgage loans may result. In addition, the failure to maintain such terrorism insurance may constitute a default under the related mortgage loan.

 

Some of the mortgage loans do not require the related borrower to maintain terrorism insurance. In addition, most of the mortgage loans contain limitations on the related borrower’s obligation to obtain terrorism insurance, such as (i) waiving the requirement that such borrower maintain terrorism insurance if such insurance is not available at commercially reasonable rates, (ii) providing that the related borrower is not required to spend in excess of a specified dollar amount (or in some cases, a specified multiple of what is spent on other insurance) in order to obtain such terrorism insurance, (iii) requiring coverage only for as long as the TRIPRA is in effect, or (iv) requiring coverage only for losses arising from domestic acts of terrorism or from terrorist acts certified by the federal government as “acts of terrorism” under the TRIPRA. See Annex A-3 for a summary of the terrorism insurance requirements under each of the 10 largest mortgage loans or groups of cross-collateralized mortgage loans. See representation and warranty no. 31 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

We cannot assure you that all of the mortgaged properties will be insured against the risks of terrorism and similar acts. As a result of any of the foregoing, the amount available to make distributions on your certificates could be reduced.

 

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Other mortgaged properties securing mortgage loans may also be insured under a blanket policy or self-insured or insured by a sole tenant. See “—Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance” below.

 

Risks Associated with Blanket Insurance Policies or Self-Insurance

 

Certain of the mortgaged properties are covered by blanket insurance policies, which also cover other properties of the related borrower or its affiliates (including certain properties in close proximity to the mortgaged properties). In the event that such policies are drawn on to cover losses on such other properties, the amount of insurance coverage available under such policies would thereby be reduced and could be insufficient to cover each mortgaged property’s insurable risks.

 

Certain mortgaged properties may also be insured or self-insured by a sole or significant tenant, as further described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Tenant Issues—Insurance Considerations”. We cannot assure you that any insurance obtained by a sole or significant tenant will be adequate or that such sole or significant tenant will comply with any requirements to maintain adequate insurance. Additionally, to the extent that insurance coverage relies on self-insurance, there is a risk that the “insurer” will not be willing or have the financial ability to satisfy a claim if a loss occurs. See also representation and warranty no. 18 on Annex D-1 and the exceptions thereto on Annex D-2 (subject to the limitations and qualifications set forth in the preamble to Annex D-1).

 

Additionally, the risks related to blanket or self-insurance may be aggravated if the mortgage loans that allow such coverage are part of a group of mortgage loans with related borrowers, some or all of which are covered under the same self-insurance or blanket insurance policy, and which may also cover other properties owned by affiliates of such borrowers.

 

Condemnation of a Mortgaged Property May Adversely Affect Distributions on Certificates

 

From time to time, there may be condemnations pending or threatened against one or more of the mortgaged properties securing the mortgage loans. The proceeds payable in connection with a total condemnation may not be sufficient to restore the related mortgaged property or to satisfy the remaining indebtedness of the related mortgage loan. The occurrence of a partial condemnation may have a material adverse effect on the continued use of, or income generated by, the affected mortgaged property. The application of condemnation proceeds may be subject to the leases of certain major tenants and, in some cases, the tenant may be entitled to a portion of the condemnation proceeds. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the occurrence of any condemnation will not have a negative impact upon distributions on your offered certificates.

 

Limited Information Causes Uncertainty

 

Historical Information

 

Some of the mortgage loans that we intend to include in the issuing entity are secured in whole or in part by mortgaged properties for which limited or no historical operating information is available. As a result, you may find it difficult to analyze the historical performance of those mortgaged properties.

 

A mortgaged property may lack prior operating history or historical financial information because it is newly constructed or renovated, it is a recent acquisition by the related

 

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borrower or it is a single-tenant property that is subject to a triple-net lease. In addition, a tenant’s lease may contain confidentiality provisions that restrict the sponsors’ access to or disclosure of such tenant’s financial information. The underwritten net cash flows and underwritten net operating income for such mortgaged properties are derived principally from current rent rolls or tenant leases and historical expenses, adjusted to account for inflation, significant occupancy increases and a market rate management fee. In some cases, underwritten net cash flows and underwritten net operating income for mortgaged properties are based all or in part on leases (or letters of intent) that are not yet in place (and may still be under negotiation) or on tenants that may have signed a lease (or letter of intent), or lease amendment expanding the leased space, but are not yet in occupancy and/or paying rent, which present certain risks described in “—Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions” below.

 

See Annex A-1 for certain historical financial information relating to the mortgaged properties, including net operating income for the most recent reporting period and prior 3 calendar years, to the extent available.

 

Ongoing Information

 

The primary source of ongoing information regarding the offered certificates, including information regarding the status of the related mortgage loans and any credit support for the offered certificates, will be the periodic reports delivered to you. See “Description of the Certificates—Reports to Certificateholders; Certain Available Information”. We cannot assure you that any additional ongoing information regarding the offered certificates will be available through any other source. The limited nature of the available information in respect of the offered certificates may adversely affect their liquidity, even if a secondary market for the offered certificates does develop.

 

We are not aware of any source through which pricing information regarding the offered certificates will be generally available on an ongoing basis or on any particular date.

 

Underwritten Net Cash Flow Could Be Based On Incorrect or Flawed Assumptions

 

As described under “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”, underwritten net cash flow generally includes cash flow (including any cash flow from master leases) adjusted based on a number of assumptions used by the sponsors. We make no representation that the underwritten net cash flow set forth in this prospectus as of the cut-off date or any other date represents actual future net cash flows. For example, with respect to certain mortgage loans included in the issuing entity, the occupancy of the related mortgaged property reflects tenants that (i) may not have yet actually executed leases (but have in some instances signed letters of intent), (ii) have signed leases but have not yet taken occupancy and/or are not paying full contractual rent, (iii) are seeking or may in the future seek to sublet all or a portion of their respective spaces, (iv) are “dark” tenants but paying rent, or (v) are affiliates of the related borrower and are leasing space pursuant to a master lease or a space lease. Similarly, with respect to certain mortgage loans included in the issuing entity, the underwritten net cash flow may be based on certain tenants that have not yet executed leases or that have signed leases but are not yet in place and/or are not yet paying rent, or have a signed lease or lease amendment expanding the leased space, but are not yet in occupancy of all or a portion of their space and/or paying rent, or may assume that future contractual rent steps (during some or all of the remaining term of a lease) have occurred. In many cases, co-tenancy provisions were assumed to be satisfied and vacant space was assumed to be occupied and space that was due to expire was assumed to have been re-let, in each case at market rates that may have exceeded current rent. In addition, the “underwritten net cash flow” for a

 

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residential cooperative property is the projected net cash flow reflected in an appraisal of such residential cooperative property and, in general, equals projected operating income at the property assuming such property is operated as a rental property with rents and other income set at prevailing market rates (but taking into account the presence of existing rent regulated, rent stabilized or rent controlled rental tenants), reduced by underwritten property operating expenses, a market-rate vacancy assumption and, if applicable, collection loss assumption and projected replacement reserves, in each case as determined by the appraiser. As a result, the projected rental income used to determine underwritten net cash flow for a residential cooperative property may differ materially from the scheduled monthly maintenance payments from the tenant-stockholders upon which residential cooperatives depend. You should review these and other similar assumptions and make your own determination of the appropriate assumptions to be used in determining underwritten net cash flow.

 

In addition, underwritten or adjusted cash flows, by their nature, are speculative and are based upon certain assumptions and projections. For example, as described under “—Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors—The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”, the assumptions and projections used to prepare underwritten cash flows for the mortgage pool do not reflect any potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The failure of these assumptions or projections in whole or in part could cause the underwritten net operating income (calculated as described in “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions”) to vary substantially from the actual net operating income of a mortgaged property.

 

In the event of the inaccuracy of any assumptions or projections used in connection with the calculation of underwritten net cash flow, the actual net cash flow could be significantly different (and, in some cases, may be materially less) than the underwritten net cash flow presented in this prospectus, and this would change other numerical information presented in this prospectus based on or derived from the underwritten net cash flow, such as the debt service coverage ratios or debt yield presented in this prospectus. We cannot assure you that any such assumptions or projections made with respect to any mortgaged property will, in fact, be consistent with that mortgaged property’s actual performance.

 

Frequent and Early Occurrence of Borrower Delinquencies and Defaults May Adversely Affect Your Investment

 

If you calculate the anticipated yield of your offered certificates based on a rate of default or amount of losses lower than that actually experienced on the mortgage loans and those additional losses result in a reduction of the total distributions on, or the certificate balance of, your offered certificates, your actual yield to maturity will be lower than expected and could be negative under certain extreme scenarios. The timing of any loss on a liquidated mortgage loan that results in a reduction of the total distributions on or the certificate balance of your offered certificates will also affect the actual yield to maturity of your offered certificates, even if the rate of defaults and severity of losses are consistent with your expectations. In general, the earlier a loss is borne by you, the greater the effect on your yield to maturity.

 

Delinquencies on the mortgage loans, if the delinquent amounts are not advanced, may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest and/or principal to the holders of the offered certificates for the current month. Furthermore, no interest will accrue on this shortfall during the period of time that the payment is delinquent. Additionally, in instances where the principal portion of any balloon payment scheduled with respect to a mortgage loan is collected by the applicable master servicer following the end of the related collection period,

 

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no portion of the principal received on such payment will be passed through for distribution to the certificateholders until the subsequent distribution date, which may result in shortfalls in distributions of interest to the holders of the offered certificates in the following month. Furthermore, in such instances no provision is made for any master servicer or any other party to cover any such interest shortfalls that may occur as a result. In addition, if interest and/or principal advances and/or servicing advances are made with respect to a mortgage loan after a default and the related mortgage loan is thereafter worked out under terms that do not provide for the repayment of those advances in full at the time of the workout, then any reimbursements of those advances prior to the actual collection of the amount for which the advance was made may also result in shortfalls in distributions of principal to the holders of the offered certificates with certificate balances for the current month. Even if losses on the mortgage loans are not allocated to a particular class of offered certificates with certificate balances, the losses may affect the weighted average life and yield to maturity of that class of offered certificates. In the case of any material monetary or material non-monetary default, the applicable special servicer may accelerate the maturity of the related mortgage loan, which could result in an acceleration of principal distributions to the certificateholders. The applicable special servicer may also extend or modify a mortgage loan, which could result in a substantial delay in principal distributions to the certificateholders. In addition, losses on the mortgage loans, even if not allocated to a class of offered certificates with certificate balances, may result in a higher percentage ownership interest evidenced by those offered certificates in the remaining mortgage loans than would otherwise have resulted absent the loss. The consequent effect on the weighted average life and yield to maturity of the offered certificates will depend upon the characteristics of those remaining mortgage loans in the trust fund.

 

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the aggregate number and size of delinquent loans in a given collection period may be significant, and the applicable master servicer may determine that advances of payments on such mortgage loans are not or would not be recoverable or may not be able to make such advances given the severity of delinquencies (in this transaction or other transactions), which would result in shortfalls and losses on the certificates. See also “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Market Conditions and Other External Factors—The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Adversely Affected the Global Economy and Will Likely Adversely Affect the Performance of the Mortgage Loans”.

 

The Mortgage Loans Have Not Been Reviewed or Re-Underwritten by Us; Some Mortgage Loans May Not Have Complied With Another Originator’s Underwriting Criteria

 

Although the sponsors have conducted a review of the mortgage loans to be sold to us for this securitization transaction, we, as the depositor for this securitization transaction, have neither originated the mortgage loans nor conducted a review or re-underwriting of the mortgage loans. Instead, we have relied on the representations and warranties made by the applicable sponsors and the remedies for breach of a representation and warranty as described under “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements” and the sponsor’s description of its underwriting criteria and the review conducted by each sponsor for this securitization transaction described under “Transaction PartiesThe Sponsors and Mortgage Loan Sellers—Bank of America, National Association—Bank of America’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting Standards”; “—Morgan Stanley Mortgage Capital Holdings LLC—The Morgan Stanley Group’s Underwriting Standards”; “—Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting”; and “—National Cooperative Bank, N.A.—National Cooperative Bank, N.A.’s Underwriting Standards and Processes”.

 

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The representations and warranties made by the sponsors may not cover all of the matters that one would review in underwriting a mortgage loan and you should not view them as a substitute for re-underwriting the mortgage loans. Furthermore, these representations and warranties in some respects represent an allocation of risk rather than a confirmed description of the mortgage loans. If we had re-underwritten the mortgage loans, it is possible that the re-underwriting process may have revealed problems with a mortgage loan not covered by a representation or warranty or may have revealed inaccuracies in the representations and warranties. See “—Other Risks Relating to the Certificates—Sponsors May Not Make Required Repurchases or Substitutions of Defective Mortgage Loans or Pay Any Loss of Value Payment Sufficient to Cover All Losses on a Defective Mortgage Loan” below, and “Description of the Mortgage Loan Purchase Agreements”.

 

In addition, we cannot assure you that all of the mortgage loans would have complied with the underwriting criteria of the other originators or, accordingly, that each originator would have made the same decision to originate every mortgage loan included in the issuing entity or, if they did decide to originate an unrelated mortgage loan, that they would have been underwritten on the same terms and conditions.

 

As a result of the foregoing, you are advised and encouraged to make your own investment decision based on a careful review of the information set forth in this prospectus and your own view of the mortgage pool.

 

Static Pool Data Would Not Be Indicative of the Performance of this Pool

 

As a result of the distinct nature of each pool of commercial mortgage loans, and the separate mortgage loans within the pool, this prospectus does not include disclosure concerning the delinquency and loss experience of static pools of periodic originations by any sponsor of assets of the type to be securitized (known as “static pool data”). In particular, static pool data showing a low level of delinquencies and defaults would not be indicative of the performance of this pool or any other pools of mortgage loans originated by the same sponsor or sponsors.

 

While there may be certain common factors affecting the performance and value of income-producing real properties in general, those factors do not apply equally to all income-producing real properties and, in many cases, there are unique factors that will affect the performance and/or value of a particular income-producing real property. Moreover, the effect of a given factor on a particular real property will depend on a number of variables, including but not limited to property type, geographic location, competition, sponsorship and other characteristics of the property and the related commercial mortgage loan. Each income-producing real property represents a separate and distinct business venture and, as a result, each of the mortgage loans requires a unique underwriting analysis. Furthermore, economic and other conditions affecting real properties, whether worldwide, national, regional or local, vary over time. The performance of a pool of mortgage loans originated and outstanding under a given set of economic conditions may vary significantly from the performance of an otherwise comparable mortgage pool originated and outstanding under a different set of economic conditions.

 

Therefore, you should evaluate this offering on the basis of the information set forth in this prospectus with respect to the mortgage loans, and not on the basis of the performance of other pools of securitized commercial mortgage loans.

 

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Appraisals May Not Reflect Current or Future Market Value of Each Property

 

Appraisals were obtained with respect to each of the mortgaged properties at or about the time of origination of the related mortgage loan (or whole loan, if applicable) or at or around the time of the acquisition of the mortgage loan (or whole loan, if applicable) by the related sponsor. See Annex A-1 for the dates of the latest appraisals for the mortgaged properties. We have not obtained new appraisals of the mortgaged properties or assigned new valuations to the mortgage loans in connection with the offering of the offered certificates. The market values of the mortgaged properties could have declined since the origination of the related mortgage loans. In addition, in certain cases where a mortgage loan is funding the acquisition of the related mortgaged property or portfolio of mortgaged properties, the purchase price may be less than the related appraised value set forth herein.

 

In general, appraisals represent the analysis and opinion of qualified appraisers and are not guarantees of present or future value. One appraiser may reach a different conclusion than that of a different appraiser with respect to the same property. The appraisals seek to establish the amount a typically motivated buyer would pay a typically motivated seller and, in certain cases, may have taken into consideration the purchase price paid by the borrower. The amount could be significantly higher than the amount obtained from the sale of a mortgaged property in a distress or liquidation sale.

 

Information regarding the appraised values of the mortgaged properties (including loan-to-value ratios) presented in this prospectus is not intended to be a representation as to the past, present or future market values of the mortgaged properties. For example, in some cases, a borrower or its affiliate may have acquired the related mortgaged property for a price or otherwise for consideration in an amount that is less than the related appraised value specified on Annex A-1, including at a foreclosure sale or through acceptance of a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure. Historical operating results of the mortgaged properties used in these appraisals, as adjusted by various assumptions, estimates and subjective judgments on the part of the appraiser, may not be comparable to future operating results. In addition, certain appraisals may be based on extraordinary assumptions, including without limitation, that certain tenants are in-place and paying rent when such tenants have not yet taken occupancy or that certain renovations or property improvement plans have been completed. Additionally, certain appraisals with respect to mortgage loans secured by multiple mortgaged properties may have been conducted on a portfolio basis rather than on an individual property basis, and the sum of the values of the individual properties may be different from (and in some cases may be less than) the appraised value of the aggregate of such properties on a portfolio basis. In addition, other factors may impair the mortgaged properties’ value without affecting their current net operating income, including:

 

 

changes in governmental regulations, zoning or tax laws;

 

 

potential environmental or other legal liabilities;

 

 

the availability of refinancing; and

 

 

changes in interest rate levels.

 

In certain cases, appraisals may reflect both the “as-is” value and an “as-stabilized”, “as-complete” or other hypothetical value. However, the appraised value reflected in this prospectus with respect to each mortgaged property reflects only the “as-is” value unless otherwise specified. Any non-“as-is” value may be based on certain assumptions, such as future construction completion, projected re-tenanting or increased tenant occupancies. We

 

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cannot assure you that those assumptions are or will be accurate or that any such non-“as-is” value will be the value of the related mortgaged property at maturity or other specified date. In addition, with respect to certain mortgage loans secured by multiple mortgaged properties, the appraised value may be an “as portfolio” value that assigns a premium to the value of the mortgaged properties as a whole, which value exceeds the sum of their individual appraised values. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Appraised Value”.

 

In addition, investors should be aware that the appraisals for the mortgaged properties were prepared prior to origination and have not been updated. Certain appraisals were prepared prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and do not account for the effects of the pandemic on the related mortgaged properties. In addition, more recent appraisals may not reflect the complete effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the related mortgaged properties as the cumulative impact of the pandemic may not be known for some time. Similarly, net operating income and occupancy information used in underwriting the mortgage loans may not reflect current conditions, and in particular, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, appraised values, net operating income, occupancy, and related metrics, such as loan-to-value ratios, debt service coverage ratios and debt yields, may not accurately reflect the current conditions at the mortgaged properties.

 

Any engineering report, site inspection or appraisal represents only the analysis of the individual consultant, engineer or inspector preparing such report at the time of such report, and may not reveal all necessary or desirable repairs, maintenance and capital improvement items. See “Transaction PartiesThe Sponsors and Mortgage Loan SellersBank of America, National Association—Bank of America’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting Standards”; “—Morgan Stanley Mortgage Capital Holdings LLC—The Morgan Stanley Group’s Underwriting Standards”; “—Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWells Fargo Bank’s Commercial Mortgage Loan Underwriting”; and “—National Cooperative Bank, N.A.—National Cooperative Bank, N.A.’s Underwriting Standards and Processes” for additional information regarding the appraisals. We cannot assure you that the information set forth in this prospectus regarding the appraised values or loan-to-value ratios accurately reflects past, present or future market values of the mortgaged properties or the amount that would be realized upon a sale of the related mortgaged property.

 

In addition, with respect to each mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property (other than the Waldo Gardens, Inc. Mortgage Loan), the “Appraised Value” presented on Annex A-1 is the appraised value of such property assuming such property is operated as a residential cooperative and, in general, equals the sum of (i) the gross share value of all cooperative units in such residential cooperative property, based in part on various comparable sales of cooperative apartment units in the market, plus (ii) the amount of the underlying debt encumbering such residential cooperative property. There is generally a limited market for the sale of sponsor or investor held units that are rent regulated, rent stabilized or rent controlled units, and in certain instances, for the sale of market rate units. Therefore, the appraiser typically applies a discount when deriving a gross share value for such units as and if the appraiser deems appropriate. The amount of such discount will depend on such factors as location, condition, tenancy profile (age of the tenants), and the amount of positive or negative cash flow. In certain instances, in determining the gross share value of market rate sponsor or investor held units occupied by rental tenants, the appraiser has taken into consideration a value for such units determined by capitalizing the anticipated net operating income to be realized from such occupied units. The comparable sales considered in the appraisers’ estimates of gross share values may have occurred at properties where the cooperative entity’s underlying mortgage debt per cooperative unit was substantially more or less than that at the applicable Mortgaged Property. The appraisers generally made no adjustments to comparable sales statistics to

 

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account for any such differences, although monthly unit maintenance obligations may have been considered. With respect to limited equity cooperatives (i.e., housing cooperatives in which eligible members purchase shares at below market prices and are subject to various restrictions, including restrictions on the sale price for which units may be re-sold and/or restrictions upon the income or other characteristics of purchasers of such units), the gross share value is calculated without regard to any applicable sale price restrictions. With respect to residential cooperative properties, the “Appraised Value” does not constitute a market value, and should not be considered to be the value that would be realized following a foreclosure of a mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property. Upon a foreclosure of a mortgage loan secured by a residential cooperative property, it is likely that the operation of such mortgaged property as a residential cooperative property would terminate, and it is likely that the mortgaged property would be operated and sold as a multifamily rental property. The “Coop-Rental Value” of a residential cooperative property presented on Annex A-1 is the appraised value of such property assuming such property is operated as a multifamily rental property and, in general, is derived by applying an appropriate capitalization rate (as determined by the appraiser) to the underwritten net cash flow for such residential cooperative property. Such underwritten net cash flow is the projected net cash flow reflected in such appraisal and, in general, equals projected operating income at the property assuming such property is operated as a multifamily rental property with rents and other income set at prevailing market rates (but taking into account the presence of existing rent regulated, rent stabilized or rent controlled rental tenants), reduced by underwritten property operating expenses, a market-rate vacancy assumption and, if applicable, collection loss assumption and further reduced by projected replacement reserves, in each case as determined by the appraiser. However, the projected rental income used in such determinations may differ materially from the scheduled monthly maintenance payments from the tenant-stockholders upon which residential cooperatives depend. In certain instances, the appraiser may have made adjustments to increase or decrease such capitalized value as deemed appropriate by the appraiser (for example, the appraiser may have reduced such capitalized value to reflect the cost of completing material deferred maintenance or may have increased such capitalized value to reflect the existence of certain tax abatements or incentives). In the case of the Waldo Gardens, Inc. Mortgage Loan, the value reflected as the “Appraised Value” in Annex A-1 is the “Coop-Rental Value” for the related residential cooperative property, and the loan-to-value ratio information for such mortgage loan is determined based on the “Coop-Rental Value” of such residential cooperative property. Except where otherwise specified (including, for example, with respect to the Waldo Gardens, Inc. Mortgage Loan as described in the preceding sentence), all relevant loan-to-value information with respect to mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties is based on the “Appraised Value” of such property as described above, and assumes that such property is operated as a residential cooperative. Certain of the residential cooperative mortgaged properties have a substantial number of units that are owned by the related coop sponsor or an investor, and leased by it to rental tenants, which units are currently subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws and are expected to continue to be subject to such laws following a foreclosure, and accordingly the rental income that can be expected to be earned from such units (and any other units that are or become subject to such laws) will be limited by the provisions of such laws. In addition, to the extent that other units at a residential cooperative mortgaged property were subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws prior to the conversion to a cooperative (which is likely to be the case if sponsor or investor units are subject to such laws), if the related residential cooperative mortgage loan were to be foreclosed, such units would again be subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws. However, the “Coop-Rental Value” Appraised Values of the residential cooperative mortgaged properties assume that if the mortgaged property were operated as a multifamily rental property all units (other than, in some cases, sponsor or investor units

 

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that are subject to rent regulation, rent stabilization or rent control laws) will be rented at market rates. See the footnotes to Annex A-1 and see “—Residential Cooperative Properties Have Special Risks” and “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Calculations and Definitions—Certain Characteristics of Mortgage Loans Secured by Residential Cooperatives”.

 

The Performance of a Mortgage Loan and Its Related Mortgaged Property Depends in Part on Who Controls the Borrower and Mortgaged Property

 

The operation and performance of a mortgage loan will depend in part on the identity of the persons or entities who control the borrower and the mortgaged property. The performance of a mortgage loan may be adversely affected if control of a borrower changes, which may occur, for example, by means of transfers of direct or indirect ownership interests in the borrower, or if the mortgage loan is assigned to and assumed by another person or entity along with a transfer of the property to that person or entity.

 

Many of the mortgage loans generally place certain restrictions on the transfer and/or pledging of general partnership and managing member equity interests in a borrower, such as specific percentage or control limitations, although some have current or permit future mezzanine or subordinate debt. We cannot assure you the ownership of any of the borrowers would not change during the term of the related mortgage loan and result in a material adverse effect on your certificates. See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Additional Indebtedness” and “—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—“Due-On-Sale” and “Due-On-Encumbrance” Provisions”.

 

In addition, the mortgage loans secured by residential cooperative properties that are expected to be sold to the depositor by National Cooperative Bank, N.A. generally do not restrict the transfer or pledge of interests in the related cooperative borrower in connection with the transfer or financing of cooperative apartment units. For these reasons, we cannot assure you that the ownership of any of the borrowers would not change during the term of the related mortgage loan and result in a material adverse effect on your certificates.

 

The Borrower’s Form of Entity May Cause Special Risks

 

The borrowers are legal entities rather than individuals. Mortgage loans made to legal entities may entail greater risks of loss than those associated with mortgage loans made to individuals. For example, a legal entity, as opposed to an individual, may be more inclined to seek legal protection from its creditors under the bankruptcy laws. Unlike individuals involved in bankruptcies, most entities generally, but not in all cases, do not have personal assets and creditworthiness at stake.

 

The terms of certain of the mortgage loans require that the borrowers be single-purpose entities and, in most cases, such borrowers’ organizational documents or the terms of the mortgage loans limit their activities to the ownership of only the related mortgaged property or mortgaged properties and limit the borrowers’ ability to incur additional indebtedness. Such provisions are designed to mitigate the possibility that the borrower’s financial condition would be adversely impacted by factors unrelated to the related mortgaged property and mortgage loan. Such borrower may also have previously owned property other than the related mortgaged property or may be a so-called “recycled” single-purpose entity that previously had other business activities and liabilities. However, we cannot assure you that such borrowers have in the past complied, or in the future will comply, with such requirements. Additionally, in some cases unsecured debt exists and/or is allowed in the future. Furthermore, in many cases such borrowers (including each of the borrowers with respect to the residential cooperative loans expected to be sold to the depositor by

 

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National Cooperative Bank, N.A. included in the trust) are not required to observe all covenants and conditions which typically are required in order for such borrowers to be viewed under standard rating agency criteria as “single-purpose entities”.

 

Although a borrower may currently be a single-purpose entity, in certain cases the borrowers were not originally formed as single-purpose entities, but at origination of the related mortgage loan their organizational documents were amended. Such borrower may have previously owned property other than the related mortgaged property and may not have observed all covenants that typically are required to consider a borrower a “single-purpose entity” and thus may have liabilities arising from events prior to becoming a single-purpose entity.

 

In addition, certain mortgage loans may have been structured similarly to a Maryland indemnity deed of trust (an “IDOT”). An IDOT is structured so that the lender makes the loan to the owner of the property owner and the property owner guarantees in full the payment of the loan and secures such guaranty with a mortgage on the property owner’s property. Accordingly, the mortgagor/payment guarantor and the borrower are two different, but affiliated, entities. In the case of a mortgage loan structured as an IDOT, references herein to “borrower” will mean the actual borrower or the mortgagor/payment guarantor, as the context may require.

 

The organizational documents of a borrower or the direct or indirect managing partner or member of a borrower may also contain requirements that there be one or two independent directors, managers or trustees (depending on the entity form of such borrower) whose vote is required before the borrower files a voluntary bankruptcy or insolvency petition or otherwise institutes insolvency proceedings. Generally, but not always, the independent directors, managers or trustees may only be replaced with certain other independent successors. Although the requirement of having independent directors, managers or trustees is designed to mitigate the risk of a voluntary bankruptcy filing by a solvent borrower, a borrower could file for bankruptcy without obtaining the consent of its independent director(s) (and we cannot assure you that such bankruptcy would be dismissed as an unauthorized filing), and in any case the independent directors, managers or trustees may determine that a bankruptcy filing is an appropriate course of action to be taken by such borrower. Although the independent directors, managers or trustees generally owe no fiduciary duties to entities other than the borrower itself, such determination might take into account the interests and financial condition of such borrower’s parent entities and such parent entities’ other subsidiaries in addition to those of the borrower. Consequently, the financial distress of an affiliate of a borrower might increase the likelihood of a bankruptcy filing by a borrower.

 

The bankruptcy of a borrower, or a general partner or managing member of a borrower, may impair the ability of the lender to enforce its rights and remedies under the related mortgage loan. Certain of the mortgage loans have been made to single-purpose limited partnerships that have a general partner or general partners that are not themselves single-purpose entities. Such loans are subject to additional bankruptcy risk. The organizational documents of the general partner in such cases do not limit it to acting as the general partner of the partnership. Accordingly there is a greater risk that the general partner may become insolvent for reasons unrelated to the mortgaged property. The bankruptcy of a general partner may dissolve the partnership under applicable state law. In addition, even if the partnership itself is not insolvent, actions by the partnership and/or a bankrupt general partner that are outside the ordinary course of their business, such as refinancing the related mortgage loan, may require prior approval of the bankruptcy court in the general partner’s bankruptcy case. The proceedings required to resolve these issues may be costly and time-consuming.

 

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Any borrower, even an entity structured as a single-purpose entity, as an owner of real estate, will be subject to certain potential liabilities and risks as an owner of real estate. We cannot assure you that any borrower will not file for bankruptcy protection or that creditors of a borrower or a corporate or individual general partner or managing member of a borrower will not initiate a bankruptcy or similar proceeding against such borrower or corporate or individual general partner or managing member.

 

Certain borrowers’ organizational documents or the terms of certain mortgage loans permit an affiliated property manager to maintain a custodial account on behalf of such borrower and certain affiliates of such borrower into which funds available to such borrower under the terms of the related mortgage loans and funds of such affiliates are held, but which funds are and will continue to be separately accounted for as to each item of income and expense for each related mortgaged property and each related borrower. A custodial account structure for affiliated entities, while common among certain REITs, institutions or independent owners of multiple properties, presents a risk for consolidation of the assets of such affiliates as commingling of funds is a factor a court may consider in considering a request by other creditors for substantive consolidation. Substantive consolidation is an equitable remedy that could result in an otherwise solvent company becoming subject to the bankruptcy proceedings of an insolvent affiliate, making its assets available to repay the debts of affiliated companies. A court has the discretion to order substantive consolidation in whole or in part and may include non-debtor affiliates of the bankrupt entity in the proceedings. In particular, consolidation may be ordered when corporate funds are commingled and used for a principal’s personal purposes, inadequate records of transfers are made and corporate entities are deemed an alter ego of a principal. Strict adherence to maintaining separate books and records, avoiding commingling of assets and otherwise maintaining corporate policies designed to preserve the separateness of corporate assets and liabilities make it less likely that a court would order substantive consolidation, but we cannot assure you that the related borrowers, property managers or affiliates will comply with these requirements as set forth in the related mortgage loans.

 

Furthermore, with respect to any affiliated borrowers, creditors of a common parent in bankruptcy may seek to consolidate the assets of such borrowers with those of the parent. Consolidation of the assets of such borrowers would likely have an adverse effect on the funds available to make distributions on your certificates, and may lead to a downgrade, withdrawal or qualification of the ratings of your certificates.

 

See “Description of the Mortgage Pool—Certain Terms of the Mortgage Loans—Single-Purpose Entity Covenants” and “Certain Legal Aspects of Mortgage Loans—Bankruptcy Laws”.

 

In addition, borrowers may own a mortgaged property as Delaware statutory trust or tenants-in-common. Delaware statutory trusts may be restricted in their ability to actively operate a property, and in the case of a mortgaged property that is owned by a Delaware statutory trust or by tenants-in-common, there is a risk that obtaining the consent of the holders of the beneficial interests in the Delaware statutory trust or the consent of the tenants-in-common will be time consuming and cause delays with respect to the taking of certain actions by or on behalf of the borrower, including wi