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CNPWM Connecticut Light & Power

Filed: 17 Feb 21, 5:30pm
0000072741us-gaap:InternalRevenueServiceIRSMember2019-12-31

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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE     
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ____________ to ____________

Registrant; State of Incorporation; Address; Telephone Number;
Commission File Number; and I.R.S. Employer Identification No.


EVERSOURCE ENERGY
(a Massachusetts voluntary association)
300 Cadwell Drive, Springfield, Massachusetts 01104
Telephone: (800) 286-5000
Commission File Number: 1-5324
I.R.S. Employer Identification No. 04-2147929


THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
(a Connecticut corporation)
107 Selden Street, Berlin, Connecticut 06037-1616
Telephone: (800) 286-5000
Commission File Number: 0-00404
I.R.S. Employer Identification No. 06-0303850


NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY
(a Massachusetts corporation)
800 Boylston Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02199
Telephone: (800) 286-5000
Commission File Number: 1-02301
I.R.S. Employer Identification No. 04-1278810


PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE
(a New Hampshire corporation)
Energy Park
780 North Commercial Street, Manchester, New Hampshire 03101-1134
Telephone: (800) 286-5000
Commission File Number: 1-6392
I.R.S. Employer Identification No. 02-0181050
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, $5.00 par value per shareESNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
RegistrantTitle of Class
  
The Connecticut Light and Power CompanyPreferred Stock, par value $50.00 per share, issuable in series, of which the following series are outstanding:
$1.90
$2.00
$2.04
$2.20
3.90%
$2.06
$2.09
4.50%
4.96%
4.50%
5.28%
$3.24
6.56%
Series 
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series E
Series F
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series G
Series
of 1947
of 1947
of 1949
of 1949
of 1949
of 1954
of 1955
of 1956
of 1958
of 1963
of 1967
of 1968
of 1968
NSTAR Electric CompanyPreferred Stock, par value $100.00 per share, issuable in series, of which the following series are outstanding:
4.25%
4.78%
Series
Series
of 1956
of 1958

Indicate by check mark if the registrants are well-known seasoned issuers, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 YesNo
 

Indicate by check mark if the registrants are not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
 YesNo
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrants (1) have filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to file such reports), and (2) have been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 YesNo
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrants have submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to submit such files).
 YesNo
 



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Eversource EnergyLarge accelerated filerAccelerated
filer
Non-accelerated
filer
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
The Connecticut Light and Power CompanyLarge accelerated filerAccelerated
filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
NSTAR Electric CompanyLarge accelerated filerAccelerated
filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
Public Service Company of New HampshireLarge accelerated filerAccelerated
filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrants are shell companies (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act):
 YesNo
Eversource Energy
The Connecticut Light and Power Company
NSTAR Electric Company
Public Service Company of New Hampshire

The aggregate market value of Eversource Energy's Common Shares, $5.00 par value, held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of Eversource Energy's most recently completed second fiscal quarter (June 30, 2020) was $28,496,151,703 based on a closing market price of $83.27 per share for the 342,213,903 common shares outstanding held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2020. 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date:
Company - Class of StockOutstanding as of January 31, 2021
Eversource Energy
Common Shares, $5.00 par value
343,003,366 shares
The Connecticut Light and Power Company
Common Stock, $10.00 par value
6,035,205 shares
NSTAR Electric Company
Common Stock, $1.00 par value
200 shares
  
Public Service Company of New Hampshire
Common Stock, $1.00 par value
301 shares

Eversource Energy holds all of the 6,035,205 shares, 200 shares and 301 shares of the outstanding common stock of The Connecticut Light and Power Company, NSTAR Electric Company and Public Service Company of New Hampshire, respectively.

Documents Incorporated by Reference

Portions of the Eversource Energy and Subsidiaries 2019 combined Annual Report on Form 10-K and portions of the Proxy Statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 5, 2021, are incorporated by reference into Parts II and III of this Report.

NSTAR Electric Company and Public Service Company of New Hampshire each meet the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K, and each is therefore filing this Form 10-K with the reduced disclosure format specified in General Instruction I(2) of Form 10‑K.  

Eversource Energy, The Connecticut Light and Power Company, NSTAR Electric Company and Public Service Company of New Hampshire each separately file this combined Form 10-K.  Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant on its own behalf.  Each registrant makes no representation as to information relating to the other registrants.



GLOSSARY OF TERMS

The following is a glossary of abbreviations and acronyms that are found in this report:

Current or former Eversource Energy companies, segments or investments:
Eversource, ES or the CompanyEversource Energy and subsidiaries
Eversource parent or ES parentEversource Energy, a public utility holding company
ES parent and other companiesES parent and other companies are comprised of Eversource parent, Eversource Service, Eversource Water Ventures, Inc. (parent company of Aquarion), and other subsidiaries, which primarily includes our unregulated businesses, HWP Company, The Rocky River Realty Company (a real estate subsidiary), the consolidated operations of CYAPC and YAEC, and Eversource parent's equity ownership interests that are not consolidated
CL&PThe Connecticut Light and Power Company
NSTAR ElectricNSTAR Electric Company
PSNHPublic Service Company of New Hampshire
PSNH FundingPSNH Funding LLC 3, a bankruptcy remote, special purpose, wholly-owned subsidiary of PSNH
NSTAR GasNSTAR Gas Company
EGMAEversource Gas Company of Massachusetts
Yankee GasYankee Gas Services Company
AquarionEversource Aquarion Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries
NPTNorthern Pass Transmission LLC
Northern PassThe HVDC and associated alternating-current transmission line project from Canada into New Hampshire
HEECHarbor Electric Energy Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of NSTAR Electric
Eversource ServiceEversource Energy Service Company
Bay State WindBay State Wind LLC, an offshore wind business being developed jointly by Eversource and Denmark-based Ørsted, which holds the Sunrise Wind project
North East OffshoreNorth East Offshore, LLC, an offshore wind business holding company being developed jointly by Eversource and Denmark-based Ørsted, which holds the Revolution Wind and South Fork Wind projects
CYAPCConnecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company
MYAPCMaine Yankee Atomic Power Company
YAECYankee Atomic Electric Company
Yankee CompaniesCYAPC, YAEC and MYAPC
Regulated companiesThe Eversource regulated companies are comprised of the electric distribution and transmission businesses of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH, the natural gas distribution businesses of Yankee Gas, NSTAR Gas and EGMA, NPT, Aquarion, and the solar power facilities of NSTAR Electric
Regulators and Government Agencies:
BOEMU.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
DEEPConnecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection
DOEU.S. Department of Energy
DOERMassachusetts Department of Energy Resources
DPUMassachusetts Department of Public Utilities
EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FERCFederal Energy Regulatory Commission
ISO-NEISO New England, Inc., the New England Independent System Operator
MA DEPMassachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
NHPUCNew Hampshire Public Utilities Commission
PURAConnecticut Public Utilities Regulatory Authority
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SJCSupreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts
Other Terms and Abbreviations:
ADITAccumulated Deferred Income Taxes
AFUDCAllowance For Funds Used During Construction
AOCIAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income
AROAsset Retirement Obligation
BcfBillion cubic feet
C&LMConservation and Load Management
CfDContract for Differences
CTACompetitive Transition Assessment
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CWIPConstruction Work in Progress
EDCElectric distribution company
EDITExcess Deferred Income Taxes
EPSEarnings Per Share
ERISAEmployee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
ESOPEmployee Stock Ownership Plan
Eversource 2019 Form 10-KThe Eversource Energy and Subsidiaries 2019 combined Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the SEC
FitchFitch Ratings
FMCCFederally Mandated Congestion Charge
FTRFinancial Transmission Rights
GAAPAccounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
GSCGeneration Service Charge
GWhGigawatt-Hours
HQHydro-Québec, a corporation wholly-owned by the Québec government, including its divisions that produce, transmit and distribute electricity in Québec, Canada
HVDCHigh-voltage direct current
Hydro Renewable EnergyHydro Renewable Energy, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hydro-Québec
IPPIndependent Power Producers
ISO-NE TariffISO-NE FERC Transmission, Markets and Services Tariff
kVKilovolt
kVaKilovolt-ampere
kWKilowatt (equal to one thousand watts)
LNGLiquefied natural gas
LRSSupplier of last resort service
MGMillion gallons
MGPManufactured Gas Plant
MMBtuOne million British thermal units
MMcfMillion cubic feet
Moody'sMoody's Investors Services, Inc.
MWMegawatt
MWhMegawatt-Hours
NETOsNew England Transmission Owners (including Eversource, National Grid and Avangrid)
OCIOther Comprehensive Income/(Loss)
PAMPension and PBOP Rate Adjustment Mechanism
PBOPPostretirement Benefits Other Than Pension
PBOP PlanPostretirement Benefits Other Than Pension Plan
Pension PlanSingle uniform noncontributory defined benefit retirement plan
PPAPower purchase agreement
RECsRenewable Energy Certificates
Regulatory ROEThe average cost of capital method for calculating the return on equity related to the distribution business segment excluding the wholesale transmission segment
ROEReturn on Equity
RRBsRate Reduction Bonds or Rate Reduction Certificates
RSUsRestricted share units
S&PStandard & Poor's Financial Services LLC
SBCSystems Benefits Charge
SCRCStranded Cost Recovery Charge
SERPSupplemental Executive Retirement Plans and non-qualified defined benefit retirement plans
SSStandard service
TCAMTransmission Cost Adjustment Mechanism
UIThe United Illuminating Company
VIEVariable Interest Entity

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EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SUBSIDIARIES

2020 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS


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EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SUBSIDIARIES


SAFE HARBOR STATEMENT UNDER THE PRIVATE SECURITIES
LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995

References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to "Eversource," the "Company," "we," "our," and "us" refer to Eversource Energy and its consolidated subsidiaries. CL&P, NSTAR Electric, and PSNH are each doing business as Eversource Energy.  

From time to time, we make statements concerning our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, strategies, assumptions of future events, future financial performance or growth and other statements that are not historical facts.  These statements are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  You can generally identify our forward-looking statements through the use of words or phrases such as "estimate," "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "project," "believe," "forecast," "should," "could," and other similar expressions.  Forward-looking statements are based on the current expectations, estimates, assumptions or projections of management and are not guarantees of future performance.  These expectations, estimates, assumptions or projections may vary materially from actual results. Accordingly, any such statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to, and are accompanied by, the following important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in our forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to:

cyberattacks or breaches, including those resulting in the compromise of the confidentiality of our proprietary information and the personal information of our customers,
disruptions in the capital markets or other events that make our access to necessary capital more difficult or costly,
the negative impacts of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on our customers, vendors, employees, regulators, and operations,
changes in economic conditions, including impact on interest rates, tax policies, and customer demand and payment ability,
ability or inability to commence and complete our major strategic development projects and opportunities,
acts of war or terrorism, physical attacks or grid disturbances that may damage and disrupt our electric transmission and electric, natural gas, and water distribution systems,
actions or inaction of local, state and federal regulatory, public policy and taxing bodies,
substandard performance of third-party suppliers and service providers,
fluctuations in weather patterns, including extreme weather due to climate change,
changes in business conditions, which could include disruptive technology or development of alternative energy sources related to our current or future business model,
contamination of, or disruption in, our water supplies,
changes in levels or timing of capital expenditures,
changes in laws, regulations or regulatory policy, including compliance with environmental laws and regulations,
changes in accounting standards and financial reporting regulations,
actions of rating agencies, and
other presently unknown or unforeseen factors.

Other risk factors are detailed in our reports filed with the SEC and updated as necessary, and we encourage you to consult such disclosures.

All such factors are difficult to predict and contain uncertainties that may materially affect our actual results, many of which are beyond our control.  You should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, as each speaks only as of the date on which such statement is made, and, except as required by federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.  New factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all of such factors, nor can we assess the impact of each such factor on the business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. For more information, see Item 1A, Risk Factors, included in this combined Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Annual Report on Form 10-K also describes material contingencies and critical accounting policies in the accompanying Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Combined Notes to Financial Statements.  We encourage you to review these items.  

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EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES
THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SUBSIDIARIES

PART I

Item 1.    Business

Please refer to the Glossary of Terms for definitions of defined terms and abbreviations used in this combined Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Eversource Energy, headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut, is a public utility holding company subject to regulation by the FERC under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005. We are engaged primarily in the energy delivery business through the following wholly-owned utility subsidiaries:

The Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P), a regulated electric utility that serves residential, commercial and industrial customers in parts of Connecticut;

NSTAR Electric Company (NSTAR Electric), a regulated electric utility that serves residential, commercial and industrial customers in parts of eastern and western Massachusetts and owns solar power facilities;

Public Service Company of New Hampshire (PSNH), a regulated electric utility that serves residential, commercial and industrial customers in parts of New Hampshire;

NSTAR Gas Company (NSTAR Gas), a regulated natural gas utility that serves residential, commercial and industrial customers in parts of Massachusetts;

Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts (EGMA), a regulated natural gas utility that serves residential, commercial and industrial customers in parts of Massachusetts;

Yankee Gas Services Company (Yankee Gas), a regulated natural gas utility that serves residential, commercial and industrial customers in parts of Connecticut; and

Eversource Aquarion Holdings, Inc. (Aquarion), a utility holding company that owns three separate regulated water utility subsidiaries and collectively serves residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal and fire protection customers in parts of Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire.

CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH also serve New England customers through Eversource Energy's electric transmission business. Along with NSTAR Gas, EGMA and Yankee Gas, each is doing business as Eversource Energy in its respective service territory.

On October 9, 2020, Eversource acquired certain assets and liabilities that comprised NiSource Inc.’s natural gas distribution business in Massachusetts, which was previously doing business as Columbia Gas of Massachusetts (CMA). The natural gas distribution assets acquired from CMA were assigned to EGMA, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Eversource formed in 2020. The LNG assets acquired from CMA were assigned to Hopkinton LNG Corp.

Eversource Energy, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH each report their financial results separately. We also include information in this report on a segment basis for Eversource Energy. Eversource Energy has four reportable segments: electric distribution, electric transmission, natural gas distribution and water distribution. These segments represent substantially all of Eversource Energy's total consolidated revenues. CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH do not report separate business segments.

ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION SEGMENT

Eversource Energy's electric distribution segment consists of the distribution businesses of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH, which are engaged in the distribution of electricity to retail customers in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, respectively, and the solar power facilities of NSTAR Electric.

ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION – CONNECTICUT – THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY

CL&P's distribution business consists primarily of the purchase, delivery and sale of electricity to its residential, commercial and industrial customers. As of December 31, 2020, CL&P furnished retail franchise electric service to approximately 1.27 million customers in 149 cities and towns in Connecticut, covering an area of approximately 4,400 square miles. CL&P does not own any electric generation facilities.


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Rates

CL&P is subject to regulation by the PURA, which, among other things, has jurisdiction over rates, certain dispositions of property and plant, mergers and consolidations, issuances of long-term securities, standards of service and construction and operation of facilities.  CL&P's present general rate structure consists of various rate and service classifications covering residential, commercial and industrial services.  CL&P's retail rates include a delivery service component, which includes distribution, transmission, conservation, renewable energy programs and other charges that are assessed on all customers.

Under Connecticut law, all of CL&P's customers are entitled to choose their energy suppliers, while CL&P remains their electric distribution company.  For those customers who do not choose a competitive energy supplier, under SS rates for customers with less than 500 kilowatts of demand (residential customers and small and medium commercial and industrial customers), and LRS rates for customers with 500 kilowatts or more of demand (larger commercial and industrial customers), CL&P purchases power under standard offer contracts and passes the cost of the purchased power to customers through a combined charge on customers' bills.

The rates established by the PURA for CL&P are comprised of the following:

An electric GSC, which recovers energy-related costs incurred as a result of providing electric generation service supply to all customers that have not migrated to competitive energy suppliers.  The GSC is adjusted periodically and reconciled annually in accordance with the policies and procedures of the PURA, with any differences refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

A revenue decoupling adjustment that reconciles annual base distribution rate recovery amounts recovered from customers to the pre-established level of baseline distribution delivery service revenue requirement approved by the PURA of $1.099 billion effective May 1, 2018, $1.127 billion effective May 1, 2019, and $1.158 billion effective May 1, 2020. These pre-established levels of baseline distribution delivery service revenue requirements are also subject to adjustment at each of these dates in accordance with provisions of the April 2018 rate case settlement agreement.

A distribution charge, which includes a fixed customer charge and a demand and/or energy charge to collect the costs of building and expanding the infrastructure to deliver electricity to customers, as well as ongoing operating costs to maintain the infrastructure.  

An Electric System Improvements (ESI) charge, which collects the costs of building and expanding the infrastructure to deliver electricity to customers above the level recovered through the distribution charge. The ESI also recovers costs associated with CL&P’s system resiliency program, which was implemented as part of CL&P's rate case settlement agreement that was approved by PURA in April 2018. The ESI is adjusted periodically and reconciled annually in accordance with the policies and procedures of the PURA, with any differences refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

An FMCC, which recovers any costs imposed by the FERC as part of the New England Standard Market Design, including locational marginal pricing, locational installed capacity payments, any costs approved by the PURA to reduce these charges, as well as other costs approved by PURA.  The FMCC has both a bypassable component and a non-bypassable component, and is adjusted periodically and reconciled annually in accordance with the policies and procedures of the PURA, with any differences refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

A transmission charge that recovers the cost of transporting electricity over high-voltage lines from generating plants to substations, including costs allocated by ISO-NE to maintain the wholesale electric market. The transmission charge is adjusted periodically and reconciled annually to actual costs incurred, and reviewed by the PURA, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

A CTA charge, assessed to recover stranded costs associated with electric industry restructuring such as various IPP contracts.  The CTA is reconciled annually to actual costs incurred and reviewed by the PURA, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

An SBC, established to fund expenses associated with various hardship and low-income programs. The SBC is reconciled annually to actual costs incurred and reviewed by the PURA, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers.  

A Renewable Energy Investment Charge, which is used to promote investment in renewable energy sources.  Amounts collected by this charge are deposited into the Connecticut Clean Energy Fund and administered by the Connecticut Green Bank.  

A Conservation Adjustment Mechanism (CAM) charge established to implement cost-effective energy conservation programs and market transformation initiatives. The CAM charge is reconciled annually to actual costs incurred, and reviewed by the PURA, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers through an approved adjustment to the following year’s energy conservation spending plan budget.

As required by regulation, CL&P has entered into long-term contracts for the purchase of (i) products from renewable energy facilities, which may include energy, renewable energy certificates, or capacity, (ii) capacity-related contracts with generation facilities, and (iii) contracts for peaking capacity.  Some of these contracts are subject to sharing agreements with UI, whereby CL&P is responsible for 80 percent and UI for 20 percent of the net costs or benefits.  CL&P's portion of the costs and benefits of these contracts will be paid by, or refunded to, CL&P's customers.

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Distribution Rate Case: CL&P's distribution rates were established in an April 2018 PURA-approved rate case settlement agreement with rates effective May 1, 2018, and incremental step adjustments effective May 1, 2019 and May 1, 2020.

Sources and Availability of Electric Power Supply

As noted above, CL&P does not own any generation assets and purchases energy supply to serve its SS and LRS loads from a variety of competitive sources through requests for proposals. During 2020, CL&P supplied approximately 51 percent of its customer load at SS or LRS rates while the other 49 percent of its customer load had migrated to competitive energy suppliers.  In terms of the total number of CL&P customers, this equates to 23 percent being on competitive supply, while 77 percent remain with SS or LRS. Because this customer migration is only for energy supply service, it has no impact on CL&P's electric distribution business or its operating income.

CL&P periodically enters into full requirements contracts for SS loads for periods of up to one year. CL&P typically enters into full requirements contracts for LRS loads every three months. Currently, CL&P has full requirements contracts in place for 100 percent of its SS loads for the first half of 2021. For the second half of 2021, CL&P has 40 percent of its SS load under full requirements contracts and intends to purchase an additional 60 percent of full requirements. None of the SS load for 2022 has been procured. CL&P has full requirements contracts in place for its LRS loads through March 2021 and intends to purchase 100 percent of full requirements for the remainder of 2021.

ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION – MASSACHUSETTS – NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY

NSTAR Electric's distribution business consists primarily of the purchase, delivery and sale of electricity to its residential, commercial and industrial customers. As of December 31, 2020, NSTAR Electric furnished retail franchise electric service to approximately 1.45 million customers in Boston and 139 cities and towns in eastern and western Massachusetts, including Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and the greater Springfield metropolitan area, covering an aggregate area of approximately 3,200 square miles.

NSTAR Electric does not own any generating facilities that are used to supply customers, and purchases its energy requirements from competitive energy suppliers.

NSTAR Electric owns, operates and maintains a total of 70 MW of solar power facilities on twenty-two sites in Massachusetts.  NSTAR Electric will sell energy from these facilities into the ISO-NE market, with proceeds credited to customers.

Rates

NSTAR Electric is subject to regulation by the DPU, which, among other things, has jurisdiction over rates, certain dispositions of property and plant, mergers and consolidations, issuances of long-term securities, acquisition of securities, standards of service and construction and operation of facilities.  The present general rate structure for NSTAR Electric consists of various rate and service classifications covering residential, commercial and industrial services.

Under Massachusetts law, all customers of NSTAR Electric are entitled to choose their energy suppliers, while NSTAR Electric remains their electric distribution company.  NSTAR Electric purchases power from competitive suppliers on behalf of, and passes the related cost through to, its customers who do not choose a competitive energy supplier (basic service). Electric distribution companies in Massachusetts are required to obtain and resell power to retail customers through basic service for those who choose not to buy energy from a competitive energy supplier.  Most of the residential customers of NSTAR Electric have continued to buy their power from NSTAR Electric at basic service rates.  Most commercial and industrial customers have switched to a competitive energy supplier.

The Cape Light Compact, an inter-governmental organization consisting of the 21 towns and two counties on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard, serves 200,000 customers through the delivery of energy efficiency programs, consumer advocacy, competitive electricity supply and green power options.  NSTAR Electric continues to provide electric service to these customers including the delivery of power, maintenance of infrastructure, capital investment, meter reading, billing, and customer service.

The rates established by the DPU for NSTAR Electric are comprised of the following:

A basic service charge that represents the collection of energy costs incurred as a result of providing electric generation service supply to all customers that have not migrated to competitive energy suppliers, including costs related to charge-offs of uncollectible energy costs from customers.  Basic service rates are reset every six months (every three months for large commercial and industrial customers). Additionally, the DPU has authorized NSTAR Electric to recover the cost of its NSTAR Green wind contracts through the basic service charge. Basic service costs are reconciled annually, with any differences refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

A distribution charge, which includes a fixed customer charge and a demand and/or energy charge to collect the costs of building and expanding the distribution infrastructure to deliver electricity to its destination, as well as ongoing operating costs.

A revenue decoupling adjustment that reconciles annual base distribution rate recovery amounts recovered from customers to the pre-established level of baseline distribution delivery service revenue requirement approved by the DPU of $956 million on an annualized basis for 2018, $988 million for 2019, and $1.022 billion for 2020. Annual base distribution amounts are adjusted for inflation and filed for approval by the DPU on an annual basis, until the next rate case.


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A transmission charge that recovers the cost of transporting electricity over high-voltage lines from generating plants to substations, including costs allocated by ISO-NE to maintain the wholesale electric market. The transmission charge is reconciled annually to actual costs incurred and reviewed by the DPU, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

A transition charge that represents costs to be collected primarily from previously held investments in generating plants, costs related to existing above-market power contracts, and contract costs related to long-term power contract buy-outs. The transition charge is reconciled annually to actual costs incurred and reviewed by the DPU, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

A renewable energy charge that represents a legislatively-mandated charge to support the Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust Fund.

An energy efficiency charge that represents a legislatively-mandated charge to collect costs for energy efficiency programs. The energy efficiency charge is reconciled annually to actual costs incurred and reviewed by the DPU, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

Reconciling adjustment charges that recover certain DPU-approved costs, including pension and PBOP benefits, low income customer discounts, credits issued to net-metering facilities installed by customers, payments to solar facilities qualified under the state solar renewable energy target program, attorney general consultant expenses, long-term renewable contracts, company-owned solar facilities, vegetation management costs, credits related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, grid modernization costs, and storm restoration. These charges are reconciled annually to actual costs incurred and reviewed by the DPU, with any difference refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

NSTAR Electric has signed long-term commitments for the purchase of energy from renewable energy facilities.

Distribution Rate Case: NSTAR Electric's distribution rates were established in a 2017 DPU-approved rate case with rates effective February 1, 2018. DPU-approved inflation-based adjustments to annual base distribution amounts were effective January 1, 2019, 2020 and 2021.

Service Quality Metrics: NSTAR Electric is subject to service quality (SQ) metrics that measure safety, reliability and customer service, and could be required to pay to customers a SQ charge of up to 2.5 percent of annual transmission and distribution revenues for failing to meet such metrics. NSTAR Electric will not be required to pay a SQ charge for its 2020 performance as the company achieved results at or above target for all of its SQ metrics in 2020.

Sources and Availability of Electric Power Supply

As noted above, NSTAR Electric does not own any generation assets (other than 70 MW of solar power facilities that produce energy that is sold into the ISO-NE market) and purchases its energy requirements from a variety of competitive sources through requests for proposals issued periodically, consistent with DPU regulations. NSTAR Electric enters into supply contracts for basic service for approximately 45 percent of its residential and small commercial and industrial (C&I) customers twice per year for twelve-month terms. NSTAR Electric enters into supply contracts for basic service for 18 percent of large C&I customers every three months.

During 2020, NSTAR Electric supplied approximately 42 percent of its residential customer load, 29 percent of its small C&I customer load, and 6 percent of its large C&I customer load at basic service rates. The remainder of its customer load was distributed between municipal aggregation and competitive supply. Because customer migration is limited to energy supply service, it has no impact on NSTAR Electric’s electric distribution business or operating income of NSTAR Electric.

ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION – NEW HAMPSHIRE – PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE

PSNH's distribution business consists primarily of the purchase, delivery and sale of electricity to its residential, commercial and industrial customers. As of December 31, 2020, PSNH furnished retail franchise electric service to approximately 528,000 retail customers in 211 cities and towns in New Hampshire, covering an area of approximately 5,630 square miles.

On January 10, 2018, PSNH completed the sale of its thermal generation assets pursuant to a 2017 purchase and sale agreement. The thermal generation facilities included approximately 1,100 MW of coal, natural gas, biomass and oil-fired electricity generation facilities. On August 26, 2018, PSNH completed the sale of its hydroelectric generation assets pursuant to a separate 2017 purchase and sale agreement. For further information, see "Generation Divestiture" below. As of December 31, 2020, PSNH does not own any electric generation facilities.

Rates

PSNH is subject to regulation by the NHPUC, which, among other things, has jurisdiction over rates, certain dispositions of property and plant, mergers and consolidations, issuances of securities, standards of service and construction and operation of facilities.

Under New Hampshire law, all of PSNH's customers are entitled to choose competitive energy suppliers. During 2020, approximately 21 percent of all of PSNH's customers (approximately 53 percent of load) were taking service from competitive energy suppliers.

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The rates established by the NHPUC for PSNH are comprised of the following:

A default energy service charge recovers energy-related costs incurred as a result of providing electric generation service supply to all customers that have not migrated to competitive energy suppliers.

A distribution charge, which includes kilowatt-hour and/or demand-based charges to recover costs related to the maintenance and operation of PSNH's infrastructure to deliver power to its destination, as well as power restoration and service costs.  It also includes a customer charge to collect the cost of providing service to a customer; such as the installation, maintenance, reading and replacement of meters and maintaining accounts and records.  

A transmission charge that recovers the cost of transporting electricity over high-voltage lines from generating plants to substations, including costs allocated by ISO-NE to maintain the wholesale electric market.

An SCRC, which allows PSNH to recover its stranded costs, including above-market expenses incurred under mandated power purchase obligations, other long-term investments and obligations, and the remaining costs associated with the 2018 sales of its generation facilities.

An SBC, which funds energy efficiency programs for all customers, as well as assistance programs for residential customers within certain income guidelines.

A new Regulatory Reconciliation Adjustment (RRA) that reconciles the difference between certain estimated and actual costs included in base distribution rates, including costs related to regulatory assessments, vegetation management program expenses, property tax expenses, storm cost amortization updated for the actual cost of long-term debt and lost base revenues related to net metering.

PSNH has signed long-term commitments for the purchase of energy from renewable energy facilities.

The default energy service charge and SCRC rates change semi-annually and the transmission and SBC rates change annually. These rates are reconciled annually in accordance with the policies and procedures of the NHPUC, with any differences refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

Distribution Rate Case: On June 27, 2019, the NHPUC approved a settlement agreement that was reached by PSNH, the NHPUC Staff, the Office of the Consumer Advocate, and another settling party, to implement a temporary annual base distribution rate increase of $28.3 million. Although new rates were implemented on August 1, 2019 to customers, the provisions of the temporary base distribution rate increase were effective July 1, 2019. The settlement agreement also permitted PSNH to recover approximately $68.5 million in unrecovered storm costs over a five-year period beginning August 1, 2019, with debt carrying charges, which is included in the temporary rate increase.

On May 28, 2019, PSNH filed an application with the NHPUC for a permanent increase in base distribution rates of approximately $70 million, effective July 1, 2020, which included the temporary rate increase request. Temporary rates remained in effect with a reconciliation of permanent rates retroactive to July 1, 2019 once permanent rates were set.

On December 15, 2020, the NHPUC approved an October 9, 2020 settlement agreement on permanent rates between PSNH and all parties to the proceeding. The NHPUC approved a permanent rate increase of $45.0 million effective January 1, 2021, inclusive of the temporary rate increase referenced above. PSNH was also permitted three step increases, effective January 1, 2021, August 1, 2021, and August 1, 2022, to reflect plant additions in calendar years 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. On December 23, 2020, the NHPUC approved the first step adjustment for 2019 plant in service to recover a revenue requirement of $10.6 million, subject to reconciliation after completion of an audit, effective January 1, 2021. The settlement agreement also established an authorized regulatory ROE of 9.3 percent with a 54.4 percent common equity ratio in PSNH’s capital structure and provided for a new tracker to recover regulatory assessments, vegetation management costs, property tax costs, and lost distribution revenue attributable to net metering.

Generation Divestiture

On January 10, 2018, PSNH completed the sale of its thermal generation assets. The original purchase price of $175 million was adjusted to reflect working capital adjustments, closing date adjustments and proration of taxes and fees prior to closing. As a result of these adjustments, net proceeds from the sale of the thermal assets totaled $116.8 million. On August 26, 2018, PSNH completed the sale of its hydroelectric generation assets. The original purchase price of $83 million was adjusted to reflect contractual adjustments, resulting in net proceeds of $77.2 million. The difference between the carrying value of the hydroelectric generation assets and the sale proceeds resulted in a gain of $17.3 million. An estimated gain from the sale of these assets was included as an offset to the total remaining costs associated with the sale of generation assets that were securitized on May 8, 2018.

On May 8, 2018, PSNH Funding issued $635.7 million of securitized RRBs pursuant to a finance order issued by the NHPUC on January 30, 2018 to recover remaining costs resulting from the divestiture of PSNH’s generation assets, which included the deferred costs resulting from the sale of the thermal generation assets. These RRBs are secured by a non-bypassable charge recoverable from PSNH customers. PSNH recorded regulatory assets and other deferred costs in connection with the generation asset divestiture and the securitization of remaining costs, which are probable of recovery through collection of the non-bypassable charge.

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On May 15, 2020, the NHPUC Audit Staff issued a final report on the audit of PSNH’s generation asset divestiture-related costs and resulting securitized and stranded costs. The findings in the audit report as well as other aspects of the divestiture process were further investigated by NHPUC Staff through the discovery phase, which was completed in July 2020. On September 30, 2020, PSNH filed a settlement agreement on the generation asset divestiture-related costs with the NHPUC Audit Staff. The settlement agreement resolved all issues with respect to PSNH’s divestiture of its generating assets and the recovery of $12.0 million of divestiture-related costs incurred above the $635.7 million amount previously securitized. On December 17, 2020, the NHPUC approved the additional $12.0 million proposed in the settlement agreement to be recovered over a one-year period through the SCRC rate beginning February 1, 2021.

Sources and Availability of Electric Power Supply

PSNH does not own any generation assets and purchases energy supply from a variety of competitive suppliers for its energy service customers through requests for proposals issued twice per year, for six-month terms, for approximately 80 percent of its residential and small C&I customers and for 15 percent of its large C&I customers.

During 2020, PSNH supplied approximately 46 percent of its customer load at default energy service rates while the other 54 percent of its customer load had migrated to competitive energy suppliers.  Because this customer migration is only for energy supply service, it has no impact on PSNH’s electric distribution business or its operating income.

ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION SEGMENT

Each of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH owns and maintains transmission facilities that are part of an interstate power transmission grid over which electricity is transmitted throughout New England.  Each of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH, and most other New England utilities, are parties to a series of agreements that provide for coordinated planning and operation of the region's transmission facilities and the rules by which they acquire transmission services.  Under these arrangements, ISO-NE, a non-profit corporation whose board of directors and staff are independent of all market participants, serves as the regional transmission organization of the New England transmission system.  

Wholesale Transmission Rates

Wholesale transmission revenues are recovered through FERC-approved formula rates.  Annual transmission revenue requirements include recovery of transmission costs and include a return on equity applied to transmission rate base. Transmission revenues are collected from New England customers, including distribution customers of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH.  The transmission rates provide for an annual true-up of estimated to actual costs.  The financial impacts of differences between actual and estimated costs are deferred for future recovery from, or refund to, transmission customers.

FERC ROE Complaints

Four separate complaints were filed at the FERC by combinations of New England state attorneys general, state regulatory commissions, consumer advocates, consumer groups, municipal parties and other parties (collectively the "Complainants"). In each of the first three complaints, filed on October 1, 2011, December 27, 2012, and July 31, 2014, respectively, the Complainants challenged the NETOs' base ROE of 11.14 percent that had been utilized since 2005 and sought an order to reduce it prospectively from the date of the final FERC order and for the separate 15-month complaint periods. In the fourth complaint, filed April 29, 2016, the Complainants challenged the NETOs' base ROE billed of 10.57 percent and the maximum ROE for transmission incentive (incentive cap) of 11.74 percent, asserting that these ROEs were unjust and unreasonable.

In response to appeals of the FERC decision in the first complaint filed by the NETOs and the Complainants, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (the Court) issued a decision on April 14, 2017 vacating and remanding the FERC's decision. On October 16, 2018, FERC issued an order on all four complaints describing how it intends to address the issues that were remanded by the Court. FERC proposed a new framework to determine (1) whether an existing ROE is unjust and unreasonable and, if so, (2) how to calculate a replacement ROE.

On November 21, 2019, FERC issued Opinion No. 569 affecting the two pending transmission ROE complaints against the Midcontinent ISO (MISO) transmission owners, in which FERC adopted a new methodology for determining base ROEs. Various parties sought rehearing. On December 23, 2019, the NETOs filed supplementary materials in the NETOs' four pending cases to respond to this new methodology because of the uncertainty of the applicability to the NETOs' cases. On May 21, 2020, the FERC issued its order in Opinion No. 569-A on the rehearing of the MISO transmission owners' cases, in which FERC again changed its methodology for determining the MISO transmission owners' base ROEs. Various parties appealed the MISO transmission owners' opinion. On November 19, 2020, the FERC issued Opinion No. 569-B denying rehearing of Opinion No. 569-A and reaffirmed the methodology previously adopted in Opinion No. 569-A. The new methodology differs significantly from the methodology proposed by FERC in its October 16, 2018 order to determine the NETOs' base ROEs in its four pending cases.

Given the significant uncertainty regarding the applicability of the FERC opinions in the MISO transmission owners' two complaint cases to the NETOs' pending four complaint cases, Eversource concluded that there is no reasonable basis for a change to the reserve or recognized ROEs for any of the complaint periods at this time. As well, Eversource cannot reasonably estimate a range of any gain or loss for any of the four complaint proceedings at this time.

For further information, see "FERC Regulatory Matters - FERC ROE Complaints" in the accompanying Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
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Transmission Projects

During 2020, we were involved in the planning, development and construction of a series of electric transmission projects that enhance system reliability and improve capacity. For more information on transmission projects, see "Business Development and Capital Expenditures – Electric Transmission Business" in the accompanying Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Northern Pass was Eversource's planned 1,090 MW HVDC transmission line that would have interconnected from the Québec-New Hampshire border to Franklin, New Hampshire and an associated alternating current radial transmission line between Franklin and Deerfield, New Hampshire. As a result of a final decision received on July 19, 2019 from the New Hampshire Supreme Court, whereby the court denied Northern Pass’ appeal and affirmed the NHSEC’s denial of Northern Pass’ siting application on NPT, Eversource concluded that construction of NPT was no longer probable and that there was no constructive path forward for the project. In 2019, Eversource terminated the project and permanently abandoned any further development.  As a result, substantially all of the capitalized project costs, which totaled $318 million, certain of which were subject to cost reimbursement agreements, were impaired. In total, this resulted in a pre-tax impairment charge of $239.6 million within Operating Income on the statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2019, and was reflected in the Electric Transmission segment. For further information, see "Critical Accounting Policies - Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission" in the accompanying Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Transmission Rate Base

Transmission rate base under our FERC-approved tariff primarily consists of our investment in transmission net utility plant less accumulated deferred income taxes. Under our FERC-approved tariff, and with the exception of transmission projects that received specific FERC approval to include CWIP in rate base, transmission projects generally enter rate base after they are placed in commercial operation. At the end of 2020, our estimated transmission rate base was approximately $8.0 billion, including approximately $3.6 billion at CL&P, $3.1 billion at NSTAR Electric, and $1.3 billion at PSNH.

NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION SEGMENT

On October 9, 2020, Eversource acquired certain assets and liabilities that comprised NiSource’s natural gas distribution business in Massachusetts, which was previously doing business as CMA, pursuant to an asset purchase agreement (the Agreement) entered into on February 26, 2020 between Eversource and NiSource Inc. (NiSource). The cash purchase price was $1.1 billion, plus a target working capital amount of $69.6 million, which is subject to adjustment to reflect actual working capital as of the closing date that has not yet been finalized. Eversource financed the asset acquisition through a combination of debt and equity issuances in a ratio that was consistent with our consolidated capital structure. The natural gas distribution assets acquired from CMA were assigned to Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts (EGMA), an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Eversource formed in 2020. The LNG assets acquired from CMA were assigned to Hopkinton LNG Corp.

NSTAR Gas distributes natural gas to approximately 303,000 customers in 51 communities in central and eastern Massachusetts covering 1,067 square miles. EGMA distributes natural gas to approximately 332,000 customers in 65 communities throughout Massachusetts covering 1,206 square miles. Yankee Gas distributes natural gas to approximately 246,000 customers in 74 cities and towns in Connecticut covering 2,632 square miles. Total throughput (sales and transportation) in 2020 was approximately 66.9 Bcf for NSTAR Gas, 54.9 Bcf for EGMA, and 54.6 Bcf for Yankee Gas. Our natural gas businesses provide firm natural gas sales and transportation service to eligible retail customers who require a continuous natural gas supply throughout the year, such as residential customers who rely on natural gas for heating, hot water and cooking needs, as well as commercial and industrial customers that rely on natural gas for space heating, hot water, cooking and commercial and industrial applications.

A portion of the storage of natural gas supply for NSTAR Gas and EGMA during the winter heating season is provided by Hopkinton LNG Corp., an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Eversource Energy. NSTAR Gas has access to facilities consisting of a LNG liquefaction and vaporization plant and three above-ground cryogenic storage tanks having an aggregate capacity of 3.0 Bcf of liquefied natural gas and facilities that include additional storage capacity of 0.5 Bcf. Total vaporization capacity of these facilities is 0.21 Bcf per day. EGMA has access to approximately 1.8 Bcf of LNG and 0.2 Bcf of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage, with a total vaporization capacity of 0.17 Bcf per day. Yankee Gas owns a 1.2 Bcf LNG facility, which also has the ability to liquefy and vaporize up to 0.1 Bcf per day. This facility is used primarily to assist Yankee Gas in meeting its supplier-of-last-resort obligations and also enables it to provide economic supply and make economic refill of natural gas, typically during periods of low demand.

NSTAR Gas, EGMA and Yankee Gas generate revenues primarily through the sale and/or transportation of natural gas.  All NSTAR Gas and EGMA retail customers have the ability to choose to purchase gas from third party marketers under the Massachusetts Retail Choice program. In the past year in Massachusetts, Retail Choice represented only approximately one percent of the total residential load, while Retail Choice represented approximately 59 percent of the total commercial and industrial load. Retail natural gas service in Connecticut is partially unbundled: residential customers in Yankee Gas' service territory buy natural gas supply and delivery only from Yankee Gas while commercial and industrial customers may choose their natural gas suppliers. Firm transportation service is offered to customers who purchase natural gas from sources other than NSTAR Gas, EGMA or Yankee Gas.  NSTAR Gas and EGMA have the ability to offer interruptible transportation and interruptible natural gas sales service to high volume commercial and industrial customers. Yankee Gas offers interruptible transportation and interruptible natural gas sales service to commercial and industrial customers that have the ability to switch from natural gas to an alternate fuel on short notice. NSTAR Gas, EGMA and Yankee Gas can interrupt service to these customers during peak demand periods or at any other time to maintain distribution system integrity.

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Rates

NSTAR Gas and EGMA are subject to regulation by the DPU and Yankee Gas is subject to regulation by PURA, which, among other things, have jurisdiction over rates, certain dispositions of property and plant, mergers and consolidations, issuances of long-term securities, standards of service and construction and operation of facilities.

Retail natural gas delivery and supply rates are established by the DPU and the PURA and are comprised of:

A distribution charge consisting of a fixed customer charge and a demand and/or energy charge that collects the costs of building, maintaining, and expanding the natural gas infrastructure to deliver natural gas supply to its customers.  This also includes collection of ongoing operating costs.

A seasonal cost of gas adjustment clause (CGAC) at NSTAR Gas and EGMA that collects natural gas supply costs, pipeline and storage capacity costs, costs related to charge-offs of uncollected energy costs and working capital related costs.  The CGAC is reset semi-annually with any difference being recovered from, or refunded to, customers during the following corresponding season. In addition, NSTAR Gas and EGMA file interim changes to the CGAC factor when the actual costs of natural gas supply vary from projections by more than five percent.

A Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) clause, which is evaluated monthly and allows Yankee Gas to recover the costs of the procurement of natural gas for its firm and seasonal customers.  Differences between actual natural gas costs and collection amounts from September 1st through August 31st of each PGA year are deferred and then recovered from, or refunded to, customers during the following PGA year.  Carrying charges on outstanding balances are calculated using Yankee Gas' weighted average cost of capital in accordance with the directives of the PURA.

A local distribution adjustment clause (LDAC) at NSTAR Gas and EGMA that collects all energy efficiency and related program costs, environmental costs, pension and PBOP related costs, attorney general consultant costs, credits related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, gas system enhancement program (GSEP) costs and costs associated with low income customers.  The LDAC is reset annually with any difference being recovered from, or refunded to, customers during the following period and provides for the recovery of certain costs applicable to both sales and transportation customers.

A Conservation Adjustment Mechanism (CAM) at Yankee Gas, which allows 100 percent recovery of conservation costs through this mechanism including program incentives to promote energy efficiency.  A reconciliation of CAM revenues to expenses is performed annually with any difference being recovered from, or refunded to, customers with carrying charges during the following year.

A Gas System Improvement (GSI) reconciliation mechanism at Yankee Gas, which collects the costs of certain Distribution Integrity Management Program (DIMP) and core capital plant in service above and beyond the level that is recovered through the distribution charge. The GSI is adjusted and reconciled annually, with any differences refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

A System Expansion Rate (SER) Reconciliation Mechanism at Yankee Gas, which compares distribution system expansion investment costs and revenues for new customers, with the level projected in current distribution customer rates.  This reconciliation is performed annually and customer rates are adjusted accordingly.

A Revenue Decoupling Mechanism (RDM) at NSTAR Gas and EGMA that reconciles annual base distribution rate recovery amounts recovered from customers to the pre-established level of baseline distribution delivery service revenue requirement approved by the DPU in 2020. The pre-established level of baseline distribution delivery service revenue requirement is also subject to adjustment in accordance with provisions of the November 2020 NSTAR Gas distribution rate case and the October 2020 EGMA rate settlement agreement.

A RDM at Yankee Gas that reconciles annual base distribution rate recovery amounts recovered from customers to the pre-established level of baseline distribution delivery service revenue requirement approved by the PURA effective January 1, 2019, January 1, 2020 and March 1, 2021. The pre-established level of baseline distribution delivery service revenue requirement is also subject to adjustment at each of these dates in accordance with provisions of the 2018 rate case settlement agreement.

NSTAR Gas purchases financial contracts based on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) natural gas futures in order to reduce cash flow variability associated with the price for approximately one-third of its normal winter season natural gas supplies.  These purchases are made under a program approved by the DPU in 2006.  This practice attempts to minimize the impact of fluctuations in natural gas prices to NSTAR Gas' firm natural gas customers.  These financial contracts do not procure natural gas supply.  All costs incurred or benefits realized when these contracts are settled are included in the CGAC.

NSTAR Gas is subject to SQ metrics that measure safety, reliability and customer service and could be required to pay to customers a SQ charge of up to 2.5 percent of annual distribution revenues for failing to meet such metrics.  NSTAR Gas will not be required to pay a SQ charge for its 2020 performance as it achieved results at or above target for all of its SQ metrics in 2020.

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Distribution Rate Cases:
NSTAR Gas: On October 30, 2020, the DPU approved a base distribution rate increase of $23.0 million effective November 1, 2020, compared to the original request of $38.0 million. NSTAR Gas' 2019 plant additions are allowed recovery beginning on November 1, 2021.  Thus, the reduced revenue requirement reflects the removal of this recovery, among other adjustments. The DPU also approved NSTAR Gas' proposal to continue its ongoing Gas System Enhancement Program (GSEP), the inclusion of GSEP investments since 2015 into base rates, and the implementation of a 10-year performance-based ratemaking plan, which includes an inflation-based adjustment mechanism to annual base distribution rates. The decision allows an authorized regulatory ROE of 9.9 percent on a capital structure including 54.77 percent equity. The decision also approves a geothermal pilot program.

Yankee Gas: Yankee Gas distribution rates were set in a December 2018 PURA approved rate case settlement agreement, with rates effective November 15, 2018. The 2018 Yankee Gas settlement agreement required Yankee Gas to implement a GSI cost recovery mechanism to further invest capital to replace aging infrastructure. The GSI mechanism allows for recovery of costs associated with capital additions of approximately $26 million to $37 million annually, which is incremental to the $150 million included in base distribution rate base per year. The settlement agreement also provides Yankee Gas the opportunity to seek recovery of additional capital spending above these levels with PURA approval. PURA ordered an accelerated replacement program for Yankee Gas to fully replace its cast iron and bare steel facilities in 11 years and fully replace copper services and certain steel mains and services in 14 years from the date of the rate case. Yankee Gas was also authorized to continue its ongoing natural gas system expansion program, implement a revenue decoupling rate mechanism, and recover merger costs. The settlement agreement included a regulatory ROE of 9.3 percent. In addition, the distribution rates charged to customers were adjusted to reflect the prospective impacts of the lower federal corporate income tax rate, the overcollection of the lower income tax rate from January 1, 2018, and the EDIT from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Although new rates were effective January 1, 2019, the provisions of the settlement agreement took effect November 15, 2018. PURA also approved step adjustments effective January 1, 2019, January 1, 2020 and March 1, 2021.

EGMA: On October 7, 2020, the DPU approved a rate settlement agreement with Eversource, EGMA, NiSource, Bay State, the Massachusetts Attorney General's Office, the DOER and the Low-Income Weatherization and Fuel Assistance Program Network, which requested approval of the February 26, 2020 asset purchase agreement between Eversource and NiSource, as well as a rate stabilization plan, among other items. The settlement agreement included an authorized regulatory ROE of 9.70 percent as of January 1, 2021, a 53.25 percent equity component of its capital structure, and established rate base equal to $995 million as of the closing on October 9, 2020.

The approved rate stabilization plan includes base distribution rate increases of $13 million on November 1, 2021 and $10 million on November 1, 2022. The settlement agreement includes two rate base resets during an eight-year rate plan, occurring on November 1, 2024 and November 1, 2027. The two rate base resets adjust distribution rates to account for capital additions (including the roll-in of GSEP capital additions), depreciation expense, property taxes, and return on rate base for capital additions placed into service through December 31, 2023, for the first rate base reset occurring on November 1, 2024, and through December 31, 2026, for the second rate base reset occurring on November 1, 2027. Notwithstanding the two distribution rate increases, the two rate base reset provisions, and potential adjustments for qualifying exogenous events, EGMA agreed not to file for an increase or redesign of distribution base rates effective prior to November 1, 2028.

The settlement agreement also permits EGMA to seek recovery of both transaction and integration costs as a result of the asset acquisition after December 31, 2026, subject to DPU review and approval, and subject to certain conditions, such as demonstrating savings resulting from the acquisition.

Natural Gas Replacement and Expansion

Massachusetts: Pursuant to Massachusetts legislation, in October of each year, NSTAR Gas and EGMA file GSEP Plans with the DPU for the following construction year. The GSEP Program is designed to accelerate the replacement of certain natural gas distribution facilities in the system to less than 25 years.  The GSEP includes a tariff that provides NSTAR Gas and EGMA an opportunity to collect the costs for the program on an annual basis through a reconciling factor.  On April 30th each year, the DPU approves the GSEP rate recovery factor that goes into effect on May 1st.

NSTAR Gas' distribution rate case application filed on November 8, 2019 included a proposal to include GSEP additions through 2018 into base distribution rates and to continue the operation of the GSEP mechanism for GSEP investments made after 2018. In addition, the filing included a proposal for a customer connection surcharge, which would be used to reduce up-front contribution in aid of construction (CIAC) costs for customers seeking to connect to the company’s distribution system. On October 30, 2020, the DPU approved the Company’s customer connection surcharge proposal, allowing the surcharge to be implemented beginning November 1, 2021.

Connecticut: Yankee Gas' December 2018 PURA approved rate case settlement agreement included an accelerated pipeline replacement cost recovery program. The Gas System Improvement (GSI) rate recovers accelerated pipeline replacement as well as other capital investment through an annual reconciliation. The Company filed its first GSI reconciliation on March 1, 2019 for rates effective April 1, 2019 and will continue to file annually on March 1 for rates effective April 1.

In 2013, in accordance with Connecticut law and regulations, the PURA approved a comprehensive joint natural gas infrastructure expansion plan (the "Expansion Plan") filed by Yankee Gas and other Connecticut natural gas distribution companies.  In January 2015, the PURA approved a joint settlement agreement proposed by Yankee Gas and other Connecticut natural gas distribution companies and regulatory agencies that clarified the procedures and oversight criteria applicable to the Expansion Plan.  Yankee Gas received approval from PURA for its 2014 through 2019 System Expansion Reconciliations. The Company intends to file its 2020 System Expansion Reconciliation in March 2021 as required by PURA.
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Sources and Availability of Natural Gas Supply

NSTAR Gas maintains a flexible resource portfolio consisting of natural gas supply contracts, transportation contracts on interstate pipelines, market area storage and peaking services. NSTAR Gas purchases transportation, storage, and balancing services from Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company and Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, as well as other upstream pipelines that transport natural gas from major natural gas producing regions in the U.S., including the Gulf Coast, Mid-continent region, and Appalachian Shale supplies to the final delivery points in the NSTAR Gas service area. NSTAR Gas purchases all of its natural gas supply under a firm, competitively bid annual portfolio management contract. In addition to the firm transportation and natural gas storage supplies discussed above, NSTAR Gas utilizes on-system LNG facilities to meet its winter peaking demands. These LNG facilities are located within NSTAR Gas' distribution system and are used to liquefy and store pipeline natural gas during the warmer months for vaporization and use during the heating season. During the summer injection season, excess pipeline capacity and supplies are used to deliver and store natural gas in market area underground storage facilities located in Maryland and Pennsylvania. Stored natural gas is withdrawn during the winter season to supplement flowing pipeline supplies in order to meet firm heating demand. NSTAR Gas has firm underground storage contracts and total storage capacity entitlements of approximately 6.6 Bcf, of which 3.5 Bcf LNG storage is provided by Hopkinton LNG Corp. in facilities located in two different locations in Massachusetts.

EGMA maintains a flexible resource portfolio consisting of natural gas supply contracts, transportation contracts on interstate pipelines, market area storage and peaking services. EGMA purchases transportation, storage, and balancing services from Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company and Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, as well as other upstream pipelines that transport natural gas from major natural gas producing regions in the U.S. as well as Canada, including the Gulf Coast, Mid-continent region, Appalachian Shale, and Dawn, Ontario supplies to the final delivery points in the EGMA service area. EGMA purchases the majority of its natural gas supply under a number of firm, competitively bid annual portfolio management contracts and manages a portion of its portfolio itself. In addition to the firm transportation and natural gas storage supplies discussed above, EGMA utilizes on-system LNG and LPG facilities to meet its winter peaking demands. These LNG and LPG facilities are located within EGMA’s distribution system and are used to liquefy pipeline natural gas and/or receive liquefied natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas to be stored during the warmer months for vaporization and use during the heating season. During the summer injection season, excess pipeline capacity and supplies are used to deliver and store natural gas in market area underground storage facilities located in Maryland and Pennsylvania. Stored natural gas is withdrawn during the winter season to supplement flowing pipeline supplies in order to meet firm heating demand. EGMA has firm underground storage contracts and total storage capacity entitlements of approximately 6.6 Bcf, and 2.0 Bcf LNG and LPG storage located at eight different locations in Massachusetts.

The PURA requires Yankee Gas to meet the needs of its firm customers under all weather conditions. Specifically, Yankee Gas must structure its supply portfolio to meet firm customer needs under a design day scenario (defined as the coldest day in 30 years) and under a design year scenario (defined as the average of the four coldest years in the last 30 years). Yankee Gas also maintains a flexible resource portfolio consisting of natural gas supply contracts, transportation contracts on interstate pipelines, off-system storage and its on-system 1.2 Bcf LNG storage facility in Connecticut to meet consumption needs during the coldest days of winter. Yankee Gas obtains its interstate capacity from the three interstate pipelines that directly serve Connecticut: the Algonquin, Tennessee and Iroquois Pipelines, which connect to other upstream pipelines that transport natural gas from major natural gas producing regions, including the Gulf Coast, Mid-continent, Canadian regions and Appalachian Shale supplies.

Based on information currently available regarding projected growth in demand and estimates of availability of future supplies of pipeline natural gas, each of NSTAR Gas, EGMA and Yankee Gas believes that in order to meet the long-term firm customer requirements in a reliable manner will necessitate a combination of pipeline, storage, and non-pipeline solutions.

WATER DISTRIBUTION SEGMENT
Eversource Water Ventures, Inc., a Connecticut corporation, through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Eversource Aquarion Holdings, Inc. (Aquarion), operates three separate regulated water utilities in Connecticut (Aquarion Water Company of Connecticut, or AWC-CT), Massachusetts (Aquarion Water Company of Massachusetts, or AWC-MA) and New Hampshire (Aquarion Water Company of New Hampshire, or AWC-NH). These regulated companies provide water services to approximately 216,000 residential, commercial, industrial, municipal and fire protection and other customers, in 57 towns and cities in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 93 percent of Aquarion’s customers were based in Connecticut.
Rates
Aquarion's water utilities are subject to regulation by the PURA, the DPU and the NHPUC in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, respectively. These regulatory agencies have jurisdiction over, among other things, rates, certain dispositions of property and plant, mergers and consolidations, issuances of long-term securities, standards of service and construction and operation of facilities.
Aquarion’s general rate structure consists of various rate and service classifications covering residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal and fire protection services.
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The rates established by the PURA, DPU and NHPUC are comprised of the following:
A base rate, which is comprised of fixed charges based on meter/fire connection sizes, as well as volumetric charges based on the amount of water sold. Together these charges are designed to recover the full cost of service resulting from a general rate proceeding.

In Connecticut, a revenue adjustment mechanism (RAM) that reconciles earned revenues, with certain allowed adjustments, on an annual basis, to the revenue requirement approved by the PURA in AWC-CT’s last rate case (2013), which is an annual amount of $178.0 million.

In Connecticut and New Hampshire, a water infrastructure conservation adjustment (WICA) charge, and in Massachusetts, an annual main replacement adjustment mechanism (MRAM) charge, which is applied between rate case proceedings and seeks recovery of allowed costs associated with eligible infrastructure improvement projects placed in-service. The WICA is updated semi-annually in Connecticut and annually in New Hampshire. In Connecticut, an annual WICA reconciliation mechanism reconciles earned WICA revenue to the approved WICA revenue with any differences refunded to, or recovered from, customers.

In Massachusetts, treatment plant surcharges, which are a series of three surcharges (one fixed and two volumetric in nature) that are designed to recover certain operating costs and the costs of the lease of the treatment plant located in Hingham.  These surcharges were applicable only to customers in Hingham, Hull and Cohasset. On July 31, 2020, we sold our water system and treatment plant that supplies water to the towns of Hingham, Hull and North Cohasset to the town of Hingham, Massachusetts. For further information, see "Regulatory Developments and Rate Matters - Massachusetts - Sale of Water System" in the accompanying Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Sources and Availability of Water Supply
Our water utilities obtain their water supplies from owned surface water sources (reservoirs) and groundwater supplies (wells) with a total supply yield of approximately 118 million gallons per day, as well as water purchased from other water suppliers. Approximately 99 percent of our annual production is self-supplied and processed at nine surface water treatment plants and numerous well stations, which are all located in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.
The capacities of Aquarion’s sources of supply, and water treatment, pumping and distribution facilities, are considered sufficient to meet the present requirements of Aquarion’s customers under normal conditions. On occasion, drought declarations are issued for portions of Aquarion’s service territories in response to extended periods of dry weather conditions.

OFFSHORE WIND PROJECTS

Eversource's offshore wind business includes ownership interests in North East Offshore and Bay State Wind, which together hold power purchase agreements (PPAs) and contracts for the Revolution Wind, South Fork Wind and Sunrise Wind projects, as well as offshore leases through BOEM. Our offshore wind projects are being developed and constructed through a joint and equal partnership with Ørsted. This partnership also participates in new procurement opportunities for offshore wind energy in the Northeast U.S.

Eversource has a 50 percent ownership interest in North East Offshore, which holds the Revolution Wind and South Fork Wind projects, as well as a 257 square-mile ocean lease off the coasts of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Eversource also has a 50 percent ownership interest in Bay State Wind, which holds the Sunrise Wind project. Bay State Wind's separate 300-square-mile ocean lease is located approximately 25 miles south of the coast of Massachusetts adjacent to the North East Offshore area. In aggregate, the Bay State Wind and the North East Offshore ocean lease sites jointly-owned by Eversource and Ørsted could eventually develop at least 4,000 MW of clean, renewable offshore wind energy.

Revolution Wind is a 704 MW offshore wind power project located approximately 15 miles south of the Rhode Island coast, and South Fork Wind is a 130 MW offshore wind power project located approximately 35 miles east of Long Island. Sunrise Wind is an 880 MW offshore wind facility, which will be developed 35 miles east of Montauk Point, Long Island. The completion dates for these projects are subject to federal permitting through BOEM, and engineering, state siting and permitting in New York and Rhode Island. For more information on these projects, see "Business Development and Capital Expenditures – Offshore Wind Business" in the accompanying Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

PROJECTED CAPITAL EXPENDITURES

We project to make capital expenditures of $17.03 billion from 2021 through 2025, of which we expect $10.90 billion to be in our electric and natural gas distribution segments, $4.31 billion to be in our electric transmission segment and $0.78 billion to be in our water distribution segment. We also project to invest $1.05 billion in information technology and facilities upgrades and enhancements. These projections do not include any expected investments related to our offshore wind partnership.

FINANCING

Our credit facilities and indentures require that Eversource parent and certain of its subsidiaries, including CL&P, NSTAR Electric, PSNH, NSTAR Gas, EGMA, Yankee Gas, and Aquarion Water Company of Connecticut, comply with certain financial and non-financial covenants as are customarily included in such agreements, including maintaining a ratio of consolidated debt to total capitalization of no more than 65 percent. All of these companies currently are, and expect to remain, in compliance with these covenants.  

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As of December 31, 2020, $1.02 billion of Eversource's long-term debt, including $450.0 million, $250.0 million, $282.0 million, and $40.2 million for Eversource parent, NSTAR Electric, PSNH, and Aquarion, respectively, will mature within the next 12 months.

NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE

CL&P, NSTAR Electric, PSNH, and several other New England electric utilities are stockholders in three inactive regional nuclear generation companies, CYAPC, MYAPC and YAEC (collectively, the Yankee Companies).  The Yankee Companies have completed the physical decommissioning of their respective nuclear power facilities and are now engaged in the long-term storage of their spent nuclear fuel.  The Yankee Companies fund these costs through litigation proceeds received from the DOE and, to the extent necessary, through wholesale, FERC-approved rates charged under power purchase agreements with several New England utilities, including CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH. CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH, in turn recover these costs from their customers through state regulatory commission-approved retail rates. The Yankee Companies collect amounts that we believe are adequate to recover the remaining plant closure and fuel storage cost estimates for the respective plants. We believe CL&P and NSTAR Electric will recover their shares of these obligations from their customers. PSNH has recovered its total share of these costs from its customers.

We consolidate the assets and obligations of CYAPC and YAEC on our consolidated balance sheet because our ownership and voting interests are greater than 50 percent of each of these companies.  

OTHER REGULATORY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

General

We are regulated by various federal and state agencies, including FERC, the SEC, and various state and/or local regulatory authorities with jurisdiction over the industry and the service areas in which each of our companies operates, including the PURA, which has jurisdiction over CL&P, Yankee Gas, and Aquarion, the DPU, which has jurisdiction over NSTAR Electric, NSTAR Gas, EGMA and Aquarion, and the NHPUC, which has jurisdiction over PSNH and Aquarion.

Environmental Regulation

We are subject to various federal, state and local requirements with respect to water quality, air quality, toxic substances, hazardous waste and other environmental matters.  Additionally, major generation and transmission facilities may not be constructed or significantly modified without a review of the environmental impact of the proposed construction or modification by the applicable federal or state agencies.  

Renewable Portfolio Standards

Each of the states in which we do business also has Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) requirements, which generally require fixed percentages of our energy supply to come from renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydropower, landfill gas, fuel cells and other similar sources.

Connecticut's RPS statute requires increasing percentages of the electricity sold to retail customers to have direct ties to renewable sources. In 2020, the total RPS obligation was 29 percent and will ultimately reach 48 percent in 2030. CL&P is permitted to recover any costs incurred in complying with RPS from its customers through its GSC rate.

Massachusetts' RPS program requires electricity suppliers to meet renewable energy standards. For 2020, the requirement was 27.71 percent, and will ultimately reach 39.31 percent in 2025. NSTAR Electric is permitted to recover any costs incurred in complying with RPS from its customers through rates. NSTAR Electric also owns renewable solar power facilities. The RECs generated from NSTAR Electric's solar power facilities are sold to other energy suppliers, and the proceeds from these sales are credited back to customers.

New Hampshire's RPS provision requires increasing percentages of the electricity sold to retail customers to have direct ties to renewable sources. In 2020, the total RPS obligation was 21.7 percent and it will ultimately reach 25.2 percent in 2025. The costs of the RECs are recovered by PSNH through rates charged to customers.

Hazardous Materials Regulations

We have recorded a liability for what we believe, based upon currently available information, is our reasonably estimable environmental investigation, remediation, and/or Natural Resource Damages costs for waste disposal sites for which we have probable liability. Under federal and state law, government agencies and private parties can attempt to impose liability on us for recovery of investigation and remediation costs at hazardous waste sites. As of December 31, 2020, the liability recorded for our reasonably estimable and probable environmental remediation costs for known sites needing investigation and/or remediation, exclusive of recoveries from insurance or from third parties, was $102.4 million, representing 63 sites. These costs could be significantly higher if additional remediation becomes necessary or when additional information as to the extent of contamination becomes available.

The most significant liabilities currently relate to future clean-up costs at former MGP facilities. These facilities were owned and operated by our predecessor companies from the mid-1800's to mid-1900's. By-products from the manufacture of natural gas using coal resulted in fuel oils, hydrocarbons, coal tar, purifier wastes, metals and other waste products that may pose a potential risk to human health and the environment. We currently have partial or full ownership responsibilities at former MGP sites that have a reserve balance of $92.2 million of the total $102.4 million as of December 31, 2020. MGP costs are recoverable through rates charged to our customers.
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Electric and Magnetic Fields  

For more than twenty years, published reports have discussed the possibility of adverse health effects from electric and magnetic fields (EMF) associated with electric transmission and distribution facilities and appliances and wiring in buildings and homes.  Although weak health risk associations reported in some epidemiology studies remain unexplained, most researchers, as well as numerous scientific review panels, considering all significant EMF epidemiology and laboratory studies, have concluded that the available body of scientific information does not support the conclusion that EMF affects human health.

In accordance with recommendations of various regulatory bodies and public health organizations, we reduce EMF associated with new transmission lines by the use of designs that can be implemented without additional cost or at a modest cost.  We do not believe that other capital expenditures are appropriate to minimize unsubstantiated risks.

Global Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Issues

Global climate change and greenhouse gas emission issues have received an increased focus from state governments and the federal government. The EPA initiated a rulemaking addressing greenhouse gas emissions and, in 2009, issued a finding that concluded that greenhouse gas emissions are "air pollution" that endangers public health and welfare and should be regulated.  The EPA has mandated greenhouse gas emission reporting beginning in 2011 for emissions for certain aspects of our business including volume of gas supplied to large customers and fugitive emissions of SF6 gas and methane.

We are continually evaluating the regulatory risks and regulatory uncertainty presented by climate change concerns.  Such concerns could potentially lead to additional rules and regulations that impact how we operate our general utility business.  These could include federal "cap and trade" laws, carbon taxes, and fuel and energy taxes.  We expect that any costs of these rules and regulations would be recovered from customers.

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

For information about Eversource Energy's executive officers, see Item 10, Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

HUMAN CAPITAL

Eversource is committed to delivering reliable energy and superior customer service; expanding energy options for our region; environmental stewardship; a safe, diverse and fairly-compensated workforce; and community service and leadership. Our employees are critical to achieving this mission and we recognize the importance of retention, growth and development of our employees. Leaders at all levels strive to create a workplace where our employees are engaged, advocate for the customer, work collaboratively, raise ideas for improvement and focus on delivering a superior customer experience. We build employee engagement through continuous communication, developing talent, fostering teamwork and creating a diverse, inclusive workplace.

As of December 31, 2020, Eversource Energy employed a total of 9,299 employees, excluding temporary employees, of which 1,381 were employed by CL&P, 1,611 were employed by NSTAR Electric, and 745 were employed by PSNH. In addition, 3,373 were employed by Eversource Service, Eversource's service company, that provides support services to all Eversource operating companies. Approximately 50 percent of our employees are members of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, the Utility Workers Union of America or The United Steelworkers, and are covered by 14 collective bargaining agreements.

Safety. At Eversource, our commitment to “Safety First and Always” is a principle and a mindset present in every job and every task, whether in the field, office or at home. A priority at Eversource is continuous improvement and safety is at the forefront as we continue to build a strong safety culture, embrace new technologies, and learn with our industry and community partners to improve safety performance. We use metrics such as Eversource Corporate Days Away Restricted Time (DART) and Preventable Motor Vehicle events, among others, to monitor safety performance. Our DART safety performance was 0.7 in 2020, measured by days away, restricted or transferred per 100 workers.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented our company-wide pandemic plan, which resulted in no employees losing their jobs due to the pandemic, and significant changes put in place that were in the best interest of our employees, customers, and communities. This included having nearly half of our employees working remotely, while implementing additional significant safety measures for employees continuing critical on-site work. For our employees performing essential functions that are required onsite, such as field crews and system operations, we have taken significant safety measures, including establishing social distancing measures, the use of personal protective equipment, increasing facility sanitization efforts, and enabling critical operations to be shifted to different control center locations if necessary. We continue to prepare for the re-entry of our employees working remotely. The plan is informed by public health guidance with the safety of our employees and customers as our highest priority. We are in the early phase of our re-entry plan and have returned fewer than 100 remote employees to the workplace. We have had increased short duration return to work for critical business needs, such as storm response and essential training. State and federal guidelines, external conditions, and critical business priorities continue to inform the pace of our re-entry plan. Significant health and safety measures and pandemic protocols will remain in place, including social distancing requirements, the use of personal protective equipment, sanitization efforts and employee training, for all employees currently working onsite and specific plans have been developed for our eventual re-entry to the workplace.

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Diversity & Inclusion. Our commitment to Diversity & Inclusion (D&I) is critical to building a diverse, empowered and engaged team that delivers great service safely to our customers. A diverse workforce and inclusive culture contribute to our success and sustainability by driving innovation and creating trusted relationships with our employees, customers, suppliers and community partners. Our hiring practices emphasize diversity and we encourage employees to embrace different people, perspectives and experiences in our workplace and within our communities. Additionally, our leadership behaviors underscore the importance of creating inclusive teams, where employees’ voices and contributions are essential to delivering superior customer service.

Eversource’s executive leadership team promotes and supports D&I by building diverse, inclusive work teams with high engagement, growing a pipeline of diverse talent, leveraging multiple perspectives to improve customer service, using diverse suppliers, engaging with multicultural organizations in our communities and supporting the work of the D&I council and business resource groups. Eversource continues to work toward a diverse workforce with a focus on women and minorities in leadership and has D&I goals and initiatives for diversity in leadership promotions and new hires, diverse external hires, diverse candidate slate, key talent, workforce representation, community and suppliers. Eversource drives accountability for D&I progress throughout the company and executive compensation is linked to meeting our D&I goals. In 2020, 47.6 percent of new hires and promotions into leadership roles were women or people of color.

Eversource's Board of Trustees is committed to diversity and inclusion and receives regular monthly progress updates. The Corporate Governance Committee and the Board of Trustees seek diversity in gender, ethnicity and personal background when considering Trustee candidates. Our Board of Trustees has been recognized as one of the most diverse in our industry.

Compensation, Health and Wellness Benefits. We are committed to the health, safety and wellness of our employees. We provide competitive compensation and comprehensive benefit packages, including healthcare, life insurance, long-term disability insurance, death benefits, retirement plans (defined benefit pension plans or 401k Plan), an Employee Stock Purchase Plan, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, employee assistance programs, and tuition assistance, among many others. Eversource also provides wellness programs and benefits to encourage employees and their families to adopt and maintain healthy lifestyle habits.

Talent Development, Training Programs and Education Opportunities. Eversource supports and develops its employees through training and development programs that build and strengthen employees’ leadership and skill set. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have pivoted, and are providing employees with a variety of virtual classroom training opportunities. Continuous professional development is important to support our employees’ ongoing success. These professional development programs include leadership effectiveness programs designed to develop new and current supervisors; a talent management process to identify high potential and emerging talent and ensure their development; a rotational associate engineering program; educational and professional development opportunities for employees who are recent college graduates; tuition assistance program; and paid internships and co-ops.

Strategic workforce plans are developed every year as part of the annual business planning process to identify long-range needs to ensure that we acquire, develop and retain diverse, capable talent. This includes leveraging educational partnerships in critical craft and technical areas and developing proactive sourcing strategies to attract experienced professionals in highly technical roles in engineering, electric and gas operations, and energy efficiency. As part of this process, we identify critical roles and develop succession plans to ensure we have a capable supply of talent for the future.

Over 800 new Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts employees (formerly Columbia Gas of Massachusetts employees) were welcomed and successfully onboarded in 2020. All Columbia Gas of Massachusetts employees who wanted to continue employment with Eversource were offered jobs.

Community & Social Impact. Eversource and our employees support many programs, agencies, and not-for-profit organizations that support economic and community development, the environment, and initiatives that address local, high-priority concerns and needs. Eversource provides donations and other support to community agencies, including significant volunteer hours of our employees.

See Item 11, Executive Compensation, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as the “Our People” section of our 2019 Sustainability Report located on our website, for more detailed information regarding our human capital programs and initiatives. Nothing on our website, including our Sustainability Report or sections thereof, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.

INTERNET INFORMATION

Our website address is www.eversource.com.  We make available through our website a link to the SEC's EDGAR website (http://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/companysearch.html), at which site Eversource's, CL&P's, NSTAR Electric's and PSNH's combined Annual Reports on Form 10-K, combined Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports may be reviewed. Information contained on the Company's website or that can be accessed through the website is not incorporated into and does not constitute a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  Printed copies of these reports may be obtained free of charge by writing to our Investor Relations Department at Eversource Energy, 107 Selden Street, Berlin, CT 06037.  

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

In addition to the matters set forth under "Safe Harbor Statement Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995" included immediately prior to Item 1, Business, above, we are subject to a variety of material risks. Our susceptibility to certain risks, including those discussed in detail below, could exacerbate other risks. These risk factors should be considered carefully in evaluating our risk profile.

Cybersecurity and Data Privacy Risks:

Cyberattacks, including acts of war or terrorism, targeted directly on or indirectly affecting our systems or the systems of third parties on which we rely, could severely impair operations, negatively impact our business, lead to the disclosure of confidential information and adversely affect our reputation.

A successful cyberattack on the information technology systems that control our transmission, distribution, gas and water systems or other assets could impair or prevent us from managing these systems and facilities, operating our systems effectively, or properly managing our data, networks and programs. The breach of certain information technology systems could adversely affect our ability to correctly record, process and report financial information. A major cyber incident could result in significant expenses to investigate and to repair system damage or security breaches and could lead to litigation, fines, other remedial action, heightened regulatory scrutiny and damage to our reputation.

We have instituted safeguards to protect our information technology systems and assets. We deployed substantial technologies to system and application security, encryption and other measures to protect our computer systems and infrastructure from unauthorized access or misuse. We also interface with numerous external entities to improve our cybersecurity situational awareness. The FERC, through the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), requires certain safeguards to be implemented to deter cyberattacks. These safeguards may not always be effective due to the evolving nature of cyberattacks. We maintain cyber insurance to cover damages and defense costs related to breaches of networks or operational technology, but it may be insufficient to cover all losses.

Any such cyberattacks could result in loss of service to customers and a significant decrease in revenues, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

The unauthorized access to and the misappropriation of confidential and proprietary customer, employee, financial or system operating information could adversely affect our business operations and adversely impact our reputation.

In the regular course of business, we, and our third-party suppliers, maintain sensitive customer, employee, financial and system operating information. We are required by various federal and state laws to safeguard this information. Cyber intrusions, security breaches, theft or loss of this information by cybercrime or otherwise could lead to the release of critical operating information or confidential customer or employee information, which could adversely affect our business operations or adversely impact our reputation, and could result in significant costs, fines and litigation. We maintain cyber insurance to cover damages and defense costs arising from unauthorized disclosure of, or failure to protect, private information, as well as costs for notification to, or for credit monitoring of, customers, employees and other persons in the event of a breach of private information. This insurance covers amounts paid to avert, prevent or stop a network attack or the disclosure of personal information, and costs of a qualified forensics firm to determine the cause, source and extent of a network attack or to investigate, examine and analyze our network to find the cause, source and extent of a data breach, but it may be insufficient to cover all losses. While we have implemented measures designed to prevent network attacks and mitigate their effects should they occur, these measures may not be effective due to the continually evolving nature of efforts to access confidential information.

Pandemic Risks, including COVID-19 Related Risks:

As evidenced by the global pandemic of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), global pandemics result in widespread disruption to the overall economic market and outlook, which could cause various unfavorable impacts to our customers, vendors, employees, regulators, and operations and could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

We continue to respond to COVID-19 by taking steps to mitigate the potential risks to Eversource posed by its spread. We provide a critical service to our customers, which means it is paramount that we keep our employees who operate our businesses safe, and minimize unnecessary risk of exposure to COVID-19. We have updated and implemented our company-wide pandemic plan to address specific aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This plan guides our emergency response, business continuity, and the precautionary measures we are taking on behalf of employees and our customers.

Cybersecurity attacks: We, as well as others in the power and utility industry, have continued to experience significant events where outside parties, utilizing sophisticated methods, have attempted to compromise both our vendors and employees to try to gain access to our email systems, as well as attempting to access our other systems or networks. Eversource was not affected by the SolarWinds event. We continue to implement strong cybersecurity measures and have increased the education of our employees and contractors to ensure that our systems remain functional in order to both serve our operational needs with a remote workforce and to ensure uninterrupted service to our customers. Our incident response team works with compromised vendors to assist them in improving their security posture. We also continuously review and update our response plans to include responding to an event while in a remote work environment.

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Access to, or cost of, capital resources: We utilize the commercial paper market extensively for our short-term borrowing needs. At the onset of the pandemic in the United States, liquidity in the commercial paper credit market began to deteriorate rapidly. However, federal legislative actions, including actions taken by the Federal Reserve, have provided sufficient liquidity and stabilization of the credit markets. We continue to monitor the ability for us to access the global capital and credit markets; however, if we are unable to access these markets, then our financial condition may be adversely affected. We have had open, full access to the capital markets throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Actions of regulators: We continue to work closely with our state regulatory commissions and consumer advocates on customer assistance measures, including payment plan options in order to mitigate the impact on customer rates in the future, as well as financial hardship and arrearage management programs for those customers who are unable to pay their utility bills. We developed these long-term solutions for customers in order to help minimize the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on customer receivable balances and customers’ affordability in light of the current financial impact they may experience. We believe that we have in place, or are developing, successful mechanisms with our state regulatory commissions to recover our incremental costs associated with COVID-19, while balancing the impact on our customers’ bills and our operating cash flows, however our financial condition may be adversely affected depending on the outcome of planned proceedings before our state regulatory commissions.

Timing of strategic development opportunities: The successful execution of our timeline for developing our offshore wind projects is based on several factors, including state and federal siting and permitting approvals. We implemented, and continue to update, mitigation plans that addressed permitting delays due to COVID-19 work restrictions between March and June 2020 that resulted in a moderate impact to our offshore wind projects siting and permit filing timelines. However, we are unable to assess the potential impact that a reintroduction of work restrictions in response to a future resurgence in COVID-19 infections would have on our projects’ timelines.

Suppliers and Vendors: We have instituted measures to ensure our supply chain remains open to us; however, there could be global shortages that will impact our maintenance, capital programs, and storm response that we currently cannot anticipate.

Loss of key personnel: We continue to adjust our pandemic plan to address various scenarios including reduced workforce levels and limited mutual aid in the event of a significant storm event. We have implemented remote work arrangements for our workforce by enabling nearly half of our employees to work from home and taking extra precautions for our field-based employees. We have taken significant safety measures to ensure adequate social distancing for our field crews to safely provide essential services to our customers. We have also adopted protocols to ensure the safety and health of those employees who work onsite in critical facilities. We continue to monitor COVID-19 developments affecting our workforce and will take additional precautions that we determine are necessary in order to mitigate the impacts. Although to date our workforce continues to be able to safely and reliably deliver our critical services to customers, we are unable to predict the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our employees.

The extent of the impact to us in the future will vary and depend in large part on the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic and the timing and extent of COVID-19 relief legislation, and the resulting impact on economic, health care and capital market conditions. The future impact will also depend on the outcome of planned proceedings before our state regulatory commissions to recover our incremental costs associated with COVID-19, which include uncollectible customer receivable expenses. As a result, we are currently unable to estimate the potential impact of COVID-19 to our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Business Risks:

Strategic development opportunities associated with offshore wind or investment opportunities in electric transmission or clean-energy opportunities may not be successful, and projects may not commence operation as scheduled or be completed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business prospects.

We are pursuing broader strategic development investment opportunities that will benefit the Northeast region related to the construction of offshore wind electric generation facilities, and investment opportunities in electric transmission facilities and other clean-energy infrastructure. The development of these activities involves numerous significant risks around schedule, cost, capacity factors, tax strategies and permitting (both on and offshore). Various external factors could result in increased costs or result in delays or cancellation of these projects. Risks include federal, state and local regulatory approval processes, new legislation impacting the industry, changes to federal income tax laws, economic events or factors, environmental and community concerns, design and siting issues, difficulties in obtaining required rights of way, competition from incumbent utilities and other entities, and actions of our strategic partners. Should any of these factors result in significant delays or cancellations, our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected, or our future growth opportunities may not be realized as anticipated.

Eversource has a joint and equal partnership with Ørsted for the development and operation of three offshore wind projects. Offshore wind is currently an emerging industry in the U.S., but it has a very robust operational and construction history in Europe. As such, siting, permitting, tax legislation, and supply chain are currently being addressed for the first time in the U.S. The projects currently being developed by our partnership may not achieve the results we anticipate. The partnership’s ability to generate revenue from offshore wind projects depends on meeting our construction schedules, controlling cost overruns, maintaining continuing interconnection arrangements, power purchase agreements, or other market mechanisms as well as interconnecting utility and Regional Transmission Organizations rules, policies, procedures and FERC tariffs that permit future offshore wind project operations. After projects are placed in operation, capacity factors will directly affect revenues generated from these investments. Other factors that may have an adverse impact on our anticipated project returns include significant schedule delays resulting from federal, state or local permitting processes. Specifically, the approval from the BOEM is a critical path item in the projects' timeline. Any changes to tax laws or to Eversource’s ability to monetize tax attributes associated with these projects could also have a material adverse effect on cash flows and project returns.

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As a result of legislative and regulatory changes, the states in which we provide service have implemented new selection procedures for new major electric transmission, offshore wind and other clean energy facilities. These procedures require the review of competing projects and permit the selection of only those projects that are expected to provide the greatest benefit to customers. If the projects in which we have invested are not selected for construction, or even if our projects are selected, then legislative or regulatory actions could result in our projects not being probable of entering the construction phase, which could have a material adverse effect on our future financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

We outsource certain business functions to third-party suppliers and service providers, and substandard performance by those third parties could harm our business, reputation and results of operations.

We outsource certain services to third parties in areas including information technology, transaction processing, human resources, payroll and payroll processing and certain operational areas. As a result of our acquisition of the Columbia Gas of Massachusetts (CMA) assets from NiSource on October 9, 2020, we have entered into a Transition Services Agreement with NiSource whereby NiSource is performing certain services on behalf of our newly formed Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts in the areas of information technology, transaction processing, human resources, payroll and payroll processing and certain operational areas for periods ranging from 1 to 24 months. Outsourcing of services to third parties could expose us to substandard quality of service delivery or substandard deliverables, which may result in missed deadlines or other timeliness issues, non-compliance (including with applicable legal requirements and industry standards) or reputational harm, which could negatively impact our results of operations. We also continue to pursue enhancements to standardize our systems and processes. If any difficulties in the operation of these systems were to occur, they could adversely affect our results of operations, or adversely affect our ability to work with regulators, unions, customers or employees.

Our transmission and distribution systems may not operate as expected, and could require unplanned expenditures, which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Our ability to properly operate our transmission and distribution systems is critical to the financial performance of our business. Our transmission and distribution businesses face several operational risks, including the breakdown, failure of, or damage to operating equipment, information technology systems, or processes, especially due to age; labor disputes; disruptions in the delivery of electricity, natural gas and water; increased capital expenditure requirements, including those due to environmental regulation; catastrophic events such as fires, explosions, a solar event, an electromagnetic event, or other similar occurrences; extreme weather conditions beyond equipment and plant design capacity; human error; and potential claims for property damage or personal injuries beyond the scope of our insurance coverage. Many of our transmission projects are expected to alleviate identified reliability issues and reduce customers' costs. However, if the in-service date for one or more of these projects is delayed due to economic events or factors, or regulatory or other delays, the risk of failures in the electric transmission system may increase. Any failure of our transmission and distribution systems to operate as planned may result in increased capital costs, reduced earnings or unplanned increases in operation and maintenance costs. The inability to recover a significant amount of such costs could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

New technology and alternative energy sources could adversely affect our operations and financial results.

Advances in technology that reduce the costs of alternative methods of producing electric energy to a level that is competitive with that of current electric production methods, could result in loss of market share and customers, and may require us to make significant expenditures to remain competitive. These changes in technology could also alter the channels through which electric customers buy or utilize energy, which could reduce our revenues or increase our expenses. Economic downturns or periods of high energy supply costs typically can lead to the development of legislative and regulatory policy designed to promote reductions in energy consumption and increased energy efficiency and self-generation by customers.

The loss of key personnel, the inability to hire and retain qualified employees, or the failure to maintain a positive relationship with our workforce could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.

Our operations depend on the continued efforts of our employees. Retaining key employees and maintaining the ability to attract new employees are important to both our operational and financial performance. We cannot guarantee that any member of our management or any key employee at the Eversource parent or subsidiary level will continue to serve in any capacity for any particular period of time. In addition, a significant portion of our workforce in our subsidiaries, including many workers with specialized skills maintaining and servicing the electric, natural gas and water infrastructure, will be eligible to retire over the next five to ten years. Such highly skilled individuals cannot be quickly replaced due to the technically complex work they perform. We have developed strategic workforce plans to identify key functions and proactively implement plans to assure a ready and qualified workforce, but we cannot predict the impact of these plans on our ability to hire and retain key employees. Labor disputes, work stoppages or an inability to negotiate future collective bargaining agreements on commercially reasonable terms, as well as the intentional misconduct of employees or contractors, may also have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Environment and Catastrophic Events:

The effects of climate change, including severe storms, could cause significant damage to any of our facilities requiring extensive expenditures, the recovery for which is subject to approval by regulators.

Climate change creates physical and financial risks to our operations. Physical risks from climate change may include an increase in sea levels and changes in weather conditions, such as changes in precipitation and extreme weather events including drought. Customers’ energy needs vary with weather conditions, primarily temperature and humidity. For residential customers, heating and cooling represent their largest energy use. For water customers, conservation measures imposed by the communities we serve could impact water usage. To the extent weather conditions are affected by climate change, customers’ energy and water usage could increase or decrease depending on the duration and magnitude of the changes.
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Severe weather, such as ice and snow storms, hurricanes, droughts, and other natural disasters, may cause outages and property damage, which may require us to incur additional costs that may not be recoverable from customers. The cost of repairing damage to our operating subsidiaries' facilities and the potential disruption of their operations due to storms, natural disasters or other catastrophic events could be substantial, particularly as regulators and customers demand better and quicker response times to outages. If, upon review, any of our state regulatory authorities finds that our actions were imprudent, some of those restoration costs may not be recoverable from customers. The inability to recover a significant amount of such costs could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. We maintain property insurance, but it may be insufficient to cover all losses.

Contamination of our water supplies, the failure of dams on reservoirs providing water to our customers, or requirements to repair, upgrade or dismantle any of these dams, may disrupt our ability to distribute water to our customers and result in substantial additional costs, which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Our water supplies, including water provided to our customers, are subject to possible contamination from naturally occurring compounds or man-made substances.

Our water systems include impounding dams and reservoirs of various sizes. Although we believe our dams are structurally sound and well-maintained, significant damage to these facilities, or a significant decrease in the water in our reservoirs, could adversely affect our ability to provide water to our customers until the facilities and a sufficient amount of water in our reservoirs can be restored. A failure of a dam could result in personal injuries and downstream property damage for which we may be liable. The failure of a dam would also adversely affect our ability to supply water in sufficient quantities to our customers. Any losses or liabilities incurred due to a failure of one of our dams may not be recoverable in rates and may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. We maintain liability insurance, but it may be insufficient to cover all losses.

Physical attacks, including acts of war or terrorism, both threatened and actual, could adversely affect our ability to operate our systems and could adversely affect our financial results and liquidity.

Physical attacks, including acts of war or terrorism, both threatened and actual, that damage our transmission and distribution systems or other assets could negatively impact our ability to transmit or distribute energy, water, natural gas, or operate our systems efficiently or at all. Because our electric transmission systems are part of an interconnected regional grid, we face the risk of widespread blackouts due to grid disturbances or disruptions on a neighboring interconnected system. Similarly, our natural gas distribution system is connected to transmission pipelines, not owned by Eversource. If there was an attack on the transmission pipelines, it could impact our ability to deliver natural gas. If our assets were physically damaged and were not recovered in a timely manner, it could result in a loss of service to customers, a significant decrease in revenues, significant expense to repair system damage, costs associated with governmental actions in response to such attacks, and liability claims, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. We maintain property and liability insurance, but it may be insufficient to cover all losses.

Regulatory, Legislative and Compliance Risks:

The actions of regulators and legislators could significantly impact our ability to recover costs in a timely manner and can affect our earnings and liquidity.

The rates that our electric, natural gas and water companies charge their customers are determined by their state regulatory commissions and by the FERC. These commissions also regulate the companies' accounting, operations, the issuance of certain securities and certain other matters. The FERC also regulates the transmission of electric energy, the sale of electric energy at wholesale, accounting, issuance of certain securities and certain other matters, including reliability standards through NERC.

Under state and federal law, our electric, natural gas and water companies are entitled to charge rates that are sufficient to allow them an opportunity to recover their prudently incurred operating and capital costs and a reasonable rate of return on invested capital, to attract needed capital and maintain their financial integrity, while also protecting relevant public interests. Each of these companies prepares and submits periodic rate filings with their respective regulatory commissions for review and approval, which allows for various entities to challenge our current or future rates, structures or mechanisms and could alter or limit the rates we are allowed to charge our customers and may not match the timing of when costs are incurred. Additionally, catastrophic events at other utilities could result in our regulators and legislators imposing additional requirements that may lead to additional costs for the Company.

There is no assurance that regulators will approve the recovery of all costs incurred by our electric, natural gas and water companies, including costs for construction, operation and maintenance, as well as a reasonable return on their respective regulated assets. The amount of costs incurred by the companies, coupled with increases in fuel and energy prices, could lead to consumer or regulatory resistance to the timely recovery of such costs, thereby adversely affecting our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

The FERC has jurisdiction over our transmission costs recovery and our allowed ROEs. Certain outside parties have filed four complaints against all electric companies under the jurisdiction of ISO-NE alleging that our allowed ROEs are unjust and unreasonable. An adverse decision in any of these four complaints could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

FERC's policy has encouraged competition for transmission projects, even within existing service territories of electric companies. Implementation of FERC's goals, including within our service territories, may expose us to competition for construction of transmission projects, additional regulatory considerations, and potential delay with respect to future transmission projects, which may adversely affect our results of operations and lower rate base growth.
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Changes in tax laws, as well as the potential tax effects of business decisions could negatively impact our business, results of operations (including our expected project returns from our planned offshore wind facilities), financial condition and cash flows.

We are exposed to significant reputational risks, which make us vulnerable to increased regulatory oversight or other sanctions.

Because utility companies, including our electric, natural gas and water utility subsidiaries, have large customer bases, they are subject to adverse publicity focused on the reliability of their distribution services and the speed with which they are able to respond to electric outages, natural gas leaks and similar interruptions caused by storm damage or other unanticipated events. Adverse publicity of this nature could harm our reputation and the reputation of our subsidiaries; may make state legislatures, utility commissions and other regulatory authorities less likely to view us in a favorable light; and may cause us to be subject to less favorable legislative and regulatory outcomes or increased regulatory oversight. Unfavorable regulatory outcomes can include more stringent laws and regulations governing our operations, such as reliability and customer service quality standards or vegetation management requirements, as well as fines, penalties or other sanctions or requirements.

Costs of compliance with environmental laws and regulations, including those related to climate change, may increase and have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Our subsidiaries' operations are subject to extensive federal, state and local environmental statutes, rules and regulations that govern, among other things, water quality, water discharges, the management of hazardous and solid waste, and air emissions. Compliance with these requirements requires us to incur significant costs relating to environmental monitoring, maintenance and upgrading of facilities, remediation and permitting.

The costs of compliance with existing legal requirements or legal requirements not yet adopted may increase in the future. An increase in such costs, unless promptly recovered, could have an adverse impact on our business and our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

For further information, see Item 1, Business - Other Regulatory and Environmental Matters, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Financial, Economic, and Market Risks:

Our goodwill is recorded at an amount that, if impaired and written down, could adversely affect our future operating results and total capitalization.

We have a significant amount of goodwill on our consolidated balance sheet, which, as of December 31, 2020, totaled $4.4 billion. The carrying value of goodwill represents the fair value of an acquired business in excess of the fair value of identifiable assets and liabilities as of the acquisition date. We test our goodwill balances for impairment on an annual basis or whenever events occur, or circumstances change that would indicate a potential for impairment. A determination that goodwill is deemed to be impaired would result in a non-cash charge that could materially adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and total capitalization. The annual goodwill impairment test in 2020 resulted in a conclusion that our goodwill was not impaired.

Our counterparties may not meet their obligations to us or may elect to exercise their termination rights, which could adversely affect our earnings.

We are exposed to the risk that counterparties to various arrangements that owe us money, have contracted to supply us with energy or other commodities or services, or that work with us as strategic partners, including on significant capital projects, will not be able to perform their obligations, will terminate such arrangements or, with respect to our credit facilities, fail to honor their commitments. Should any of these counterparties fail to perform their obligations or terminate such arrangements, we might be forced to replace the underlying commitment at higher market prices and/or have to delay the completion of, or cancel, a capital project. Should any lenders under our credit facilities fail to perform, the level of borrowing capacity under those arrangements could decrease. In any such events, our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows could be adversely affected.

Limits on our access to, or increases in, the cost of capital may adversely impact our ability to execute our business plan.

We use short-term debt and the long-term capital markets as a significant source of liquidity and funding for capital requirements not obtained from our operating cash flow. If access to these sources of liquidity becomes constrained, our ability to implement our business strategy could be adversely affected. In addition, higher interest rates would increase our cost of borrowing, which could adversely impact our results of operations. A downgrade of our credit ratings or events beyond our control, such as a disruption in global capital and credit markets, could increase our cost of borrowing and cost of capital or restrict our ability to access the capital markets and negatively affect our ability to maintain and to expand our businesses.

Market performance or changes in assumptions may require us to make significant contributions to our pension and other postretirement benefit plans.

We provide a defined benefit pension plan and other postretirement benefits for a substantial number of employees, former employees and retirees. Our future pension obligations, costs and liabilities are highly dependent on a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include estimated investment returns, interest rates, discount rates, health care cost trends, benefit changes, salary increases and the demographics of plan participants. If our assumptions prove to be inaccurate, our future costs could increase significantly. In addition, various factors, including underperformance of plan investments and changes in law or regulation, could increase the amount of contributions required to fund our pension plan in the future. Additional large funding requirements, when combined with the financing requirements of our construction
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program, could impact the timing, amounts, and number of future financings and negatively affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

As a holding company with no revenue-generating operations, Eversource parent's liquidity is dependent on dividends from its subsidiaries, its commercial paper program, and its ability to access the long-term debt and equity capital markets.

Eversource parent is a holding company and as such, has no revenue-generating operations of its own. Its ability to meet its debt service obligations and to pay dividends on its common shares is largely dependent on the ability of its subsidiaries to pay dividends to, or repay borrowings from, Eversource parent, and/or Eversource parent's ability to access its commercial paper program or the long-term debt and equity capital markets. Prior to funding Eversource parent, the subsidiary companies have financial obligations that must be satisfied, including among others, their operating expenses, debt service, preferred dividends of certain subsidiaries, and obligations to trade creditors. Should the subsidiary companies not be able to pay dividends or repay funds due to Eversource parent, or if Eversource parent cannot access its commercial paper programs or the long-term debt and equity capital markets, Eversource parent's ability to pay interest, dividends and its own debt obligations would be restricted.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

We do not have any unresolved SEC staff comments.

Item 2.    Properties

Transmission and Distribution System

As of December 31, 2020, Eversource and our electric operating subsidiaries owned the following:
Electric
Distribution
Electric
Transmission
Eversource
Number of substations owned485 78 
Transformer capacity (in kVa)43,431,000 16,149,000 
Overhead lines (in circuit miles)40,623 3,975 
Underground lines (in circuit miles)17,926 418 
Capacity range of overhead transmission lines (in kV)N/A69 to 345
Capacity range of underground transmission lines (in kV)N/A69 to 345
 CL&PNSTAR ElectricPSNH
 DistributionTransmissionDistributionTransmissionDistributionTransmission
Number of substations owned182 20 169 36 134 22 
Transformer capacity (in kVa)21,946,000 3,633,000 17,040,000 7,465,000 4,445,000 5,051,000 
Overhead lines (in circuit miles)16,935 1,677 11,440 1,244 12,248 1,054 
Underground lines (in circuit miles)6,812 143 9,082 272 2,032 
Capacity range of overhead transmission lines (in kV)N/A69 to 345N/A69 to 345N/A115 to 345
Capacity range of underground transmission lines (in kV)N/A69 to 345N/A115 to 345N/A115 
EversourceCL&PNSTAR ElectricPSNH
Underground and overhead line transformers in service632,114 292,030 172,134 167,950 
Aggregate capacity (in kVa)37,838,471 16,239,772 14,595,704 7,002,995 

Electric Generating Plants

As of December 31, 2020, NSTAR Electric owned the following solar power facilities:  
Type of PlantNumber
of Sites
Year
Installed
Claimed Capability**
(kilowatts)
Solar Fixed Tilt, Photovoltaic222010 - 201970,000

**    Claimed capability represents the direct current nameplate capacity of the plants.

CL&P and PSNH do not own any electric generating plants.

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Natural Gas Distribution System

As of December 31, 2020, NSTAR Gas owned 21 active gate stations, 151 district regulator stations, and approximately 3,318 miles of natural gas main pipeline. Hopkinton, another subsidiary of Eversource, owns a satellite vaporization plant and above ground storage tanks in Acushnet, Massachusetts (0.5 Bcf of natural gas). In addition, Hopkinton owns a liquefaction and vaporization plant with above ground storage tanks in Hopkinton, Massachusetts (3.0 Bcf of natural gas). Combined, the two plants' tanks have an aggregate storage capacity equivalent to 3.5 Bcf of natural gas that is provided to NSTAR Gas under contract.

As of December 31, 2020, EGMA owned 14 active gate stations, 194 district regulator stations, and approximately 5,010 miles of natural gas main pipeline. Hopkinton, another subsidiary of Eversource, owns liquefaction and vaporization plants and above ground storage tanks at four locations throughout Massachusetts with an aggregate storage capacity equivalent to 1.8 Bcf of natural gas. In addition, Hopkinton owns four propane peak shaving plants at four locations throughout Massachusetts with an aggregate storage capacity equivalent to 0.2 Bcf, or 1.8 million gallons of propane.

As of December 31, 2020, Yankee Gas owned 28 active gate stations, 209 district regulator stations, and approximately 3,501 miles of natural gas main pipeline. Yankee Gas also owns a liquefaction and vaporization plant and above ground storage tank with a storage capacity equivalent of 1.2 Bcf of natural gas in Waterbury, Connecticut.

Water Distribution System

Aquarion’s properties consist of water transmission and distribution mains and associated valves, hydrants and service lines, water treatment plants, pumping facilities, wells, tanks, meters, dams, reservoirs, buildings, and other facilities and equipment used for the operation of our systems, including the collection, treatment, storage, and distribution of water.

As of December 31, 2020, Aquarion owned and operated sources of water supply with a combined yield of approximately 118 million gallons per day; 3,434 miles of transmission and distribution mains; 9 surface water treatment plants; 29 dams; and 110 wellfields.

Franchises

CL&P  Subject to the power of alteration, amendment or repeal by the General Assembly of Connecticut and subject to certain approvals, permits and consents of public authority and others prescribed by statute, CL&P has, subject to certain exceptions not deemed material, valid franchises free from burdensome restrictions to provide electric transmission and distribution services in the respective areas in which it is now supplying such service.

In addition to the right to provide electric transmission and distribution services as set forth above, the franchises of CL&P include, among others, limited rights and powers, as set forth under Connecticut law and the special acts of the General Assembly constituting its charter, to manufacture, generate, purchase and/or sell electricity at retail, including to provide Standard Service, Supplier of Last Resort service and backup service, to sell electricity at wholesale and to erect and maintain certain facilities on public highways and grounds, all subject to such consents and approvals of public authority and others as may be required by law. The franchises of CL&P include the power of eminent domain.  Connecticut law prohibits an electric distribution company from owning or operating generation assets.  However, under "An Act Concerning Electricity and Energy Efficiency," enacted in 2007, an electric distribution company, such as CL&P, is permitted to purchase an existing electric generating plant located in Connecticut that is offered for sale, subject to prior approval from the PURA and a determination by the PURA that such purchase is in the public interest.

NSTAR Electric  Through its charter, which is unlimited in time, NSTAR Electric has the right to engage in the business of delivering and selling electricity within its respective service territory, and has the power incidental thereto and is entitled to all the rights and privileges of and subject to the duties imposed upon electric companies under Massachusetts laws.  The locations in public ways for electric transmission and distribution lines are obtained from municipal and other state authorities who, in granting these locations, act as agents for the state. In some cases, the actions of these authorities are subject to appeal to the DPU.  The rights to these locations are not limited in time and are subject to the action of these authorities and the legislature.  Under Massachusetts law, no other entity may provide electric delivery service to retail customers within NSTAR Electric service territory without the written consent of NSTAR Electric.  This consent must be filed with the DPU and the municipality so affected. The franchises of NSTAR Electric include the power of eminent domain, obtained through application to the DPU.

Massachusetts restructuring legislation defines service territories as those territories actually served on July 1, 1997 and following municipal boundaries to the extent possible.  The restructuring legislation further provides that until terminated by law or otherwise, distribution companies shall have the exclusive obligation to serve all retail customers within their service territories and no other person shall provide distribution service within such service territories without the written consent of such distribution companies.

PSNH  The NHPUC, pursuant to statutory requirements, has issued orders granting PSNH exclusive franchises to distribute electricity in the respective areas in which it is now supplying such service.

In addition to the right to distribute electricity as set forth above, the franchises of PSNH include, among others, rights and powers to manufacture, generate, purchase, and transmit electricity, to sell electricity at wholesale to other utility companies and municipalities and to erect and maintain certain facilities on certain public highways and grounds, all subject to such consents and approvals of public authority and others as may be required by law.  PSNH's status as a public utility gives it the ability to petition the NHPUC for the right to exercise eminent domain for distribution services and for transmission eligible for regional cost allocation.
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PSNH is also subject to certain regulatory oversight by the Maine Public Utilities Commission and the Vermont Public Utility Commission.

NSTAR Gas Through its charter, which is unlimited in time, NSTAR Gas has the right to engage in the business of delivering and selling natural gas within its respective service territory, and has the power incidental thereto and is entitled to all the rights and privileges of and subject to the duties imposed upon natural gas companies under Massachusetts laws. The locations in public ways for natural gas distribution pipelines are obtained from municipal and other state authorities who, in granting these locations, act as agents for the state. In some cases, the actions of these authorities are subject to appeal to the DPU. The rights to these locations are not limited in time and are subject to the action of these authorities and the legislature. Under Massachusetts law, no other entity may provide natural gas delivery service to retail customers within the NSTAR Gas service territory without the written consent of NSTAR Gas. This consent must be filed with the DPU and the municipality so affected.

Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts Eversource acquired the natural gas distribution and LNG business of Bay State Gas Company, doing business as Columbia Gas of Massachusetts, in an asset purchase transaction that closed on October 9, 2020. The natural gas distribution assets were transferred to Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts, a Massachusetts corporation formed in May 2020, and an indirect subsidiary of Eversource parent. Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts holds valid franchises to sell natural gas in the areas in which it supplies natural gas service, which it acquired either directly or from Bay State Gas Company. Generally, Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts holds franchises to serve customers in areas designated by those franchises as well as in most other areas throughout Massachusetts so long as those areas are not occupied and served by another natural gas utility under a valid franchise of its own or are not subject to an exclusive franchise of another natural gas utility or by consent.

Yankee Gas  Yankee Gas holds valid franchises to sell natural gas in the areas in which Yankee Gas supplies natural gas service, which it acquired either directly or from its predecessors in interest.  Generally, Yankee Gas holds franchises to serve customers in areas designated by those franchises as well as in most other areas throughout Connecticut so long as those areas are not occupied and served by another natural gas utility under a valid franchise of its own or are not subject to an exclusive franchise of another natural gas utility or by consent.  Yankee Gas' franchises are perpetual but remain subject to the power of alteration, amendment or repeal by the General Assembly of the State of Connecticut, the power of revocation by the PURA and certain approvals, permits and consents of public authorities and others prescribed by statute.  Generally, Yankee Gas' franchises include, among other rights and powers, the right and power to manufacture, generate, purchase, transmit and distribute natural gas and to erect and maintain certain facilities on public highways and grounds, and the right of eminent domain, all subject to such consents and approvals of public authorities and others as may be required by law.

Aquarion Water Company of Connecticut AWC-CT derives its rights and franchises to operate from special acts of the Connecticut General Assembly and subject to certain approvals, permits and consents of public authority and others prescribed by statute and by its charter, AWC-CT has, with minor exceptions, solid franchises free from burdensome restrictions and unlimited as to time, and is authorized to sell potable water in the towns (or parts thereof) in which water is now being supplied by AWC-CT.

In addition to the right to sell water as set forth above, the franchises of AWC-CT include rights and powers to erect and maintain certain facilities on public highways and grounds, all subject to such consents and approvals of public authority and others as may be required by law. Under the Connecticut General Statutes, AWC-CT may, upon payment of compensation, take and use such lands, springs, streams or ponds, or such rights or interests therein as the Connecticut Superior Court, upon application, may determine is necessary to enable AWC-CT to supply potable water for public or domestic use in its franchise areas.

Aquarion Water Company of Massachusetts Through its charters, which are unlimited in time, AWC-MA has the right to engage in the business of distributing and selling water within its service territories, and has the power incidental thereto and is entitled to all the rights and privileges of and subject to the duties imposed upon water companies under Massachusetts laws.  AWC-MA has the right to construct and maintain its mains and distribution pipes in and under any public ways and to take and hold water within its respective service territories. Subject to DPU regulation, AWC-MA has the right to establish and fix rates for use of the water distributed and to establish reasonable regulations regarding the same.  Certain of the towns within our service area have the right, at any time, to purchase the corporate property and all rights and privileges of AWC-MA according to pricing formulas and procedures specifically described in AWC-MA's respective charters and in compliance with Massachusetts law.

Aquarion Water Company of New Hampshire The NHPUC, pursuant to statutory law, has issued orders granting and affirming AWC-NH’s exclusive franchise to own, operate, and manage plant and equipment and any part of the same, for the conveyance of water for the public located within its franchise territory. That franchise territory encompasses the towns of Hampton, North Hampton and Rye. Subject to NHPUC’s regulations, AWC-NH has the right to establish and fix rates for use of the water distributed and to establish reasonable regulations regarding the same.

In addition to the right to provide water supply, the franchise also allows AWC-NH to sell water at wholesale to other water utilities and municipalities and to construct plant and equipment and maintain such plant and equipment on certain public highways and grounds, all subject to such consents and approvals of public authority and others as may be required by law.

AWC-NH's status as a regulated public utility gives it the ability to petition the NHPUC for the right to exercise eminent domain for the establishment of plant and equipment. It can also petition the NHPUC for exemption from the operation of any local ordinance when certain utility structures are reasonably necessary for the convenience or welfare of the public and the local conditions, and, if the purpose of the structure relates to water supply withdrawal, the exemption is recommended by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.

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Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

We are involved in legal, tax and regulatory proceedings regarding matters arising in the ordinary course of business. For information regarding material lawsuits and proceedings, see Note 13, Commitments and Contingencies, of the Combined Notes to Financial Statements.

For further discussion of legal proceedings, see Item 1, Business: "– Electric Distribution Segment," "– Electric Transmission Segment," and "– Natural Gas Distribution Segment" for information about various state and federal regulatory and rate proceedings, civil lawsuits related thereto, and information about proceedings relating to power, transmission and pricing issues; "– Nuclear Fuel Storage" for information related to nuclear waste; and "– Other Regulatory and Environmental Matters" for information about toxic substances and hazardous waste, electric and magnetic fields, and other matters. In addition, see Item 1A, Risk Factors, for general information about several significant risks.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5.    Market for the Registrants' Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

(a)    Market Information

Our common shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange.  The ticker symbol is "ES."  There is no established public trading market for the common stock of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH.  All of the common stock of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH is held solely by Eversource.

(b)    Holders

As of January 31, 2021, there were 32,340 registered common shareholders of our company on record.  As of the same date, there were a total of 343,003,366 shares outstanding.

(c)     Dividends

Information with respect to dividends and dividend restrictions for Eversource, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH is contained in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, in the Combined Notes to Financial Statements, within this Annual Report on Form 10-K.   

(d)    Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

For information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans, see Item 12, Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

(e)    Performance Graph

The performance graph below illustrates a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns based on an initial investment of $100 in 2015 in Eversource Energy common stock, as compared with the S&P 500 Stock Index and the EEI Index for the period 2015 through 2020, assuming all dividends are reinvested.

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es-20201231_g2.jpg

December 31,
201520162017201820192020
Eversource Energy$100$112$132$140$188$197
EEI Index$100$117$131$136$171$169
S&P 500$100$112$136$130$172$203


Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

The following table discloses purchases of our common shares made by us or on our behalf for the periods shown below.  The common shares purchased consist of open market purchases made by the Company or an independent agent.  These share transactions related to matching contributions under the Eversource 401k Plan.
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares that
May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans and Programs (at month end)
October 1 - October 31, 2020— $— — — 
November 1 - November 30, 2020— — — — 
December 1 - December 31, 20202,218 85.26 — — 
Total2,218 $85.26 — — 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

In January 2020, we determined that during 2019 and early 2020, the Savings Plan for Employees of Aquarion Water Company, a 401(k) retirement plan (Plan), offered Eversource common shares (Shares) as an investment alternative for participants. The Plan trustee purchased Shares in the open market and allocated the Shares to participants’ Plan accounts at the election of participants.  During this period, the Plan sold 5,990 Shares to 35 participants, which Shares were not registered on Form S-8.  The investment alternative to purchase Shares under the Plan has been terminated, and we did not receive any proceeds from such sales, which were funded with participants' contributions to the Plan.

Item 6.    Removed and Reserved


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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related combined notes included in this combined Annual Report on Form 10-K.  References in this combined Annual Report on Form 10-K to "Eversource," the "Company," "we," "us," and "our" refer to Eversource Energy and its consolidated subsidiaries.  All per-share amounts are reported on a diluted basis.  The consolidated financial statements of Eversource, NSTAR Electric and PSNH and the financial statements of CL&P are herein collectively referred to as the "financial statements."  Our discussion of fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019 is included herein. Unless expressly stated otherwise, for discussion and analysis of fiscal year 2018 items and fiscal year 2019 compared to fiscal year 2018, please refer to Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, in our combined 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Refer to the Glossary of Terms included in this combined Annual Report on Form 10-K for abbreviations and acronyms used throughout this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.  

The only common equity securities that are publicly traded are common shares of Eversource. The earnings and EPS of each business discussed below do not represent a direct legal interest in the assets and liabilities of such business but rather represent a direct interest in our assets and liabilities as a whole. EPS by business is a financial measure not recognized under GAAP, calculated by dividing the Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders of each business by the weighted average diluted Eversource common shares outstanding for the period. Our earnings discussion also includes non-GAAP financial measures referencing our 2020 earnings and EPS excluding certain acquisition costs related to our purchase of the assets of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts and our 2019 earnings and EPS excluding the impairment charge for the NPT project.

We use these non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate and provide details of earnings results by business and to more fully compare and explain our 2020 and 2019 results without including these items. We believe the acquisition costs and the NPT impairment charge are not indicative of our ongoing costs and performance. Due to the nature and significance of these items on Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders, we believe that the non-GAAP presentation is a more meaningful representation of our financial performance and provides additional and useful information to readers of this report in analyzing historical and future performance of our business. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered as alternatives to reported Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders or EPS determined in accordance with GAAP as indicators of operating performance.

Financial Condition and Business Analysis

Executive Summary

The following items in this executive summary are explained in more detail in this combined Annual Report on Form 10-K:

Earnings Overview and Future Outlook:

We earned $1.21 billion, or $3.55 per share, in 2020, compared with $909.1 million, or $2.81 per share, in 2019. Our 2020 results include after-tax acquisition costs related to our purchase of the assets of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts (CMA) of $32.1 million, or $0.09 per share. Excluding those acquisition costs, we earned $1.24 billion, or $3.64 per share, in 2020. Our 2019 results include an after-tax impairment charge of $204.4 million, or $0.64 per share, related to our former investment in the NPT project. Excluding the NPT impairment charge, we earned $1.11 billion, or $3.45 per share, in 2019.

Our electric distribution segment earned $544.0 million, or $1.60 per share, in 2020, compared with $513.3 million, or $1.59 per share, in 2019.  Our natural gas distribution segment earned $134.1 million, or $0.40 per share, in 2020, compared with $96.2 million, or $0.30 per share, in 2019. Our water distribution segment earned $41.2 million, or $0.12 per share, in 2020, compared with $34.9 million, or $0.11 per share, in 2019.

Our electric transmission segment earned $502.5 million, or $1.48 per share, in 2020, compared with $256.5 million, or $0.79 per share, in 2019.  Excluding the after-tax NPT impairment charge of $204.4 million, or $0.64 per share, our electric transmission segment earned $460.9 million, or $1.43 per share, in 2019.

Eversource parent and other companies had a net loss of $16.6 million, or $0.05 per share, in 2020, compared with earnings of $8.2 million, or $0.02 per share, in 2019. Excluding acquisition costs, Eversource parent and other companies earned $14.0 million, or $0.04 per share, in 2020.

We currently project 2021 non-GAAP earning guidance of between $3.81 per share and $3.93 per share, which excludes the impact of integration costs related to our purchase of the natural gas distribution assets of CMA. We also project that our long-term EPS growth rate through 2025 from our regulated utility businesses will be in the upper half of the 5 to 7 percent range.

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The outbreak of COVID-19 has not resulted in significant operational or earnings impacts. We believe that we have in place, or are developing, successful mechanisms with our state regulatory commissions that allow, or will allow, us to recover our incremental costs associated with COVID-19, which include uncollectible customer receivable expenses. We are continuing to closely monitor the COVID-19 pandemic, and we continue to operate under our pandemic response plan.
Liquidity:

Cash flows provided by operating activities totaled $1.68 billion in 2020, compared with $2.01 billion in 2019.  Investments in property, plant and equipment totaled $2.94 billion in 2020 and $2.91 billion in 2019.  Cash totaled $106.6 million as of December 31, 2020, compared with $15.4 million as of December 31, 2019.  Our available borrowing capacity under our commercial paper programs totaled $1.40 billion as of December 31, 2020.

In 2020, we issued 11,960,000 common shares, which resulted in proceeds of $929.0 million, net of issuance costs.

In 2020, we issued $2.76 billion of new long-term debt, consisting of $1.55 billion by Eversource parent, $400 million by CL&P, $400 million by NSTAR Electric, $150 million by PSNH, $190 million by NSTAR Gas, and $70 million by Yankee Gas.  Proceeds from these new issuances were used primarily to fund a portion of the purchase price for the CMA asset acquisition and to pay short-term borrowings at Eversource parent, refinance investments in eligible green expenditures at NSTAR Electric, and to refinance existing indebtedness, fund capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes at CL&P, PSNH, NSTAR Gas and Yankee Gas.

In 2020, we issued dividends totaling $2.27 per common share, compared with dividends of $2.14 per common share in 2019.  On February 9, 2021, our Board of Trustees approved a common share dividend payment of $0.6025 per share, payable on March 31, 2021 to shareholders of record as of March 4, 2021.  The 2021 dividend represents an increase of 6.2 percent over the dividend paid in December 2020.
 
We project to make capital expenditures of $17.03 billion from 2021 through 2025, of which we expect $10.90 billion to be in our electric and natural gas distribution segments, $4.31 billion to be in our electric transmission segment and $0.78 billion to be in our water distribution segment.  We also project to invest $1.05 billion in information technology and facilities upgrades and enhancements. These projections do not include any expected investments related to offshore wind projects. 

Strategic and Regulatory Items:

On October 9, 2020, Eversource completed the acquisition of certain assets and liabilities that comprised NiSource’s natural gas distribution business in Massachusetts, CMA, for a cash purchase price of $1.1 billion, plus a target working capital amount of $69.6 million, which is subject to adjustment to reflect actual working capital as of the closing date. On October 7, 2020, the DPU approved the rate plan related to the acquisition. The approved rate stabilization plan includes base distribution rate increases of $13 million on November 1, 2021 and $10 million on November 1, 2022. The settlement agreement includes two rate base resets during an eight-year rate plan, occurring on November 1, 2024 and November 1, 2027.

On December 15, 2020, the NHPUC approved an October 9, 2020 settlement agreement that included a permanent rate increase of $45.0 million effective January 1, 2021 at PSNH. PSNH was also permitted three step increases, effective January 1, 2021, August 1, 2021, and August 1, 2022, to reflect plant additions in calendar years 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. The settlement agreement allowed for the effect of the permanent rate increase to be extended back to the temporary rate period. In lieu of a customer rate increase for this recoupment of revenue, the NHPUC directed a portion of the total EDIT regulatory liability to offset bill impacts to customers.

On October 30, 2020, the DPU approved an NSTAR Gas base distribution rate increase of $23.0 million effective November 1, 2020. NSTAR Gas' 2019 plant additions are allowed recovery beginning on November 1, 2021. 

In January 2021, BOEM released its Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the South Fork Wind project, which assessed the environmental, social, and economic impacts of constructing the project.

Impact of COVID-19
 
COVID-19 has adversely affected workers and the economy and caused volatility in the financial markets. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the unprecedented and evolving situation, we continue to closely monitor how COVID-19 related developments affect Eversource. Based on available information, we have not experienced significant impacts directly related to the pandemic that have adversely affected our current operations or results of operations. The extent of the impact to us in the future will vary and depend in large part on the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic and the timing and extent of COVID-19 relief legislation, and the resulting impact on economic, health care and capital market conditions. The future impact will also depend on the outcome of planned proceedings before our state regulatory commissions to recover our incremental costs associated with COVID-19, which include uncollectible customer receivable expenses.

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Operational: We provide a critical service to our customers and have taken extensive measures to maintain its safety and reliability. We have implemented our company-wide pandemic plan, which guides our emergency response, business continuity, and the precautionary measures we are taking to ensure the safety, health, and well-being of our employees, our customers, and our communities. We continue to adjust our company-wide pandemic plan to address various scenarios, including reduced workforce levels and limited mutual aid in the event of a significant storm event, and have implemented protective measures to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on our workforce. We have implemented work from home policies where appropriate, resulting in nearly half of our employees working remotely. For our employees performing essential functions that are required onsite, such as field crews and system operations, we have taken significant safety measures, including establishing social distancing measures, the use of personal protective equipment, increasing facility sanitization efforts, and enabling critical operations to be shifted to different control center locations if necessary. At this time, our workforce staffing levels continue to enable us to safely and reliably deliver our critical services to customers.

We continue to prepare for the re-entry of our employees working remotely. Our re-entry plan includes a multi-phase approach that is measured and gradual. The plan is informed by public health guidance with the safety of our employees and customers as our highest priority. We are in the early phase of our re-entry plan and have returned fewer than 100 remote employees to the workplace. We have had increased short duration return to work for critical business needs, such as storm response and essential training. State and federal guidelines, external conditions, and critical business priorities continue to inform the pace of our re-entry plan. Significant health and safety measures and pandemic protocols will remain in place, including social distancing requirements, the use of personal protective equipment, sanitization efforts and employee training, for all employees currently working onsite and specific plans have been developed for our eventual re-entry to the workplace.

In mid-March, we suspended non-critical work inside customer premises, which included energy audits inside our customers’ homes and businesses. These activities resumed in early July with the implementation of new health and safety guidelines for the restart of energy efficiency services to customers. This delay did not have a significant impact on our 2020 spending levels or incentives earned. As of the date of our filing, we do not expect a significant impact on our 2021 energy efficiency program spending and efforts, which assumes the continuation of energy efficiency programs throughout 2021. Actual energy efficiency spending levels will depend on the extent and duration of the pandemic.

Among the states we serve, COVID-19 had initially spread in a rapid manner in Connecticut and Massachusetts during the outbreak that began in mid-March. During the summer, these states had seen a decrease in the infection rate and daily confirmed cases, as well as more capacity in hospitals, and improved testing availability and contact tracing, as compared to the initial outbreak. Beginning in October, the spread of COVID-19 began to increase at a significant pace, surpassing infection levels from the initial outbreak, peaking in December 2020 and January 2021 in each of the states we serve. Since those peak levels, there has been a downward trend in the daily confirmed cases, infection rates and positive test rates.

Financial: Overall, our future financial position, results of operations, and cash flows could be negatively impacted by COVID-19 as it relates to the collectability of customer receivables and customer payment plans, elimination of late payment revenues, lower sales volumes primarily from PSNH's commercial and industrial customers, energy efficiency spending levels and incentives earned, and increased expenses for cleaning and supplies for personal protective equipment. Other potential negative financial impacts relate to market volatility on our equity and debt securities, access to, as well as cost of, capital resources, and the ability of various third-party vendors and suppliers to fulfill their obligations.

As of December 31, 2020, our allowance for uncollectible customer receivable balance of $358.9 million, of which $194.8 million relates to hardship accounts that are specifically recovered in rates charged to customers, adequately reflected the collection risk and net realizable value for our receivables.  We continue to evaluate the adequacy of the uncollectible allowance based on an ongoing assessment of accounts receivable collections and customer payment trends, economic conditions, delinquency statistics, aging-based quantitative assessments, the impact on residential customer bills because of energy usage and change in rates, flexible payment plans and financial hardship arrearage management programs being offered to customers, and COVID-19 developments, including any potential federal governmental pandemic relief programs and the expansion of unemployment benefit initiatives, which help to mitigate the potential for increasing customer account delinquencies. Additionally, management considered past economic declines and corresponding uncollectible reserves as part of the current assessment. This evaluation has shown that our operating companies have experienced an increase in aged receivables and some lower cash collections from customers because of the moratorium on disconnections and the economic slowdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Based upon the evaluation performed, in 2020, we increased the allowance for uncollectible accounts for amounts incurred as a result of COVID-19 by $31.5 million for Eversource ($2.8 million for CL&P, $11.0 million for NSTAR Electric, $2.3 million for PSNH and $15.4 million at our natural gas businesses). These COVID-19 related uncollectible amounts were deferred either as incremental regulatory costs or deferred through existing regulatory tracking mechanisms that recover uncollectible energy supply costs, as we believe it is probable that these costs will ultimately be recovered from customers in rates. We believe that we have in place, or are developing, successful mechanisms with our state regulatory commissions that allow, or will allow, us to recover our incremental costs associated with COVID-19, which include uncollectible customer receivable expenses, while balancing the impact on our customers’ bills and our operating cash flows. 

In March 2020, Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire each established moratoria on disconnections of residential and commercial customers for non-payment for utility service.  In all three states, a moratorium for lower income hardship residential customers will remain in place through the normal state regulated winter moratorium that ends in the spring of 2021.  In Connecticut and New Hampshire, the moratorium for all remaining customers has expired.  In Massachusetts, the moratorium on commercial utility disconnections ended on September 1, 2020 and the moratorium on residential non-hardship disconnections was extended to April 1, 2021.

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We continue to work closely with our state regulatory commissions and consumer advocates on customer assistance measures, including payment plan options in order to mitigate the impact on customer rates in the future, as well as financial hardship and arrearage management programs for those customers who are unable to pay their utility bills. We developed these long-term solutions for customers in order to help minimize the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on customer receivable balances and customers’ affordability in light of the current financial impact they may experience. Our operating companies also eliminated late payment charges beginning in March 2020, with New Hampshire being the only state with a defined restart date of April 1, 2021. In 2020, we have waived $6.1 million of late payment charges that would have otherwise been recognized within revenues as a benefit to pre-tax earnings.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, net incremental costs incurred as a result of COVID-19 totaled $35.2 million and related to uncollectible expense that impacts earnings, facilities and fleet cleaning, sanitizing costs and supplies for personal protective equipment, net of cost savings. We have deferred $24.0 million of these net incremental COVID-19 costs on the balance sheet, of which $15.8 million of that deferral related to uncollectible expense that impacts earnings and $8.2 million related to cleaning and supplies for personal protective equipment. Incremental COVID-19 expenses that reduced pre-tax earnings totaled $11.1 million on the statement of income. For further information on Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire COVID-19-related regulatory developments, see "Regulatory Developments and Rate Matters - COVID-19 Regulatory Dockets" included in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis.

An extended economic slowdown has resulted in lower demand for electricity, natural gas and/or water by our commercial and industrial customers. However, fluctuations in retail sales volumes for CL&P, NSTAR Electric, Yankee Gas, NSTAR Gas, EGMA, and our Connecticut water distribution business do not materially impact earnings due to their respective state regulatory commission-approved distribution revenue decoupling mechanisms. Overall, our risk of exposure to lower demand and resulting lost sales revenues is limited as our regulated utilities are under cost-of-service rates with revenue decoupling mechanisms (with the exception of PSNH) and a significant portion of uncollectible expenses are tracked for ultimate recovery. Our revenue decoupling mechanisms allow us to recover an annual revenue stream that is decoupled from actual customer usage, and each is reconciled each year as part of our annual decoupling filing in each respective jurisdiction.

We continue to monitor Eversource parent’s and our operating companies’ ability to access the global capital and credit markets. At the onset of the pandemic in the United States, liquidity in the commercial paper credit market began to deteriorate rapidly. However, federal legislative actions, including actions taken by the Federal Reserve, have provided sufficient liquidity and stabilization of the credit markets. An extended economic slowdown could result in Eversource parent and our operating companies finding difficulty in accessing necessary capital resources and incurring higher costs for those capital resources. At this time, based on available information and the current market trends, we believe we will continue to have access to needed liquidity and capital resources to successfully execute our projected capital expenditures and strategies. We expect our existing borrowing availability under our commercial paper programs, our existing revolving credit facilities that serve to backstop those commercial paper programs, in addition to access to the debt and equity markets, will be sufficient to meet our future liquidity and capital resource needs.

Earnings Overview

Consolidated:  Below is a summary of our earnings by business, which also reconciles the non-GAAP financial measures of consolidated non-GAAP earnings and EPS, as well as EPS by business, to the most directly comparable GAAP measures of consolidated Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders and diluted EPS.
 For the Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(Millions of Dollars, Except Per Share Amounts)AmountPer ShareAmountPer ShareAmountPer Share
Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders (GAAP)$1,205.2 $3.55 $909.1 $2.81 $1,033.0 $3.25 
Regulated Companies (non-GAAP)$1,223.3 $3.60 $1,105.3 $3.43 $1,006.7 $3.17 
Eversource Parent and Other Companies (non-GAAP)14.0 0.04 8.2 0.02 26.3 0.08 
Non-GAAP Earnings$1,237.3 $3.64 $1,113.5 $3.45 $1,033.0 $3.25 
Acquisition-Related Costs (after-tax) (1)
(32.1)(0.09)— — — — 
Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission (after-tax)— — (204.4)(0.64)— — 
Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders (GAAP)$1,205.2 $3.55 $909.1 $2.81 $1,033.0 $3.25 
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Regulated Companies:  Our regulated companies comprise the electric distribution, electric transmission, natural gas distribution and water distribution segments. A summary of our segment earnings and EPS is as follows:
 For the Years Ended December 31,
 202020192018
(Millions of Dollars, Except Per Share Amounts)AmountPer ShareAmountPer ShareAmountPer Share
Net Income - Regulated Companies (GAAP)$1,221.8 $3.60 $900.9 $2.79 $1,006.7 $3.17 
Electric Distribution$544.0 $1.60 $513.3 $1.59 $455.4 $1.44 
Electric Transmission, excluding Northern Pass Transmission impairment (Non-GAAP)502.5 1.48 460.9 1.43 427.2 1.34 
Natural Gas Distribution, excluding Acquisition-Related Costs (non-GAAP)135.6 0.40 96.2 0.30 93.2 0.29 
Water Distribution41.2 0.12 34.9 0.11 30.9 0.10 
Net Income - Regulated Companies (Non-GAAP)$1,223.3 $3.60 $1,105.3 $3.43 $1,006.7 $3.17 
Acquisition-Related Costs (after-tax) (1)
(1.5)— — — — — 
Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission (after-tax)— — (204.4)(0.64)— — 
Net Income - Regulated Companies (GAAP)$1,221.8 $3.60 $900.9 $2.79 $1,006.7 $3.17 

(1) These costs are associated with our acquisition and integration of the assets of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts. Additional integration costs related primarily to the integration and transition of systems, are expected in 2021.

Our electric distribution segment earnings increased $30.7 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to base distribution rate increases at CL&P effective May 1, 2020 and May 1, 2019, at NSTAR Electric effective January 1, 2020, and at PSNH effective July 1, 2019, higher earnings from CL&P's capital tracker mechanism due to increased electric system improvements, and the impact of the PSNH rate settlement agreement approved in December 2020. The earnings increase was partially offset by higher operations and maintenance expense (primarily attributable to higher storm restoration costs), higher depreciation expense, higher property tax expense, higher interest expense, and the absence of the 2019 recognition of carrying charges on PSNH's 2013 through 2016 storm costs approved for recovery.
 
Our electric transmission segment earnings increased $246.0 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the absence in 2020 of the 2019 impairment of NPT, which resulted in an after-tax charge of $204.4 million, or $0.64 per share. Excluding the NPT impairment charge, earnings increased $41.6 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to a higher transmission rate base as a result of our continued investment in our transmission infrastructure and a higher benefit from the annual billing and cost reconciliation filing with FERC.

Our natural gas distribution segment earnings increased $37.9 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to base distribution rate increases at Yankee Gas effective January 1, 2020 and at NSTAR Gas effective November 1, 2020, the addition of Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts (EGMA), higher earnings from capital tracker mechanisms due to continued investments in natural gas infrastructure, and lower interest expense due to a property tax settlement. EGMA's natural gas distribution business earned $13.9 million from October 9, 2020 through December 31, 2020. The earnings increase was partially offset by higher operations and maintenance expense and higher depreciation expense.

Our water distribution segment earnings increased $6.3 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to an after-tax gain of $3.5 million on the sale of the water system and treatment plant of the Hingham, Massachusetts business, higher revenues from our Connecticut business' capital tracker mechanism due to increased infrastructure improvements, and a gain on the sale of land, partially offset by higher property tax expense and a higher effective tax rate.

Eversource Parent and Other Companies:  Eversource parent and other companies earnings decreased $24.8 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the costs of the CMA asset acquisition recorded at Eversource parent of $30.6 million in 2020. Excluding the CMA asset acquisition costs, earnings increased $5.8 million due primarily to a higher return at Eversource Service as a result of increased investments in property, plant and equipment, and lower employee-related costs, partially offset by lower unrealized gains associated with our equity method investment in a renewable energy fund.

Liquidity

Cash totaled $106.6 million as of December 31, 2020, compared with $15.4 million as of December 31, 2019.

Short-Term Debt - Commercial Paper Programs and Credit Agreements: Eversource parent has a $2.00 billion commercial paper program allowing Eversource parent to issue commercial paper as a form of short-term debt. Eversource parent, CL&P, PSNH, NSTAR Gas, Yankee Gas and Aquarion Water Company of Connecticut are parties to a five-year $1.45 billion revolving credit facility, which terminates on December 6, 2024. On October 21, 2020, Eversource parent and EGMA entered into a short-term $550 million revolving credit facility, which terminates on October 20, 2021. These revolving credit facilities serve to backstop Eversource parent's $2.00 billion commercial paper program.

NSTAR Electric has a $650 million commercial paper program allowing NSTAR Electric to issue commercial paper as a form of short-term debt. NSTAR Electric is also a party to a five-year $650 million revolving credit facility, which terminates on December 6, 2024. The revolving credit facility serves to backstop NSTAR Electric's $650 million commercial paper program.

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The amount of borrowings outstanding and available under the commercial paper programs were as follows:
Borrowings Outstanding
as of December 31,
Available Borrowing Capacity as of December 31,Weighted-Average Interest Rate as of December 31,
(Millions of Dollars)202020192020201920202019
Eversource Parent Commercial Paper Program$1,054.3 $1,224.9 $945.7 $225.1 0.25 %1.98 %
NSTAR Electric Commercial Paper Program195.0 10.5 455.0 639.5 0.16 %1.63 %

There were no borrowings outstanding on the revolving credit facilities as of December 31, 2020 or 2019.

On May 15, 2020, CL&P and PSNH entered into uncommitted line of credit agreements, which will expire by May 14, 2021. The CL&P agreements total $450 million and the PSNH agreements total $300 million. There are no borrowings outstanding on either the CL&P or PSNH uncommitted line of credit agreements as of December 31, 2020.

Amounts outstanding under the commercial paper programs are included in Notes Payable and classified in current liabilities on the Eversource and NSTAR Electric balance sheets, as all borrowings are outstanding for no more than 364 days at one time.  

Intercompany Borrowings: Eversource parent uses its available capital resources to provide loans to its subsidiaries to assist in meeting their short-term borrowing needs. Eversource parent records intercompany interest income from its loans to subsidiaries, which is eliminated in consolidation. Intercompany loans from Eversource parent to its subsidiaries are eliminated in consolidation on Eversource's balance sheets. As of December 31, 2020, there were intercompany loans from Eversource parent to PSNH of $46.3 million, and to a subsidiary of NSTAR Electric of $21.3 million. As of December 31, 2019, there were intercompany loans from Eversource parent to CL&P of $63.8 million, to PSNH of $27.0 million, and to a subsidiary of NSTAR Electric of $30.3 million. Intercompany loans from Eversource parent are included in Notes Payable to Eversource Parent and classified in current liabilities on the respective subsidiary's balance sheets.

Long-Term Debt Issuance Authorizations: On January 27, 2020, the DPU approved NSTAR Gas' request for authorization to issue up to $270 million in long-term debt through December 31, 2021. On July 31, 2020, the NHPUC approved PSNH's request for authorization to issue up to $200 million in long-term debt through December 31, 2020. On December 14, 2020, NSTAR Electric filed a petition with the DPU for authorization to issue $1.6 billion in long-term debt through December 31, 2023. On December 16, 2020, Aquarion Water Company of Connecticut filed an application with PURA for authorization to issue $100 million in long-term debt through December 31, 2021.

Long-Term Debt Issuances and Repayments: The following table summarizes long-term debt issuances and repayments:
(Millions of Dollars)Issuance/(Repayment)Issue Date or Repayment DateMaturity DateUse of Proceeds for Issuance/
Repayment Information
CL&P:
0.75% Series A First Mortgage Bonds$400.0 December 2020December 2025Refinanced short-term borrowings, funded capital expenditures and working capital
NSTAR Electric:
3.95% 2020 Debentures400.0 March 2020April 2030Refinanced investments in eligible green expenditures, which were previously financed in 2018 and 2019
5.10% Series E Senior Notes(95.0)March 2020March 2020Paid at maturity
PSNH:
2.40% Series U First Mortgage Bonds150.0 August 2020September 2050Refinanced short-term borrowings, funded capital expenditures and working capital
Other:
Eversource Parent 3.45% Series P Senior Notes350.0 January 2020January 2050Paid short-term borrowings
Eversource Parent 3.45% Series P Senior Notes (1)
300.0 August 2020January 2050 (2)
Eversource Parent 0.80% Series Q Senior Notes300.0 August 2020August 2025 (2)
Eversource Parent 1.65% Series R Senior Notes600.0 August 2020August 2030 (2)
Eversource Parent 2.50% Series I Senior Notes(450.0)February 2021March 2021Paid on par call date in advance of maturity date
NSTAR Gas 4.46% Series N First Mortgage Bonds(125.0)January 2020January 2020Paid at maturity
NSTAR Gas 2.33% Series R First Mortgage Bonds75.0 May 2020May 2025Refinanced existing indebtedness, funded capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes
NSTAR Gas 3.15% Series S First Mortgage Bonds115.0 May 2020May 2050Refinanced existing indebtedness, funded capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes
NSTAR Gas 9.95% Series J First Mortgage Bonds(25.0)December 2020December 2020Paid at maturity
Yankee Gas 4.87% Series K First Mortgage Bonds(50.0)April 2020April 2020Paid at maturity
Yankee Gas 2.90% Series R First Mortgage Bonds70.0 September 2020September 2050Refinanced existing indebtedness, funded capital expenditures and for general corporate purposes
Aquarion Water Company of Massachusetts, Inc. and Aquarion Water Capital of Massachusetts, Inc. various term loans and general mortgage bonds(32.2)July 2020VariousRedeemed long-term debt in conjunction with the sale of assets to the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts

(1) These senior notes are part of the same series issued by Eversource parent in January 2020. The aggregate outstanding principal amount of these senior notes is now $650 million.
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(2) The proceeds from these Eversource parent issuances funded a portion of the purchase price for the CMA asset acquisition and refinanced short-term borrowings.

In January 2021, PSNH provided a redemption notice to the holders of the PSNH 4.050% Series Q First Mortgage Bonds that PSNH will redeem the $122 million of bonds on March 1, 2021, the par call date, in advance of the June 1, 2021 maturity date.

Rate Reduction Bonds: PSNH's RRB payments consist of principal and interest and are paid semi-annually. PSNH paid $43.2 million of RRB principal payments and $20.2 million of interest payments in 2020, and $52.3 million of RRB principal payments and $26.8 million of interest payments in 2019.

Common Share Issuances and 2019 Forward Sale Agreement: On June 15, 2020, Eversource completed an equity offering of 6,000,000 common shares at a price per share of $86.26. Eversource used the net proceeds of this offering to fund a portion of the purchase of the assets of CMA that closed on October 9, 2020. The issuance of these common shares resulted in proceeds of $509.2 million, net of issuance costs.

In June 2019, Eversource completed an equity offering consisting of 5,980,000 common shares issued directly by the Company and 11,960,000 common shares issuable pursuant to a forward sale agreement with an investment bank. Under the forward sale agreement, 11,960,000 common shares were borrowed from third parties and sold by the underwriters. The forward sale agreement allowed Eversource, at its election and prior to May 29, 2020, to physically settle the forward sale agreement by issuing common shares in exchange for net proceeds at the then-applicable forward sale price specified by the agreement (initially, $71.48 per share) or, alternatively, to settle the forward sale agreement in whole or in part through the delivery or receipt of shares or cash. The forward sale price was subject to adjustment daily based on a floating interest rate factor and would decrease in respect of certain fixed amounts specified in the agreement, such as dividends.

Eversource issued 6,000,000 common shares under the forward sale agreement in December 2019. On March 23, 2020, Eversource physically settled a portion of the forward sale agreement by delivering 1,500,000 common shares in exchange for net proceeds of $105.7 million. Subsequently, on March 26, 2020, Eversource physically settled the remaining portion of the forward sale agreement by delivering 4,460,000 common shares in exchange for net proceeds of $314.1 million. The forward sale price used to determine the cash proceeds received by Eversource was calculated based on the initial forward sale price, as adjusted in accordance with the forward sale agreement.

The March and June 2020 common share issuances of 5,960,000 and 6,000,000, respectively, resulted in total proceeds of $929.0 million, net of issuance costs. The June and December 2019 common share issuances of 5,980,000 and 6,000,000, respectively, resulted in total proceeds of $852.3 million. These issuances were reflected in shareholders’ equity and as financing activities on the statements of cash flows.

Issuances of shares under the forward sale agreement were classified as equity transactions. Accordingly, no amounts relating to the forward sale agreement were recorded in the financial statements until settlements took place. Prior to any settlements, the only impact of the forward sale agreement to the financial statements was the inclusion of incremental shares within the calculation of diluted EPS using the treasury stock method. See Note 21, "Earnings Per Share," to the financial statements for information on the forward sale agreement’s impact on the calculation of diluted EPS.

Eversource used the net proceeds received from the direct issuance of common shares and the net proceeds received from settlement of the forward sale agreement to repay short-term debt under the commercial paper program, to partially fund the purchase of the assets of CMA, to fund capital spending and clean energy initiatives, and for general corporate purposes.

Cash Flows:  Cash flows provided by operating activities totaled $1.68 billion in 2020, compared with $2.01 billion in 2019. Operating cash flows were unfavorably impacted by the timing of cash collections on our accounts receivable, the timing of collections for regulatory tracking mechanisms primarily related to transmission costs and the impact of the CL&P temporary rate suspension, and cash payments made in 2020 for storm restoration costs of approximately $196 million related to Tropical Storm Isaias. Also contributing to the unfavorable impact was the absence of $68.8 million in DOE Phase IV proceeds received by CYAPC and YAEC in 2019. Partially offsetting these unfavorable impacts were the favorable timing of cash payments made on our accounts payable, the absence of a $29.0 million payment made in 2019 to the DOE by CYAPC to partially settle its pre-1983 spent nuclear fuel obligation, and a decrease of $10.3 million in Pension and PBOP contributions made in 2020, as compared to 2019.

Our receivables, net of reserves, on the balance sheet have increased $206.5 million ($58.3 million at CL&P, $56.3 million at NSTAR Electric, and $20.0 million at PSNH) in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to an increase in delinquent receivables from customers attributable to the moratorium on disconnections and the economic slowdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Receivables, net of reserves, also increased due to the addition of EGMA of $65.8 million as of December 31, 2020.
 
Cash flows provided by operating activities totaled $2.01 billion in 2019, compared with $1.83 billion in 2018.  The increase in operating cash flows was due primarily to a decrease in 2019 of approximately $148 million of major storm restoration cost payments, $116 million in lower payments made in 2019 to the DOE by CYAPC to partially settle its pre-1983 spent nuclear fuel obligation, and a $73.2 million decrease in pension and PBOP cash contributions made in 2019, as compared to 2018. Also contributing to the increase were $102.8 million of lower income tax payments made in 2019, as compared to 2018, $68.8 million in DOE Phase IV litigation proceeds received by CYAPC and YAEC in 2019, and the timing of cash collections on our accounts receivables. Partially offsetting these favorable impacts were the timing of collections for regulatory tracking mechanisms, which were significantly impacted by the timing of collections of purchased power and transmission costs at NSTAR Electric, and the timing of accounts payable cash payments and other working capital items.

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In 2020, we paid cash dividends of $744.7 million and issued non-cash dividends of $22.8 million in the form of treasury shares, totaling dividends of $767.5 million, or $2.27 per common share. In 2019, we paid cash dividends of $663.2 million and issued non-cash dividends of $22.8 million in the form of treasury shares, totaling dividends of $686.0 million, or $2.14 per common share. Our quarterly common share dividend payment was $0.5675 per share in 2020, as compared to $0.535 per share in 2019.  On February 9, 2021, our Board of Trustees approved a common share dividend payment of $0.6025 per share, payable on March 31, 2021 to shareholders of record as of March 4, 2021.  The 2021 dividend represents an increase of 6.2 percent over the dividend paid in December 2020.

Beginning in 2019, Eversource issues treasury shares to satisfy awards under the Company's incentive plans, shares issued under the dividend reinvestment and share purchase plan, and matching contributions under the Eversource 401k Plan.

In 2020, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH paid $69.5 million, $262.0 million and $22.3 million, respectively, in common stock dividends to Eversource parent.  

Investments in Property, Plant and Equipment on the statements of cash flows do not include amounts incurred on capital projects but not yet paid, cost of removal, AFUDC related to equity funds, and the capitalized and deferred portions of pension and PBOP expense.  In 2020, investments for Eversource, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH were $2.94 billion, $834.0 million, $907.0 million and $342.6 million, respectively.  

On October 9, 2020, Eversource completed the CMA asset acquisition for a cash purchase price of $1.1 billion plus a target working capital amount of $69.6 million, which is subject to adjustment to reflect actual working capital as of the closing date. The purchase price included in investing cash outflows on the statement of cash flows of $1.11 billion reflects the payment to NiSource, which excludes restricted cash accounts Eversource funded of $56.8 million. For further information, see "Business Development and Capital Expenditures - Acquisition of Assets of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts" included in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis.

Eversource, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH each uses its available capital resources to fund its respective construction expenditures, meet debt requirements, pay operating costs, including storm-related costs, pay dividends, and fund other corporate obligations, such as pension contributions.  Eversource's regulated companies recover their electric, natural gas and water distribution construction expenditures as the related project costs are depreciated over the life of the assets.  This impacts the timing of the revenue stream designed to fully recover the total investment plus a return on the equity and debt used to finance the investments.  The current growth in Eversource's construction expenditures utilizes a significant amount of cash for projects that have a long-term return on investment and recovery period, totaling approximately $2.94 billion in cash capital spend in 2020.  In addition, Eversource's investments in its offshore wind business totaled $237.8 million in 2020, which are recognized as long-term assets. These factors have resulted in current liabilities exceeding current assets by $1.78 billion, $316.3 million, and $271.3 million at Eversource, NSTAR Electric and PSNH, respectively, as of December 31, 2020.

As of December 31, 2020, $1.02 billion of Eversource's long-term debt, including $450.0 million, $250.0 million, $282.0 million, and $40.2 million for Eversource parent, NSTAR Electric, PSNH, and Aquarion, respectively, will mature within the next 12 months. The current portion of long-term debt on the Eversource balance sheet also includes $31.0 million related to fair value adjustments from our various business combinations that will be amortized within the next 12 months and have no cash flow impact. Eversource, with its strong credit ratings, has several options available in the financial markets to repay or refinance these maturities with the issuance of new long-term debt.  Eversource, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH will reduce their short-term borrowings with operating cash flows or with the issuance of new long-term debt, determined by considering capital requirements and maintenance of Eversource's credit rating and profile.  

We expect the future operating cash flows of Eversource, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH, along with our existing borrowing availability and access to both debt and equity markets, will be sufficient to meet any working capital and future operating requirements, and capital investment forecasted opportunities.

Credit Ratings:  A summary of our corporate credit ratings and outlooks by S&P, Moody's, and Fitch is as follows:
 S&PMoody'sFitch
 CurrentOutlookCurrentOutlookCurrentOutlook
Eversource ParentA-StableBaa1StableBBB+Stable
CL&PAStableA3StableA- Stable
NSTAR ElectricAStableA1StableA  Stable
PSNHAStableA3StableA-Stable

A summary of the current credit ratings and outlooks by S&P, Moody's, and Fitch for senior unsecured debt of Eversource parent and NSTAR Electric, and senior secured debt of CL&P and PSNH is as follows:
 S&PMoody'sFitch
 CurrentOutlookCurrentOutlookCurrentOutlook
Eversource ParentBBB+StableBaa1StableBBB+ Stable
CL&PA+StableA1StableA+Stable
NSTAR ElectricAStableA1StableA+Stable
PSNHA+StableA1StableA+ Stable

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Business Development and Capital Expenditures

Our consolidated capital expenditures, including amounts incurred but not paid, cost of removal, AFUDC, and the capitalized and deferred portions of pension and PBOP expense (all of which are non-cash factors), totaled $3.06 billion in 2020, $3.06 billion in 2019, and $2.86 billion in 2018.  These amounts included $239.1 million in 2020, $239.0 million in 2019, and $184.6 million in 2018 related to information technology and facilities upgrades and enhancements, primarily at Eversource Service and The Rocky River Realty Company.

Electric Transmission Business: Our consolidated electric transmission business capital expenditures decreased by $75.8 million in 2020, as compared to 2019.  A summary of electric transmission capital expenditures by company is as follows:  
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Millions of Dollars)202020192018
CL&P$402.9 $459.5 $465.5 
NSTAR Electric366.8 379.7 334.3 
PSNH193.9 190.4 194.2 
NPT— 9.8 29.4 
Total Electric Transmission Segment$963.6 $1,039.4 $1,023.4 

Eastern Massachusetts Transmission Projects: These projects consist of a portfolio of electric transmission upgrades in southern New Hampshire, northern Massachusetts and continuing into the greater Boston metropolitan area, of which 28 upgrades are in Eversource's service territory (two in New Hampshire and 26 in Massachusetts). The two New Hampshire upgrades, including the Merrimack Valley Reliability Project, have been placed in service, and 23 Massachusetts upgrades have been placed in service. On December 17, 2019, the Massachusetts Siting Board issued a favorable decision on the Sudbury-Hudson Reliability Project, the last project requiring such approval. On January 17, 2020, the Town of Sudbury and Protect Sudbury, a community group, appealed the decision to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Oral arguments are scheduled for March 1, 2021. The majority of remaining upgrades are under construction and are expected to be placed in service in 2022. We estimate our portion of the investment will be approximately $750 million, of which $525 million has been spent and capitalized through December 31, 2020.

Southeastern Massachusetts Transmission Projects: These projects consist of a portfolio of electric transmission and substation upgrades in southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod, required to reinforce the Southeastern Massachusetts transmission system and bring the system into compliance with applicable national and regional reliability standards. ISO-NE reassessed the need for projects that had yet to be constructed and reconfirmed the need for the majority of the originally identified reinforcements in July 2020. Twelve upgrades in Eversource's service territory were reconfirmed, and a single upgrade was deemed to no longer be required. Of the twelve upgrades, four require siting approvals from the Massachusetts regulatory agencies, of which one has received approval, two are before the agencies and one, a joint project with National Grid, has yet to be filed. Three substation projects will be permitted locally, three projects are under construction and two projects have been placed in-service. We estimate our portion of the investment will be approximately $175 million, of which $28 million has been spent and capitalized through December 31, 2020.

Hartford-Area Transmission Projects: This portfolio of projects consisted of 27 projects in the Hartford, Connecticut area. In the third quarter of 2020, the final projects were placed in service and as of December 31, 2020, CL&P has spent and capitalized $303 million in costs associated with this portfolio. Additional restoration costs in the first quarter of 2021 will bring the total investment to approximately $304 million.

Seacoast Reliability Project: The Seacoast Reliability Project consisted of a 13-mile, 115kV transmission line within several New Hampshire communities, using a combination of overhead, underground and underwater line designs that helped meet the growing demand for electricity in the Seacoast region. The project was placed in service on May 29, 2020 and resulted in an investment of approximately $124 million.

Ready Path Solution: The Ready Path Solution was chosen in 2020 by ISO-NE as part of the first competitive solicitation for reliability upgrades in New England to meet the energy shortfall that will be created with the retirement of the Mystic Generating Station in Massachusetts in 2024. Our portion of the portfolio consists of installing new equipment at Eversource’s existing North Cambridge Substation with an estimated investment of approximately $14 million. The project is advancing permitting and engineering with construction scheduled to start in 2021.

All project costs are anticipated to be fully recoverable through transmission rates.

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Distribution Business:  A summary of distribution capital expenditures is as follows:
For the Years Ended December 31,
(Millions of Dollars) CL&P NSTAR Electric PSNH Total Electric Natural GasWater Total
2020
Basic Business$233.4 $195.1 $52.4 $480.9 $88.2 $10.9 $580.0 
Aging Infrastructure179.9 237.1 80.2 497.2 391.3 115.5 1,004.0 
Load Growth and Other77.8 110.8 21.3 209.9 65.6 0.8 276.3 
Total Distribution491.1 543.0 153.9 1,188.0 545.1 127.2 1,860.3 
Solar— 1.4 — 1.4 — — 1.4 
Total$491.1 $544.4 $153.9 $1,189.4 $545.1 127.2 $1,861.7 
2019
Basic Business$228.7 $201.0 $47.3 $477.0 $71.2 $15.0 $563.2 
Aging Infrastructure224.5 255.5 90.8 570.8 315.2 93.9 979.9 
Load Growth and Other59.6 89.4 16.8 165.8 66.8 1.5 234.1 
Total Distribution512.8 545.9 154.9 1,213.6 453.2 110.4 1,777.2 
Solar— 7.5 — 7.5 — — 7.5 
Total$512.8 $553.4 $154.9 $1,221.1 $453.2 $110.4 $1,784.7 
2018
Basic Business$256.3 $217.7 $69.3 $543.3 $72.9 $17.0 $633.2 
Aging Infrastructure151.6 133.3 73.0 357.9 280.2 81.1 719.2 
Load Growth and Other79.7 94.3 15.6 189.6 51.4 3.6 244.6 
Total Distribution487.6 445.3 157.9 1,090.8 404.5 101.7 1,597.0 
Solar and Other— 53.4 0.9 54.3 — — 54.3 
Total$487.6 $498.7 $158.8 $1,145.1 $404.5 $101.7 $1,651.3 

For the electric distribution business, basic business includes the purchase of meters, tools, vehicles, information technology, transformer replacements, equipment facilities, and the relocation of plant.  Aging infrastructure relates to reliability and the replacement of overhead lines, plant substations, underground cable replacement, and equipment failures.  Load growth and other includes requests for new business and capacity additions on distribution lines and substation additions and expansions.

For the natural gas distribution business, basic business addresses daily operational needs including meters, pipe relocations due to public works projects, vehicles, and tools.  Aging infrastructure projects seek to improve the reliability of the system through enhancements related to cast iron and bare steel replacement of main and services, corrosion mediation, and station upgrades.  Load growth and other reflects growth in existing service territories including new developments, installation of services, and expansion.

For the water distribution business, basic business addresses daily operational needs including periodic meter replacement, water main relocation, facility maintenance, and tools. Aging infrastructure relates to reliability and the replacement of water mains, regulators, storage tanks, pumping stations, wellfields, reservoirs, and treatment facilities. Load growth and other reflects growth in our service territory, including improvements of acquisitions, installation of new services, and interconnections of systems.

Acquisition of Assets of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts: On October 9, 2020, Eversource acquired certain assets and liabilities that comprised NiSource’s natural gas distribution business in Massachusetts, which was previously doing business as CMA, pursuant to an asset purchase agreement (the Agreement) entered into on February 26, 2020 between Eversource and NiSource Inc. (NiSource). The cash purchase price was $1.1 billion, plus a target working capital amount of $69.6 million, which is subject to adjustment to reflect actual working capital as of the closing date that has not yet been finalized. Eversource financed the asset acquisition through a combination of debt and equity issuances in a ratio that was consistent with our consolidated capital structure. The natural gas distribution assets acquired from CMA were assigned to EGMA, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Eversource formed in 2020. The LNG assets acquired from CMA were assigned to Hopkinton LNG Corp. EGMA distributes natural gas to approximately 332,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers with over 5,000 miles of natural gas distribution pipeline across more than 60 communities in Massachusetts, adding to the approximately 303,000 natural gas customers that Eversource already serves in Massachusetts.

The transaction required approval by the DPU, the Maine Public Utilities Commission, the FERC, and the Federal Communications Commission, and review under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act.
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The liabilities assumed by Eversource under the Agreement specifically excluded any liabilities (past or future) arising out of, or related to, the fires and explosions that occurred on September 13, 2018 in Lawrence, Andover and North Andover, Massachusetts related to the delivery of natural gas by CMA, including certain subsequent events, all as described and in the DPU's Order on Scope dated December 23, 2019 (D.P.U. 19-141) (the Greater Lawrence Incident or GLI). The liabilities assumed also excluded any further emergency events prior to the closing of the acquisition related to the restoration and reconstruction with respect to the GLI, including any losses arising out of, or related to, any litigation, demand, cause of action, claim, suit, investigation, proceeding, indemnification agreements or rights. Eversource did not assume any of CMA's or NiSource Inc.'s third party debt obligations or notes payable.

EGMA Rate Settlement Agreement: On October 7, 2020, the DPU approved a rate settlement agreement, which requested approval of the February 26, 2020 asset purchase agreement between Eversource and NiSource, as well as a rate stabilization plan, among other items. The settlement agreement included an authorized regulatory ROE of 9.70 percent as of January 1, 2021, a 53.25 percent equity component of its capital structure, and established rate base equal to $995 million as of the closing on October 9, 2020.

The approved rate stabilization plan includes base distribution rate increases of $13 million on November 1, 2021 and $10 million on November 1, 2022. The settlement agreement includes two rate base resets during an eight-year rate plan, occurring on November 1, 2024 and November 1, 2027. The two rate base resets adjust distribution rates to account for capital additions (including the roll-in of GSEP capital additions), depreciation expense, property taxes, and return on rate base for capital additions placed into service through December 31, 2023, for the first rate base reset occurring on November 1, 2024, and through December 31, 2026, for the second rate base reset occurring on November 1, 2027. Notwithstanding the two distribution rate increases, the two rate base reset provisions, and potential adjustments for qualifying exogenous events, EGMA agreed not to file for an increase or redesign of distribution base rates effective prior to November 1, 2028.

The settlement agreement also permits EGMA to seek recovery of both transaction and integration costs as a result of the asset acquisition after December 31, 2026, subject to DPU review and approval, and subject to certain conditions, such as demonstrating savings resulting from the acquisition.

Projected Capital Expenditures:  A summary of the projected capital expenditures for the regulated companies' electric transmission and for the total electric distribution, natural gas distribution and water distribution for 2021 through 2025, including information technology and facilities upgrades and enhancements on behalf of the regulated companies, is as follows:
 Years
(Millions of Dollars)202120222023202420252021 - 2025
Total
CL&P Transmission$443 $264 $204 $206 $173 $1,290 
NSTAR Electric Transmission469 462 426 331 385 2,073 
PSNH Transmission153 189 223 224 153 942 
  Total Electric Transmission
$1,065 $915 $853 $761 $711 $4,305 
Electric Distribution$1,269 $1,309 $1,353 $1,289 $1,229 $6,449 
Natural Gas Distribution824 925 974 937 789 4,449 
  Total Electric and Natural Gas Distribution
$2,093 $2,234 $2,327 $2,226 $2,018 $10,898 
Water Distribution$149 $143 $154 $162 $171 $779 
Information Technology and All Other$217 $249 $211 $194 $176 $1,047 
Total$3,524 $3,541 $3,545 $3,343 $3,076 $17,029 

The projections do not include investments related to offshore wind projects.  Actual capital expenditures could vary from the projected amounts for the companies and years above.

Offshore Wind Business: Our offshore wind business includes ownership interests in North East Offshore and Bay State Wind, which together hold PPAs and contracts for the Revolution Wind, South Fork Wind and Sunrise Wind projects, as well as offshore leases issued by BOEM. Our offshore wind projects are being developed and constructed through a joint and equal partnership with Ørsted. This partnership also participates in new procurement opportunities for offshore wind energy in the Northeast U.S.

Eversource has a 50 percent ownership interest in North East Offshore, which holds the Revolution Wind and South Fork Wind projects, as well as a 257 square-mile ocean lease off the coasts of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Eversource also has a 50 percent ownership interest in Bay State Wind, which holds the Sunrise Wind project. Bay State Wind's separate 300-square-mile ocean lease is located approximately 25 miles south of the coast of Massachusetts adjacent to the North East Offshore area. In aggregate, the Bay State Wind and the North East Offshore ocean lease sites jointly-owned by Eversource and Ørsted could eventually develop at least 4,000 MW of clean, renewable offshore wind energy. As of December 31, 2020, Eversource's total equity investment balance in its offshore wind business was $887.1 million, an increase of $237.8 million, as compared to 2019.

We are preparing our final project designs and advancing the appropriate federal, state and local siting and permitting processes along with our offshore wind partner, Ørsted, all of which is competitively sensitive. We currently expect to make investments in our offshore wind business of approximately $300 million to $500 million during 2021, subject to advancing our final project designs and federal, state and local permitting processes.
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The following table provides a summary of the Eversource and Ørsted major projects with announced contracts:
Wind ProjectState ServicingSize (MW)Term (Years)Price per MWhPricing TermsContract Status
Revolution WindRhode Island40020$98.43Fixed price contract; no price escalationApproved
Revolution WindConnecticut30420(1)Fixed price contracts; no price escalationApproved
South Fork WindNew York (LIPA)9020$160.332 percent average price escalationApproved
South Fork WindNew York (LIPA)4020$86.252 percent average price escalation(3)
Sunrise WindNew York (NYSERDA)88025
$110.37 (2)
Fixed price contract; no price escalationApproved

(1)    The pricing for the Revolution Wind contracts in Connecticut has not been publicly disclosed.
(2)    Index Offshore Wind Renewable Energy Certificate (OREC) strike price.
(3)    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) agreed to expand the original 20-year PPA from 90 MW to 130 MW through an amendment to the original agreement. The amendment is awaiting final approval from the New York Comptroller's Office.

Our offshore wind projects are subject to receipt of federal, state and local approvals necessary to construct and operate the projects. The federal permitting process is governed by BOEM, and state approvals are required from New York, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Significant delays in the siting and permitting process resulting from the timeline for obtaining approval from BOEM and the state and local agencies, as well as the impact of COVID-19, could adversely impact the timing of these projects' in-service dates.

Federal Siting and Permitting Process: The South Fork Wind project has commenced the federal siting and permitting process with the filing of its Construction Operations Plan (COP) application with BOEM in 2018. The first major milestone in the BOEM review process is an issuance of a Notice of Intent to complete an Environmental Impact Statement (NOI), which South Fork Wind received in 2018. In August 2020, we received the final review schedule from BOEM regarding South Fork Wind’s COP approval. In January 2021, BOEM released its Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the South Fork Wind project, which assessed the environmental, social, and economic impacts of constructing the project. Identified impacts were negligible to major adverse impacts to marine and terrestrial archaeological resources and to historic, and non-historic visual resources from project construction and operations. The Draft EIS also analyzed four alternatives to be evaluated as part of the process. Each of the identified alternative configurations had a similar level of environmental impacts, and if an alternative configuration was selected, the South Fork Wind project would still meet the contractual output under its PPA. A Final EIS is expected in the third quarter of 2021 and a final decision is expected in January 2022.

Based on BOEM’s final review schedule and final United States Army Corps of Engineers approval, we expect to start construction on South Fork in early 2022. South Fork Wind is designated as a “Covered Project” pursuant to Title 41 of the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST41) and a Major Infrastructure Project under Section 3(e) of Executive Order 13807, which provides greater federal attention on meeting the project’s permitting timelines.

Revolution Wind and Sunrise Wind filed their COP applications with BOEM in March 2020 and September 2020, respectively. Both projects received FAST41 designation in 2020. We are awaiting BOEM to outline its timeline for completing the review of each of the Revolution Wind and Sunrise Wind COPs in an NOI, which we expect to receive in 2021.

State and Local Siting and Permitting Process: South Fork Wind commenced the New York state siting process in 2018. On September 17, 2020, South Fork Wind filed a Joint Proposal in the New York State Article VII siting application. Amongst other things, the Joint Proposal included proposed mitigations to certain environmental, community and construction impacts associated with constructing electrical infrastructure. South Fork Wind was initially joined by PSEG Long Island and several citizens advocacy organizations. On October 9, 2020, the Joint Proposal was signed by the New York Departments of Public Service, Environmental Conservation, Transportation and State as well as the Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Hearings in the state siting process concluded in December 2020 and a decision is expected in mid-2021.

On September 10, 2020, the Town of East Hampton and the East Hampton Town Trustees announced that they had reached an agreement with South Fork Wind to issue the necessary easements and other real estate rights necessary to construct the South Fork Wind project. The Town approved the easements on January 21, 2021 and Trustees approved the lease on January 25, 2021.

State permitting applications in Rhode Island for Revolution Wind and in New York for Sunrise Wind were filed in December 2020. The Revolution Wind application was deemed complete on January 22, 2021 and the preliminary hearing is set for March 22, 2021.

Projected In-Service Dates: Based on BOEM’s confirmed permit schedule outlining when BOEM will complete its review of the South Fork Wind COP, we now expect the South Fork Wind project to be in-service by the end of 2023. For Revolution Wind and Sunrise Wind, we do not have a definitive timeline on when we will receive BOEM’s NOIs. At this time, we believe that it is unlikely that the projected in-service dates of the end of 2023 and the end of 2024 for Revolution Wind and Sunrise Wind, respectively, will be met. We are currently awaiting the receipt of BOEM’s NOIs for Revolution Wind and Sunrise Wind, which we expect to receive in 2021, in order to conclude on projected in-service dates.

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FERC Regulatory Matters

FERC ROE Complaints: Four separate complaints were filed at the FERC by combinations of New England state attorneys general, state regulatory commissions, consumer advocates, consumer groups, municipal parties and other parties (collectively, the Complainants). In each of the first three complaints, filed on October 1, 2011, December 27, 2012, and July 31, 2014, respectively, the Complainants challenged the NETOs' base ROE of 11.14 percent that had been utilized since 2005 and sought an order to reduce it prospectively from the date of the final FERC order and for the separate 15-month complaint periods. In the fourth complaint, filed April 29, 2016, the Complainants challenged the NETOs' base ROE billed of 10.57 percent and the maximum ROE for transmission incentive (incentive cap) of 11.74 percent, asserting that these ROEs were unjust and unreasonable.

The ROE originally billed during the period October 1, 2011 (beginning of the first complaint period) through October 15, 2014 consisted of a base ROE of 11.14 percent and incentives up to 13.1 percent. On October 16, 2014, the FERC set the base ROE at 10.57 percent and the incentive cap at 11.74 percent for the first complaint period. This was also effective for all prospective billings to customers beginning October 16, 2014. This FERC order was vacated on April 14, 2017 by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (the Court).

All amounts associated with the first complaint period have been refunded. Eversource has recorded a reserve of $39.1 million (pre-tax and excluding interest) for the second complaint period as of both December 31, 2020 and 2019. This reserve represents the difference between the billed rates during the second complaint period and a 10.57 percent base ROE and 11.74 percent incentive cap. The reserve consisted of $21.4 million for CL&P, $14.6 million for NSTAR Electric and $3.1 million for PSNH as of both December 31, 2020 and 2019.

On October 16, 2018, FERC issued an order on all four complaints describing how it intends to address the issues that were remanded by the Court. FERC proposed a new framework to determine (1) whether an existing ROE is unjust and unreasonable and, if so, (2) how to calculate a replacement ROE. Initial briefs were filed by the NETOs, Complainants and FERC Trial Staff on January 11, 2019 and reply briefs were filed on March 8, 2019. The NETOs' brief was supportive of the overall ROE methodology determined in the October 16, 2018 order provided the FERC does not change the proposed methodology or alter its implementation in a manner that has a material impact on the results.

The FERC order included illustrative calculations for the first complaint using FERC's proposed frameworks with financial data from that complaint. Those illustrative calculations indicated that for the first complaint period, for the NETOs, which FERC concludes are of average financial risk, the preliminary just and reasonable base ROE is 10.41 percent and the preliminary incentive cap on total ROE is 13.08 percent.

If the results of the illustrative calculations were included in a final FERC order for each of the complaint periods, then a 10.41 percent base ROE and a 13.08 percent incentive cap would not have a significant impact on our financial statements for all of the complaint periods. These preliminary calculations are not binding and do not represent what we believe to be the most likely outcome of a final FERC order.

On November 21, 2019, FERC issued Opinion No. 569 affecting the two pending transmission ROE complaints against the Midcontinent ISO (MISO) transmission owners, in which FERC adopted a new methodology for determining base ROEs. Various parties sought rehearing. On December 23, 2019, the NETOs filed supplementary materials in the NETOs' four pending cases to respond to this new methodology because of the uncertainty of the applicability to the NETOs' cases.

On May 21, 2020, the FERC issued its order in Opinion No. 569-A on the rehearing of the MISO transmission owners' cases, in which FERC again changed its methodology for determining the MISO transmission owners' base ROEs. Various parties appealed the MISO transmission owners' opinion. On November 19, 2020, the FERC issued Opinion No. 569-B denying rehearing of Opinion No. 569-A and reaffirmed the methodology previously adopted in Opinion No. 569-A. The new methodology differs significantly from the methodology proposed by FERC in its October 16, 2018 order to determine the NETOs' base ROEs in its four pending cases.

Given the significant uncertainty regarding the applicability of the FERC opinions in the MISO transmission owners' two complaint cases to the NETOs' pending four complaint cases, Eversource concluded that there is no reasonable basis for a change to the reserve or recognized ROEs for any of the complaint periods at this time. As well, Eversource cannot reasonably estimate a range of any gain or loss for any of the four complaint proceedings at this time.

Eversource, CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH currently record revenues at the 10.57 percent base ROE and incentive cap at 11.74 percent established in the October 16, 2014 FERC order.

A change of 10 basis points to the base ROE used to establish the reserves would impact Eversource’s after-tax earnings by an average of approximately $3 million for each of the four 15-month complaint periods. From the date of a final FERC order, a change of 10 basis points to the base ROE would impact Eversource’s 2021 after-tax earnings by approximately $5 million, or $0.01 per share, per year, and will increase slightly over time as we continue to invest in our transmission infrastructure.

FERC Notice of Inquiry on ROE: On March 21, 2019, FERC issued a Notice of Inquiry (NOI) seeking comments from all stakeholders on FERC's policies for evaluating ROEs for electric public utilities, and interstate natural gas and oil pipelines. On June 26, 2019, the NETOs jointly filed comments supporting the methodology established in the FERC’s October 16, 2018 order with minor enhancements going forward. The NETOs jointly filed reply comments in the FERC ROE NOI on July 26, 2019. On May 12, 2020, the NETOs filed supplemental comments in the NOI ROE docket. At this time, Eversource cannot predict how this proceeding will affect its transmission ROEs.

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FERC Notice of Inquiry and Proposed Rulemaking on Transmission Incentives: On March 21, 2019, FERC issued an NOI seeking comments on FERC's policies for implementing electric transmission incentives. On June 26, 2019, Eversource filed comments requesting that FERC retain policies that have been effective in encouraging new transmission investment and remain flexible enough to attract investment in new and emerging transmission technologies. Eversource filed reply comments on August 26, 2019. On March 20, 2020, FERC issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) on transmission incentives. The NOPR intends to revise FERC’s electric transmission incentive policies to reflect competing uses of transmission due to generation resource mix, technological innovation and shifts in load patterns. FERC proposes to grant transmission incentives based on measurable project economics and reliability benefits to consumers rather than its current project risks and challenges framework.  On July 1, 2020, Eversource filed comments generally supporting the NOPR.  At this time, Eversource cannot predict how these proceedings will affect its transmission incentives.

FERC Transmission Transparency Settlement: On December 28, 2015, FERC initiated a proceeding to review the NETOs' regional and local transmission formula rates due to a lack of transparency, finding that the formula rates appeared to lack sufficient details to determine how costs are derived and recovered in rates. Parties engaged in further settlement negotiations and reached an agreement in principle on October 22, 2019. On June 15, 2020, the NETOs filed an uncontested Settlement Agreement with FERC, which was signed by all six New England state regulatory commissions, New England States Committee on Electricity, New England Municipals and all the NETOs. On December 28, 2020, the FERC issued an order approving the Settlement Agreement, which establishes annual formula rate transparency procedures effective June 15, 2021, implements a new regional and local rate structure effective January 1, 2022, and contains a rate moratorium through December 31, 2024.

Regulatory Developments and Rate Matters

Electric, Natural Gas and Water Utility Base Distribution Rates:  Each Eversource utility subsidiary is subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the state in which it operates:  CL&P, Yankee Gas and Aquarion operate in Connecticut and are subject to PURA regulation; NSTAR Electric, NSTAR Gas, EGMA and Aquarion operate in Massachusetts and are subject to DPU regulation; and PSNH and Aquarion operate in New Hampshire and are subject to NHPUC regulation.  The regulated companies' distribution rates are set by their respective state regulatory commissions, and their tariffs include mechanisms for periodically adjusting their rates for the recovery of specific incurred costs.  

In Connecticut, electric and natural gas utilities are required to file a distribution rate case, or for PURA to initiate a rate review, within four years of the last rate case. CL&P's and Yankee Gas' distribution rates were each established in 2018 PURA-approved rate case settlement agreements. Aquarion is not required to initiate a rate review with the PURA on a set schedule. Aquarion rates were established in a 2013 PURA-approved rate case.

In Massachusetts, electric distribution companies are required to file at least one distribution rate case every five years, and natural gas local distribution companies to file at least one distribution rate case every 10 years, and those companies are limited to one settlement agreement in any 10-year period. NSTAR Electric's distribution rates were established in a 2017 DPU-approved rate case. NSTAR Gas' distribution rates were established in an October 2020 DPU-approved rate case. EGMA's distribution rates were established in an October 2020 DPU-approved rate settlement agreement. Aquarion is not required to initiate a rate review with the DPU. Aquarion rates were established in a 2018 DPU-approved rate case.

In New Hampshire, PSNH's distribution rates were established in a December 2020 NHPUC-approved rate case settlement agreement. Aquarion rates were established in a 2013 NHPUC-approved rate case, further revised in 2016. On December 18, 2020, Aquarion filed an application with the NHPUC for a permanent increase in base rates, effective February 1, 2021.

See "Regulatory Developments and Rate Matters - Massachusetts" and "- New Hampshire," as well as "Business Development and Capital Expenditures – Acquisition of Assets of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts" in this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for more information on the NSTAR Gas, PSNH and EGMA 2020 rate approvals.

Electric, Natural Gas and Water Utility Retail Rates: The Eversource electric distribution companies obtain and resell power to retail customers who choose not to buy energy from a competitive energy supplier.  The natural gas distribution companies procure natural gas for firm and seasonal customers.  These energy supply procurement costs are recovered from customers in energy supply rates that are approved by the respective state regulatory commission.  The rates are reset periodically and are fully reconciled to their costs.  Each electric and natural gas distribution company fully recovers its energy supply costs through approved regulatory rate mechanisms on a timely basis and, therefore, such costs have no impact on earnings.

The electric and natural gas distribution companies also recover certain other costs on a fully reconciling basis through regulatory commission-approved cost tracking mechanisms and, therefore, recovery of these costs has no impact on earnings.  Costs recovered through cost tracking mechanisms include, among others, energy efficiency program costs, electric retail transmission charges, electric restructuring and stranded costs (including securitized RRB charges), and additionally for our Massachusetts companies, pension and PBOP benefits and net metering for distributed generation.  The reconciliation filings compare the total actual costs allowed to revenue requirements related to these services and the difference between the costs incurred (or the rate recovery allowed) and the actual costs allowed is deferred and included, to be either recovered or refunded, in future customer rates.  These cost tracking mechanisms also include certain incentives earned, return on rate base and on capital tracking mechanisms, and carrying charges that are billed in rates to customers, which do impact earnings.
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COVID-19 Regulatory Dockets: In Connecticut, PURA opened a docket to address COVID-19 developments, including issuing orders on March 18, 2020, April 29, 2020 and May 15, 2020 that authorized electric, natural gas and water utilities to establish a regulatory asset for COVID-19 uncollectible customer receivable expenses and costs associated with the related orders.  PURA’s April 29, 2020 order, as supplemented on May 15, 2020, also allowed the inclusion of working capital costs in the regulatory asset, and authorized electric, natural gas and water utilities to establish a payment plan program designed to assist any customer who requests financial assistance during the COVID-19 pandemic. On July 10, 2020, PURA denied a request from a coalition of large industrial customers to reduce or suspend certain electric and natural gas charges during the COVID-19 pandemic.

In Massachusetts, on July 31, 2020, the DPU approved and adopted a coalition of electric, natural gas and water utilities’ comprehensive Customer Assistance Plan involving extended payment plans and waiver of late fees, extended plans under available arrearage management plans (AMPs), and continuation of the Shut-Off Moratorium. On September 3, 2020, the DPU approved the 2020 small commercial arrearage forgiveness program (AFP) proposed by the electric and natural gas distribution companies. In its interim order dated December 31, 2020, the DPU established certain cost tracking and data reporting requirements for the distribution companies and will allow each company to record, defer, and track incremental cost areas, subject to the DPU’s final determination of the ratemaking treatment in D.P.U. 20-58 and D.P.U. 20-91. In D.P.U. 20-91, the DPU will adjudicate the contested cost-recovery provisions identified in the Ratemaking Proposal and consider proposals to expand alternative customer bill payment options. The distribution companies’ Ratemaking Proposal for COVID-19 financial-related impacts includes recovery requests for each of the following five cost categories: (1) cash working capital; (2) arrearage forgiveness; (3) bad debt; (4) COVID-19 O&M expenses; and (5) waived fees.

In New Hampshire, on October 5, 2020, the NHPUC approved an agreement governing collections and disconnection activities, deposit activities, flexible payment plans, and special arrangements for income-qualified customers for all New Hampshire utilities including Eversource’s electric and water utilities. The terms of that agreement continue through at least April 2021. Also, on August 18, 2020, the NHPUC Staff recommended that utilities in New Hampshire be permitted to create a regulatory asset for waived fees and incremental bad debt related to the COVID-19 pandemic. On November 13, 2020, the NHPUC Staff revised its recommendation arguing that waived fees should not be included in any regulatory asset related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The New Hampshire utilities disputed that recommendation on December 4, 2020, and on December 16, 2020, the NHPUC Staff renewed its November 13, 2020 recommendation. The NHPUC has yet to act on that recommendation.

For information on COVID-19-related regulatory deferrals recorded and COVID-19 charges incurred, see "Impact of COVID-19" included in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis.

Storm Event:

On August 4, 2020, Tropical Storm Isaias caused catastrophic damage to our electric distribution system, which resulted in significant amounts and durations of customer outages, primarily in Connecticut. In terms of customer outages, this storm was one of the worst in CL&P’s history. PURA has opened an investigation into CL&P's response to Tropical Storm Isaias.  PURA will also investigate the prudence of costs incurred by CL&P to restore service as part of its response.  CL&P is fully participating in PURA’s investigations and believes that these storm restoration costs were prudently incurred and meet the criteria for cost recovery.  As a result, management does not expect the storm costs to have a material impact on the results of operations of Eversource or CL&P.

Based on current estimates, the storm resulted in deferred storm restoration costs on our balance sheets of approximately $228 million at CL&P and $245 million at Eversource as of December 31, 2020. The estimated cost of restoration will change as additional cost information becomes available, final storm costs are deferred or capitalized, and post-storm restoration work is completed. The majority of incremental storm costs relate to third-party vendors that are external field crews needed to restore power and address municipal priorities. CL&P’s current estimate of total storm costs includes its projection of the cost of such vendors, but that estimate will change as CL&P receives and examines all storm related invoices.

Connecticut:

CL&P Storm Investigation: On August 7, 2020, PURA issued a notice that it had opened a docket to investigate the preparation for and response to Tropical Storm Isaias by Connecticut utilities, including CL&P. Hearings were completed in January 2021 and a final decision is currently expected on April 28, 2021. If the April 28, 2021 final decision concludes that CL&P failed to comply with applicable storm performance standards, then a separate proceeding will be initiated on May 7, 2021 to examine if and what amount of any civil penalty could potentially be imposed on CL&P, with a final decision currently anticipated on July 14, 2021.

CL&P Rate Suspension: On July 31, 2020, PURA temporarily suspended its June 26, 2020 approval of certain delivery rate components effective July 1, 2020, and ordered CL&P to restore rates to those in effect as of June 30, 2020 in order to allow PURA time to reexamine the rates to ensure that CL&P is not over-collecting revenues in the short-term. Rates were adjusted effective August 1, 2020. PURA indicated that this was due to the convergence of a number of recent events, including the COVID-19 crisis and its corresponding effect on customer energy usage, as well as the warmer than normal weather in July. On December 2, 2020, PURA issued a final decision in which it adjusted the timing of the annual rate adjustments for the Revenue Decoupling Mechanism Charge, the Transmission Adjustment Clause charge, the Non-Bypassable Federally Mandated Congestion Charge, and the Electric System Improvements Tracker so that these rates take effect on May 1st of each year, as opposed to the current process of adjusting rates each January 1 and July 1. The final decision also modified the calculation of carrying charges and shifted the timing of recovery to rely on more actual versus forecasted information, among other changes.

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The temporary suspension of rates has resulted in a current period under-recovery of costs, which results in an increase to our regulatory assets, with no impact on the statement of income other than carrying charges, and a delay in the collection of our costs.

Massachusetts:

NSTAR Electric Distribution Rates: As part of an inflation-based mechanism, NSTAR Electric submitted its third annual Performance Based
Rate Adjustment filing on September 15, 2020 and the DPU approved a $29.9 million increase to base distribution rates on December 30, 2020 for effect on January 1, 2021.

NSTAR Gas Rate Case: On October 30, 2020, the DPU approved a base distribution rate increase of $23.0 million effective November 1, 2020, compared to the original request of $38.0 million. NSTAR Gas' 2019 plant additions are allowed recovery beginning on November 1, 2021.  Thus, the reduced revenue requirement reflects the removal of this recovery, among other adjustments. The DPU also approved NSTAR Gas' proposal to continue its ongoing Gas System Enhancement Program (GSEP), the inclusion of GSEP investments since 2015 into base rates, and the implementation of a 10-year performance-based ratemaking plan, which includes an inflation-based adjustment mechanism to annual base distribution rates. The decision allows an authorized regulatory ROE of 9.9 percent on a capital structure including 54.77 percent equity. The decision also approves a geothermal pilot program. The impact of the rate case decision resulted in a pre-tax charge to earnings in 2020 of $2.7 million at NSTAR Gas, primarily due to certain plant-related disallowances.

Sale of Water System: On July 31, 2020, we sold our water system and treatment plant that supplies water to the towns of Hingham, Hull and North Cohasset to the town of Hingham, Massachusetts. Net property, plant and equipment of $63.9 million and goodwill of $23.6 million were included in determining the gain on sale. Proceeds from the sale were $110.5 million, with a pre-tax gain of $16.0 million (after-tax gain of $3.5 million) recognized within Operations and Maintenance Expense on the statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2020. The assets and liabilities associated with the sale of the business were previously reflected in the Water Distribution segment and reporting unit.

New Hampshire:

PSNH Distribution Rates: On June 27, 2019, the NHPUC approved a settlement agreement that was reached by PSNH, the NHPUC Staff, the Office of the Consumer Advocate, and another settling party, to implement a temporary annual base distribution rate increase of $28.3 million. Although new rates were implemented on August 1, 2019 to customers, the provisions of the temporary base distribution rate increase were effective July 1, 2019. The settlement agreement also permitted PSNH to recover approximately $68.5 million in unrecovered storm costs over a five-year period beginning August 1, 2019, with debt carrying charges, which is included in the temporary rate increase.

On May 28, 2019, PSNH filed an application with the NHPUC for a permanent increase in base distribution rates of approximately $70 million, effective July 1, 2020, which included the temporary rate increase request. Temporary rates remained in effect with a reconciliation of permanent rates retroactive to July 1, 2019 once permanent rates were set.

On December 15, 2020, the NHPUC approved an October 9, 2020 settlement agreement on permanent rates between PSNH and all parties to the proceeding. The NHPUC approved a permanent rate increase of $45.0 million effective January 1, 2021, inclusive of the temporary rate increase referenced above. PSNH was also permitted three step increases, effective January 1, 2021, August 1, 2021, and August 1, 2022, to reflect plant additions in calendar years 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. On December 23, 2020, the NHPUC approved the first step adjustment for 2019 plant in service to recover a revenue requirement of $10.6 million, subject to reconciliation after completion of an audit, effective January 1, 2021. The settlement agreement also established an authorized regulatory ROE of 9.3 percent with a 54.4 percent common equity ratio in PSNH’s capital structure and provided for a new tracker to recover regulatory assessments, vegetation management costs, property tax costs, and lost distribution revenue attributable to net metering. In addition, base distribution rates were adjusted to reflect the refund of EDIT from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.

The settlement agreement allowed for the effect of the permanent rate increase to be extended back to the temporary rate period. In lieu of a customer rate increase for this recoupment of revenue, the NHPUC directed a portion of the total EDIT regulatory liability to offset bill impacts to customers. The impact of the settlement agreement resulted in an after-tax benefit to earnings in 2020 of $11.0 million at Eversource ($7.2 million at PSNH), due primarily to the reconciliation of permanent rates back to the temporary rate period resulting in a reduction of the EDIT regulatory liability, which reduced Income Tax Expense on the statement of income, and the allowed recovery of previously expensed costs. The earnings impact was partially offset by the negative impact from the over-refunding of the change in the 2018 federal corporate income tax rate as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that was reflected in temporary rates, which reduced Operating Revenues on the statement of income.

PSNH Generation Asset Divestiture-Related Costs: On May 15, 2020, the NHPUC Audit Staff issued a final report on the audit of PSNH’s generation asset divestiture-related costs and resulting securitized and stranded costs. The findings in the audit report as well as other aspects of the divestiture process were further investigated by NHPUC Staff through the discovery phase, which was completed in July 2020. On September 30, 2020, PSNH filed a settlement agreement on the generation asset divestiture-related costs with the NHPUC Audit Staff. The settlement agreement resolved all issues with respect to PSNH’s divestiture of its generating assets and the recovery of $12.0 million of divestiture-related costs incurred above the $635.7 million amount previously securitized. On December 17, 2020, the NHPUC approved the additional $12.0 million proposed in the settlement agreement to be recovered over a one-year period through the SCRC rate beginning February 1, 2021.

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Legislative and Policy Matters

Federal: On March 27, 2020, President Trump signed the $2.2 trillion bipartisan Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. Among other provisions, the CARES Act provides for loans and other benefits to small and large businesses, expanded unemployment insurance, direct payments to those with wages middle-income and below, new appropriations funding for health care and other priorities, and tax changes like deferrals of employer payroll tax liabilities coupled with an employee retention tax credit and rollbacks of Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 limitations on net operating losses and certain business interest limitation. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we have recorded a tax liability of approximately $39 million related to the deferral of employer payroll tax liability provision. Fifty percent of the deferral of employer payroll tax liability must be paid by December 31, 2021 and the remaining amount by December 31, 2022. Other than the cash flow benefit described, the CARES Act did not have a material impact.

On December 27, 2020, President Trump signed into law H.R. 133, the “Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021.” The House of Representatives and Senate previously passed the bill with overwhelming support. The legislation includes tax extenders as part of Division EE, the “Taxpayer Certainty and Disaster Tax Relief Act of 2020.” The provisions within the law include the extension of the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) for solar at 26 percent for facilities the construction of which begins through the end of 2022, at 22 percent for facilities the construction of which begins in 2023, and postponement of the date after which solar facilities placed in service receive only a 10 percent ITC to December 31, 2025, the extension of the ITC at 30 percent (with no phase-down) to offshore wind if construction begins by December 31, 2025 (qualifying offshore wind includes facilities located in the inland navigable waters or in the coastal waters of the U.S.), and the extension and expansion of the CARES Act employee retention tax credit for the period from January 1, 2021 through June 30, 2021, including increasing the credit rate from 50 percent to 70 percent of qualified wages, and increasing the per-employee creditable wages limit from $10,000 per year to $10,000 for each quarter. The tax credit provision impacts to Eversource are still being evaluated but are a significant positive development for the Company and provides the opportunity to generate additional tax credits in its renewable energy projects when the projects become operational.

Massachusetts: On January 28, 2021, the Massachusetts Legislature approved legislation which permits electric or natural gas distribution companies to assist Massachusetts municipalities in responding to the risks of climate change by owning solar facilities equal to up to 10 percent of the total installed solar generating capacity in Massachusetts as of July 31, 2020. Such facilities may be paired with energy storage where feasible to do so. This legislation is anticipated to allow each of Eversource’s Massachusetts operating companies to own up to approximately 280 MWs of solar generating facilities in addition to the 70 MWs previously constructed at NSTAR Electric.

Connecticut: On October 8, 2020, Connecticut enacted Public Act 20-5 (House Bill Number 7006), September Special Session (the Act). The Act, among other things, (1) requires PURA to open a proceeding by June 1, 2021 to begin to evaluate and eventually implement performance based regulation for electric distribution companies, and permits PURA to open a proceeding to consider such regulation for natural gas and water companies; (2) extends deadlines for PURA to issue final decisions in rate cases, change of control transactions and financing proceedings to be more consistent with timeframes in many other U.S. jurisdictions; (3) increases the maximum potential penalty for noncompliance with storm performance standards from 2.5 percent to 4 percent of annual electric distribution company revenue; and (4) directed PURA to open a proceeding by January 1, 2021 to evaluate and decide when bill credits should be paid to electric customers who lose service in future storms, including when waivers of these criteria will be granted to utilities. PURA opened a docket on December 29, 2020 to evaluate when bill credits would be paid for new storms after July 1, 2021. This law has no impact on storm response, costs or impacts prior to July 1, 2021.

Critical Accounting Policies

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates, assumptions and, at times, difficult, subjective or complex judgments.  Changes in these estimates, assumptions and judgments, in and of themselves, could materially impact our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  Our management discusses with the Audit Committee of our Board of Trustees significant matters relating to critical accounting policies.  Our critical accounting policies are discussed below.  See the combined notes to our financial statements for further information concerning the accounting policies, estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of our financial statements.  

Regulatory Accounting:  Our regulated companies are subject to rate regulation that is based on cost recovery and meets the criteria for application of accounting guidance for rate-regulated operations, which considers the effect of regulation on the timing of the recognition of certain revenues and expenses.  The regulated companies' financial statements reflect the effects of the rate-making process.  The rates charged to the customers of our regulated companies are designed to collect each company's costs to provide service, plus a return on investment.  

The application of accounting guidance for rate-regulated enterprises results in recording regulatory assets and liabilities.  Regulatory assets represent the deferral of incurred costs that are probable of future recovery in customer rates.  Regulatory assets are amortized as the incurred costs are recovered through customer rates.  In some cases, we record regulatory assets before approval for recovery has been received from the applicable regulatory commission.  We must use judgment to conclude that costs deferred as regulatory assets are probable of future recovery.  We base our conclusion on certain factors, including, but not limited to, regulatory precedent.  Regulatory liabilities represent either revenues received from customers to fund expected costs that have not yet been incurred or probable future refunds to customers.

We use judgment when recording regulatory assets and liabilities; however, regulatory commissions can reach different conclusions about the recovery of costs, and those conclusions could have a material impact on our financial statements.  We believe it is probable that each of the regulated companies will recover its respective investments in long-lived assets and the regulatory assets that have been recorded.  If we determine that we can no longer apply the accounting guidance applicable to rate-regulated enterprises, or that we cannot conclude it is probable that costs will be recovered from customers in future rates, the applicable costs would be charged to net income in the period in which the determination is made.
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Pension, SERP and PBOP:  We sponsor Pension, SERP and PBOP Plans to provide retirement benefits to our employees.  For each of these plans, several significant assumptions are used to determine the projected benefit obligation, funded status and net periodic benefit cost.  These assumptions include the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, discount rate, compensation/progression rate and mortality and retirement assumptions.  We evaluate these assumptions at least annually and adjust them as necessary.  Changes in these assumptions could have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  

Expected Long-Term Rate of Return on Plan Assets:  In developing the expected long-term rate of return, we consider historical and expected returns, as well as input from our consultants.  Our expected long-term rate of return on assets is based on assumptions regarding target asset allocations and corresponding expected rates of return for each asset class.  We routinely review the actual asset allocations and periodically rebalance the investments to the targeted asset allocations.  For the year ended December 31, 2020, our expected long-term rate-of-return assumption used to determine our pension and PBOP expense was 8.25 percent for the Eversource Service plans and 7 percent for the Aquarion plans.  For the forecasted 2021 pension and PBOP expense, an expected long-term rate of return of 8.25 percent for the Eversource Service plans and 7 percent for the Aquarion plans will be used reflecting our target asset allocations.

Discount Rate:  Payment obligations related to the Pension, SERP and PBOP Plans are discounted at interest rates applicable to the expected timing of each plan's cash flows.  The discount rate that was utilized in determining the pension, SERP and PBOP obligations was based on a yield-curve approach.  This approach utilizes a population of bonds with an average rating of AA based on bond ratings by Moody's, S&P and Fitch, and uses bonds with above median yields within that population.  As of December 31, 2020, the discount rates used to determine the funded status were within a range of 2.4 percent to 2.7 percent for the Pension and SERP Plans, and within a range of 2.5 percent to 2.6 percent for the PBOP Plans.  As of December 31, 2019, the discount rates used were within a range of 3.0 percent to 3.4 percent for the Pension and SERP Plans, and within a range of 3.2 percent to 3.3 percent for the PBOP Plans.  The decrease in the discount rates used to calculate the funded status resulted in an increase to the Pension and PBOP Plans' liability of $603.0 million and $68.3 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2020.  

The Company uses the spot rate methodology for the service and interest cost components of Pension, SERP and PBOP expense because it provides a relatively precise measurement by matching projected cash flows to the corresponding spot rates on the yield curve.  The discount rates used to estimate the 2020 expense were within a range of 2.6 percent to 3.5 percent for the Pension and SERP Plans, and within a range of 2.7 percent to 3.6 percent for the PBOP Plans.  

Mortality Assumptions:  Assumptions as to mortality of the participants in our Pension, SERP and PBOP Plans are a key estimate in measuring the expected payments a participant may receive over their lifetime and the corresponding plan liability we need to record. In 2020, a revised scale for the mortality table was released, and we utilized it in our measurements.

Compensation/Progression Rate:  This assumption reflects the expected long-term salary growth rate, including consideration of the levels of increases built into collective bargaining agreements, and impacts the estimated benefits that Pension and SERP Plan participants receive in the future.  As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the compensation/progression rates used to determine the funded status were within a range of 3.5 percent to 4 percent.  

Health Care Cost: The Eversource Service PBOP Plan is not subject to health care cost trends. As of December 31, 2020, for the Aquarion PBOP Plan, the health care trend rate for pre-65 retirees is 6.3 percent, with an ultimate rate of 5 percent in 2023, and for post-65 retirees, the health care trend rate and ultimate rate is 3.5 percent.

Actuarial Determination of Expense:  Pension, SERP and PBOP expense is determined by our actuaries and consists of service cost and prior service cost, interest cost based on the discounting of the obligations, and amortization of actuarial gains and losses, offset by the expected return on plan assets. Actuarial gains and losses represent the amortization of differences between assumptions and actual information or updated assumptions. Pre-tax net periodic benefit expense for the Pension and SERP Plans was $56.9 million, $63.7 million and $39.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.  For the PBOP Plans, there was net periodic PBOP income of $51.6 million, $41.5 million and $45.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.  

The expected return on plan assets is determined by applying the assumed long-term rate of return to the Pension and PBOP Plan asset balances. This calculated expected return is compared to the actual return or loss on plan assets at the end of each year to determine the investment gains or losses to be immediately reflected in unamortized actuarial gains and losses.  

Forecasted Expenses and Expected Contributions:  We estimate that expense in 2021 for the Pension and SERP Plans will be approximately $28 million and income in 2021 for the PBOP Plans will be approximately $58 million. Pension, SERP and PBOP expense for subsequent years will depend on future investment performance, changes in future discount rates and other assumptions, and various other factors related to the populations participating in the plans.

Our policy is to fund the Pension Plans annually in an amount at least equal to the amount that will satisfy all federal funding requirements.  We contributed $109.6 million to the Pension Plans in 2020.  We currently estimate contributing $130.0 million to the Pension Plans in 2021.  

It is our policy to fund the PBOP Plans annually through tax deductible contributions to external trusts.  We contributed $1.9 million to the PBOP Plans in 2020.  We currently estimate contributing $2.8 million to the PBOP Plans in 2021.

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Sensitivity Analysis:  The following represents the hypothetical increase to the Pension Plans' (excluding the SERP Plans) reported annual cost and a decrease to the PBOP Plans' reported annual income as a result of a change in the following assumptions by 50 basis points:
(Millions of Dollars)Increase in Pension Plan CostDecrease in PBOP Plan Income
Assumption ChangeAs of December 31,As of December 31,
Eversource2020201920202019
Lower expected long-term rate of return$25.0 $22.9 $4.5 $4.1 
Lower discount rate25.4 21.7 1.7 1.7 
Higher compensation rate8.8 8.7 N/AN/A

Goodwill:  We recorded goodwill on our balance sheet associated with previous mergers and acquisitions, which totaled $4.45 billion as of December 31, 2020. We have identified our reporting units for purposes of allocating and testing goodwill as Electric Distribution, Electric Transmission, Natural Gas Distribution and Water Distribution.  Electric Distribution and Electric Transmission reporting units include carrying values for the respective components of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH.  The Natural Gas Distribution reporting unit includes the carrying values of NSTAR Gas, Yankee Gas and EGMA. We recorded $42 million of goodwill arising from the acquisition of CMA on October 9, 2020. The Water Distribution reporting unit includes the Aquarion water utility businesses.  As of December 31, 2020, goodwill was allocated to the reporting units as follows: $2.54 billion to Electric Distribution, $577 million to Electric Transmission, $441 million to Natural Gas Distribution and $884 million to Water Distribution.

We are required to test goodwill balances for impairment at least annually by considering the fair values of the reporting units, which requires us to use estimates and judgments.  We have selected October 1st of each year as the annual goodwill impairment test date.  Goodwill impairment is deemed to exist if the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value.  If goodwill were deemed to be impaired, it would be written down in the current period to the extent of the impairment.  

We performed an impairment test of goodwill as of October 1, 2020 for the Electric Distribution, Electric Transmission, Natural Gas Distribution and Water Distribution reporting units.  This evaluation required the consideration of several factors that impact the fair value of the reporting units, including conditions and assumptions that affect the future cash flows of the reporting units. Key considerations include discount rates, utility sector market performance and merger transaction multiples, and internal estimates of future cash flows and net income.  

The 2020 goodwill impairment assessment resulted in a conclusion that goodwill is not impaired and no reporting unit is at risk of a goodwill impairment. The fair value of the reporting units was substantially in excess of carrying value.

Long-Lived Assets: Impairment evaluations of long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment and other assets, involve a significant degree of estimation and judgment, including identifying circumstances that indicate an impairment may exist. Impairment analysis is required when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable. Indicators of potential impairment include a deteriorating business climate, unfavorable regulatory action, decline in value that is other than temporary in nature, plans to dispose of a long-lived asset significantly before the end of its useful life, and accumulation of costs that are in excess of amounts allowed for recovery. The review of long-lived assets for impairment utilizes significant assumptions about operating strategies and external developments, including assessment of current and projected market conditions that can impact future cash flows.

Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission:  Northern Pass was Eversource's planned 1,090 MW HVDC transmission line that would have interconnected from the Québec-New Hampshire border to Franklin, New Hampshire and an associated alternating current radial transmission line between Franklin and Deerfield, New Hampshire.  As a result of a final decision received on July 19, 2019 from the New Hampshire Supreme Court, whereby the court denied Northern Pass’ appeal and affirmed the NHSEC’s denial of Northern Pass’ siting application on NPT, Eversource concluded that construction of NPT was no longer probable and that there was no constructive path forward for the project. In 2019, Eversource terminated the project and permanently abandoned any further development. 

Based on the conclusion that the construction of Northern Pass was no longer probable, Eversource recorded an impairment charge in 2019 for all of the project costs associated with Northern Pass, which were primarily engineering design, siting, permitting and legal costs, along with appropriate allowances for funds used during construction, and recognized a receivable for certain cost reimbursement agreements. Additionally, Eversource recorded an impairment charge associated with the land acquired to construct Northern Pass in order to recognize the land at its estimated fair value based on assessed values and transaction costs. In total, this resulted in a pre-tax impairment charge of $239.6 million within Operating Income on the statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2019, and was reflected in the Electric Transmission segment. The after-tax impact of the impairment charge was $204.4 million, or $0.64 per share, after giving effect to the estimated fair value of the related land, reimbursement agreements, and the impact of expected income tax benefits associated with the impairment charge. As a result of the decision to terminate the NPT project and permanently abandon any further development, Eversource does not expect any future cash expenditures associated with this project.

Equity Method Investments: Investments in affiliates where we have the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over an investee are initially recognized as an equity method investment at cost. Any differences between the cost of an investment and the amount of underlying equity in net assets of an investee are considered basis differences and are determined based upon the estimated fair values of the investee's identifiable assets and liabilities. For our offshore wind equity method investment, basis differences are related to intangible assets for PPAs that will be amortized over the term of the PPAs, and equity method goodwill that are not amortized. Capitalized interest associated with our offshore wind equity method investment is included in the investment balance.

44


Equity method investments are assessed for impairment when conditions exist that indicate that the fair value of the investment is less than book value.  If the decline in value is considered to be other-than-temporary, the investment is written down to its estimated fair value, which establishes a new cost basis in the investment. Impairment evaluations involve a significant degree of judgment and estimation, including identifying circumstances that indicate an impairment may exist and developing an estimate of undiscounted future cash flows.

In 2020, Eversource recorded an other-than-temporary impairment of $2.8 million within Other Income, Net on the statement of income, related to a write-off of an investment within a renewable energy fund.

In 2018, Eversource recorded an other-than-temporary impairment of $32.9 million within Other Income, Net on our statement of income, related to Access Northeast, an equity method investment. Eversource identified a September 2018 non-Eversource natural gas series of explosions in eastern Massachusetts, compounded by an adverse legislative environment, as negative evidence that indicated potential impairment of our investment in Access Northeast. In 2018, management determined that the future cash flows of the Access Northeast project were uncertain and could no longer be reasonably estimated and that the book value of our equity method investment was not recoverable. On April 1, 2019, pursuant to a provision in the partnership agreement jointly entered into by Eversource, Enbridge, Inc. and National Grid plc, through Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC, the Access Northeast project was terminated.

Income Taxes: Income tax expense is estimated for each of the jurisdictions in which we operate and is recorded each quarter using an estimated annualized effective tax rate.  This process to record income tax expense involves estimating current and deferred income tax expense or benefit and the impact of temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for financial reporting and income tax return reporting purposes.  Such differences are the result of timing of the deduction for expenses, as well as any impact of permanent differences, non-tax deductible expenses, or other items that directly impact income tax expense as a result of regulatory activity (flow-through items).  The temporary differences and flow-through items result in deferred tax assets and liabilities that are included in the balance sheets.

We also account for uncertainty in income taxes, which applies to all income tax positions previously filed in a tax return and income tax positions expected to be taken in a future tax return that have been reflected on our balance sheets.  The determination of whether a tax position meets the recognition threshold under applicable accounting guidance is based on facts and circumstances available to us.  

Pursuant to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, Eversource had remeasured its existing deferred federal income tax balances to reflect the decrease in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent. The remeasurement resulted in provisional regulated excess accumulated deferred income tax (excess ADIT or EDIT) liabilities that will benefit our customers in future periods. As of December 31, 2020, these EDIT liabilities were estimated to be approximately $2.78 billion and were included in regulatory liabilities on the balance sheet. Eversource's regulated companies are in the process of, or will be, refunding the EDIT liabilities to customers based on orders issued by applicable state regulatory commissions. The refund of these regulatory liabilities to customers will generally be made over the same period as the remaining useful lives of the underlying assets that gave rise to the ADIT liabilities.

Accounting for Environmental Reserves:  Environmental reserves are accrued when assessments indicate it is probable that a liability has been incurred and an amount can be reasonably estimated. Increases to estimates of environmental liabilities could have an adverse impact on earnings. We estimate these liabilities based on findings through various phases of the assessment, considering the most likely action plan from a variety of available remediation options (ranging from no action required to full site remediation and long-term monitoring), current site information from our site assessments, remediation estimates from third party engineering and remediation contractors, and our prior experience in remediating contaminated sites.  If a most likely action plan cannot yet be determined, we estimate the liability based on the low end of a range of possible action plans. A significant portion of our environmental sites and reserve amounts relate to former MGP sites that were operated several decades ago and manufactured natural gas from coal and other processes, which resulted in certain by-products remaining in the environment that may pose a potential risk to human health and the environment, for which we may have potential liability.  Estimates are based on the expected remediation plan. Our estimates are subject to revision in future periods based on actual costs or new information from other sources, including the level of contamination at the site, the extent of our responsibility or the extent of remediation required, recently enacted laws and regulations or a change in cost estimates.  

Fair Value Measurements:  We follow fair value measurement guidance that defines fair value as the price that would be received for the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (an exit price).  We have applied this guidance to our Company's derivative contracts that are not elected or designated as "normal purchases or normal sales" (normal), to marketable securities held in trusts, and to our investments in our Pension and PBOP Plans. Fair value measurements are also incorporated into the accounting for goodwill, long-lived assets, equity method investments, and AROs, and in the valuation of the acquisition of CMA in 2020. The fair value measurement guidance was also applied in estimating the fair value of preferred stock, long-term debt and RRBs.

Changes in fair value of our derivative contracts are recorded as Regulatory Assets or Liabilities, as we recover the costs of these contracts in rates charged to customers.  These valuations are sensitive to the prices of energy and energy-related products in future years for which markets have not yet developed and assumptions are made.  

We use quoted market prices when available to determine the fair value of financial instruments.  When quoted prices in active markets for the same or similar instruments are not available, we value derivative contracts using models that incorporate both observable and unobservable inputs.  Significant unobservable inputs utilized in the models include energy and energy-related product prices for future years for long-dated derivative contracts and market volatilities.  Discounted cash flow valuations incorporate estimates of premiums or discounts, reflecting risk-adjusted profit that would be required by a market participant to arrive at an exit price, using available historical market transaction information. Valuations of derivative contracts also reflect our estimates of nonperformance risk, including credit risk.
 
45


Other Matters
Accounting Standards:  For information regarding new accounting standards, see Note 1C, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Accounting Standards," to the financial statements.

Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments:  Information regarding our contractual obligations and commercial commitments as of December 31, 2020, is summarized annually through 2025 and thereafter as follows:
Eversource       
(Millions of Dollars)20212022202320242025ThereafterTotal
Long-term debt maturities (a)
$1,022.2 $1,175.2 $1,658.2 $1,049.9 $1,400.0 $9,807.9 $16,113.4 
Rate reduction bond maturities43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 43.2 324.1 540.1 
Estimated interest payments on existing debt (b)
542.8 510.6 478.4 437.3 391.0 4,541.4 6,901.5 
Operating leases (c)
11.4 9.0 6.4 4.5 3.4 36.2 70.9 
Finance leases(c)
7.2 5.7 4.9 4.8 4.7 60.7 88.0 
Funding of pension obligations (d) (e)
130.0 — — — — — 130.0 
Funding of PBOP obligations (d) (e)
2.8 — — — — — 2.8 
Estimated future annual long-term contractual costs (f)
1,328.8 1,218.6 1,096.1 1,052.3 1,023.0 5,451.8 11,170.6 
Total (g)
$3,088.4 $2,962.3 $3,287.2 $2,592.0 $2,865.3 $20,222.1 $35,017.3 
CL&P       
(Millions of Dollars)20212022202320242025ThereafterTotal
Long-term debt maturities (a)
$— $— $400.0 $139.8 $400.0 $2,975.5 $3,915.3 
Estimated interest payments on existing debt (b)
156.2 156.2 151.2 146.2 135.2 1,884.0 2,629.0 
Operating leases (c)
0.2 0.1 — — — — 0.3 
Finance leases (c)
1.5 — — — — — 1.5 
Funding of pension obligations (d) (e)
78.9 — — — — — 78.9 
Estimated future annual long-term contractual costs (f)
588.3 661.5 684.6 674.9 647.7 2,755.8 6,012.8 
Total (g)
$825.1 $817.8 $1,235.8 $960.9 $1,182.9 $7,615.3 $12,637.8 

(a)    Long-term debt maturities exclude the CYAPC pre-1983 spent nuclear fuel obligation, net unamortized premiums, discounts and debt issuance costs, and other fair value adjustments.

(b)    Estimated interest payments on fixed-rate debt are calculated by multiplying the coupon rate on the debt by its scheduled notional amount outstanding for the period of measurement.  

(c)    The operating and finance lease obligations include interest.

(d)    Amounts are not included on our balance sheets.  

(e)    These amounts represent expected pension and PBOP contributions for 2021.  Future contributions will vary depending on many factors, including the performance of existing plan assets, valuation of the plans' liabilities and long-term discount rates.   

(f)    Other than certain derivative contracts held by the regulated companies, these obligations are not included on our balance sheets.  

(g)    Does not include other long-term liabilities recorded on our balance sheet, such as environmental reserves, employee medical insurance, workers compensation and long-term disability insurance reserves, ARO liability reserves and other reserves, as we cannot make reasonable estimates of the timing of payments. Also, does not include amounts not included on our balance sheets for future funding of Eversource's equity method investments, as we cannot make reasonable estimates of the periods or the investment contributions.

For further information regarding our contractual obligations and commercial commitments, see Note 7, "Asset Retirement Obligations," Note 8, "Short-Term Debt," Note 9, "Long-Term Debt," Note 10, "Rate Reduction Bonds and Variable Interest Entities," Note 11A, "Employee Benefits - Pension Benefits and Postretirement Benefits Other Than Pension," Note 13, "Commitments and Contingencies," and Note 14, "Leases," to the financial statements.


46



RESULTS OF OPERATIONS – EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES

The following provides the amounts and variances in operating revenues and expense line items in the statements of income for Eversource for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K: 
For the Years Ended December 31,
(Millions of Dollars)20202019Increase/(Decrease)
Operating Revenues$8,904.4 $8,526.5 $377.9 
Operating Expenses:   
Purchased Power, Fuel and Transmission2,987.8 3,040.2 (52.4)
Operations and Maintenance1,480.3 1,363.1 117.2 
Depreciation981.4 885.3 96.1 
Amortization177.7 195.4 (17.7)
Energy Efficiency Programs535.8 501.4 34.4 
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes752.7 711.0 41.7 
Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission— 239.6 (239.6)
Total Operating Expenses6,915.7 6,936.0 (20.3)
Operating Income1,988.7 1,590.5 398.2 
Interest Expense538.4 533.2 5.2 
Other Income, Net108.6 132.8 (24.2)
Income Before Income Tax Expense1,558.9 1,190.1 368.8 
Income Tax Expense346.2 273.5 72.7 
Net Income1,212.7 916.6 296.1 
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests7.5 7.5 — 
Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders$1,205.2 $909.1 $296.1 

Operating Revenues
Sales Volumes: A summary of our retail electric GWh sales volumes, our firm natural gas MMcf sales volumes, and our water MG sales volumes, and percentage changes, is as follows:  
ElectricFirm Natural GasWater
 Sales Volumes (GWh)Percentage
Decrease
Sales Volumes (MMcf)Percentage
Increase
Sales Volumes (MG)Percentage
(Decrease)/Increase
202020192020201920202019
Traditional7,675 7,685 (0.1)%— — — %2,011 2,161 (6.9)%
Decoupled and Special Contracts (1)(2)
42,531 43,934 (3.2)%112,756 107,806 4.6 %23,122 21,370 8.2 %
Total Sales Volumes50,206 51,619 (2.7)%112,756 107,806 4.6 %25,133 23,531 6.8 %

(1)     Special contracts are unique to Yankee Gas natural gas distribution customers who take service under such an arrangement and generally specify the amount of distribution revenue to be paid to Yankee Gas regardless of the customers' usage.

(2) The 2020 firm natural gas sales volumes include the addition of EGMA beginning October 9, 2020.

Weather, fluctuations in energy supply costs, conservation measures (including utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs), and economic conditions affect customer energy usage and water consumption. Industrial sales volumes are less sensitive to temperature variations than residential and commercial sales volumes. In our service territories, weather impacts both electric and water sales volumes during the summer and both electric and natural gas sales volumes during the winter; however, natural gas sales volumes are more sensitive to temperature variations than electric sales volumes. Customer heating or cooling usage may not directly correlate with historical levels or with the level of degree-days that occur.

Fluctuations in retail electric sales volumes at PSNH impact earnings ("Traditional" in the table above). For CL&P, NSTAR Electric, NSTAR Gas, EGMA, Yankee Gas, and our Connecticut water distribution business, fluctuations in retail sales volumes do not materially impact earnings due to their respective regulatory commission-approved distribution revenue decoupling mechanisms ("Decoupled" in the table above). These distribution revenues are decoupled from their customer sales volumes, which breaks the relationship between sales volumes and revenues recognized.

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Operating Revenues: Operating Revenues by segment increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, as follows:
(Millions of Dollars)Increase/(Decrease)
Electric Distribution$155.8 
Natural Gas Distribution146.5 
Electric Transmission147.1 
Water Distribution0.8 
Other207.4 
Eliminations(279.7)
Total Operating Revenues$377.9 

Electric and Natural Gas Distribution Revenues:
Base Distribution Revenues:
Base electric distribution revenues increased $97.5 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the impact of CL&P's base distribution rate increases effective May 1, 2020 and May 1, 2019, which include recovery of storm costs and certain other items that do not impact earnings, the NSTAR Electric base distribution rate increase effective January 1, 2020, and the impact of the PSNH temporary base distribution rate increase effective July 1, 2019, which includes recovery of storm costs and certain other items that do not impact earnings.

The increase in total electric distribution revenues was partially offset by the impact of the December 2020 PSNH settlement agreement driven by the negative impact from the over-refunding of the change in the 2018 federal corporate income tax rate as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that was reflected in temporary rates.

Base natural gas distribution revenues increased $34.3 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to base distribution rate increases at Yankee Gas effective January 1, 2020 and at NSTAR Gas effective November 1, 2020.

Tracked Distribution Revenues: Tracked distribution revenues consist of certain costs that are recovered from customers in retail rates through regulatory commission-approved cost tracking mechanisms and therefore, recovery of these costs has no impact on earnings. However, tracked revenues do include certain incentives earned, return on rate base and on capital tracking mechanisms, and carrying charges that are billed in rates to customers, which do impact earnings. Costs recovered through cost tracking mechanisms include, among others, energy supply and natural gas supply procurement and other energy-related costs, electric retail transmission charges, energy efficiency program costs, electric restructuring and stranded cost recovery revenues (including securitized RRB charges), and additionally for the Massachusetts utilities, pension and PBOP benefits and net metering for distributed generation. Tracked revenues also include wholesale market sales transactions, such as sales of energy and energy-related products into the ISO-NE wholesale electricity market and the sale of RECs to various counterparties.

Tracked distribution revenues increased/(decreased) in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:
(Millions of Dollars)Electric DistributionNatural Gas Distribution
Retail Tariff Tracked Revenues:
Energy supply procurement$(211.8)$(49.3)
CL&P FMCC120.5 N/A
Other distribution tracking mechanisms36.3 30.9 
Wholesale Market Sales Revenue111.6 (19.5)

The decrease in energy supply procurement within electric distribution was driven primarily by lower average prices, partially offset by higher average supply-related sales volumes in 2020, as compared to 2019. The increase in the CL&P FMCC regulatory tracking mechanism revenues and the increase in wholesale market sales revenue within electric distribution was due primarily to the new Millstone PPA entered into by CL&P in 2019, as required by regulation. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2019, CL&P sells the energy purchased from Millstone Nuclear Power Station (Millstone) into the wholesale market and uses the proceeds from the energy sales to offset a portion of the contract costs. The net costs under the contract are recovered from customers in the FMCC rate.

The addition of EGMA increased total operating revenues at the natural gas distribution segment by $154.8 million.

Electric Transmission Revenues:  Electric transmission revenues increased $147.1 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to a higher transmission rate base as a result of our continued investment in our transmission infrastructure and a higher benefit from the annual billing and cost reconciliation filing with FERC.

Other Revenues and Eliminations: Other revenues primarily include the revenues of Eversource's service company, most of which are eliminated in consolidation. Eliminations are also primarily related to the Eversource electric transmission revenues that are derived from ISO-NE regional transmission charges to the distribution businesses of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH that recover the costs of the wholesale transmission business.

48


Purchased Power, Fuel and Transmission expense includes costs associated with purchasing electricity and natural gas on behalf of our customers.  These electric and natural gas supply costs are recovered from customers in rates through commission-approved cost tracking mechanisms, which have no impact on earnings (tracked costs).  Purchased Power, Fuel and Transmission expense decreased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:
(Millions of Dollars)Increase/(Decrease)
Purchased Power Costs$48.1 
Natural Gas Costs(7.9)
Transmission Costs(6.3)
Eliminations(86.3)
Total Purchased Power, Fuel and Transmission$(52.4)

The increase in purchased power expense at the electric distribution business in 2020 as compared to 2019, was driven primarily by the impact of energy purchases from the new Millstone PPA and higher average supply-related sales volumes, partially offset by lower average prices. The decrease in natural gas supply costs at our natural gas distribution business was due primarily to lower average prices and lower average sales volumes, partially offset by the addition of EGMA natural gas supply costs as a result of the CMA asset acquisition of $58.8 million.

The decrease in transmission costs in 2020, as compared to 2019, was primarily the result of a decrease in the retail transmission cost deferral, which reflects the actual costs of transmission service compared to estimated amounts billed to customers. This was partially offset by an increase in Local Network Service charges, which reflect the cost of transmission service provided by Eversource over our local transmission network, and an increase in costs billed by ISO-NE that support regional grid investments.

Operations and Maintenance expense includes tracked costs and costs that are part of base electric, natural gas and water distribution rates with changes impacting earnings (non-tracked costs).  Operations and Maintenance expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:
(Millions of Dollars)Increase/(Decrease)
Base Electric Distribution (Non-Tracked Costs):
Storm restoration costs$29.8 
Shared corporate costs (including computer software depreciation at Eversource Service)22.6 
COVID-19 Costs9.5 
Employee-related expenses, including labor and benefits(12.9)
Operations-related expenses, including vegetation management, vehicles, and outside services(5.7)
Other non-tracked operations and maintenance(8.3)
Total Base Electric Distribution (Non-Tracked Costs)35.0 
Tracked Costs (Electric Distribution and Electric Transmission) - Increase due to higher transmission expenses of $26.3 million and increase of $24.0 million due to higher pension tracking mechanism deferral55.8 
Total Electric Distribution and Electric Transmission90.8 
Natural Gas Distribution:
Base (Non-Tracked) Costs, excluding EGMA - Increase due primarily to higher shared corporate costs of $10.1 million and $6.3 million for COVID-19 costs, partially offset by lower employee-related expenses of $7.5 million13.3 
Tracked Costs, excluding EGMA4.2 
EGMA Operations and Maintenance - due to CMA asset acquisition40.1 
Total Natural Gas Distribution57.6 
Water Distribution:
Gain on sale of Hingham water system(16.0)
Other0.9 
Total Water Distribution(15.1)
Parent and Other Companies and Eliminations:
Eversource Parent and Other Companies - other operations and maintenance83.9 
Acquisition costs related to CMA42.1 
   Eliminations(142.1)
Total Operations and Maintenance$117.2 

Depreciation expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due to higher utility plant in service balances, and due to the addition of EGMA utility plant balances as a result of the CMA asset acquisition of $10.9 million.

Amortization expense includes the deferrals of energy supply, energy-related costs and other costs that are included in certain regulatory commission-approved cost tracking mechanisms, and the amortization of certain costs as those costs are collected in rates.  These deferrals adjust expense to match the corresponding revenues. Energy supply and energy-related costs are recovered from customers in rates and have no impact on earnings. Amortization decreased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due to the deferrals for the under recovery of energy purchases related to the Millstone PPA at CL&P and due to the deferral of other energy supply and energy-related costs.

49


Energy Efficiency Programs expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the deferral adjustment at CL&P, PSNH and NSTAR Gas, which reflects the actual costs of energy efficiency programs compared to the amounts billed to customers and the timing of the recovery of energy efficiency costs. The increase was also due to the addition of EGMA energy efficiency program costs as a result of the CMA asset acquisition of $14.4 million. The increase was partially offset by a decrease in spending on certain large energy efficiency projects in 2020, compared to 2019 at NSTAR Electric, due to timing. The costs for the majority of the state energy policy initiatives and expanded energy efficiency programs are recovered from customers in rates and have no impact on earnings.

Taxes Other Than Income Taxes expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to an increase in property taxes as a result of higher utility plant balances and higher Connecticut gross earnings taxes at CL&P, and due to the addition of EGMA property taxes as a result of the CMA asset acquisition of $9.7 million. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $21.4 million related to CL&P's remittance of energy efficiency funds to the State of Connecticut. Energy efficiency funds collected from customers after July 1, 2019 are no longer subject to remittance to the State of Connecticut. The increase was also partially offset by a decrease in property tax at NSTAR Gas relating to the resolution of disputed property taxes for prior years.

Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission reflects an impairment charge of $239.6 million that was recorded in the second quarter of 2019 as a result of the July 19, 2019 New Hampshire Supreme Court decision. The after-tax impact of this impairment charge was $204.4 million.

Interest Expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to an increase in interest on long-term debt as a result of new debt issuances ($27.3 million) and higher amortization of debt discounts and premiums, net ($4.6 million), partially offset by a decrease in interest on notes payable ($16.9 million), a decrease in interest expense at NSTAR Gas relating to the resolution of disputed property taxes for prior years ($5.7 million), and an increase in capitalized AFUDC related to debt funds and other capitalized interest ($3.6 million).

Other Income, Net decreased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to a decrease in equity in earnings related to Eversource's equity method investments ($28.0 million), the absence in 2020 of the recognition of the equity component of the carrying charges related to PSNH storm costs recorded in interest income in the first quarter of 2019 ($5.2 million) and lower AFUDC related to equity funds ($3.0 million), partially offset by an increase related to pension, SERP and PBOP non-service income components ($13.1 million).

Income Tax Expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to higher pre-tax earnings ($23.5 million), higher state taxes ($12.6 million), by the absence in 2020 of the impairment of NPT ($35.2 million), by a decrease in tax planning benefits ($9.5 million), the sale of Hingham water system ($12.5 million), return to provision adjustments ($3.3 million), and an increase in items that impact our tax rate as a result of regulatory treatment (flow-through items) and permanent differences ($4.1 million), partially offset by an increase in share-based payment excess tax benefits ($5.1 million), an increase in amortization of EDIT ($11.3 million), and a decrease in valuation allowance ($11.6 million).

50


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS –
THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SUBSIDIARIES

The following provides the amounts and variances in operating revenues and expense line items in the statements of income for CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:
 For the Years Ended December 31,
CL&PNSTAR ElectricPSNH
(Millions of Dollars)20202019Increase20202019Increase/(Decrease)20202019Increase/(Decrease)
Operating Revenues$3,547.5 $3,232.6 $314.9 $2,941.1 $3,044.6 $(103.5)$1,079.1 $1,065.9 $13.2 
Operating Expenses:         
Purchased Power and Transmission1,369.2 1,188.2 181.0 879.2 1,064.3 (185.1)364.1 398.4 (34.3)
Operations and Maintenance572.9 549.2 23.7 534.1 468.4 65.7 219.3 211.0 8.3 
Depreciation320.7 301.2 19.5 319.5 296.5 23.0 100.4 93.7 6.7 
Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net58.4 51.6 6.8 83.2 103.7 (20.5)52.8 57.7 (4.9)
Energy Efficiency Programs141.5 118.2 23.3 264.0 289.2 (25.2)37.6 26.0 11.6 
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes344.4 342.5 1.9 206.8 195.6 11.2 81.6 62.6 19.0 
Total Operating Expenses2,807.1 2,550.9 256.2 2,286.8 2,417.7 (130.9)855.8 849.4 6.4 
Operating Income740.4 681.7 58.7 654.3 626.9 27.4 223.3 216.5 6.8 
Interest Expense153.6 151.4 2.2 130.5 114.2 16.3 58.1 60.7 (2.6)
Other Income, Net20.8 17.6 3.2 52.0 44.6 7.4 13.8 19.2 (5.4)
Income Before Income Tax Expense607.6 547.9 59.7 575.8 557.3 18.5 179.0 175.0 4.0 
Income Tax Expense149.7 137.0 12.7 130.8 125.3 5.5 31.7 41.0 (9.3)
Net Income$457.9 $410.9 $47.0 $445.0 $432.0 $13.0 $147.3 $134.0 $13.3 

Operating Revenues
Sales Volumes: A summary of our retail electric GWh sales volumes is as follows:
 For the Years Ended December 31,
 20202019DecreasePercent
CL&P20,113 20,719 (606)(2.9)%
NSTAR Electric22,418 23,215 (797)(3.4)%
PSNH7,675 7,685 (10)(0.1)%

Fluctuations in retail electric sales volumes at PSNH impact earnings.  For CL&P and NSTAR Electric, fluctuations in retail electric sales volumes do not impact earnings due to their respective regulatory commission-approved distribution revenue decoupling mechanisms.

Operating Revenues: Operating Revenues, which consist of base distribution revenues and tracked revenues further described below, increased $314.9 million at CL&P and $13.2 million at PSNH, and decreased $103.5 million at NSTAR Electric in 2020, as compared to 2019.

Base Distribution Revenues:
CL&P's distribution revenues increased $40.0 million due primarily to the impact of its base distribution rate increases effective May 1, 2020 and May 1, 2019, which include recovery of storm costs and certain other items that do not impact earnings.
NSTAR Electric's distribution revenues increased $32.6 million due primarily to the impact of its base distribution rate increase effective January 1, 2020.
PSNH's distribution revenues increased $24.9 million due primarily to the impact of its temporary base distribution rate increase effective July 1, 2019, which includes recovery of storm costs and certain other items that do not impact earnings.
The increase in PSNH’s total distribution revenues was partially offset by the impact of the December 2020 settlement agreement driven by the negative impact from the over-refunding of the change in the 2018 federal corporate income tax rate as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that was reflected in temporary rates.

Tracked Revenues: Tracked distribution revenues consist of certain costs that are recovered from customers in retail rates through regulatory commission-approved cost tracking mechanisms and therefore, recovery of these costs has no impact on earnings. However, tracked revenues do include certain incentives earned, return on rate base and on capital tracking mechanisms, and carrying charges that are billed in rates to customers, which do impact earnings. Costs recovered through cost tracking mechanisms include, among others, energy supply procurement and other energy-related costs, retail transmission charges, energy efficiency program costs, electric restructuring and stranded cost recovery revenues (including securitized RRB charges), and additionally for NSTAR Electric, pension and PBOP benefits and net metering for distributed generation. Tracked revenues also include wholesale market sales transactions, such as sales of energy and energy-related products into the ISO-NE wholesale electricity market and the sale of RECs to various counterparties.

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Tracked revenues increased/(decreased) in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:
(Millions of Dollars)CL&PNSTAR ElectricPSNH
Retail Tariff Tracked Revenues:
Energy supply procurement$(58.7)$(116.7)$(36.4)
CL&P FMCC120.5 — — 
Other distribution tracking mechanisms38.2 (17.6)15.7 
Wholesale Market Sales Revenue125.0 (14.7)1.3 

The decrease in energy supply procurement at CL&P and PSNH reflects lower average prices, partially offset by higher average supply-related sales volumes in 2020, as compared to 2019. The decrease in energy supply procurement at NSTAR Electric reflects both lower average prices and lower average supply-related sales volumes for 2020, as compared to 2019.

The increase in the CL&P FMCC regulatory tracking mechanism revenues and the increase in wholesale market sales revenue was due primarily to the new Millstone PPA entered into by CL&P in 2019, as required by regulation. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2019, CL&P sells the energy purchased from Millstone into the wholesale market and uses the proceeds from the energy sales to offset a portion of the contract costs. The net costs under the contract are recovered from customers in the FMCC rate.

Transmission Revenues: Transmission revenues increased $61.7 million at CL&P, $54.2 million at NSTAR Electric and $31.2 million at PSNH in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to a higher transmission rate base as a result of our continued investment in our transmission infrastructure and a higher benefit from the annual billing and cost reconciliation filing with FERC.

Eliminations: Eliminations are primarily related to the Eversource electric transmission revenues that are derived from ISO-NE regional transmission charges to the distribution businesses of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH that recover the costs of the wholesale transmission business. The impact of eliminations decreased revenues by $13.1 million at CL&P, $44.0 million at NSTAR Electric and $20.7 million at PSNH in 2020, as compared to 2019.

Purchased Power and Transmission expense includes costs associated with purchasing electricity on behalf of CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH's customers.  These energy supply costs are recovered from customers in rates through commission-approved cost tracking mechanisms, which have no impact on earnings (tracked costs). Purchased Power and Transmission expense increased/(decreased) in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:
(Millions of Dollars)CL&PNSTAR ElectricPSNH
Purchased Power Costs$233.0 $(141.9)$(43.0)
Transmission Costs(36.6)0.8 29.5 
Eliminations(15.4)(44.0)(20.8)
Total Purchased Power and Transmission$181.0 $(185.1)$(34.3)

Purchased Power Costs: Included in purchased power costs are the costs associated with providing electric generation service supply to all customers who have not migrated to third party suppliers and the cost of energy purchase contracts, as required by regulation.

The increase at CL&P was due primarily to the new Millstone PPA energy purchases and higher average supply-related sales volumes, partially offset by lower average prices.
The decrease at NSTAR Electric was due primarily to lower expense related to the procurement of energy supply resulting from lower average prices and lower average supply-related sales volumes.
The decrease at PSNH was due primarily to lower expense related to the procurement of energy supply resulting from lower average prices, partially offset by higher average supply-related sales volumes.

Transmission Costs: Included in transmission costs are charges that recover the cost of transporting electricity over high-voltage lines from generation facilities to substations, including costs allocated by ISO-NE to maintain the wholesale electric market.

The decrease in transmission costs at CL&P was due primarily to a reduction to the retail transmission cost deferral, which reflects the actual costs of transmission service compared to estimated amounts billed to customers. This was partially offset by an increase in Local Network Service charges, which reflects the cost of transmission service provided by Eversource over our local transmission network, and an increase in costs billed by ISO-NE that support regional grid investments.
The increase in transmission costs at PSNH was primarily the result of an increase in Local Network Service charges, an increase in costs billed by ISO-NE that support regional grid investments, and an increase in the retail transmission cost deferral.


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Operations and Maintenance expense includes tracked costs and costs that are part of base distribution rates with changes impacting earnings (non-tracked costs).  Operations and Maintenance expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:
(Millions of Dollars)CL&PNSTAR ElectricPSNH
Base Electric Distribution (Non-Tracked Costs): 
Storm restoration costs$11.4 $9.0 $9.4 
Shared corporate costs (including computer software depreciation at Eversource Service)8.3 11.6 2.7 
COVID-19 Costs3.9 3.8 1.8 
Employee-related expenses, including labor and benefits(5.1)(6.0)(1.8)
Operations-related expenses, including vegetation management, vehicles, and outside services(5.2)0.2 (0.7)
Other non-tracked operations and maintenance(11.9)6.7 1.9 
Total Base Electric Distribution (Non-Tracked Costs)1.4 25.3 13.3 
Tracked Costs:
Transmission expenses10.3 15.6 0.4 
Other tracked operations and maintenance12.0 24.8 (5.4)
Total Tracked Costs22.3 40.4 (5.0)
Total Operations and Maintenance$23.7 $65.7 $8.3 

Depreciation expense increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, for CL&P, NSTAR Electric and PSNH due to higher net plant in service balances.

Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net expense includes the deferrals of energy supply, energy-related costs and other costs that are included in certain regulatory-approved cost tracking mechanisms, and the amortization of certain costs as those costs are collected in rates. These deferrals adjust expense to match the corresponding revenues. Energy supply and energy-related costs are recovered from customers in rates and have no impact on earnings. Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net increased at CL&P and decreased at NSTAR Electric and PSNH in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the deferrals of energy supply and energy-related costs, which can fluctuate from period to period based on the timing of costs incurred and related rate changes to recover these costs.

Energy Efficiency Programs expense includes costs of various state energy policy initiatives and expanded energy efficiency programs that are recovered from customers in rates, most of which have no impact on earnings. Energy Efficiency Programs expense increased/decreased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:

The increase at CL&P and PSNH was due to the deferral adjustment, which reflects actual costs of energy efficiency programs compared to the estimated amounts billed to customers, and the timing of the recovery of energy efficiency costs.
The decrease at NSTAR Electric was due to the timing of spending on certain large energy efficiency projects in 2020, as compared to 2019.

Taxes Other Than Income Taxes increased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:

The increase at CL&P was related to higher property taxes as a result of a higher utility plant balance, higher gross earnings taxes, and the absence in 2020 of a use tax refund received in 2019, partially offset by a decrease of $21.4 million relating to the remittance of energy efficiency funds to the State of Connecticut. Energy efficiency funds collected from customers after July 1, 2019 are no longer subject to remittance to the State of Connecticut.
The increases at NSTAR Electric and PSNH were due to higher property taxes as a result of higher utility plant balances offset against some favorable property tax resolutions with a number of communities.

Interest Expense increased/decreased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:

The increase at CL&P was due to higher interest on long-term debt ($6.6 million), partially offset by a decrease in interest expense on regulatory deferrals ($2.0 million), a decrease in interest on short-term notes payable ($1.2 million), and lower amortization of debt discounts and premiums, net ($0.9 million).
The increase at NSTAR Electric was due to higher interest on long-term debt ($12.9 million), an increase in interest expense on regulatory deferrals ($7.4 million), and a decrease in capitalized AFUDC related to debt funds ($1.4 million), partially offset by a decrease in interest on short-term notes payable ($3.6 million).
The decrease at PSNH was due to a decrease in interest expense on regulatory deferrals ($2.3 million) and a decrease in RRB interest expense ($1.4 million), partially offset by higher amortization of debt discounts and premiums, net ($0.8 million) and a decrease in capitalized AFUDC related to debt funds ($0.6 million).

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Other Income, Net increased/decreased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:

The increase at CL&P was due to an increase related to pension, SERP and PBOP non-service income components ($3.3 million), an increase in AFUDC related to equity funds ($0.6 million), and higher interest income ($0.5 million), partially offset by a decrease in investment income ($1.2 million).
The increase at NSTAR Electric was due primarily to an increase related to pension, SERP and PBOP non-service income components ($5.8 million) and an increase in AFUDC related to equity funds ($1.7 million).
The decrease at PSNH was due primarily to lower interest income ($8.1 million), which includes the absence in 2020 of the recognition of the equity component of the carrying charges related to storm costs recorded in interest income in 2019 ($5.2 million), partially offset by an increase related to pension, SERP and PBOP non-service income components ($2.1 million) and an increase in AFUDC related to equity funds ($0.8 million).

Income Tax Expense increased/decreased in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the following:

The increase at CL&P was due primarily to higher pre-tax earnings ($12.6 million), higher state taxes ($2.8 million), and return to provision adjustments ($1.2 million), partially offset by items that impact our tax rate as a result of regulatory treatment (flow-through items) and permanent differences ($0.5 million), an increase in share-based payment excess tax benefits ($1.8 million), and a decrease in a valuation allowance ($1.6 million).
The increase at NSTAR Electric was due primarily to higher pre-tax earnings ($3.9 million), higher state taxes ($0.7 million), a decrease in amortization of EDIT ($2.5 million), and return to provision adjustments ($0.5 million), partially offset by items that impact our tax rate as a result of regulatory treatment (flow-through items) and permanent differences ($0.3 million), and an increase in share-based payment excess tax benefits ($1.8 million).
The decrease at PSNH was due primarily to lower state taxes ($2.0 million), an increase in amortization of EDIT ($11.4 million), and an increase in share-based payment excess tax benefits ($0.6 million), partially offset by higher pre-tax earnings ($0.6 million), return to provision adjustments ($1.7 million), and items that impact our tax rate as a result of regulatory treatment (flow-through items) and permanent differences ($2.4 million).

EARNINGS SUMMARY

CL&P's earnings increased $47.0 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the base distribution rate increases effective May 1, 2020 and May 1, 2019, an increase in transmission earnings driven by a higher transmission rate base, and higher earnings from its capital tracker mechanism due to increased electric system improvements. The earnings increase was partially offset by higher depreciation expense, higher property tax expense, and higher interest expense.

NSTAR Electric's earnings increased $13.0 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the base distribution rate increase effective January 1, 2020, an increase in transmission earnings driven by a higher transmission rate base, and higher energy efficiency incentives earned. The earnings increase was partially offset by higher operations and maintenance expense, higher interest expense, higher depreciation expense, and higher property tax expense.

PSNH's earnings increased $13.3 million in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to the temporary base distribution rate increase effective July 1, 2019, an increase in transmission earnings driven by a higher transmission rate base, and the impact of the PSNH rate settlement agreement approved in December 2020 that was due primarily to the reconciliation of permanent rates back to the temporary rate period. The settlement agreement primarily resulted in a benefit to income tax expense for the reduction of the EDIT regulatory liability, partially offset by a reduction in revenues driven by the negative impact from the over-refunding of the change in the 2018 federal corporate income tax rate as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that was reflected in temporary rates. The earnings increase was partially offset by higher operations and maintenance expense, higher property tax expense, and the absence of the 2019 recognition of carrying charges on its 2013 through 2016 storm costs approved for recovery.

LIQUIDITY

Cash Flows: CL&P had cash flows provided by operating activities of $397.1 million in 2020, as compared to $726.4 million in 2019.  The decrease in operating cash flows was due primarily to cash payments made in 2020 for storm restoration costs of approximately $180 million related to Tropical Storm Isaias and the timing of cash payments made on our accounts payable. In addition, the timing of collections for regulatory tracking mechanisms, which includes the impact of the CL&P temporary rate suspension, the timing of cash collections on our accounts receivable, and the timing of other working capital items contributed to the decrease in operating cash flows. Partially offsetting these unfavorable impacts was lower income tax payments made of $69.7 million in 2020, as compared to 2019.

NSTAR Electric had cash flows provided by operating activities of $525.8 million in 2020, as compared to $698.3 million in 2019.  The decrease in operating cash flows was due primarily to the timing of collections for regulatory tracking mechanisms primarily related to transmission costs, the timing of cash collections on our accounts receivable, a $32.8 million increase in income tax payments made in 2020, as compared to 2019, and the timing of other working capital items. Partially offsetting these unfavorable impacts were the timing of cash payments on our accounts payable and a $5.7 million decrease in Pension and PBOP contributions made in 2020, as compared to 2019.

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PSNH had cash flows provided by operating activities of $218.7 million in 2020, as compared to $274.4 million in 2019.  The decrease in operating cash flows was due primarily to the timing of cash collections on our accounts receivable and an increase in income tax payments made of $30.8 million in 2020, as compared to 2019. Also contributing to the decrease were the timing of collections for regulatory tracking mechanisms and an increase of $4.1 million in Pension contributions made in 2020, as compared to 2019. Partially offsetting these unfavorable impacts was the timing of cash payments on our accounts payable.

Receivables, net of reserves, on the balance sheets have increased $58.3 million at CL&P, $56.3 million at NSTAR Electric, and $20.0 million at PSNH in 2020, as compared to 2019, due primarily to an increase in delinquent receivables from customers attributable to the moratorium on disconnections and the economic slowdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.

For further information on CL&P's, NSTAR Electric's and PSNH's liquidity and capital resources, see "Liquidity" and "Business Development and Capital Expenditures" included in this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Market Risk Information

Commodity Price Risk Management:  Our regulated companies enter into energy contracts to serve our customers, and the economic impacts of those contracts are passed on to our customers.  Accordingly, the regulated companies have no exposure to loss of future earnings or fair values due to these market risk-sensitive instruments.  Eversource's Energy Supply Risk Committee, comprised of senior officers, reviews and approves all large-scale energy related transactions entered into by its regulated companies.

Other Risk Management Activities

We have an Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) program for identifying the principal risks of the Company.  Our ERM program involves the application of a well-defined, enterprise-wide methodology designed to allow our Risk Committee, comprised of our senior officers of the Company, to identify, categorize, prioritize, and mitigate the principal risks to the Company.  The ERM program is integrated with other assurance functions throughout the Company including Compliance, Auditing, and Insurance to ensure appropriate coverage of risks that could impact the Company.  In addition to known risks, ERM identifies emerging risks to the Company, through participation in industry groups, discussions with management and in consultation with outside advisers.  Our management then analyzes risks to determine materiality, likelihood and impact, and develops mitigation strategies.  Management broadly considers our business model, the utility industry, the global economy, climate change, sustainability and the current environment to identify risks.  The Finance Committee of the Board of Trustees is responsible for oversight of the Company's ERM program and enterprise-wide risks as well as specific risks associated with insurance, credit, financing, investments, pensions and overall system security including cyber security.  The findings of the ERM process are periodically discussed with the Finance Committee of our Board of Trustees, as well as with other Board Committees or the full Board of Trustees, as appropriate, including reporting on how these issues are being measured and managed.  However, there can be no assurances that the ERM process will identify or manage every risk or event that could impact our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Interest Rate Risk Management:  We manage our interest rate risk exposure in accordance with our written policies and procedures by maintaining a mix of fixed and variable rate long-term debt.  As of December 31, 2020, all of our long-term debt except for $11.7 million of fees and interest due for CYAPC's spent nuclear fuel disposal costs, was at a fixed interest rate.  

Credit Risk Management:  Credit risk relates to the risk of loss that we would incur as a result of non-performance by counterparties pursuant to the terms of our contractual obligations.  We serve a wide variety of customers and transact with suppliers that include IPPs, industrial companies, natural gas and electric utilities, oil and natural gas producers, financial institutions, and other energy marketers.  Margin accounts exist within this diverse group, and we realize interest receipts and payments related to balances outstanding in these margin accounts.  This wide customer and supplier mix generates a need for a variety of contractual structures, products and terms that, in turn, require us to manage the portfolio of market risk inherent in those transactions in a manner consistent with the parameters established by our risk management process.

Our regulated companies are subject to credit risk from certain long-term or high-volume supply contracts with energy marketing companies.  Our regulated companies manage the credit risk with these counterparties in accordance with established credit risk practices and monitor contracting risks, including credit risk.  As of December 31, 2020, our regulated companies held collateral (letters of credit or cash) of $10.0 million from counterparties related to our standard service contracts. As of December 31, 2020, Eversource had $34.6 million of cash posted with ISO-NE related to energy transactions.

For further information on cash collateral deposited and posted with counterparties, see Note 1O, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Supplemental Cash Flow Information," to the financial statements.

If the respective unsecured debt ratings of Eversource or its subsidiaries were reduced to below investment grade by either Moody's or S&P, certain of Eversource's contracts would require additional collateral in the form of cash to be provided to counterparties and independent system operators.  Eversource would have been and remains able to provide that collateral.  

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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Eversource 
Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting 
Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 
Consolidated Financial Statements 
 
CL&P 
Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 
Financial Statements 
 
NSTAR Electric 
Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 
Consolidated Financial Statements 
 
PSNH 
Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 
Consolidated Financial Statements 
 

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Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting

Eversource Energy

Management is responsible for the preparation, integrity, and fair presentation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements of Eversource Energy and subsidiaries (Eversource or the Company) and of other sections of this annual report.  Eversource's internal controls over financial reporting were audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP.

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting.  The Company's internal control framework and processes have been designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.  There are inherent limitations of internal controls over financial reporting that could allow material misstatements due to error or fraud to occur and not be prevented or detected on a timely basis by employees during the normal course of business.  Additionally, internal controls over financial reporting may become inadequate in the future due to changes in the business environment.  

Under the supervision and with the participation of the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, Eversource conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  Based on this evaluation under the framework in COSO, management concluded that internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of December 31, 2020.

Management has excluded from our assessment of and conclusion on the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting the internal
controls of Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts (EGMA). On October 9, 2020, Eversource completed the acquisition of certain assets and liabilities that comprised NiSource’s natural gas distribution business in Massachusetts, which was previously doing business as Columbia Gas of Massachusetts (CMA). The natural gas distribution assets acquired from CMA were assigned to EGMA, and are included in the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, constituting 3.4 percent and 5.8 percent of total and net assets, respectively, as of December 31, 2020, and 1.7 percent and 1.2 percent of revenues and net income attributable to common shareholders, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2020.

February 17, 2021


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Trustees and Shareholders of Eversource Energy:
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Eversource Energy and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.
As described in the Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting, management excluded from its assessment the internal control over financial reporting at Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts (previously doing business as Columbia Gas of Massachusetts), which was acquired on October 9, 2020, and whose financial statements constitute 3.4% and 5.8% of total and net assets, respectively, 1.7% of revenues, and 1.2% of net income attributable to common shareholders of the consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020. Accordingly, our audit did not include the internal control over financial reporting at Eversource Gas Company of Massachusetts.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, of the Company and our report dated February 17, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Hartford, Connecticut
February 17, 2021

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Trustees and Shareholders of Eversource Energy:
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Eversource Energy and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, common shareholders’ equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the schedules listed in the Index at Item 15 of Part IV (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 17, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Regulatory Accounting - Impact of Rate Regulation on the Financial Statements - Refer to Note 2 to the Financial Statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company’s utility companies are subject to rate regulation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and by their respective state public utility authorities in Connecticut, Massachusetts, or New Hampshire (the “Commissions”). The rate regulation by these Commissions is based on cost recovery. The regulated companies’ financial statements reflect the effects of the rate-making process. The rates charged to the customers of the Company’s regulated companies are designed to collect each company’s cost to provide service, plus a return on investment.

The application of accounting guidance for rate-regulated enterprises results in recording regulatory assets and liabilities. Regulatory assets represent the deferral of incurred costs that are probable of future recovery in customer rates. Regulatory assets are amortized as the incurred costs are recovered through customer rates. In some cases, the Company records regulatory assets before approval for recovery has been received from the applicable regulatory commission. The Company must use judgment to conclude that costs deferred as regulatory assets are probable of future recovery. The Company bases its conclusion on certain factors, including, but not limited to, regulatory precedent. Regulatory liabilities represent either revenues received from customers to fund expected costs that have not yet been incurred or probable future refunds to customers.

The Company uses judgment when recording regulatory assets and liabilities; however, regulatory commissions can reach different conclusions about the recovery of costs, and those conclusions could have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements. Management believes it is probable that each of the regulated companies will recover its respective investment in long-lived assets, including regulatory assets. If management were to determine that it could no longer apply the accounting guidance applicable to rate-regulated enterprises to any of the regulated companies’ operations, or if management could not conclude it is probable that costs would be recovered from customers in future rates, the costs would be charged to net income in the period in which the determination is made.

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Accounting for the economics of rate-regulation impacts multiple financial statement line items and disclosures, such as regulated property, plant, and equipment, regulatory assets and liabilities, operating revenues and depreciation expense. While management has indicated it expects to recover costs from customers through regulated rates, there is a risk that the Commissions will not approve full recovery of such costs or full recovery of all amounts invested in the utility business and a reasonable return on that investment. We identified the impact of rate-regulation as a critical audit matter due to the significant judgments made by management to support its assertions about impact of future regulatory orders on the financial statements. Management judgments include assessing the probability of recovery in future rates of incurred costs and a refund to customers. Given that management’s accounting judgments are based on assumptions about the outcome of future decisions by the Commissions, auditing these judgments requires specialized knowledge of accounting for rate regulation and the rate setting process due to its inherent complexities.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the uncertainty of future decisions by the Commissions included the following, among others:

• We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the evaluation of the likelihood of (1) the recovery in future rates of costs incurred as property, plant, and equipment and deferred as regulatory assets, and (2) a refund or a future reduction in rates that should be reported as regulatory liabilities. We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the initial recognition of amounts as property, plant, and equipment; regulatory assets or liabilities; and the monitoring and evaluation of regulatory developments that may affect the likelihood of recovering costs in future rates, a refund, or a future reduction in rates.

• We evaluated the Company’s disclosures related to the applicability and impacts of rate regulation, including the balances recorded and regulatory developments disclosed in the financial statements.

• We read relevant regulatory orders issued by the Commissions for the Company and other public utilities, regulatory statutes, interpretations, procedural memorandums, filings made by intervenors, and other publicly available information to assess the likelihood of recovery in future rates or of a future refund or reduction in rates based on precedents of the Commissions’ treatment of similar costs under similar circumstances. We evaluated the external information and compared it to management’s recorded regulatory asset and liability balances for completeness.

• For regulatory matters in process, we inspected the Company’s filings with the Commissions and the filings with the Commissions by intervenors that may impact the Company’s future rates, for any evidence that might contradict management’s assertions.

• We made inquiries of management, including legal counsel, and obtained the regulatory orders and analysis from management that support the probability of recovery, refund, or future reductions in rates for regulatory assets and liabilities to assess management’s assertion that amounts are probable of recovery, refund, or a future reduction in rates.


/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
Hartford, Connecticut
February 17, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.

60


EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 As of December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)20202019
ASSETS  
Current Assets:  
Cash$106,599 $15,432 
Receivables, Net (net of allowance for uncollectible accounts of $358,851 and $224,821 as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively)1,195,925 989,383 
Unbilled Revenues233,025 181,006 
Fuel, Materials, Supplies and REC Inventory265,599 235,471 
Regulatory Assets1,076,556 651,112 
Prepayments and Other Current Assets252,439 342,135 
Total Current Assets3,130,143 2,414,539 
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net30,882,523 27,585,470 
Deferred Debits and Other Assets:  
Regulatory Assets5,493,330 4,863,639 
Goodwill4,445,988 4,427,266 
Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates1,107,143 871,633 
Marketable Securities456,617 449,130 
Other Long-Term Assets583,854 512,238 
Total Deferred Debits and Other Assets12,086,932 11,123,906 
Total Assets$46,099,598 $41,123,915 
LIABILITIES AND CAPITALIZATION  
Current Liabilities:  
Notes Payable$1,249,325 $889,084 
Long-Term Debt – Current Portion1,053,186 327,411 
Rate Reduction Bonds – Current Portion43,210 43,210 
Accounts Payable1,370,647 1,147,872 
Regulatory Liabilities389,430 361,152 
Other Current Liabilities809,214 836,834 
Total Current Liabilities4,915,012 3,605,563 
Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities:  
Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes4,095,339 3,755,777 
Regulatory Liabilities3,850,781 3,658,042 
Derivative Liabilities294,535 338,710 
Asset Retirement Obligations499,713 488,511 
Accrued Pension, SERP and PBOP1,653,788 1,370,245 
Other Long-Term Liabilities948,506 810,553 
Total Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities11,342,662 10,421,838 
Long-Term Debt15,125,876 13,770,828 
Rate Reduction Bonds496,912 540,122 
Noncontrolling Interest - Preferred Stock of Subsidiaries155,570 155,570 
Common Shareholders' Equity:  
Common Shares1,789,092 1,729,292 
Capital Surplus, Paid In8,015,663 7,087,768 
Retained Earnings4,613,201 4,177,048 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss(76,411)(65,059)
Treasury Stock(277,979)(299,055)
Common Shareholders' Equity14,063,566 12,629,994 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 13)00
Total Liabilities and Capitalization$46,099,598 $41,123,915 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
61


EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars, Except Share Information)202020192018
Operating Revenues$8,904,430 $8,526,470 $8,448,201 
Operating Expenses:   
Purchased Power, Fuel and Transmission2,987,840 3,040,160 3,138,969 
Operations and Maintenance1,480,252 1,363,113 1,335,213 
Depreciation981,380 885,278 819,930 
Amortization177,679 195,380 252,026 
Energy Efficiency Programs535,760 501,369 472,380 
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes752,785 711,035 729,753 
Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission239,644 
Total Operating Expenses6,915,696 6,935,979 6,748,271 
Operating Income1,988,734 1,590,491 1,699,930 
Interest Expense538,452 533,197 498,805 
Other Income, Net108,590 132,777 128,366 
Income Before Income Tax Expense1,558,872 1,190,071 1,329,491 
Income Tax Expense346,186 273,499 288,972 
Net Income1,212,686 916,572 1,040,519 
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests7,519 7,519 7,519 
Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders$1,205,167 $909,053 $1,033,000 
Basic Earnings Per Common Share$3.56 $2.83 $3.25 
Diluted Earnings Per Common Share$3.55 $2.81 $3.25 
Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding:   
Basic338,836,147 321,416,086 317,370,369 
Diluted339,847,062 322,941,636 317,993,934 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.



CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Net Income$1,212,686 $916,572 $1,040,519 
Other Comprehensive (Loss)/Income, Net of Tax:   
Qualified Cash Flow Hedging Instruments1,596 1,393 1,756 
Changes in Unrealized Gains/(Losses) on Marketable Securities342 1,166 (547)
Changes in Funded Status of Pension, SERP and PBOP Benefit Plans(13,290)(7,618)5,194 
Other Comprehensive (Loss)/Income, Net of Tax(11,352)(5,059)6,403 
Comprehensive Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests(7,519)(7,519)(7,519)
Comprehensive Income Attributable to Common Shareholders$1,193,815 $903,994 $1,039,403 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


62


EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMMON SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY
 Common SharesCapital
Surplus,
Paid In
Retained EarningsAccumulated Other Comprehensive LossTreasury StockTotal Common Shareholders' Equity
(Thousands of Dollars, Except Share Information)SharesAmount
Balance as of January 1, 2018316,885,808 $1,669,392 $6,239,940 $3,561,084 $(66,403)$(317,771)$11,086,242 
Net Income   1,040,519   1,040,519 
Dividends on Common Shares - $2.02 Per Share   (640,110)  (640,110)
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (7,519)  (7,519)
Long-Term Incentive Plan Activity  (543)  (543)
Other Changes in Shareholders' Equity  1,825   1,825 
Other Comprehensive Income    6,403  6,403 
Balance as of December 31, 2018316,885,808 1,669,392 6,241,222 3,953,974 (60,000)(317,771)11,486,817 
Net Income   916,572   916,572 
Dividends on Common Shares - $2.14 Per Share   (685,979)  (685,979)
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (7,519)  (7,519)
Issuance of Common Shares - $5 par value11,980,000 59,900 808,650 868,550 
Long-Term Incentive Plan Activity  3,434    3,434 
Issuance of Treasury Shares1,014,837  50,758   18,716 69,474 
Capital Stock Expense(16,296)(16,296)
Other Comprehensive Loss    (5,059) (5,059)
Balance as of December 31, 2019329,880,645 1,729,292 7,087,768 4,177,048 (65,059)(299,055)12,629,994 
Net Income   1,212,686   1,212,686 
Dividends on Common Shares - $2.27 Per Share   (767,500)  (767,500)
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (7,519)  (7,519)
Issuance of Common Shares - $5 par value11,960,00059,800889,860 949,660 
Long-Term Incentive Plan Activity7,890 7,890 
Issuance of Treasury Shares1,113,378 50,812   21,07671,888 
Capital Stock Expense(20,667)(20,667)
Adoption of New Accounting Standard (See Note 1C)(1,514)(1,514)
Other Comprehensive Loss   (11,352) (11,352)
Balance as of December 31, 2020342,954,023 $1,789,092 $8,015,663 $4,613,201 $(76,411)$(277,979)$14,063,566 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

63


EVERSOURCE ENERGY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Operating Activities:   
Net Income$1,212,686 $916,572 $1,040,519 
Adjustments to Reconcile Net Income to Net Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities:   
Depreciation981,380 885,278 819,930 
Deferred Income Taxes257,154 209,812 174,812 
Uncollectible Expense53,461 63,446 61,337 
Pension, SERP and PBOP Expense, Net12,888 22,000 5,498 
Pension and PBOP Contributions(111,524)(121,782)(194,947)
Regulatory (Under)/Over Recoveries, Net(516,411)(124,870)34,920 
Amortization177,679 195,380 252,026 
Payments Related to CYAPC's DOE Pre-1983 Spent Nuclear Fuel Obligation(29,000)(145,000)
Proceeds from DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Litigation68,840 
Impairment of Northern Pass Transmission239,644 
Other(174,289)(196,087)(111,225)
Changes in Current Assets and Liabilities:   
Receivables and Unbilled Revenues, Net(351,843)(98,716)(141,433)
Fuel, Materials, Supplies and REC Inventory(15,404)(8,074)(831)
Taxes Receivable/Accrued, Net43,819 (16,129)(67,770)
Accounts Payable122,567 14,866 24,481 
Other Current Assets and Liabilities, Net(9,591)(11,603)78,226 
Net Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities1,682,572 2,009,577 1,830,543 
 
Investing Activities:   
Investments in Property, Plant and Equipment(2,942,996)(2,911,489)(2,569,936)
Proceeds from Sales of Marketable Securities434,124 566,592 900,749 
Proceeds from Sales of Marketable Securities Used to Pay Pre-1983 Spent Nuclear Fuel Obligation145,000 
Purchases of Marketable Securities(401,823)(537,258)(908,387)
Acquisition of Assets of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts, Net of Restricted Cash(1,113,252)
Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates, Net(239,673)(416,337)(205,150)
Proceeds from the Sale of Hingham Water System110,536 
Proceeds from the Sale of PSNH Generation Assets193,924 
Other Investing Activities23,809 24,204 6,754 
Net Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities(4,129,275)(3,274,288)(2,437,046)
Financing Activities:   
Issuance of Common Shares, Net of Issuance Costs928,992 852,254 
Cash Dividends on Common Shares(744,665)(663,239)(640,110)
Cash Dividends on Preferred Stock(7,519)(7,519)(7,519)
Increase/(Decrease) in Notes Payable13,955 325,370 (379,310)
(Repayments)/Issuance of Rate Reduction Bonds(43,210)(52,332)635,663 
Issuance of Long-Term Debt2,760,000 1,520,000 2,200,000 
Retirement of Long-Term Debt(327,236)(801,078)(1,050,330)
Other Financing Activities14,273 (1,006)(28,457)
Net Cash Flows Provided by Financing Activities2,594,590 1,172,450 729,937 
Net Increase/(Decrease) in Cash and Restricted Cash147,887 (92,261)123,434 
Cash and Restricted Cash - Beginning of Year117,063 209,324 85,890 
Cash and Restricted Cash - End of Year$264,950 $117,063 $209,324 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

64



Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting

The Connecticut Light and Power Company

Management is responsible for the preparation, integrity, and fair presentation of the accompanying financial statements of The Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P or the Company) and of other sections of this annual report.  

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting.  The Company's internal control framework and processes have been designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.  There are inherent limitations of internal controls over financial reporting that could allow material misstatements due to error or fraud to occur and not be prevented or detected on a timely basis by employees during the normal course of business.  Additionally, internal controls over financial reporting may become inadequate in the future due to changes in the business environment.  

Under the supervision and with the participation of the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, CL&P conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  Based on this evaluation under the framework in COSO, management concluded that internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of December 31, 2020.

February 17, 2021


65


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholder of The Connecticut Light and Power Company:

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of The Connecticut Light and Power Company (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related statements of income, comprehensive income, common stockholder’s equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 of Part IV (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Regulatory Accounting - Impact of Rate Regulation on the Financial Statements - Refer to Note 2 to the Financial Statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company is subject to rate regulation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the state public utility authority in Connecticut (the “Commissions”). The rate regulation by these Commissions is based on cost recovery. The Company’s financial statements reflect the effects of the rate-making process. The rates charged to the customers are designed to collect the Company’s cost to provide service, plus a return on investment.

The application of accounting guidance for rate-regulated enterprises results in recording regulatory assets and liabilities. Regulatory assets represent the deferral of incurred costs that are probable of future recovery in customer rates. Regulatory assets are amortized as the incurred costs are recovered through customer rates. In some cases, the Company records regulatory assets before approval for recovery has been received from the applicable regulatory commission. The Company must use judgment to conclude that costs deferred as regulatory assets are probable of future recovery. The Company bases its conclusion on certain factors, including, but not limited to, regulatory precedent. Regulatory liabilities represent either revenues received from customers to fund expected costs that have not yet been incurred or probable future refunds to customers.

The Company uses judgment when recording regulatory assets and liabilities; however, regulatory commissions can reach different conclusions about the recovery of costs, and those conclusions could have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements. Management believes it is probable that the Company will recover its investment in long-lived assets, including regulatory assets. If management were to determine that it could no longer apply the accounting guidance applicable to rate-regulated enterprises to the Company’s operations, or if management could not conclude it is probable that costs would be recovered from customers in future rates, the costs would be charged to net income in the period in which the determination is made.

66


Accounting for the economics of rate-regulation impacts multiple financial statement line items and disclosures, such as regulated property, plant, and equipment, regulatory assets and liabilities, operating revenues and depreciation expense. While management has indicated it expects to recover costs from customers through regulated rates, there is a risk that the Commissions will not approve full recovery of such costs or full recovery of all amounts invested in the Company and a reasonable return on that investment. We identified the impact of rate-regulation as a critical audit matter due to the significant judgments made by management to support its assertions about impact of future regulatory orders on the financial statements. Management judgments include assessing the probability of recovery in future rates of incurred costs and a refund to customers. Given that management’s accounting judgments are based on assumptions about the outcome of future decisions by the Commissions, auditing these judgments requires specialized knowledge of accounting for rate regulation and the rate setting process due to its inherent complexities.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the uncertainty of future decisions by the Commissions included the following, among others:

• We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the evaluation of the likelihood of (1) the recovery in future rates of costs incurred as property, plant, and equipment and deferred as regulatory assets, and (2) a refund or a future reduction in rates that should be reported as regulatory liabilities. We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the initial recognition of amounts as property, plant, and equipment; regulatory assets or liabilities; and the monitoring and evaluation of regulatory developments that may affect the likelihood of recovering costs in future rates, a refund, or a future reduction in rates.

• We evaluated the Company’s disclosures related to the applicability and impacts of rate regulation, including the balances recorded and regulatory developments disclosed in the financial statements.

• We read relevant regulatory orders issued by the Commissions for the Company and other public utilities, regulatory statutes, interpretations, procedural memorandums, filings made by intervenors, and other publicly available information to assess the likelihood of recovery in future rates or of a future refund or reduction in rates based on precedents of the Commissions’ treatment of similar costs under similar circumstances. We evaluated the external information and compared it to management’s recorded regulatory asset and liability balances for completeness.

• For regulatory matters in process, we inspected the Company’s filings with the Commissions and the filings with the Commissions by intervenors that may impact the Company’s future rates, for any evidence that might contradict management’s assertions.

• We made inquiries of management, including legal counsel, and obtained the regulatory orders and analysis from management that support the probability of recovery, refund, or future reductions in rates for regulatory assets and liabilities to assess management’s assertion that amounts are probable of recovery, refund, or a future reduction in rates.


/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Hartford, Connecticut
February 17, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.


67


THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
BALANCE SHEETS
 As of December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)20202019
ASSETS  
Current Assets:  
Cash$90,801 $
Receivables, Net (net of allowance for uncollectible accounts of $157,447 and $97,348 as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively)459,214 400,927 
Accounts Receivable from Affiliated Companies17,486 24,577 
Unbilled Revenues57,407 56,465 
Materials and Supplies57,924 50,700 
Regulatory Assets345,622 178,607 
Prepayments and Other Current Assets83,950 73,184 
Total Current Assets1,112,404 784,460 
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net10,234,556 9,625,765 
Deferred Debits and Other Assets:  
Regulatory Assets1,866,152 1,557,261 
Other Long-Term Assets242,862 217,705 
Total Deferred Debits and Other Assets2,109,014 1,774,966 
Total Assets$13,455,974 $12,185,191 
LIABILITIES AND CAPITALIZATION  
Current Liabilities:  
Notes Payable to Eversource Parent$$63,800 
Accounts Payable451,240 374,698 
Accounts Payable to Affiliated Companies51,118 97,793 
Obligations to Third Party Suppliers49,967 56,952 
Regulatory Liabilities137,166 82,763 
Derivative Liabilities68,767 67,804 
Other Current Liabilities102,060 132,339 
Total Current Liabilities860,318 876,149 
Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities:  
Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes1,408,343 1,244,551 
Regulatory Liabilities1,204,942 1,164,991 
Derivative Liabilities294,535 338,594 
Accrued Pension, SERP and PBOP478,325 391,159 
Other Long-Term Liabilities133,690 147,586 
Total Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities3,519,835 3,286,881 
Long-Term Debt3,914,835 3,518,136 
Preferred Stock Not Subject to Mandatory Redemption116,200 116,200 
Common Stockholder's Equity:  
Common Stock60,352 60,352 
Capital Surplus, Paid In2,810,765 2,535,765 
Retained Earnings2,173,367 1,791,392 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income302 316 
Common Stockholder's Equity5,044,786 4,387,825 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 13)00
Total Liabilities and Capitalization$13,455,974 $12,185,191 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
68


THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
STATEMENTS OF INCOME
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Operating Revenues$3,547,527 $3,232,551 $3,096,174 
Operating Expenses:  
Purchased Power and Transmission1,369,196 1,188,202 1,095,187 
Operations and Maintenance572,897 549,167 506,448 
Depreciation320,709 301,188 278,557 
Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net58,412 51,621 129,021 
Energy Efficiency Programs141,453 118,235 93,977 
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes344,451 342,489 357,147 
Total Operating Expenses2,807,118 2,550,902 2,460,337 
Operating Income740,409 681,649 635,837 
Interest Expense153,547 151,357 151,727 
Other Income, Net20,774 17,531 22,663 
Income Before Income Tax Expense607,636 547,823 506,773 
Income Tax Expense149,702 136,971 129,056 
Net Income$457,934 $410,852 $377,717 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.



STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Net Income$457,934 $410,852 $377,717 
Other Comprehensive (Loss)/Income, Net of Tax:   
Qualified Cash Flow Hedging Instruments(26)(26)51 
Changes in Unrealized Gains/(Losses) on Marketable Securities12 41 (19)
Other Comprehensive (Loss)/Income, Net of Tax(14)15 32 
Comprehensive Income$457,920 $410,867 $377,749 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

69


THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
STATEMENTS OF COMMON STOCKHOLDER'S EQUITY
 Common StockCapital
Surplus,
Paid In
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
Total
Common
Stockholder's
Equity
(Thousands of Dollars, Except Stock Information)StockAmount
Balance as of January 1, 20186,035,205 $60,352 $2,110,765 $1,415,741 $269 $3,587,127 
Net Income   377,717  377,717 
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (5,559) (5,559)
Dividends on Common Stock   (60,000) (60,000)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent  300,000   300,000 
Other Comprehensive Income    32 32 
Balance as of December 31, 20186,035,205 60,352 2,410,765 1,727,899 301 4,199,317 
Net Income   410,852  410,852 
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (5,559) (5,559)
Dividends on Common Stock   (341,800) (341,800)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent  125,000   125,000 
Other Comprehensive Income    15 15 
Balance as of December 31, 20196,035,205 60,352 2,535,765 1,791,392 316 4,387,825 
Net Income   457,934  457,934 
Dividends on Preferred Stock  (5,559)(5,559)
Dividends on Common Stock  (69,500)(69,500)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent  275,000 275,000 
Adoption of New Accounting Standard (See Note 1C)(900)(900)
Other Comprehensive Loss  (14)(14)
Balance as of December 31, 20206,035,205 $60,352 $2,810,765 $2,173,367 $302 $5,044,786 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
70


THE CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Operating Activities:   
Net Income$457,934 $410,852 $377,717 
Adjustments to Reconcile Net Income to Net Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities:   
Depreciation320,709 301,188 278,557 
Deferred Income Taxes144,527 54,005 54,859 
Uncollectible Expense12,882 15,948 15,831 
Pension, SERP and PBOP Expense, Net11,372 12,761 8,943 
Pension Contributions(23,200)(24,000)(41,150)
Regulatory Underrecoveries, Net(279,941)(24,653)(53,372)
Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net58,412 51,621 129,021 
Other(115,213)(80,266)(69,786)
Changes in Current Assets and Liabilities:   
Receivables and Unbilled Revenues, Net(126,638)(52,746)(67,334)
Materials and Supplies(7,225)(6,171)3,909 
Taxes Receivable/Accrued, Net(12,014)(23,089)8,954 
Accounts Payable(17,028)102,344 (76,924)
Other Current Assets and Liabilities, Net(27,504)(11,350)18,846 
Net Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities397,073 726,444 588,071 
Investing Activities:   
Investments in Property, Plant and Equipment(833,973)(917,532)(864,136)
Other Investing Activities573 714 209 
Net Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities(833,400)(916,818)(863,927)
Financing Activities:   
Cash Dividends on Common Stock(69,500)(341,800)(60,000)
Cash Dividends on Preferred Stock(5,559)(5,559)(5,559)
(Decrease)/Increase in Notes Payable to Eversource Parent(63,800)63,800 (69,500)
Issuance of Long-Term Debt400,000 500,000 500,000 
Retirement of Long-Term Debt(250,000)(300,000)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent275,000 125,000 300,000 
Other Financing Activities(4,976)12,291 (7,091)
Net Cash Flows Provided by Financing Activities531,165 103,732 357,850 
Increase/(Decrease) in Cash and Restricted Cash94,838 (86,642)81,994 
Cash and Restricted Cash - Beginning of Year4,971 91,613 9,619 
Cash and Restricted Cash - End of Year$99,809 $4,971 $91,613 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.


71



Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting

NSTAR Electric Company

Management is responsible for the preparation, integrity, and fair presentation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements of NSTAR Electric Company and subsidiary (NSTAR Electric or the Company) and of other sections of this annual report.  

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting.  The Company's internal control framework and processes have been designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.  There are inherent limitations of internal controls over financial reporting that could allow material misstatements due to error or fraud to occur and not be prevented or detected on a timely basis by employees during the normal course of business.  Additionally, internal controls over financial reporting may become inadequate in the future due to changes in the business environment.  

Under the supervision and with the participation of the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, NSTAR Electric conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  Based on this evaluation under the framework in COSO, management concluded that internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of December 31, 2020.

February 17, 2021




















72


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholder of NSTAR Electric Company:

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of NSTAR Electric Company and subsidiary (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, common stockholder’s equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 of Part IV (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Regulatory Accounting - Impact of Rate Regulation on the Financial Statements - Refer to Note 2 to the Financial Statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company is subject to rate regulation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the state public utility authority in Massachusetts (the “Commissions”). The rate regulation by these Commissions is based on cost recovery. The Company’s financial statements reflect the effects of the rate-making process. The rates charged to the customers are designed to collect the Company’s cost to provide service, plus a return on investment.

The application of accounting guidance for rate-regulated enterprises results in recording regulatory assets and liabilities. Regulatory assets represent the deferral of incurred costs that are probable of future recovery in customer rates. Regulatory assets are amortized as the incurred costs are recovered through customer rates. In some cases, the Company records regulatory assets before approval for recovery has been received from the applicable regulatory commission. The Company must use judgment to conclude that costs deferred as regulatory assets are probable of future recovery. The Company bases its conclusion on certain factors, including, but not limited to, regulatory precedent. Regulatory liabilities represent either revenues received from customers to fund expected costs that have not yet been incurred or probable future refunds to customers.

The Company uses judgment when recording regulatory assets and liabilities; however, regulatory commissions can reach different conclusions about the recovery of costs, and those conclusions could have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements. Management believes it is probable that the Company will recover its investment in long-lived assets, including regulatory assets. If management were to determine that it could no longer apply the accounting guidance applicable to rate-regulated enterprises to the Company’s operations, or if management could not conclude it is probable that costs would be recovered from customers in future rates, the costs would be charged to net income in the period in which the determination is made.

73


Accounting for the economics of rate-regulation impacts multiple financial statement line items and disclosures, such as regulated property, plant, and equipment, regulatory assets and liabilities, operating revenues and depreciation expense. While management has indicated it expects to recover costs from customers through regulated rates, there is a risk that the Commissions will not approve full recovery of such costs or full recovery of all amounts invested in the Company and a reasonable return on that investment. We identified the impact of rate-regulation as a critical audit matter due to the significant judgments made by management to support its assertions about impact of future regulatory orders on the financial statements. Management judgments include assessing the probability of recovery in future rates of incurred costs and a refund to customers. Given that management’s accounting judgments are based on assumptions about the outcome of future decisions by the Commissions, auditing these judgments requires specialized knowledge of accounting for rate regulation and the rate setting process due to its inherent complexities.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the uncertainty of future decisions by the Commissions included the following, among others:

• We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the evaluation of the likelihood of (1) the recovery in future rates of costs incurred as property, plant, and equipment and deferred as regulatory assets, and (2) a refund or a future reduction in rates that should be reported as regulatory liabilities. We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the initial recognition of amounts as property, plant, and equipment; regulatory assets or liabilities; and the monitoring and evaluation of regulatory developments that may affect the likelihood of recovering costs in future rates, a refund, or a future reduction in rates.

• We evaluated the Company’s disclosures related to the applicability and impacts of rate regulation, including the balances recorded and regulatory developments disclosed in the financial statements.

• We read relevant regulatory orders issued by the Commissions for the Company and other public utilities, regulatory statutes, interpretations, procedural memorandums, filings made by intervenors, and other publicly available information to assess the likelihood of recovery in future rates or of a future refund or reduction in rates based on precedents of the Commissions’ treatment of similar costs under similar circumstances. We evaluated the external information and compared it to management’s recorded regulatory asset and liability balances for completeness.

• For regulatory matters in process, we inspected the Company’s filings with the Commissions and the filings with the Commissions by intervenors that may impact the Company’s future rates, for any evidence that might contradict management’s assertions.

• We made inquiries of management, including legal counsel, and obtained the regulatory orders and analysis from management that support the probability of recovery, refund, or future reductions in rates for regulatory assets and liabilities to assess management’s assertion that amounts are probable of recovery, refund, or a future reduction in rates.


/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Hartford, Connecticut
February 17, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2012.

74


NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 As of December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)20202019
ASSETS  
Current Assets:  
Cash$102 $52 
Receivables, Net (net of allowance for uncollectible accounts of $91,583 and $75,406 as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively)403,045 346,785 
Accounts Receivable from Affiliated Companies30,095 29,914 
Unbilled Revenues38,342 37,482 
Materials, Supplies and REC Inventory133,894 124,060 
Taxes Receivable65,051 20,408 
Regulatory Assets399,882 285,591 
Prepayments and Other Current Assets21,833 10,742 
Total Current Assets1,092,244 855,034 
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net10,123,062 9,472,770 
Deferred Debits and Other Assets:  
Regulatory Assets1,304,019 1,250,029 
Prepaid PBOP204,138 166,058 
Other Long-Term Assets162,836 144,368 
Total Deferred Debits and Other Assets1,670,993 1,560,455 
Total Assets$12,886,299 $11,888,259 
LIABILITIES AND CAPITALIZATION  
Current Liabilities:  
Notes Payable$195,000 $10,500 
Notes Payable to Eversource Parent21,300 30,300 
Long-Term Debt Current Portion
250,000 95,000 
Accounts Payable383,558 363,691 
Accounts Payable to Affiliated Companies95,703 96,307 
Obligations to Third Party Suppliers98,572 108,827 
Renewable Portfolio Standards Compliance Obligations127,536 150,429 
Regulatory Liabilities164,761 209,180 
Other Current Liabilities72,118 71,333 
Total Current Liabilities1,408,548 1,135,567 
Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities:  
Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes1,459,906 1,357,265 
Regulatory Liabilities1,550,390 1,516,585 
Accrued Pension and SERP172,571 108,243 
Other Long-Term Liabilities337,245 320,629 
Total Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities3,520,112 3,302,722 
Long-Term Debt3,393,221 3,247,086 
Preferred Stock Not Subject to Mandatory Redemption43,000 43,000 
Common Stockholder's Equity:  
Common Stock
Capital Surplus, Paid In1,993,942 1,813,442 
Retained Earnings2,527,167 2,346,287 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income309 155 
Common Stockholder's Equity4,521,418 4,159,884 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 13)00
Total Liabilities and Capitalization$12,886,299 $11,888,259 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
75


NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Operating Revenues$2,941,148 $3,044,642 $3,112,926 
Operating Expenses:   
Purchased Power and Transmission879,244 1,064,289 1,257,073 
Operations and Maintenance534,118 468,436 462,100 
Depreciation319,468 296,500 276,372 
Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net83,248 103,735 46,654 
Energy Efficiency Programs263,986 289,206 292,288 
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes206,764 195,586 194,316 
Total Operating Expenses2,286,828 2,417,752 2,528,803 
Operating Income654,320 626,890 584,123 
Interest Expense130,508 114,198 105,193 
Other Income, Net52,017 44,577 53,066 
Income Before Income Tax Expense575,829 557,269 531,996 
Income Tax Expense130,828 125,313 148,906 
Net Income$445,001 $431,956 $383,090 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.



CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Net Income$445,001 $431,956 $383,090 
Other Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax:   
Changes in Funded Status of SERP Benefit Plan(286)1,084 13 
Qualified Cash Flow Hedging Instruments437 437 437 
Changes in Unrealized Gains/(Losses) on Marketable Securities12 (5)
Other Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax154 1,533 445 
Comprehensive Income$445,155 $433,489 $383,535 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


76


NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMMON STOCKHOLDER'S EQUITY
 Common StockCapital
Surplus,
Paid In
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
(Loss)/Income
Total
Common
Stockholder's
Equity
(Thousands of Dollars, Except Stock Information)StockAmount
Balance as of January 1, 2018200 $$1,502,942 $1,944,961 $(1,823)$3,446,080 
Net Income   383,090  383,090 
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (1,960) (1,960)
Dividends on Common Stock   (228,000) (228,000)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent  130,500   130,500 
Other Comprehensive Income    445 445 
Balance as of December 31, 2018200 1,633,442 2,098,091 (1,378)3,730,155 
Net Income   431,956  431,956 
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (1,960) (1,960)
Dividends on Common Stock   (181,800) (181,800)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent  180,000   180,000 
Other Comprehensive Income    1,533 1,533 
Balance as of December 31, 2019200 1,813,442 2,346,287 155 4,159,884 
Net Income   445,001  445,001 
Dividends on Preferred Stock   (1,960) (1,960)
Dividends on Common Stock   (262,000) (262,000)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent  180,500   180,500 
Adoption of New Accounting Standard (See Note 1C)(161)(161)
Other Comprehensive Income    154 154 
Balance as of December 31, 2020200 $$1,993,942 $2,527,167 $309 $4,521,418 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

77


NSTAR ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Operating Activities:   
Net Income$445,001 $431,956 $383,090 
Adjustments to Reconcile Net Income to Net Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities:   
Depreciation319,468 296,500 276,372 
Deferred Income Taxes72,595 27,107 41,438 
Pension, SERP and PBOP Income, Net(18,132)(12,399)(21,521)
Pension and PBOP Contributions(650)(6,359)(61,751)
Regulatory (Under)/Over Recoveries, Net(186,081)(60,863)149,647 
Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net83,248 103,735 46,654 
Uncollectible Expense15,293 25,079 22,279 
Other(62,054)(78,220)(65,523)
Changes in Current Assets and Liabilities:   
Receivables and Unbilled Revenues, Net(81,571)(11,087)(26,403)
Materials, Supplies and REC Inventory(9,834)(9,858)(18,685)
Taxes Receivable/Accrued, Net(44,045)14,147 (33,900)
Accounts Payable25,573 (22,659)37,140 
Other Current Assets and Liabilities, Net(32,997)1,194 51,674 
Net Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities525,814 698,273 780,511 
Investing Activities:   
Investments in Property, Plant and Equipment(907,000)(861,391)(725,766)
Other Investing Activities159 86 58 
Net Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities(906,841)(861,305)(725,708)
Financing Activities:   
Cash Dividends on Common Stock(262,000)(181,800)(228,000)
Cash Dividends on Preferred Stock(1,960)(1,960)(1,960)
Increase/(Decrease) in Short-Term Debt184,500 (268,000)44,500 
(Decrease)/Increase in Notes Payable to Eversource Parent(9,000)30,300 
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent180,500 180,000 130,500 
Issuance of Long-Term Debt400,000 400,000 
Retirement of Long-Term Debt(95,000)
Other Financing Activities(4,915)(3,855)108 
Net Cash Flows Provided by/(Used in) Financing Activities392,125 154,685 (54,852)
Net Increase/(Decrease) in Cash and Restricted Cash11,098 (8,347)(49)
Cash and Restricted Cash - Beginning of Year6,312 14,659 14,708 
Cash and Restricted Cash - End of Year$17,410 $6,312 $14,659 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

78



Management’s Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting

Public Service Company of New Hampshire

Management is responsible for the preparation, integrity, and fair presentation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements of Public Service Company of New Hampshire and subsidiaries (PSNH or the Company) and of other sections of this annual report.  

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting.  The Company's internal control framework and processes have been designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.  There are inherent limitations of internal controls over financial reporting that could allow material misstatements due to error or fraud to occur and not be prevented or detected on a timely basis by employees during the normal course of business.  Additionally, internal controls over financial reporting may become inadequate in the future due to changes in the business environment.  

Under the supervision and with the participation of the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, PSNH conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  Based on this evaluation under the framework in COSO, management concluded that internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of December 31, 2020.


February 17, 2021
79


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholder of Public Service Company of New Hampshire:

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Public Service Company of New Hampshire and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, common stockholder’s equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 of Part IV (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Regulatory Accounting - Impact of Rate Regulation on the Financial Statements - Refer to Note 2 to the Financial Statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company is subject to rate regulation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the state public utility authority in New Hampshire (the “Commissions”). The rate regulation by these Commissions is based on cost recovery. The Company’s financial statements reflect the effects of the rate-making process. The rates charged to the customers are designed to collect the Company’s cost to provide service, plus a return on investment.

The application of accounting guidance for rate-regulated enterprises results in recording regulatory assets and liabilities. Regulatory assets represent the deferral of incurred costs that are probable of future recovery in customer rates. Regulatory assets are amortized as the incurred costs are recovered through customer rates. In some cases, the Company records regulatory assets before approval for recovery has been received from the applicable regulatory commission. The Company must use judgment to conclude that costs deferred as regulatory assets are probable of future recovery. The Company bases its conclusion on certain factors, including, but not limited to, regulatory precedent. Regulatory liabilities represent either revenues received from customers to fund expected costs that have not yet been incurred or probable future refunds to customers.

The Company uses judgment when recording regulatory assets and liabilities; however, regulatory commissions can reach different conclusions about the recovery of costs, and those conclusions could have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements. Management believes it is probable that the Company will recover its investment in long-lived assets, including regulatory assets. If management were to determine that it could no longer apply the accounting guidance applicable to rate-regulated enterprises to the Company’s operations, or if management could not conclude it is probable that costs would be recovered from customers in future rates, the costs would be charged to net income in the period in which the determination is made.

80


Accounting for the economics of rate-regulation impacts multiple financial statement line items and disclosures, such as regulated property, plant, and equipment, regulatory assets and liabilities, operating revenues and depreciation expense. While management has indicated it expects to recover costs from customers through regulated rates, there is a risk that the Commissions will not approve full recovery of such costs or full recovery of all amounts invested in the Company and a reasonable return on that investment. We identified the impact of rate-regulation as a critical audit matter due to the significant judgments made by management to support its assertions about impact of future regulatory orders on the financial statements. Management judgments include assessing the probability of recovery in future rates of incurred costs and a refund to customers. Given that management’s accounting judgments are based on assumptions about the outcome of future decisions by the Commissions, auditing these judgments requires specialized knowledge of accounting for rate regulation and the rate setting process due to its inherent complexities.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the uncertainty of future decisions by the Commissions included the following, among others:

• We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the evaluation of the likelihood of (1) the recovery in future rates of costs incurred as property, plant, and equipment and deferred as regulatory assets, and (2) a refund or a future reduction in rates that should be reported as regulatory liabilities. We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the initial recognition of amounts as property, plant, and equipment; regulatory assets or liabilities; and the monitoring and evaluation of regulatory developments that may affect the likelihood of recovering costs in future rates, a refund, or a future reduction in rates.

• We evaluated the Company’s disclosures related to the applicability and impacts of rate regulation, including the balances recorded and regulatory developments disclosed in the financial statements.

• We read relevant regulatory orders issued by the Commissions for the Company and other public utilities, regulatory statutes, interpretations, procedural memorandums, filings made by intervenors, and other publicly available information to assess the likelihood of recovery in future rates or of a future refund or reduction in rates based on precedents of the Commissions’ treatment of similar costs under similar circumstances. We evaluated the external information and compared it to management’s recorded regulatory asset and liability balances for completeness.

• For regulatory matters in process, we inspected the Company’s filings with the Commissions and the filings with the Commissions by intervenors that may impact the Company’s future rates, for any evidence that might contradict management’s assertions.

• We made inquiries of management, including legal counsel, and obtained the regulatory orders and analysis from management that support the probability of recovery, refund, or future reductions in rates for regulatory assets and liabilities to assess management’s assertion that amounts are probable of recovery, refund, or a future reduction in rates.


/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Hartford, Connecticut
February 17, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.


81


PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 As of December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)20202019
ASSETS  
Current Assets:  
Cash$141 $413 
Receivables, Net (net of allowance for uncollectible accounts of $17,157 and $10,497 as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively)119,899 99,934 
Accounts Receivable from Affiliated Companies10,925 6,763 
Unbilled Revenues46,041 48,146 
Materials, Supplies and REC Inventory26,829 24,957 
Regulatory Assets115,852 84,053 
Special Deposits36,767 32,513 
Prepaid Property Taxes26,257 15,768 
Prepayments and Other Current Assets10,788 3,663 
Total Current Assets393,499 316,210 
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net3,374,270 3,129,506 
Deferred Debits and Other Assets:  
Regulatory Assets873,203 861,672 
Other Long-Term Assets23,733 43,270 
Total Deferred Debits and Other Assets896,936 904,942 
Total Assets$4,664,705 $4,350,658 
LIABILITIES AND CAPITALIZATION  
Current Liabilities:  
Notes Payable to Eversource Parent$46,300 $27,000 
Long-Term Debt Current Portion
282,000 
Rate Reduction Bonds Current Portion
43,210 43,210 
Accounts Payable132,635 127,081 
Accounts Payable to Affiliated Companies43,397 37,946 
Regulatory Liabilities58,756 65,766 
Accrued Interest19,671 19,138 
Other Current Liabilities38,816 32,736 
Total Current Liabilities664,785 352,877 
Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities:  
Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes537,627 506,212 
Regulatory Liabilities383,183 413,381 
Accrued Pension, SERP and PBOP184,715 157,638 
Other Long-Term Liabilities37,874 37,075 
Total Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities1,143,399 1,114,306 
Long-Term Debt817,070 951,620 
Rate Reduction Bonds496,912 540,122 
Common Stockholder's Equity:  
Common Stock
Capital Surplus, Paid In928,134 903,134 
Retained Earnings615,018 490,306 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss(613)(1,707)
Common Stockholder's Equity1,542,539 1,391,733 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 13)00
Total Liabilities and Capitalization$4,664,705 $4,350,658 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

82


PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Operating Revenues$1,079,095 $1,065,936 $1,047,619 
Operating Expenses:   
Purchased Power and Transmission364,067 398,449 370,246 
Operations and Maintenance219,325 210,995 210,541 
Depreciation100,372 93,737 92,055 
Amortization of Regulatory Assets, Net52,804 57,732 80,978 
Energy Efficiency Programs37,583 25,982 20,105 
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes81,611 62,574 77,280 
Total Operating Expenses855,762 849,469 851,205 
Operating Income223,333 216,467 196,414 
Interest Expense58,127 60,666 60,634 
Other Income, Net13,786 19,222 27,672 
Income Before Income Tax Expense178,992 175,023 163,452 
Income Tax Expense31,680 40,975 47,576 
Net Income$147,312 $134,048 $115,876 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.



CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(Thousands of Dollars)202020192018
Net Income$147,312 $134,048 $115,876 
Other Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax:   
Qualified Cash Flow Hedging Instruments1,075 1,075 1,104 
Changes in Unrealized Gains/(Losses) on Marketable Securities19 69 (33)
Other Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax1,094 1,144 1,071 
Comprehensive Income$148,406 $135,192 $116,947 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


83


PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMMON STOCKHOLDER'S EQUITY
<
 Common StockCapital
Surplus,
Paid In
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Common
Stockholder's
Equity
(Thousands of Dollars, Except Stock Information)StockAmount
Balance as of January 1, 2018301 $$843,134 $511,382 $(3,922)$1,350,594 
Net Income   115,876  115,876 
Return of Capital  (530,000) (530,000)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent365,000365,000 
Other Comprehensive Income    1,071 1,071 
Balance as of December 31, 2018301 678,134 627,258 (2,851)1,302,541 
Net Income   134,048  134,048 
Dividends on Common Stock  (271,000) (271,000)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent225,000 225,000 
Other Comprehensive Income    1,144 1,144 
Balance as of December 31, 2019301 903,134 490,306 (1,707)1,391,733 
Net Income   147,312  147,312 
Dividends on Common Stock  0(22,300) (22,300)
Capital Contributions from Eversource Parent25,000 25,000 
Adoption of New Accounting Standard (See Note 1C)(300)(300)
Other Comprehensive Income    1,094 1,094