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DUK Duke Energy Carolinas

Filed: 25 Feb 21, 2:46pm
0001326160duk:DukeEnergyFloridaMemberduk:SpentNuclearFuelMattersMember2018-06-182018-06-18


UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal period ended December 31, 2020 or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from________to________
Commission
file number
Registrant, State of Incorporation or Organization, Address of Principal Executive Offices and Telephone Number
IRS Employer
Identification No.
duk-20201231_g1.jpg
1-32853DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION20-2777218
(a Delaware corporation)
550 South Tryon Street
Charlotte, North Carolina 28202-1803
704-382-3853
1-4928DUKE ENERGY CAROLINAS, LLC56-0205520
(a North Carolina limited liability company)
526 South Church Street
Charlotte, North Carolina 28202-1803
704-382-3853
1-15929PROGRESS ENERGY, INC.56-2155481
(a North Carolina corporation)
410 South Wilmington Street
Raleigh, North Carolina 27601-1748
704-382-3853
1-3382DUKE ENERGY PROGRESS, LLC56-0165465
(a North Carolina limited liability company)
410 South Wilmington Street
Raleigh, North Carolina 27601-1748
704-382-3853
1-3274DUKE ENERGY FLORIDA, LLC59-0247770
(a Florida limited liability company)
299 First Avenue North
St. Petersburg, Florida 33701
704-382-3853
1-1232DUKE ENERGY OHIO, INC.31-0240030
(an Ohio corporation)
139 East Fourth Street
Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
704-382-3853
1-3543DUKE ENERGY INDIANA, LLC35-0594457
(an Indiana limited liability company)
1000 East Main Street
Plainfield, Indiana 46168
704-382-3853
1-6196PIEDMONT NATURAL GAS COMPANY, INC.56-0556998
(a North Carolina corporation)
4720 Piedmont Row Drive
Charlotte, North Carolina 28210
704-364-3120



SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Name of each exchange on
Registrant    Title of each class        Trading symbols    which registered
Duke Energy Corporation    Common Stock, $0.001 par value         DUK    New York Stock Exchange LLC
(Duke Energy)
Duke Energy    5.125% Junior Subordinated Debentures due         DUKH    New York Stock Exchange LLC
January 15, 2073
Duke Energy    5.625% Junior Subordinated Debentures due         DUKB    New York Stock Exchange LLC
September 15, 2078
Duke Energy    Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/1,000th         DUK PR A    New York Stock Exchange LLC
interest in a share of 5.75% Series A Cumulative
Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value
$0.001 per share

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:  None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Duke EnergyYesNoDuke Energy Florida, LLC (Duke Energy Florida)YesNo
Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (Duke Energy Carolinas)YesNoDuke Energy Ohio, Inc. (Duke Energy Ohio)YesNo
Progress Energy, Inc. (Progress Energy)YesNoDuke Energy Indiana, LLC (Duke Energy Indiana)YesNo
Duke Energy Progress, LLC (Duke Energy Progress)YesNoPiedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc. (Piedmont)YesNo
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes No (Response applicable to all registrants.)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants (1) have filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants have submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether Duke Energy is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Large Accelerated Filer  Accelerated Filer ¨ Non-accelerated Filer  Smaller Reporting Company Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether each of Duke Energy Carolinas, Progress Energy, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Indiana and Piedmont is a large accelerated filer, accelerated filer, non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Large Accelerated Filer ¨ Accelerated Filer ¨ Non-accelerated Filer Smaller Reporting Company Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7252(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether each of the registrants is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No x
Estimated aggregate market value of the common equity held by nonaffiliates of Duke Energy at June 30, 2020.$58,688,204,289 
Number of shares of Common Stock, $0.001 par value, outstanding at January 31, 2021.768,663,580 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Duke Energy definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of the Shareholders or an amendment to this Annual Report are incorporated by reference into PART III, Items 10, 11 and 13 hereof.
This combined Form 10-K is filed separately by eight registrants: Duke Energy, Duke Energy Carolinas, Progress Energy, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Indiana and Piedmont (collectively the Duke Energy Registrants). Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant solely on its own behalf. Each registrant makes no representation as to information relating exclusively to the other registrants.
Duke Energy Carolinas, Progress Energy, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Indiana and Piedmont meet the conditions set forth in General Instructions I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and are, therefore, filing this Form 10-K with the reduced disclosure format specified in General Instructions I(2) of Form 10-K. 





TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS





FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This document includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Forward-looking statements are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions and can often be identified by terms and phrases that include “anticipate,” “believe,” “intend,” “estimate,” “expect,” “continue,” “should,” “could,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “predict,” “will,” “potential,” “forecast,” “target,” “guidance,” “outlook” or other similar terminology. Various factors may cause actual results to be materially different than the suggested outcomes within forward-looking statements; accordingly, there is no assurance that such results will be realized. These factors include, but are not limited to:
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
State, federal and foreign legislative and regulatory initiatives, including costs of compliance with existing and future environmental requirements, including those related to climate change, as well as rulings that affect cost and investment recovery or have an impact on rate structures or market prices;
The extent and timing of costs and liabilities to comply with federal and state laws, regulations and legal requirements related to coal ash remediation, including amounts for required closure of certain ash impoundments, are uncertain and difficult to estimate;
The ability to recover eligible costs, including amounts associated with coal ash impoundment retirement obligations and costs related to significant weather events, and to earn an adequate return on investment through rate case proceedings and the regulatory process;
The costs of decommissioning nuclear facilities could prove to be more extensive than amounts estimated and all costs may not be fully recoverable through the regulatory process;
Costs and effects of legal and administrative proceedings, settlements, investigations and claims;
Industrial, commercial and residential growth or decline in service territories or customer bases resulting from sustained downturns of the economy and the economic health of our service territories or variations in customer usage patterns, including energy efficiency efforts and use of alternative energy sources, such as self-generation and distributed generation technologies;
Federal and state regulations, laws and other efforts designed to promote and expand the use of energy efficiency measures and distributed generation technologies, such as private solar and battery storage, in Duke Energy service territories could result in customers leaving the electric distribution system, excess generation resources as well as stranded costs;
Advancements in technology;
Additional competition in electric and natural gas markets and continued industry consolidation;
The influence of weather and other natural phenomena on operations, including the economic, operational and other effects of severe storms, hurricanes, droughts, earthquakes and tornadoes, including extreme weather associated with climate change;
Changing customer expectations and demands including heightened emphasis on environmental, social and governance concerns;
The ability to successfully operate electric generating facilities and deliver electricity to customers including direct or indirect effects to the company resulting from an incident that affects the United States electric grid or generating resources;
Operational interruptions to our natural gas distribution and transmission activities;
The availability of adequate interstate pipeline transportation capacity and natural gas supply;
The impact on facilities and business from a terrorist attack, cybersecurity threats, data security breaches, operational accidents, information technology failures or other catastrophic events, such as fires, explosions, pandemic health events or other similar occurrences;
The inherent risks associated with the operation of nuclear facilities, including environmental, health, safety, regulatory and financial risks, including the financial stability of third-party service providers;
The timing and extent of changes in commodity prices and interest rates and the ability to recover such costs through the regulatory process, where appropriate, and their impact on liquidity positions and the value of underlying assets;
The results of financing efforts, including the ability to obtain financing on favorable terms, which can be affected by various factors, including credit ratings, interest rate fluctuations, compliance with debt covenants and conditions and general market and economic conditions;
Credit ratings of the Duke Energy Registrants may be different from what is expected;
Declines in the market prices of equity and fixed-income securities and resultant cash funding requirements for defined benefit pension plans, other post-retirement benefit plans and nuclear decommissioning trust funds;
Construction and development risks associated with the completion of the Duke Energy Registrants’ capital investment projects, including risks related to financing, obtaining and complying with terms of permits, meeting construction budgets and schedules and satisfying operating and environmental performance standards, as well as the ability to recover costs from customers in a timely manner, or at all;
Changes in rules for regional transmission organizations, including changes in rate designs and new and evolving capacity markets, and risks related to obligations created by the default of other participants;
The ability to control operation and maintenance costs;
The level of creditworthiness of counterparties to transactions;
The ability to obtain adequate insurance at acceptable costs;





FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
Employee workforce factors, including the potential inability to attract and retain key personnel;
The ability of subsidiaries to pay dividends or distributions to Duke Energy Corporation holding company (the Parent);
The performance of projects undertaken by our nonregulated businesses and the success of efforts to invest in and develop new opportunities;
The effect of accounting pronouncements issued periodically by accounting standard-setting bodies;
The impact of United States tax legislation to our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows and our credit ratings;
The impacts from potential impairments of goodwill or equity method investment carrying values; and
The ability to implement our business strategy, including enhancing existing technology systems.
Additional risks and uncertainties are identified and discussed in the Duke Energy Registrants' reports filed with the SEC and available at the SEC's website at sec.gov. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the events described in the forward-looking statements might not occur or might occur to a different extent or at a different time than described. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made and the Duke Energy Registrants expressly disclaim an obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.



GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Glossary of Terms 
The following terms or acronyms used in this Form 10-K are defined below:
Term or AcronymDefinition
2013 SettlementRevised and Restated Stipulation and Settlement Agreement approved in November 2013 among Duke Energy Florida, the Florida Office of Public Counsel and other customer advocates
2017 SettlementSecond Revised and Restated Settlement Agreement in 2017 among Duke Energy Florida, the Florida Office of Public Counsel and other customer advocates, which replaces and supplants the 2013 Settlement
ACEAffordable Clean Energy
ACPAtlantic Coast Pipeline, LLC, a limited liability company owned by Dominion, Duke Energy and Southern Company Gas
ACP pipelineThe approximately 600-mile canceled interstate natural gas pipeline
AFUDCAllowance for funds used during construction
AFSAvailable for Sale
AMIAdvanced Metering Infrastructure
AMTAlternative Minimum Tax
AOCIAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
AROAsset Retirement Obligation
ATMAt-the-market
Audit CommitteeAudit Committee of the Board of Directors
BeckjordBeckjord Generating Station
Belews CreekBelews Creek Steam Station
BisonBison Insurance Company Limited
Board of DirectorsDuke Energy Board of Directors
BrunswickBrunswick Nuclear Plant
CardinalCardinal Pipeline Company, LLC
CatawbaCatawba Nuclear Station
CCCombined Cycle
CCRCoal Combustion Residuals
CinergyCinergy Corp. (collectively with its subsidiaries)
Citrus County CCCitrus County Combined Cycle Facility
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
Coal Ash ActNorth Carolina Coal Ash Management Act of 2014
the CompanyDuke Energy Corporation and its subsidiaries
ConstitutionConstitution Pipeline Company, LLC
CPCNCertificate of Public Convenience and Necessity
CRCCinergy Receivables Company LLC
Crystal River Unit 3Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Plant
CTCombustion Turbine
CWAClean Water Act
DATCDuke-American Transmission Company, LLC
D.C. Circuit CourtU.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia



GLOSSARY OF TERMS
DEFRDuke Energy Florida Receivables, LLC
DeloitteDeloitte & Touche LLP, and the member firms of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu and their respective affiliates
DEPRDuke Energy Progress Receivables, LLC
DERFDuke Energy Receivables Finance Company, LLC
DOEU.S. Department of Energy
DominionDominion Energy, Inc.
DthDekatherms
Duke EnergyDuke Energy Corporation (collectively with its subsidiaries)
Duke Energy CarolinasDuke Energy Carolinas, LLC
Duke Energy FloridaDuke Energy Florida, LLC
Duke Energy IndianaDuke Energy Indiana, LLC
Duke Energy KentuckyDuke Energy Kentucky, Inc.
Duke Energy OhioDuke Energy Ohio, Inc.
Duke Energy ProgressDuke Energy Progress, LLC
Duke Energy RegistrantsDuke Energy, Duke Energy Carolinas, Progress Energy, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Indiana and Piedmont
East BendEast Bend Generating Station
EEEnergy efficiency
EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPCEngineering, Procurement and Construction agreement
EPSEarnings Per Share
ETREffective tax rate
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FERCFederal Energy Regulatory Commission
FESFirstEnergy Solutions Corp.
Form S-3Registration statement
FPSCFlorida Public Service Commission
FTRFinancial transmission rights
FV-NIFair value through net income
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States
GAAP Reported EPSBasic EPS Available to Duke Energy Corporation common stockholders
GHGGreenhouse Gas
GICGIC Private Limited
GWhGigawatt-hour
Hardy StorageHardy Storage Company, LLC
HarrisShearon Harris Nuclear Plant
HLBVHypothetical Liquidation at Book Value
IGCCIntegrated Gasification Combined Cycle



GLOSSARY OF TERMS
IMPAIndiana Municipal Power Agency
IMRIntegrity Management Rider
IRPIntegrated Resource Plans
IRSInternal Revenue Service
ISOIndependent System Operator
ITCInvestment Tax Credit
IURCIndiana Utility Regulatory Commission
Investment TrustsGrantor trusts of Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida and Duke Energy Indiana
KO TransmissionKO Transmission Company
KPSCKentucky Public Service Commission
LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
LLCLimited Liability Company
McGuireMcGuire Nuclear Station
MGPManufactured gas plant
MISOMidcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.
MMBtuMillion British Thermal Unit
MTBEMethyl tertiary butyl ether
MWMegawatt
MWhMegawatt-hour
NCDEQNorth Carolina Department of Environmental Quality
NCEMCNorth Carolina Electric Membership Corporation
NCEMPANorth Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency
NCUCNorth Carolina Utilities Commission
NDTFNuclear decommissioning trust funds
New Source ReviewClean Air Act program that requires industrial facilities to install modern pollution control equipment when they are built or when making a change that increases emissions significantly
NMCNational Methanol Company
NOLNet operating loss
NPNSNormal purchase/normal sale
NRCU.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NYSENew York Stock Exchange
OconeeOconee Nuclear Station
OPEBOther Post-Retirement Benefit Obligations
ORSOffice of Regulatory Staff
OTTIOther-than-temporary impairment
OVECOhio Valley Electric Corporation
the ParentDuke Energy Corporation holding company
PGAPurchased Gas Adjustments
PHMSAPipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration



GLOSSARY OF TERMS
PiedmontPiedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc.
Pine NeedlePine Needle LNG Company, LLC
PioneerPioneer Transmission, LLC
PJMPJM Interconnection, LLC
PMPAPiedmont Municipal Power Agency
PISCCPost-in-service carrying costs
PPAPurchase Power Agreement
Progress EnergyProgress Energy, Inc.
PSCSCPublic Service Commission of South Carolina
PTCProduction Tax Credits
PUCOPublic Utilities Commission of Ohio
PURPAPublic Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978
QFQualifying Facility
RECRenewable Energy Certificate
Relative TSRTSR of Duke Energy stock relative to a predefined peer group
RobinsonRobinson Nuclear Plant
ROURight-of-use
RSURestricted Stock Unit
RTORegional Transmission Organization
Sabal TrailSabal Trail Transmission, LLC
SAFSTORA method of decommissioning in which a nuclear facility is placed and maintained in a condition that allows the facility to be safely stored and subsequently decontaminated to levels that permit release for unrestricted use
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
SELCSouthern Environmental Law Center
Spectra CapitalSpectra Energy Capital, LLC
S&PStandard & Poor’s Rating Services
State utility commissionsNCUC, PSCSC, FPSC, PUCO, IURC, KPSC and TPUC (Collectively)
State electric utility commissionsNCUC, PSCSC, FPSC, PUCO, IURC and KPSC (Collectively)
State gas utility commissionsNCUC, PSCSC, PUCO, TPUC and KPSC (Collectively)
Subsidiary RegistrantsDuke Energy Carolinas, Progress Energy, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Indiana and Piedmont
SuttonL.V. Sutton Combined Cycle Plant
the Tax ActTax Cuts and Jobs Act
TPUCTennessee Public Utility Commission
TSRTotal shareholder return
U.S.United States
VIEVariable Interest Entity
WACCWeighted Average Cost of Capital
W.S. Lee CCWilliam States Lee Combined Cycle Facility
WVPAWabash Valley Power Association, Inc.





BUSINESS
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
DUKE ENERGY
General
Duke Energy was incorporated on May 3, 2005, and is an energy company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, subject to regulation by the FERC and other regulatory agencies listed below. Duke Energy operates in the U.S. primarily through its direct and indirect subsidiaries. Certain Duke Energy subsidiaries are also Subsidiary Registrants, including Duke Energy Carolinas, Progress Energy, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Indiana and Piedmont. When discussing Duke Energy’s consolidated financial information, it necessarily includes the results of its separate Subsidiary Registrants, which along with Duke Energy, are collectively referred to as the Duke Energy Registrants.
The Duke Energy Registrants electronically file reports with the SEC, including Annual Reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to such reports.
The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at sec.gov. Additionally, information about the Duke Energy Registrants, including reports filed with the SEC, is available through Duke Energy’s website at duke-energy.com. Such reports are accessible at no charge and are made available as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is filed with or furnished to the SEC.
Business Segments
Duke Energy's segment structure includes three reportable business segments: Electric Utilities and Infrastructure, Gas Utilities and Infrastructure and Commercial Renewables. The remainder of Duke Energy’s operations is presented as Other. Duke Energy's chief operating decision-maker routinely reviews financial information about each of these business segments in deciding how to allocate resources and evaluate the performance of the business. For additional information on each of these business segments, including financial and geographic information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.” The following sections describe the business and operations of each of Duke Energy’s business segments, as well as Other.
ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure conducts operations primarily through the regulated public utilities of Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Indiana and Duke Energy Ohio. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure provides retail electric service through the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity to approximately 7.9 million customers within the Southeast and Midwest regions of the U.S. The service territory is approximately 91,000 square miles across six states with a total estimated population of 25 million people. The operations include electricity sold wholesale to municipalities, electric cooperative utilities and other load-serving entities. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure is also a joint owner in certain electric transmission projects. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has a 50% ownership interest in DATC, a partnership with American Transmission Company, formed to design, build and operate transmission infrastructure. DATC owns 72% of the transmission service rights to Path 15, an 84-mile transmission line in central California. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure also has a 50% ownership interest in Pioneer, which builds, owns and operates electric transmission facilities in North America. The following map shows the service territory for Electric Utilities and Infrastructure as of December 31, 2020.
9




BUSINESS
duk-20201231_g2.jpg
The electric operations and investments in projects are subject to the rules and regulations of the FERC, the NRC, the NCUC, the PSCSC, the FPSC, the IURC, the PUCO and the KPSC.
The following table represents the distribution of GWh billed sales by customer class for the year ended December 31, 2020.
DukeDukeDukeDukeDuke
EnergyEnergyEnergyEnergyEnergy
CarolinasProgressFloridaOhioIndiana
Residential33 %27 %51 %38 %30 %
General service33 %22 %35 %37 %25 %
Industrial23 %16 %7 %23 %31 %
Total retail sales89 %65 %93 %98 %86 %
Wholesale and other sales11 %35 %7 %2 %14 %
Total sales100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %
The number of residential and general service customers within the Electric Utilities and Infrastructure service territory is expected to increase over time. Sales growth is expected within the service territory but continues to be influenced by adoption of energy efficiencies and self-generation. Residential sales increased in 2020 compared to 2019 due to customer growth and the stay-at-home orders as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, sales for general service and industrial customers decreased in 2020 due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. These trends in residential, general service and industrial sales may continue in the short term but are not expected to be permanent. It is still expected that the continued adoption of more efficient housing and appliances will have a negative impact on average usage per residential customer over time.
Seasonality and the Impact of Weather
Revenues and costs are influenced by seasonal weather patterns. Peak sales of electricity occur during the summer and winter months, which results in higher revenue and cash flows during these periods. By contrast, lower sales of electricity occur during the spring and fall, allowing for scheduled plant maintenance. Residential and general service customers are more impacted by weather than industrial customers. Estimated weather impacts are based on actual current period weather compared to normal weather conditions. Normal weather conditions are defined as the long-term average of actual historical weather conditions.
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BUSINESS
The estimated impact of weather on earnings is based on the temperature variances from a normal condition and customers’ historic usage patterns. The methodology used to estimate the impact of weather does not consider all variables that may impact customer response to weather conditions such as humidity in the summer or wind chill in the winter. The precision of this estimate may also be impacted by applying long-term weather trends to shorter-term periods.
Heating degree days measure the variation in weather based on the extent the average daily temperature falls below a base temperature. Cooling degree days measure the variation in weather based on the extent the average daily temperature rises above the base temperature. Each degree of temperature below the base temperature counts as one heating degree day and each degree of temperature above the base temperature counts as one cooling degree day.
Competition
Retail
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s businesses operate as the sole supplier of electricity within their service territories, with the exception of Ohio, which has a competitive electricity supply market for generation service. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure owns and operates facilities necessary to generate, transmit, distribute and sell electricity. Services are priced by state commission-approved rates designed to include the costs of providing these services and a reasonable return on invested capital. This regulatory policy is intended to provide safe and reliable electricity at fair prices.
In Ohio, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure conducts competitive auctions for electricity supply. The cost of energy purchased through these auctions is recovered from retail customers. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure earns retail margin in Ohio on the transmission and distribution of electricity, but not on the cost of the underlying energy.
Competition in the regulated electric distribution business is primarily from the development and deployment of alternative energy sources including on-site generation from industrial customers and distributed generation, such as private solar, at residential, general service and/or industrial customer sites.
Wholesale
Duke Energy competes with other utilities and merchant generators for bulk power sales, sales to municipalities and cooperatives and wholesale transactions under primarily cost-based contracts approved by FERC. The principal factors in competing for these sales are availability of capacity and power, reliability of service and price. Prices are influenced primarily by market conditions and fuel costs.
Increased competition in the wholesale electric utility industry and the availability of transmission access could affect Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s load forecasts, plans for power supply and wholesale energy sales and related revenues. Wholesale energy sales will be impacted by the extent to which additional generation is available to sell to the wholesale market and the ability of Electric Utilities and Infrastructure to attract new customers and to retain existing customers.
Energy Capacity and Resources
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure owns approximately 50,807 MW of generation capacity. For additional information on owned generation facilities, see Item 2, “Properties.”
Energy and capacity are also supplied through contracts with other generators and purchased on the open market. Factors that could cause Electric Utilities and Infrastructure to purchase power for its customers may include, but are not limited to, generating plant outages, extreme weather conditions, generation reliability, demand growth and price. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has interconnections and arrangements with its neighboring utilities to facilitate planning, emergency assistance, sale and purchase of capacity and energy and reliability of power supply.
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s generation portfolio is a balanced mix of energy resources having different operating characteristics and fuel sources designed to provide energy at the lowest possible cost to meet its obligation to serve retail customers. All options, including owned generation resources and purchased power opportunities, are continually evaluated on a real-time basis to select and dispatch the lowest-cost resources available to meet system load requirements.
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BUSINESS
Sources of Electricity
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure relies principally on natural gas, nuclear fuel and coal for its generation of electricity. The following table lists sources of electricity and fuel costs for the three years ended December 31, 2020.
Cost of Delivered Fuel per Net
Generation by SourceKilowatt-hour Generated (Cents)
202020192018202020192018
Natural gas and oil(a)
31.3 %29.2 %26.2 %2.55 2.96 3.57 
Nuclear(a)
29.6 %28.6 %26.0 %0.58 0.60 0.50 
Coal(a)
18.1 %21.6 %24.4 %2.99 3.08 2.82 
All fuels (cost-based on weighted average)(a)
79.0 %79.4 %76.6 %1.91 2.14 2.29 
Hydroelectric and solar(b)
1.9 %1.2 %1.3 %
Total generation80.9 %80.6 %77.9 %
Purchased power and net interchange19.1 %19.4 %22.1 %
Total sources of energy100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
(a)    Statistics related to all fuels reflect Electric Utilities and Infrastructure's ownership interest in jointly owned generation facilities.
(b)    Generating figures are net of output required to replenish pumped storage facilities during off-peak periods. 
Natural Gas and Fuel Oil
Natural gas and fuel oil supply, transportation and storage for Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s generation fleet is purchased under standard industry agreements from various suppliers, including Piedmont. Natural gas supply agreements typically provide for a percentage of forecasted burns being procured over time, with varied expiration dates. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure believes it has access to an adequate supply of natural gas and fuel oil for the reasonably foreseeable future.
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has certain dual-fuel generating facilities that can operate utilizing both natural gas and fuel oil. The cost of Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s natural gas and fuel oil is fixed price or determined by published market prices as reported in certain industry publications, plus any transportation and freight costs. Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida and Duke Energy Indiana use derivative instruments to manage a portion of their exposure to price fluctuations for natural gas. For Duke Energy Florida, there is currently an agreed to moratorium with the FPSC on future hedging of natural gas prices.
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has firm interstate and intrastate natural gas transportation agreements and storage agreements in place to support generation needed for load requirements. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure may purchase additional shorter-term natural gas transportation and utilize natural gas interruptible transportation agreements to support generation needed for load requirements. The Electric Utilities and Infrastructure natural gas plants are served by various supply zones and multiple pipelines.
Nuclear
The industrial processes for producing nuclear generating fuel generally involve the mining and milling of uranium ore to produce uranium concentrates and services to convert, enrich and fabricate fuel assemblies.
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has contracted for uranium materials and services to fuel its nuclear reactors. Uranium concentrates, conversion services and enrichment services are primarily met through a diversified portfolio of long-term supply contracts. The contracts are diversified by supplier, country of origin and pricing. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure staggers its contracting so that its portfolio of long-term contracts covers the majority of its fuel requirements in the near term and decreasing portions of its fuel requirements over time thereafter. Near-term requirements not met by long-term supply contracts have been and are expected to be fulfilled with spot market purchases. Due to the technical complexities of changing suppliers of fuel fabrication services, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure generally source these services to a single domestic supplier on a plant-by-plant basis using multiyear contracts.
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has entered into fuel contracts that cover 100% of its uranium concentrates and conversion services through at least 2021, 100% of its enrichment services through at least 2022, and 100% of its fabrication services requirements for these plants through at least 2027. For future requirements not already covered under long-term contracts, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure believes it will be able to renew contracts as they expire or enter into similar contractual arrangements with other suppliers of nuclear fuel materials and services.
Coal
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure meets its coal demand through a portfolio of long-term purchase contracts and short-term spot market purchase agreements. Large amounts of coal are purchased under long-term contracts with mining operators who mine both underground and at the surface. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure uses spot market purchases to meet coal requirements not met by long-term contracts. Expiration dates for its long-term contracts, which may have various price adjustment provisions and market reopeners, range from 2021 to 2023 for Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress and 2021 to 2025 for Duke Energy Indiana. Expiration dates for Duke Energy Florida and Duke Energy Ohio are in 2021. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure expects to renew these contracts or enter into similar contracts with other suppliers as existing contracts expire, though prices will fluctuate over time as coal markets change. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has an adequate supply of coal under contract to meet its risk management guidelines regarding projected future consumption. As a result of volatility in natural gas prices and the associated impacts on coal-fired dispatch within the generation fleet, coal inventories will continue to fluctuate. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure continues to actively manage its portfolio and has worked with suppliers to obtain increased flexibility in its coal contracts.
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Coal purchased for the Carolinas is primarily produced from mines in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia and the Illinois Basin. Coal purchased for Florida is primarily produced from mines in the Illinois Basin. Coal purchased for Kentucky is produced from mines along the Ohio River in Illinois, Ohio, West Virginia and Pennsylvania. Coal purchased for Indiana is primarily produced in Indiana and Illinois. There are adequate domestic coal reserves to serve Electric Utilities and Infrastructure's coal generation needs through end of life. The current average sulfur content of coal purchased by Electric Utilities and Infrastructure is between 1.5% and 2% for Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress, and between 2.5% and 3% for Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure's environmental controls, in combination with the use of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances, enable Electric Utilities and Infrastructure to satisfy current SO2 emission limitations for its existing facilities.
Purchased Power
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure purchases a portion of its capacity and system requirements through purchase obligations, leases and purchase capacity contracts. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure believes it can obtain adequate purchased power capacity to meet future system load needs. However, during periods of high demand, the price and availability of purchased power may be significantly affected.
The following table summarizes purchased power for the previous three years:
202020192018
Purchase obligations and leases (in millions of MWh)(a)
32.7 34.8 21.3 
Purchase capacity under contract (in MW)(b)
4,716 4,238 4,025 
(a)    Represents approximately 13% of total system requirements for 2020, 14% for 2019 and 7% for 2018.
(b)    For 2020, 2019 and 2018, these agreements include approximately 412 MW of firm capacity under contract by Duke Energy Florida with QFs.
Inventory
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure must maintain an adequate stock of fuel and materials and supplies in order to ensure continuous operation of generating facilities and reliable delivery to customers. As of December 31, 2020, the inventory balance for Electric Utilities and Infrastructure was approximately $3 billion. For additional information on inventory, see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.”
Ash Basin Management
During 2015, EPA issued regulations related to the management of CCR from power plants. These regulations classify CCR as nonhazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and apply to electric generating sites with new and existing landfills and new and existing surface impoundments and establishes requirements regarding landfill design, structural integrity design and assessment criteria for surface impoundments, groundwater monitoring, protection and remedial procedures and other operational and reporting procedures for the disposal and management of CCR. In addition to the federal regulations, CCR landfills and surface impoundments (ash basins or impoundments) will continue to be regulated by existing state laws, regulations and permits, such as the Coal Ash Management Act in North Carolina.
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure has and will periodically submit to applicable authorities required site-specific coal ash impoundment remediation or closure plans. Closure plans and all associated permits will receive necessary approvals before any work can begin. Closure activities have begun in all of Duke Energy's jurisdictions. Excavation began in 2015 at the four sites specified as high priority by the NC Coal Ash Management Act and at the W.S. Lee Steam Station site in South Carolina in connection with other legal requirements. Excavation at these sites involves movement of CCR materials to off-site locations for use as structural fill, to appropriate engineered off-site or on-site lined landfills or for reuse in an approved beneficial application. Duke Energy has completed excavation of coal ash at three of the four high-priority NC sites. At other sites where CCR management is required, planning and closure methods have been studied and factored into the estimated retirement and management costs, and closure activities have commenced.
The EPA CCR rule and the NC Coal Ash Management Act leave the decision on cost recovery determinations related to closure of coal ash surface impoundments to the normal ratemaking processes before utility regulatory commissions. Duke Energy's electric utilities have included compliance costs associated with federal and state requirements in their respective rate proceedings. In January 2021, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress reached a settlement agreement on recovery of coal ash costs, which is subject to review and approval of the NCUC. During 2017, Duke Energy Carolinas' and Duke Energy Progress’ wholesale contracts were amended to include the recovery of expenditures related to AROs for the closure of coal ash basins. The amended contracts have retail disallowance parity or provisions limiting challenges to CCR cost recovery actions at FERC. FERC approved the amended wholesale rate schedules in 2017. For additional information on the ash basins and recovery, see Item 7, "Other Matters" and Notes 3, 4 and 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters," "Commitments and Contingencies" and "Asset Retirement Obligations," respectively.
Nuclear Matters
Duke Energy owns, wholly or partially, 11 operating nuclear reactors located at six operating stations. The Crystal River Unit 3 permanently ceased operation in February 2013. Nuclear insurance includes: nuclear liability coverage; property damage coverage; nuclear accident decontamination and premature decommissioning coverage; and accidental outage coverage for losses in the event of a major accidental outage. Joint owners reimburse Duke Energy for certain expenses associated with nuclear insurance in accordance with joint owner agreements. The Price-Anderson Act requires plant owners to provide for public nuclear liability claims resulting from nuclear incidents to the maximum total financial protection liability, which is approximately $13.8 billion. For additional information on nuclear insurance, see Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Commitments and Contingencies.”
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Duke Energy has a significant future financial commitment to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and decommission and decontaminate each plant safely. The NCUC, PSCSC and FPSC require Duke Energy to update their cost estimates for decommissioning their nuclear plants every five years.
The following table summarizes the fair value of NDTF investments and the most recent site-specific nuclear decommissioning cost studies. Decommissioning costs are stated in 2018 or 2019 dollars, depending on the year of the cost study, and include costs to decommission plant components not subject to radioactive contamination.
NDTF(a)
Decommissioning
(in millions)December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Costs(a)
Year of Cost Study
Duke Energy$9,114 $8,140 $9,105 2018 or 2019
Duke Energy Carolinas(b)(c)
4,977 4,359 4,365 2018
Duke Energy Progress(d)
3,500 3,047 4,181 2019
Duke Energy Florida(e)
637 734 559 N/A
(a)    Amounts for Progress Energy equal the sum of Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida.
(b)    Decommissioning cost for Duke Energy Carolinas reflects its ownership interest in jointly owned reactors. Other joint owners are responsible for decommissioning costs related to their interest in the reactors.
(c)    Duke Energy Carolinas' site-specific nuclear decommissioning cost study completed in 2018 was filed with the NCUC and PSCSC in 2019. A new funding study was also completed and filed with the NCUC and PSCSC in 2019.
(d)    Duke Energy Progress' site-specific nuclear decommissioning cost study completed in 2019 was filed with the NCUC and PSCSC in March 2020. Duke Energy Progress also completed a funding study, which was filed with the NCUC and PSCSC in July 2020.
(e)    During 2019, Duke Energy Florida reached an agreement to transfer decommissioning work for Crystal River Unit 3 to a third party and decommissioning costs are based on the agreement with this third party rather than a cost study. Regulatory approval was received from the NRC and the FPSC in April 2020 and August 2020, respectively. See Note 3 for more information.
The NCUC, PSCSC, FPSC and FERC have allowed Electric Utilities and Infrastructure to recover estimated decommissioning costs through retail and wholesale rates over the expected remaining service periods of their nuclear stations. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure believes the decommissioning costs being recovered through rates, when coupled with the existing fund balances and expected fund earnings, will be sufficient to provide for the cost of future decommissioning. For additional information, see Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Asset Retirement Obligations.”
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended) provides the framework for development by the federal government of interim storage and permanent disposal facilities for high-level radioactive waste materials. The government has not yet developed a storage facility or disposal capacity, so Electric Utilities and Infrastructure will continue to store spent fuel on its reactor sites.
Under federal law, the DOE is responsible for the selection and construction of a facility for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The DOE terminated the project to license and develop a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada in 2010, and is currently taking no action to fulfill its responsibilities to dispose of spent fuel.
Until the DOE begins to accept the spent nuclear fuel, Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida will continue to safely manage their spent nuclear fuel. Under current regulatory guidelines, Harris has sufficient storage capacity in its spent fuel pools through the expiration of its renewed operating license. With certain modifications and approvals by the NRC to expand the on-site dry cask storage facilities, spent nuclear fuel dry storage facilities will be sufficient to provide storage space of spent fuel through the expiration of the operating licenses, including any license renewals, for Brunswick, Catawba, McGuire, Oconee and Robinson. Crystal River Unit 3 ceased operation in 2013 and was placed in a SAFSTOR condition in January 2018. As of January 2018, all spent fuel at Crystal River Unit 3 has been transferred from the spent fuel pool to dry storage at an on-site independent spent fuel storage installation. During 2020, the NRC and the FPSC approved an agreement to transfer ownership of spent fuel for Crystal River Unit 3 to a third party. See Note 3 for more information.
The nuclear power industry faces uncertainties with respect to the cost and long-term availability of disposal sites for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste, compliance with changing regulatory requirements, capital outlays for modifications and new plant construction.
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Electric Utilities and Infrastructure is subject to the jurisdiction of the NRC for the design, construction and operation of its nuclear generating facilities. The following table includes the current year of expiration of nuclear operating licenses for nuclear stations in operation. During 2019, Duke Energy announced its intention to seek 20-year operating license renewals for each of the reactors it operates in Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress.
UnitYear of Expiration
Duke Energy Carolinas
Catawba Units 1 and 22043
McGuire Unit 12041
McGuire Unit 22043
Oconee Units 1 and 22033
Oconee Unit 32034
Duke Energy Progress
Brunswick Unit 12036
Brunswick Unit 22034
Harris2046
Robinson2030
The NRC has acknowledged permanent cessation of operation and permanent removal of fuel from the reactor vessel at Crystal River Unit 3. Therefore, the license no longer authorizes operation of the reactor. For additional information on nuclear decommissioning activity, see Notes 3 and 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters" and "Asset Retirement Obligations," respectively.
Regulation
State
The state electric utility commissions approve rates for Duke Energy's retail electric service within their respective states. The state electric utility commissions, to varying degrees, have authority over the construction and operation of Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s generating facilities. CPCNs issued by the state electric utility commissions, as applicable, authorize Electric Utilities and Infrastructure to construct and operate its electric facilities and to sell electricity to retail and wholesale customers. Prior approval from the relevant state electric utility commission is required for the entities within Electric Utilities and Infrastructure to issue securities. The underlying concept of utility ratemaking is to set rates at a level that allows the utility to collect revenues equal to its cost of providing service plus earn a reasonable rate of return on its invested capital, including equity.
In addition to rates approved in base rate cases, each of the state electric utility commissions allow recovery of certain costs through various cost-recovery clauses to the extent the respective commission determines in periodic hearings that such costs, including any past over or under-recovered costs, are prudent.
Fuel, fuel-related costs and certain purchased power costs are eligible for recovery by Electric Utilities and Infrastructure. Electric Utilities and Infrastructure uses coal, hydroelectric, natural gas, oil, renewable generation and nuclear fuel to generate electricity, thereby maintaining a diverse fuel mix that helps mitigate the impact of cost increases in any one fuel. Due to the associated regulatory treatment and the method allowed for recovery, changes in fuel costs from year to year have no material impact on operating results of Electric Utilities and Infrastructure, unless a commission finds a portion of such costs to have been imprudent. However, delays between the expenditure for fuel costs and recovery from customers can adversely impact the timing of cash flows of Electric Utilities and Infrastructure.
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The table below reflects significant electric rate case applications approved and effective in the past three years or applications currently pending approval.
Regulatory
Body
Annual
Increase
(Decrease)
(in millions)
Return
on
Equity
Equity
Component of
Capital Structure
Effective
Date
Approved Rate Cases:
Duke Energy Indiana 2019 Indiana Rate Case(a)
IURC$146 9.7 %53 %7/30/2020
Duke Energy Kentucky 2019 Kentucky Electric Rate CaseKPSC24 9.25 %48.23 %5/1/2020
Duke Energy Carolinas 2018 South Carolina Rate CasePSCSC45 9.5 %53 %6/1/2019
Duke Energy Progress 2018 South Carolina Rate CasePSCSC29 9.5 %53 %6/1/2019
Duke Energy Ohio 2017 Ohio Electric Rate CasePUCO(19)9.84 %50.75 %1/2/2019
Duke Energy Carolinas 2017 North Carolina Rate CaseNCUC(73)9.9 %52 %8/1/2018
Duke Energy Kentucky 2017 Kentucky Electric Rate CaseKPSC9.725 %49 %5/1/2018
Duke Energy Progress 2017 North Carolina Rate CaseNCUC151 9.9 %52 %3/16/2018
Pending Rate Cases:
Duke Energy Carolinas 2019 North Carolina Rate Case(b)
NCUC$291 10.3 %53 %8/1/2020
Duke Energy Progress 2019 North Carolina Rate Case(b)
NCUC464 10.3 %53 %9/1/2020
(a)    Step 1 rates are approximately 75% of the total and became effective July 30, 2020. Step 2 rates are approximately 25% of the total rate case increase and will be implemented in mid-2021. Amounts exclude the Utility Receipt Tax amounts.
(b)    Partial Settlements were reached on July 31, 2020, which are subject to approval by the NCUC. Components of the partial settlements included a return of equity of 9.6% and a capital structure of 52% equity. These temporary rates went into effect August 24, 2020, for Duke Energy Carolinas and September 1, 2020, for Duke Energy Progress. A settlement was also reached, subject to approval by the NCUC, on coal ash cost recovery in January of 2021.

Additionally, in January 2021, Duke Energy Florida filed a settlement agreement with the FPSC that, if approved, will allow annual increases to its base rates at an agreed upon return on equity (“ROE”) band and includes a base rate stay-out provision through 2024, among other provisions. For more information on rate matters and other regulatory proceedings, see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters.”
Federal
The FERC approves Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s cost-based rates for electric sales to certain power and transmission wholesale customers. Regulations of FERC and the state electric utility commissions govern access to regulated electric and other data by nonregulated entities and services provided between regulated and nonregulated energy affiliates. These regulations affect the activities of nonregulated affiliates with Electric Utilities and Infrastructure.
RTOs
PJM and MISO are the ISOs and FERC-approved RTOs for the regions in which Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana operate. PJM and MISO operate energy, capacity and other markets, and control the day-to-day operations of bulk power systems through central dispatch.
Duke Energy Ohio is a member of PJM and Duke Energy Indiana is a member of MISO. Transmission owners in these RTOs have turned over control of their transmission facilities and their transmission systems are currently under the dispatch control of the RTOs. Transmission service is provided on a regionwide, open-access basis using the transmission facilities of the RTO members at rates based on the costs of transmission service.
Environmental
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure is subject to the jurisdiction of the EPA and state and local environmental agencies. For a discussion of environmental regulation, see “Environmental Matters” in this section. See the “Other Matters” section of Management's Discussion and Analysis for a discussion about potential Global Climate Change legislation and other EPA regulations under development and the potential impacts such legislation and regulation could have on Duke Energy’s operations.
GAS UTILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure conducts natural gas operations primarily through the regulated public utilities of Piedmont, Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Kentucky. The natural gas operations are subject to the rules and regulations of the NCUC, PSCSC, PUCO, KPSC, TPUC, PHMSA and the FERC. Gas Utilities and Infrastructure serves residential, commercial, industrial and power generation natural gas customers, including customers served by municipalities who are wholesale customers. Gas Utilities and Infrastructure has over 1.6 million customers, including 1.1 million customers located in North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee, and an additional 541,000 customers located within southwestern Ohio and northern Kentucky. In the Carolinas, Ohio and Kentucky, the service areas are comprised of numerous cities, towns and communities. In Tennessee, the service area is the metropolitan area of Nashville. The following map shows the service territory and investments in operating pipelines for Gas Utilities and Infrastructure as of December 31, 2020.
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duk-20201231_g3.jpg
The number of residential, commercial and industrial customers within the Gas Utilities and Infrastructure service territory is expected to increase over time. Average usage per residential customer is expected to remain flat or decline for the foreseeable future; however, decoupled rates in North Carolina and various rate design mechanisms in other jurisdictions partially mitigate the impact of the declining usage per customer on overall profitability.
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure also owns, operates and has investments in various pipeline transmission and natural gas storage facilities.
Natural Gas for Retail Distribution
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure is responsible for the distribution of natural gas to retail customers in its North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Ohio and Kentucky service territories. Gas Utilities and Infrastructure’s natural gas procurement strategy is to contract primarily with major and independent producers and marketers for natural gas supply. It also purchases a diverse portfolio of transportation and storage service from interstate pipelines. This strategy allows Gas Utilities and Infrastructure to assure reliable natural gas supply and transportation for its firm customers during peak winter conditions. When firm pipeline services or contracted natural gas supplies are temporarily not needed due to market demand fluctuations, Gas Utilities and Infrastructure may release these services and supplies in the secondary market under FERC-approved capacity release provisions or make wholesale secondary market sales. In 2020, firm supply purchase commitment agreements provided 100% of the natural gas supply for both Piedmont and Duke Energy Ohio.
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Impact of Weather
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure revenues are generally protected from the impact of weather fluctuations due to the regulatory mechanisms that are available in most service territories. In North Carolina, margin decoupling provides protection from both weather and other usage variations like conservation for residential and commercial customer classes. Margin decoupling provides a set revenue per customer independent of actual usage. In South Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky, weather normalization adjusts revenues either up or down depending on how much warmer or colder than normal a given month has been. Weather normalization adjustments occur from November through March in South Carolina, from October through April in Tennessee and from November through April in Kentucky. Duke Energy Ohio collects most of its non-fuel revenue through a fixed monthly charge that is not impacted by usage fluctuations that result from weather changes or conservation.
Competition
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure’s businesses operate as the sole provider of natural gas service within their retail service territories. Gas Utilities and Infrastructure owns and operates facilities necessary to transport and distribute natural gas. Gas Utilities and Infrastructure earns retail margin on the transmission and distribution of natural gas and not on the cost of the underlying commodity. Services are priced by state commission-approved rates designed to include the costs of providing these services and a reasonable return on invested capital. This regulatory policy is intended to provide safe and reliable natural gas service at fair prices.
In residential, commercial and industrial customer markets, natural gas distribution operations compete with other companies that supply energy, primarily electric companies, propane and fuel oil dealers, renewable energy providers and coal companies in relation to sources of energy for electric power plants, as well as nuclear energy. A significant competitive factor is price. Gas Utilities and Infrastructure's primary product competition is with electricity for heating, water heating and cooking. Increases in the price of natural gas or decreases in the price of other energy sources could negatively impact competitive position by decreasing the price benefits of natural gas to the consumer. In the case of industrial customers, such as manufacturing plants, adverse economic or market conditions, including higher natural gas costs, could cause these customers to suspend business operations or to use alternative sources of energy in favor of energy sources with lower per-unit costs.
Higher natural gas costs or decreases in the price of other energy sources may allow competition from alternative energy sources for applications that have traditionally used natural gas, encouraging some customers to move away from natural gas-fired equipment to equipment fueled by other energy sources. Competition between natural gas and other forms of energy is also based on efficiency, performance, reliability, safety and other non-price factors. Technological improvements in other energy sources and events that impair the public perception of the non-price attributes of natural gas could erode our competitive advantage. These factors in turn could decrease the demand for natural gas, impair our ability to attract new customers and cause existing customers to switch to other forms of energy or to bypass our systems in favor of alternative competitive sources. This could result in slow or no customer growth and could cause customers to reduce or cease using our product, thereby reducing our ability to make capital expenditures and otherwise grow our business, adversely affecting our earnings.
Pipeline and Storage Investments
Duke Energy, through its Gas Utilities and Infrastructure segment, has a 7.5% equity ownership interest in Sabal Trail. Sabal Trail is a joint venture that owns the Sabal Trail Natural Gas Pipeline (Sabal Trail pipeline) to transport natural gas to Florida, regulated by FERC. The Sabal Trail Phase I mainline was placed into service in July 2017 and traverses Alabama, Georgia and Florida. The remaining lateral line to the Duke Energy Florida's Citrus County CC was placed into service in March 2018. Phase II of Sabal Trail went into service in May 2020, adding approximately 200,000 Dth of capacity to the Sabal Trail pipeline.
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure has a 47% equity ownership interest in ACP, which planned to build the ACP pipeline, an approximately 600-mile interstate natural gas pipeline. The ACP pipeline was intended to transport diverse natural gas supplies into southeastern markets and would be regulated by FERC. Dominion Energy owns 53% of ACP and was contracted to construct and operate the ACP pipeline upon completion. On July 5, 2020, Dominion announced a sale of substantially all of its gas transmission and storage segment assets, which were critical to the ACP pipeline. Further, permitting delays and legal challenges had materially affected the timing and cost of the pipeline. As a result, Duke Energy determined that they would no longer invest in the construction of the ACP pipeline. For the year ended December 31, 2020, Duke Energy recorded $2.1 billion of costs related to ACP.
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure has a 24% equity ownership interest in Constitution, an interstate pipeline development company formed to develop, construct, own and operate a 124-mile natural gas pipeline and related facilities, regulated by FERC. Constitution was slated to transport natural gas supplies from the Marcellus supply region in northern Pennsylvania to major northeastern markets. As of February 5, 2020, the Constitution partners formally resolved to initiate the dissolution of Constitution, and to terminate the Constitution Pipeline project.
Duke Energy, through its Gas Utilities and Infrastructure segment, has a 21.49% equity ownership interest in Cardinal, an intrastate pipeline located in North Carolina regulated by the NCUC, a 45% equity ownership in Pine Needle, an interstate liquefied natural gas storage facility located in North Carolina and a 50% equity ownership interest in Hardy Storage, an underground interstate natural gas storage facility located in Hardy and Hampshire counties in West Virginia. Pine Needle and Hardy Storage are regulated by FERC.
KO Transmission Company (KO Transmission), a wholly owned subsidiary of Duke Energy Ohio, is an interstate pipeline company engaged in the business of transporting natural gas and is subject to the rules and regulations of FERC. KO Transmission's 90-mile pipeline supplies natural gas to Duke Energy Ohio and interconnects with the Columbia Gulf Transmission pipeline and Tennessee Gas Pipeline. An approximately 70-mile portion of KO Transmission's pipeline facilities is co-owned by Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation.
See Notes 3, 12 and 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters," "Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates" and "Variable Interest Entities," respectively, for further information on Duke Energy's pipeline investments.
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Inventory
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure must maintain adequate natural gas inventory in order to provide reliable delivery to customers. As of December 31, 2020, the inventory balance for Gas Utilities and Infrastructure was $82 million. For more information on inventory, see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies."
Regulation
State
The state gas utility commissions approve rates for Duke Energy's retail natural gas service within their respective states. The state gas utility commissions, to varying degrees, have authority over the construction and operation of Gas Utilities and Infrastructure’s natural gas distribution facilities. CPCNs issued by the state gas utility commissions or other government agencies, as applicable, authorize Gas Utilities and Infrastructure to construct and operate its natural gas distribution facilities and to sell natural gas to retail and wholesale customers. Prior approval from the relevant state gas utility commission is required for Gas Utilities and Infrastructure to issue securities. The underlying concept of utility ratemaking is to set rates at a level that allows the utility to collect revenues equal to its cost of providing service plus a reasonable rate of return on its invested capital, including equity.
In addition to amounts collected from customers through approved base rates, each of the state gas utility commissions allow recovery of certain costs through various cost-recovery clauses to the extent the respective commission determines in periodic hearings that such costs, including any past over- or under-recovered costs, are prudent.
Natural gas costs are eligible for recovery by Gas Utilities and Infrastructure. Due to the associated regulatory treatment and the method allowed for recovery, changes in natural gas costs from year to year have no material impact on operating results of Gas Utilities and Infrastructure, unless a commission finds a portion of such costs to have been imprudent. However, delays between the expenditure for natural gas and recovery from customers can adversely impact the timing of cash flows of Gas Utilities and Infrastructure.
The following table summarizes certain components underlying recently approved and effective base rates or rate stabilization filings in the last three years.
Annual
Increase
(Decrease)
(in millions)
Return
on
Equity
Equity
Component of
Capital Structure
Effective Date
Approved Rate Cases:
Piedmont 2017 South Carolina Rate Stabilization Adjustment Filing$10.2 %53.0 %November 2017
Piedmont 2018 South Carolina Rate Stabilization Adjustment Filing(14)10.2 %53.0 %November 2018
Piedmont 2019 South Carolina Rate Stabilization Adjustment Filing9.9 %55.4 %November 2019
Piedmont 2020 South Carolina Rate Stabilization Adjustment Filing9.8 %52.3 %November 2020
Duke Energy Kentucky 2018 Natural Gas Base Rate Case9.7 %50.8 %April 2019
Piedmont 2019 North Carolina Natural Gas Base Rate Case109 9.7 %52.0 %November 2019
Piedmont 2020 Tennessee Natural Gas Base Rate Case16 9.8 %50.5 %January 2021
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure has IMR mechanisms in North Carolina and Tennessee designed to separately track and recover certain costs associated with capital investments incurred to comply with federal pipeline safety and integrity programs. The following table summarizes information related to the recently approved IMR filing.
CumulativeAnnualEffective
(in millions)InvestmentRevenuesDate
Piedmont 2020 IMR Filing – North Carolina$307 $30 December 2020
In Piedmont's Tennessee rate case settled in February 2021, the Company included projected IMR investment through December 31, 2021, in its rate base. The recovery of integrity investment was requested in the rate case and not through the Tennessee IMR mechanism.
For more information on rate matters and other regulatory proceedings, see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters.”
Federal
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure is subject to various federal regulations, including regulations that are particular to the natural gas industry. These federal regulations include but are not limited to the following:
Regulations of the FERC affect the certification and siting of new interstate natural gas pipeline projects, the purchase and sale of, the prices paid for, and the terms and conditions of service for the interstate transportation and storage of natural gas.
Regulations of the PHMSA affect the design, construction, operation, maintenance, integrity, safety and security of natural gas distribution and transmission systems.
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Regulations of the EPA relate to the environment including proposed air emissions regulations that would expand to include emissions of methane.
Regulations of the FERC and the state gas utility commissions govern access to regulated natural gas and other data by nonregulated entities and services provided between regulated and nonregulated energy affiliates. These regulations affect the activities of nonregulated affiliates with Gas Utilities and Infrastructure.
Environmental
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure is subject to the jurisdiction of the EPA and state and local environmental agencies. For a discussion of environmental regulation, see “Environmental Matters” in this section. See “Other Matters” section of Management's Discussion and Analysis for a discussion about potential Global Climate Change legislation and other EPA regulations under development and the potential impacts such legislation and regulation could have on Duke Energy’s operations.
COMMERCIAL RENEWABLES
Commercial Renewables primarily acquires, develops, builds, operates and owns wind and solar renewable generation throughout the continental U.S. The portfolio includes nonregulated renewable energy and energy storage businesses.
Commercial Renewables' renewable energy includes utility-scale wind and solar generation assets, distributed solar generation assets, distributed fuel cell assets and battery storage projects, which total 2,763 MW across 21 states from 21 wind facilities, 150 solar projects, 70 fuel cell locations and two battery storage facilities. Revenues are primarily generated by selling the power produced from renewable generation through long-term contracts to utilities, electric cooperatives, municipalities and corporate customers. In most instances, these customers have obligations under state-mandated renewable energy portfolio standards or similar state or local renewable energy goals. Energy and renewable energy credits generated by wind and solar projects are generally sold at contractual prices. The following map shows the locations of renewable generation facilities of which Commercial Renewables has an ownership interest as of December 31, 2020.
duk-20201231_g4.jpg
As eligible projects are placed in service, Commercial Renewables recognizes either PTCs as power is generated by wind projects over 10 years or ITCs when the renewable solar or fuel cell project achieves commercial availability. ITCs are recognized over the useful life of the asset as a reduction to depreciation expense. Benefits of the tax basis adjustment due to the ITC are recognized in income in the year of commercial availability. The ITC for solar and fuel cells is being phased down from a rate of 30% for projects that began construction before 2020 to a permanent 10% rate for solar and no ITC available for fuel cells if construction begins after 2023. The PTC is being phased out and wind turbines will earn 10 years of PTCs at phased-out rates if construction begins in 2017 through 2021.
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Commercial Renewables has entered into agreements for certain of its generating assets that are held by LLCs whose members include a noncontrolling tax equity investor. The allocation of tax attributes and cash flows to the tax equity investor are governed by the provisions of the LLC agreements. The GAAP earnings allocations to the tax equity investors can result in variability in earnings to Duke Energy as a result of the application of the HLBV method in allocating income or loss to the owners. As part of its growth strategy, Commercial Renewables expects to enter into these arrangements for future generating assets.
For additional information on Commercial Renewables' generation facilities, see Item 2, “Properties.”
Market Environment and Competition
Commercial Renewables primarily competes for wholesale contracts for the generation and sale of electricity from generation assets it either develops or acquires and owns. The market price of commodities and services, along with the quality and reliability of services provided, drive competition in the wholesale energy business. The number and type of competitors may vary based on location, generation type and project size. Commercial Renewables' main competitors include other nonregulated generators and wholesale power providers.
Sources of Electricity
Commercial Renewables relies on wind, solar, fuel cells and battery resources for its generation of electric energy.
Regulation
Commercial Renewables is subject to regulation at the federal level, primarily from the FERC. Regulations of the FERC govern access to regulated market information by nonregulated entities and services provided between regulated and nonregulated utilities.
OTHER
The remainder of Duke Energy’s operations is presented as Other. While it is not a business segment, Other primarily includes interest expense on holding company debt, unallocated corporate costs including costs to achieve strategic acquisitions, amounts related to certain companywide initiatives and contributions made to the Duke Energy Foundation. Other also includes Bison and an investment in NMC.
The Duke Energy Foundation is a nonprofit organization funded by Duke Energy shareholders that makes charitable contributions to selected nonprofits and government subdivisions.
Bison, a wholly owned subsidiary of Duke Energy, is a captive insurance company with the principal activity of providing Duke Energy subsidiaries with indemnification for financial losses primarily related to property, workers’ compensation and general liability.
Duke Energy owns a 17.5% equity interest in NMC. The joint venture company has production facilities in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, where it manufactures certain petrochemicals and plastics. The company annually produces approximately 1 million metric tons each of MTBE and methanol and has the capacity to produce 50,000 metric tons of polyacetal. The main feedstocks to produce these products are natural gas and butane. Duke Energy records the investment activity of NMC using the equity method of accounting and retains 25% of NMC's board of directors' representation and voting rights.
Human Capital Management
Governance
Our employees are critical to the success of our company. Our Human Resources organization is responsible for our human capital management strategy, which includes recruiting and hiring, onboarding and training, diversity and inclusion, workforce planning, talent and succession planning, performance management and employee development. Key areas of focus include fostering a high-performance and inclusive culture built on strong leadership and highly engaged and diverse employees, building a pipeline of skilled workers and ensuring knowledge transfer as employees retire.
Our Board of Directors provides oversight on certain human capital management matters, primarily through the Compensation and People Development Committee, which is responsible for reviewing strategies and policies related to human capital management, including with respect to matters such as diversity and inclusion, employee engagement and talent development. The Compensation and People Development Committee also receives updates on employee engagement surveys and action plans.
Employees
On December 31, 2020, Duke Energy had a total of 27,535 full-time, part-time and temporary employees, the overwhelming majority of which were full-time employees. The total includes 5,165 employees who are represented by labor unions under various collective bargaining agreements that generally cover wages, benefits, working practices, and other terms and conditions of employment.
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Compensation
The company seeks to attract and retain an appropriately qualified workforce and leverages Duke Energy’s leadership imperatives to foster a culture focused on customers, innovation, and highly engaged employees. Our compensation program is designed to link pay to performance with the goal of attracting and retaining talented employees, rewarding individual performance, encouraging long-term commitment to our business, and aligning the interests of our management team with those of key stakeholders, including shareholders and customers. In addition to competitive base pay, we provide eligible employees with compensation and benefits under a variety of plans and programs, including with respect to health care benefits, retirement savings, pension, health savings and flexible spending accounts, wellness, family leaves, employee assistance, as well as other benefits including a charitable matching program. We supplement our pay for performance program with a number of compensation policies that are aligned with the long-term interests of Duke Energy and our shareholders, including a short-term incentive plan and a long-term incentive plan for eligible employees.
Diversity and Inclusion
Duke Energy is committed to continuing to build a diverse workforce that reflects the communities we serve while strengthening a culture of inclusion where employees and customers feel respected and valued. Our Enterprise Diversity and Inclusion Advisory Council, which is chaired by our Chief Operating Officer, is responsible for reviewing our diversity and inclusion initiatives for continuous improvement, as well as helping to develop actionable outcomes and results. We have established aspirational goals with respect to diversity and inclusion, and we regularly report our progress toward achieving those goals. Our aspirational goals include achieving a workforce representation of at least 25% female and 20% racial and ethnic diversity. As of December 31, 2020, our workforce consisted of approximately 23% female and 18% racial and ethnic diversity.
The company also has a number of Employee Resource Groups (ERGs), which are networks of employees formed around a common dimension of diversity whose goals and objectives align with the company's goals and objectives. These groups focus on employee professional development and networking, community outreach, cultural awareness, recruiting and retention. They also serve as a resource to the company for advocacy and community outreach and improving customer service through innovation. ERG-sponsored forums include networking events, mentoring, scholarship banquets for aspiring college students, and workshops on topics such as time management, stress reduction, career planning and work-life balance. Our ERGs are open to all employees.
Among other efforts, the company has developed partnerships with community organizations, community colleges and historically black colleges and universities to support our strategy of building a diverse and highly skilled talent pipeline.
Operational Excellence
The foundation for our growth and success is our continued focus on operational excellence, the leading indicator of which is safety. As such, the safety of our workforce remains our top priority. The company closely monitors the Total Incident Case Rate (TICR), which is a metric based on strict OSHA definitions that measures the number of occupational injuries and illnesses per 100 employees. This objective emphasizes our focus on achieving an event-free and injury-free workplace. As an indication of our commitment to safety, we include safety metrics in both the short-term and long-term incentive plans based on the TICR for employees. Our employees delivered strong safety results in 2020, consistent with our industry-leading performance levels from 2016 through 2019.

COVID-19 Response
Safety continued to be of paramount importance during the COVID-19 pandemic and included executing on robust business continuity plans that helped ensure critical functions continued to operate under a broad range of circumstances while maintaining a safe work environment. Actions included the following:
Engaged our environmental, health and safety experts to develop new safety protocols for thousands of essential workers
Quickly transitioned thousands of employees to virtual status
Added bandwidth for our information technology systems, reviewed inventory in supply chain, implemented a series of surveys to get employee input, and provided ongoing communications to keep them informed as conditions evolved
Created a cross-functional COVID-19 case management team to track and disposition positive cases, ensure appropriate contact tracing and compliance with quarantine and safe return to work requirements
Ensured power plants and electricity and natural gas delivery facilities were staffed, helping safeguard dependable service to customers
Implemented stringent preventive measures in alignment with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) guidance to help keep employees and customers safe and help ensure we had adequate resources to maintain reliability
The company also provided additional benefits to support our workforce throughout the pandemic, including:
60 hours of additional personal time off to employees who experienced a disruption in dependent care due to school, daycare or other dependent care issues
A $1,500 stipend to assist with unplanned expenses resulting from costs related to COVID-19 to employees at a certain pay threshold
Donated more than $550,000 to the Relief4Employees program, which is a fund that employees can draw upon for short-term financial help during times of personal need
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Information about Our Executive Officers
The following table sets forth the individuals who currently serve as executive officers. Executive officers serve until their successors are duly elected or appointed.
Name
Age(a)
Current and Recent Positions Held
Lynn J. Good61 
Chair, President and Chief Executive Officer. Ms. Good has served as Chair, President and Chief Executive Officer of Duke Energy since January 1, 2016, and was Vice Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Duke Energy from July 2013 through December 2015. Prior to that, she served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since 2009.
Steven K. Young62 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Young assumed his current position in August 2013. Prior to that, he served as Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller, assuming the role of Chief Accounting Officer in July 2012 and the role of Controller in December 2006.
Douglas F Esamann63 
Executive Vice President, Energy Solutions and President, Midwest/Florida Regions and Natural Gas Business. Mr. Esamann assumed his current position in October 2019, was Executive Vice President, Energy Solutions and President, Midwest and Florida Regions since September 2016 and was Executive Vice President and President, Midwest and Florida Regions since June 2015. Prior to that, he served as President, Duke Energy Indiana since November 2010.
Kodwo Ghartey-Tagoe57 
Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary. Mr. Ghartey-Tagoe assumed the position of Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary in May 2020. He was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer in October 2019, after serving as President, South Carolina since 2017. Mr. Ghartey-Tagoe joined Duke Energy in 2002 and has held numerous management positions in Duke Energy’s Legal Department, including Duke Energy's Senior Vice President of State and Federal Regulatory Legal Support.
Dwight L. Jacobs55 
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer, Tax and Controller. Mr. Jacobs has served as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer, Tax and Controller since January 1, 2019. Prior to that, he served as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller since June 1, 2018. Prior to that, he served as Senior Vice President, Financial Planning & Analysis since February 2016 and as Chief Risk Officer since July 2014. Prior to his role as Chief Risk Officer, Mr. Jacobs served as Vice President, Rates & Regulatory Strategy since May 2010.
Dhiaa M. Jamil64 
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Jamil assumed the role of Chief Operating Officer in May 2016. Prior to his current position, he held the title Executive Vice President and President, Regulated Generation and Transmission since June 2015. Prior to that, he served as Executive Vice President and President, Regulated Generation since August 2014. He served as Executive Vice President and President of Duke Energy Nuclear from March 2013 to August 2014, and was Chief Nuclear Officer from February 2008 to February 2013.
Julia S. Janson56 
Executive Vice President, External Affairs and President, Carolinas Region. Ms. Janson has held the position of Executive Vice President, External Affairs and President, Carolinas Region since October 2019. Prior to that, she held the position of Executive Vice President, External Affairs and Chief Legal Officer since November 2018. She originally assumed the position of Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary in December 2012, and then assumed the responsibilities for External Affairs in February 2016.
Brian D. Savoy45 
Senior Vice President, Chief Transformation and Administrative Officer. Mr. Savoy assumed his current position in October 2019. Prior to that, he served as Senior Vice President, Business Transformation and Technology since May 2016; Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer from September 2013 to May 2016; Director, Forecasting and Analysis from 2009 to September 2013; and Vice President and Controller of the Commercial Power segment from 2006 to 2009.
Harry K. Sideris50 
Senior Vice President, Customer Experience and Services. Mr. Sideris assumed his current position in October 2019. Prior to that, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Distribution Officer since June 2018; State President, Florida from January 2017 to June 2018; Senior Vice President of Environmental Health and Safety from August 2014 to January 2017; and Vice President of Power Generations for the Company's Fossil/Hydro Operations in the western portions of North Carolina and South Carolina from July 2012 to August 2014.
(a)    The ages of the officers provided are as of January 31, 2021.
There are no family relationships between any of the executive officers, nor any arrangement or understanding between any executive officer and any other person involved in officer selection.
Environmental Matters
The Duke Energy Registrants are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations with regard to air and water quality, hazardous and solid waste disposal and other environmental matters. Environmental laws and regulations affecting the Duke Energy Registrants include, but are not limited to:
The Clean Air Act, as well as state laws and regulations impacting air emissions, including State Implementation Plans related to existing and new national ambient air quality standards for ozone and particulate matter. Owners and/or operators of air emission sources are responsible for obtaining permits and for annual compliance and reporting.
The CWA, which requires permits for facilities that discharge wastewaters into navigable waters.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which can require any individual or entity that currently owns or in the past owned or operated a disposal site, as well as transporters or generators of hazardous substances sent to a disposal site, to share in remediation costs.
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The National Environmental Policy Act, which requires federal agencies to consider potential environmental impacts in their permitting and licensing decisions, including siting approvals.
Coal Ash Act, as amended, which establishes requirements regarding the use and closure of existing ash basins, the disposal of ash at active coal plants and the handling of surface water and groundwater impacts from ash basins in North Carolina.
The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by RCRA, which creates a framework for the proper management of hazardous and nonhazardous solid waste; classifies CCR as nonhazardous waste; and establishes standards for landfill and surface impoundment placement, design, operation and closure, groundwater monitoring, corrective action, and post-closure care.
The Toxic Substances Control Act, which gives EPA the authority to require reporting, recordkeeping and testing requirements, and to place restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures, including polychlorinated biphenyls.
For more information on environmental matters, see Notes 4 and 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Commitments and Contingencies – Environmental” and "Asset Retirement Obligations," respectively, and the “Other Matters” section of Management's Discussion and Analysis. Except as otherwise described in these sections, costs to comply with current federal, state and local provisions regulating the discharge of materials into the environment or other potential costs related to protecting the environment are incorporated into the routine cost structure of our various business segments and are not expected to have a material adverse effect on the competitive position, consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial position of the Duke Energy Registrants.
The "Other Matters" section of Management's Discussion and Analysis includes more information on certain environmental regulations and a discussion of Global Climate Change including the potential impact of current and future legislation related to GHG emissions on the Duke Energy Registrants' operations. Recently passed and potential future environmental statutes and regulations could have a significant impact on the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, cash flows or financial position. However, if and when such statutes and regulations become effective, the Duke Energy Registrants will seek appropriate regulatory recovery of costs to comply within its regulated operations.
DUKE ENERGY CAROLINAS
Duke Energy Carolinas is a regulated public utility primarily engaged in the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in portions of North Carolina and South Carolina. Duke Energy Carolinas’ service area covers approximately 24,000 square miles and supplies electric service to 2.7 million residential, commercial and industrial customers. For information about Duke Energy Carolinas’ generating facilities, see Item 2, “Properties.” Duke Energy Carolinas is subject to the regulatory provisions of the NCUC, PSCSC, NRC and FERC.
Substantially all of Duke Energy Carolinas' operations are regulated and qualify for regulatory accounting. Duke Energy Carolinas operates one reportable business segment, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure. For additional information regarding this business segment, including financial information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.”
PROGRESS ENERGY
Progress Energy is a public utility holding company primarily engaged in the regulated electric utility business and is subject to regulation by the FERC. Progress Energy conducts operations through its wholly owned subsidiaries, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida. When discussing Progress Energy’s financial information, it necessarily includes the results of Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida.
Substantially all of Progress Energy’s operations are regulated and qualify for regulatory accounting. Progress Energy operates one reportable business segment, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure. For additional information regarding this business segment, including financial information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.”
DUKE ENERGY PROGRESS
Duke Energy Progress is a regulated public utility primarily engaged in the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in portions of North Carolina and South Carolina. Duke Energy Progress’ service area covers approximately 29,000 square miles and supplies electric service to approximately 1.6 million residential, commercial and industrial customers. For information about Duke Energy Progress’ generating facilities, see Item 2, “Properties.” Duke Energy Progress is subject to the regulatory provisions of the NCUC, PSCSC, NRC and FERC.
Substantially all of Duke Energy Progress’ operations are regulated and qualify for regulatory accounting. Duke Energy Progress operates one reportable business segment, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure. For additional information regarding this business segment, including financial information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.”
DUKE ENERGY FLORIDA
Duke Energy Florida is a regulated public utility primarily engaged in the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in portions of Florida. Duke Energy Florida’s service area covers approximately 13,000 square miles and supplies electric service to approximately 1.9 million residential, commercial and industrial customers. For information about Duke Energy Florida’s generating facilities, see Item 2, “Properties.” Duke Energy Florida is subject to the regulatory provisions of the FPSC, NRC and FERC.
Substantially all of Duke Energy Florida’s operations are regulated and qualify for regulatory accounting. Duke Energy Florida operates one reportable business segment, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure. For additional information regarding this business segment, including financial information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.”
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DUKE ENERGY OHIO
Duke Energy Ohio is a regulated public utility primarily engaged in the transmission and distribution of electricity in portions of Ohio and Kentucky, in the generation and sale of electricity in portions of Kentucky and the transportation and sale of natural gas in portions of Ohio and Kentucky. Duke Energy Ohio also conducts competitive auctions for retail electricity supply in Ohio whereby recovery of the energy price is from retail customers. Operations in Kentucky are conducted through its wholly owned subsidiary, Duke Energy Kentucky. References herein to Duke Energy Ohio include Duke Energy Ohio and its subsidiaries, unless otherwise noted. Duke Energy Ohio is subject to the regulatory provisions of the PUCO, KPSC, PHMSA and FERC.
Duke Energy Ohio’s service area covers approximately 3,000 square miles and supplies electric service to approximately 880,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers and provides transmission and distribution services for natural gas to approximately 545,000 customers. For information about Duke Energy Ohio's generating facilities, see Item 2, “Properties.”
KO Transmission, a wholly owned subsidiary of Duke Energy Ohio, is an interstate pipeline company engaged in the business of transporting natural gas and is subject to the rules and regulations of FERC. KO Transmission's 90-mile pipeline supplies natural gas to Duke Energy Ohio and interconnects with the Columbia Gulf Transmission pipeline and Tennessee Gas Pipeline. An approximately 70-mile portion of KO Transmission's pipeline facilities is co-owned by Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation.
Substantially all of Duke Energy Ohio's operations are regulated and qualify for regulatory accounting. Duke Energy Ohio has two reportable segments, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure and Gas Utilities and Infrastructure. For additional information on these business segments, including financial information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.”
DUKE ENERGY INDIANA
Duke Energy Indiana is a regulated public utility primarily engaged in the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in portions of Indiana. Duke Energy Indiana’s service area covers 23,000 square miles and supplies electric service to 850,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers. For information about Duke Energy Indiana's generating facilities, see Item 2, “Properties.” Duke Energy Indiana is subject to the regulatory provisions of the IURC and FERC.
Substantially all of Duke Energy Indiana’s operations are regulated and qualify for regulatory accounting. Duke Energy Indiana operates one reportable business segment, Electric Utilities and Infrastructure. For additional information regarding this business segment, including financial information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.”
PIEDMONT
Piedmont is a regulated public utility primarily engaged in the distribution of natural gas to over 1.1 million residential, commercial, industrial and power generation customers in portions of North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee, including customers served by municipalities who are wholesale customers. For information about Piedmont's natural gas distribution facilities, see Item 2, "Properties." Piedmont is subject to the regulatory provisions of the NCUC, PSCSC, TPUC, PHMSA and FERC.
Substantially all of Piedmont’s operations are regulated and qualify for regulatory accounting. Piedmont operates one reportable business segment, Gas Utilities and Infrastructure. For additional information regarding this business segment, including financial information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments.”
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to other disclosures within this Form 10-K, including "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Matters Impacting Future Results" for each registrant in Item 7, and other documents filed with the SEC from time to time, the following factors should be considered in evaluating Duke Energy and its subsidiaries. Such factors could affect actual results of operations and cause results to differ substantially from those currently expected or sought. Unless otherwise indicated, risk factors discussed below generally relate to risks associated with all of the Duke Energy Registrants. Risks identified at the Subsidiary Registrant level are generally applicable to Duke Energy.
BUSINESS STRATEGY RISKS
Duke Energy’s future results could be adversely affected if it is unable to implement its business strategy.
Duke Energy’s results of operations depend, in significant part, on the extent to which it can implement its business strategy successfully. Duke Energy's strategy, which includes transforming the customer experience, achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, modernizing the regulatory construct and digital transformation, is subject to business, regulatory, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, and required advancements in technology to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, many of which are beyond its control. As a consequence, Duke Energy may not be able to fully implement or realize the anticipated results of its strategy.
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RISK FACTORS
REGULATORY, LEGISLATIVE AND LEGAL RISKS
The Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated utility revenues, earnings and results are dependent on state legislation and regulation that affect electric generation, electric and natural gas transmission, distribution and related activities, which may limit their ability to recover costs.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated electric and natural gas utility businesses are regulated on a cost-of-service/rate-of-return basis subject to statutes and regulatory commission rules and procedures of North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Ohio, Tennessee, Indiana and Kentucky. If the Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated utility earnings exceed the returns established by the state utility commissions, retail electric and natural gas rates may be subject to review and possible reduction by the Commissions, which may decrease the Duke Energy Registrants’ earnings. Additionally, if regulatory bodies do not allow recovery of costs incurred in providing service, or do not do so on a timely basis, the Duke Energy Registrants’ earnings could be negatively impacted.
If legislative and regulatory structures were to evolve in such a way that the Duke Energy Registrants’ exclusive rights to serve their regulated customers were eroded, their earnings could be negatively impacted. Federal and state regulations, laws and other efforts designed to promote and expand the use of EE measures and distributed generation technologies, such as private solar and battery storage, in Duke Energy service territories could result in customers leaving the electric distribution system and an increase in customer net energy metering, which allows customers with private solar to receive bill credits for surplus power at the full retail amount. Over time, customer adoption of these technologies and increased EE could result in excess generation resources as well as stranded costs if Duke Energy is not able to fully recover the costs and investment in generation.
State regulators have approved various mechanisms to stabilize natural gas utility margins, including margin decoupling in North Carolina and rate stabilization in South Carolina. State regulators have approved other margin stabilizing mechanisms that, for example, allow for recovery of margin losses associated with negotiated transactions designed to retain large volume customers that could use alternative fuels or that may otherwise directly access natural gas supply through their own connection to an interstate pipeline. If regulators decided to discontinue the Duke Energy Registrants' use of tariff mechanisms, it would negatively impact results of operations, financial position and cash flows. In addition, regulatory authorities also review whether natural gas costs are prudently incurred and can disallow the recovery of a portion of natural gas costs that the Duke Energy Registrants seek to recover from customers, which would adversely impact earnings.
The rates that the Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated utility businesses are allowed to charge are established by state utility commissions in rate case proceedings, which may limit their ability to recover costs and earn an appropriate return on investment.
The rates that the Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated utility business are allowed to charge significantly influences the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of the Duke Energy Registrants. The regulation of the rates that the regulated utility businesses charge customers is determined, in large part, by state utility commissions in rate case proceedings. Negative decisions made by these regulators, or by any court on appeal of a rate case proceeding, could have a material adverse effect on the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, financial position or cash flows and affect the ability of the Duke Energy Registrants to recover costs and an appropriate return on the significant infrastructure investments being made.
Deregulation or restructuring in the electric industry may result in increased competition and unrecovered costs that could adversely affect the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, financial position or cash flows and their utility businesses.
Increased competition resulting from deregulation or restructuring legislation could have a significant adverse impact on the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, financial position or cash flows. If the retail jurisdictions served by the Duke Energy Registrants become subject to deregulation, the impairment of assets, loss of retail customers, lower profit margins or increased costs of capital, and recovery of stranded costs could have a significant adverse financial impact on the Duke Energy Registrants. Stranded costs primarily include the generation assets of the Duke Energy Registrants whose value in a competitive marketplace may be less than their current book value, as well as above-market purchased power commitments from QFs from whom the Duke Energy Registrants are legally obligated to purchase energy at an avoided cost rate under PURPA. The Duke Energy Registrants cannot predict the extent and timing of entry by additional competitors into the electric markets. The Duke Energy Registrants cannot predict if or when they will be subject to changes in legislation or regulation, nor can they predict the impact of these changes on their results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ businesses are subject to extensive federal regulation and a wide variety of laws and governmental policies, including taxes, that may change over time in ways that affect operations and costs.
The Duke Energy Registrants are subject to regulations under a wide variety of U.S. federal and state regulations and policies, including by FERC, NRC, EPA and various other federal agencies as well as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Regulation affects almost every aspect of the Duke Energy Registrants’ businesses, including, among other things, their ability to: take fundamental business management actions; determine the terms and rates of transmission and distribution services; make acquisitions; issue equity or debt securities; engage in transactions with other subsidiaries and affiliates; and pay dividends upstream to the Duke Energy Registrants. Changes to federal regulations are continuous and ongoing. There can be no assurance that laws, regulations and policies will not be changed in ways that result in material modifications of business models and objectives or affect returns on investment by restricting activities and products, subjecting them to escalating costs, causing delays, or prohibiting them outright.
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RISK FACTORS
The Duke Energy Registrants are subject to numerous environmental laws and regulations requiring significant capital expenditures that can increase the cost of operations, and which may impact or limit business plans, or cause exposure to environmental liabilities.
The Duke Energy Registrants are subject to numerous environmental laws and regulations affecting many aspects of their present and future operations, including CCRs, air emissions, water quality, wastewater discharges, solid waste and hazardous waste. These laws and regulations can result in increased capital, operating and other costs. These laws and regulations generally require the Duke Energy Registrants to obtain and comply with a wide variety of environmental licenses, permits, inspections and other approvals. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations can require significant expenditures, including expenditures for cleanup costs and damages arising from contaminated properties. Failure to comply with environmental regulations may result in the imposition of fines, penalties and injunctive measures affecting operating assets. The steps the Duke Energy Registrants could be required to take to ensure their facilities are in compliance could be prohibitively expensive. As a result, the Duke Energy Registrants may be required to shut down or alter the operation of their facilities, which may cause the Duke Energy Registrants to incur losses. Further, the Duke Energy Registrants may not be successful in recovering capital and operating costs incurred to comply with new environmental regulations through existing regulatory rate structures and their contracts with customers. Also, the Duke Energy Registrants may not be able to obtain or maintain from time to time all required environmental regulatory approvals for their operating assets or development projects. Delays in obtaining any required environmental regulatory approvals, failure to obtain and comply with them or changes in environmental laws or regulations to more stringent compliance levels could result in additional costs of operation for existing facilities or development of new facilities being prevented, delayed or subject to additional costs. Although it is not expected that the costs to comply with current environmental regulations will have a material adverse effect on the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, financial position and cash flows due to regulatory cost recovery, the Duke Energy Registrants are at risk that the costs of complying with environmental regulations in the future will have such an effect.
The EPA has enacted or proposed federal regulations governing the management of cooling water intake structures, wastewater and CO2 emissions. New state legislation, including the North Carolina Clean Energy Plan, could impose carbon reduction goals that are more aggressive than the company's plans. These regulations may require the Duke Energy Registrants to make additional capital expenditures and increase operating and maintenance costs.
The Duke Energy Registrants' operations, capital expenditures and financial results may be affected by regulatory changes related to the impacts of global climate change.
There is continued concern, and increasing activism, both nationally and internationally, about climate change. The EPA and state regulators may adopt and implement regulations to restrict emissions of GHGs to address global climate change. Increased regulation of GHG emissions could impose significant additional costs on the Duke Energy Registrants' electric and natural gas operations, their suppliers and customers. Regulatory changes could result in generation facilities to be retired early and result in stranded costs if Duke Energy is not able to fully recover the costs and investment in generation, and could also affect demand for energy conservation and renewable products, which could impact our electric and natural gas businesses.
OPERATIONAL RISKS
The Duke Energy Registrants’ operations have been and may be affected by COVID-19 in ways listed below and in ways the registrants cannot predict at this time.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the Duke Energy Registrants' business strategy, results of operations, financial position and cash flows, albeit not materially as of this filing date, from specific activities listed below:
Decreased demand for electricity and natural gas;
Delays in rate cases and other legal proceedings;
An inability to obtain labor or equipment necessary for the construction of generation projects or pipeline expansion;
The health and availability of our critical personnel and their ability to perform business functions; and
Actions of state utility commissions or federal or state governments to allow customers to suspend or delay payment of bills related to the provision of electric or natural gas services.
Furthermore, due to the unpredictability of the COVID-19 pandemic’s ongoing impact on global health and economic stability, the Duke Energy Registrants expect that the activities listed below could negatively impact their business strategy, results of operations, financial position and cash flows:
An inability to procure satisfactory levels of fuels or other necessary equipment to continue production of electricity and delivery of natural gas;
An inability to maintain information technology systems and protections from cyberattack;
An inability to obtain financing in volatile financial markets;
Additional federal regulation tied to stimulus and other aid packages; and
Impairment charges, which could include real estate as options for working remotely are evaluated and goodwill.
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RISK FACTORS
The Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations may be negatively affected by overall market, economic and other conditions that are beyond their control.
Sustained downturns or sluggishness in the economy generally affect the markets in which the Duke Energy Registrants operate and negatively influence operations. Declines in demand for electricity or natural gas as a result of economic downturns in the Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated service territories will reduce overall sales and lessen cash flows, especially as industrial customers reduce production and, therefore, consumption of electricity and the use of natural gas. Although the Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated electric and natural gas businesses are subject to regulated allowable rates of return and recovery of certain costs, such as fuel and purchased natural gas costs, under periodic adjustment clauses, overall declines in electricity or natural gas sold as a result of economic downturn or recession could reduce revenues and cash flows, thereby diminishing results of operations. Additionally, prolonged economic downturns that negatively impact the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations and cash flows could result in future material impairment charges to write-down the carrying value of certain assets, including goodwill, to their respective fair values.
The Duke Energy Registrants also sell electricity into the spot market or other competitive power markets on a contractual basis. With respect to such transactions, the Duke Energy Registrants are not guaranteed any rate of return on their capital investments through mandated rates, and revenues and results of operations are likely to depend, in large part, upon prevailing market prices. These market prices may fluctuate substantially over relatively short periods of time and could reduce the Duke Energy Registrants’ revenues and margins, thereby diminishing results of operations.
Factors that could impact sales volumes, generation of electricity and market prices at which the Duke Energy Registrants are able to sell electricity and natural gas are as follows:
weather conditions, including abnormally mild winter or summer weather that cause lower energy or natural gas usage for heating or cooling purposes, as applicable, and periods of low rainfall that decrease the ability to operate facilities in an economical manner;
supply of and demand for energy commodities;
transmission or transportation constraints or inefficiencies that impact nonregulated energy operations;
availability of competitively priced alternative energy sources, which are preferred by some customers over electricity produced from coal, nuclear or natural gas plants, and customer usage of energy-efficient equipment that reduces energy demand;
natural gas, crude oil and refined products production levels and prices;
ability to procure satisfactory levels of inventory, such as coal, natural gas and uranium; and
capacity and transmission service into, or out of, the Duke Energy Registrants’ markets.
Natural disasters or operational accidents may adversely affect the Duke Energy Registrants’ operating results.
Natural disasters or other operational accidents within the company or industry (such as forest fires, earthquakes, hurricanes or natural gas transmission pipeline explosions) could have direct or indirect impacts to the Duke Energy Registrants or to key contractors and suppliers. Further, the generation of electricity and the transportation and storage of natural gas involve inherent operating risks that may result in accidents involving serious injury or loss of life, environmental damage or property damage. Such events could impact the Duke Energy Registrants through changes to policies, laws and regulations whose compliance costs have a significant impact on the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, financial position and cash flows. In addition, if a serious operational accident were to occur, existing insurance policies may not cover all of the potential exposures or the actual amount of loss incurred. Any losses not covered by insurance, or any increases in the cost of applicable insurance as a result of such accident, could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations, financial position, cash flows and reputation of the Duke Energy Registrants.
The reputation and financial condition of the Duke Energy Registrants could be negatively impacted due to their obligations to comply with federal and state regulations, laws, and other legal requirements that govern the operations, assessments, storage, closure, remediation, disposal and monitoring relating to CCR, the high costs and new rate impacts associated with implementing these new CCR-related requirements and the strategies and methods necessary to implement these requirements in compliance with these legal obligations.
As a result of electricity produced for decades at coal-fired power plants, the Duke Energy Registrants manage large amounts of CCR that are primarily stored in dry storage within landfills or combined with water in other surface impoundments, all in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements. A CCR-related operational incident could have a material adverse impact on the reputation and results of operations, financial position and cash flows of the Duke Energy Registrants.
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RISK FACTORS
During 2015, EPA regulations were enacted related to the management of CCR from power plants. These regulations classify CCR as nonhazardous waste under the RCRA and apply to electric generating sites with new and existing landfills and, new and existing surface impoundments, and establish requirements regarding landfill design, structural integrity design and assessment criteria for surface impoundments, groundwater monitoring, protection and remedial procedures and other operational and reporting procedures for the disposal and management of CCR. In addition to the federal regulations, CCR landfills and surface impoundments will continue to be regulated by existing state laws, regulations and permits, as well as additional legal requirements that may be imposed in the future, such as the settlement reached with the NCDEQ to excavate seven of the nine remaining coal ash basins in North Carolina, and partially excavate the remaining two. These federal and state laws, regulations and other legal requirements may require or result in additional expenditures, including increased operating and maintenance costs, which could affect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of the Duke Energy Registrants. The Duke Energy Registrants will continue to seek full cost recovery for expenditures through the normal ratemaking process with state and federal utility commissions, who permit recovery in rates of necessary and prudently incurred costs associated with the Duke Energy Registrants’ regulated operations, and through other wholesale contracts with terms that contemplate recovery of such costs, although there is no guarantee of full cost recovery. In addition, the timing for and amount of recovery of such costs could have a material adverse impact on Duke Energy's cash flows.
The Duke Energy Registrants have recognized significant AROs related to these CCR-related requirements. Closure activities began in 2015 at the four sites specified as priority by the Coal Ash Act and at the W.S. Lee Steam Station site in South Carolina in connection with other legal requirements. Excavation at these sites involves movement of CCR materials to off-site locations for use as structural fill, to appropriate engineered off-site or on-site lined landfills or conversion of the ash for beneficial use. Duke Energy has completed excavation of coal ash at three of the four high priority sites. At other sites, planning and closure methods have been studied and factored into the estimated retirement and management costs, and closure activities have commenced. As the closure and CCR management work progresses and final closure plans and corrective action measures are developed and approved at each site, the scope and complexity of work and the amount of CCR material could be greater than estimates and could, therefore, materially increase compliance expenditures and rate impacts.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, financial position and cash flows may be negatively affected by a lack of growth or slower growth in the number of customers, or decline in customer demand or number of customers.
Growth in customer accounts and growth of customer usage each directly influence demand for electricity and natural gas and the need for additional power generation and delivery facilities. Customer growth and customer usage are affected by several factors outside the control of the Duke Energy Registrants, such as mandated EE measures, demand-side management goals, distributed generation resources and economic and demographic conditions, such as population changes, job and income growth, housing starts, new business formation and the overall level of economic activity.
Certain regulatory and legislative bodies have introduced or are considering requirements and/or incentives to reduce energy consumption by certain dates. Additionally, technological advances driven by federal laws mandating new levels of EE in end-use electric devices or other improvements in or applications of technology could lead to declines in per capita energy consumption.
Advances in distributed generation technologies that produce power, including fuel cells, microturbines, wind turbines and solar cells, may reduce the cost of alternative methods of producing power to a level competitive with central power station electric production utilized by the Duke Energy Registrants.
Some or all of these factors could result in a lack of growth or decline in customer demand for electricity or number of customers and may cause the failure of the Duke Energy Registrants to fully realize anticipated benefits from significant capital investments and expenditures, which could have a material adverse effect on their results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Furthermore, the Duke Energy Registrants currently have EE riders in place to recover the cost of EE programs in North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky. Should the Duke Energy Registrants be required to invest in conservation measures that result in reduced sales from effective conservation, regulatory lag in adjusting rates for the impact of these measures could have a negative financial impact.
The Duke Energy Registrants future results may be impacted by changing customer expectations and demands including heightened emphasis on environmental, social and governance concerns.
Duke Energy’s outcomes are influenced by the expectations of our customers and stakeholders. Those expectations are based on the core fundamentals of reliability and affordability but are also increasingly focused on our ability to meet rapidly changing demands for new and varied products, services and offerings. Additionally, the risks of global climate change continues to shape our customers’ sustainability goals and energy needs. Failure to meet those expectations or to adequately address the risks and external pressures from regulators, investors and other stakeholders may impact favorable outcomes in future rate cases and the results of operations for the Duke Energy Registrants.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ operating results may fluctuate on a seasonal and quarterly basis and can be negatively affected by changes in weather conditions and severe weather, including extreme weather conditions associated with climate change.
Electric power generation and natural gas distribution are generally seasonal businesses. In most parts of the U.S., the demand for power peaks during the warmer summer months, with market prices also typically peaking at that time. In other areas, demand for power peaks during the winter. Demand for natural gas peaks during the winter months. Further, extreme weather conditions such as hurricanes, droughts, heat waves, winter storms and severe weather associated with climate change could cause these seasonal fluctuations to be more pronounced. As a result, the overall operating results of the Duke Energy Registrants’ businesses may fluctuate substantially on a seasonal and quarterly basis and thus make period-to-period comparison less relevant.
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RISK FACTORS
Sustained severe drought conditions could impact generation by hydroelectric plants, as well as fossil and nuclear plant operations, as these facilities use water for cooling purposes and for the operation of environmental compliance equipment. Furthermore, destruction caused by severe weather events, such as hurricanes, flooding, tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, snow and ice storms, can result in lost operating revenues due to outages, property damage, including downed transmission and distribution lines, and additional and unexpected expenses to mitigate storm damage. The cost of storm restoration efforts may not be fully recoverable through the regulatory process.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ sales may decrease if they are unable to gain adequate, reliable and affordable access to transmission assets.
The Duke Energy Registrants depend on transmission and distribution facilities owned and operated by utilities and other energy companies to deliver electricity sold to the wholesale market. The FERC’s power transmission regulations require wholesale electric transmission services to be offered on an open-access, non-discriminatory basis. If transmission is disrupted, or if transmission capacity is inadequate, the Duke Energy Registrants’ ability to sell and deliver products may be hindered.
The different regional power markets have changing regulatory structures, which could affect growth and performance in these regions. In addition, the ISOs who oversee the transmission systems in regional power markets have imposed in the past, and may impose in the future, price limitations and other mechanisms to address volatility in the power markets. These types of price limitations and other mechanisms may adversely impact the profitability of the Duke Energy Registrants’ wholesale power marketing business.
The availability of adequate interstate pipeline transportation capacity and natural gas supply may decrease.
The Duke Energy Registrants purchase almost all of their natural gas supply from interstate sources that must be transported to the applicable service territories. Interstate pipeline companies transport the natural gas to the Duke Energy Registrants' systems under firm service agreements that are designed to meet the requirements of their core markets. A significant disruption to interstate pipelines capacity or reduction in natural gas supply due to events including, but not limited to, operational failures or disruptions, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, freeze off of natural gas wells, terrorist or cyberattacks or other acts of war or legislative or regulatory actions or requirements, including remediation related to integrity inspections, could reduce the normal interstate supply of natural gas and thereby reduce earnings. Moreover, if additional natural gas infrastructure, including, but not limited to, exploration and drilling rigs and platforms, processing and gathering systems, offshore pipelines, interstate pipelines and storage, cannot be built at a pace that meets demand, then growth opportunities could be limited.
Fluctuations in commodity prices or availability may adversely affect various aspects of the Duke Energy Registrants’ operations as well as their results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
The Duke Energy Registrants are exposed to the effects of market fluctuations in the price of natural gas, coal, fuel oil, nuclear fuel, electricity and other energy-related commodities as a result of their ownership of energy-related assets. Fuel costs are recovered primarily through cost-recovery clauses, subject to the approval of state utility commissions.
Additionally, the Duke Energy Registrants are exposed to risk that counterparties will not be able to fulfill their obligations. Disruption in the delivery of fuel, including disruptions as a result of, among other things, bankruptcies, transportation delays, weather, labor relations, force majeure events or environmental regulations affecting any of these fuel suppliers, could limit the Duke Energy Registrants' ability to operate their facilities. Should counterparties fail to perform, the Duke Energy Registrants might be forced to replace the underlying commitment at prevailing market prices possibly resulting in losses in addition to the amounts, if any, already paid to the counterparties.
Certain of the Duke Energy Registrants’ hedge agreements may result in the receipt of, or posting of, collateral with counterparties, depending on the daily market-based calculation of financial exposure of the derivative positions. Fluctuations in commodity prices that lead to the return of collateral received and/or the posting of collateral with counterparties could negatively impact liquidity. Downgrades in the Duke Energy Registrants’ credit ratings could lead to additional collateral posting requirements. The Duke Energy Registrants continually monitor derivative positions in relation to market price activity.
Cyberattacks and data security breaches could adversely affect the Duke Energy Registrants' businesses.
Cybersecurity risks have increased in recent years as a result of the proliferation of new technologies and the increased sophistication, magnitude and frequency of cyberattacks and data security breaches. Duke Energy relies on the continued operation of sophisticated digital information technology systems and network infrastructure, which are part of an interconnected regional grid. Additionally, connectivity to the internet continues to increase through grid modernization and other operational excellence initiatives. Because of the critical nature of the infrastructure, increased connectivity to the internet and technology systems’ inherent vulnerability to disability or failures due to hacking, viruses, acts of war or terrorism or other types of data security breaches, the Duke Energy Registrants face a heightened risk of cyberattack from foreign or domestic sources and have been subject, and will likely continue to be subject, to attempts to gain unauthorized access to information and/or information systems or to disrupt utility operations through computer viruses and phishing attempts either directly or indirectly through its material vendors or related third parties. In the event of a significant cybersecurity breach on either the Duke Energy Registrants or with one of our material vendors or related third parties, the Duke Energy Registrants could (i) have business operations disrupted, including the disruption of the operation of our assets and the power grid, theft of confidential company, employee, retiree, shareholder, vendor or customer information, and general business systems and process interruption or compromise, including preventing the Duke Energy Registrants from servicing customers, collecting revenues or the recording, processing and/or reporting financial information correctly, (ii) experience substantial loss of revenues, repair and restoration costs, penalties and costs for lack of compliance with relevant regulations, implementation costs for additional security measures to avert future cyberattacks and other financial loss and (iii) be subject to increased regulation, litigation and reputational damage. While Duke Energy maintains insurance relating to cybersecurity events, such insurance is subject to a number of exclusions and may be insufficient to offset any losses, costs or damage experienced. Also, the market for cybersecurity insurance is relatively new and coverage available for cybersecurity events is evolving as the industry matures.
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RISK FACTORS
The Duke Energy Registrants are subject to standards enacted by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and enforced by FERC regarding protection of the physical and cyber security of critical infrastructure assets required for operating North America's bulk electric system. The Duke Energy Registrants are also subject to regulations set by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regarding the protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks required for the operation of nuclear power plants. While the Duke Energy Registrants believe they are in compliance with such standards and regulations, the Duke Energy Registrants have from time to time been, and may in the future be, found to be in violation of such standards and regulations. In addition, compliance with or changes in the applicable standards and regulations may subject the Duke Energy Registrants to higher operating costs and/or increased capital expenditures as well as substantial fines for non-compliance.
Duke Energy Ohio’s and Duke Energy Indiana’s membership in an RTO presents risks that could have a material adverse effect on their results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
The rules governing the various regional power markets may change, which could affect Duke Energy Ohio’s and Duke Energy Indiana’s costs and/or revenues. To the degree Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana incur significant additional fees and increased costs to participate in an RTO, their results of operations may be impacted. Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana may be allocated a portion of the cost of transmission facilities built by others due to changes in RTO transmission rate design. Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana may be required to expand their transmission system according to decisions made by an RTO rather than their own internal planning process. In addition, RTOs have been developing rules associated with the allocation and methodology of assigning costs associated with improved transmission reliability, reduced transmission congestion and firm transmission rights that may have a financial impact on the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana.
As members of an RTO, Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana are subject to certain additional risks, including those associated with the allocation among RTO members, of losses caused by unreimbursed defaults of other participants in the RTO markets and those associated with complaint cases filed against an RTO that may seek refunds of revenues previously earned by RTO members.
The Duke Energy Registrants may not recover costs incurred to begin construction on projects that are canceled.
Duke Energy’s long-term strategy requires the construction of new projects, either wholly owned or partially owned, which involve a number of risks, including construction delays, nonperformance by equipment and other third-party suppliers, and increases in equipment and labor costs. To limit the risks of these construction projects, the Duke Energy Registrants enter into equipment purchase orders and construction contracts and incur engineering and design service costs in advance of receiving necessary regulatory approvals and/or siting or environmental permits. If any of these projects are canceled for any reason, including failure to receive necessary regulatory approvals and/or siting or environmental permits, significant cancellation penalties under the equipment purchase orders and construction contracts could occur. In addition, if any construction work or investments have been recorded as an asset, an impairment may need to be recorded in the event the project is canceled.
The Duke Energy Registrants are subject to risks associated with their ability to obtain adequate insurance at acceptable costs.
The financial condition of some insurance companies, actual or threatened physical or cyberattacks, and natural disasters, among other things, could have disruptive effects on insurance markets. The availability of insurance covering risks that the Duke Energy Registrants and their respective competitors typically insure against may decrease, and the insurance that the Duke Energy Registrants are able to obtain may have higher deductibles, higher premiums, and more restrictive policy terms. Further, the insurance policies may not cover all of the potential exposures or the actual amount of loss incurred. Any losses not covered by insurance, or any increases in the cost of applicable insurance, could adversely affect the results of operations, financial position or cash flows of the affected Duke Energy Registrant.
NUCLEAR GENERATION RISKS
Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida may incur substantial costs and liabilities due to their ownership and operation of nuclear generating facilities.
Ownership interests in and operation of nuclear stations by Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida subject them to various risks. These risks include, among other things: the potential harmful effects on the environment and human health resulting from the current or past operation of nuclear facilities and the storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials; limitations on the amounts and types of insurance commercially available to cover losses that might arise in connection with nuclear operations; and uncertainties with respect to the technological and financial aspects of decommissioning nuclear plants at the end of their licensed lives.
Ownership and operation of nuclear generation facilities requires compliance with licensing and safety-related requirements imposed by the NRC. In the event of non-compliance, the NRC may increase regulatory oversight, impose fines or shut down a unit depending upon its assessment of the severity of the situation. Revised security and safety requirements promulgated by the NRC, which could be prompted by, among other things, events within or outside of the control of Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida, such as a serious nuclear incident at a facility owned by a third party, could necessitate substantial capital and other expenditures, as well as assessments to cover third-party losses. In addition, if a serious nuclear incident were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations, financial position, cash flows and reputation of the Duke Energy Registrants.
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RISK FACTORS
LIQUIDITY, CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS AND COMMON STOCK RISKS
The Duke Energy Registrants rely on access to short-term borrowings and longer-term debt and equity markets to finance their capital requirements and support their liquidity needs. Access to those markets can be adversely affected by a number of conditions, many of which are beyond the Duke Energy Registrants’ control.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ businesses are significantly financed through issuances of debt and equity. The maturity and repayment profile of debt used to finance investments often does not correlate to cash flows from their assets. Accordingly, as a source of liquidity for capital requirements not satisfied by the cash flows from their operations and to fund investments originally financed through debt instruments with disparate maturities, the Duke Energy Registrants rely on access to short-term money markets as well as longer-term capital markets. The Subsidiary Registrants also rely on access to short-term intercompany borrowings. If the Duke Energy Registrants are not able to access debt or equity at competitive rates or at all, the ability to finance their operations and implement their strategy and business plan as scheduled could be adversely affected. An inability to access debt and equity may limit the Duke Energy Registrants’ ability to pursue improvements or acquisitions that they may otherwise rely on for future growth.
Market disruptions may increase the cost of borrowing or adversely affect the ability to access one or more financial markets. Such disruptions could include: economic downturns, the bankruptcy of an unrelated energy company, unfavorable capital market conditions, market prices for electricity and natural gas, actual or threatened terrorist attacks, or the overall health of the energy industry. The availability of credit under Duke Energy’s Master Credit Facility depends upon the ability of the banks providing commitments under the facility to provide funds when their obligations to do so arise. Systematic risk of the banking system and the financial markets could prevent a bank from meeting its obligations under the facility agreement.
Duke Energy maintains a revolving credit facility to provide backup for its commercial paper program and letters of credit to support variable rate demand tax-exempt bonds that may be put to the Duke Energy Registrant issuer at the option of the holder. The facility includes borrowing sublimits for the Duke Energy Registrants, each of whom is a party to the credit facility, and financial covenants that limit the amount of debt that can be outstanding as a percentage of the total capital for the specific entity. Failure to maintain these covenants at a particular entity could preclude Duke Energy from issuing commercial paper or the Duke Energy Registrants from issuing letters of credit or borrowing under the Master Credit Facility.
The Duke Energy Registrants must meet credit quality standards and there is no assurance they will maintain investment grade credit ratings. If the Duke Energy Registrants are unable to maintain investment grade credit ratings, they would be required under credit agreements to provide collateral in the form of letters of credit or cash, which may materially adversely affect their liquidity.
Each of the Duke Energy Registrants’ senior long-term debt issuances is currently rated investment grade by various rating agencies. The Duke Energy Registrants cannot ensure their senior long-term debt will be rated investment grade in the future.
If the rating agencies were to rate the Duke Energy Registrants below investment grade, borrowing costs would increase, perhaps significantly. In addition, the potential pool of investors and funding sources would likely decrease. Further, if the short-term debt rating were to fall, access to the commercial paper market could be significantly limited.
A downgrade below investment grade could also require the posting of additional collateral in the form of letters of credit or cash under various credit, commodity and capacity agreements and trigger termination clauses in some interest rate derivative agreements, which would require cash payments. All of these events would likely reduce the Duke Energy Registrants’ liquidity and profitability and could have a material effect on their results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Non-compliance with debt covenants or conditions could adversely affect the Duke Energy Registrants’ ability to execute future borrowings.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ debt and credit agreements contain various financial and other covenants. Failure to meet those covenants beyond applicable grace periods could result in accelerated due dates and/or termination of the agreements.
Market performance and other changes may decrease the value of the NDTF investments of Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida, which then could require significant additional funding.
Ownership and operation of nuclear generation facilities also requires the maintenance of funded trusts that are intended to pay for the decommissioning costs of the respective nuclear power plants. The performance of the capital markets affects the values of the assets held in trust to satisfy these future obligations. Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida have significant obligations in this area and hold significant assets in these trusts. These assets are subject to market fluctuations and will yield uncertain returns, which may fall below projected rates of return. Although a number of factors impact funding requirements, a decline in the market value of the assets may increase the funding requirements of the obligations for decommissioning nuclear plants. If Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida are unable to successfully manage their NDTF assets, their results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be negatively affected.
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RISK FACTORS
Poor investment performance of the Duke Energy pension plan holdings and other factors impacting pension plan costs could unfavorably impact the Duke Energy Registrants’ liquidity and results of operations.
The costs of providing non-contributory defined benefit pension plans are dependent upon a number of factors, such as the rates of return on plan assets, discount rates, the level of interest rates used to measure the required minimum funding levels of the plans, future government regulation and required or voluntary contributions made to the plans. The Subsidiary Registrants are allocated their proportionate share of the cost and obligations related to these plans. Without sustained growth in the pension investments over time to increase the value of plan assets and, depending upon the other factors impacting costs as listed above, Duke Energy could be required to fund its plans with significant amounts of cash. Such cash funding obligations, and the Subsidiary Registrants’ proportionate share of such cash funding obligations, could have a material impact on the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Duke Energy is a holding company and depends on the cash flows from its subsidiaries to meet its financial obligations.
Because Duke Energy is a holding company with no operations or cash flows of its own, its ability to meet its financial obligations, including making interest and principal payments on outstanding indebtedness and to pay dividends on its common stock, is primarily dependent on the net income and cash flows of its subsidiaries and the ability of those subsidiaries to pay upstream dividends or to repay borrowed funds. Prior to funding Duke Energy, its subsidiaries have regulatory restrictions and financial obligations that must be satisfied. These subsidiaries are separate legal entities and have no obligation to provide Duke Energy with funds. In addition, Duke Energy may provide capital contributions or debt financing to its subsidiaries under certain circumstances, which would reduce the funds available to meet its financial obligations, including making interest and principal payments on outstanding indebtedness and to pay dividends on Duke Energy’s common stock.
GENERAL RISKS
The failure of Duke Energy information technology systems, or the failure to enhance existing information technology systems and implement new technology, could adversely affect the Duke Energy Registrants’ businesses.
Duke Energy’s operations are dependent upon the proper functioning of its internal systems, including the information technology systems that support our underlying business processes. Any significant failure or malfunction of such information technology systems may result in disruptions of our operations. In the ordinary course of business, we rely on information technology systems, including the internet and third-party hosted services, to support a variety of business processes and activities and to store sensitive data, including (i) intellectual property, (ii) proprietary business information, (iii) personally identifiable information of our customers, employees, retirees and shareholders and (iv) data with respect to invoicing and the collection of payments, accounting, procurement, and supply chain activities. Our information technology systems are dependent upon global communications and cloud service providers, as well as their respective vendors, many of whom have at some point experienced significant system failures and outages in the past and may experience such failures and outages in the future. These providers’ systems are susceptible to cybersecurity and data breaches, outages from fire, floods, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins and similar events. Failure to prevent or mitigate data loss from system failures or outages could materially affect the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of the Duke Energy Registrants.
In addition to maintaining our current information technology systems, Duke Energy believes the digital transformation of its business is key to driving internal efficiencies as well as providing additional capabilities to customers. Duke Energy’s information technology systems are critical to cost-effective, reliable daily operations and our ability to effectively serve our customers. We expect our customers to continue to demand more sophisticated technology-driven solutions and we must enhance or replace our information technology systems in response. This involves significant development and implementation costs to keep pace with changing technologies and customer demand. If we fail to successfully implement critical technology, or if it does not provide the anticipated benefits or meet customer demands, such failure could materially adversely affect our business strategy as well as impact the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of the Duke Energy Registrants.
Potential terrorist activities, or military or other actions, could adversely affect the Duke Energy Registrants’ businesses.
The continued threat of terrorism and the impact of retaliatory military and other action by the U.S. and its allies may lead to increased political, economic and financial market instability and volatility in prices for natural gas and oil, which may have material adverse effects in ways the Duke Energy Registrants cannot predict at this time. In addition, future acts of terrorism and possible reprisals as a consequence of action by the U.S. and its allies could be directed against companies operating in the U.S. Information technology systems, transmission and distribution and generation facilities such as nuclear plants could be potential targets of terrorist activities or harmful activities by individuals or groups that could have a material adverse effect on Duke Energy Registrants' businesses. In particular, the Duke Energy Registrants may experience increased capital and operating costs to implement increased security for their information technology systems, transmission and distribution and generation facilities, including nuclear power plants under the NRC’s design basis threat requirements. These increased costs could include additional physical plant security and security personnel or additional capability following a terrorist incident.
Failure to attract and retain an appropriately qualified workforce could unfavorably impact the Duke Energy Registrants’ results of operations.
Certain events, such as an aging workforce, mismatch of skill set or complement to future needs, or unavailability of contract resources may lead to operating challenges and increased costs. The challenges include lack of resources, loss of knowledge base and the lengthy time required for skill development. In this case, costs, including costs for contractors to replace employees, productivity costs and safety costs, may increase. Failure to hire and adequately train replacement employees, including the transfer of significant internal historical knowledge and expertise to new employees, or future availability and cost of contract labor may adversely affect the ability to manage and operate the business, especially considering the workforce needs associated with nuclear generation facilities and new skills required to operate a modernized, technology-enabled power grid. If the Duke Energy Registrants are unable to successfully attract and retain an appropriately qualified workforce, their results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be negatively affected.
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UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
34



PROPERTIES
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
The following table provides information related to the Electric Utilities and Infrastructure's generation stations as of December 31, 2020. The MW displayed in the table below are based on summer capacity. Ownership interest in all facilities is 100% unless otherwise indicated.
Owned MW
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacity
Duke Energy Carolinas
OconeeNuclearUraniumSC2,554 
McGuireNuclearUraniumNC2,316 
Catawba(a)
NuclearUraniumSC445 
Belews CreekFossilCoal/GasNC2,220 
MarshallFossilCoal/GasNC2,058 
J.E. Rogers FossilCoal/GasNC1,388 
Lincoln Combustion Turbine (CT)FossilGas/OilNC1,193 
AllenFossilCoalNC1,098 
Rockingham CTFossilGas/OilNC825 
W.S. Lee Combined Cycle (CC)(b)
FossilGasSC686 
Buck CCFossilGasNC668 
Dan River CCFossilGasNC662 
Mill Creek CTFossilGas/OilSC563 
W.S. LeeFossilGasSC170 
W.S. Lee CTFossilGas/OilSC84 
Clemson CHPFossilGasSC13 
Bad CreekHydroWaterSC1,440 
JocasseeHydroWaterSC780 
Cowans FordHydroWaterNC324 
KeoweeHydroWaterSC152 
Other small facilities (19 plants)HydroWaterNC/SC603 
Distributed generationRenewableSolarNC38 
Total Duke Energy Carolinas20,280 
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PROPERTIES
Owned MW
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacity
Duke Energy Progress
BrunswickNuclearUraniumNC1,870 
HarrisNuclearUraniumNC964 
RobinsonNuclearUraniumSC759 
RoxboroFossilCoalNC2,439 
Smith CCFossilGas/OilNC1,085 
H.F. Lee CCFossilGas/OilNC888 
Wayne County CTFossilGas/OilNC857 
Smith CTFossilGas/OilNC772 
MayoFossilCoalNC727 
L.V. Sutton CCFossilGas/OilNC607 
Asheville CCFossilGas/OilNC474 
Asheville CTFossilGas/OilNC320 
Darlington CTFossilGas/OilSC234 
Weatherspoon CTFossilGas/OilNC124 
L.V. Sutton CT (Black Start)FossilGas/OilNC78 
Blewett CTFossilOilNC52 
WaltersHydroWaterNC112 
Other small facilities (3)HydroWaterNC115 
Distributed generationRenewableSolarNC49 
Asheville – Rock Hill BatteryRenewableStorageNC
Total Duke Energy Progress12,533 
Owned MW
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacity
Duke Energy Florida
Hines CCFossilGas/OilFL2,054 
Citrus County CCFossilGasFL1,610 
Crystal RiverFossilCoalFL1,422 
Bartow CCFossilGas/OilFL1,169 
AncloteFossilGasFL1,013 
Intercession City CTFossilGas/OilFL951 
Osprey CCFossilGas/OilFL583 
DeBary CTFossilGas/OilFL559 
Tiger Bay CCFossilGas/OilFL200 
Bayboro CTFossilOilFL171 
Bartow CTFossilGas/OilFL168 
Suwannee River CTFossilGasFL149 
University of Florida CoGen CTFossilGasFL43 
Distributed generationRenewableSolarFL195 
Total Duke Energy Florida10,287 
Owned MW
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacity
Duke Energy Ohio
East BendFossilCoalKY600 
Woodsdale CTFossilGas/PropaneOH476 
Total Duke Energy Ohio1,076 
36



PROPERTIES
Owned MW
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacity
Duke Energy Indiana
Gibson(c)
FossilCoalIN2,822 
Cayuga(d)
FossilCoal/OilIN1,005 
EdwardsportFossilCoalIN595 
Madison CTFossilGasOH566 
Wheatland CTFossilGasIN450 
Vermillion CT(e)
FossilGasIN360 
GallagherFossilCoalIN280 
Noblesville CCFossilGas/OilIN264 
Henry County CTFossilGas/OilIN129 
Cayuga CTFossilGas/OilIN86 
MarklandHydroWaterIN51 
Distributed generationRenewableSolarIN11 
Camp Atterbury BatteryRenewableStorageIN
Nabb BatteryRenewableStorageIN
Crane BatteryRenewableStorageIN
Total Duke Energy Indiana6,631 
Owned MW
Totals by TypeCapacity
Total Electric Utilities50,807 
Totals by Plant Type
Nuclear8,908 
Fossil38,010 
Hydro3,577 
Renewable312 
Total Electric Utilities50,807 
(a)Jointly owned with North Carolina Municipal Power Agency Number 1, NCEMC and PMPA. Duke Energy Carolinas' ownership is 19.25% of the facility.
(b)Jointly owned with NCEMC. Duke Energy Carolinas' ownership is 87.27% of the facility.
(c)Duke Energy Indiana owns and operates Gibson Station Units 1 through 4 and is a joint owner of unit 5 with WVPA and IMPA. Duke Energy Indiana operates unit 5 and owns 50.05%.
(d)Includes Cayuga Internal Combustion.
(e)Jointly owned with WVPA. Duke Energy Indiana's ownership is 62.5% of the facility.
The following table provides information related to Electric Utilities and Infrastructure's electric transmission and distribution properties as of December 31, 2020.
DukeDukeDukeDukeDuke
DukeEnergyEnergyEnergyEnergyEnergy
EnergyCarolinasProgressFloridaOhioIndiana
Electric Transmission Lines
Miles of 500 to 525 kilovolt (kV)1,100 600 300 200 — — 
Miles of 345 kV1,100 — — — 400 700 
Miles of 230 kV8,400 2,700 3,400 1,600 — 700 
Miles of 100 to 161 kV12,400 6,800 2,600 900 700 1,400 
Miles of 13 to 69 kV8,300 3,000 — 2,200 600 2,500 
Total conductor miles of electric transmission lines31,300 13,100 6,300 4,900 1,700 5,300 
Electric Distribution Lines
Miles of overhead lines173,500 66,600 46,400 25,100 13,300 22,100 
Miles of underground line108,900 40,400 31,800 21,100 6,200 9,400 
Total conductor miles of electric distribution lines282,400 107,000 78,200 46,200 19,500 31,500 
Number of electric transmission and distribution substations3,200 1,400 500 500 300 500 
Substantially all of Electric Utilities and Infrastructure's electric plant in service is mortgaged under indentures relating to Duke Energy Carolinas’, Duke Energy Progress', Duke Energy Florida's, Duke Energy Ohio’s and Duke Energy Indiana’s various series of First Mortgage Bonds.
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PROPERTIES
GAS UTILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure owns transmission pipelines and distribution mains that are generally underground, located near public streets and highways, or on property owned by others for which Duke Energy Ohio and Piedmont have obtained the necessary legal rights to place and operate facilities on such property located within the Gas Utilities and Infrastructure service territories. The following table provides information related to Gas Utilities and Infrastructure's natural gas distribution.
Duke
DukeEnergy
EnergyOhioPiedmont
Miles of natural gas distribution and transmission pipelines34,200 7,400 26,800 
Miles of natural gas service lines27,200 6,300 20,900 
COMMERCIAL RENEWABLES
The following table provides information related to Commercial Renewables' electric generation facilities as of December 31, 2020. The MW displayed in the table below are based on nameplate capacity.
Owned MWOwnership
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacityInterest (%)
Commercial Renewables – Wind
Los Vientos (five sites)RenewableWindTX465 51 %
Mesteno(a)
RenewableWindTX202 100 %
Sweetwater IVRenewableWindTX113 47 %
FrontierRenewableWindOK103 51 %
Top of the WorldRenewableWindWY102 51 %
NotreesRenewableWindTX78 51 %
Mesquite CreekRenewableWindTX54 26 %
Campbell HillRenewableWindWY50 51 %
IronwoodRenewableWindKS44 26 %
Sweetwater VRenewableWindTX38 47 %
North AlleghenyRenewableWindPA36 51 %
Laurel HillRenewableWindPA35 51 %
Cimarron IIRenewableWindKS34 26 %
Kit CarsonRenewableWindCO26 51 %
Silver SageRenewableWindWY21 51 %
Happy JackRenewableWindWY15 51 %
ShirleyRenewableWindWI10 51 %
Total Renewables – Wind1,426 
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PROPERTIES
Owned MWOwnership
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacityInterest (%)
Commercial Renewables – Solar
Holstein(a)
RenewableSolarTX200 100 %
Rambler(a)
RenewableSolarTX200 100 %
North Rosamond(a)
RenewableSolarCA150 100 %
Lapetus(a)
RenewableSolarTX100 100 %
Conetoe IIRenewableSolarNC80 100 %
Palmer(a)
RenewableSolarCO60 100 %
Seville I & IIRenewableSolarCA34 67 %
Rio Bravo I & IIRenewableSolarCA27 67 %
Wildwood I & IIRenewableSolarCA23 67 %
KelfordRenewableSolarNC22 100 %
DogwoodRenewableSolarNC20 100 %
Halifax AirportRenewableSolarNC20 100 %
PasquotankRenewableSolarNC20 100 %
ShawboroRenewableSolarNC20 100 %
CaprockRenewableSolarNM17 67 %
Creswell AlligoodRenewableSolarNC14 100 %
PumpjackRenewableSolarCA13 67 %
LongboatRenewableSolarCA13 67 %
Shoreham(a)
RenewableSolarNY13 51 %
Washington White PostRenewableSolarNC12 100 %
WhitakersRenewableSolarNC12 100 %
Highlander I & IIRenewableSolarCA11 51 %
Other small solar(a)
RenewableSolarVarious193 Various
Total Renewables – Solar1,274 
Owned MWOwnership
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacityInterest (%)
Commercial Renewables – Fuel Cells(a)
RenewableFuel CellVarious43 100 %
Total Renewables – Fuel Cells43 
Owned MWOwnership
FacilityPlant TypePrimary FuelLocationCapacityInterest (%)
Commercial Renewables – Energy Storage
Notrees Battery StorageRenewableStorageTX18 51 %
Beckjord Battery StorageRenewableStorageOH100 %
Total Renewables – Energy Storage20 
Owned MW
Totals by TypeCapacity
Wind1,426 
Solar1,274 
Fuel Cells43 
Energy Storage20 
Total Commercial Renewables(b)
2,763 
(a)     Certain projects, including projects within Other small solar, are in tax-equity structures where investors have differing interests in the project's economic attributes. 100% of the tax-equity project's capacity is included in the table above.
(b)    Net proportion of MW capacity in operation is 3,937, which represents the amount managed or owned by Duke Energy.
OTHER
Duke Energy owns approximately 8 million square feet and leases approximately 2 million square feet of corporate, regional and district office space spread throughout its service territories.
39




LEGAL PROCEEDINGS AND MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For information regarding legal proceedings, including regulatory and environmental matters, see Note 3, “Regulatory Matters,” and Note 4, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
MTBE Litigation
On December 15, 2017, the state of Maryland filed suit in Baltimore City Circuit Court against Duke Energy Merchants and other defendants alleging contamination of state waters by MTBE leaking from gasoline storage tanks. MTBE is a gasoline additive intended to increase the oxygen levels in gasoline and make it burn cleaner. The case was removed from Baltimore City Circuit Court to federal District Court. Initial motions to dismiss filed by the defendants were denied by the court on September 4, 2019, and the matter is now in discovery. On December 18, 2020, the plaintiff and defendants selected 50 focus sites, none of which have any ties to Duke Energy Merchants, and discovery is likely to be specific to those sites. Duke Energy cannot predict the outcome of this matter.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
This is not applicable for any of the Duke Energy Registrants.
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SECURITIES INFORMATION
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The common stock of Duke Energy is listed and traded on the NYSE (ticker symbol DUK). As of January 31, 2021, there were 136,857 Duke Energy common stockholders of record. For information on dividends, see the "Dividend Payments" section of Management's Discussion and Analysis.
There is no market for the common equity securities of the Subsidiary Registrants, all of which are directly or indirectly owned by Duke Energy. See Note 1, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information on the 2021 sale of a minority interest in Duke Energy Indiana.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
See Item 12 of Part III within this Annual Report for information regarding Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities for Fourth Quarter 2020
There were no repurchases of equity securities during the fourth quarter of 2020.
Stock Performance Graph
The following performance graph compares the cumulative TSR from Duke Energy Corporation common stock, as compared with the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index (S&P 500) and the Philadelphia Utility Index for the past five years. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2015, in Duke Energy common stock, in the S&P 500 and in the Philadelphia Utility Index and that all dividends were reinvested. The stockholder return shown below for the five-year historical period may not be indicative of future performance.
duk-20201231_g5.jpg
NYSE CEO Certification
Duke Energy has filed the certification of its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
This is not applicable for any of the Duke Energy Registrants.
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Management’s Discussion and Analysis includes financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP in the U.S., as well as certain non-GAAP financial measures such as adjusted earnings and adjusted EPS discussed below. Generally, a non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of financial performance, financial position or cash flows that excludes (or includes) amounts that are included in (or excluded from) the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. The non-GAAP financial measures should be viewed as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP. Non-GAAP measures as presented herein may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.
The following combined Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is separately filed by Duke Energy Corporation and its subsidiaries. Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Progress Energy, Inc., Duke Energy Progress, LLC, Duke Energy Florida, LLC, Duke Energy Ohio, Inc., Duke Energy Indiana, LLC and Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc. However, none of the registrants make any representation as to information related solely to Duke Energy or the subsidiary registrants of Duke Energy other than itself.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," in Duke Energy's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 20, 2020, for a discussion of variance drivers for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to December 31, 2018.
DUKE ENERGY
Duke Energy is an energy company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. Duke Energy operates in the U.S. primarily through its wholly owned subsidiaries, Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Indiana and Piedmont. When discussing Duke Energy’s consolidated financial information, it necessarily includes the results of the Subsidiary Registrants, which along with Duke Energy, are collectively referred to as the Duke Energy Registrants.
Executive Overview
At Duke Energy the fundamentals of our business are strong and allow us to deliver growth in earnings and dividends in a low-risk, predictable and transparent way. In 2020, we met our near-term financial commitments and continued to provide safe and reliable service while managing the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
In early 2021, we continued to position the company for sustainable long-term growth, executing an important coal ash settlement agreement in North Carolina and announcing the $2 billion sale of a minority interest in Duke Energy Indiana, providing a source of efficient capital at an attractive valuation. We remain focused on a business portfolio that will deliver a reliable and growing dividend with 2020 representing the 94th consecutive year Duke Energy paid a cash dividend on its common stock. With these recent announcements, we also increased our long-term adjusted EPS growth rate to 5% to 7% through 2025. This growth is supported by our $59 billion capital plan from 2021 to 2025, clean energy investments that benefit our customers, timely cost-recovery mechanisms in most jurisdictions and our ability to effectively manage our cost structure.
Financial Results
duk-20201231_g6.jpgduk-20201231_g7.jpg
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY
(a)See Results of Operations below for Duke Energy’s definition of adjusted earnings and adjusted EPS as well as a reconciliation of this non-GAAP financial measure to net income available to Duke Energy and net income available to Duke Energy per basic share.
Duke Energy's 2020 Net Income Available to Duke Energy Corporation (GAAP Reported Earnings) were impacted by: regulatory settlements related to coal ash cost recovery in Electric Utilities and Infrastructure; the cancellation of the ACP pipeline in Gas Utilities and Infrastructure; and growth in project investments in Commercial Renewables. See “Results of Operations” below for a detailed discussion of the consolidated results of operations and a detailed discussion of financial results for each of Duke Energy’s reportable business segments, as well as Other.
2020 Areas of Focus and Accomplishments
Clean Energy Transformation. Our industry has been undergoing an incredible transformation and 2020 was a milestone year for our company where we articulated a clear vision for the future and outlined investments to achieve a clean energy future for our customers. We continue to transform the customer experience by generating cleaner energy, modernizing the energy grid, and expanding natural gas infrastructure.
Generating Cleaner Energy
In October 2020, we held our first-ever Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Day for investors, successfully outlining our climate strategy and highlighting our strong progress to date in reducing carbon (a greater than 40% reduction from 2005) and our commitment to do more (at least 50% reduction by 2030 and net-zero by 2050). In the Carolinas, we participated in extensive stakeholder processes focused on carbon reduction and regulatory reform and filed comprehensive IRP consistent with that strategy. Our planned coal retirements and transition to cleaner energy sources in the Carolinas are some of the largest in the industry. We also committed to an all-electric light-duty fleet and 50% of all medium- and heavy-duty vehicles by 2030 – a pledge that also leads our industry. Our commitment for 2030 includes retiring plants, operating our existing carbon-free resources and investing in renewables, our energy delivery system, and natural gas infrastructure. As we look beyond 2030, we will need additional tools to continue our progress. We will work actively to advocate for research and development of carbon-free, dispatchable resources. That includes longer-duration energy storage, advanced nuclear technologies, carbon capture and zero-carbon fuels.
Modernizing the Power Grid
Our grid improvement programs continue to be a key component of our growth strategy. Modernization of the electric grid, including smart meters, storm hardening, self-healing and targeted undergrounding, helps to ensure the system is better prepared for severe weather, improves the system's reliability and flexibility, and provides better information and services for customers. In 2020, 98% of our jurisdictions were equipped with smart meters and we remain on track to be fully deployed across all regions by the end of this year. We continue to expand our self-optimizing grid capabilities, and in 2020, smart, self-healing technologies helped to avoid more than 800,000 extended customer outages across our six-state electric service area, saving customers more than 1.8 million hours of lost outage time. Duke Energy also has a demonstrated track record of driving efficiencies and productivity into the business and we continue to leverage new technology, digital tools and data analytics across the business in response to a transforming landscape.
Expanding Natural Gas Infrastructure
In July 2020, Duke Energy and Dominion announced the cancellation of the ACP pipeline. Litigation risks and delays presented too much uncertainty on our ability to economically complete the project on schedule to meet our customers’ needs. Additionally, Dominion reached a decision to exit their natural gas transmission business, further impeding our ability to consider ongoing investment in the project. The Company remains committed to pursuing natural gas infrastructure investments and continues to explore additional resources in eastern North Carolina for the Piedmont system and securing more transport capacity to support power generation. Construction is expected to be completed this year on a liquefied natural gas facility in Robeson County, North Carolina, on property Piedmont owns. This investment will help Piedmont provide a reliable gas supply to customers during peak usage periods and protect customers from price volatility when there is a higher-than-normal demand for natural gas. In the fall of 2020, recognizing the continued importance of natural gas to our plans, we announced a net-zero methane emission goal by 2030 related to our gas distribution business, as well as our commitment to lead on reduction of upstream methane emissions through work with our natural gas supply chain.
Constructive Regulatory and Legislative Outcomes. One of our long-term strategic goals is to achieve modernized regulatory constructs in our jurisdictions. Modernized constructs provide benefits, which include improved earnings and cash flows through more timely recovery of investments, as well as stable pricing for customers.
In 2020, we conducted the bulk of proceedings related to our North Carolina rate cases for both Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress and achieved a partial settlement with the North Carolina Public Staff and ten other intervening parties. In January 2021, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress reached an important settlement agreement, which subject to NCUC approval, resolves historical coal ash prudence and cost recovery issues and provides clarity on coal ash cost recovery for the next decade. In 2020, we also achieved constructive rate case outcomes in Indiana (our first rate base request in 15 years) and Kentucky (electric). We have a multiyear rate plan in Florida and in January 2021 reached a constructive settlement agreement with key consumer groups, subject to FPSC approval, to bring additional certainty to rates through 2024, In addition, grid investment riders in the Midwest enable more timely cost recovery and earnings growth.
Customer Satisfaction. Duke Energy continues to transform the customer experience through our use of customer data to better inform operational priorities and performance levels. This data-driven approach allows us to identify the investments that are the most important to the customer experience. Our work has been recognized by our customers with external measures showing Duke Energy is improving customer satisfaction at a rate greater than the utility industry. Additionally, in 2020, we surpassed our internal target that measures customer satisfaction by approximately 14%.
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY
Operational Excellence, Safety and Reliability. The reliable and safe operation of our power plants, electric distribution system and natural gas infrastructure in our communities is foundational to our customers, our financial results and our credibility with stakeholders. Our regulated generation fleet and nuclear sites had strong performance throughout the year and our electric distribution system performed well. The safety of our workforce is a core value. Our employees delivered strong safety results in 2020, and we are at or near the top of our industry. Additionally, the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was incredibly active and marked the fifth consecutive year of above-average damaging storms. Our ability to effectively handle all facets of the 2020 storm response efforts, including navigating COVID-19 protocols, is a testament to our team’s extensive preparation and coordination, applying lessons learned from previous storms, and to on-the-ground management throughout the restoration efforts.
Leading Through COVID-19. COVID-19 impacted all that we accomplished in 2020 and demonstrated our resiliency and agility:
As the pandemic spread, stay-at-home orders coupled with recessionary economic conditions caused overall retail electric sales to decline by approximately 2%. To offset this challenge, as well as mild weather and other COVID-related costs, we successfully achieved the high end of our goal of $400 million to $450 million of broad-based O&M reductions and other mitigating actions. The Company’s results were within its adjusted EPS guidance range and we expect to sustain approximately $200 million of the 2020 O&M cost mitigation into 2021 forward.
Duke Energy kept electricity and gas flowing while voluntarily making significant accommodations for our customers. We led the way in our sector nationally, suspending all nonpay disconnects in all jurisdictions and waiving late payment fees and other fees until the national state of emergency was lifted. In the fall, we began returning to normal business practices, ensuring diligent communication with our customers and providing flexible payment arrangements.
We ensured the physical safety of our workers and provided support for our employees. As cases spiked nationally, we deployed COVID-19 safety protocols for our front-line essential workers and moved 18,000 colleagues to remote work. Our COVID-19 Case Management Team managed exposures of our workforce and IT ensured our networks could handle the remote work while strengthening cyber protection. Under our COVID-19 protocols, our front-line employees completed 150 fossil and nuclear outages, executed large major projects, restored service from storms and hurricanes, and managed high-water events. Overall, our operations continued, and our team completed their work with excellence.
Duke Energy Objectives – 2021 and Beyond
Duke Energy will continue to deliver exceptional value to customers, be an integral part of the communities in which we do business and provide attractive returns to investors. We have an achievable, long-term strategy in place, and it is producing tangible results, yet the industry in which we operate is becoming more and more dynamic. We are adjusting, where necessary, and accelerating our focus in key areas to ensure the company is well positioned to be successful for many decades into the future. As we look ahead to 2021, our plans include:
Continuing to place the customer at the center of all that we do, which includes providing customized products and solutions
Strengthening our relationships with all our vast stakeholders in the communities in which we operate and invest
Generating cleaner energy and working to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 and net zero methane emissions by 2030
Modernizing and strengthening a green-enabled energy grid
Expanding our natural gas infrastructure
Maintaining the safety of our communities and employees
Deploying digital tools across our business
Matters Impacting Future Results
The matters discussed herein could materially impact the future operating results, financial condition and cash flows of the Duke Energy Registrants and Business Segments.
Regulatory Matters
Coal Ash Costs
As a result of the NCDEQ settlement on December 31, 2019, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress agreed to excavate seven of the nine remaining coal ash basins in North Carolina with ash moved to on-site lined landfills. At the two remaining basins, uncapped basin ash will be excavated and moved to lined landfills. The majority of spend is expected to occur over the next 15-20 years. In January 2021, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress reached a settlement agreement on recovery of coal ash costs as outlined in Note 3, "Regulatory Matters," which is subject to review and approval of the NCUC. The company agreed not to seek recovery of approximately $1 billion of deferred coal ash expenditures and Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress took a charge of approximately $500 million each.
In 2019, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress received orders from the PSCSC denying recovery of certain coal ash costs. Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress have appealed these decisions to the South Carolina Supreme Court and those appeals are pending. An order from regulatory or judicial authorities that rejects our proposed settlement or disallows recovery of costs related to closure of these ash basins could have an adverse impact on future results.
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY
Duke Energy Indiana has interpreted the CCR rule to identify the coal ash basin sites impacted and has assessed the amounts of coal ash subject to the rule and a method of compliance. In 2020, the Hoosier Environmental Council filed a petition challenging the Indiana Department of Environmental Management's partial approval of Duke Energy Indiana’s ash pond closure plans. Interpretation of the requirements of the CCR rule is subject to further legal challenges and regulatory approvals, which could result in additional ash basin closure requirements, higher costs of compliance and greater AROs. Additionally, Duke Energy Indiana has retired facilities that are not subject to the CCR rule. Duke Energy Indiana may incur costs at these facilities to comply with environmental regulations or to mitigate risks associated with on-site storage of coal ash.
Storm Costs
Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida’s service territories were impacted by several named storms in 2018. Hurricane Florence, Hurricane Michael and Winter Storm Diego caused flooding, extensive damage and widespread power outages to the service territories of Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress. Duke Energy Florida’s service territory was also impacted by Hurricane Michael, a Category 5 hurricane and the most powerful storm to hit the Florida Panhandle in recorded history. In September 2019, Hurricane Dorian impacted Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida's service territories. In 2020, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress reached partial settlements in the 2019 North Carolina rates cases by filing a petition to securitize deferred storm costs, which is subject to review and approval of the NCUC. In January 2021, Duke Energy Florida filed a settlement agreement with the FPSC, which if approved, allows recovery of the remaining storm cost balance for hurricanes Michael and Dorian. An order from regulatory authorities disallowing the deferral and future recovery of storm restoration costs could have an adverse impact.
Grid Improvement Costs
Duke Energy Carolinas received an order from the NCUC in 2018, which denied the Grid Rider Stipulation and deferral treatment of grid improvement costs. Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress have petitioned for deferral of future grid improvement costs in their 2019 rate cases. Partial settlements filed with the NCUC in July 2020 included the allowance for deferral for certain grid projects placed in service from June 2020 through December 2022. There could be adverse impacts if grid improvement costs are not ultimately approved for recovery and/or deferral treatment.
Rate Cases
In 2019, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress filed general rate cases with the NCUC. Several partial settlement agreements have been filed with the NCUC and are awaiting approval. The outcome of these rate cases could have a material impact.
MGP
The PUCO has issued an order authorizing recovery of MGP costs at certain sites in Ohio with a deadline to complete the MGP environmental investigation and remediation work prior to December 31, 2016. This deadline was subsequently extended to December 31, 2019. Duke Energy Ohio has filed for a request for extension of the deadline. A hearing on that request has not been scheduled. Disallowance of costs incurred, failure to complete the work by the deadline or failure to obtain an extension from the PUCO could result in an adverse impact.
For additional information, see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters.”
Sale of Minority Interest in Duke Energy Indiana
In January 2021, Duke Energy entered into a definitive agreement providing for the sale of a 19.9% minority interest in Duke Energy Indiana with an affiliate of GIC, Singapore's sovereign wealth fund. The sale is subject to the satisfaction of certain customary conditions described in the investment agreement, including receipt of the approval of the FERC and completion of review by the Committee on Foreign Investments in the United States. Failure to obtain related approvals or satisfy the conditions in the investment agreement could result in the termination of the transaction and could result in an adverse impact. For additional information, see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.”
Commercial Renewables
Duke Energy continues to monitor recoverability of renewable merchant plants located in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas West market and PJM, due to declining market pricing and declining long-term forecasted energy prices, primarily driven by lower forecasted natural gas prices. Based on the most recent recoverability test, the carrying value approximated the aggregate estimated future undiscounted cash flows for the assets under review. A continued decline in energy market pricing would likely result in a future impairment. Impairment of these assets could result in adverse impacts. For additional information, see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Property, Plant and Equipment."
In February 2021, a severe winter storm impacted certain Commercial Renewables assets in Texas. Extreme weather conditions limited the ability for these solar and wind facilities to generate and sell electricity into the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market. Both lost revenues and higher than expected purchased power costs are expected to negatively impact the operating results of these generating units. The estimated financial impact of the storm is expected to have a material impact on the Commercial Renewables segment's 2021 operating results. See Note 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Subsequent Events."
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY
COVID-19
Duke Energy cannot predict the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact its results of operations, financial position and cash flows in the future. Duke Energy will continue to actively monitor the impacts of COVID-19 including the economic slowdown caused by business closures or by reduced operations of businesses and governmental agencies. The pandemic and resultant economic slowdown continues to cause an increase in certain costs, such as bad debt, and a reduction in the demand for energy. Duke Energy has mitigation plans in place to partially offset these impacts, and the ability to execute these plans is critical to preserving future financial results.The Company is in the process of reviewing the long-term real estate strategy due to a potential change of in-office work policies after the COVID-19 pandemic. The plan may result in a reduction of physical work space which could create accounting impacts starting in 2021. Accounting impacts may include reassessments of lease terms and lease modifications which could result in termination penalties, as well as, asset impairments on property, plant and equipment. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for discussion of risks associated with COVID-19 and Liquidity and Capital Resources within this section for a discussion of liquidity impacts of COVID-19.

Within this Item 7, see Liquidity and Capital Resources for a discussion on risks associated with the Tax Act.
Results of Operations
Non-GAAP Measures
Management evaluates financial performance in part based on non-GAAP financial measures, including adjusted earnings and adjusted EPS. These items represent income from continuing operations available to Duke Energy common stockholders in dollar and per-share amounts, adjusted for the dollar and per-share impact of special items. As discussed below, special items include certain charges and credits, which management believes are not indicative of Duke Energy's ongoing performance. Management believes the presentation of adjusted earnings and adjusted EPS provides useful information to investors, as it provides them with an additional relevant comparison of Duke Energy’s performance across periods.
Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures for planning and forecasting, and for reporting financial results to the Board of Directors, employees, stockholders, analysts and investors. Adjusted EPS is also used as a basis for employee incentive bonuses. The most directly comparable GAAP measures for adjusted earnings and adjusted EPS are GAAP Reported Earnings and EPS Available to Duke Energy Corporation common stockholders (GAAP Reported EPS), respectively.
Special items included in the periods presented include the following, which management believes do not reflect ongoing costs:
Gas Pipeline Investments represents costs related to the cancellation of the ACP pipeline and additional exit costs related to Constitution.
Regulatory Settlements represents charges related to Duke Energy Carolinas' and Duke Energy Progress' CCR Settlement Agreement and the partial settlements in the 2019 North Carolina rate cases.
Severance represents the reversal of 2018 costs, which were deferred as a result of a partial settlement in the Duke Energy Carolinas and the Duke Energy Progress 2019 North Carolina rate cases.
Impairment Charges represents a reduction of a prior year impairment at Citrus County CC and an OTTI on the remaining investment in Constitution.
Duke Energy’s adjusted earnings and adjusted EPS may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of another company because other companies may not calculate the measures in the same manner.
Reconciliation of GAAP Reported Amounts to Adjusted Amounts
The following table presents a reconciliation of adjusted earnings and adjusted EPS to the most directly comparable GAAP measures.
 Years Ended December 31,
20202019
(in millions, except per share amounts)EarningsEPSEarningsEPS
GAAP Reported Earnings/EPS$1,270 $1.72 $3,707 $5.06 
Adjustments to Reported:
Gas Pipeline Investments(a)
1,711 2.32 — — 
Regulatory Settlements(b)
872 1.19 — — 
Severance(c)
(75)(0.10)— — 
Impairment Charges(d)
  (8)(0.01)
Discontinued Operations(7)(0.01)0.01 
Adjusted Earnings/Adjusted EPS$3,771 $5.12 $3,706 $5.06 
(a)    Net of tax benefit of $399 million.
(b)    Net of tax benefit of $263 million.
(c)    Net of tax expense of $23 million.
(d)    Net of tax expense of $3 million.
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
GAAP Reported EPS was $1.72 for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $5.06 for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease in GAAP Reported Earnings/EPS was primarily due to the cancellation of the ACP pipeline and the CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC.
As discussed and shown in the table above, management also evaluates financial performance based on adjusted EPS. Duke Energy’s adjusted EPS was $5.12 for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $5.06 for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in Adjusted Earnings/Adjusted EPS was primarily due to positive rate case contributions, growth in wholesale, lower operations and maintenance expense in response to the pandemic and growth in Commercial Renewables, partially offset by higher depreciation expense from a growing asset base, impacts of the pandemic, mild weather and the loss of ACP earnings.
SEGMENT RESULTS
The remaining information presented in this discussion of results of operations is on a GAAP basis. Management evaluates segment performance based on segment income. Segment income is defined as income from continuing operations net of income attributable to noncontrolling interests and preferred stock dividends. Segment income includes intercompany revenues and expenses that are eliminated in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Duke Energy's segment structure includes the following segments: Electric Utilities and Infrastructure, Gas Utilities and Infrastructure and Commercial Renewables. The remainder of Duke Energy’s operations is presented as Other. See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Business Segments,” for additional information on Duke Energy’s segment structure.
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$21,720 $22,831 $(1,111)
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power6,128 6,904 (776)
Operations, maintenance and other5,391 5,497 (106)
Depreciation and amortization4,068 3,951 117 
Property and other taxes1,188 1,175 13 
Impairment charges971 (8)979 
Total operating expenses17,746 17,519 227 
Gains on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net11 10 
Operating Income3,985 5,313 (1,328)
Other Income and Expenses, net344 353 (9)
Interest Expense1,320 1,345 (25)
Income Before Income Taxes3,009 4,321 (1,312)
Income Tax Expense340 785 (445)
Segment Income$2,669 $3,536 $(867)
Duke Energy Carolinas GWh sales84,574 89,920 (5,346)
Duke Energy Progress GWh sales65,240 68,356 (3,116)
Duke Energy Florida GWh sales42,490 42,173 317 
Duke Energy Ohio GWh sales23,484 24,729 (1,245)
Duke Energy Indiana GWh sales30,528 31,886 (1,358)
Total Electric Utilities and Infrastructure GWh sales246,316 257,064 (10,748)
Net proportional MW capacity in operation50,419 50,070 349 
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure’s variance is primarily due to impairment charges and revenue reductions related to the CCR settlement agreement filed with the NCUC to resolve coal ash cost recovery issues, unfavorable weather and lower volumes driven by impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by base rate adjustments in various jurisdictions. The following is a detailed discussion of the variance drivers by line item.
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
an $826 million decrease in fuel revenues driven by lower sales volumes as well as an accelerated refund of fuel costs at Duke Energy Florida in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;
a $237 million decrease in wholesale revenue primarily driven by the CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021 and decreased volumes;
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MD&ASEGMENT RESULTS - ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
a $207 million decrease in retail sales, net of fuel revenues, due to unfavorable weather;
a $130 million decrease in rider revenues from EE programs;
a $44 million decrease in nuclear cost recovery rider revenue due to recovery of the Crystal River 3 uprate regulatory asset in 2019 at Duke Energy Florida; and
a $17 million decrease in weather-normal retail sale volumes driven by lower nonresidential customer demand due to impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Partially offset by:
a $214 million increase due to higher pricing from the Indiana retail rate case, net of rider revenues;
a $92 million increase in retail pricing due to Duke Energy Florida's base rate adjustments related to annual increases from the 2017 Settlement Agreement and the Solar Base Rate Adjustment; and
a $32 million increase due to higher pricing from South Carolina retail rate cases, net of a return of EDIT to customers.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $979 million increase in impairment charges primarily driven by the CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021;
a $117 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense primarily due to additional plant in service and new depreciation rates from the Indiana retail rate cases; and
a $13 million increase in property and other taxes primarily due to prior year property tax reassessments.
Partially offset by:
a $776 million decrease in fuel used in electric generation and purchased power primarily due to lower generation demand and lower fuel and natural gas costs; and
a $106 million decrease in operation, maintenance and other expense primarily driven by cost mitigation efforts.
Interest Expense. The variance was primarily due to lower interest rates on outstanding debt.
Income Tax Expense. The ETRs for the years ended December 31, 2020, and 2019, were 11.3% and 18.2%, respectively. The decrease in the ETR was primarily due to an increase in the amortization of excess deferred taxes.
48




MD&ASEGMENT RESULTS - GAS UTILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$1,748 $1,866 $(118)
Operating Expenses
Cost of natural gas460 627 (167)
Operation, maintenance and other430 446 (16)
Depreciation and amortization258 256 
Property and other taxes112 106 
Impairment charges7 — 
Total operating expenses1,267 1,435 (168)
Operating Income481 431 50 
Other Income and Expenses
Equity in (losses) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates(2,017)114 (2,131)
Other Income and Expenses, net56 26 30 
Total other income and expenses(1,961)140 (2,101)
Interest Expense135 117 18 
(Loss) Income Before Income Taxes(1,615)454 (2,069)
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense(349)22 (371)
Segment (Loss) Income$(1,266)$432 $(1,698)
Piedmont Local Distribution Company (LDC) throughput (Dth)490,071,039 511,243,774 (21,172,735)
Duke Energy Midwest LDC throughput (MCF)84,160,162 89,025,972 (4,865,810)
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure’s results were impacted primarily by the cancellation of the ACP pipeline. The following is a detailed discussion of the variance drivers by line item.
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $167 million decrease due to lower natural gas costs passed through to customers, lower volumes, and decreased off-system sales natural gas costs; and
a $47 million decrease due to return of EDIT to customers.
Partially offset by:
an $87 million increase due to North Carolina base rate case increases.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $167 million decrease in cost of natural gas due to lower natural gas prices, lower volumes and decreased off-system sales natural gas costs.
Equity in (losses) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates. The variance was driven primarily by the cancellation of the ACP pipeline.
Other Income and Expenses, net. The variance was driven primarily by AFUDC equity and other income related to Belews Creek and Marshall Power Generation contracts.
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense. The increase in tax benefit was primarily due to a decrease in pretax income driven by the impact of the cancellation of the ACP pipeline. The ETRs for the years ended December 31, 2020, and 2019, were 21.6% and 4.8%, respectively. The increase in the ETR was primarily due to an adjustment, recorded in the first quarter of 2019, related to the income tax recognition for equity method investments. The equity method investment adjustment was immaterial and relates to prior years.
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MD&ASEGMENT RESULTS - COMMERCIAL RENEWABLES
Commercial Renewables
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$502 $487 $15 
Operating Expenses
Operation, maintenance and other285 297 (12)
Depreciation and amortization199 168 31 
Property and other taxes27 23 
Impairment charges6 — 
Total operating expenses517 488 29 
Losses on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net(1)(3)
Operating Loss(16)(4)(12)
Other Income and Expenses, net7 
Interest Expense66 95 (29)
Loss Before Income Taxes(75)(94)19 
Income Tax Benefit(65)(115)50 
Add: Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests296 177 119 
Segment Income$286 $198 $88 
Renewable plant production, GWh 10,204 8,574 1,630 
Net proportional MW capacity in operation(a)
3,937 3,485 452 
(a)    Certain projects are included in tax-equity structures where investors have differing interests in the project's economic attributes. Amounts shown represent 100% of the tax-equity project's capacity.
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Commercial Renewables' results were favorable primarily due to growth of new project investments. Since December 31, 2019, Commercial Renewables has placed in service approximately 500 MW of capacity.
The following is a detailed discussion of the variance drivers by line item.
Operating Revenues. The variance was primarily driven by a $39 million increase associated with the growth of new projects placed in service, partially offset by a $24 million decrease primarily within the distributed energy portfolios for lower engineering and construction activities related to delays from COVID-19.
Operating Expenses. The variance was primarily driven by a $52 million increase in operating expenses due to the growth of new projects placed in service. This was partially offset by a $24 million decrease in operating expenses within the distributed energy portfolios for lower engineering and construction costs related to delays from COVID-19.
Interest Expense. The decrease was primarily driven by non-qualifying hedge activity in the prior year, higher capitalized interest in the current year for solar and wind projects in development and lower outstanding debt balances.
Income Tax Benefit. The decrease in the tax benefit was primarily driven by an increase in taxes associated with tax equity investments and a decrease in PTCs generated.
Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests. The increase was driven primarily by the growth of new projects financed by tax equity.
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MD&ASEGMENT RESULTS - OTHER
Other
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$97 $95 $
Operating Expenses12 117 (105)
Losses on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net (2)
Operating Income (Loss)85 (24)109 
Other Income and Expenses, net92 145 (53)
Interest Expense657 705 (48)
Loss Before Income Taxes(480)(584)104 
Income Tax Benefit(162)(173)11 
Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests1 — 
Less: Preferred Dividends107 4166 
Net Loss$(426)$(452)$26 
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
The variance was primarily driven by a reversal of corporate allocated severance costs, obligations to the Duke Energy Foundation in 2019, and lower state income tax expense, partially offset by lower returns on investments, higher loss experience related to captive insurance claims, the declaration of preferred stock dividends, and lower earnings on the NMC investment. The following is a detailed discussion of the variance drivers by line item.
Operating Expenses. The decrease was primarily due to the deferral of 2018 corporate allocated severance costs due to the Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress partial settlements in the 2019 North Carolina retail rate case and obligations to the Duke Energy Foundation in 2019, partially offset by higher loss experience related to captive insurance claims and higher franchise tax expense.
Other Income and Expenses, net. The variance was primarily due to lower returns on investments that fund certain employee benefit obligations and lower earnings on the NMC investment primarily due to lower pricing.
Interest Expense. The variance was primarily due to lower outstanding short-term debt and lower interest rates.
Income Tax Benefit. The decrease in the tax benefit was primarily driven by a decrease in pretax losses, partially offset by an increase in state income tax benefits. The ETRs for the years ended December 31, 2020, and 2019, were 33.8% and 29.6%, respectively. The increase in the ETR was primarily due to an increase in state income tax benefits in 2020, in relation to pretax losses.
Preferred Dividends. The variance was driven by the declaration of preferred stock dividends on preferred stock issued in late 2019.
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY CAROLINAS
SUBSIDIARY REGISTRANTS
Basis of Presentation
The results of operations and variance discussion for the Subsidiary Registrants is presented in a reduced disclosure format in accordance with General Instruction (I)(2)(a) of Form 10-K.
DUKE ENERGY CAROLINAS
Results of Operations
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$7,015 $7,395 $(380)
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power1,682 1,804 (122)
Operation, maintenance and other1,743 1,868 (125)
Depreciation and amortization1,462 1,388 74 
Property and other taxes299 292 
Impairment charges476 17 459 
Total operating expenses5,662 5,369 293 
Gains on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net1 — 
Operating Income1,354 2,026 (672)
Other Income and Expenses, net177 151 26 
Interest Expense487 463 24 
Income Before Income Taxes1,044 1,714 (670)
Income Tax Expense88 311 (223)
Net Income$956 $1,403 $(447)
The following table shows the percent changes in GWh sales and average number of customers for Duke Energy Carolinas. The below percentages for retail customer classes represent billed sales only. Total sales includes billed and unbilled retail sales and wholesale sales to incorporated municipalities, public and private utilities and power marketers. Amounts are not weather-normalized.
Increase (Decrease) over prior year20202019
Residential sales(3.1)%(2.9)%
General service sales(6.7)%(0.1)%
Industrial sales(8.0)%(1.9)%
Wholesale power sales(2.0)%(13.6)%
Joint dispatch sales(46.0)%4.7 %
Total sales(5.9)%(2.6)%
Average number of customers1.9 %2.1 %
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $151 million decrease in fuel revenues due to lower prices and retail sales volumes;
a $149 million decrease in retail sales due to unfavorable weather in the current year;
a $73 million decrease in rider revenues primarily due to EE programs; and
a $50 million decrease in wholesale revenue primarily driven by the CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021.
Partially offset by:
a $25 million increase due to higher pricing from the South Carolina retail rate case, net of a return of EDIT to customers; and
a $22 million increase in weather-normal retail sales volumes.
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY CAROLINAS
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $459 million increase in impairment charges primarily driven by the CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021; and
a $74 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense primarily due to additional plant in service and new depreciation rates associated with the South Carolina rate case.
Partially offset by:
a $125 million decrease in operation, maintenance and other expense primarily driven by the deferral of 2018 severance costs due to the partial settlement agreement between Duke Energy Carolinas and the Public Staff of the NCUC related to the 2019 North Carolina retail rate case, and cost mitigation efforts, partially offset by higher storm restoration costs; and
a $122 million decrease in fuel used in electric generation and purchased power primarily due to lower retail sales volumes, net of a prior period true up.
Other Income and Expenses, net. The variance was primarily due to higher AFUDC equity in the current year.
Interest Expense. The variance was primarily due to higher debt outstanding in the current year.
Income Tax Expense. The decrease in tax expense was primarily due to a decrease in pretax income and an increase in the amortization of excess deferred taxes.
PROGRESS ENERGY
Results of Operations
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$10,627 $11,202 $(575)
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power3,479 4,024 (545)
Operation, maintenance and other2,479 2,495 (16)
Depreciation and amortization1,818 1,845 (27)
Property and other taxes545 561 (16)
Impairment charges495 (24)519 
Total operating expenses8,816 8,901 (85)
Gains on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net9 — 
Operating Income1,820 2,301 (481)
Other Income and Expenses, net129 141 (12)
Interest Expense790 862 (72)
Income Before Income Taxes1,159 1,580 (421)
Income Tax Expense113 253 (140)
Net Income1,046 1,327 (281)
Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests1 — 
Net Income Attributable to Parent$1,045 $1,327 $(282)
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $567 million decrease in fuel revenues driven by lower sales volumes as well as an accelerated refund of fuel costs in response to the COVID-19 pandemic at Duke Energy Florida and lower fuel prices, volumes and native load transfer sales in the current year at Duke Energy Progress;
a $169 million decrease in wholesale revenue primarily driven by the Duke Energy Progress' CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021 and decreased volumes at Duke Energy Progress, partially offset by increased demand at Duke Energy Florida;
a $55 million decrease in rider revenues primarily due to the Crystal River 3 uprate regulatory asset being fully recovered in 2019 at Duke Energy Florida;
a $31 million decrease in retail sales, net of fuel revenues, due to unfavorable weather at Duke Energy Progress, partially offset by favorable weather in the current year at Duke Energy Florida; and
a $17 million decrease in weather-normal retail sales volumes.
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MD&APROGRESS ENERGY
Partially offset by:
a $147 million increase in storm revenues due to Hurricane Dorian collections at Duke Energy Florida;
a $92 million increase in retail pricing due to base rate adjustments related to annual increases from the 2017 Settlement Agreement and the Solar Base Rate Adjustment at Duke Energy Florida; and
a $16 million increase due to higher pricing from the South Carolina retail rate case, net of a return of EDIT to customers at Duke Energy Progress.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $545 million decrease in fuel used in electric generation and purchased power primarily due to lower demand and changes in generation mix at Duke Energy Progress and lower demand and fuel costs at Duke Energy Florida;
a $27 million decrease in depreciation and amortization expense primarily driven by a decrease in coal ash amortization, partially offset by a higher depreciable base and impacts from North Carolina and the South Carolina rate cases at Duke Energy Progress;
a $16 million decrease in operation, maintenance and other expense at Duke Energy Progress primarily driven by the deferral of 2018 severance costs due to the partial settlement agreement between Duke Energy Progress and the Public Staff of the NCUC related to the 2019 North Carolina retail rate case, reduced outage costs and other cost mitigation efforts, partially offset by storm cost amortizations at Duke Energy Florida; and
a $16 million decrease in property and other taxes driven primarily by lower gross receipts taxes due to decreased fuel revenues at Duke Energy Florida.
Partially offset by:
a $519 million increase in impairment charges primarily driven by the Duke Energy Progress' CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021, and the prior year's impairment reduction related to Citrus County CC at Duke Energy Florida.
Interest Expense. The variance was driven primarily by lower interest rates on outstanding debt at Duke Energy Progress.
Income Tax Expense. The decrease in tax expense was primarily due to a decrease in pretax income and an increase in the amortization of excess deferred taxes at Duke Energy Progress, partially offset by an increase in pretax income and a decrease in the amortization of excess deferred taxes at Duke Energy Florida.
DUKE ENERGY PROGRESS
Results of Operations
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$5,422 $5,957 $(535)
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power1,743 2,012 (269)
Operation, maintenance and other1,332 1,446 (114)
Depreciation and amortization1,116 1,143 (27)
Property and other taxes167 176 (9)
Impairment charges499 12 487 
Total operating expenses4,857 4,789 68 
Gains on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net8 — 
Operating Income573 1,168 (595)
Other Income and Expenses, net75 100 (25)
Interest Expense269 306 (37)
Income Before Income Taxes379 962 (583)
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense(36)157 (193)
Net Income$415 $805 $(390)
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY PROGRESS
The following table shows the percent changes in GWh sales and average number of customers for Duke Energy Progress. The below percentages for retail customer classes represent billed sales only. Total sales includes billed and unbilled retail sales and wholesale sales to incorporated municipalities, public and private utilities and power marketers. Amounts are not weather-normalized.
Increase (Decrease) over prior year20202019
Residential sales(3.2)%(4.0)%
General service sales(7.4)%(1.6)%
Industrial sales(3.9)%0.6 %
Wholesale power sales(9.1)%(1.5)%
Joint dispatch sales9.9 %(0.8)%
Total sales(4.6)%(1.4)%
Average number of customers1.8 %1.3 %
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $272 million decrease in fuel cost recovery driven by lower fuel prices and volumes as well as less native load transfer sales in the current year;
a $180 million decrease in wholesale revenue primarily driven by the CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021, and decreased volumes, partially offset by increased capacity rates;
a $77 million decrease in retail sales due to unfavorable weather; and
a $10 million decrease in weather-normal retail sales volumes.
Partially Offset by:
a $16 million increase due to higher pricing from the South Carolina retail rate case, net of a return of EDIT to customers.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $487 million increase in impairment charges primarily driven by the CCR Settlement Agreement filed with the NCUC in January 2021.
Partially Offset by:
a $269 million decrease in fuel used in electric generation and purchased power primarily due to lower demand and changes in generation mix;
a $114 million decrease in operation, maintenance and other expense primarily driven by the deferral of 2018 severance costs due to the partial settlement agreement between Duke Energy Progress and the Public Staff of the NCUC related to the 2019 North Carolina retail rate case, reduced outage costs and other costs mitigation efforts; and
a $27 million decrease in depreciation and amortization expense primarily driven by a decrease in coal ash amortization, partially offset by a higher depreciable base and impacts from the South Carolina rate cases.
Other Income and Expenses, net. The variance was primarily due to lower AFUDC equity in the current year.
Interest Expense. The variance was driven primarily by lower interest rates on outstanding debt.
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense. The decrease in tax expense was primarily due to a decrease in pretax income and an increase in the amortization of excess deferred taxes.
55




MD&ADUKE ENERGY FLORIDA
DUKE ENERGY FLORIDA
Results of Operations
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$5,188 $5,231 $(43)
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power1,737 2,012 (275)
Operation, maintenance and other1,131 1,034 97 
Depreciation and amortization702 702 — 
Property and other taxes381 392 (11)
Impairment charges(4)(36)32 
Total operating expenses3,947 4,104 (157)
Gains on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net1 — 
Operating Income1,242 1,127 115 
Other Income and Expenses, net53 48 
Interest Expense326 328 (2)
Income Before Income Taxes969 847 122 
Income Tax Expense198 155 43 
Net Income$771 $692 $79 
The following table shows the percent changes in GWh sales and average number of customers for Duke Energy Florida. The below percentages for retail customer classes represent billed sales only. Wholesale power sales include both billed and unbilled sales. Total sales includes billed and unbilled retail sales and wholesale sales to incorporated municipalities, public and private utilities and power marketers. Amounts are not weather-normalized.
Increase (Decrease) over prior year20202019
Residential sales3.3 %0.7 %
General service sales(5.3)%0.3 %
Industrial sales6.2 %(4.6)%
Wholesale power sales(1.7)%28.8 %
Total sales0.8 %1.5 %
Average number of customers1.8 %1.6 %
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $295 million decrease in fuel revenues driven by lower sales volumes as well as an accelerated refund of fuel costs to customers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;
a $55 million decrease in rider revenues primarily due to full recovery of the Crystal River 3 uprate regulatory asset in 2019; and
a $7 million decrease in weather-normal retail sales volumes.
Partially offset by:
a $147 million increase in storm revenues due to recovery of Hurricane Dorian costs;
a $92 million increase in retail pricing due to base rate adjustments related to annual increases from the 2017 Settlement Agreement and the Solar Base Rate Adjustment;
a $46 million increase in retail sales, net of fuel revenues, due to favorable weather in the current year;
an $18 million increase in other revenues primarily due to increased transmission revenues and lighting equipment rentals, partially offset by lower late payment and service charge revenues due to a moratorium during the COVID-19 pandemic; and
an $11 million increase in wholesale power revenues, net of fuel, primarily due to increased capacity charges.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $275 million decrease in fuel used in electric generation and purchased power primarily due to lower fuel costs; and
an $11 million decrease in property and other taxes driven by lower gross receipts taxes due to decreased fuel revenues.
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY FLORIDA
Partially offset by:
a $97 million increase in operation, maintenance and other expense primarily due to storm cost amortizations; and
a $32 million increase in impairment charges primarily due to the prior year's impairment reduction related to Citrus County CC.
Income Tax Expense. The increase in tax expense was primarily due to an increase in pretax income and a decrease in the amortization of excess deferred taxes.
DUKE ENERGY OHIO
Results of Operations
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues
Regulated electric$1,405 $1,456 $(51)
Regulated natural gas453 484 (31)
Total operating revenues1,858 1,940 (82)
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power – regulated339 388 (49)
Cost of natural gas 73 95 (22)
Operation, maintenance and other463 520 (57)
Depreciation and amortization278 265 13 
Property and other taxes324 308 16 
Total operating expenses1,477 1,576 (99)
Operating Income381 364 17 
Other Income and Expenses, net16 24 (8)
Interest Expense102 109 (7)
Income from Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes295 279 16 
Income Tax Expense from Continuing Operations43 40 
Income from Continuing Operations252 239 13 
Loss from Discontinued Operations, net of tax (1)
Net Income$252 $238 $14 
The following table shows the percent changes in GWh sales of electricity, MCF of natural gas delivered and average number of electric and natural gas customers for Duke Energy Ohio. The below percentages for retail customer classes represent billed sales only. Total sales includes billed and unbilled retail sales and wholesale sales to incorporated municipalities, public and private utilities and power marketers. Amounts are not weather-normalized.
ElectricNatural Gas
Increase (Decrease) over prior year2020201920202019
Residential sales(1.9)%(3.9)%(5.7)%(3.7)%
General service sales(7.7)%(1.9)%(8.4)%(1.2)%
Industrial sales(6.6)%(2.1)%(4.1)%(0.4)%
Wholesale electric power sales(21.3)%(4.9)%n/an/a
Other natural gas salesn/an/a(2.2)%0.7 %
Total sales(5.0)%(2.4)%(5.5)%(1.7)%
Average number of customers1.3 %0.7 %1.1 %0.7 %
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $61 million decrease in fuel related revenues primarily due to lower prices and decreased volumes;
a $22 million decrease in retail revenue riders, primarily due to lower EE program revenues, volume impacts of the Distribution Decoupling rider, suspension of the MGP rider and higher taxes returned to customers via the Tax Cuts and Job Acts rider, partially offset by an increase in the Distribution Capital Investment rider due to increased capital investment;
a $15 million decrease in revenues due to unfavorable weather in the current year;
an $11 million decrease in other revenues due to lower OVEC sales into PJM;
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY OHIO
a $5 million decrease in bulk power marketing sales, and
a $4 million decrease in weather-normal sales volumes.
Partially offset by:
a $23 million increase in retail pricing primarily due to rate case impacts in Kentucky; and
an $18 million increase in PJM transmission revenues as a result of increased capital spend.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $71 million decrease in fuel expense, primarily driven by lower fuel prices, decreased volumes and lower OVEC costs; and
a $57 million decrease in operations, maintenance and other expense primarily due to a new customer program and other deferrals, the timing of EE programs and outage costs, lower employee benefit expenses and lower vegetation and pole maintenance costs.
Partially offset by:
a $16 million increase in property and other taxes primarily due to higher property taxes due to increased plant in service, partially offset by lower franchise and other taxes; and
a $13 million increase in depreciation and amortization primarily driven by an increase in distribution plant, partially offset by lower amortization due to the suspension of the MGP rider in Ohio and environmental surcharge mechanism amortization of deferred coal ash pond ARO.
DUKE ENERGY INDIANA
Results of Operations
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$2,795 $3,004 $(209)
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power767 935 (168)
Operation, maintenance and other762 790 (28)
Depreciation and amortization569 525 44 
Property and other taxes81 69 12 
Total operating expenses2,179 2,319 (140)
Operating Income616 685 (69)
Other Income and Expenses, net37 41 (4)
Interest Expense161 156 
Income Before Income Taxes492 570 (78)
Income Tax Expense84 134 (50)
Net Income $408 $436 $(28)
The following table shows the percent changes in GWh sales and average number of customers for Duke Energy Indiana. The below percentages for retail customer classes represent billed sales only. Total sales includes billed and unbilled retail sales and wholesale sales to incorporated municipalities, public and private utilities and power marketers. Amounts are not weather-normalized.
Increase (Decrease) over prior year20202019
Residential sales(2.7)%(3.9)%
General service sales(7.0)%(2.2)%
Industrial sales(7.6)%(2.6)%
Wholesale power sales3.8 %(27.7)%
Total sales(4.3)%(6.8)%
Average number of customers1.4 %1.2 %
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $193 million decrease in rider revenues primarily due to lower sales volumes and credit adjustment rider refunds;
a $179 million decrease in fuel revenues primarily due to lower fuel cost recovery driven by customer demand and fuel prices;
a $20 million decrease in weather-normal retail sales volumes driven by lower nonresidential customer demand;
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MD&ADUKE ENERGY INDIANA
a $16 million decrease in retail sales due to unfavorable weather in the current year; and
a $10 million decrease in wholesale revenues primarily related to the true up of wholesale transmission revenues and lower rates in the current year.
Partially offset by:
a $214 million increase primarily due to higher pricing from the Indiana retail rate case, net of certain rider revenues.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $168 million decrease in fuel used in electric generation and purchased power expense primarily due to lower purchased power expense, lower amortization of deferred fuel costs and lower coal and natural gas costs; and
a $28 million decrease in operation, maintenance and other primarily due to lower storm restoration costs, training costs, employee related costs and a new customer program deferral.
Partially offset by:
a $44 million increase in depreciation and amortization primarily due to a change in depreciation rates from the Indiana retail rate case and additional plant in service; and
a $12 million increase in property and other taxes primarily due to additional plant in service and property tax true ups for prior periods.
Income Tax Expense. The decrease in income tax expense was primarily due to an increase in the amortization of excess deferred taxes and a decrease in pretax income.
PIEDMONT
Results of Operations
Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Operating Revenues$1,297 $1,381 $(84)
Operating Expenses
Cost of natural gas386 532 (146)
Operation, maintenance and other322 328 (6)
Depreciation and amortization180 172 
Property and other taxes53 45 
Impairment charges7 — 
Total operating expenses948 1,077 (129)
Operating Income349 304 45 
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates9 
Other income and expenses, net51 20 31 
Total other income and expenses60 28 32 
Interest Expense118 87 31 
Income Before Income Taxes291 245 46 
Income Tax Expense18 43 (25)
Net Income$273 $202 $71 
The following table shows the percent changes in Dth delivered and average number of customers. The percentages for all throughput deliveries represent billed and unbilled sales. Amounts are not weather-normalized.
Increase (Decrease) over prior year20202019
Residential deliveries(3.5)%(8.0)%
Commercial deliveries(9.1)%(4.6)%
Industrial deliveries(2.9)%1.7 %
Power generation deliveries(3.7)%(11.8)%
For resale(9.7)%4.8 %
Total throughput deliveries(4.1)%(8.2)%
Secondary market volumes(9.1)%(0.5)%
Average number of customers2.3 %1.4 %
The margin decoupling mechanism adjusts for variations in residential and commercial use per customer, including those due to weather and conservation. The weather normalization adjustment mechanisms mostly offset the impact of weather on bills rendered, but do not ensure full recovery of approved margin during periods when winter weather is significantly warmer or colder than normal.
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MD&APIEDMONT
Year Ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019
Operating Revenues. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $146 million decrease due to lower natural gas costs passed through to customers, lower volumes, and decreased off-system sales natural gas costs;
a $47 million decrease due to return of EDIT to customers; and
a $7 million decrease due to NCUC approval related to tax reform accounting from fixed-rate contracts in the prior year.
Partially offset by:
an $87 million increase due to North Carolina base rate case increases;
a $20 million increase due to North Carolina IMR increases; and
an $18 million increase due to addition of Belews Creek and Marshall Power Generation capacity contracts.
Operating Expenses. The variance was driven primarily by:
a $146 million decrease in cost of natural gas due to lower natural gas prices, lower volumes, and decreased off-system sales natural gas costs.
Partially offset by:
an $8 million increase in depreciation and amortization due to additional plant in service and higher depreciation rates, partially offset by Belews Creek and Marshall Power Generation contracts and amortization of EDIT interest expense; and
an $8 million increase in property and other taxes due to prior year property tax true ups.
Other Income and Expenses, net. The variance was driven primarily by AFUDC equity and other income related to Belews Creek and Marshall Power Generation contracts.
Interest Expense. The variance was driven primarily by interest on tax reform related deferrals being returned to customers and higher debt outstanding in the current year.
Income Tax Expense. The decrease in income tax expense was primarily due to an increase in the amortization of excess deferred taxes and an increase in AFUDC Equity, partially offset by an increase in pretax income.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Preparation of financial statements requires the application of accounting policies, judgments, assumptions and estimates that can significantly affect the reported results of operations, cash flows or the amounts of assets and liabilities recognized in the financial statements. Judgments made include the likelihood of success of particular projects, possible legal and regulatory challenges, earnings assumptions on pension and other benefit fund investments and anticipated recovery of costs, especially through regulated operations. 
Management discusses these policies, estimates and assumptions with senior members of management on a regular basis and provides periodic updates on management decisions to the Audit Committee. Management believes the areas described below require significant judgment in the application of accounting policy or in making estimates and assumptions that are inherently uncertain and that may change in subsequent periods.
For further information, see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies."
Regulated Operations Accounting
Substantially all of Duke Energy’s regulated operations meet the criteria for application of regulated operations accounting treatment. As a result, Duke Energy is required to record assets and liabilities that would not be recorded for nonregulated entities. Regulatory assets generally represent incurred costs that have been deferred because such costs are probable of future recovery in customer rates. Regulatory liabilities are recorded when it is probable that a regulator will require Duke Energy to make refunds to customers or reduce rates to customers for previous collections or deferred revenue for costs that have yet to be incurred.
Management continually assesses whether recorded regulatory assets are probable of future recovery by considering factors such as:
applicable regulatory environment changes;
historical regulatory treatment for similar costs in Duke Energy’s jurisdictions;
litigation of rate orders;
recent rate orders to other regulated entities;
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MD&ACRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
levels of actual return on equity compared to approved rates of return on equity; and
the status of any pending or potential deregulation legislation.
If future recovery of costs ceases to be probable, asset write-offs would be recognized in operating income. Additionally, regulatory agencies can provide flexibility in the manner and timing of the depreciation of property, plant and equipment, recognition of asset retirement costs and amortization of regulatory assets, or may disallow recovery of all or a portion of certain assets.
As required by regulated operations accounting rules, significant judgment can be required to determine if an otherwise recognizable incurred cost qualifies to be deferred for future recovery as a regulatory asset. Significant judgment can also be required to determine if revenues previously recognized are for entity specific costs that are no longer expected to be incurred or have not yet been incurred and are therefore a regulatory liability.
Goodwill Impairment Assessments
Duke Energy performed its annual goodwill impairment tests for all reporting units as of August 31, 2020. Additionally, Duke Energy monitors all relevant events and circumstances during the year to determine if an interim impairment test is required. Such events and circumstances include an adverse regulatory outcome, declining financial performance and deterioration of industry or market conditions. As of August 31, 2020, all of the reporting units' estimated fair value of equity substantially exceeded the carrying value of equity. The fair values of the reporting units were calculated using a weighted combination of the income approach, which estimates fair value based on discounted cash flows, and the market approach, which estimates fair value based on market comparables within the utility and energy industries.
Estimated future cash flows under the income approach are based on Duke Energy’s internal business plan. Significant assumptions used are growth rates, future rates of return expected to result from ongoing rate regulation and discount rates. Management determines the appropriate discount rate for each of its reporting units based on the WACC for each individual reporting unit. The WACC takes into account both the after-tax cost of debt and cost of equity. A major component of the cost of equity is the current risk-free rate on 20-year U.S. Treasury bonds. In the 2020 impairment tests, Duke Energy considered implied WACCs for certain peer companies in determining the appropriate WACC rates to use in its analysis. As each reporting unit has a different risk profile based on the nature of its operations, including factors such as regulation, the WACC for each reporting unit may differ. Accordingly, the WACCs were adjusted, as appropriate, to account for company specific risk premiums. The discount rates used for calculating the fair values as of August 31, 2020, for each of Duke Energy’s reporting units ranged from 5.2% to 5.7%. The underlying assumptions and estimates are made as of a point in time. Subsequent changes, particularly changes in the discount rates, authorized regulated rates of return or growth rates inherent in management’s estimates of future cash flows, could result in future impairment charges.
One of the most significant assumptions utilized in determining the fair value of reporting units under the market approach is implied market multiples for certain peer companies. Management selects comparable peers based on each peer’s primary business mix, operations, and market capitalization compared to the applicable reporting unit and calculates implied market multiples based on available projected earnings guidance and peer company market values as of August 31.
Duke Energy primarily operates in environments that are rate-regulated. In such environments, revenue requirements are adjusted periodically by regulators based on factors including levels of costs, sales volumes and costs of capital. Accordingly, Duke Energy’s regulated utilities operate to some degree with a buffer from the direct effects, positive or negative, of significant swings in market or economic conditions. However, significant changes in discount rates over a prolonged period may have a material impact on the fair value of equity.
For further information, see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Goodwill and Intangible Assets."
Asset Retirement Obligations
AROs are recognized for legal obligations associated with the retirement of property, plant and equipment at the present value of the projected liability in the period in which it is incurred, if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made.
The present value of the initial obligation and subsequent updates are based on discounted cash flows, which include estimates regarding timing of future cash flows, selection of discount rates and cost escalation rates, among other factors. These estimates are subject to change.
Obligations for nuclear decommissioning are based on site-specific cost studies. Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress assume prompt dismantlement of the nuclear facilities after operations are ceased. During 2020, Duke Energy Florida, closed an agreement for the accelerated decommissioning of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station after receiving approval from the NRC and FPSC. The retirement obligations for the decommissioning of Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station are measured based on accelerated decommissioning from 2020 continuing through 2027. Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida also assume that spent fuel will be stored on-site until such time that it can be transferred to a yet to be built DOE facility.
Obligations for closure of ash basins are based upon discounted cash flows of estimated costs for site-specific plans. During 2020, the Hoosier Environmental Council filed a Petition for Administrative Review with the Indiana Office of Environmental Adjudication challenging the Indiana Department of Environmental Management's partial approval of Duke Energy Indiana's ash pond closure plan. Due to these challenges, in 2020, Duke Energy Indiana remeasured and increased the closure estimates for certain coal ash impoundments.
For further information, see Notes 3, 4 and 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters," "Commitments and Contingencies" and "Asset Retirement Obligations."
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MD&ACRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Long-Lived Asset Impairment Assessments, Excluding Regulated Operations, and Equity Method Investments
Duke Energy evaluates property, plant and equipment for impairment when events or changes in circumstances (such as a significant change in cash flow projections or the determination that it is more likely than not that an asset or asset group will be sold) indicate the carrying value of such assets may not be recoverable. The determination of whether an impairment has occurred is based on an estimate of undiscounted future cash flows attributable to the assets, as compared with their carrying value.
Performing an impairment evaluation involves a significant degree of estimation and judgment in areas such as identifying circumstances that indicate an impairment may exist, identifying and grouping affected assets and developing the undiscounted future cash flows. If an impairment has occurred, the amount of the impairment recognized is determined by estimating the fair value and recording a loss if the carrying value is greater than the fair value. Additionally, determining fair value requires probability weighting future cash flows to reflect expectations about possible variations in their amounts or timing and the selection of an appropriate discount rate. Although cash flow estimates are based on relevant information available at the time the estimates are made, estimates of future cash flows are, by nature, highly uncertain and may vary significantly from actual results.
When determining whether an asset or asset group has been impaired, management groups assets at the lowest level that has discrete cash flows. Investments in affiliates that are not controlled by Duke Energy, but over which it has significant influence, are accounted for using the equity method. Equity method investments are assessed for impairment when conditions exist that indicate that the fair value of the investment is less than book value. It the decline in value is considered to be other than temporary, the investment is written down to its estimated fair value, which establishes a new cost basis in the investment.
During 2020, Duke Energy evaluated recoverability of certain renewable merchant plants due to declining market pricing and declining long-term forecasted energy prices, primarily driven by lower forecasted natural gas prices, capital cost of new renewables and increase renewable penetration. It was determined the assets were all recoverable as the carrying value of the assets approximated or exceeded the aggregate estimated future cash flows.
For further information, see Notes 2, 10 and 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Business Segments," "Property, Plant and Equipment" and "Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates."
Pension and Other Post-Retirement Benefits
The calculation of pension expense, other post-retirement benefit expense and net pension and other post-retirement assets or liabilities require the use of assumptions and election of permissible accounting alternatives. Changes in assumptions can result in different expense and reported asset or liability amounts and future actual experience can differ from the assumptions. Duke Energy believes the most critical assumptions for pension and other post-retirement benefits are the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets and the assumed discount rate applied to future projected benefit payments.
Duke Energy elects to amortize net actuarial gain or loss amounts that are in excess of 10% of the greater of the market-related value of plan assets or the plan's projected benefit obligation, into net pension or other post-retirement benefit expense over the average remaining service period of active participants expected to benefit under the plan. If all or almost all of a plan's participants are inactive, the average remaining life expectancy of the inactive participants is used instead of average remaining service period. Prior service cost or credit, which represents an increase or decrease in a plan's pension benefit obligation resulting from plan amendment, is amortized on a straight-line basis over the average expected remaining service period of active participants expected to benefit under the plan. If all or almost all of a plan's participants are inactive, the average remaining life expectancy of the inactive participants is used instead of average remaining service period.
As of December 31, 2020, Duke Energy assumes pension and other post-retirement plan assets will generate a long-term rate of return of 6.50%. The expected long-term rate of return was developed using a weighted average calculation of expected returns based primarily on future expected returns across asset classes considering the use of active asset managers, where applicable. The asset allocation targets were set after considering the investment objective and the risk profile. Equity securities are held for their higher expected returns. Debt securities are primarily held to hedge the qualified pension liability. Real assets, return-seeking fixed income, hedge funds and other global securities are held for diversification. Investments within asset classes are diversified to achieve broad market participation and reduce the impact of individual managers on investments. 
Duke Energy discounted its future U.S. pension and other post-retirement obligations using a rate of 2.60% as of December 31, 2020. Discount rates used to measure benefit plan obligations for financial reporting purposes reflect rates at which pension benefits could be effectively settled. As of December 31, 2020, Duke Energy determined its discount rate for U.S. pension and other post-retirement obligations using a bond selection-settlement portfolio approach. This approach develops a discount rate by selecting a portfolio of high-quality corporate bonds that generate sufficient cash flow to provide for projected benefit payments of the plan. The selected bond portfolio is derived from a universe of non-callable corporate bonds rated Aa quality or higher. After the bond portfolio is selected, a single interest rate is determined that equates the present value of the plan’s projected benefit payments discounted at this rate with the market value of the bonds selected.
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MD&ACRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Future changes in plan asset returns, assumed discount rates and various other factors related to the participants in Duke Energy’s pension and post-retirement plans will impact future pension expense and liabilities. Duke Energy cannot predict with certainty what these factors will be in the future. The following table presents the approximate effect on Duke Energy’s 2020 pretax pension expense, pretax other post-retirement expense, pension obligation and other post-retirement benefit obligation if a 0.25% change in rates were to occur.
Qualified and Non-Other Post-Retirement
 Qualified Pension PlansPlans
(in millions)0.25 %(0.25)%0.25 %(0.25)%
Effect on 2020 pretax pension and other post-retirement expense:   
Expected long-term rate of return$(21)$21 $(1)$
Discount rate(9)— (1)
Effect on pension and other post-retirement benefit obligation at December 31, 2020:
Discount rate(208)213 (13)14 
Duke Energy’s other post-retirement plan uses a health care cost trend rate covering both pre- and post-age 65 retired plan participants, which is comprised of a medical care cost trend rate, which reflects the near- and long-term expectation of increases in medical costs, and a prescription drug cost trend rate, which reflects the near- and long-term expectation of increases in prescription drug costs. As of December 31, 2020, the health care cost trend rate was 6.25%, trending down to 4.75% by 2028. These plans are closed to new employees.
For further information, see Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Employee Benefit Plans.”

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Sources and Uses of Cash
Duke Energy relies primarily upon cash flows from operations, debt and equity issuances and its existing cash and cash equivalents to fund its liquidity and capital requirements. Duke Energy’s capital requirements arise primarily from capital and investment expenditures, repaying long-term debt and paying dividends to shareholders.
Among other provisions, the Tax Act lowered the corporate federal income tax rate from 35% to 21% and eliminated bonus depreciation for regulated utilities. For Duke Energy’s regulated operations, the reduction in federal income taxes will result in lower regulated customer rates. However, due to its existing NOL position and other tax credits, Duke Energy does not expect to be a significant federal cash taxpayer through at least 2029. As a result, any reduction in customer rates could cause a material reduction in consolidated cash flows from operations in the short term. Over time, the reduction in deferred tax liabilities resulting from the Tax Act will increase Duke Energy’s regulated rate base investments and customer rates. Impacts of the Tax Act to Duke Energy’s cash flows and credit metrics are subject to the regulatory actions of its state commissions and the FERC. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters,” for additional information.
The Subsidiary Registrants generally maintain minimal cash balances and use short-term borrowings to meet their working capital needs and other cash requirements. The Subsidiary Registrants, excluding Progress Energy, support their short-term borrowing needs through participation with Duke Energy and certain of its other subsidiaries in a money pool arrangement. The companies with short-term funds may provide short-term loans to affiliates participating under this arrangement. See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Debt and Credit Facilities,” for additional discussion of the money pool arrangement.
Duke Energy and the Subsidiary Registrants, excluding Progress Energy, may also use short-term debt, including commercial paper and the money pool, as a bridge to long-term debt financings. The levels of borrowing may vary significantly over the course of the year due to the timing of long-term debt financings and the impact of fluctuations in cash flows from operations. From time to time, Duke Energy’s current liabilities exceed current assets resulting from the use of short-term debt as a funding source to meet scheduled maturities of long-term debt, as well as cash needs, which can fluctuate due to the seasonality of its businesses.
During March 2020, in response to market volatility and the ongoing economic uncertainty related to COVID-19, Duke Energy took several actions to enhance the company's liquidity position including:
Duke Energy drew down the remaining $500 million of availability under the existing $1 billion Three-Year Revolving Credit Facility. That additional borrowing was subsequently repaid during the second quarter of 2020; and
Duke Energy entered into and borrowed the full amount under a $1.5 billion, 364-day Term Loan Credit Agreement. The Term Loan Credit Agreement contained a provision for additional borrowing capacity of $500 million. Duke Energy exercised the provision and borrowed an additional $188 million, for a total borrowing of approximately $1.7 billion. By November 2020, Duke Energy repaid the entire borrowing under the 364-day Term Loan.
Following March 2020, access to credit and equity markets has normalized. In addition to the March 2020 financings to address the company's liquidity position, for the year ended December 31, 2020, Duke Energy issued approximately $5.6 billion in debt and raised approximately $2.9 billion of common equity through equity forward agreements and the company's dividend reinvestment and ATM programs. A portion of the proceeds from the equity forward settlements will be used to fully repay Duke Energy's portion of the ACP construction loan of approximately $860 million. Despite the recovery in capital markets, Duke Energy continues to monitor access to credit and equity markets amid the ongoing economic uncertainty related to COVID-19.
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MD&ALIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
In addition to actions taken by the company, the CARES Act, enacted in March 2020, as an emergency economic stimulus package in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, included provisions providing relief to entities with remaining AMT credit refund allowances. Through the CARES Act, Duke Energy accelerated remaining AMT credit refund allowances and claimed a refund in full for any AMT credit carryforwards. As a result, in the third quarter of 2020, Duke Energy received $572 million related to AMT credit carryforwards and $19 million of interest income. See Note 23 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Income Taxes," for additional information.
As of December 31, 2020, Duke Energy had approximately $259 million of cash on hand, $5.6 billion available under its $8 billion Master Credit Facility and $500 million available under the $1 billion Three-Year Revolving Credit Facility. Duke Energy expects to have sufficient liquidity in the form of cash on hand, cash from operations and available credit capacity to support its funding needs. Refer to Notes 6 and 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Debt and Credit Facilities" and "Stockholders' Equity," respectively, for information regarding Duke Energy's debt and equity issuances, debt maturities and available credit facilities including the Master Credit Facility.
Credit Facilities and Registration Statements
See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Debt and Credit Facilities," for further information regarding credit facilities and shelf registration statements available to Duke Energy and the Duke Energy Registrants.
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES
Duke Energy continues to focus on reducing risk and positioning its business for future success and will invest principally in its strongest business sectors. Duke Energy’s projected capital and investment expenditures, including AFUDC debt and capitalized interest, for the next three fiscal years are included in the table below.
(in millions)202120222023
New generation$60 $20 $85 
Regulated renewables665 710 755 
Environmental795 820 600 
Nuclear fuel425 400 380 
Major nuclear280 270 205 
Customer additions565 555 560 
Grid modernization and other transmission and distribution projects3,460 5,025 4,840 
Maintenance and other2,200 2,650 2,750 
Total Electric Utilities and Infrastructure8,450 10,450 10,175 
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure1,250 1,275 1,150 
Commercial Renewables and Other775 1,075 750 
Total projected capital and investment expenditures$10,475 $12,800 $12,075 
DEBT MATURITIES
See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Debt and Credit Facilities," for further information regarding significant components of Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
DIVIDEND PAYMENTS
In 2020, Duke Energy paid quarterly cash dividends for the 94th consecutive year and expects to continue its policy of paying regular cash dividends in the future. There is no assurance as to the amount of future dividends because they depend on future earnings, capital requirements, financial condition and are subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors.
Duke Energy targets a dividend payout ratio of between 65% and 75%, based upon adjusted EPS, and expects this trend to continue through 2025. Duke Energy increased the dividend by approximately 2% annually in both 2020 and 2019, and the company remains committed to continued growth of the dividend.
Dividend and Other Funding Restrictions of Duke Energy Subsidiaries
As discussed in Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters,” Duke Energy’s wholly owned public utility operating companies have restrictions on the amount of funds that can be transferred to Duke Energy through dividends, advances or loans as a result of conditions imposed by various regulators in conjunction with merger transactions. Duke Energy Progress and Duke Energy Florida also have restrictions imposed by their first mortgage bond indentures and Articles of Incorporation, which in certain circumstances, limit their ability to make cash dividends or distributions on common stock. Additionally, certain other Duke Energy subsidiaries have other restrictions, such as minimum working capital and tangible net worth requirements pursuant to debt and other agreements that limit the amount of funds that can be transferred to Duke Energy. At December 31, 2020, the amount of restricted net assets of wholly owned subsidiaries of Duke Energy that may not be distributed to Duke Energy in the form of a loan or dividend does not exceed a material amount of Duke Energy’s net assets. Duke Energy does not have any legal or other restrictions on paying common stock dividends to shareholders out of its consolidated equity accounts. Although these restrictions cap the amount of funding the various operating subsidiaries can provide to Duke Energy, management does not believe these restrictions will have a significant impact on Duke Energy’s ability to access cash to meet its payment of dividends on common stock and other future funding obligations.
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CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Cash flows from operations of Electric Utilities and Infrastructure and Gas Utilities and Infrastructure are primarily driven by sales of electricity and natural gas, respectively, and costs of operations. These cash flows from operations are relatively stable and comprise a substantial portion of Duke Energy’s operating cash flows. Weather conditions, working capital and commodity price fluctuations and unanticipated expenses including unplanned plant outages, storms, legal costs and related settlements can affect the timing and level of cash flows from operations.
As part of Duke Energy’s continued effort to improve its cash flows from operations and liquidity, Duke Energy works with vendors to improve terms and conditions, including the extension of payment terms. To support this effort, Duke Energy established a supply chain finance program (the “program”) in 2020, under which suppliers, at their sole discretion, may sell their receivables from Duke Energy to the participating financial institution. The financial institution administers the program. Duke Energy does not issue any guarantees with respect to the program and does not participate in negotiations between suppliers and the financial institution. Duke Energy does not have an economic interest in the supplier’s decision to participate in the program and receives no interest, fees or other benefit from the financial institution based on supplier participation in the program. Suppliers’ decisions on which invoices are sold do not impact Duke Energy’s payment terms, which are based on commercial terms negotiated between Duke Energy and the supplier regardless of program participation. A significant deterioration in the credit quality of Duke Energy, economic downturn or changes in the financial markets could limit the financial institutions willingness to participate in the program. Duke Energy does not believe such risk would have a material impact on our cash flows from operations or liquidity, as substantially all our payments are made outside the program.
Duke Energy believes it has sufficient liquidity resources through the commercial paper markets, and ultimately, the Master Credit Facility, to support these operations. Cash flows from operations are subject to a number of other factors, including, but not limited to, regulatory constraints, economic trends and market volatility (see Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” for additional information).
DEBT ISSUANCES
Depending on availability based on the issuing entity, the credit rating of the issuing entity, and market conditions, the Subsidiary Registrants prefer to issue first mortgage bonds and secured debt, followed by unsecured debt. This preference is the result of generally higher credit ratings for first mortgage bonds and secured debt, which typically result in lower interest costs. Duke Energy Corporation primarily issues unsecured debt.
In 2021, Duke Energy anticipates issuing additional securities of $8 billion through debt capital markets. Additionally, Duke Energy may utilize other instruments, including equity-content securities, such as preferred stock. Proceeds will primarily be for the purpose of funding capital expenditures and debt maturities. See to Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Debt and Credit Facilities," for further information regarding significant debt issuances in 2020.
Duke Energy’s capitalization is balanced between debt and equity as shown in the table below.
 Projected 2021Actual 2020Actual 2019
Equity44 %44 %44 %
Debt56 %56 %56 %
Restrictive Debt Covenants
Duke Energy’s debt and credit agreements contain various financial and other covenants. Duke Energy's Master Credit Facility contains a covenant requiring the debt-to-total capitalization ratio to not exceed 65% for each borrower, excluding Piedmont, and 70% for Piedmont. Failure to meet those covenants beyond applicable grace periods could result in accelerated due dates and/or termination of the agreements or sublimits thereto. As of December 31, 2020, each of the Duke Energy Registrants was in compliance with all covenants related to their debt agreements. In addition, some credit agreements may allow for acceleration of payments or termination of the agreements due to nonpayment, or acceleration of other significant indebtedness of the borrower or some of its subsidiaries. None of the debt or credit agreements contain material adverse change clauses.
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Credit Ratings
Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and S&P provide credit ratings for various Duke Energy Registrants. During January 2021, S&P downgraded the issuer credit rating for Duke Energy (Parent) and all of its subsidiaries senior unsecured debt, excluding Progress Energy, from A- to BBB+. Additionally, S&P downgraded the credit rating for Duke Energy (Parent) and Progress Energy senior unsecured debt from BBB+ to BBB. As part of the credit rating report, S&P affirmed their credit rating on senior secured debt for Duke Energy Carolinas, Duke Energy Progress, Duke Energy Florida, Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana, while also affirming the short-term and commercial paper credit ratings. These actions followed a December 2020, report by S&P to revise the credit rating outlook from stable to negative for Duke Energy and all its subsidiaries. As a result of the downgrade, credit rating outlooks returned to stable. Additionally, during October 2020, Moody's revised their credit rating outlook for Duke Energy (Parent), Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress from stable to negative and in February 2021, revised the credit rating outlook for these same registrants to review for downgrade. The following table includes Duke Energy and certain subsidiaries’ credit ratings and ratings outlook as of February 2021.
 Moody'sS&P
Duke Energy CorporationReview for DowngradeStable
Issuer Credit RatingBaa1 BBB+
Senior Unsecured DebtBaa1 BBB
Commercial PaperP-2A-2
Duke Energy CarolinasReview for Downgrade Stable
Senior Secured DebtAa2 A
Senior Unsecured DebtA1 BBB+
Progress EnergyStable Stable
Senior Unsecured DebtBaa1 BBB
Duke Energy ProgressReview for Downgrade Stable
Senior Secured DebtAa3 A
Senior Unsecured DebtA2BBB+
Duke Energy FloridaStable Stable
Senior Secured DebtA1 A
Senior Unsecured DebtA3 BBB+
Duke Energy OhioStable Stable
Senior Secured DebtA2 A
Senior Unsecured DebtBaa1 BBB+
Duke Energy IndianaStable Stable
Senior Secured DebtAa3 A
Senior Unsecured DebtA2 BBB+
Duke Energy KentuckyStableStable
Senior Unsecured DebtBaa1BBB+
Piedmont Natural GasStableStable
Senior UnsecuredA3BBB+
Credit ratings are intended to provide credit lenders a framework for comparing the credit quality of securities and are not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold. The Duke Energy Registrants’ credit ratings are dependent on the rating agencies’ assessments of their ability to meet their debt principal and interest obligations when they come due. If, as a result of market conditions or other factors, the Duke Energy Registrants are unable to maintain current balance sheet strength, or if earnings and cash flow outlook materially deteriorates, credit ratings could be negatively impacted.
Cash Flow Information
The following table summarizes Duke Energy’s cash flows for the two most recently completed fiscal years.
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019
Cash flows provided by (used in):
Operating activities$8,856 $8,209 
Investing activities(10,604)(11,957)
Financing activities1,731 3,730 
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(17)(18)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period573 591 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$556 $573 
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MD&ALIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
OPERATING CASH FLOWS
The following table summarizes key components of Duke Energy’s operating cash flows for the two most recently completed fiscal years.
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Net income$1,082 $3,571 $(2,489)
Non-cash adjustments to net income8,343 5,737 2,606 
Payments for AROs(610)(746)136 
Refund of AMT credit carryforwards572 573 (1)
Working capital(531)(926)395 
Net cash provided by operating activities$8,856 $8,209 $647 
The variance was driven primarily by:
a $117 million increase in net income after adjustment for non-cash items primarily due to increases in current year non-cash adjustments, partially offset by decreases in revenues due to lower sales volumes, accelerated refund of fuel costs at Duke Energy Florida in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and lower wholesale revenue driven by the CCR Settlement Agreement;
a $395 million decrease in cash outflows from working capital primarily due to fluctuations in inventory levels, accounts payable levels and lower income taxes paid in the current year; and
a $136 million decrease in payments for AROs.
INVESTING CASH FLOWS
The following table summarizes key components of Duke Energy’s investing cash flows for the two most recently completed fiscal years.
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Capital, investment and acquisition expenditures, net of return of investment capital$(10,144)$(11,435)$1,291 
Debt and equity securities, net(62)(5)(57)
Other investing items(398)(517)119 
Net cash used in investing activities$(10,604)$(11,957)$1,353 
The primary use of cash related to investing activities is capital, investment and acquisition expenditures, net of return of investment capital detailed by reportable business segment in the following table. The decrease relates primarily to decreases in capital expenditures due to lower overall investments in the Electric Utilities and Infrastructure, Gas Utilities and Infrastructure and Commercial Renewables segments.
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Electric Utilities and Infrastructure$7,629 $8,258 $(629)
Gas Utilities and Infrastructure1,309 1,533 (224)
Commercial Renewables1,075 1,423 (348)
Other264 221 43 
Total capital, investment and acquisition expenditures, net of return of investment capital$10,277 $11,435 $(1,158)
FINANCING CASH FLOWS
The following table summarizes key components of Duke Energy’s financing cash flows for the two most recently completed fiscal years.
 Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)20202019Variance
Issuance of common stock$2,745 $384 $2,361 
Issuance of preferred stock 1,962 (1,962)
Issuances of long-term debt, net1,824 3,615 (1,791)
Notes payable and commercial paper(319)(380)61 
Dividends paid(2,812)(2,668)(144)
Contributions from noncontrolling interests426 843 (417)
Other financing items(133)(26)(107)
Net cash provided by financing activities$1,731 $3,730 $(1,999)
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MD&ALIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
The variance was driven primarily by:
a $1,962 million decrease in proceeds from the issuance of preferred stock;
a $1,791 million net decrease in proceeds from issuances of long-term debt primarily due to timing of issuances and redemptions of long-term debt; and
a $417 million decrease in contributions from noncontrolling interests, primarily due to $415 million related to the sale of a noncontrolling interest in the Commercial Renewables segment in 2019.
Partially offset by:
a $2,361 million increase in proceeds from the issuance of common stock, primarily from the settlement of equity forwards.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Duke Energy and certain of its subsidiaries enter into guarantee arrangements in the normal course of business to facilitate commercial transactions with third parties. These arrangements include performance guarantees, standby letters of credit, debt guarantees, surety bonds and indemnifications.
Most of the guarantee arrangements entered into by Duke Energy enhance the credit standing of certain subsidiaries, non-consolidated entities or less than wholly owned entities, enabling them to conduct business. As such, these guarantee arrangements involve elements of performance and credit risk, which are not always included on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The possibility of Duke Energy, either on its own or on behalf of Spectra Capital through indemnification agreements entered into as part of the January 2, 2007, spin-off of Spectra Energy Corp, having to honor its contingencies is largely dependent upon the future operations of the subsidiaries, investees and other third parties, or the occurrence of certain future events.
Duke Energy performs ongoing assessments of its respective guarantee obligations to determine whether any liabilities have been incurred as a result of potential increased nonperformance risk by third parties for which Duke Energy has issued guarantees. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Guarantees and Indemnifications,” for further details of the guarantee arrangements. Issuance of these guarantee arrangements is not required for the majority of Duke Energy’s operations. Thus, if Duke Energy discontinued issuing these guarantees, there would not be a material impact to the consolidated results of operations, cash flows or financial position.
Other than the guarantee arrangements discussed above and off-balance sheet debt related to non-consolidated VIEs, Duke Energy does not have any material off-balance sheet financing entities or structures. For additional information, see Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Variable Interest Entities."
Contractual Obligations
Duke Energy enters into contracts that require payment of cash at certain specified periods, based on certain specified minimum quantities and prices. The following table summarizes Duke Energy’s contractual cash obligations as of December 31, 2020.
 Payments Due By Period
More than
Less than2-3 years4-5 years5 years
1 year(2022 &(2024 &(2026 &
(in millions)Total(2021)2023)2025)beyond)
Long-term debt(a)
$58,134 $4,110 $8,011 $4,408 $41,605 
Interest payments on long-term debt(b)
33,858 2,099 3,898 3,577 24,284 
Finance leases(c)
1,465 186 347 170 762 
Operating leases(c)
1,861 229 414 348 870 
Purchase obligations:(d)
     
Fuel and purchased power(e)(f)
16,591 3,489 4,248 2,998 5,856 
Other purchase obligations(g)
9,916 8,850 974 52 40 
Nuclear decommissioning trust annual funding(h)
363 20 40 40 263 
Land easements(i)
400 12 24 24 340 
Total contractual cash obligations(j)(k)
$122,588 $18,995 $17,956 $11,617 $74,020 
(a)See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Debt and Credit Facilities.”
(b)Interest payments on variable rate debt instruments were calculated using December 31, 2020, interest rates and holding them constant for the life of the instruments.
(c)See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Leases.” Amounts in the table above include the interest component of finance leases based on the interest rates stated in the lease agreements and exclude certain related executory costs. Amounts exclude contingent lease obligations.
(d)Current liabilities, except for current maturities of long-term debt, and purchase obligations reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets have been excluded from the above table.
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MD&AOFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS AND CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS
(e)Includes firm capacity payments that provide Duke Energy with uninterrupted firm access to electricity transmission capacity and natural gas transportation contracts, as well as undesignated contracts and contracts that qualify as NPNS. For contracts where the price paid is based on an index, the amount is based on market prices at December 31, 2020, or the best projections of the index. For certain of these amounts, Duke Energy may settle on a net cash basis since Duke Energy has entered into payment netting arrangements with counterparties that permit Duke Energy to offset receivables and payables with such counterparties.
(f)Amounts exclude obligations under the OVEC PPA. See Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Variable Interest Entities," for additional information.
(g)Includes contracts for software, telephone, data and consulting or advisory services. Amount also includes contractual obligations for EPC costs for new generation plants, wind and solar facilities, plant refurbishments, maintenance and day-to-day contract work and commitments to buy certain products. Amount excludes certain open purchase orders for services that are provided on demand for which the timing of the purchase cannot be determined.
(h)Related to future annual funding obligations to NDTF through nuclear power stations' relicensing dates. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Asset Retirement Obligations."
(i)Related to Commercial Renewables wind facilities.
(j)Unrecognized tax benefits of $125 million are not reflected in this table as Duke Energy cannot predict when open income tax years will close with completed examinations. See Note 23 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Income Taxes."
(k)The table above excludes reserves for litigation, environmental remediation, asbestos-related injuries and damages claims and self-insurance claims (see Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Commitments and Contingencies”) because Duke Energy is uncertain as to the timing and amount of cash payments that will be required. Additionally, the table above excludes annual insurance premiums that are necessary to operate the business, including nuclear insurance (see Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Commitments and Contingencies”), funding of pension and other post-retirement benefit plans (see Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Employee Benefit Plans"), AROs, including ash management expenditures (see Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Asset Retirement Obligations") and regulatory liabilities (see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Regulatory Matters”) because the amount and timing of the cash payments are uncertain. Also excluded are Deferred Income Taxes and ITCs recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets since cash payments for income taxes are determined based primarily on taxable income for each discrete fiscal year.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Risk Management Policies
The Enterprise Risk Management policy framework at Duke Energy includes strategy, operational, project execution and financial or transaction related risks. Enterprise Risk Management includes market risk as part of the financial and transaction related risks in its framework.
Duke Energy is exposed to market risks associated with commodity prices, interest rates and equity prices. Duke Energy has established comprehensive risk management policies to monitor and manage these market risks. Duke Energy’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer are responsible for the overall approval of market risk management policies and the delegation of approval and authorization levels. The Finance and Risk Management Committee of the Board of Directors receives periodic updates from the Chief Risk Officer and other members of management on market risk positions, corporate exposures and overall risk management activities. The Chief Risk Officer is responsible for the overall governance of managing commodity price risk, including monitoring exposure limits.
The following disclosures about market risk contain forward-looking statements that involve estimates, projections, goals, forecasts, assumptions, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information” for a discussion of the factors that may impact any such forward-looking statements made herein.
Commodity Price Risk
Duke Energy is exposed to the impact of market fluctuations in the prices of electricity, coal, natural gas and other energy-related products marketed and purchased as a result of its ownership of energy-related assets. Duke Energy’s exposure to these fluctuations is primarily limited by the cost-based regulation of its regulated operations as these operations are typically allowed to recover substantially all of these costs through various cost-recovery clauses, including fuel clauses, formula-based contracts, or other cost-sharing mechanisms. While there may be a delay in timing between when these costs are incurred and when they are recovered through rates, changes from year to year generally do not have a material impact on operating results of these regulated operations. Within Duke Energy’s Commercial Renewables segment, the company has limited exposure to market price fluctuations in prices of energy-related products as a result of its ownership of renewable assets.
Price risk represents the potential risk of loss from adverse changes in the market price of electricity or other energy commodities. Duke Energy’s exposure to commodity price risk is influenced by a number of factors, including contract size, length, market liquidity, market conditions, location and unique or specific contract terms. Duke Energy employs established policies and procedures to manage risks associated with these market fluctuations, which may include using various commodity derivatives, such as swaps, futures, forwards and options. For additional information, see Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Derivatives and Hedging.”
Hedging Strategies
Duke Energy closely monitors risks associated with commodity price changes on its future operations and, where appropriate, uses various commodity instruments such as electricity, coal and natural gas forward contracts and options to mitigate the effect of such fluctuations on operations. Duke Energy’s primary use of energy commodity derivatives is to hedge against exposure to the prices of power, fuel for generation and natural gas for customers. Additionally, Duke Energy’s Commercial Renewables business may enter into short-term or long-term hedge agreements to manage price risk associated with project output.
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MD&AQUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The majority of instruments used to manage Duke Energy’s commodity price exposure are either not designated as hedges or do not qualify for hedge accounting. These instruments are referred to as undesignated contracts. Mark-to-market changes for undesignated contracts entered into by regulated businesses are reflected as regulatory assets or liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Undesignated contracts entered into by nonregulated businesses are marked-to-market each period, with changes in the fair value of the derivative instruments reflected in earnings.
Duke Energy may also enter into other contracts that qualify for the NPNS exception. When a contract meets the criteria to qualify as NPNS, Duke Energy applies such exception. Income recognition and realization related to NPNS contracts generally coincide with the physical delivery of the commodity. For contracts qualifying for the NPNS exception, no recognition of the contract’s fair value in the Consolidated Financial Statements is required until settlement of the contract as long as the transaction remains probable of occurring.
Generation Portfolio Risks 
The Duke Energy Registrants optimize the value of their generation portfolios, which include generation assets, fuel and emission allowances. Modeled forecasts of future generation output and fuel requirements are based on forward power and fuel markets. The component pieces of the portfolio are bought and sold based on models and forecasts of generation in order to manage the economic value of the portfolio in accordance with the strategies of the business units.
For the Electric Utilities and Infrastructure segment, the generation portfolio not utilized to serve retail operations or committed load is subject to commodity price fluctuations. However, the impact on the Consolidated Statements of Operations is partially offset by mechanisms in these regulated jurisdictions that result in the sharing of net profits from these activities with retail customers.
Interest Rate Risk
Duke Energy is exposed to risk resulting from changes in interest rates as a result of its issuance or anticipated issuance of variable and fixed-rate debt and commercial paper. Duke Energy manages interest rate exposure by limiting variable-rate exposures to a percentage of total debt and by monitoring the effects of market changes in interest rates. Duke Energy also enters into financial derivative instruments, which may include instruments such as, but not limited to, interest rate swaps, swaptions and U.S. Treasury lock agreements to manage and mitigate interest rate risk exposure. See Notes 1, 6, 14 and 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” “Debt and Credit Facilities,” “Derivatives and Hedging,” and “Fair Value Measurements.”
Duke Energy had $7.6 billion of unhedged long- and short-term floating interest rate exposure at December 31, 2020. The impact of a 100-basis point change in interest rates on pretax income is approximately $76 million at December 31, 2020. This amount was estimated by considering the impact of the hypothetical interest rates on variable-rate securities outstanding, adjusted for interest rate hedges as of December 31, 2020.
Certain Duke Energy Registrants have variable-rate debt and manage interest rate risk by entering into financial contracts including interest rate swaps. See Notes 6 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Debt and Credit Facilities" and "Derivatives and Hedging." Such financial arrangements generally are indexed based upon LIBOR, which is expected to be phased out by the end of 2021. The Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) has been identified by regulators and industry participants as the preferred successor rate for U.S. dollar-based LIBOR at that time. Impacted financial arrangements extending beyond 2021 may require contractual amendment or termination and renegotiation to fully adapt to a post-LIBOR environment, and there may be uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative index methodologies. Alternative index provisions are being assessed and incorporated into new financial arrangements that extend beyond 2021. Additionally, the progress of the phaseout is being monitored, including proposed transition relief from the FASB.
Credit Risk
Credit risk represents the loss that the Duke Energy Registrants would incur if a counterparty fails to perform under its contractual obligations. Where exposed to credit risk, the Duke Energy Registrants analyze the counterparty's financial condition prior to entering into an agreement and monitor exposure on an ongoing basis. The Duke Energy Registrants establish credit limits where appropriate in the context of contractual arrangements and monitor such limits.
To reduce credit exposure, the Duke Energy Registrants seek to include netting provisions with counterparties, which permit the offset of receivables and payables with such counterparties. The Duke Energy Registrants also frequently use master agreements with credit support annexes to further mitigate certain credit exposures. The master agreements provide for a counterparty to post cash or letters of credit to the exposed party for exposure in excess of an established threshold. The threshold amount represents a negotiated unsecured credit limit for each party to the agreement, determined in accordance with the Duke Energy Registrants’ internal corporate credit practices and standards. Collateral agreements generally also provide that the failure to post collateral when required is sufficient cause to terminate transactions and liquidate all positions.
The Duke Energy Registrants also obtain cash, letters of credit, or surety bonds from certain counterparties to provide credit support outside of collateral agreements, where appropriate, based on a financial analysis of the counterparty and the regulatory or contractual terms and conditions applicable to each transaction. See Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Derivatives and Hedging,” for additional information regarding credit risk related to derivative instruments.
The Duke Energy Registrants’ principal counterparties for its electric and natural gas businesses are RTOs, distribution companies, municipalities, electric cooperatives and utilities located throughout the U.S. Exposure to these entities consists primarily of amounts due to Duke Energy Registrants for delivered electricity. Additionally, there may be potential risks associated with remarketing of energy and capacity in the event of default by wholesale power customers. The Duke Energy Registrants have concentrations of receivables from certain of such entities that may affect the Duke Energy Registrants’ credit risk.
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MD&AQUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The Duke Energy Registrants are also subject to credit risk from transactions with their suppliers that involve prepayments or milestone payments in conjunction with outsourcing arrangements, major construction projects and certain commodity purchases. The Duke Energy Registrants’ credit exposure to such suppliers may take the form of increased costs or project delays in the event of nonperformance. The Duke Energy Registrants' frequently require guarantees or letters of credit from suppliers to mitigate this credit risk.
Credit risk associated with the Duke Energy Registrants’ service to residential, commercial and industrial customers is generally limited to outstanding accounts receivable. The Duke Energy Registrants mitigate this credit risk by requiring tariff customers to provide a cash deposit, letter of credit or surety bond until a satisfactory payment history is established, subject to the rules and regulations in effect in each retail jurisdiction at which time the deposit is typically refunded. Charge-offs for retail customers have historically been insignificant to the operations of the Duke Energy Registrants and are typically recovered through retail rates. Management continually monitors customer charge-offs, payment patterns and the impact of current economic conditions on customers' ability to pay their outstanding balance to ensure the adequacy of bad debt reserves.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, in March 2020, the Duke Energy Registrants announced a suspension of disconnections for nonpayment to be effective throughout the national emergency. While disconnections have resumed, the company continues to offer flexible options to customers struggling with the pandemic and the economic fallout, including extended payment arrangements to satisfy delinquent balances. In addition, the Duke Energy Registrants are monitoring the effects of the resultant economic slowdown on counterparties’ abilities to perform under their contractual obligations. The Duke Energy Registrants have observed a significant increase in utility account arrears, which were roughly double historical levels as of December 31, 2020. There is an expectation of an increase in charge-offs in the future. See Notes 1, 3 and 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," "Regulatory Matters" and "Revenue," respectively, for more information. Duke Energy Ohio and Duke Energy Indiana sell certain of their accounts receivable and related collections through CRC, a Duke Energy consolidated VIE. Losses on collection are first absorbed by the equity of CRC and next by the subordinated retained interests held by Duke Energy Ohio, Duke Energy Kentucky and Duke Energy Indiana. See Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Variable Interest Entities.”
The Duke Energy Registrants provide certain non-tariff services, primarily to large commercial and industrial customers in which incurred costs, including invested capital, are intended to be recovered from the individual customer and therefore are not subject to rate recovery in the event of customer default. Customer creditworthiness is assessed prior to entering into these transactions. Credit concentration related to these transactions exists for certain of these customers.
Duke Energy’s Commercial Renewables segment enters into long-term agreements with certain creditworthy buyers that may not include the right to call for collateral in the event of a credit rating downgrade. Credit concentration exists to certain counterparties on these agreements, including entities that could be subject to wildfire liability. Additionally, Commercial Renewables may invest in projects for which buyers are below investment grade, although such buyers are required to post negotiated amounts of credit support. Also, power sales agreements and/or hedges of project output are generally for an initial term that does not cover the entire life of the asset. As a result, Commercial Renewables is exposed to market price risk and credit risk related to these agreements.
Duke Energy Carolinas has third-party insurance to cover certain losses related to asbestos-related injuries and damages above an aggregate self-insured retention. See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Commitments and Contingencies" for information on asbestos-related injuries and damages claims.
The Duke Energy Registrants also have credit risk exposure through issuance of performance and financial guarantees, letters of credit and surety bonds on behalf of less than wholly owned entities and third parties. Where the Duke Energy Registrants have issued these guarantees, it is possible that they could be required to perform under these guarantee obligations in the event the obligor under the guarantee fails to perform. Where the Duke Energy Registrants have issued guarantees related to assets or operations that have been disposed of via sale, they attempt to secure indemnification from the buyer against all future performance obligations under the guarantees. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Guarantees and Indemnifications,” for further information on guarantees issued by the Duke Energy Registrants.
Based on the Duke Energy Registrants’ policies for managing credit risk, their exposures and their credit and other reserves, the Duke Energy Registrants do not currently anticipate a materially adverse effect on their consolidated financial position or results of operations as a result of nonperformance by any counterparty.
Marketable Securities Price Risk
As described further in Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Investments in Debt and Equity Securities,” Duke Energy invests in debt and equity securities as part of various investment portfolios to fund certain obligations. The vast majority of investments in equity securities are within the NDTF and assets of the various pension and other post-retirement benefit plans.
Pension Plan Assets
Duke Energy maintains investments to facilitate funding the costs of providing non-contributory defined benefit retirement and other post-retirement benefit plans. These investments are exposed to price fluctuations in equity markets and changes in interest rates. The equity securities held in these pension plans are diversified to achieve broad market participation and reduce the impact of any single investment, sector or geographic region. Duke Energy has established asset allocation targets for its pension plan holdings, which take into consideration the investment objectives and the risk profile with respect to the trust in which the assets are held. See Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Employee Benefit Plans,” for additional information regarding investment strategy of pension plan assets.
A significant decline in the value of plan asset holdings could require Duke Energy to increase funding of its pension plans in future periods, which could adversely affect cash flows in those periods. Additionally, a decline in the fair value of plan assets, absent additional cash contributions to the plan, could increase the amount of pension cost required to be recorded in future periods, which could adversely affect Duke Energy’s results of operations in those periods.
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MD&AQUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Nuclear Decommissioning Trust Funds
As required by the NRC, NCUC, PSCSC and FPSC, subsidiaries of Duke Energy maintain trust funds to fund the costs of nuclear decommissioning. As of December 31, 2020, these funds were invested primarily in domestic and international equity securities, debt securities, cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. Per the NRC, Internal Revenue Code, NCUC, PSCSC and FPSC requirements, these funds may be used only for activities related to nuclear decommissioning. These investments are exposed to price fluctuations in equity markets and changes in interest rates. Duke Energy actively monitors its portfolios by benchmarking the performance of its investments against certain indices and by maintaining, and periodically reviewing, target allocation percentages for various asset classes.
Accounting for nuclear decommissioning recognizes that costs are recovered through retail and wholesale rates; therefore, fluctuations in investment prices do not materially affect the Consolidated Statements of Operations, as changes in the fair value of these investments are primarily deferred as regulatory assets or regulatory liabilities pursuant to Orders by the NCUC, PSCSC, FPSC and FERC. Earnings or losses of the funds will ultimately impact the amount of costs recovered through retail and wholesale rates. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Asset Retirement Obligations,” for additional information regarding nuclear decommissioning costs. See Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Investments in Debt and Equity Securities,” for additional information regarding NDTF assets.
OTHER MATTERS
Environmental Regulations
The Duke Energy Registrants are subject to federal, state and local regulations regarding air and water quality, hazardous and solid waste disposal, coal ash and other environmental matters. These regulations can be changed from time to time and result in new obligations of the Duke Energy Registrants.
On May 14, 2020, the five-year probation period following the Dan River coal ash spill ended. The court-appointed monitor confirmed in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina that Duke Energy met or exceeded every obligation throughout the process. Separately, in a final report to the EPA, it was noted that the company made significant enhancements to its Ethics and Compliance Program and its environmental compliance programs.
The following sections outline various proposed and recently enacted legislation and regulations that may impact the Duke Energy Registrants. Refer to Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters," for further information regarding potential plant retirements and regulatory filings related to the Duke Energy Registrants.
Coal Combustion Residuals
In April 2015, EPA published a rule to regulate the disposal of CCR from electric utilities as solid waste. The federal regulation classifies CCR as nonhazardous waste and allows for beneficial use of CCR with some restrictions. The regulation applies to all new and existing landfills, new and existing surface impoundments receiving CCR and existing surface impoundments located at stations generating electricity (regardless of fuel source), which were no longer receiving CCR but contained liquids as of the effective date of the rule. The rule establishes requirements regarding landfill design, structural integrity design and assessment criteria for surface impoundments, groundwater monitoring, protection and remedial procedures and other operational and reporting procedures to ensure the safe disposal and management of CCR.
On July 17, 2018, EPA issued a final rule (Phase 1, Part 1) revising certain closure deadlines and groundwater protection standards in the CCR rule. The rule does not change the primary requirements for groundwater monitoring, corrective action, inspections and maintenance, and closure, and thus does not materially affect Duke Energy’s coal ash basin closure plans or compliance obligations under the CCR rule. On October 22, 2018, a coalition of environmental groups filed a petition for review in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (D.C. Circuit Court) challenging EPA's final Phase 1, Part 1 revisions to the CCR rule. On March 13, 2019, the D.C. Circuit Court issued an order in the Phase 1, Part 1 litigation granting EPA’s motion to remand the rule without vacatur. To date, EPA has finalized two notice-and-comment rulemakings to implement the court’s decision on remand. The “Part A” rule, which was promulgated on August 28, 2020, establishes an April 11, 2021 deadline to cease placement of CCR and non-CCR waste streams into unlined ash basins and initiate closure, and the “Part B” rule, which was promulgated on November 12, 2020, establishes procedures to allow facilities to request approval to operate an existing CCR surface impoundment with an alternate liner. A future rulemaking is expected to address legacy impoundments. Duke Energy does not expect these rulemakings to have a material impact in light of its progress in closing CCR units across the enterprise.
In addition to the requirements of the federal CCR rule, CCR landfills and surface impoundments will continue to be regulated by the states. Cost recovery for future expenditures will be pursued through the normal ratemaking process with federal and state utility commissions and via wholesale contracts, which permit recovery of necessary and prudently incurred costs associated with Duke Energy’s regulated operations. For more information, see Notes 3 and 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters" and "Asset Retirement Obligations," respectively.
Coal Ash Management Act of 2014
AROs recorded on the Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2020, and December 31, 2019, include the legal obligation for closure of coal ash basins and the disposal of related ash as a result of the Coal Ash Act, the EPA CCR rule and other agreements. The Coal Ash Act includes a variance procedure for compliance deadlines and other issues surrounding the management of CCR and CCR surface impoundments and prohibits cost recovery in customer rates for unlawful discharge of ash impoundment waters occurring after January 1, 2014. The Coal Ash Act leaves the decision on cost recovery determinations related to closure of ash impoundments to the normal ratemaking processes before utility regulatory commissions.
Consistent with the requirements of the Coal Ash Act, Duke Energy previously submitted comprehensive site assessments and groundwater corrective plans to NCDEQ. In addition, on December 31, 2019, Duke Energy submitted updated groundwater corrective action plans and site-specific coal ash impoundment closure plans to NCDEQ.
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MD&AOTHER MATTERS
On April 1, 2019, NCDEQ issued a closure determination requiring Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress to excavate all remaining coal ash impoundments at the Allen, Belews Creek, Rogers, Marshall, Mayo and Roxboro facilities in North Carolina. On April 26, 2019, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress filed Petitions for Contested Case Hearings in the Office of Administrative Hearings to challenge NCDEQ's April 1 Order. On December 31, 2019, Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress entered into a settlement agreement with NCDEQ and certain community groups under which Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress agreed to excavate seven of the nine remaining coal ash basins at these sites with ash moved to on-site lined landfills, including two at Allen, one at Belews Creek, one at Mayo, one at Roxboro, and two at Rogers. At the two remaining basins at Marshall and Roxboro, uncapped basin ash will be excavated and moved to lined landfills. Those portions of the basins at Marshall and Roxboro, which were previously filled with ash and on which permitted facilities were constructed, will not be disturbed and will be closed pursuant to other state regulations.
Following NCDEQ's April 1 Order, Duke Energy estimated the incremental undiscounted cost to close the nine remaining impoundments by excavation would be approximately $4 billion to $5 billion, potentially increasing the total estimated costs to permanently close all ash basins in North Carolina and South Carolina to $9.5 billion to $10.5 billion. The settlement lowers the estimated total undiscounted cost to close the nine remaining basins by excavation by approximately $1.5 billion as compared to Duke Energy’s original estimate that followed the order. As a result, the estimated total cost to permanently close all ash basins in North Carolina and South Carolina is approximately $8 billion to $9 billion of which approximately $2.8 billion has been spent through 2020. The majority of the remaining spend is expected to occur over the next 15 to 20 years.
Duke Energy has completed excavation of all coal ash at the Riverbend, Dan River and Sutton plants
For further information on ash basins and recovery, see Notes 3 and 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Regulatory Matters" and “Asset Retirement Obligations,” respectively.
Other Environmental Regulations
The Duke Energy Registrants are also subject to various federal, state and local laws regarding air and water quality, hazardous and solid waste disposal and other environmental matters, including the following:
CWA
Steam Effluent Limitation Guidelines
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule
Duke Energy continues to comply with enacted environmental statutes and regulations even as certain of these regulations are in various stages of clarification, revision or legal challenge. The Duke Energy Registrants cannot predict the outcome of these matters.
Section 126 Petitions
On November 16, 2016, the state of Maryland filed a petition with EPA under Section 126 of the Clean Air Act alleging that 19 power plants, including two plants (three units) that Duke Energy Registrants own and operate, contribute to violations of EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone in the state of Maryland. On March 12, 2018, the state of New York filed a petition with EPA, also under Section 126 of the Clean Air Act, alleging that over 60 power plants, including five that Duke Energy Registrants own and operate, contribute to violations of EPA’s ozone NAAQS in the state of New York. Both Maryland and New York sought EPA orders requiring the states in which the named power plants operate impose more stringent nitrogen oxide emission limitations on the plants. On October 5, 2018, EPA denied the Maryland petition. That same day, Maryland appealed EPA's denial. On October 18, 2019, EPA denied the New York petition, and New York appealed that decision on October 29, 2019. On May 19, 2020, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit issued its decision, finding, with one exception, that EPA reasonably denied the Maryland petition. The court remanded one issue to EPA regarding target sources lacking catalytic controls. All of the Duke Energy units targeted have selective catalytic reduction, so the decision is favorable for these units.
A different panel of the same court heard oral argument in New York’s appeal of EPA’s denial of its Section 126 Petition on May 7, 2020, and on July 14, 2020, the panel issued its decision remanding the Petition to EPA for further review. The Duke Energy Registrants cannot predict the outcome of this matter.
North Carolina Clean Energy Plan (NCCEP)
On October 29, 2018, Governor Roy Cooper signed an executive order calling for a 40% reduction in statewide greenhouse gas emissions by 2025. The order tasked the NCDEQ with developing a clean energy plan for North Carolina. In October 2019, the NCDEQ published its plan, which includes the reduction of electric power sector greenhouse gas emissions by 70% below 2005 levels by 2030 and attainment of carbon neutrality by 2050, fostering long-term energy affordability and price stability for North Carolina’s residents and businesses by modernizing regulatory and planning processes, and acceleration of clean energy innovation to create economic opportunities for both rural and urban areas. Duke Energy Carolinas and Duke Energy Progress are significant stakeholders in this process. The magnitude and timing of investment in response to the NCCEP will depend on the speed of adoption and consensus developed by other stakeholders on how best to successfully transition to this clean energy future while establishing a regulatory model that incentivizes business decisions that benefit both the utilities and the public. The Duke Energy Registrants cannot predict the outcome of this matter.
Global Climate Change
On September 17, 2019, Duke Energy announced an updated climate strategy with new goals of at least 50% reduction in carbon emissions from electric generation by 2030 and net-zero carbon emissions from electric generation by 2050. On October 9, 2020, Duke Energy announced a new goal to achieve net-zero methane emissions from its natural gas distribution system by 2030. Timelines and initiatives, as well as implementation of new technologies, will vary in each state in which the company operates and will involve collaboration with regulators, customers and other stakeholders.
73




MD&AOTHER MATTERS
The Duke Energy Registrants’ GHG emissions consist primarily of CO2 and result primarily from operating a fleet of coal-fired and natural gas-fired power plants. Future levels of CO2 emissions will be influenced by variables that include economic conditions that affect electricity demand, fuel prices, market prices, compliance with new or existing regulations and the technologies deployed to generate the electricity necessary to meet customer demand.
The Duke Energy Registrants have taken actions that have resulted in a reduction of CO2 emissions over time. Actions have included the retirement of 51 coal-fired electric generating units with a combined generating capacity of 6,539 MW. Much of that capacity has been replaced with state-of-the-art highly efficient natural gas-fired generation that produces far fewer CO2 emissions per unit of electricity generated. Duke Energy also has made investments to expand its portfolio of wind and solar projects, increase EE offerings and ensure continued operations of its zero-CO2 emissions hydropower and nuclear plants. These efforts have diversified its system and significantly reduced CO2 emissions. Between 2005 and 2020, the Duke Energy Registrants have collectively lowered the CO2 emissions from their electricity generation by more than 40%, which potentially lowers the exposure to any future mandatory CO2 emission reduction requirements or carbon tax, whether as a result of federal legislation, EPA regulation, state regulation or other as yet unknown emission reduction requirement. Duke Energy will continue to explore the use of currently available and commercially demonstrated technology to reduce CO2 emissions, including EE, wind, solar, storage, carbon capture, utilization and sequestration, the use of hydrogen and other low-carbon fuels and advanced nuclear. Duke Energy will adjust to evolving and innovative technologies in a way that balances the reliability and affordability that meet regulatory requirements and customer demands. Under any future scenario involving mandatory CO2 limitations, the Duke Energy Registrants would plan to seek recovery of their compliance costs through appropriate regulatory mechanisms.
The Duke Energy Registrants recognize that scientists associate severe weather events with increasing levels of GHGs in the atmosphere and forecast the possibility these weather events could have a material impact on future results of operations should they occur more frequently and with greater severity. However, the uncertain nature of potential changes in extreme weather events (such as increased frequency, duration and severity), the long period of time over which any potential changes might take place and the inability to predict potential changes with any degree of accuracy, make estimating with any certainty any potential future financial risk to the Duke Energy Registrants’ operations difficult.
The Duke Energy Registrants annually, biennially or triennially prepare lengthy, forward-looking IRPs. These detailed, highly technical plans are based on the company’s thorough analysis of numerous factors that can impact the cost of producing and delivering electricity that influence long-term resource planning decisions. The IRP process helps to evaluate a range of options, taking into account stakeholder input as well as forecasts of future electricity demand, fuel prices, transmission improvements, new generating capacity, integration of renewables, energy storage, EE and demand response initiatives. The IRP process also helps evaluate potential environmental and regulatory scenarios to better mitigate policy and economic risks. The IRPs we file with regulators look out 10 to 20 years depending on the jurisdiction.
For a number of years, the Duke Energy Registrants have included a price on CO2 emissions in their IRP planning process to account for the potential regulation of CO2 emissions. Incorporating a price on CO2 emissions in the IRPs allows for the evaluation of existing and future resource needs against potential climate change policy risk in the absence of policy certainty. One of the challenges with using a CO2 price, especially in the absence of a clear and certain policy, is determining the appropriate price to use. To address this uncertainty and ensure the company remains agile, the Duke Energy Registrants typically use a range of potential CO2 prices to reflect a range of potential policy outcomes.
The Duke Energy Registrants routinely take steps to reduce the potential impact of severe weather events on their electric transmission and distribution systems and natural gas facilities. The steps include modernizing the electric grid through smart meters, storm hardening, self-healing and targeted undergrounding and applying lessons learned from previous storms to restoration efforts. The Duke Energy Registrants’ electric generating facilities and natural gas facilities are designed to withstand extreme weather events without significant damage. The Duke Energy Registrants maintain inventories of coal, oil and liquified natural gas to mitigate the effects of any potential short-term disruption in fuel supply so they can continue to provide customers with an uninterrupted supply of electricity and/or natural gas.
State Legislation
In 2017, the North Carolina General Assembly passed House Bill 589, and it was subsequently signed into law by the governor. The law includes, among other things, overall reform of the application of PURPA for new solar projects in the state, a requirement for the utility to procure renewable energy through a competitive bidding process administered by an independent third party and recovery of costs related to the competitive bidding process through a competitive procurement rider. The process used was approved by the NCUC to select projects that would deliver the lowest cost of renewable energy for customers.
In accordance with the provisions of House Bill 589, Duke Energy estimates the total competitive procurement will be approximately 1,185 to 1,385 MW. Duke Energy will own or purchase at least 1,185 MW of energy from renewable energy projects under the North Carolina’s CPRE program. Two tranches of the CPRE process have been completed with contracts executed for winning proposals. Five Duke Energy projects, totaling about 190 MW, were selected during the first tranche and none were selected during the second tranche. Two of the Duke Energy winning projects achieved commercial operation in December 2020 and the remaining three will be online by the third quarter 2021. The need for a third tranche of CPRE will be determined prior to November 2021.
In various states, legislation is being considered to allow third-party sales of electricity. Deregulation or restructuring in the electric industry may result in increased competition and unrecovered costs. The Duke Energy Registrants cannot predict the outcome of these initiatives.
New Accounting Standards
See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” for a discussion of the impact of new accounting standards.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition – Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”
74




FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Duke Energy 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows 
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
Duke Energy Carolinas 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
Progress Energy 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
Duke Energy Progress 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
Duke Energy Florida 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
Duke Energy Ohio 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
Duke Energy Indiana 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
Piedmont 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
75




FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Combined Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements 
Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 – Business Segments
Note 3 – Regulatory Matters
Note 4 – Commitments and Contingencies
Note 5 – Leases
Note 6 – Debt and Credit Facilities
Note 7 – Guarantees and Indemnifications
Note 8 – Joint Ownership of Generating and Transmission Facilities
Note 9 – Asset Retirement Obligations
Note 10 – Property, Plant and Equipment
Note 11 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Note 12 – Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates
Note 13 – Related Party Transactions
Note 14 – Derivatives and Hedging
Note 15 – Investments in Debt and Equity Securities
Note 16 – Fair Value Measurements
Note 17 – Variable Interest Entities
Note 18 – Revenue
Note 19 – Stockholders' Equity
Note 20 – Severance
Note 21 – Stock-Based Compensation
Note 22 – Employee Benefit Plans
Note 23 – Income Taxes
Note 24 – Other Income and Expenses, Net
Note 25 – Subsequent Events

76




REPORTS
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Duke Energy Corporation

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Duke Energy Corporation and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, changes in equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 25, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Regulatory Matters — Impact of Rate Regulation on the Financial Statements — Refer to Notes 1, 3, and 9 to the financial statements.

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company is subject to regulation by federal and state utility regulatory agencies (the “Commissions”), which have jurisdiction with respect to the rates of the Company’s electric and natural gas distribution companies. Management has determined it meets the criteria for the application of regulated operations accounting in preparing its financial statements under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Significant judgment can be required to determine if otherwise recognizable incurred costs qualify to be presented as a regulatory asset and deferred because such costs are probable of future recovery in customer rates. As of December 31, 2020, the Company has approximately $14 billion recorded as regulatory assets.

The Company’s rates are subject to regulatory rate-setting processes and annual earnings oversight. Rates charged to customers are determined and approved in regulatory proceedings based on an analysis of the Company’s costs to provide utility service and a return on the Company’s investment in the utility business. Regulatory decisions can have an impact on the recovery of costs, the rate of return earned on investment and the timing and amount of assets to be recovered by rates. The regulation of rates is premised on the full recovery of prudently incurred costs and a reasonable rate of return on invested capital. As discussed in Note 3, regulatory proceedings in recent years in North Carolina and South Carolina have focused on the recoverability of asset retirement obligations specific to coal ash. As a result, assessing the potential outcomes of future regulatory orders in North Carolina and South Carolina requires significant management judgment.

We identified the impact of rate regulation as a critical audit matter due to the significant judgments made by management, including assumptions regarding the outcome of future decisions by the Commissions; to support its assertions on the likelihood of future recovery for deferred costs. As such, auditing these judgments required specialized knowledge of accounting for rate regulation due to its inherent complexities, a high degree of auditor judgment, and an increased extent of effort.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the recovery of regulatory assets included the following, among others:

We tested the effectiveness of management’s controls over the evaluation of the likelihood of the recovery in future rates of regulatory assets and the monitoring and evaluation of regulatory developments that may affect the likelihood of recovering costs in future rates.

77




REPORTS
We evaluated the Company’s disclosures related to the impacts of rate regulation, including the balances recorded and regulatory developments.

We read relevant regulatory orders issued by the Commissions, regulatory statutes, interpretations, procedural memorandums, filings made by interveners, and other publicly available information to assess the likelihood of recovery in future rates based on precedents of the Commissions’ treatment of similar costs under similar circumstances. We evaluated the external information and compared it to management’s recorded regulatory asset balances for completeness.

For regulatory matters in process, we inspected the Company’s and intervenors’ filings with the Commissions, that may impact the Company’s future rates, for any evidence that might contradict management’s assertions.

We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s judgments regarding the recoverability of regulatory asset balances by performing the following:
We inquired of management regarding changes in regulatory orders and regulatory asset balances during the year.
We evaluated the reasonableness of such changes based on our knowledge of commission-approved amortization, expected incurred costs, and recently approved regulatory orders, as applicable.
We utilized trend analyses to evaluate the historical consistency of regulatory asset balances.
We compared the recorded regulatory asset balance to an independently developed expectation of the corresponding balance.

We obtained an analysis from management and letters from internal legal counsel for asset retirement obligations specific to coal ash costs, regarding probability of recovery for deferred costs not yet addressed in a regulatory order to assess management’s assertion that amounts are probable of recovery.

We obtained representation from management asserting that regulatory assets recorded on the financial statements are probable of recovery.



/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Charlotte, North Carolina
February 25, 2021 

We have served as the Company's auditor since 1947.

78




FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
Years Ended December 31,
(in millions, except per share amounts)202020192018
Operating Revenues
Regulated electric$21,461 $22,615 $22,097 
Regulated natural gas1,642 1,759 1,773 
Nonregulated electric and other765 705 651 
Total operating revenues23,868 25,079 24,521 
Operating Expenses
Fuel used in electric generation and purchased power6,051 6,826 6,831 
Cost of natural gas460 627 697 
Operation, maintenance and other5,788 6,066 6,463 
Depreciation and amortization4,705 4,548 4,074 
Property and other taxes1,337 1,307 1,280 
Impairment charges984 (8)402 
Total operating expenses19,325 19,366 19,747 
Gains (Losses) on Sales of Other Assets and Other, net10 (4)(89)
Operating Income4,553 5,709 4,685 
Other Income and Expenses
Equity in (losses) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates(2,005)162 83 
Other income and expenses, net453 430 399 
Total other income and expenses(1,552)592 482 
Interest Expense2,162 2,204 2,094 
Income From Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes839 4,097 3,073 
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense From Continuing Operations(236)519 448 
Income From Continuing Operations1,075 3,578 2,625 
Income (Loss) From Discontinued Operations, net of tax7 (7)19 
Net Income1,082 3,571 2,644 
Add: Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests295 177 22 
Net Income Attributable to Duke Energy Corporation1,377 3,748 2,666 
Less: Preferred Dividends107 41 — 
Net Income Available to Duke Energy Corporation Common Stockholders$1,270 $3,707 $2,666 
Earnings Per Share Basic and Diluted
Income from continuing operations available to Duke Energy Corporation common stockholders
Basic and Diluted$1.71 $5.07 $3.73 
Income (Loss) from discontinued operations attributable to Duke Energy Corporation common stockholders
Basic and Diluted$0.01 $(0.01)$0.03 
Net income available to Duke Energy Corporation common stockholders
Basic and Diluted$1.72 $5.06 $3.76 
Weighted average shares outstanding
Basic737 729 708 
Diluted738 729 708 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
79




FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)202020192018
Net Income$1,082 $3,571 $2,644 
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income, net of tax(a)
Pension and OPEB adjustments6 (6)
Net unrealized losses on cash flow hedges(138)(47)(10)
Reclassification into earnings from cash flow hedges11 
Unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale securities3 (3)
Other Comprehensive Loss, net of tax(118)(24)(13)
Comprehensive Income964 3,547 2,631 
Add: Comprehensive Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests306 177 22 
Comprehensive Income Attributable to Duke Energy Corporation1,270 3,724 2,653 
Less: Preferred Dividends107 41 — 
Comprehensive Income Available to Duke Energy Corporation Common Stockholders$1,163 $3,683 $2,653 
(a)     Net of income tax impacts of approximately $35 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Tax impacts are immaterial for other periods presented.
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
80

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
December 31,
(in millions)20202019
ASSETS
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$259 $311 
Receivables (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $29 at 2020 and $22 at 2019)1,009 1,066 
Receivables of VIEs (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $117 at 2020 and $54 at 2019)2,144 1,994 
Inventory3,167 3,232 
Regulatory assets (includes $53 at 2020 and $52 at 2019 related to VIEs)1,641 1,796 
Other (includes $296 at 2020 and $242 at 2019 related to VIEs)462 764 
Total current assets8,682 9,163 
Property, Plant and Equipment
Cost155,580 147,654 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization(48,827)(45,773)
Generation facilities to be retired, net29 246 
Net property, plant and equipment106,782 102,127 
Other Noncurrent Assets
Goodwill19,303 19,303 
Regulatory assets (includes $937 at 2020 and $989 at 2019 related to VIEs)12,421 13,222 
Nuclear decommissioning trust funds9,114 8,140 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net1,524 1,658 
Investments in equity method unconsolidated affiliates961 1,936 
Other (includes $81 at 2020 and $110 at 2019 related to VIEs)3,601 3,289 
Total other noncurrent assets46,924 47,548 
Total Assets$162,388 $158,838 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable$3,144 $3,487 
Notes payable and commercial paper2,873 3,135 
Taxes accrued482 392 
Interest accrued537 565 
Current maturities of long-term debt (includes $472 at 2020 and $216 at 2019 related to VIEs)4,238 3,141 
Asset retirement obligations718 881 
Regulatory liabilities1,377 784 
Other2,936 2,367 
Total current liabilities16,305 14,752 
Long-Term Debt (includes $3,535 at 2020 and $3,997 at 2019 related to VIEs)55,625 54,985 
Other Noncurrent Liabilities
Deferred income taxes9,244 8,878 
Asset retirement obligations12,286 12,437 
Regulatory liabilities15,029 15,264 
Operating lease liabilities1,340 1,432 
Accrued pension and other post-retirement benefit costs969 934 
Investment tax credits687 624 
Other (includes $316 at 2020 and $228 at 2019 related to VIEs)1,719 1,581 
Total other noncurrent liabilities41,274 41,150 
Commitments and Contingencies00
Equity
Preferred stock, Series A, $0.001 par value, 40 million depositary shares authorized and outstanding at 2020 and 2019973 973 
Preferred stock, Series B, $0.001 par value, 1 million shares authorized and outstanding at 2020 and 2019989 989 
Common stock, $0.001 par value, 2 billion shares authorized; 769 million shares outstanding at 2020 and 733 million shares outstanding at 20191 
Additional paid-in capital43,767 40,881 
Retained earnings2,471 4,108 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(237)(130)
Total Duke Energy Corporation stockholders' equity47,964 46,822 
Noncontrolling interests1,220 1,129 
Total equity49,184 47,951 
Total Liabilities and Equity$162,388 $158,838 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
81

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Years Ended December 31,
(in millions)202020192018
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net income$1,082 $3,571 $2,644 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation, amortization and accretion (including amortization of nuclear fuel)5,486 5,176 4,696 
Equity in losses (earnings) of unconsolidated affiliates2,005 (162)(83)
Equity component of AFUDC(154)(139)(221)
(Gains) Losses on sales of other assets(10)88 
Impairment charges984 (8)402 
Deferred income taxes54 806 1,079 
Payments for asset retirement obligations(610)(746)(533)
Payment for the disposal of other assets — (105)
Provision for rate refunds(22)60 425 
Refund of AMT credit carryforwards572 573 — 
(Increase) decrease in
Net realized and unrealized mark-to-market and hedging transactions63 (48)22 
Receivables(56)78 (345)
Inventory66 (122)156 
Other current assets205 10 (721)
Increase (decrease) in
Accounts payable(21)(164)479 
Taxes accrued117 (224)23 
Other current liabilities(65)172 270 
Other assets(398)(559)(1,062)
Other liabilities(442)(69)(28)
Net cash provided by operating activities8,856 8,209 7,186 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Capital expenditures(9,907)(11,122)(9,389)
Contributions to equity method investments(370)(324)(416)
Return of investment capital133 11 137 
Purchases of debt and equity securities(8,011)(3,348)(3,762)
Proceeds from sales and maturities of debt and equity securities7,949 3,343 3,747 
Other(398)(517)(377)
Net cash used in investing activities(10,604)(11,957)(10,060)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Proceeds from the:
Issuance of long-term debt6,330 7,091 5,299 
Issuance of preferred stock 1,962 — 
Issuance of common stock2,745 384 1,838 
Payments for the redemption of long-term debt(4,506)(3,476)(2,906)
Proceeds from the issuance of short-term debt with original maturities greater than 90 days3,009 397 472 
Payments for the redemption of short-term debt with original maturities greater than 90 days(2,147)(479)(282)
Notes payable and commercial paper(1,181)(298)981 
Contributions from noncontrolling interests426 843 41 
Dividends paid(2,812)(2,668)(2,471)
Other(133)(26)(12)
Net cash provided by financing activities1,731 3,730 2,960 
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(17)(18)86 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period573 591 505 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$556 $573 $591 
Supplemental Disclosures:
Cash paid for interest, net of amount capitalized$2,186 $2,195 $2,086 
Cash received from income taxes(585)(651)(266)
Significant non-cash transactions:
Accrued capital expenditures1,116 1,356 1,112 
Non-cash dividends110 108 107 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
82

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
Duke Energy Corporation Stockholders'
Accumulated Other Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Net UnrealizedTotal
NetGains (Losses)Duke Energy
CommonAdditionalLosses onon Available-Pension andCorporation
PreferredStockCommonPaid-inRetainedCash Flowfor-Sale-OPEBStockholders'NoncontrollingTotal
(in millions)StockSharesStockCapitalEarningsHedgesSecuritiesAdjustmentsEquityInterestsEquity
Balance at December 31, 2017$— 700 $$38,792 $3,013 $(10)$12 $(69)$41,739 $(2)$41,737 
Net income— — — — 2,666 — — — 2,666 (22)2,644 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — (4)(3)(6)(13)— (13)
Common stock issuances, including dividend reinvestment and employee benefits— 27 — 2,003 — — — — 2,003 — 2,003 
Common stock dividends— — — — (2,578)— — — (2,578)— (2,578)
Distributions to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries— — — — — — — — — (1)(1)
Other(a)
— — — — 12 — (12)— — 42 42 
Balance at December 31, 2018$— 727 $$40,795 $3,113 $(14)$(3)$(75)$43,817 $17 $43,834 
Net income— — — — 3,707 — — — 3,707 (177)3,530 
Other comprehensive (loss) Income— — — — — (41)(24)— (24)
Preferred stock, Series A, issuances, net of issuance costs(b)
973 — — — — — — — 973 — 973 
Preferred stock, Series B, issuances, net of issuance costs(b)
989 — — — — — — —