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EEH Swedish Export Credit Corp /Swed

Filed: 23 Feb 21, 5:30pm

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 23, 2021

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

(Mark One)

 

¨Registration statement pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

or

 

x Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

 

¨ Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

or

 

¨ Shell company report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report

 

For the transition period from ________________to _________

 

 

Commission file number: 001-08382

AKTIEBOLAGET SVENSK EXPORTKREDIT

(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

(SWEDISH EXPORT CREDIT CORPORATION)

(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)

 

Kingdom of Sweden

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Klarabergsviadukten 61-63, Stockholm, Sweden

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Stefan Friberg, Swedish Export Credit Corporation,

P.O. Box 194, SE-101 23 Stockholm

Email: Stefan.Friberg@sek.se

Phone 46-8-613 88 05, Fax 46-72-717 88 05

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


Title of each Class
 Trading Symbols 
Name of each exchange on
which registered
     
ELEMENTSSM Linked to the SPECTRUM Large Cap U.S. Sector Momentum Index developed by BNP Paribas due August 8, 2022 EEH NYSE ARCA, Inc.
     
ELEMENTSSM Linked to the Rogers International Commodity Index® — Agriculture Total ReturnSM due October 24, 2022 RJA NYSE ARCA, Inc.
     
ELEMENTSSM Linked to the Rogers International Commodity Index® — Energy Total ReturnSM due October 24, 2022 RJN NYSE ARCA, Inc.
     
ELEMENTSSM Linked to the Rogers International Commodity Index® — Metals Total ReturnSM due October 24, 2022 RJZ NYSE ARCA, Inc.
     
ELEMENTSSM Linked to the Rogers International Commodity Index® — Total ReturnSM due October 24, 2022 RJI NYSE ARCA, Inc.
     
ELEMENTSSM Linked to the ICE BofAML Commodity index eXtraBiofuels Exchange Series — Total Return due February 13, 2023 FUE NYSE ARCA, Inc.
     
ELEMENTSSM Linked to the ICE BofAML Commodity index eXtra (GRains)— Total Return due February 14, 2023 GRU NYSE ARCA, Inc.

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12 (g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

Debt Securities

(Title of Class)

 

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close

of the period covered by the annual report:

 

Shares                                          3,990,000

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

þ Yes      ¨ No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

¨ Yes       þ  No

 

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days:

 

Yes þ      No o

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 

Yes þ    No ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ¨Accelerated filer ¨Non-accelerated filer þEmerging growth company ¨

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

 

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has fi led a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

¨ U.S. GAAP þ International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

 

¨ Other

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 

Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

¨ Yes þ No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

 

¨ Yes ¨ No

 

---------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I 5
    
ITEM1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS5
ITEM2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE5
ITEM3. KEY INFORMATION5
ITEM4. INFORMATION ON THE GROUP AND THE PARENT COMPANY12
ITEM5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS23
ITEM6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES33
ITEM7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS42
ITEM8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION43
ITEM9. THE OFFER AND LISTING44
ITEM10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION45
ITEM11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISKS49
ITEM12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES49
    
PART II 50
    
ITEM13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES50
ITEM14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS50
ITEM15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES50
ITEM16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT51
ITEM16B. CODE OF ETHICS51
ITEM16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES52
ITEM16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES52
ITEM16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS53
ITEM16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT53
ITEM16G.CORPORATE GOVERNANCE53
ITEM16H.MINING SAFETY DISCLOSURE53
    
PART III 53
    
ITEM17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS53
ITEM18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS53
ITEM19. EXHIBITS54

 

2

 

 

INTRODUCTORY NOTES

 

In this annual report on Form 20-F (the “annual report”), unless otherwise specified, all amounts are expressed in Swedish kronor (“Skr”).

 

In this annual report, unless otherwise indicated, all descriptions and financial information relate to the consolidated group consisting of Aktiebolaget Svensk Exportkredit (publ), (Swedish Export Credit Corporation) (the “Parent Company”, the “Company” or “SEK”), including the Commercial Interest Reference Rate-system (the Swedish system for officially supported export credits or the “CIRR-system”), which is described herein, and the Parent Company’s wholly owned, inactive subsidiary SEKETT AB (the “Subsidiary”). These are jointly referred to as the “Consolidated Group” or the “Group”. During 2018, the winding-down of the subsidiary Venantius AB, including its wholly owned subsidiary VF Finans AB, was completed.

 

The consolidated financial statements of SEK included in Item 18 (the “Consolidated Financial Statements”) comprise the consolidated statement of financial position of SEK and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, and the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, including the related notes.. In certain cases, comparable figures for earlier financial periods are reported in parentheses after the relevant figure for the current period. For example, “(2019: Skr 10 million)” means that the relevant figure for 2019, or as of December 31, 2019, as the context requires, was Skr 10 million.

 

The Parent Company is a “public limited liability company” within the meaning of the Swedish Companies Act (2005:551). A Swedish limited liability company, even if its shares are not listed on an exchange and are not publicly traded, may choose to declare itself a “public limited liability company”. Only public limited liability companies are allowed to raise funds from the public through the issuance of debt instruments. A public limited liability company is required to add the notation “publ” to its name, unless it is evident from the company’s name that the company is a public limited liability company.

 

Additional information about SEK, including investor presentations, capital reports and the annual report for the financial year of 2020, is available at www.sek.se/en/for-investors. None of the foregoing reports or presentations, nor any other information available on or accessible through SEK’s website is incorporated herein by reference.

 

3

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This annual report contains forward-looking statements. SEK has based these forward-looking statements on its current expectations and projections about future events. These statements include but are not limited to:

 

statements regarding financial projections and estimates and their underlying assumptions;
statements regarding plans, objectives and expectations relating to future operations and services;
statements regarding the impact of regulatory initiatives on SEK’s operations;
statements regarding general industry and macroeconomic growth rates and SEK’s performance relative to them; and
statements regarding future performance.

 

Forward-looking statements are generally identified by the words “expect”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “intend”, “estimate”, “should” and similar expressions.

 

Forward-looking statements are based on current plans, estimates and projections, and therefore readers should not place undue reliance on them. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and SEK undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statement in light of new information or future events, although SEK intends to continue to meet its ongoing disclosure obligations under the U.S. securities laws (such as the obligations to file annual reports on Form 20-F and reports on Form 6-K) and under other applicable laws. Forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and generally beyond SEK’s control. Readers are cautioned that a number of important factors could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, forward-looking statements. These factors include, among others, the following:

 

·COVID-19 has had an, and could have a further, adverse effect on SEK’s business;
·disruptions in the financial markets or economic recessions, including as a result of geopolitical instability and the recent global outbreak of COVID-19, have had an, and could have a further, adverse effect on SEK’s operations or financial performance;
·disruptions in the financial markets or economic recessions (including as a result of the recent global outbreak of COVID-19) have had an, and could have a further, adverse effect on the the credit quality of borrowers and cause risk to other counterparties, which may, in turn, cause SEK to incur credit losses or affect the value of its assets;
·reduced access to international capital markets for the financing of SEK’s operations, or less favorable financing terms, may have a negative impact on SEK’s profitability and its ability to fulfil its obligations;
·changes in laws, regulations or accounting standards may adversely affect SEK’s business;
·SEK may experience negative changes in the value of its assets or liabilities and may incur other losses related to volatile and illiquid market conditions;
·losses could result from SEK’s derivatives used for hedging, and SEK’s hedging strategies may not be effective;
·fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could harm SEK’s business;
·increasing competition may adversely affect SEK’s income and business;
·SEK is exposed to significant operational risk, which could harm SEK’s business, financial performance or the ability to repay its debt;
·developments in emerging market countries may result in credit losses for SEK on loans to customers in those countries;
·negative interest rates may have an impact on SEK’s profitability; and
·the transition from the use of the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) may adversely affect SEK’s profitability.

 

4

 

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

 

Not required as this 20-F is filed as an annual report.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not required as this 20-F is filed as an annual report.

 

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

 

A. Selected Financial Data

 

Not applicable.

 

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not applicable.

 

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not applicable.

 

D. Risk Factors

 

The following discussion provides a description of the most significant risk factors that could affect SEK’s businesses, results of operations and financial condition and could cause SEK’s results to differ materially from those expressed in public statements or documents. There are also other factors beyond those discussed below or elsewhere in this annual report that could affect SEK’s businesses, results of operations and financial condition and, therefore, the risk factors below should not be considered a complete list of all potential risks that SEK may face.

 

COVID-19 has had an, and could have a further, adverse effect on SEK’s business.

 

While the direct and indirect impact of the continued global COVID-19 pandemic remains uncertain, a majority of central banks and governments have announced financial stimulus packages in order to counteract negative GDP developments during 2020. Concerns remain as to whether these policy tools will counter anticipated macro-economic risks. While markets stabilized and GDP outlook grew more positive by the end of 2020, a prolongation of the outbreak could significantly affect global economic growth and business operations across the global economy, both as a result of weakened economic activity and in terms of the health and wellbeing of employees being affected. Such weakening of the economy could have a material adverse impact on the financial performance or operations of counterparties to SEK, and correspondingly impact SEK, or the cost of funding for SEK, which could have an adverse impact on SEK’s business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Although the overall impact of COVID-19 on SEK’s financial condition and results of operations during 2020 was limited (due in part to the increased demand for lending amidst reduced access to capital markets and other forms of financing), there can be no assurance that the impacts on SEK will remain limited amidst a prolongation of the outbreak. In terms of credit losses, for example, although SEK has as of December 31, 2020 made an adjustment to increase estimated credit losses in order to seek to ensure that provisioning levels sufficiently capture expected future developments, there can be no assurance that actual credit losses will not exceed this increased estimate or that further such increases will not be required.

 

5

 

 

The unforeseen transition from normal on-site office work to working remotely amidst the COVID-19 pandemic has also created challenges in terms of deploying technical solutions for internal communication and operations. Although, as a result of quick mobilization and active management during the spring of 2020, SEK managed to resolve the initial challenges in a timely manner and ensured the continuity of its operations with limited impact on SEK’s business or the Group’s clients, there can be no assurance that these technical solutions will remain sufficient and other challenges from working remotely will not emerge.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve. There may be other material adverse impacts on SEK’s business, operations and financial condition that are unpredictable at this time. The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on SEK’s operational and financial performance will depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, the length of time government and commercial travel limitations are in place, the effectiveness of SEK’s work arrangements from home, the successful execution of plans in connection with eventual return of its personnel to SEK’s office, actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic, as well as other direct and indirect impacts on SEK and its customers, vendors and other stakeholders. As such, the impact on SEK’s employees, clients and the markets in which SEK operates are uncertain at this time and cannot be predicted.

 

Disruptions in the financial markets or economic recessions, including as a result of geopolitical instability and the recent global outbreak of COVID-19, have had an, and could have a further, adverse effect on SEK’s operations or financial performance.

 

SEK’s business and earnings are affected by general business, economic and market conditions, especially within Sweden and Europe. Uncertainty remains concerning the outlook and the future economic environment related to recent events in those regions, such as the impacts of the global outbreak of COVID-19, a continuing weak economic outlook in certain European countries and the uncertainty surrounding the economic effect of the withdrawal of the UK from the EU on January 31, 2020. Although SEK does not have operations in the UK, a large portion of SEK’s borrowings are arranged through banks in the UK. If SEK fails to maintain these agreements on favorable terms following Brexit or the agreements completed with such UK banks’ EU-based affiliates cannot be utilized effectively, SEK’s business and financial performance will suffer. Uncertainties remain as to what, if any, impact a new regulatory regime in the UK and in the EU will have on these agreements.

 

Additionally, even in the absence of slow economic growth or recessions, other economic circumstances – including, but not limited to, volatility in energy prices, contractions in infrastructure spending, fluctuations in market interest or exchange rates, and concerns over the financial health of sovereign governments and their instrumentalities – may have negative consequences for the companies and industries that the Group provides financing to as well as the financial condition of SEK’s financial counterparties and could, in addition to the other factors cited above, have material adverse effects on the Group’s business prospects, financial condition or ability to fulfil its debt obligations.

 

Disruptions in the financial markets or economic recessions (including as a result of the recent global outbreak of COVID-19) have had an, and could have a further, adverse effect on the credit quality of borrowers and cause risk to other counterparties, which may, in turn, cause SEK to incur credit losses or affect the value of its assets.

 

Risks arising from the credit quality of borrowers and counterparties and the recoverability of loans and amounts due from counterparties in derivative transactions are inherent in SEK’s business. Consequently, SEK may incur credit losses or delinquency in debt repayments even in normal economic circumstances. Financial market disruptions or economic recessions (including as a result of the recent global outbreak of COVID-19) may further affect SEK’s customers and counterparties, negatively affecting their ability to fulfil their obligations. Market and economic disruptions may affect, among other things, business and consumer spending, bankruptcy rates and asset prices, creating a greater likelihood of impact on an increased number of SEK’s customers’ or counterparties’ credit demand or that they may become delinquent in their loans or other obligations to SEK. For example, following the 2007/2008 financial crisis, SEK was forced to write down the value of some of its assets as a result of disruptions in the financial markets. Such disruptions may affect the recoverability and value of SEK’s assets and may necessitate an increase in SEK’s provisions for delinquent and defaulted debt and other provisions, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on SEK’s business and/or its ability to repay its debts.

 

6

 

 

Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, SEK has as per December 31, 2020 made an adjustment to increase estimated credit losses in order to seek to ensure that provisioning levels sufficiently capture expected future developments. There can be no assurances, however, that this increase will be sufficient to provide for all credit losses that actually occur, particularly if the COVID-19 pandemic is prolonged and its adverse economic effects more enduring or severe than currently anticipated. If SEK’s current estimated credit losses prove to have been insufficient, higher credit losses would be incurred than those reflected by SEK’s provisioning levels, which could have a material adverse effect on SEK’s financial results, SEK’s capital ratios and the ability of the Company to fulfil its debt obligations.

 

Reduced access to international capital markets for the financing of SEK’s operations, or less favorable financing terms, may have a negative impact on SEK’s profitability and its ability to fulfil its obligations.

 

In order to finance its operations, SEK is dependent on the international capital markets, where it competes with other issuers of similar standing to obtain financing. Although SEK has been able to finance its operations successfully to date, factors outside of SEK’s control may have material adverse effects on the Group’s continued ability to obtain such financing or could cause the cost of such financing to increase. As a result of the recent global outbreak of COVID-19, for example, global markets became extremely turbulent and volatile during the spring of 2020 and SEK experienced an increase in costs of funding through the international capital markets, as did other issuers during the same period. The same occurred as a result of the financial crisis in 2008. In both periods, SEK was able to offset the increased cost of funding by increasing the margins on its lending, but currently and in the future that might not be possible. This could result in more expensive access to the capital markets, which could in turn, have a material adverse effect on SEK’s results of operations.

 

An additional key factor influencing the cost and availability of financing is SEK’s credit rating. Although the Group has favorable credit ratings from various credit rating agencies currently, those credit ratings depend on many factors, some of which are outside of SEK’s control. Significant factors in determining SEK’s credit ratings or that otherwise could affect its ability to raise financing include its ownership structure, asset quality, liquidity profile, short and long-term financial prospects, risk exposures, capital ratios, prudential measures as well as government support and SEK’s public policy role. Although SEK’s owner (the Swedish State) has reaffirmed continued support for SEK’s current public policy role, there is a risk that this stance could change in the future. Deterioration in any one of these factors or any combination of these factors may lead rating agencies to downgrade of SEK’s credit ratings. If SEK were to experience a downgrade in its credit ratings, it would likely become necessary to offer increased interest margins in the capital markets in order to obtain financing, which would likely have a material adverse effect on the Group’s profit margins and earnings, and harm its overall liquidity and business and its ability to fulfil its obligations.

 

Changes in laws, regulations or accounting standards may adversely affect SEK’s business.

 

SEK’s business is subject to regulation and regulatory oversight. In particular, SEK is subject to financial services laws, regulations, administrative actions and policies in each location in which it operates. Any significant legal or regulatory developments could affect the manner in which SEK conducts its business and the results of SEK’s operations. Changes to existing laws, or the interpretation or enforcement of laws, may directly impact SEK’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

7

 

 

In response to the financial crisis in 2008, financial regulators around the world have issued and continue to issue significant regulatory and legislative changes resulting in broad reform and increased regulation impacting financial service companies, including SEK. Changes to the current system of supervision and regulation, or any failure to comply with applicable rules (and particularly those in Sweden), could materially and adversely affect SEK’s authorization to operate, business, financial condition or results of operation and/or ability to repay its debt. For example, as a result of legislative changes in 2017, the Swedish FSA required most financial institutions in Sweden, including SEK, to pay a higher resolution fee to the Swedish resolution fund intended to support the recovery of credit institutions, which has adversely affected SEK’s results of operations to some extent.

 

The European Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (the “BRRD”) provides an EU-wide framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms, their subsidiaries and certain holding companies and was implemented into Swedish law in 2016 by the Resolution Act (2015:1016) (as amended, the “Resolution Act”). In accordance with the BRRD, SEK is subject to a minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities (“MREL”), which is a parallel requirement to the Capital Requirements Regulation (Regulation (EU) no. 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of June 26, 2013 on prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms and amending Regulation (EU) no. 648/2012 or the “CRR”) in the European Union. For 2021, SEK’s minimum MREL requirement is 7.0 percent (for 2020: 7.2 percent). SEK meets these requirements at present since a portion of its senior debt can currently be included towards the requirement. Under currently applicable Swedish legislation, however, SEK would need to issue at least Skr 12 billion in senior non-preferred (SNP) debt before 2024, with said debt being subordinate (contractually or by statute) to other senior debt (senior preferred). Issuance of such SNP debt is expected to start in 2021. Under currently applicable rules, SEK expects SNP issuance of at least the equivalent of USD 1.4 billion prior to 2024, starting with USD 0.7 billion in 2021. In addition to SNP debt, SEK also intends to issue instruments with largely similar features but with preferred ranking (e.g. “MREL Senior Preferred Notes” under SEK’s US Medium-Term Notes Program) which are expected to meet MREL requirements at least during a transitional period. However, the amount and timing of SEK’s new issuance needs remains uncertain, including because the updated Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD II) of 2019 has not yet been fully implemented in Swedish law and the Swedish government’s review committee has presented proposed legislation which, if adopted, would mean that SEK needs to issue a somewhat lower volume of SNP debt and under a more gradual transition period through January 1, 2024. Further, if SEK does not comply with its capital requirements, the national resolution authority in Sweden (Riksgäldskontoret or the “Swedish National Debt Office”) may require SEK to fulfill its requirements by issuing capital in the form of SNP bonds. Whatever the amount and timing of SNP issuances that may ultimately be required, there is a risk that SEK may experience difficulties in issuing SNP bonds or, even if issuances can be undertaken successfully, that the interest rate on these bonds may be considerably higher than on other debt securities issued, which would negatively impact SEK’s profitability. For more information, see Item 4 “Information on the Group and the Parent Company—B. Business Overview—Swedish Government Supervision—Supervisory Authorities”.

 

The Resolution Act confers substantial powers on the Swedish National Debt Office to enable it to take a range of actions in relation to Swedish financial institutions that are considered to be at risk of failing, including a debt write-down tool. The exercise of any resolution power, or any suggestion of the exercise of any resolution power, in relation to SEK may reduce or impede SEK’s ability to obtain financing, cause the cost of financing to increase or impair SEK’s ability to fulfill its obligations.

 

In addition, in the wake of the financial disruptions from 2008 and onwards, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the “Basel Committee”) has revised the Basel regime to provide for new, stricter regulations with regard to capital adequacy and liquidity coverage. These stricter regulations (many of which have already come into force, while others are expected to become effective in the near future) will mean that, in general, financial institutions will need to maintain relatively more own funds (capital base) in relation to their risk-weighted assets as well as better matched borrowing in relation to their obligations. Furthermore, stricter rules on which assets can be defined as liquidity reserves as well as stricter requirements on the clearing of derivatives may also affect international capital markets. Additionally, uncertainty still remains with regards to some areas of the new requirements. While the national adoption of Capital Requirement Directive 2019/878 (“CRD V”) was completed during the fourth quarter of 2020 and the Capital Requirement Regulation 2019/876 (“CRR II”) will enter into force on June 28, 2021. Certain aspects of the new requirements are not yet fully defined. As an example, the new Pillar 2 Guidance requirements will be applied to Swedish institutions as part of the next Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process. Although the Swedish FSA has indicated that the requirement based on the Pillar 2 guidance will amount to an additional 1% - 1.5% CET1 for the risk based requirement and 0.2% - 0.5% CET1 for the leverage ratio requirement for the majority of Swedish institutions, the institute-specific requirement for SEK has not yet been communicated. Underestimations of the upcoming requirements could have an impact on SEK’s capital adequacy, and ultimately, its business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

8

 

 

In December 2017, the Basel Committee introduced final revisions to the Basel III capital framework to reduce the variability of risk weighted assets within the banking system (the “2017 Revisions”). The 2017 Revisions must first be implemented into EU legislation before they can impact SEK’s capital requirements. Even though SEK expects to meet the revised requirements based on current market assumptions, the 2017 Revisions, once implemented, may materially constrain SEK’s business plans and negatively impact profitability. For more information, see Item 4 “Information on the Group and the Parent Company—B. Business Overview—Swedish Government Supervision—Capital adequacy regulations” below.

 

European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR), a regulation regarding over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories, came into effect on August 16, 2012. Since then, various parts of the regulation have been introduced. One of the major revisions relates to risk mitigating techniques, where new bilateral margin requirements are imposed on OTC-derivatives. The application date for the new initial margin requirements for OTC-derivatives was postponed from September 2021 until September 2022. Under the new requirements, SEK may be required to post additional collateral in its OTC derivative transactions which may incur increased costs impacting SEK’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

SEK may experience negative changes in the value of its assets or liabilities and may incur other losses related to volatile and illiquid market conditions.

 

Increased market volatility, illiquid market conditions and disruptions in the credit markets, including those observed during spring of 2020 and in certain periods since, make it difficult to value SEK’s assets and liabilities during certain periods. In particular, SEK is exposed to changes in the fair value of certain assets of liabilities due to unrealized gains and losses (e.g. in the form of changes in currency basis spread). Such changes in fair value can have a negative impact on SEK’s results as reported under IFRS.

 

Subsequent valuations, in light of factors then prevailing, may result in significant changes in the value of SEK’s assets or liabilities in future periods. Furthermore, at the time of any sale of any such assets, the prices SEK ultimately realizes will depend on the demand and liquidity in the market at that time and may be materially lower than such assets’ current fair value. Any of these factors could have an impact on the valuation of SEK’s assets and liabilities, and may therefore have an adverse effect on the Group’s financial condition in future periods.

 

Losses could result from SEK’s derivatives used for hedging, and SEK’s hedging strategies may not be effective.

 

SEK uses hedging instruments in an attempt to manage interest rate, currency, credit, basis and other market-related risks.

 

If any of the variety of instruments and strategies the Group uses to hedge its exposure to these various types of risk is not effective, the Group may incur losses, which may have an adverse effect on the Group’s financial condition and could impair its ability to timely repay or refinance its debts. The majority of SEK’s derivative contracts are OTC derivatives, i.e., derivative contracts that are not transacted on an exchange. These derivatives are entered into under ISDA Master Agreements. If counterparty defaults on these contracts, the underlying exposure would no longer be effectively hedged, which could result in losses.

 

In addition, there can be no assurance that the Group will continue to be able to hedge risks related to current or future assets or liabilities in accordance with its current policies in an efficient manner or at all. Disruptions such as market crises and economic recessions, including potentially as a result of the global outbreak of COVID-19, may serve to challenge the availability and effectiveness of hedging instruments or strategies. For example, the expected transition away from LIBOR and similar benchmark rates may have a different impact on the hedged item and the hedging instrument, which could cause some of SEK’s hedge to become ineffective, resulting in potential losses. An inability to hedge any material risks could result in additional losses, which could have an adverse effect on SEK’s financial condition and its ability to fulfil its obligations.

 

Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could harm SEK’s business.

 

As an international lending institution, the Group faces exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. The adequacy of the Group’s financial resources may be impacted by changes in currency exchange rates that affect the value, in Swedish currency, of the Group’s foreign-currency obligations. SEK’s exposure to foreign currency exchange risk is caused primarily by fluctuations in the Swedish krona (“Skr”)/United States dollar (“USD”) exchange rate and the Skr/Euro exchange rate. Countries could undertake actions that could significantly impact the value of their currencies such as “quantitative easing” measures and potential withdrawals from common currencies. Higher inflation in certain countries, including in the United States or in Europe, may also result in devaluation of currencies. Even though the Group carefully monitors and hedges its foreign currency exposures, changes in currency exchange rates adverse to the Group could harm SEK’s business, its profitability and its ability to repay its debts. Furthermore, SEK does not hedge its exposure towards currency exchange-rate effects related to unrealized changes in the fair value of its assets and liabilities. Also, any strengthening of the Swedish krona against other currencies may reduce demand for the products sold overseas by SEK’s Swedish clients and thus reduce demand for its loans from end-purchasers of such products, or cause such clients to experience increased difficulty in repaying their loans to SEK. Such eventualities could therefore have an adverse effect on SEK’s financial condition and its ability to fulfill its obligations.

 

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Increasing competition may adversely affect SEK’s income and business.

 

The financial services industry is highly competitive. SEK’s lending business, other than the CIRR-system, faces competition from other Swedish and foreign financial institutions, as well as from direct and indirect financing programs of exporters, and competition is increasing. SEK competes on the basis of a number of factors including service, product innovation, product features, price, commission structures, financial strength and name recognition. Some of SEK’s competitors offer a broader array of products or may have more competitive pricing or greater financial resources than SEK. If the Group is unable to match the products and services of its competitors or has to lower its prices or rates in order to compete for customer business, investments or financing, it could result in lower lending volume, decreased revenue and increased costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on SEK’s business and its ability to repay its debts.

 

SEK is exposed to significant operational risk, which could harm SEK’s business, financial performance or the ability to repay its debt.

 

SEK’s business is dependent on the ability to process complex transactions in an efficient and accurate manner. Operational risk for a financial institution such as SEK can arise from fraud, errors by employees, failure to document transactions properly or to obtain proper internal authorizations, equipment failures, natural disasters, information security failures, data loss, cyber-attacks and breaches from known malware or future malware and the failure of external systems such as those of SEK’s suppliers or counterparties. These risks could be exacerbated under the current conditions as a result of the global outbreak of COVID-19. Despite having taken preventative actions to protect the security of its information relative to its perceived risks, SEK may nevertheless experience major security failures, data losses, cyber-attacks or breaches in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on SEK’s business. Failure to address operational risk and increased regulatory requirements relating to operational risk may lead to additional costs, losses or damages to SEK’s reputation which may negatively affect customers’ and investors’ confidence, and thus SEK’s business, financial performance or ability to repay its debt. For example, SEK has in the past incurred additional costs related to the enhancement of IT-system due to increased regulatory burdens. If, for example, SEK failed to properly comply with its obligations under financial guarantee contracts or other credit risk reducing arrangements or if the contracts were not properly drafted, this could result in SEK not being able to effectively seek recourse to such guarantees or other arrangements in the event the relevant borrower was unable to repay its debt to SEK.SEK’s reputation could also be damaged if SEK fails to comply with current legislation and best practices or in any other way fails to meet its commitments and expectations. A significant failure in managing SEK’s operational risk could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operation or ability to repay its debt.

 

Developments in emerging market countries may result in credit losses for SEK on loans to customers in those countries.

 

The Group grants loans to customers in a number of emerging markets. Lending in emerging markets generally involves greater economic or political risk than in more developed countries, including economic crises, potentially unstable governments, risks of nationalization of businesses or appropriation of assets, restrictions on foreign ownership and uncertain legal systems. Although a significant number of SEK’s loans are guaranteed by the Swedish Export Credits Guarantee Board (the “EKN”) (39% and 38% as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively), SEK could experience credit losses with respect to those loans not covered by a guarantee, which could reduce the Group’s net income and have a material adverse effect on the Group’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition. Additionally, new EU regulation 2019/630 regarding minimum loss coverage for non-performing loan exposures, which requires institutions to deduct any shortfall between accounting provisions and regulatory prescribed coverage ratios for both secured and non-secured loan exposures, may also affect SEK’s own funds, capital ratios and financial condition.

 

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Negative interest rates may have an impact on SEK’s profitability.

 

Negative interest rates may result in lower net interest income for SEK and may negatively affect the value of SEK’s assets and liabilities. For example, negative interest rates may:

 

·render SEK’s hedges less effective if interest rate is to be paid on the hedge while there is no compensation on the hedged item;
·lead to increased prepayments on loans by customers and a lower spread between rates on assets and liabilities, which could reduce SEK’s revenues;
·lead to valuation risk due to potential changes in market practice for how to incorporate negative interest rates in the valuation;
·create a risk that the bond market may be adversely affected due to lower turnover and less liquidity, which could reduce SEK’s ability to access the capital markets; and
·lead to greater risk of increased debt levels, rising asset prices and heightened financial risk taking.

 

The transition from the use of the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) may adversely affect SEK’s profitability.

 

As a result of recent regulatory and other legal proceedings, actions by regulators or law enforcement agencies may result in changes to the manner in which LIBOR is determined, its discontinuance or the establishment of alternative reference rates. In July 2017, the head of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), which regulates LIBOR, announced plans to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. Following new consultation from the FCA, the phase out of certain USD LIBOR tenors is proposed to be postponed until the end of June 2023. For the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (“EURIBOR”) and the Stockholm Interbank Offered Rate (“STIBOR”), which are also significant reference rates for SEK, no formal end date has been announced.

 

The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (ARRC) as well as the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) have declared that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) will replace USD LIBOR. The market continues to develop in relation to SOFR as a reference rate for floating rate notes. The continued development of SOFR rates and the market infrastructure for adopting such rates could result in reduced liquidity, increased volatility or could otherwise affect the market price of any SOFR-linked notes that SEK may issue. For the sterling market, the Sterling Over Night Index Average (“SONIA”) is expected to become an acceptable alternative to LIBOR. However, until a formal decision has been made there is still uncertainty with regards to the replacement of LIBOR.

 

At this time, it is not possible to fully predict the effect that these developments, any discontinuance, modification or other reforms to LIBOR, EURIBOR, STIBOR or any other reference rate, the establishment of alternative reference rates, or the impact of any such events on contractual mechanisms may have on the markets, SEK or the Company’s floating rate debt securities. It is still uncertain at what rate liquidity in the market in new instruments linked to SOFR will build up, but with regard to U.S. dollar floating rate debt securities, SEK has switched from issuing LIBOR-linked floating rate notes to SOFR-linked floating rate notes. SEK’s exposure that is directly affected by the interest rate benchmark reform, however, mainly relates to its lending contracts with floating interest rates, its lending and borrowing contracts with fixed interest rates that are hedged to floating interest rates as well as currency swaps to floating interest rates. The main floating interest rate exposures relate to USD LIBOR, STIBOR and EURIBOR. As of December 31, 2020, SEK has approximately USD 450 million (maturing by July 15, 2021), USD 1.2 billion (maturing by December 13, 2021) and JPY 1 billion (maturing by June 20, 2023) of outstanding debt linked to LIBOR. This debt generally includes fallback features that would allow for the use of an alternative rate if LIBOR is no longer available. In addition, SEK is working on a cross-organizational project to renegotiate legacy business in reliance on LIBOR, introducing robust fallback provision in new trades and generally following recommended guidelines from the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA), International Capital Markets Association (ICMA) and Alternative Reference Rates Committee (ARCC). However, the use of an alternative rate could result in increased costs and margin decompression for SEK going forward, impacting SEK’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Depending on market developments, SEK may also experience increased borrowing and hedging costs in the future. Conversely, the use of an alternative rate could also reduce the interest paid on SEK’s floating rate notes which could adversely affect the value and market for those notes. Furthermore, uncertainty as to the nature of the potential discontinuance, modification, alternative reference rates or other reforms of LIBOR may negatively impact market liquidity, SEK’s access to funding required to operate the business and the trading market for the Company’s floating rate debt securities.

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE GROUP AND THE PARENT COMPANY

 

A.  History and Development of the Group and the Parent Company

 

Aktiebolaget Svensk Exportkredit (publ) (Swedish Export Credit Corporation) is a “public limited liability company” under the Swedish Companies Act (2005:551). It is wholly owned by the Swedish State through the Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation (“Sweden”, the “Swedish State” or the “State”).

 

The Parent Company was founded in 1962 in order to strengthen the competitiveness of the Swedish export industry by meeting a need for long-term financing for both exporters and their foreign customers. SEK’s objective is to engage in financing activities in accordance with the Swedish Banking and Financing Business Act (2004:297) and, in connection therewith, to promote the development of Swedish commerce and industry as well as otherwise engaging in Swedish and international financing activities on commercial terms. The duration of the Parent Company is indefinite.

 

SEK’s mission has evolved since it began its operations in 1962. SEK’s range of products has expanded from its roots in export loans; however it remains a niche operator in the financial markets.

 

The address of the Parent Company’s principal executive office is AB Svensk Exportkredit (Swedish Export Credit Corporation), Klarabergsviadukten 61-63, Stockholm, Sweden; and the Parent Company’s telephone number is +46-8-613-83 00. The Parent Company’s authorized representative in the United States is Business Sweden, whose contact information is as follows:

 

Business Sweden New York

The News Building,

220 E 42nd Street

Suite 409A,

New York, NY 10017

Tel. No.: (212) 507-9001

usa@business-sweden.se

 

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B.Business Overview

 

SEK’s mission is to ensure access to financial solutions for the Swedish export industry on commercial and sustainable terms, with the aim of promoting the development and international competitiveness of Swedish industry and trade. Its mission includes, as a public policy assignment, administration of the CIRR-system. Pursuant to agreements established in 1978 and amended from time to time thereafter, the Group administers the CIRR-system on behalf of the Swedish State in return for compensation.

 

SEK extends loans on commercial terms at prevailing fixed or floating market interest rates as well as loans on State-supported terms at fixed interest rates that may be lower than prevailing fixed market rates in the CIRR-system. The compensation from the CIRR-system to SEK is recorded as a part of interest income in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income. See Note 1(f) to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Because Sweden is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”), the CIRR-system is designed to comply with the Arrangement on Guidelines for Officially Supported Export Credits of the OECD (the “Export Credit Guidelines”).

 

SEK’s product offerings are aimed at Swedish exporters and their customers, and its customers are mainly found among the 100 largest Swedish exporters with sales exceeding Skr 4 billion. Starting in 2015, SEK has also expanded its product offerings to reach medium-sized exporters with sales of more than Skr 500 million.

 

SEK works mainly in lending and as a result, SEK acts as a complement to, and works in cooperation with, Swedish and international banks as well as other financial institutions. SEK also has close partnerships with other export promotion agencies in Sweden such as Almi, Business Sweden, EKN and Swedfund.

 

SEK can provide loans in a number of different currencies and with different maturities. The majority of its lending is in Swedish kronor, US dollars or euros, but SEK also offers loans in several other currencies.

 

SEK’s borrowing activities in the international capital markets have given SEK expertise in financial instruments.

 

SEK’s niche specialization in long-term export-related financing, combined with its financial capacity and flexible organization, are key factors in the management of its operations.

 

2020

Exporters’ financing needs have been significantly higher than normal, and in 2020, SEK lent Skr 125.5 billion (2019: Skr 74.5 billion) and set a new lending record for the Company. New lending to Swedish exporters was Skr 62.2 billion (2019: Skr 24.9 billion) and new lending to exporters’ customers amounted to Skr 63.3 billion (2019: Skr 49.6 billion).
The high level of lending during the year resulted in net interest income of Skr 1,946 million (2019: Skr 1,717 million) representing SEK’s second-highest level of net interest income in any given year to date.
There is a global need for investment to reach the reduced carbon emissions goals contained in the Paris Agreement, and the pace of transition has accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a substantial transition need in sectors such as transportation and energy, sustainable urban development and fossil-frugal production. Over the year, SEK has increased its focus on financing this transition in Sweden and internationally.
As a consequence of COVID-19 infection risk, most of our employees are continuing to work remotely. Working from home has been highly effective from both a technical and a practical standpoint. The majority of client meetings are also conducted remotely, which has worked well, and slowly but surely, onboarding of new clients has started to pick up. However, the number of new clients is down from our expectations at the start of the year.
SEK’s new lending to green projects totaled Skr 10.8 billion in 2020 (2019: Skr 3.1 billion).
SEK’s net interest income amounted to Skr 1,946 million (2019: Skr 1,717 million). Net interest income was affected positively by a lower resolution fee of Skr 86 million (2019: Skr 169 million) which SEK is required to pay to a fund to support the recovery of credit institutions.
SEK has a credit facility with the Swedish National Debt Office of Skr 200 billion, renewed through the end of 2021 by the Swedish Parliament, in order to further enhance the ability to promote the Swedish export industry. SEK has utilized the credit facility during 2020 and borrowed Skr 10 billion. The credit facility can be used both within the current CIRR-system and, up to Skr 15 billion, for commercial export financing.

The Board of Directors of SEK (the “Board”) has resolved to propose at the Annual General Meeting that a total dividend of Skr 290 million (2019: 0) be paid in accordance with SEK’s dividend policy of 30 percent of the profit of the year.

 

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Competition

 

SEK is the only institution authorized by the Swedish State to grant export financing loans under the CIRR-system. With support from the State, SEK helps Swedish export companies compete with other export companies within OECD member countries, which have similar support from their respective domestic export credit agencies and which also provide government-supported export credits. SEK also helps Swedish export companies compete with other export companies outside the OECD member countries. SEK’s lending, excluding the CIRR-system, faces competition from other Swedish and foreign financial institutions, as well as from the direct and indirect financing programs of exporters themselves.

 

The following table summarizes SEK’s loans outstanding and debt outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and 2019:

 

  Year ended December 31,    
Skr mn 2020  2019  Changes in percent 
Total loans outstanding(A)  231,678   217,594   6% 
     of which CIRR-system  69,163   76,120   -9% 
Total debt outstanding  287,462   273,017   5% 
     of which CIRR-system  69,289   76,257   -9% 

 

 

(A) Loans outstanding consist of loans due from commercial and financial institutions including loans in the form of interest-bearing securities. For a reconciliation of loans outstanding, see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Lending Operations – General

 

The following table sets forth certain data regarding the Group’s lending operations, including the CIRR-system, during the two-year period ending December 31, 2020:

 

  Year ended December 31,    
Skr mn 2020  2019  Changes in percent 
Offers of long-term loans accepted  125,470   74,515   68% 
Total loan disbursements  -126,615   -67,410   88% 
Total loan repayments  100,370   69,824   44% 
Total net increase in loans outstanding  14,084   8,368   68% 
Loans outstanding  231,678   217,594   6% 
Loan commitments outstanding but undisbursed(A)  57,213   52,150   10% 

 

 

(A) If a loan has been accepted by the borrower it can be disbursed immediately. However, disbursement may be delayed due to a number of factors. In some cases, including as a result of changes in the commercial and financial institutions’ need for funds, an accepted loan may never be disbursed. Currency exchange-rate effects also impact the amount of loan commitments that will result in loans outstanding. Therefore, the volume of loans accepted does not equal the volume of loans disbursed as presented in the Statement of Cash Flows in the Consolidated Financial Statements for a single fiscal year. Loans accepted but not yet disbursed are presented under the heading “Commitments” as “Committed undisbursed loans”. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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Total loans outstanding, type of loans               
                
  As of December 31, 
Skr mn 2020  2019  2018  2017  2016 
Lending to exporters' customers  111,628   121,165   119,467   102,060   113,738 
     of which CIRR-system  69,163   76,120   69,922   49,124   49,802 
                     
Lending to Swedish exporters  120,050   96,429   89,759   93,060   94,962 
     of which CIRR-system  -   -   -   -   - 
Total  231,678   217,594   209,226   195,120   208,700 
     of which CIRR-system  69,163   76,120   69,922   49,124   49,802 

 

Most of the loans granted by SEK are granted to purchasers of Swedish exports. Western European markets are the largest markets for exported Swedish goods by revenue. However, exports to other markets, including less developed markets, are also important. Accordingly, the need for export financing may be related to transactions involving buyers in many different countries, with varying levels of creditworthiness. Pursuant to its credit risk exposure policy, SEK is selective in accepting such risk exposure. This policy seeks to ensure that SEK is neither dependent on the creditworthiness of individual buyers of Swedish goods and services, nor on the countries in which they are domiciled, but rather on the creditworthiness of individual counterparties to which SEK accepts credit risk exposure. SEK relies to a large extent on guarantees in its lending. For additional information on SEK’s approach to risk, see Note 26 and Note 29 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

SEK has no exposure to loans that it would characterize as high-risk lending, including loans which have been modified or would otherwise qualify as distressed debt, other than the limited amount of such assets disclosed in Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

CIRR-system

 

SEK treats the CIRR-system as a separate operation for accounting purposes. Although the deficits (or surpluses) of programs under the CIRR-system are reimbursed by (or paid to) the Swedish State, any loan losses that may be incurred under such programs are not reimbursed by the Swedish State. Accordingly, SEK has to obtain appropriate credit support for those loans as well. All of the lending under the CIRR-system is reported on SEK’s Consolidated Statement of Financial Position. SEK has consequently presented the financial results of the CIRR-system in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income as the gross amounts collected and paid in accordance with the agreement with the Swedish State. This principle is a change in this annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020. Previously, SEK presented the financial results of the CIRR-system in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income as the amount of net commission received, accounted for as interest income rather than presenting the gross amounts collected and paid in accordance with the agreement with the Swedish State. [See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.] In general, loans under the program are guaranteed by the EKN. All such loans granted by SEK must also undergo SEK’s customary approval process.

 

Pursuant to an owner instruction adopted by the sole shareholder, the Swedish State, at the Annual General Meeting in April 2016, the difference between interest income related to lending and liquid assets under the CIRR-system on the one hand, and interest expenses related to borrowing, all other financing costs and any net foreign exchange losses incurred by SEK under the CIRR-system, on the other hand, are reimbursed by (or paid to) the Swedish State.

 

SEK reports loans in the following categories:

 

Loan Types and Underwriting Policies

 

(a) Lending to Swedish exporters

(b) Lending to exporters’ customers

oexport credits;
oloans for the funding of export lease agreements;
otrade finance; and
oproject finance.

 

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Within the CIRR-system, SEK extends loans only for the medium and long-term financing of durable goods exports. CIRR-system lending includes financing in collaboration with intergovernmental organizations and foreign export credit agencies.

 

SEK’s credit underwriting policies and requirements are similar regardless of loan type, and pertain equally to the CIRR-system. The majority of SEK’s loans are guaranteed by export credit agencies or banks, or by credit default swaps issued by banks or other financial institutions.

 

SEK’s initial loan offer and subsequent commitment set forth the maximum principal amount of the loan, the currency in which the loan will be denominated, and the repayment and disbursement schedule.

 

For more information, see the table under the heading “Outstanding loans as per product type” under Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Interest Rates

 

Outside the CIRR-system, export financing is extended at prevailing market rates of interest. The Group normally makes loan offers at a quoted interest rate that is subject to change prior to acceptance of the loan offer (a non-binding offer). When a borrower accepts a non-binding loan offer, the interest rate is normally set at the then-prevailing market rate (which might have changed since the loan commitment was made), and a binding loan commitment arises. Binding offers can also be provided and are offers with a higher degree of commitment to the customer with regard to disbursement of the loan than non-binding offers, regardless of whether the interest rate is fixed or not.

 

Because Sweden is a member of the OECD, the CIRR-system is designed to comply with the Export Credit Guidelines, which establish minimum interest rates, required down payments and maximum loan periods for government-supported export loan programs.

 

SEK offers CIRR loans established by the OECD in accordance with the Export Credit Guidelines. The CIRR rates for new loans are subject to periodic review and adjustment by the OECD. The Export Credit Guidelines stipulate that loan offers may remain valid for a period of not more than 120 days. EU rules and Swedish regulations state that the commercial contract relating to the loan offer must be signed within that 120-day period. Thereafter, the CIRR rate can be locked in for a maximum period of six months in order for the loan agreement to be finalized. No commitment fee is charged by SEK for CIRR loans. SEK receives compensation from the Swedish government in the form of an administrative fee of 0.25 percent per annum, which is calculated based on the loan amount outstanding. The arranging or agent-bank, generally a commercial bank, receives compensation in the amount of 0.25 percent per annum, based on the loan amount outstanding, to cover its costs for arranging and managing loans.

 

SEK previously participated with government agencies in an export-financing program (the “Concessionary Credit Program”) financed by the Swedish State to promote exports to certain developing countries, incorporating a foreign aid element of at least 35 percent. Sweden is no longer providing new concessionary credits under the program, but SEK still has loans from the program outstanding on its balance sheet. Terms varied according to the per capita income of the importing country.

 

The aid element is reflected in the form of lower rates of interest and/or deferred repayment schedules. The Swedish government reimburses SEK through the CIRR-system for the costs incurred as a result of SEK’s participation in the Concessionary Credit Program as well as any costs for CIRR financing.

 

Guarantees and Credit Default Swaps

 

SEK relies to a large extent on guarantees in its lending. The guarantors are principally made up of government export credit agencies, such as the EKN, the Export Import Bank of the United States, the Exports Credits Guarantee Department of the United Kingdom, Compagnie Française d’Assurance pour le Commerce Extérieur of France and Euler Hermes Kreditversicherungs AG of Germany, as well as financial institutions and, to a lesser extent, non-financial corporations. Credit risk is allocated to a guarantor in accordance with SEK’s policy and therefore, when disclosing net credit risk exposures, the majority of SEK’s guaranteed credit exposure is shown as exposure to sovereign counterparties. In general, loans under the CIRR-system are guaranteed by the EKN.

 

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Total credit exposures for SEK covered by guarantees

  Year ended December 31, 
Skr bn 2020  2019 
Government export credit agencies  154.1   145.5 
   of which covered corporate exposures  95.9   92.5 
   of which covered exposures to financial institutions  0.0   0.0 
   of which covered exposures to regional governments  1.4   1.7 
   of which covered sovereign exposures  56.8   51.3 

 

As of December 31, 2020, government export credit agencies guaranteed 42.9 percent (2019: 41.9 percent) of SEK's total credit exposures.

 

If a guarantee or credit default swap is entered into for risk-mitigating purposes, the instrument protects a pre-defined amount of SEK’s exposure with respect to the principal amount of the underlying loan (and in some cases interest) as long as the issuer of the guarantee or credit default swap is financially sound. The protected amount is ordinarily 75–100 percent of the principal amount. Most of the counterparties against whom SEK accepts net exposures are rated by one or more of the internationally recognized rating agencies.

 

For information regarding SEK’s gross and net credit exposures to counterparties, broken down by geography and type of counterparty (taking into account applicable guarantees but not collateral), see Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Loan Maturities

 

SEK’s historical role (and one that continues today) has been in the provision of long-term financing in order to promote the Swedish export industry. Since many of the projects the export industry engages in are long-term projects, both with regard to disbursement periods and repayment periods, SEK’s loans often have longer terms than those of loan products offered by commercial banks. However, SEK also meets its customers’ needs by providing short-term financing when required. Consequently, SEK’s loan maturities range from very short-term loans (with terms of three to six months) to loans for as long as 20–30 years. Under the CIRR-system, loan maturities generally range from one year up to 20–30 years.

 

Currency

 

SEK extends loans in different currencies, depending on the needs of its borrowers. Before the Group makes any loan commitment, it ensures that the currency in which the loan is to be funded is expected to be available for the entire loan period at an interest rate (taking into account the costs of foreign exchange derivatives) that, as of the day the commitment is made, results in a margin that the Group deems sufficient. The Group borrows, on an aggregate basis, at maturities corresponding to or exceeding those of prospective loans. Accordingly, the Group may decide not to hedge particular loan commitments due to movements in interest rate risk until sometime after they are made. Interest rate risks associated with such unhedged commitments are monitored closely and may not exceed interest rate risk limits established by the Board. SEK’s policies are described in Note 29 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

The following table shows the currency breakdown of loan offers accepted for loans with maturities exceeding one year for each year in the two-year period ending December 31, 2020.

 

  Percentage of loan offers accepted 
Currency in which loan is denominated 2020  2019 
Swedish kronor  40%   34% 
Euros  14%   13% 
U.S. dollars  42%   48% 
Other  4%   5% 
Total  100%   100% 

 

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Credit Support for Loans Outstanding

 

The Group’s policies with regard to counterparty exposures are described in detail in Note 29 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

The following table illustrates the counterparties for the Group’s loans and guarantees outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019. Although most loans fall into more than one category for any given loan, this table only reflects the counterparty (either the borrower or the guarantor) that SEK believes to be stronger in terms of creditworthiness.

 

  2020  2019 
Loan credit exposure to Swedish State guarantees via EKN(A)  40%   40% 
Loan credit exposure to Swedish credit institutions(B)  3%   3% 
Loan credit exposure to foreign bank groups or  governments(C)  8%   9% 
Loan credit exposure to Swedish counterparties, primarily corporations(D)  34%   32% 
Loan credit exposure to municipalities  2%   3% 
Loan credit exposure to other foreign counterparties, primarily corporations  13%   13% 
Total  100%   100% 

 

 

(A) EKN guarantees are in substance insurance against losses caused by the default of a foreign borrower or buyer in meeting its contractual obligations in connection with the purchase of Swedish goods or services. In the case of a foreign private borrower or buyer, coverage is for “commercial” and, in most cases, “political” risks. Coverage for “commercial” risk refers to losses caused by events such as the borrower’s or buyer’s insolvency or failure to make required payments within a certain time period (usually six months). Coverage for “political” risk refers to losses caused by events such as a moratorium, revolution or war in the importing country or the imposition of import or currency control measures in such country. Disputed claims must be resolved by a court judgment or arbitral award, unless otherwise agreed by EKN. In the table above, only the particular amount of any given total loan that is guaranteed is listed as such. The amount of any such loan that is not covered by the relevant guarantee is excluded. EKN is a State agency whose obligations are backed by the full faith and credit of Sweden.

(B) At December 31, 2020, loans in this category amounting to approximately 1 percent (2019: 1 percent) of total loans were obligations of the four largest commercial bank groups in Sweden, including guarantees in the form of bank guarantees or credit derivatives. The remaining 2 percent (2019: 2 percent) of total loans represented loans to various financial institutions and minor commercial banks in Sweden, including guarantees in the form of bank guarantees or credit derivatives.

(C) At December 31, 2020, principally obligations of other Nordic, Western European or North American bank groups, together with obligations of Western European governments, including guarantees in the form of bank guarantees or credit derivatives.

(D) At December 31, 2020, approximately 12 percent (2019: 12 percent) of the total loan credit exposure represented loans to the 20 largest Swedish corporations.

See “—Lending Operations—General” for information on the geographical distribution of borrowers, see also Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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Swedish Government Supervision

 

Supervisory Authorities

 

SEK operates as a credit market institution within the meaning of the Swedish Banking and Financing Business Act (2004:297). As such, it is subject to supervision and regulation by Finansinspektionen (the “Swedish FSA”), which licenses and monitors the activities of credit market institutions to ensure their compliance with the Swedish Banking and Financing Business Act, including the regulations linked to it, and such institutions’ corporate charters. This supervision with respect to the Group’s minimum capital and liquidity requirements covers the Parent Company but not the Subsidiary because the Subsidiary is not classified as a credit market institution. Among other things, the Swedish FSA requires SEK to submit reports on a daily, monthly, quarterly, semi-annual and annual basis and may conduct periodic inspections. The Swedish FSA has also classified SEK as a level 2 institute in accordance with the EU Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP). As such, the Swedish FSA also carries out the SREP, which entails a more detailed review and evaluation of SEK’s governance, risk management, internal control as well as capital and liquidity planning, every two years. The Swedish FSA may also (but currently does not) appoint an external auditor to participate with SEK’s independent auditors in examining the Group’s and the Parent Company’s financial statements and the management of the Group.

 

The Swedish National Debt Office requires information to be reported by credit institutions, including SEK, in accordance with the Resolution Act. The Resolution Act originates from the BRRD, which provides an EU-wide framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions, among others. The BRRD requires all EEA member states to provide their relevant resolution authorities with a set of tools to intervene sufficiently early and quickly in an unsound or failing institution so as to ensure the continuity of the institution’s critical financial and economic functions, while minimizing the impact of an institution’s failure on the broader economy and financial system. The information is used to set the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities for the credit institution. The Swedish National Debt Office has concluded that nine Swedish institutions, including SEK, have business activities that are critical to the Swedish financial system and have prepared plans that outline the measures that the Swedish National Debt Office intends to take in the event of resolution. The Swedish National Debt Office has also set a minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities for those institutions. Pursuant to the Swedish National Debt Office’s decision concerning the next reporting period, in 2021, the minimum requirement of own funds and eligible liabilities for SEK is 7.0 percent (2020: 7.2 percent), as calculated in accordance with the Resolution Act. Currently these requirements must be met with own funds and senior non-preferred bonds as of January 1, 2024. However, this legislation does not take into account the updated Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive of 2019 (“BRRD III”). The government´s review committee has presented a proposed legislation to include the changes in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive.  According to this proposal SEK would need to issue a somewhat lower volume of senior non-preferred debt with a gradual transition period until January 1, 2024. For more information, see Item 3 “Key Information—D. Risk Factors”.

 

The Swedish National Audit Office may audit the activities that are conducted by the Swedish State in the form of limited companies if the State as owner has a controlling influence over the activities. The State has controlling influence over the activities of the Parent Company, which is a limited company. Accordingly, the Swedish National Audit Office may appoint an Authorized Public Accountant, in order to get access to the same information as the external auditors, but has not yet done so.

 

As a credit market institution, SEK is also subject to prudential regulations relating to, among other things, its capital adequacy, its maximal exposure to any counterparty or any group of interconnected clients and its liquidity position.

 

Capital adequacy regulations

 

As of January 1, 2014, the revised capital adequacy rules of the Basel Committee, referred to as Basel III, came into force within the European Union. Basel III was introduced by a legislative package consisting of the CRR and the Capital Requirements Directive (Directive 2013/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of June 26, 2013, on access to the activity of credit institutions and the prudential supervision of credit institutions and investment firms, amending Directive 2002/87/EC and repealing directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC or the “CRD IV”). The CRR is directly applicable in Sweden and contains detailed requirements pertaining to capital adequacy, liquidity, large exposures, leverage ratio and supervisory reporting. The CRD IV was incorporated into Swedish legislation as of August 2, 2014 and covers areas such as principles for prudential supervision, internal assessments of risk and capital, corporate governance, capital buffers, sanctions and remuneration.

 

The current regulations introduced by the CRR and CRD IV replace regulations based on the previous revision of the Basel accord, Basel II, which had been the prevailing standard since 2007, as it was incorporated into EU and Swedish legislation. The CRR, as amended, and the CRD IV, as incorporated into national legislation, apply to credit institutions, including SEK, within Sweden and the European Union.

 

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The main structure of Basel III consists of three “Pillars” as follows:

 

(i) Pillar 1 deals with minimum capital requirements for credit risks, credit valuation adjustment risks and market risks as well as for operational risks, based on explicit calculation rules. Under Pillar 1, an institution must at all times have own funds that in size and composition are sufficient to meet those minimum capital requirements. The capital requirements and the own funds are calculated in accordance with the CRR. Pillar 1 allows institutions to choose between some alternative methods based on their size, complexity, type of operations and subject to certain conditions. For credit risk, the standardized approach is the simplest approach, containing risk weights, all of which are established by national authorities. Institutions can expand upon the supervisory authorities’ risk weights by using risk assessments from recognized credit rating agencies such as Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s and Fitch. The next level of sophistication under Pillar 1 regarding credit risk is called the foundation internal rating-based (“IRB”) approach. Under the foundation IRB approach, the risk weights, and therefore the capital requirements, are partially based on institutions’ internal risk classifications of their exposures and counterparties. SEK’s permission to base its capital requirement for credit risk on the IRB approach covers most of the Company’s exposures.

 

(ii) Pillar 2 pertains to national supervisory authorities’ evaluation of risks and describes requirements for institutions’ processes for risk and capital management. It also establishes the supervisory authorities’ functions and powers. Further, under Pillar 2 each financial institution must identify risks and assess risk management from a wider perspective, to supplement the capital requirements calculated within the scope of Pillar 1. This Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP) and Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process (ILAAP) also takes qualitative risks into account. SEK annually assesses the development of its future capital and liquidity requirements and available capital primarily in connection with the update of its three-year business plan. Furthermore, each quarter, the Swedish FSA publishes the result of its assessments on the capital adequacy reflecting additional requirements for risks not covered by the Pillar 1 for the ten largest financial institutions in Sweden, including SEK. This publication covers additional estimates of concentration risk, sovereign risk, market risk and pension risk. Moreover, it reflects the ICAAP, where the additional risks are included and evaluated annually.

 

(iii) Pillar 3 concerns and places requirements on transparency and comparability and how institutions, in a broad sense, should report their operations to the market and the public. The disclosure of capital and risk management must follow the requirements of the CRR and some additional regulations issued in Sweden, most notably the Swedish FSA’s regulations FFFS 2014:12 regarding prudential requirements and capital buffers. Under CRR II (discussed below), the EU introduced formal revision to the disclosure framework with extended scope, application and frequency of Pillar 3 disclosures for large and listed institutions. SEK meets the criteria for large and listed institutions and will as of June 30, 2021 be required to observe new quarterly, semi-annual and annual disclosure requirements going forward.

 

In November 2016, the European Commission presented a proposal to revise the CRD IV and the CRR with the purpose of making European financial institutions more stable and resilient. In May 2019, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union approved the EU Commissions proposal for replacing CRD IV and CRR as part of the EU Banking Reform Package (effective from June 2019) with CRD V and CRR II. The amendments serve to implement binding minimum requirements for leverage ratios and net stable funding ratios while also introducing a revised market risk framework (FRTB), a new standardized approach for counterparty credit risk (SA-CCR), minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities (MREL), changes to the large exposure framework as well as changes to the Pillar 2 and Pillar 3 frameworks. CRR II, which is directly applicable in law in all EU member states, will enter into force on June 28, 2021. CRD V was adopted into Swedish national law on December 9, 2020 and entered into force on December 29, 2020.

 

CRD V also introduced the mandate for competent authorities to define appropriate levels of own funds for institutions. Any difference between the assessed appropriate level of own funds and the minimum own funds requirement, Pillar 2 requirements and the combined buffer requirement will be communicated by the competent authorities to the institution in a non-binding recommendation. While the Pillar 2 guidance does not constitute a formal binding requirement, the Swedish FSA expects institutions to follow the recommendation, and retains the option of enforcing the Pillar 2 guidance as a Pillar 2 capital requirement following failure to adhere to the authority’s recommendation. The final Pillar 2 guidance will be institute-specific and will be formally communicated during the next Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP).

 

20

 

 

Moreover, the Basel Committee introduced the 2017 Revisions to the Basel III capital framework to reduce the variability of risk-weighted assets within the banking system. The 2017 Revisions include an output floor, altered standardized approaches for credit risk and operational risk, constraints on the use of internally modelled approaches and changes in leverage ratio requirements. The 2017 Revisions will enter into force on January 1, 2023. However, the output floor, which is designed to ensure that banks’ capital requirements calculated under internal models-based approaches may not fall below 72.5% of the capital requirements required under the standardized approaches, will be phased in incrementally over five years, becoming fully effective on January 1, 2028. The 2017 Revisions must first be implemented into EU legislation before they can become binding capital requirements.

 

Liquidity standards

 

As mentioned above, the CRR also includes liquidity standards: the liquidity coverage ratio (“LCR”) and net stable funding ratio (“NSFR”). The LCR requires that a bank holds enough high quality liquid assets to cover its projected net cash outflows over a 30-day stress scenario. The European Commission has adopted a delegated regulation on LCR. The detailed LCR rules came into force on October 1, 2015 and require institutions, including SEK, to maintain a LCR of at least 100 percent from 2018. In addition, the Swedish FSA requires institutions to maintain a LCR of at least 100 percent separately in euro and USD and also a LCR of at least 75 percent in Skr and other significant currencies. The NSFR requires that a bank maintain a stable borrowing profile in relation to the composition of its assets and off-balance sheet activities under both normal and stressed conditions. A requirement to maintain a NSFR ratio of at least 100 percent will enter into force on June 30, 2021. SEK has consistently maintained an LCR and NSFR in excess of minimum requirements. See Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on liquidity standards.

 

Measures of capital adequacy

 

The principal measure of capital adequacy, according to the current standard (Basel III as implemented by the CRR), is a capital-to-risk exposure amount ratio, which compares the own funds, as defined in the CRR, to the total of risk-weighted exposures, that is assets and off-balance sheet items measured according to the risk level.

 

According to the CRR, own funds consist of three components with different levels of quality from a loss absorption perspective:

the highest quality is the Common Equity Tier 1 capital, which includes equity capital after certain adjustments and deductions;
the next level is the Additional Tier 1 capital which, subject to detailed requirements, consists of certain types of highly subordinated, perpetual debt or hybrid capital (Tier 1 capital is the sum of Common Equity Tier 1 capital and Additional Tier 1 capital); and
Tier 2 capital constitutes the third level and consists of, subject to detailed requirements, certain types of subordinated debt that, among other things, must have an original maturity of no less than five years.

 

The minimum total capital ratio requirement under Pillar 1 is 8.0 percent, a requirement that has not changed with the CRR. However, the CRR introduced additional requirements on the higher quality components of capital, with a minimum requirement of 4.5 percent and 6.0 percent relating to Common Equity Tier 1 capital and Tier 1 capital, respectively.

 

  Minimum Capital
Requirement1
  Minimum Capital
Requirement1 including
Buffers Requirement
  SEK Capital
Ratios
 
Capital Ratios 2020  2019  2020  2019  2020  2019 
Common Equity Tier 1 capital ratio  4.5%   4.5%   7.0%   8.9%   21.8%   20.6% 
Tier 1 capital ratio  6.0%   6.0%   8.5%   10.4%   21.8%   20.6% 
Total capital ratio  8.0%   8.0%   10.5%   12.4%   21.8%   20.6% 

 

 

1 Under Pillar 1.

 

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In addition to these minimum ratios, SEK must meet certain capital buffers requirements. Failure to meet the additional buffers requirements triggers, among other things, restrictions on distributions. The countercyclical buffer rate that is applied to exposures located in Sweden was lowered from 2.5 percent to 0 percent as of March 16, 2020. The reduction was made for preventive purposes, in order to counteract credit tightening due to the development and spread of COVID-19 and its effects on the economy. SEK is also expected to cover the supplementary capital requirements estimated under Pillar 2, which in practice constitutes an extension of the minimum capital requirement for financial institutions in Sweden, covering additional risks not included in the Pillar 1 minimum requirements. SEK’s policy is to maintain own funds well in excess of both the regulatory minimum requirements under Pillar 1 and the supplementary capital requirements under Pillar 2. The main reason for the increase in SEK’s capital ratios as of December 31, 2020 compared with year-end 2019 was increased retained earnings and a lower average risk weight in the liquidity portfolio, primarily driven by an increased reallocation of holdings towards sovereign exposures which receives lower risk weight than, for example, corporate exposures. SEK does not apply IFRS 9 transitional rules for expected losses. The capital adequacy ratios already reflect the full impact of IFRS 9 with regard to expected losses. See Note 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on the capital adequacy and capital buffers of SEK.

 

Large exposures

 

The CRR also imposes restrictions on large exposures, which limit a bank’s concentration of credit risks. According to the CRR, a large exposure refers to an exposure to any counterparty or any group of interconnected clients that accounts for at least 10 percent of an institution’s eligible capital, which effectively for SEK is the total of own funds. Beginning June 28, 2021, large exposures will be determined based on Tier 1 capital rather than eligible capital pursuant to revisions adopted in CRR II.

 

As percentage of 2020  2019 
Large exposures as percentage of the own funds  275.3%   277.1% 

 

The aggregate amount of SEK’s large exposures as of December 31, 2020 consisted of exposures to 22 different counterparties, or counterparty groups.

 

In order to monitor large exposures, SEK has defined internal limits for large exposures, which are monitored daily, along with other limits.

 

C.Organizational Structure

 

During 2020 and in prior years, SEK organized its lending activities in two functions, Large Corporates and Mid Corporates, which together served all customers with all products within SEK’s product range. From January 1, 2021, SEK’s lending activities have been re-organized into a Client Relationship function and a Structured Finance function. These functions are responsible for all customer relations contacts and cooperate with all other relevant functions within SEK, such as the credit and treasury functions, to perform their responsibilities. The responsibility to serve all customers with all products within SEK´s product range remains unchanged after the organizational adjustment. SEK also maintains an independent risk control unit, a compliance function as well as staff and support functions.

 

Risk Control, Compliance and Internal Audit

 

SEK maintains a risk control unit and a compliance function which operate independently of the business areas. See also Note 29 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. In November 2011, upon the recommendation of the Audit Committee, SEK’s Board decided that the independent internal audit function would be outsourced to an external company beginning in 2012. SEK’s Board appointed KPMG to be responsible for the independent internal audit function and they commenced their assignment in January 2012. Their assignment was extended for the years 2013 through 2018. As of 2019, this assignment was transferred to another external party, Deloitte, and they maintained the assignment during 2020. In appointing an external party to perform the internal audit, SEK benefits from significant competence and experience in auditing SEK’s compliance with applicable regulations, particularly those regarding capital adequacy and the Company’s internal risk models. SEK's Risk and Compliance Committee, of which the Chief Executive Officer (the “CEO”) is the chairman, has overall responsibility to establish the internal rules for the internal control of the financial reporting and follow-up compliance with the internal control regulations.

 

22

 

 

 

D.Property, Plants and Equipment

 

SEK’s current headquarters, which occupy approximately 4,490 square meters of office space in central Stockholm, are leased. SEK also leases office space in Gothenberg, which occupies approximately 14 square meters.

 

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

A.Operating Results

 

Introduction

 

A major part of SEK’s operating profit derives from net interest income, which is earned mainly on loans to customers, but also to a lesser extent on liquidity investments. Borrowing for these assets comes from equity and from securities issued in international capital markets. Accordingly, the key determinants of SEK’s operating profit are: the interest rate on interest-bearing assets, the interest rate of issued securities, the outstanding volume of interest-bearing assets and the proportion of assets financed by equity.

 

SEK issues debt instruments with terms that may be fixed, floating or linked to various indices. SEK’s strategy is to economically hedge these terms at floating rates with the aim of matching the terms of its debt-financed assets. The quality of SEK’s operating profit, its relatively stable credit ratings and SEK’s public role have enabled SEK to achieve borrowing at levels that are competitive within the market. Another factor affecting net interest income is the size of the resolution fee, which SEK is required to pay to a fund to support the recovery of credit institutions.

 

In addition to net interest income, another key influence on SEK’s operating earnings has been changes in the fair value of certain assets, liabilities and derivatives. The factor that mainly impacts unrealized changes in fair value is cross-currency basis spreads. Cross-currency basis spread is the deviation in the nominal interest rate between two currencies in a currency interest rate swap caused by the difference between the base interest rate of the currencies.

 

Operating expenses, primarily driven by personnel expenses, also have an important impact on SEK’s operating profit.

 

Other comprehensive income is primarily affected by unrealized changes in fair value attributable to credit spreads on SEK’s own debt, which relate to the credit rating attributed to SEK by its investors.

 

SEK’s general business model is to hold financial instruments measured at fair value to maturity. The net fair value changes that occur mainly relate to changes in credit spreads on SEK’s own debt, which due to IFRS 9, are reported in other comprehensive income from 2018 compared to net results of financial transactions prior to IFRS 9, and basis spreads, which are recognized in net results of financial transactions. The changes could be significant in a single reporting period, but will not affect earnings over time since the lifetime cumulative changes in the instrument’s market value will be zero if it is held to maturity and is a performing instrument. When financial instruments are not held to maturity, realized gains and losses can occur, for example when SEK repurchases its own debt, or if lending is repaid early and the related hedging instruments are terminated prematurely.

 

For Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates and Recent Accounting Pronouncements Issued and Other Accounting Related Announcements, see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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For a discussion and analysis of SEK’s financial condition and operating results for the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, see Item 5 of SEK’s Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on February 24, 2020. Note that this previous discussion and analysis does not reflect the changed accounting of revenues and expenses in the CIRR–system discussed in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements elsewhere in this document. As discussed in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, however, the change has no impact on SEK’s net interest income or net profit, but only affects interest income and interest expenses (the impact on which for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are also summarized in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).

 

Key Performance Indicators

 

The following table summarizes SEK’s key performance indicators and how SEK defines them.

 

New lending (of which to Swedish exporters)

New lending includes all new committed loans, irrespective of tenor. Not all new lending is reported in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows since certain portions comprise committed undisbursed loans (see Note 8). The amounts reported for committed undisbursed loans may change when presented in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position due to changes in exchange rates, for example.

 
New lending (of which to exporters’ customers)
 
 
CIRR-loans as a percentage of new lendingThe proportion of officially supported export credits (CIRR) of new lending.
Loans, outstanding and undisbursedThe total of loans in the form of interest-bearing securities, loans to credit institutions, loans to the public and loans outstanding and undisbursed. Deduction is made for cash collateral under the security agreements for derivative contracts and deposits with time to maturity exceeding three months (see the Statement of Financial Position and Note 8).
 
New long-term borrowingsNew borrowings with maturities exceeding one year, for which the amounts are based on the trade date.
Outstanding senior debtThe total of borrowing from credit institutions, borrowing from the public and debt securities issued.
 
After-tax return on equityNet profit, expressed as a percentage per annum of the current year’s average equity (calculated using the opening and closing balances for the report period).
Proposed ordinary dividendProposed payment of disposable funds to shareholders.
 
Common Equity Tier 1 capital ratioThe capital ratio is the quotient of total common equity tier 1 capital and the total risk exposure amount.
Tier 1 capital ratioThe capital ratio is the quotient of total tier 1 capital and the total risk exposure amount.
Total capital ratioThe capital ratio is the quotient of total Own funds and the total risk exposure amount.
Leverage ratioTier 1 capital expressed as a percentage of the exposure measured under CRR (refer to Note 9).
Liquidity coverage ratio (LCR)1The liquidity coverage ratio is a liquidity metric that shows SEK’s highly liquid assets in relation to the company’s net cash outflows for the next 30 calendar days. A LCR of 100 percent means that the company’s liquidity reserve is of sufficient size to enable the company to manage stressed liquidity outflows over a period of 30 days. Unlike the Swedish FSA’s rules, the EU rules take into account the outflows that correspond to the need to pledge collateral for derivatives that would arise as a result of the effects of a negative market scenario.
Net stable funding ratio (NSFR)1This ratio measures stable funding in relation to the company’s illiquid assets over a one-year, stressed scenario in accordance with Basel III.
1. In the first quarter of 2020, SEK changed its methodology for calculating LCR and NSFR as an adaptation to future regulatory requirements. The changes to the LCR calculation only have a marginal effect on the outcome, while the new NSFR calculation has a slight positive effect.

 

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Overview of 2020

 

During the year, operations were marked by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a serious health crisis with far-reaching economic consequences. The need for SEK’s services rises in times of economic turbulence, as the current situation once again confirms. Exporters’ financing needs have been very high, and in 2020, SEK lent Skr 125.5 billion (2019: Skr 74.5 billion) and set a new lending record for the company. The high level of lending during the year resulted in net interest income of Skr 1,946 million (2019: Skr 1,717 million), representing SEK’s second-highest level of net interest income in any given year to date. Increased provisions for expected credit losses resulted in operating profit for 2020 totaled Skr 1,238 million, which was slightly lower year-on-year (2019: Skr 1,304 million). The historically strong net interest income was a result of increased business activity and lending to Swedish exporters and their international customers.

 

The export industry recovered in the third and fourth quarters despite a second wave of infection in many countries. However, economic forecasts remain subject to considerable uncertainty.

 

There is a global need for investment to reach the reduced carbon emissions goals contained in the Paris Agreement, and the pace of transition has accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a substantial transition need in sectors such as transportation and energy, sustainable urban development and fossil-frugal production. Over the year, SEK has increased its focus on financing this transition in Sweden and internationally.

 

To gain an understanding of our clients’ financing needs, SEK conducted a survey of Swedish exporters in 2020. The survey findings showed that, over the next three years, eight out of ten companies intend to invest in transition in Sweden to reduce their climate impact. Of these, 54 percent stated that they would need to finance these investments. The results of the survey show an enormous force for change among exporters to reduce climate emissions and contribute to an increased share of sustainable exports.

 

In line with SEK’s focus on sustainability, the company issued five new green bonds and issued five new tranches of existing bonds for a total of Skr 5.1 billion during the year. In the fourth quarter, SEK conducted its first public Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) transaction. SOFR is the new reference rate that is widely expected to replace the USD LIBOR.

 

As a consequence of COVID-19 infection risk, most of our employees are continuing to work remotely. To ensure that we are addressing the needs of our employees, we conduct pulse surveys on an ongoing basis to identify their needs and seek to take actions to ensure a good work environment and work-life balance. We believe that our employees’ motivation and well-being are prerequisites for successful business and satisfied clients.

 

Operations

 

In 2020, SEK lent a total of Skr 125.5 billion, which set a new record. Previously, the record for new lending in a single year was in 2009 at Skr 122.5 billion during and in the aftermath of the financial crisis. In the fourth quarter, new lending amounted to Skr 18.6 billion, which was up Skr 5.7 billion year-on-year. In times of economic crisis, when the capital markets may cease to function as effectively, SEK can be a tool for the state to ensure vital financing for the Swedish export industry, which the company’s lending levels this year have again confirmed, as was the case during and in the aftermath of the financial crisis.

  

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Despite the challenges ensuing from the pandemic, during which SEK’s operations have largely been conducted remotely, with fewer physical meetings with clients and a periodically challenging capital market, the company has meaningfully helped to meet the Swedish export industry’s increased need for financing.

 

Lending to Swedish exporters has been significantly higher than normal in 2020. Since many exporters had already covered their financing needs during the first half of the year and the Swedish economy entered a recovery phase in the third and fourth quarters, SEK expected the demand to decline in the second half of the year. This largely occurred as expected. However, demand in the second half of the year increased for export credits and project finance, in other words financing for Swedish exporters’ customers abroad.

 

In the fourth quarter, SEK completed several project finance projects for new wind farms in Europe and Latin America with a total value of Skr 1.5 billion. In addition, five export credits were completed for Europe, Africa and the Middle East. This was despite severe restrictions and macroeconomic challenges having led to some delays with business in developing markets, for example, in Africa. Demand for working capital financing was also relatively high in the quarter.

 

SEK’s good name has enabled long-term financing of the substantial increase in demand from clients over the year. In 2020, SEK has raised borrowings corresponding to Skr 123 billion with long maturities, that is, maturities of at least one year, an increase of Skr 42 billion year-on-year. A considerable portion of the long-term borrowing, 87 percent, was conducted in the form of plain vanilla transactions sold to investors worldwide. SEK also issued commercial paper with shorter maturities, corresponding to Skr 27 billion in 2020. SEK’s long-term relationships with investors and its good name in the capital markets resulted in the increased volumes being well received.

 

Borrowing levels fluctuated during the year. The cost of borrowing rose in conjunction with the severe disruption in the capital markets that arose in conjunction with the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in the spring, but have since returned to the levels prevailing at the start of 2020. This is exemplified by a USD 600 million two-year fixed-rate bond issued by SEK in the fourth quarter, which was completed at a lower cost than a corresponding maturity at the start of the year.

 

As part of its efforts to adapt to the replacement of the USD LIBOR, SEK issued a SOFR-linked USD 700 million bond in November.

 

In line with SEK’s focus on sustainability, the company also issued Skr 1.6 billion in green bonds during the fourth quarter, totaling Skr 5.1 billion in green bonds in 2020.

 

Assets and Business Volume

 

  As of December 31,
Skr bn 2020  2019  Changes in
percent
 
Total Assets  335.4   317.3   6% 
Liquidity Investments  59.2   63.6   -7% 
Loans outstanding and disbursed  231.7   217.6   6% 
Percentage in the CIRR-system  30%   35%     

  

Total assets increased as of the end of 2020 compared to the end of 2019, mainly driven by increased lending volumes which more than offset the effect of a stronger Swedish krona. During the year SEK had a substantial increase in demand for financing, mainly from existing clients, which has also led to an increase in committed loans.

 

New lending (offers accepted)

 

  As of December 31, 
Skr bn 2020  2019 
Lending to Swedish exporters (A)  62.2   24.9 
of which CIRR-system  -   - 
Lending to exporters' customers (B)  63.3   49.6 
of which CIRR-system  18.4   15.5 
Total  125.5   74.5 

  

 

(A) Of which Skr 1.1 billion (year-end 2019: Skr 1.8 billion) had not been disbursed at period end.

(B) Of which Skr 17.9 billion (year-end 2019: Skr 16.3 billion) had not been disbursed at period end.

 

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As part of its efforts to adapt to the replacement of the USD LIBOR, SEK issued a SOFR-linked USD 700 million bond in November 2020. In line with SEK’s focus on sustainability, the Company also issued a Skr 1.6 billion in green bonds during the fourth quarter of 2020, resulting in a total of Skr 5.1 billion in green bonds issuance in 2020. New lending was up on an annual basis, which was attributable to a sharp increased demand for financing.

 

Binding offers outstanding of lending

 

  As of December 31, 
Skr bn 2020  2019 
Volume of binding offers outstanding  1.3   2.8 
CIRR loans as percentage of volume of binding offers outstanding  100%   1% 

  

Commitments of undisbursed loans amounted to Skr 57.2 billion in 2020 (year-end 2019: Skr 52.2 billion).

 

Counterparty Risk Exposures

 

SEK’s exposures to regional governments and financial institutions have decreased as exposures to central governments and corporates have increased in 2020 as compared to 2019. For more information, see the table “Total net exposures” in Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Total counterparty exposure

 

  As of December 31, 
Counterparty Risk Exposures in Skr bn 2020  2019 
Central governments  185.5   161.3 
Regional governments  12.3   16.5 
Multilateral development banks  3.5   3.1 
Public sector entity  4.2   4.0 
Financial institutions  30.9   45.7 
Corporates  123.1   116.9 
Total counterparty exposure  359.5   347.5 

 

27

 

 

Other exposures and risks

 

SEK’s hedging transactions are expected to be effective in offsetting changes in fair value attributable to hedged risks. The determination of the gross value of certain items in the statements of financial position, particularly derivatives and unsubordinated liabilities, which effectively hedge each other, requires complex judgments regarding the most appropriate valuation technique, assumptions and estimates. If different valuation models or assumptions are used, or if assumptions change, a different result may arise. Excluding the impact on the valuation of spreads on SEK’s own debt and basis spreads (which can be significant), such changes in fair value would generally offset each other, with little impact on the value of net assets.

 

SEK maintains a conservative policy with regard to market risk exposures, primarily consisting of interest rate risks and currency risks. For quantitative and qualitative information about risks and exposures, see Note 26 Risk Information and Note 29 Risk and capital management.

  

Results of Operations

 

Net interest income

 

Skr bn, average 2020  2019  % 
Total loans  224.6   213.4   5% 
Liquidity investments¹  61.4   62.9   -2% 
Interest-bearing assets  305.5   284.8   7% 
Interest-bearing liabilities  208.2   265.4   6% 

  

 

1 Since 2019, SEK has excluded cash collateral under the security agreements for derivatives from the definition of liquidity investments.

 

Net interest income amounted to Skr 1,946 million (2019: Skr 1,717 million), an increase of 13 percent compared to the previous year. The record high volumes of new lending during the year affected net interest income positively. Net interest income also increased by Skr 83 million due to a lower resolution fee, that SEK is required to pay to a fund to support the recovery of credit institutions, which amounted to Skr 86 million (2019: Skr 169 million), which SEK is required to pay to a fund to support the recovery of credit institutions. In 2020, the resolution fee amounted to 0.05 percent of the calculation basis (2019: 0.09 percent), which essentially corresponds to SEK’s debt financed assets less the officially supported export credit (CIRR) loans. The table above shows average interest-bearing assets and liabilities.

 

28

 

 

Commission earned and commission incurred

 

Commission earned and commission incurred amounted to Skr -42 million (2019: Skr -33 million). Commission earned amounted to Skr 1 million (2019: Skr 1 million). Commission incurred amounted to Skr -43 million (2019: Skr –34 million).

 

Net results of financial transactions

 

Net results of financial transactions amounted to Skr 83 million (2019: Skr 226 million), mainly due to effects from basis spreads and differences between the gains or losses on hedging instruments and the related hedged items. During the year, there was significant volatility in the financial markets. This was reflected in wide swings in the market factors to which SEK’s unrealized earnings are exposed, such as interest rates and basis and credit spreads. The impact on total earnings during the year was limited, however, even if individual market factors contributed to increased volatility in unrealized earnings during the year.

 

Operating expenses

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  % 
Personnel expenses  -347   -333   4% 
     of which provision to the EIS  8   10     
Other administrative expenses  -198   -206   -4% 
Depreciation and impairment of non-financial assets  -51   -57   -11% 
Total Operating expenses  -596   -596   0% 

  

Operating expenses were unchanged compared to the previous year. A provision of Skr 8 million was made for the individual variable remuneration program (2019: Skr 10 million).

 

Depreciation and impairment of non-financial assets

 

Depreciation and impairment of non-financial assets amounted to Skr -51 million (2019: Skr -57 million), which was a decrease of 11 percent compared to the previous year.

 

29

 

 

Net credit losses

 

Net credit losses amounted to Skr -153 million (2019: Skr -10 million), which consisted entirely of increased provisions for expected credit losses. The significant increase in provisions for expected credit losses was primarily attributable to market conditions in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic leading to an increase in stage 1 expected credit losses. Loss allowances as of December 31, 2020 amounted to Skr -249 million compared to Skr -128 million as of December 31, 2019 of which exposures in stage 3 amounted to Skr -46 million (year-end 2019: Skr -64 million). The decrease in stage 3 is the result of an established loss, which had previously been fully reserved, partially offset by increased exposures in stage 3. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Taxes

 

Tax costs amounted to Skr -270 million (2019: Skr -277 million), of which Skr -266 million (2019: Skr -570 million) consisted of current tax and Skr -1 million (2019: Skr 291 million) consisted of deferred tax, see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The effective tax rate amounted to 21.8 percent (2019: 21.2 percent). The nominal tax rate for 2020 is 21.4 percent (2019: 21.4 percent).

 

Operating and net profit

 

Operating profit amounted to Skr 1,238 million (2019: Skr 1,304 million). Net profit amounted to Skr 968 million (2019: Skr 1,027 million). In both cases, the positive impact of increased net interest income was offset by an increase in provisions for expected credit losses and lower net results of financial transactions.

 

Other comprehensive income

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Items to be reclassified to operating profit  -   -8 
of which available-for-sale securities  -   - 
of which other comprehensive income effects related to cash flow hedges  -   -8 
Items not to be reclassified to operating profit  19   20 
of which own credit risk  18   24 
of which revaluation of defined benefit plans  1   -4 
Other comprehensive income before tax  19   12 

  

Other comprehensive income before tax amounted to Skr 19 million (2019: Skr 12 million), mainly due to a positive result related to changes in own credit risk, which is included in items not to be reclassified to operating profit.

 

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B.Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

SEK’s policy for liquidity and borrowing risk requires that for all credit commitments outstanding as well as agreed but undisbursed credits, there must be borrowing available through maturity. For CIRR loans, which SEK manages on behalf of the Swedish State, the Company counts its credit facility of Skr 200 billion with the Swedish National Debt Office, as available borrowing. During 2020, the credit facility was increased from Skr 125 billion to Skr 200 billion. Out of the Skr 200 billion, an amount of Skr 15 billion can be drawn to finance commercial loans granted by SEK. In February 2021, the credit facility was extended for 2021. During 2020, Skr 10 billion was drawn under this facility. For commercial loans, the Company counts its credit facility of Skr 15 billion, as available borrowing. As a consequence, SEK continues to have a high level of liquid assets and a low borrowing risk. The aggregate volume of funds and equity exceeded the aggregate volume of loans outstanding and loans committed during each future time period. Accordingly, SEK considers all loan commitments to be funded through maturity. As of December 31, 2020, SEK had 3 months of available funds to meet potential disbursements under new lending agreements, as compared to 5 months as of December 31, 2019. See the section titled “Liquidity risk and refinancing risk” in Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and the liquidity risk discussion in Note 29 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Borrowing

 

Skr bn 2020  2019 
New borrowing  123.2   81.1 
Repurchase of own debt  1.3   1.7 
Early redemption of borrowing  1.7   19.6 

  

New borrowing in 2020 was higher than in 2019. Higher lending volume was the main reason for increased borrowing.

 

In 2020, SEK has raised borrowings corresponding to Skr 123 billion with long maturities, that is, maturities of at least one year, an increase of Skr 42 billion year-on-year. A considerable portion of the long-term borrowing, 87 percent, was conducted in the form of plain vanilla transactions sold to investors worldwide. SEK also issued commercial papers with shorter maturities, corresponding to Skr 27 billion in 2020.

 

SEK’s borrowing over the course of the year took place in multiple different currencies across a number of different geographic markets. Europe (other than the Nordic countries) and North America were the largest borrowing markets in 2020.

 

SEK continues to have high liquidity for new lending and is well prepared to meet the future financing needs of the Swedish export industry.

  

Debt Maturities

 

The following table illustrates SEK’s debt maturity profile for different types of senior and subordinated debt. Repayments are assumed to occur on the maturity date and reflect nominal amounts.

 

Skr mn 2021  2022  2023  2024  2025  Thereafter  Total 
Senior debt  80,466   73,329   65,582   10,408   28,332   29,345   287,462 
   of which fixed-rate  47,336   53,846   56,179   7,906   22,977   8,440   196,684 
   of which variable-rate  9,815   0   0   0   0   0   9,815 
   of which formula-based  23,315   19,483   9,403   2,502   5,355   20,905   80,963 
                             
Subordinated debt  -   -   -   -       -   - 
   of which fixed rate  -   -   -   -       -   - 
   of which variable rate  -   -   -   -       -   - 
Total debt  80,466   73,329   65,582   10,408   28,332   29,345   287,462 

  

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Senior Debt by Category:

The following table illustrates our outstanding senior debt by category.

 

  As of December 31, 
Skr mn 2020  2019 
Fixed-rate(A)  196,684   174,673 
Variable-rate(A)  9,815   13,541 
Formula-based(A)  80,963   84,803 
   of which interest rate-linked  79,894   82,141 
   of which currency-linked  677   1,927 
   of which equity-linked  281   629 
   of which commodity-linked  111   106 
   of which credit-linked  -   - 
Total senior debt(B)  287,462   273,017 

 

 

 

(A) As of December 31, 2020, the interest rate ranges for fixed-rate senior debt and variable-rate senior debt were 0 percent to 9 percent (2019: 0 percent to 10 percent) per annum, respectively. The wide range of interest rates reflects the fact that the debt is issued in many different currencies and with different maturities.

(B) Of which Skr 10 billion (2019: Skr 26 billion) is linked to IBOR.

 

SEK’s economic hedges are expected to be effective in offsetting changes in fair values attributable to hedged risks. Certain assets and liabilities in such hedges require complex judgments regarding the most appropriate valuation models and assumptions. The gross values of certain assets and liabilities (primarily derivative and senior securities issued by SEK), which effectively hedge each other, are affected by this complexity. If different valuation models or assumptions were employed instead of those used in the valuations in this report, or if assumptions were changed, this could produce different results regarding the gross value of such securities issued and hedging derivatives. Changes in the fair value of derivatives will usually be offset by changes in fair value of securities issued, and the connected change in the fair value will thus not have a material effect on either results or equity except the impact on valuation of credit spreads on SEK’s own debt and basis spreads. 

 

The outstanding volume of debt with remaining maturities of one year or less decreased during 2020. At December 31, 2020, outstanding debt with remaining maturities of one year or less amounted to Skr 80 billion, compared with Skr 82 billion at December 31, 2019. 

  

C.Research and Development, Patents and Licenses

 

In the ordinary course of business, the Group develops new products and services across each of its business lines.

 

D.Trend Information

 

SEK’s future development is based on a number of factors, some of which are difficult to predict and generally beyond the Company’s control. Some significant factors for 2020 are presented below:

 

·In response to worsening economic conditions as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the demand from clients for Long term financing from SEK to secure liquidity was high in 2020. Despite this, the demand for SEK’s financing offering remains healthy.

 

·There is a global need for investment to reach the reduced carbon emissions goals contained in the Paris Agreement, and the pace of transition has accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a substantial transition need in sectors such as transportation and energy, sustainable urban development and fossil-frugal production. Over the year, SEK has increased its focus on financing this transition in Sweden and internationally

 

·As a consequence of COVID-19 infection risk, most of our employees are continuing to work remotely. Working from home has been highly effective from both a technical and a practical standpoint.

 

·During 2020, SEK worked together with other export promotion agencies on the Swedish government’s Team Sweden initiative. SEK also worked with other government export promotion agencies to improve the communication with companies, especially in providing information on the Swedish export credit system.

 

·During the year, credits were granted to nine larger international projects where SEK conducted separate sustainability reviews in line with international guidelines for export credits. In 2020, new lending that qualified for classification as green loans, as per SEK’s definition, amounted to Skr 10.8 billion (2019: Skr 3.1 billion). In 2019, SEK began setting a target level for, and measuring the outcome of, green financing in terms of number of new green loans and not by total volume. In 2020, there were 11 new green loans, which was below the target of 12 new green loans.
   
·In collaboration with clients and business partners, SEK has continued to clarify its commitment to anti-corruption in conjunction with export credits.

 

For additional information on the trends affecting SEK and the risks it faces, see the discussions elsewhere in this Item 5 (including under “Assets and Business Volume” above) and the “Risk Factors” in Item 3.

 

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E.Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

In 2020, SEK had a credit facility in place with the Swedish National Debt Office of up to Skr 200 billion. SEK utilized the credit facility during 2020 and borrowed Skr 10 billion. The credit facility can be used both within the current CIRR-system and up to Skr 15 billion, for commercial export financing. The facility is intended as a reserve when funding markets are not available to SEK. In February 2021, the Swedish Parliament confirmed that the credit facility would continue to be available in 2021 in an amount up to Skr 200 billion.

 

F. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

 

Contractual Commitments

 

For maturity analysis of SEK’s financial assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2020, see the table entitled “Contractual Flows” in Note 26 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

G. Safe Harbor.

 

See the section entitled “Forward-Looking Statements” above.

 

ITEM6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

The Board is responsible for the management of the Parent Company.

 

The Parent Company's Articles of Association currently provide that the Board shall consist of six to eight directors. The State, as holder of all the shares, elects the directors. The Chairman of the Board is appointed at each Annual General Meeting. The Board may appoint a Vice Chairman of the Board.

 

The Board meets at least six times a year.

 

The members of the Board are elected at each Annual General Meeting to serve for a term of one year, which expires at the next Annual General Meeting. An Annual General Meeting is required to be held not later than June 30 of each year.

 

Certain information with respect to the Parent Company's directors and executive officers is set forth below. Unless otherwise indicated, such information is given as of the date of this report.

 

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A.Directors and Senior Management

 

Board of Directors and Executive Officers
 
Name Age Position
Lars Linder-Aronson 67 Chairman of the Board and Director
Cecilia Ardström 55 Director
Anna Brandt 59 Director
Reinhold Geijer 67 Director
Hanna Lagercrantz 50 Director
Hans Larsson 60 Director
Eva Nilsagård 57 Director
Ulla Nilsson 73 Director
Catrin Fransson 58 Chief Executive Officer
Per Åkerlind 58 Deputy CEO and Head of Strategic Partnerships and Relations
Karl Johan Bemerfalk 4S General Counsel, Head of Legal
Andreas Ericson 44 Head of Mid Corporates
Stefan Friberg 52 Chief Financial Officer
Theresa Hamilton Burman 58 Chief Credit Officer
Jens Hedar 46 Head of Large Corporates
Petra Könberg 51 Head of Marketing and Communications
Sirpa Rusanen 56 Head of Human Resources
Susanna Rystedt 56 Head of Business Development, Business Support and Transformation
Peter Svensén 46 Chief Risk Officer
Madeleine Widaeus 50 Chief Information Officer

 

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A1.The Board

 

Mr. Linder-Aronson was appointed director in May 2011. He is currently Chairman of the board of directors at Strand European Holdings AB, Nordisk Renting AB, Ursvik Entré Holding AB and Ursvik Entré AB. He serves as a director of Facility Labs AB, Morco Förvaltning AB and Bright Group Oy. He has previously served as Managing Director at Enskilda Securities AB and Deputy Managing Director at Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB.

 

Ms. Ardström was appointed director in May 2011. She is currently Acting CEO AMF Fonder AB and CFO at Corpia Group AB. She serves as a board member of Doro AB, Teracom AB and Guldsillen AB. She has previously served as CFO and Head of Asset Management at Länsförsäkringar AB, Head of Treasury at Tele2 Group and Head of Asset Management and Chief Information Officer (“CIO”) of Folksam Group.

 

Ms. Brandt was appointed director in November 2017. She is currently ambassador and permanent representative of Sweden to the OECD and Unesco in Paris. She has previously served as Executive Director and board member of the World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and European Investment Bank (EIB), ambassador for Agenda 2030 at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Sweden’s ambassador to Nairobi, Kenya and to Dublin, Ireland.

 

Mr. Geijer was appointed director in March 2017. He is currently Chairman of the board of directors at BTS Group AB and a board member of Eterna Invest AB, Zacco A/S and Livförsäkringsaktiebolaget Skandia. He has previously served as CEO at The Royal Bank of Scotland, Nordic Branch, CEO at Nordisk Renting AB, Executive Vice President at Telia AB and CEO at Swedbank. He has also previously worked in Ericsson Radio Systems AB, SSAB Swedish Steel and Weyerhaeuser Integrated Forest Company, USA.

 

Ms. Lagercrantz was appointed director in March 2019. She is currently Senior Investment director at Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation at the Government Offices of Sweden. She is currently also a board member of Almi Företagspartner AB and Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) AB. She has previously served as board member of LKAB, SBAB, SOS Alarm AB, Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), Svenska Skeppshypotek, Swedfund International AB and AO Dom Shvetsii. She has previously worked as an equity analyst at Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB, and as a corporate finance executive with UBS AG and S.G. Warburg.

 

Mr. Larsson was appointed director in March 2017. He is currently Founder and CEO at Linderyd Advisory AB and Lunda Advisory AB. He serves as Chairman of the board of directors at Linderyd Advisory AB and Advisory AB. He is currently a board member of Nordnet Bank AB, Nordnet AB and Intrum Justitia AB. He has previously served as Member of the Group management, Head of Group Strategy & Business Development at SEB, Executive Vice President and Chief of Staff at Lindorff Group and a board member of Nordax AB and Nordax Bank AB.

 

Ms. Nilsagård was appointed director in April 2018. She is currently Founder and CEO at Nilsagård consulting. She serves as Chairman of the board of directors at Spermosens AB. She is also board member in AddLife AB, Bufab AB, Xbrane Biopharma AB, Hansa Biopharma AB, Nimbus Group AB and Irras AB. She has previously served as CFO at Plastal Industri AB, SVP Strategy & Business development Volvo Trucks (EMEA), Vitrolife and VP Finance & IT Volvo Penta and held other senior positions within finance and business development in Volvo, AstraZeneca Group and SKF.

 

Ms. Nilsson was appointed director in July 2011. She is currently Honorary Vice President to the Swedish Chamber of Commerce to the United Kingdom. She also serves as Deputy board member to Ergomiljö in Kristianstad AB. She has served as CEO for the Swedish Chamber of Commerce to UK, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB, Global Head of SEB Futures in London, Chairman of Enskilda Futures Limited in London, Head of Trading & Capital Markets in Singapore, Head of Treasury in Luxemburg and Skånska Banken.

 

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A2.Management – Executive Officers

 

Ms. Fransson has been CEO since April 2014. Prior to that she held several positions within Swedbank between 2000 and 2013; member of group executive committee (2004-2013), Head of Group Products (2013), Head of Retail Banking Sweden (2010-2012), Head of Customer Offerings & Products (2007-2010), Region Manager – Northern Region (2004-2007), CRM Manager (2000-2002), and several positions at Föreningssparbanken; Area Manager Stockholm (2003-2004) and various management positions (1997-2000). Ms. Fransson has informed the Board of her intention to resign as CEO at SEK, which the Board accepted on January 15, 2021. She has a six-month notice period, and will continue working in her present position until further notice.

 

Mr. Åkerlind has been Executive Vice President, Strategic Partnerships and Relationships since January 2019. He has previously worked as Executive Vice President and Head of Treasury & Capital Management since 2015. Prior to that he served as Chief Operating Officer since January 2011. Prior to that he was CFO and Head of Capital Markets since June 2002. Prior to that he served as Treasurer and Head of Debt Capital Markets beginning in 1997. Prior to that he served in various capacities within the Debt Capital Markets group, beginning in 1990.

 

Mr. Bernerfalk has been General Counsel since 2015. Previously he was Head of Legal Lending since 2007. Prior to that he served as legal counsel of SBAB and served as legal counsel with leading Swedish law firms.

 

Mr. Ericson has been Senior Director, Head of Mid Corporates since 2015, and Executive Director, Head of Mid Corporates and member of the Executive Board since 2018. Prior to that he held a position as Director within Debt Capital Markets. Prior to that he served as Senior Underwriter at EKN and before that he held various positions within Export Finance, Securities etc. at SEB.

 

Mr. Friberg has been CFO since January 2019. He had previously worked as Executive Director, Chief Risk Officer (“CRO”) since May 2015. Previously he held the position as Head of Market Risk control from 2008 and as Head Group Risk Control from 2013 at Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (“SEB”). Prior to that he served as Head of Credit Portfolio Management at SEB from 2006. Prior to that he held various positions in trading within SEB and Nordea, primarily in derivatives trading, since 1996.

 

Ms. Hamilton Burman has been Chief Credit Officer since August 2015. Previously she held several positions within Swedbank e.g. Regional Credit Manager, Head of Corporate Banking, Head of Credit analysis. In addition she has been a director representing Swedbank in several of its subsidiaries such as Swedbank Financial Services AB, Swedbank Card Services AB and some partly owned saving banks and the credit bureau UC AB.

 

Mr. Hedar has been Head of Large Corporates since 2018. Previously he held several positions within SEK since 2007, such as Senior Director and Head of Large Corporates, Director, Senior Client Executive and Senior Manager of the Financial Advisory business. Prior to that he served in various capacities in Boliden Mineral AB, Outokumpu Oyj and AvestaPolarit AB.

 

Ms. Könberg has been Head of Marketing & Business Development since April 2017. Prior to that she served as Head of Internal Communications (2016-2017) and Head of Consumer Communications (2014-2016) at Telia. Before that she served as Head of Communications, Group Products at Swedbank (2013-2014) and prior to that she served in other capacities at Swedbank.

 

Ms. Rusanen has been Chief Human Resources Officer since 2005. Prior to that, she served as Human Resource Manager at Ericsson, beginning in 1997.

 

Ms. Rystedt has been Head of Business Development, Business Support and Transformation since January 2019. She had previously worked as Chief Administrative Officer since March 2009. Prior to that, she served as Head of Business Development & IT at SEB Life beginning in 2005. From 2002 to 2005, she served as Head of IT at SEB Trygg Liv, and before that she served in other capacities at SEB Trygg Liv and Enskilda Securities and as a member of the Group Staff within the SEB Group, beginning in 1990.

 

Mr. Svensén has been CRO since October 2019. Prior to his employment at SEK, he served as CRO at SBAB for seven years. Prior to SBAB, he worked as a consultant at Oliver Wyman.

 

Ms. Widaeus has been CIO, Head of IT, since February 2018. Prior to her employment at SEK, she served as CIO at Bankgirot for three years. Prior to that, she worked for fourteen years at Swedbank in different roles.

 

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B.Compensation

 

Remuneration, Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Aggregate remuneration of all directors and executive officers as a group 1  32.2   30.7   27.9 
Chairman of the Board  0.6   0.6   0.6 
Each director 2  0.0-0.3   0.0-0.3   0.0-0.4 
CEO Catrin Fransson 3  5.3   5.0   4.8 
Other executive officers of the Parent Company 4  24.8   23.6   21.0 
Pension plan with an insurance company on behalf of all executive officers  8.6   8.1   7.7 

 

 

 

1 In the form of salaries, fees and other benefits in the case of executive officers. In the form of fees and other benefits in the case of directors.

2 Since April 29, 2010, remuneration is not paid from the Company to the representatives on the Board who are employed by the owner, the Swedish State.

3 Remuneration and other benefits. The CEO did not receive any variable compensation.

4 Remuneration and other benefits.

 

For information on amounts set aside or accrued by SEK to provide employee pension benefits, see also Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

C.Board Practices

 

Activities and Division of Responsibility within the Board

 

The Board is responsible for the organization and the administration of SEK’s affairs in which sustainability forms an integral part. The Board is also tasked with ensuring that the Company’s financial statements, including sustainability reporting, are prepared in accordance with legislation, applicable accounting standards and other requirements. The Board must continually assess SEK’s financial position and ensure that SEK is structured in such a way that its accounting, management of funds and SEK’s other financial circumstances are governed by satisfactory controls. The Board adopts the operating targets and strategies for the operations, and issues general internal regulations in policies and instructions. The Board ensures that an efficient system is in place to monitor and control SEK’s operations. In addition, the Board is tasked with appointing, and dismissing if necessary, the CEO and the Chief Risk Officer, and deciding on the remuneration of these individuals and other members of executive management.

 

The Board’s work follows its rules of procedure and the Board’s rules of procedure are adopted each year at the statutory Board meeting. The Board met on 12 occasions in 2020. The CEO attends all Board meetings except those addressing matters in which there is a conflict of interest, such as when evaluating the CEO’s work or determining the CEO’s compensation.

 

The Board´s rules of procedure govern such matters as reporting to the Board, the frequency and form of the meetings of the Board, and delegation and assessment of the work of the Board and the CEO. In addition to this, the Board monitors financial developments and has ultimate responsibility for internal control, compliance and risk management.

 

The Board is responsible for a well thought-out and firmly established policy and strategy for dealing with respect for the environment, social responsibility, human rights, corruption as well as equal opportunities and diversity.

 

37

 

 

The Chairman of the Board leads the work of the Board and is responsible for ensuring that the other members of the Board are provided with the necessary information.

 

When required, the Chairman of the Board participates in important meetings and represents the Company in ownership matters. The tasks of the Chairman of the Board conform to applicable legislation and the rules of procedure of the Board. Auditors are invited to participate at meetings of the Board at least once a year. The auditors appointed by the Annual General Meeting have attended one of the meetings of the Board. The General Counsel acts as secretary to the Board.

 

The Board has established a credit committee (the body that deals with credit-related matters), a finance and risk committee (the body that deals with other financial matters besides those relating to credits as well as risk issues), an audit committee (the body that deals with the Company’s financial reporting, internal control, etc.) and a remuneration committee (the body that deals with certain remuneration matters). Besides the Board committees and the work for which the Chairman is responsible, work is not divided within the Board.

 

Appointing the Board and Auditors

 

The nomination procedure for Board members complies with the State’s ownership policy and is conducted and coordinated by the Division for State-owned enterprises at the Swedish Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation. For each enterprise, the expertise required is analyzed on the basis of the enterprise’s operations, situation and future challenges, board composition and board evaluations performed by the Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation. As part of its work in the board nomination process, the Government Offices also conducts its own ongoing evaluation of the boards of all state-owned enterprises. Any recruitment need is then determined, and recruitment work is begun. The state’s ownership policy sets out that the government seeks to achieve an even gender balance and the target is a minimum of 40 percent board representation for both women and men. Boards with six to eight directors elected by the general meeting of shareholders must include at least three persons of each gender. Directors are to be selected from a broad recruitment base with the aim of utilizing the expertise of women and men, as well as of individuals with various backgrounds and experience. Discrimination associated with gender, transgender identity or expression, ethnic affiliation, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation preference or age is prohibited.

 

SEK carries out a suitability assessment of Board members and senior executives pursuant to the regulatory framework issued by the EBA. SEK’s assessment of potential new Board members is based on the owner (the Swedish State) having identified the candidate in question according to a job specification. The owner (the Swedish State) is informed of the outcome following SEK’s assessment. Thereafter, SEK reports the candidate to the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority for its assessment and validation of the candidate. When the procedure is complete, the nominations are disclosed publicly in accordance with the provisions of the Swedish Corporate Governance Code. The terms of the Board members’ engagement do not provide for benefits upon an early termination of engagement or resignation.

 

The 2020 Annual General Meeting elected Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers AB as auditor of the Company, with auditor authorized public accountant Anneli Granqvist as principal auditor and authorized public accountant Peter Sott as co-signing auditor.

 

38

 

 

Policy documents

 

In 2020, SEK’s Board and committees adopted the following policies and instructions:

 

Document:

The Board's rules of procedure

Code of Conduct

Sustainable Business Policy

Risk Policy

Credit Policy

Instruction for the CEO

Instruction for the Chief Risk Officer. CRO

Instruction for the Internal Audit function

Instruction for the Compliance function

Limits for market risk

Limits for liquidity risk

HR policy

Credit Instruction

Audit instruction

 

Board’s work during the year

 

The COVID-19 pandemic that broke out in the spring of 2020, impacted the work of the Company and of the Board during the year. A tangible result of this has been that a large share of the year’s meetings were held digitally. Another direct consequence was that in November 2020, the planned Board trip to New York and Washington was postponed.

 

When the crisis was at its worst, during the spring of 2020, much of the Board’s time was devoted to monitoring the impact of the crisis on SEK’s lending, but also its borrowing capacity and risk monitoring. The Board approved, for example, the utilization of the credit facility that SEK has with the Swedish National Debt Office. In June 2020, the Board also made a decision to amend the current business plan since the original business plan, that was adopted in autumn 2019, was broadly outdated six months after it was devised due to the major changes to conditions that the pandemic had led to.

 

In addition to matters that were more or less attributable to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the Board has managed customary matters but also gone into more depth with certain issues. The Board’s strategy days during summer 2020 were devoted to such matters as the Company’s vision and core values, as well as the Company’s expanded initiative for transition credits. In addition, sustainability issues were addressed at a number of meetings, and the Board has promoted proposals to adjust the Company’s risk appetite so that transactions that involve financing the extraction and exploration of coal will cease. In autumn 2020, the Board followed up on the Company’s IT capabilities and how the investments that have been made to strengthen IT capacity have developed.

 

In 2020, the Board also held specific training courses. The themes taken up included capital issues from a broader perspective, the design and function of the recovery plan and a review of the IBOR reform (transition to essentially risk-free rates) and SEK’s efforts to adjust to the changes that this entails.

 

Quality assurance of financial reporting

 

To ensure correct and reliable financial reporting, SEK has developed a management system for financial reporting based on the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) framework for internal control (2013 version). This internal control framework is divided into five components: Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activities, Information and Communication, and Monitoring Activities.

 

Evaluation of the work of the Board and the CEO

 

A separate assessment of the work of the Board and CEO is carried out once a year under the leadership of the Chairman. The results of this assessment were reported to the Board and, by the Board’s Chairman, to the owner. An evaluation is also performed by the owner in conjunction with the nomination of directors. The evaluation for 2020 was conducted with particular focus on the assessment that is to be made of the Board’s suitability as a group in accordance with the regulations issued by the EBA.

 

The Board Committees

 

The Board has established the following committees. Credit Committee, Finance and Risk Committee, Remuneration Committee and Audit Committee. The Board’s rules of procedure include establishing annual instructions for all of its committees. The minutes from each committee are reported at meetings of the Board by the respective committee’s chairman.

 

Credit Committee

 

Ulla Nilsson (Chairman), Anna Brandt, Reinhold Geijer and Lars Linder-Aronson

 

·Ensure the Board’s involvement in decision-making regarding credit risks.
   
·Prepare matters relating to credits and credit decisions that are of fundamental or otherwise significant importance to the Company, and also to make decisions regarding credits in accordance with the delegation rules determined by the Board, where sustainability aspects are implicated.

 

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Finance and Risk Committee

 

Hans Larsson (Chairman), Cecilia Ardström, Hanna Lagercrantz and Lars Linder-Aronson

 

Ensure that the Company can identify, measure, manage, report internally and control the risks to which it is or can be expected to be exposed.

 

·Prepare matters pertaining to general policies, strategies and risk appetite in all risk and capital-related issues where sustainability risk is a component, as well as regarding overall issues concerning the Company’s financial operations.
   
·Set limits for such risk and capital-related matters that the Board delegates to the Committee to determine, and to establish measurement methods and limits concerning market and liquidity risk, in addition to models for valuing financial instruments.

 

Remuneration Committee

 

Lars Linder-Aronson (Chairman), Reinhold Geijer, Hanna Lagercrantz and Eva Nilsagård.

 

·Prepare matters relating to employment terms and conditions, salaries, pensions and other benefits for the CEO and the executive management, and general issues relating to salaries, pensions and other benefits.
   
·Prepare proposals regarding the remuneration policy for decision by the Board.
   
·Prepare proposals on salaries for other individuals in management positions for whom the Board determines the terms of remuneration.
   
·Evaluate compliance with the Annual General Meeting’s resolutions on remuneration.

 

Audit Committee

 

Cecilia Ardström (Chairman), Hans Larsson, Eva Nilsagård and Ulla Nilsson.

 

·Monitor the Company’s financial reporting and submit recommendations and proposals aimed at assuring the reliability of the Company’s reporting.
   
·Monitor the efficiency of the Company’s internal control, internal audit and risk management in terms of the financial reporting.
   
·Evaluate the audit process and inform the Board of the results and, through the Chairman of the Board, inform the Company’s owner about the results of the evaluation.
   
·Keep informed about the audit of the annual accounts and the consolidated financial statements, as well as the conclusions of the Supervisory Board of Public Accountants’ quality control.
   
·Assist in the preparation of proposals regarding the selection of auditors for resolution by the Annual General Meeting.

 

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Attendance at Board and committee meetings in 2020

 

           Finance       
     Board of  Remuneration  and Risk  Credit  Audit 
  Total  Directors  Committee  Committee  Committee  Committee 
Number of meetings  52   12   5   9   19   7 
Lars Linder-Aronson 1  47   12   5   9   19   2 
Cecilia Ardstiom 3  28   12   0   9   0   7 
Anna Brandt  31   12   0   0   19   0 
Reinhold Geijer  36   12   5   0   19   0 
Hanna Lagercrantz 3  26   12   5   7   0   2 
Hans Larsson 4  26   12   0   9   0   5 
Eva Nilsagard  24   12   5   0   0   7 
Ulla Nilsson 5  38   12   0   2   19   5 

 

 

 

1Lars Linder-Aronson stepped down from the Audit Committee on March 26, 2020.
2Ceci Lia Ardstnom resigned as a Chairman of the Fi nance and Risk Com mittee or March 26 2020.
3Hanna Lagercrantz was elected as a member of the Finance and Risk Committee on March 26, 2020 and on the same day she stepped down from the Audit Committee.
4Hans Larsson was elected as a Chariman of the Finance and Risk Committee on March 26. 2020 and on the same day he was elected as a member of the Au dit Committee.
5Ulla Nilsson was elected as a member of the Audit Committee on March 26,2020 and on the same day she stepped down from the Finance and Risk Committee.

 

D.Employees

 

  2020  2019  2018 
Average employees  248   241   243 
     of which female  123   120   117 
     of which male  125   121   126 
             
Employees at year-end  253   244   238 

 

The total number of employees is small in relation to the volume of lending because the number of lending transactions is relatively small and the administration and documentation of loans are in many cases handled by the banks participating in the transactions. The Group has not experienced any strikes or labor disputes and considers its employee relations to be strong.

 

For more information, see “Personnel Expenses” in Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Members of the Board, the CEO, and other executive officers have no share ownership in the Parent Company or Subsidiary and no options have been granted to them with respect to the Parent Company’s shares. There are no arrangements for involving the employees in the capital of the Parent Company, including any arrangement that involves the issue or grant of options, shares or securities of the Parent Company.

 

E.Share Ownership

 

None.

 

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ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

A.Major Shareholders

 

As of December 31, 2020, the total number of shares outstanding was 3,990,000. Since June 30, 2003, the Swedish State has been the sole (100 percent) owner of SEK. The State owns all of the Company’s shares.

 

The following table sets forth the share ownership of the Parent Company:

 

Shareholder   Ownership %  Number of shares 
Kingdom of Sweden   Appr.      100.00   3,990,000 

 

Ownership and governance

 

SEK is owned by the Swedish State. The State exerts its influence at the Parent Company’s general meetings and through representation on the Board.

 

The governance of SEK is divided between the shareholder, the Board and the CEO, in accordance with the Swedish Companies Act, the Articles of Association, and the Board’s procedural rules. The Board appoints the CEO, who conducts ongoing management in accordance with the Board’s guidelines and instructions.

 

The State as shareholder has decided that State-owned companies should observe the Swedish Corporate Governance Code.

 

 

B.Related party transactions

 

SEK defines related parties for the Consolidated Group as:

 

·the shareholder, i.e. the Swedish State
  
·companies and organizations that are controlled through a common owner, the Swedish State
  
·key management personnel
  
·other related parties

 

The Swedish State owns 100 percent of the Parent Company’s share capital. By means of direct guarantees extended by the Swedish National Debt Office and the EKN, 39 percent of the Group’s outstanding loans as of December 31, 2020, were guaranteed by the State (year-end 2019: 38 percent). The remuneration to EKN for the guarantees paid by SEK during 2020 amounted to Skr 26 million (2019: Skr 0 million). SEK administers, for compensation, the CIRR-system and the State’s related concessionary credit program, see Note 1(d) and Note 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

SEK has a Skr 200 billion (2019: Skr 125 billion) credit facility with the Swedish National Debt Office, which can be used for CIRR loans or commercial export financing up to Skr 15 billion (2019: Skr 0 million). In February 2021, the credit facility was extended for 2021. SEK had utilized Skr 10 billion of the credit facility, by December 31, 2020.

 

SEK enters into transactions in the ordinary course of business with entities that are partially or wholly-owned or controlled by the State. SEK also extends export credits (in the form of direct or pass-through loans) to entities related to the State. Transactions with such parties are conducted on the same terms (including as to interest rates and repayment schedules) as transactions with unrelated parties.

 

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Key management personnel include the following persons:

• Members of the Board

• The President and CEO

• Other members of the executive management

         

For information about remuneration and other benefits to key management personnel, see Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Other related parties include close family members of key management personnel as well as companies which are controlled by key management personnel or controlled by close family members to key management personnel.

 

See also Note 27 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on related-party transactions.

 

C.Interests of Experts and Counsel.

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 8.FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

A.Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

 

See Item 18, “Financial Statements.”

 

Legal Proceedings

 

There are no material pending or, to the Group’s knowledge, threatened, legal or governmental proceedings to which the Group is or would be a party or to which any of its property is or would be subject.

 

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Dividend Policy

 

The Board resolved for each year, as listed in the table below, that the corresponding amount was to be paid to the sole shareholder, the Swedish State, in relation to the fiscal year of each such year.

 

  In relation to the respective years 
  2020  2019  2018 
Dividend  Skr 290 mn   -   Skr 194 mn 
 -of which per share  72.78   -   Skr 48.70 

 

For additional details regarding equity, see the Consolidated Statement of Equity.

 

B.Significant Changes

 

Except as otherwise disclosed in this report, there has been no significant change in SEK’s financial position since December 31, 2020.

 

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

 

A.Offer and Listing Details

 

Not applicable.

 

B.Plan of Distribution

 

Not applicable.

 

C.Markets

 

The Parent Company’s shares, all of which are owned by the State, are not listed on any exchange in Sweden or outside Sweden.

 

All issues of SEK’s U.S. medium term notes listed on securities exchanges in the United States are set forth on the cover of this Report. Certain global issues of such notes are listed on European exchanges.

 

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  As of December 31,
  2020
Notes listed on European exchanges of which:  
 -Listed on the Irish Stock Exchange 1.750% Global Notes due March 10, 2021
  2.375% Global Notes due April 9, 2021
  2.875% Global Notes due May 22, 2021
  1.625% Global Notes due September 12, 2021
  3.125% Global Notes due November 8, 2021
  2.375% Global Notes due March 9, 2022
  2.000% Global Notes due August 30, 2022
  1.625% Global Notes due November 14, 2022
  2.875% Global Notes due March 14, 2023
  1.750% Global Notes due December 12, 2023
  0.750% Global Notes due April 6, 2023
  Floating Rate Global Notes due May 25, 2023
  0.250% Global Notes due September 29, 2023
  0.375% Global Notes due July 30, 2024
  0.625% Global Notes due May 14, 2025
  0.500% Global Notes due August 26, 2025

 

Other issuances of SEK’s Medium Term Notes are traded in the over-the-counter market.

 

D.Selling Shareholders

 

Not applicable.

 

E.Dilution

 

Not applicable.

 

F.Expenses of the Issue

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

A.Share Capital

 

The share capital of the Parent Company shall be not less than Skr 1,500 million and not more than Skr 6,000 million. No shareholder is obliged to make additional capital contributions to the Parent Company solely as a result of being a shareholder.

 

Shareholders’ rights may only be changed by a majority (and in certain cases a qualified majority) of the shares represented at a general meeting of the shareholders. However, all resolutions passed at a general meeting of the shareholders are subject to mandatory provisions under Swedish law (for practical purposes, primarily the Swedish Companies Act). In particular, there are rules protecting minority shareholders and there is a general principle that all shares and shareholders shall be treated equally.

 

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Annual General Meeting

 

The Annual General Meeting is held once a year not later than six months following the end of the preceding fiscal year. Notices convening an Annual General Meeting or any other general meeting called to resolve upon any amendment of the Articles of Association, shall be issued not earlier than six weeks and not later than four weeks prior to the meeting. Notices convening a general meeting, in cases other than those set forth in the preceding sentence, shall be issued not earlier than six weeks and not later than three weeks prior to the meeting. Each person entitled to vote at an Annual General Meeting shall have the right to vote all the shares owned and represented by that person. There are no restrictions on the rights of non-Swedish nationals to own shares or vote their shares at the Annual General Meeting.

 

Swedish law provides that, in matters other than elections, resolutions are passed by a simple majority of the votes cast, except that (among other exceptions):

 

a resolution to amend the Articles of Association (except as described in the following paragraphs) requires a majority of at least two-thirds of the votes cast as well as at least two-thirds of the shares represented at the meeting;

 

a resolution to amend the Articles of Association that reduces any existing shareholder’s rights to profits or other assets, restricts the transferability of issued shares or alters the legal relationship between issued shares, normally requires the unanimous approval of the shareholders present or represented at the meeting and representing at least nine-tenths of all shares issued; and

 

a resolution to amend the Articles of Association for the purpose of limiting the number of shares which a shareholder may vote at an annual general meeting normally requires the approval of shareholders representing at least two-thirds of the votes cast and at least nine-tenths of the shares represented at the meeting.

 

In elections, the person receiving the most votes is deemed to have been elected.

 

B.Memorandum and Articles of Association

 

Set forth below is a brief summary of certain significant provisions of the Parent Company’s Articles of Association and Swedish law. This description does not purport to be complete and is qualified by reference to the Articles of Association, which are incorporated by reference, as an exhibit to this annual report.

 

Registration

 

The Parent Company’s registry number with the Swedish Company Registry (Sw. Bolagsregistret) of the Swedish Companies Registration Office (Sw. Bolagsverket) is 556084-0315.

 

Purpose

 

Under Article 3 of the Articles of Association, the Parent Company’s objective is to engage, on commercial grounds, in Swedish and international financing activities in accordance with the Swedish Banking and Financing Business Act (2004:297) in order to promote activities of Swedish interest, directly or indirectly related to the Swedish export industry, including Swedish infrastructure, and further to otherwise strengthen the internationalization and competitiveness of Swedish industry. The Parent Company’s financing activities include, but are not limited to: (i) borrowing funds, for example by accepting deposits from the general public or issuing bonds or other comparable debt instruments; (ii) granting and intermediating loans, for example in the form of loans secured by charges over real property or claims; (iii) issuing guarantees and assuming similar obligations; (iv) the holding of securities and the conduct of trading in securities; and (v) engaging in securities operations in accordance with the Swedish Securities Market Act (2007:528).

 

Certain Powers of Directors

 

Under the Swedish Companies Act (2005:551), the Board is ultimately responsible for the Parent Company’s organization and the management of its affairs.

 

All members of the Board shall, if possible, be given the opportunity to participate in the deliberations relating to a matter and be given sufficient information to do so. A resolution of the Board requires the participation of a majority of the members of the Board and the approval of the higher of (i) a majority of the participating members of the Board and (ii) more than a third of the total number of Board members. However, the Board may delegate the authority to borrow and lend funds on behalf of the Parent Company to the CEO or another employee, acting singly or jointly, provided that such financing transaction does not contravene any fundamental policy of the Parent Company and is not otherwise of great significance to the Parent Company. There are no legal requirements applicable to any member of the Board requiring the ownership of shares in the Parent Company, or requiring retirement at a certain age.

 

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Although the Articles of Association do not address voting by directors on matters in which they are interested, under the Swedish Companies Act, a director may not take part in the Board’ deliberations with respect to any of the following:

 

1.agreements between such director and the Parent Company;

 

2.agreements between the Parent Company and third parties, where such director has a material interest in the matter that may conflict with the interests of the Parent Company; or

 

3.agreements between the Parent Company and a legal entity that such director himself, or together with someone else, may represent.

 

Under the Swedish Companies Act, the Parent Company may not lend funds to shareholders or directors.

 

Under Swedish law, the CEO and at least half of the Board must be resident in a European Economic Area country unless exempted by the Swedish Companies Registration Office. Under Swedish law, a director’s term of office may not be more than four years, but the Parent Company’s Articles of Association require one-year terms. A director may, however, serve any number of consecutive terms. Directors elected at a general meeting of the shareholders may be removed from office at another general meeting of the shareholders, and vacancies on the Board, except when filled by a deputy director, may only be filled by a resolution of shareholders. Each year, if not otherwise stipulated in the Parent Company’s Articles of Association, one director is elected Chairman of the Board by resolution of the Board (unless elected by the shareholders) at the statutory meeting following the Board’s appointment.

 

C.Material Contracts

 

The Parent Company is a party to certain material contracts, as defined in the Instructions to Item 10.C of Form 20-F. Such contracts are either filed with this annual report or incorporated by reference herein. Please see Item 19 herein.

 

D.Exchange Controls

 

There are currently no Swedish exchange control laws or laws restricting the import or export of capital. No approvals are necessary under Swedish law to enable the Group, at the times and in the manner provided in the Group’s debt securities and the indentures or other instruments pursuant to which such securities have been issued, to acquire and transfer out of Sweden all the amounts necessary to pay in full the principal of and/or interest on such securities, and any additional amounts payable with respect thereto, and no external approval is required for any prepayment of such securities.

 

Under Swedish law and the Parent Company’s Articles of Association, there are no limitations on the right of non-resident or foreign owners to hold debt securities issued by the Parent Company.

 

E.Taxation

 

The following summary outlines certain Swedish tax consequences relating to holders of SEK’s debt securities. The summary is based on the laws of Sweden as currently in effect and is intended to provide general information only. The summary does not address, among other things, situations where debt securities are held in an investment savings account (Sw. investeringssparkonto), the tax consequences in connection with a relevant authority’s exercise of bail-in tools and/or any other powers under the Resolution Act, the tax consequences in connection with any impairment of the debt securities, or the rules regarding reporting obligations for, among others, payers of interest. Investors should consult their professional tax advisors regarding Swedish and other tax consequences (including the applicability and effect of tax treaties for the avoidance of double taxation) of acquiring, owning and disposing of debt securities in their particular circumstances.

 

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Holders not tax resident in Sweden

 

Payments of any principal amount or any amount that is considered to be interest for Swedish tax purposes to the holder of any debt security should not be subject to Swedish income tax, provided that such holder (i) is not resident in Sweden for Swedish tax purposes and (ii) does not have a permanent establishment in Sweden to which the debt securities are effectively connected.

 

However, if the value of or the return on the debt securities is deemed equity-related for Swedish tax purposes, private individuals who have been residents of Sweden for tax purposes due to a habitual abode in Sweden or a stay in Sweden for six consecutive months at any time during the calendar year of disposal or redemption or the ten calendar years preceding the year of disposal or redemption are liable for capital gains taxation in Sweden upon disposal or redemption of such debt securities. In a number of cases though, the applicability of this rule is limited by the applicable tax treaty for the avoidance of double taxation.

 

Swedish withholding tax, or Swedish tax deduction, is not imposed on payments of any principal amount or any amount that is considered to be interest for Swedish tax purposes, except for certain payments of interest (and other returns on debt securities) to a private individual (or an estate of a deceased individual) who is resident in Sweden for Swedish tax purposes (see “Holders tax resident in Sweden” below).

 

Holders tax resident in Sweden

 

In general, for Swedish corporations and private individuals (and estates of deceased individuals) with residence in Sweden for Swedish tax purposes, all capital income (for example income that is considered to be interest for Swedish tax purposes and capital gains on debt securities) will be taxable. Specific tax consequences may be applicable to certain categories of corporations, for example life insurance companies. Moreover, specific tax consequences may be applicable if, and to the extent that, a holder of debt securities realizes a capital loss on the debt securities and any currency exchange gains or losses.

 

If amounts that are deemed as interest for Swedish tax purposes are paid by Euroclear Sweden AB or by another legal entity domiciled in Sweden - including a Swedish branch of a non-Swedish corporation - or, in certain cases, a clearing institution within the EEA, to a private individual (or an estate of a deceased individual) with residence in Sweden for Swedish tax purposes, Swedish preliminary taxes are normally withheld by Euroclear Sweden AB /the legal entity/the clearing institution on such payments. Swedish preliminary taxes should normally also be withheld on other returns on debt securities (but not capital gains), if the return is paid out together with such a payment of interest referred to above.

 

F.Dividends and Paying Agents

 

Not applicable.

 

G.Statements by Experts

 

Not applicable.

 

H.Documents on Display

 

The Parent Company files reports and other information electronically with the SEC. For a fee, members of the public may request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.

 

I.Subsidiary Information

 

See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

All information about Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk are included in Note 26 and Note 29 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Please see Exhibit 2.11 to this annual report.

 

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PART II

 

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

 

None.

 

ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

None.

 

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

A.Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

Management, including the CEO and the CFO have evaluated the effectiveness of SEK’s disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a–15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) as of December 31, 2020. The Group’s disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports the Parent Company files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the applicable rules and forms, and that it is compiled with and communicated to the Parent Company’s management, including the CEO and the CFO as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

Based upon that evaluation, management, including the CEO and the CFO concluded that the Group’s internal control over financial reporting described in the Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting below, and the Group’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2020.

 

B.Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

Management, including the CEO and the CFO is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of SEK’s financial statements for external purposes in accordance with IFRS.

 

Internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures that: (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Group; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS; (iii) provide reasonable assurance that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with the authorization of management and directors of the Group; and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Group’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

 

Due to its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness for future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with policies and procedures may deteriorate.

 

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Management, including the CEO and the CFO assessed the effectiveness of SEK’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria set forth in “Internal Control — Integrated Framework” issued in 2013 by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and using the information contained in the Interpretive Release No.33–8810, “Commission Guidance Regarding Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting Under Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934,” issued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Management concluded that, as of December 31, 2020, SEK’s internal control over financial reporting was effective based on these criteria.

 

C.Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

Because SEK is a “non-accelerated filer”, this annual report is not required to include an attestation report of the SEK’s registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting.

 

D.Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

There have been no changes in the Group’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the year ended December 31, 2020, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, SEK’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

 

The Audit Committee of the Parent Company’s Board was established in January 2008. This committee, whose members are Cecilia Ardström (Chairman), Hans Larsson (as of March 26, 2020), Eva Nilsagård and Ulla Nilsson (as of March 26, 2020), has a mandate to, among other things, supervise the Group’s financial reporting and review the work of its independent auditors. While the members of the Audit Committee have varying degrees of financial and accounting experience, the committee has not concluded that any of its members is an “audit committee financial expert” within the meaning of the regulations adopted under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

 

The Parent Company has not found it necessary to designate an audit committee financial expert because the Group is under the supervision of the Swedish FSA. Accordingly, SEK believes that there is the opportunity for meaningful independent review of its financial statements by qualified experts (at the Swedish FSA), in addition to the independent review performed by the Parent Company’s external auditor.

 

ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS

 

The Group has ethical guidelines (the “Code of Conduct”) in place that apply to all employees including all executive officers. The guidelines are consistent with, and also in some respects more restrictive than, applicable Swedish regulations. The ethical guidelines are designed to deter wrongdoing and promote:

 

·honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual and apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships; and
·compliance with applicable governmental laws, rules and regulations.

 

Although these ethical guidelines do not meet the definition of “code of ethics” in the regulations adopted pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, primarily because they do not specifically address matters relating to the Parent Company’s disclosure in reports and documents filed with the SEC and in other public communications, the Parent Company believes that its ethical guidelines are sufficient to regulate the conduct of SEK’s executive officers, including its principal executive officer, its principal financial officer and its principal accounting officer. The guidelines have also been specifically designed to comply with relevant Swedish regulations and guidelines (including the Swedish Governance Code), which is why SEK has not attempted to alter them to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

 

The Code of Conduct is available on SEK’s website, www.sek.se./en/code-of-conduct-2. Information available on or accessible through SEK’s website is not incorporated herein by reference.

 

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ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

 

The following table sets forth, for the years ending December 31, 2020 and 2019, the fees billed from the Parent Company’s independent auditors, Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers AB.

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers AB        
Audit fees 1  9   10 
Audit related fees 2  -   0 
Tax related fees 3  -   0 
Other fees 4  3   2 
Total  12   12 

 

 

 

1 Fees related to audit of annual financial statements and reviews of interim financial statements.

2 Fees charged for assurance and related services that are related to the performance of audit or review of the financial statements and are not reported under “Audit fees”.

3 Fees for professional services rendered by the principal independent auditors for tax compliance and tax advice.

4 Fees for products and services rendered by the principal independent auditors, other than the services reported in “Audit fees”, “Audit related fees” and “Tax related fees” above.

 

In the financial statements remuneration to auditors is mainly included in Other administrative expenses. No additional fees have been billed by the principal auditors.

 

See also Item 16G herein for information about corporate governance as it relates to the external auditors of the Parent Company.

 

ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONs FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

 

Prior to 2008, the Board as a whole comprised the Parent Company’s audit committee for the purposes of Rule 10A-3 under the Exchange Act. In January 2008, the Board established a separate Audit Committee, which currently has four directors as members. See Item 6 “Directors, Senior Management and Employees — Board Practices—Committees—Audit Committee.” Each of the members of the Board, and thus the Audit Committee, is a representative or designee of the Swedish State. As its sole owner, the Swedish State is an affiliate of the Parent Company. However, no member of the Board is an Executive Officer of the Parent Company. Thus, although no member of the Board or the Audit Committee satisfies the non-affiliate requirement of the independence standard for audit committee members described in Rule 10A-3(b)(1)(ii)(B) under the Exchange Act, the Parent Company relies, as to each member of the Board and the Audit Committee, on the exemption from this requirement for foreign governmental representatives described in Rule 10A-3(b)(1)(iv)(E). The Parent Company does not believe that its reliance on the above exemption materially adversely affects the ability of the Audit Committee to act independently and to satisfy its duties.

 

52

 

 

ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS.

 

None.

 

ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

As a result of the listing of certain of its debt securities on NYSE ARCA, SEK is subject to Rule 10A-3 under the Exchange Act. Rule 10A-3, with which SEK complies fully, sets out certain requirements with respect to the independence of audit committee members and with respect to audit committees’ duties, powers and responsibilities. Rule 10A-3 contains certain exemptions for foreign issuers, however, and SEK avails itself of certain of these exemptions. In particular: (i) as noted in Item 16D above, it relies on Section (b)(1)(iv)(E) of Rule 10A-3 (applicable to audit committee members that are representatives or designees of a foreign government, which all of SEK’s audit committee members are) to satisfy the independence requirement set forth in Section (b)(1)(ii)(B) of Rule 10A-3; and (ii) it relies on the “Instructions” accompanying the Rule, which provide that, to the extent that a foreign issuer’s home-country legal requirements conflict with the prescriptions of the Rule concerning the duties, powers or responsibilities of audit committees (i.e., due to the assignment of such duties, powers or responsibilities to another corporate body under local law), it is sufficient to allocate to the audit committee advisory powers, or powers and/or responsibilities concerning the making of proposals to the relevant decision-making body. Regarding the foregoing, Section (b) (2) of Rule 10A-3 states that an issuer’s audit committee should be directly responsible for the appointment, compensation, retention and oversight of external auditors. Under Swedish law, these powers are reserved to the Parent Company’s shareholder. Thus, the charter for SEK’s audit committee gives the committee an advisory role (to the shareholder) with respect to the aforesaid (but does not make the committee directly responsible).

 

Item 16H. Mining Safety Disclosure

 

Not applicable.

 

PART III

 

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

The Group’s Consolidated Financial Statements prepared in accordance with Item 18 of Form 20-F begin on page F-1 of this annual report.

 

Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm  F-1 
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income  F-4 
Consolidated Statement of Financial Position  F-5 
Consolidated Statement of Changes in Equity  F-6 
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows  F-7 
Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements  F-8 

 

53

 

 

ITEM 19. EXHIBITS

 

1.1Articles of Association of the Registrant in effect as of the date of this annual report (filed as Exhibit 1.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on 20-F (No. 001-08382) for the year ended December 31, 2014 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.1Indenture, dated as of August 15, 1991, between the Company and J.P. Morgan Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to the First National Bank of Chicago) as Trustee, providing for the issuance of debt securities, in one or more series, by the Company (filed as Exhibit 4(a) to the Company’s Report of Foreign Issuer on Form 6-K (No. 001-08382) dated September 30, 1991 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.2First Supplemental Indenture dated as of June 2, 2004 between the Company and J.P. Morgan Trust Company, National Association (filed as Exhibit 4(b) to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form F-3 (No. 333-131369) dated January 30, 2006 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.3Second Supplemental Indenture, dated as of January 30, 2006, between the Company and J.P. Morgan Trust Company, National Association (filed as Exhibit 4(c) to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form F-3 (No. 333-131369) dated January 30, 2006 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.4Third Supplemental Indenture, dated as of October 23, 2008, relating to the Debt Securities (filed as Exhibit 4 to the Company’s Report of Foreign Issuer on Form 6-K dated October 23, 2008 (No. 001-08382) and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.5Fourth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of March 8, 2010, relating to the Debt Securities (filed as Exhibit 4(f) to the Company’s Post-Effective Amendment (No. 333-156118) to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form F-3, filed by the Company on March 10, 2010 and filed as Exhibit 2.8 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F (No. 001-08382) for the year ended December 31, 2009, filed by the Company on March 31, 2010 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.6Fifth Supplemental Indenture, dated as of November 3, 2020, relating to the Debt Securities (filed as Exhibit 4(f) to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form F-3 (No. 333-249829) dated November 3, 2020 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.7Fiscal Agency Agreement dated April 1, 2020 relating to an unlimited aggregate principal amount of debt securities authorized to be issued under the Company’s Unlimited Programme for the Continuous Issuance of Debt Instruments.*

 

2.8Deed of Covenant dated April 1, 2020 relating to an unlimited aggregate principal amount of securities of SEK authorized to be issued under the Company’s Unlimited Programme for the Continuous Issuance of Debt Instruments.*

 

2.9ASX Austraclear Registry and IPA Services Agreement dated February 29, 2016 relating to an unlimited principal amount of debt securities authorized to be issued under the Company’s Australian Dollar Debt Issue Programme (filed as Exhibit 2.10 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F (No. 001-08382) for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed by the Company on February 26, 2018 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.10Third Note Deed Poll dated 29 February, 2016 relating to an unlimited principal amount of debt securities authorized to be issued under the Company’s Australian Dollar Debt Issuance Program (filed as Exhibit 2.11 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F (No. 001-08382) for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed by the Company on February 26, 2018 and incorporated herein by reference).

 

2.11Description of each class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act.*

 

54

 

 

12.1Certifications pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a) under the Exchange Act.*

 

13.1Certifications pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.*

 

14.1Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.*

 

 101.INSXBRL Instance Document
   
 101.SCHXBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
   
 101.CALXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
   
 101.DEFXBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
   
 101.LABXBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
   
 101.PREXBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document

 

Pursuant to Instruction 2(b) (i) in the “Instructions as to Exhibits” in Form 20-F, various instruments defining the rights of holders of long-term debt securities issued by the Company are not being filed herewith because such debt securities are not registered with the Commission and the total amount of debt securities authorized under each such instrument does not exceed 10 percent of the total assets of the Company. The Company hereby agrees to furnish a copy of any such instrument to the Commission upon request.

 

* Exhibits filed herewith.

 

55

 

 

  

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To the Board of Directors and shareholder of

Aktiebolaget Svensk Exportkredit (Swedish Export Credit Corporation)

 

Opinion on the Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated statement of financial position of Aktiebolaget Svensk Exportkredit (Swedish Export Credit Corporation) and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, and the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020 in conformity with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

F-1

 

 

Critical Audit Matters

 

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing a separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

 

Valuation of Certain Level 3 Financial Instruments

 

As described in Notes 1 and 13 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company carries financial instruments at fair value, which includes Skr 1.6 billion of assets and Skr 43.0 billion of liabilities classified in Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy as one or more inputs to the financial instrument’s valuation technique are significant and unobservable. The Company utilized an internally established model and unobservable inputs to estimate the fair value of the level 3 financial instruments. As disclosed by management, the unobservable parameters included in the model for assessing fair value are associated with subjectivity and uncertainty.

 

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the valuation of certain Level 3 financial instruments is a critical audit matter are (i) the valuation of these certain financial instruments involved the application of significant judgment on the part of management, which in turn led to a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures related to the valuation of these financial instruments, and (ii) the audit effort involved professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in evaluating the audit evidence.

 

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of the controls relating to the valuation of these financial instruments, including controls over the Company’s model control and governance, and oversight of valuation. These procedures also included, among others, the involvement of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in developing an independent estimate of fair value for a sample of these certain financial instruments and comparison of management’s estimate to the independently developed estimate of fair value. Developing the independent estimate involved testing the completeness and accuracy of data provided by management and evaluating the reasonableness of management’s assumptions, methodologies, and models used by the Company.

 

Loss allowance on loans

 

As described in Notes 1 and 9 to the consolidated financial statements, the loss allowance on loans represents the expected credit losses in relation to the Company’s credit exposures. As of December 31, 2020, the loss allowance on loans was Skr 240 million, on total loans before expected credit losses of Skr 232 billion. As disclosed by management, the loss allowance or expected credit losses (ECL) are estimated using quantitative models and overall adjustment, which incorporate inputs, assumptions and methodologies that involve a high degree of management judgement. The most significant inputs included determination of significant increase in credit risk, incorporation of forward-looking macroeconomic scenarios and measurement of both 12-month and lifetime expected credit losses. The ECL is a probability-weighted amount that is determined by evaluating the outcome of several possible stages, and where the data taken into consideration comprises both information from previous conditions, the current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions. The Company entailed three scenarios for the probability of default curve which are defined by a weight allocated to each scenario. The ECL calculation also takes into consideration any collateral held, repayments or guarantees.

 

F-2

 

 

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the ECL is a critical audit matter are: (i) there was a significant judgment by management in determining the ECL, which in turn led to a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures related to the ECL model, key assumptions, such as significant increase in credit risk, and the determination of the scenarios, which were used to estimate the ECL, and (ii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in evaluating the audit evidence.

 

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the impairment of loans, which included controls over the data, models and assumptions used in determining the ECL. These procedures also included, among others; (i) the involvement of professionals with specialized skills and knowledge to assist and recalculate the ECL for a sample of loans to evaluate the reasonableness of significant assumptions used in the ECL model; (ii) testing the completeness and accuracy of data points used to determine the ECL; (iii) evaluating the reasonableness of the assumptions and weighting in the scenarios; and (iv) assessed the reasonableness of management’s adjustment related to expert credit judgments and that rationale exists to account for the overall adjustment at year end. Evaluating the assumptions used in the ECL model involved assessing their reasonableness against external factors and economic events that have occurred.

 

/s/ Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers AB

 

Stockholm, Sweden

February 23, 2021

 

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2017.

 

F-3

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income

 

Skr mn Note 2020 2019 2018 
Interest income calculated using effective interest method1     4,960  5,703  4,866 
Other interest income1     -852  654  500 
Interest expenses1     -2,162  -4,640  -3,924 
Net interest income  2  1,946  1,717  1,442 
Net fee and commission expense  3  -42  -33  -32 
Net results of financial transactions  4  83  226  19 
Other operating income     -  -  -2 
Total operating income     1,987  1,910  1,427 
Personnel expenses  5  -347  -333  -311 
Other administrative expenses  6  -198  -206  -231 
Depreciation and impairment of non-financial assets  7  -51  -57  -40 
Total operating expenses     -596  -596  -582 
Operating profit before credit losses     1,391  1,314  845 
Net credit losses  9  -153  -10  7 
Operating profit     1,238  1,304  852 
Tax expenses  10  -270  -277  -204 
Net profit     968  1,027  648 
Other comprehensive income related to:             
Items to be reclassified to profit or loss             
Derivatives in cash-flow hedges     -  -8  -25 
Tax on items to be reclassified to profit or loss  10  -  2  6 
Net items to be reclassified to profit or loss     -  -6  -19 
Items not to be reclassified to profit or loss             
Own credit risk     18  24  374 
Revaluation of defined benefit plans     1  -4  -48 
Tax on items not to be reclassified to profit or loss  10  -5  -4  -72 
Net items not to be reclassified to profit or loss     14  16  254 
Total other comprehensive income     14  10  235 
Total comprehensive income2     982  1,037  883 
Skr             
Basic and diluted earnings per share3     243  257  162 

 

 

 

1 Since Q4 2020, SEK has changed the accounting principle regarding the CIRR-system. The comparative figures have been adjusted, see Note 1.

2 The entire profit is attributable to the shareholder of the Parent Company.

3 The average number of shares in 2020 amounted to 3,990,000 (2019: 3,990,000)

 

F-4

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Financial Position

 

Skr mn Note December 31,
2020
 December 31,
2019
 
Assets       
Cash and cash equivalents  11, 12  3,362  1,362 
Treasuries/government bonds  11, 12  22,266  8,344 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  11, 12  33,551  53,906 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  11, 12  50,780  43,627 
Loans to credit institutions  9, 11, 12  31,315  27,010 
Loans to the public  8, 9, 11, 12  171,562  163,848 
Derivatives  12, 14  7,563  6,968 
Tangible and intangible assets  7  145  134 
Deferred tax assets  10  15  16 
Other assets  16  12,853  9,334 
Prepaid expenses and accrued revenues  17  1,987  2,747 
Total assets     335,399  317,296 
Liabilities and equity          
Borrowing from credit institutions  12, 18  3,486  3,678 
Borrowing from the public  12, 18  10,000  - 
Debt securities issued  12, 18  273,976  269,339 
Derivatives  12, 14  25,395  20,056 
Other liabilities  19  455  2,466 
Accrued expenses and prepaid revenues  20  1,924  2,582 
Deferred tax liabilities  10  -  - 
Provisions  5, 21  99  93 
Total liabilities     315,335  298 214 
Share capital     3,990  3,990 
Reserves     -129  -143 
Retained earnings     16,203  15,235 
Total equity  22  20,064  19,082 
Total liabilities and equity     335,399  317,296 

 

F-5

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Changes in Equity

 

      Reserves   
Skr mn Equity Share
capital
 Hedge
reserve
 Fair value
reserve
 Own credit
risk
 Defined
benefit plans
 Retained
earnings
 
Effects of the implementation of IFRS 92  14        -9  -409     432 
Adjusted opening balance of equity January 1, 2018  17,588  3,990  25  -  -409  -4  13,986 
Net profit for the year  648                 648 
Other comprehensive income related to:                      
Items to be reclassified to profit or loss                      
Derivatives in cash-flow hedges  -25     -25             
Tax on items to be reclassified to profit or loss  6     6             
Items not to be reclassified to profit or loss                      
Own credit risk  374           374       
Revaluation of defined benefit plans  -48              -48    
Tax on items not to be reclassified to profit or loss  -72           -82  10    
Total other comprehensive income  235  -  -19  -  292  -38  - 
Total comprehensive income  883  -  -19  -  292  -38  648 
Dividend  -232                 -232 
Closing balance of equity 20181.2  18,239  3,990  6  -  -117  -42  14,402 
Opening balance of equity Jan 1, 2019  18,239  3,990  6  -  -117  -42  14,402 
Net profit for the year  1,027                 1,027 
Other comprehensive income related to:                      
Items to be reclassified to profit or loss                      
Derivatives in cash-flow hedges  -8     -8             
Tax on items to be reclassified to profit or loss  2     2             
Items not to be reclassified to profit or loss                      
Own credit risk  24           24       
Revaluation of defined benefit plans  -4              -4    
Tax on items not to be reclassified to profit or loss  -4           -5  1    
Total other comprehensive income  10  -  -6  -  19  -3  - 
Total comprehensive income  1,037  -  -6  -  19  -3  1,027 
Dividend  -194                 -194 
Closing balance of equity 20191.2  19,082  3,990  -  -  -98  -45  15,235 
Opening balance of equity Jan 1, 2020  19,082  3,990  -  -  -98  -45  15,235 
Net profit for the year  968                 968 
Other comprehensive income related to:                      
Items to be reclassified to profit or loss                      
Derivatives in cash-flow hedges  -     -  -          
Tax on items to be reclassified to profit or loss  -     -  -          
Items not to be reclassified to profit or loss                      
Own credit risk  18           18       
Revaluation of defined benefit plans  1              1    
Tax on items not to be reclassified to profit or loss  -5           -4  -1    
Total other comprehensive income  14  -  -  -  14  0  - 
Total comprehensive income  982  -  -  -  14  0  968 
Dividend  -                 - 
Closing balance of equity 20201.2  20,064  3,990  -  -  -84  -45  16,203 

 

 

1 The entire equity is attributable to the shareholder of the Parent Company.

2 See note 22.

 

F-6

 

 

Statement of Cash Flows in the Consolidated Group

 

Skr mn 2020 2019 2018 
Operating activities       
Operating profit1  1,238  1,304  852 
Adjustments for non-cash items in operating profit          
Provision for credit losses, net  153  10  -7 
Depreciation and impairment of non-financial assets  51  57  40 
Exchange-rate differences  5  7  5 
Unrealized changes in fair value  -69  -185  -40 
Other  0  -5  16 
Total adjustments for non-cash items in operating profit  140  -116  14 
Income tax paid  -311  -529  -366 
Increase (-)/decrease (+) in lending  -37,824  -2,540  -9,016 
Increase (-)/decrease (+) in bonds and securities held  4,276  -889  -13,782 
Other changes in assets and liabilities – net  14,493  1,996  -1,347 
Cash flow from operating activities  -17,988  -774  -23,645 
Investing activities          
Investments  -35  -40  -21 
Cash flow from investing activities  -35  -40  -21 
Financing activities          
Senior debt  153,518  126,412  92,045 
Repayments of debt  -119,143  -112,190  -59,390 
Repurchase and early redemption of own long-term debt  -4,915  -18,642  -7,553 
Change in subordinated debt  -  -  -2,322 
Derivatives  -8,651  4,049  1,830 
Payment of lease liability  -27  -39  - 
Dividend paid  -  -194  -232 
Cash flow from financing activities  20,782  -604  24,378 
Net cash flow for the period  2,759  -1,418  712 
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the year  1,362  2,416  1,231 
Net cash flow for the period  2,759  -1,418  712 
Exchange-rate differences on cash and cash equivalents  -759  364  473 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year2  3,362  1,362  2,416 
of which cash at banks  561  651  374 
of which cash equivalents  2,801  711  2,042 

 

 

1 Interest payments received and expenses paid

 

Interest payments received  4,329  9,057  4,586 
Interest expenses paid  2,861  4,366  3,192 

 

2 Cash and cash equivalents include, in this context, cash at banks that can be immediately converted into cash and short-term deposits for which the time to maturity does not exceed three months from trade date. See note 11.

 

F-7

 

 

Notes

 

Note table

 

Note 1. Significant accounting policies  F-8 
Note 2. Net interest income  F-18 
Note 3. Net fees and commissions  F-19 
Note 4. Net results of financial transactions  F-19 
Note 5. Personnel expenses  F-19 
Note 6. Other administrative expenses  F-28 
Note 7. Tangible and intangible assets  F-29 
Note 8. Leasing  F-29 
Note 9. Impairment  F-30 
Note 10. Taxes  F-32 
Note 11. Loans and liquidity investments  F-33 
Note 12. Classification of financial assets and liabilities  F-34 
Note 13. Financial assets and liabilities at fair value  F-36 
Note 14. Derivatives and hedge accounting  F-42 
Note 15. Shares  F-45 
Note 16. Other assets  F-45 
Note 17. Prepaid expenses and accrued revenues  F-45 
Note 18. Debt  F-45 
Note 19. Other liabilities  F-47 
Note 20. Accrued expenses and prepaid revenues  F-47 
Note 21. Provisions  F-48 
Note 22. Equity  F-48 
Note 23. Collateral provided and contingent liabilities  F-49 
Note 24. CIRR-system  F-49 
Note 25. Capital adequacy  F-50 
Note 26. Risk information  F-53 
Note 27. Transactions with related parties  F-72 
Note 28. Events after the reporting period  F-74 

 

Note 1. Significant accounting policies

 

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated Financial Statements, unless otherwise stated.

 

Table of contents:

 

(a)       Reporting entity

(b)       Basis of presentation

(c)       Changes to accounting policies and presentation

(d)       Basis of consolidation

(e)       Segment reporting

(f)        Recognition of operating income

(g)       Foreign currency transactions

(h)       Financial instruments

(i)        Tangible assets

(j)        Intangible assets

(k)       Employee benefits

(l)        Equity

(m)      Taxes

(n)       Earnings per share

(o)       Statement of cash flows

(p)       Critical accounting policies, assumptions and estimates

(q) New standards and amendments to standards and interpretations not yet adopted and considered relevant to SEK

 

(a) Reporting entity

 

AB Svensk Exportkredit (the “Parent Company”, the “Company” or “SEK”) is domiciled in Sweden. The address of the Company’s registered office is Klarabergsviadukten 61–63, P.O. Box 194, SE-101 23 Stockholm, Sweden. The Consolidated Group as of December 31, 2020 consists of SEK and its wholly owned, inactive subsidiary, SEKETT AB. These are jointly referred to as the “Consolidated Group” or the “Group”. During 2018, the winding-down of the subsidiary Venantius AB, including its wholly owned subsidiary VF Finans AB, was completed.

  

(b) Basis of presentation

 

(i) Statement of compliance

 

The consolidated accounts have been compiled in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The IFRS standards applied by SEK are all endorsed by the European Union (EU). Additional standards, consistent with IFRS, are imposed by the Swedish Annual Accounts Act for Credit Institutions and Securities Companies (1995:1559) (ÅRKL), Recommendation RFR 1, Supplementary Accounting Principles for Groups, issued by the Swedish Financial Reporting Board (RFR), and the accounting regulations of the Swedish FSA (FFFS 2008:25), all of which have been complied with in preparing the Consolidated Financial Statements, of which these notes form a part. SEK also follows the Swedish Government’s principles for external reporting in accordance with its State Ownership Policy and principles for state-owned enterprises.

 

F-8

 

 

The Consolidated Financial Statements were approved for issuance by SEK’s Board of Directors on February 18, 2021. The Group’s Statements of Comprehensive Income and Financial Position will be subject to approval by SEK’s shareholder at the Annual General Meeting to be held on March 24, 2021.

 

(ii) Basis of measurement

 

The Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared on an amortized cost basis, subject to the following exceptions:

 

all derivatives are measured at fair value,

financial instruments — measured at fair value through profit or loss — are measured at fair value, and

when applying hedge accounting at fair value, amortized cost is adjusted in the Consolidated Financial Statements based on the underlying hedged item, to reflect changes in fair value with regard to the hedged risk.

 

(iii) Functional and presentation currency

 

SEK has determined that the Swedish krona (Skr) is the Parent Company’s functional and presentation currency under IFRS. Significant factors are that SEK’s equity is denominated in Swedish kronor, its performance is evaluated based on a result expressed in Swedish kronor, and that a large portion of SEK’s expenses, especially personnel expenses, other expenses and taxes, are denominated in Swedish kronor. SEK manages its foreign currency risk by hedging exposures between the Swedish kronor and other currencies.

 

(iv) Going concern

 

SEK’s Board of Directors and management have made an assessment of SEK’s ability to continue as a going concern and are satisfied that SEK has the resources to continue operations for the foreseeable future. The Board of Directors and management are not aware of any material uncertainties that could cast significant doubt upon SEK’s ability to continue as a going concern. Therefore, the Financial Statements continue to be prepared on a going-concern basis.

 

(c) Changes to accounting policies and presentation

 

In all significant respects, the accounting policies, bases of calculation and presentation are unchanged compared with the 2019 annual report, except for the changes described below. In addition to the changes below, certain amounts reported in prior periods have been restated to conform to the current presentation. SEK analyzes and assesses the application and impact of changes in financial reporting standards that are applied within the Group. Changes that are not mentioned are either not applicable to SEK or have been determined to not have a material impact on SEK’s financial reporting.

 

(i) Changed accounting of revenues and expenses in the CIRR system

 

As of the fourth quarter of 2020, SEK reports interest income and interest expenses relating to assets and liabilities attributable to the CIRR system in SEK’s statement of comprehensive income The previous accounting principle was to not report these in SEK’s statement of comprehensive income, but only to report the administrative compensation from the Swedish government, the arrangement fee income when SEK is arranging the credits, and interest income from loans between SEK and CIRR-system. The new policy means that all revenue and expenses from the CIRR-system is recognized in SEK’s profit or loss. The new policy does not impact the treatment of assets and liabilities related to the CIRR-system in the Group’s statement of financial position and balance sheet, and thus, as previously, all assets and liabilities related to the CIRR-system have been included in SEK’s assets and liabilities in the Group’s statement of financial position as SEK bears the credit risk for lending and is a contracting party regarding lending and borrowing. The new presentation makes it easier for the reader to understand the return on SEK’s assets and costs for SEK’s liabilities. The change has no impact on SEK’s net interest income or net profit, but only affects interest income and interest expenses. The comparative figures have been recalculated and the change, as well as the impact in 2020, is shown in the table below.

 

Impact on statement of comprehensive income

 

  Full year 2020 

 

Skr mn

 Old policy  Change  New policy 
Interest income calcucated using the effective interest method  3,495   1,465   4,960 
Other interest income  384   -1,236   -852 
Interest expenses  -1,933   -229   -2,162 
Net interest income  1,946   -   1,946 
Impact on net profit for the period  -   -   - 

 

  Full year 2019 

 

Skr mn

 Old policy  Change  New policy 
Interest income calcucated using the effective interest method  5,187   516   5,703 
Other interest income  896   -242   654 
Interest expenses  -4,366   -274   -4,640 
Net interest income  1,717   -   1,717 
Impact on net profit for the period  -   -   - 

 

F-9

 

 

  Full year 2018 

 

Skr mn

 Old policy  Change  New policy 
Intrest income calucated using the effective interest method  4,390   476   4,866 
Other interest income  763   -263   500 
Interest expenses  -3,711   -213   -3,924 
Net interest income  1,442   -   1,442 
Impact on net profit for the period  -   -   - 

 

(ii) Changes in Swedish regulations

 

The Swedish Financial Reporting Board has amended the accounting recommendation for legal entities by issuing “RFR 2 Supplementary Accounting Rules for Legal Entities – January 2020”. SEK implemented those amendments on January 1, 2020 but they have not had any significant impact on SEK’s Financial Statements.

 

(d) Basis of consolidation

 

The Consolidated Financial Statements encompass the Parent Company and subsidiaries, meaning companies over which the Parent Company has control and that are impacted by the Company’s results. The Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared using the purchase method. The Financial Statements of the subsidiary are included in the Consolidated Financial Statements from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases. The accounting policies of the subsidiary are consistent with Group policies. Intra-group transactions and balances, and any unrealized gains and losses arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated in preparing the Consolidated Financial Statements. Unless otherwise stated or when it is clear from the context, the information in these notes relates to the Consolidated Group and the Parent Company. Consolidation of SEK pursuant to the supervisory regulations does differ from the consolidation made in the Consolidated Financial Statements, as SEKETT AB is not a financial company and no consolidation of SEK pursuant to the supervisory regulation was made. Since SEKETT is not an institute pursuant to the CRR definition, it is not subject to the supervisory regulations on an individual basis. No current or anticipated material restrictions to prompt transfer of own funds or repayment of liabilities among the parent or its subsidiary have been identified.

 

(e) Segment reporting

 

Segments are identified based on internal reporting to the chief executive officer (“CEO”) who serves as the chief operating decision maker. SEK has one segment, lending, based partly on the Company’s assignment from the owner, which is to ensure access to financial solutions for the Swedish export industry on commercial and sustainable terms, and partly on how governance and earnings monitoring of the business are conducted. Accordingly, no segment reporting has been prepared. Disclosures regarding the geographic breakdown and revenue per product group are presented in note 2.

 

(f) Recognition of operating income

 

(i) Net interest income

 

Interest income and interest expense related to all financial assets and liabilities, regardless of classification, are recognized in net interest income. Interest income and interest expense are recognized on a gross basis, with the exception of interest income and interest expenses related to derivatives, which are reported on a net basis. Interest for derivatives used to hedge borrowing is recognized as interest expense and interest on all derivatives used to hedge assets is recognized as interest income, regardless of whether the contracts’ net interest is positive or negative. This reflects the real interest expense of borrowing after taking economic hedges into account. Negative interest rates on assets are recognized as interest expense and negative interest rates on liabilities are recognized as interest income. Interest income calculated using the effective interest method presented in SEK’s Financial Statements applies only to those assets that are subsequently measured at amortized cost and the interest for hedging instruments related to those assets as the effective interest method is a measurement technique whose purpose is to calculate amortized cost and allocate interest income over the relevant time period. This interest income and corresponding interest expense are calculated and recognized based on the effective interest rate method or based on a method that results in interest income or interest expense that is a reasonable approximation of the result that would be obtained using the effective interest method as the basis for the calculation. The effective interest rate is regarded as an integral part of the effective interest rate of a financial instrument (usually fees received as compensation for risk). The effective interest rate is equivalent to the rate used to discount contractual future cash flows to the carrying amount of the financial asset or liability. The item Other interest income covers interest income of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss and the remuneration for the CIRR-system. In addition to interest income and interest expense, net interest income, where these are recognized as interest expense, includes the resolution fee and guarantee commissions that are comparable to interest.

 

Pursuant to the Company’s assignment as stated in its owner instruction issued by the Swedish government, SEK administers credit granting in the Swedish system for officially supported export credits (the “CIRR-system”). SEK receives compensation from the Swedish government in the form of an administration fee, which is calculated based on the principal amount outstanding. The administrative compensation received by SEK from the Swedish government is recognized as part of interest income in SEK’s Statement of Comprehensive Income since the commission received in compensation is equivalent to interest.

 

(ii) Net fee and commission expense

 

Commissions earned and commissions incurred are recognized as net fee and commission expense in SEK’s Statement of Comprehensive Income. The gross amounts of commissions earned and commissions incurred are disclosed in the notes to the Financial Statements. The major part of the revenues classified as commission earned constitutes revenue from contracts with customers according to IFRS 15. The recognition of commissions earned depends on the purpose for which the fee is charged. Fees are either recognized as revenue when services are performed or accrued over the period of a specific business transaction. Lending fees that are not part of the effective interest of a financial instrument are recognised at a point of time, such as when the transaction has been performed. Commissions incurred are transaction-based, and are recognized in the period in which the services are received. Guarantee commissions that are comparable to interest and fees that comprise integrated components of financial instruments, and therefore included in the effective interest rate, are not recognized as commissions and are instead included under net interest income.

 

F-10

 

 

(iii) Net results of financial transactions

 

Net results of financial transactions include realized gains and losses related to all financial instruments and unrealized gains and losses on all financial instruments measured at fair value, except for the types of financial instruments for which the change is to be recognized in other comprehensive income. Gains and losses include gains and losses related to currency exchange effects, interest-rate changes, changes in basis-spreads and changes in the credit rating of the counterparty to the financial contract. The item also includes the hedge ineffectiveness, i.e., market value changes attributable to hedged risks and derivatives in fair-value hedges. Realized gains and losses from financial instruments measured at amortized cost, such as interest rate compensation received and realized gains/losses from the repurchase of issued own debt, are recognized as they arise directly under net results of financial transactions.

 

(g) Foreign currency transactions

 

Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currencies have been translated into the functional currency (Swedish krona) at the exchange rates applicable on the last day of each reporting period. Revenues and costs in foreign currencies are translated into Swedish kronor at the exchange rate prevailing on the dates that they arise. Any changes in the exchange rates between the relevant currencies and the Swedish krona relating to the period between the dates that they arise and the date of settlement are recognized as currency exchange effects. Currency exchange effects on the nominal amounts of financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value are recognized as currency exchange effects, although the currency exchange effect on the change in fair value that arises due to other components is not separated. Currency exchange effects are included as a component of net results of financial transactions.

 

(h) Financial instruments

 

(i) Recognition and derecognition in the Statement of Financial Position

 

When recognizing financial instruments, trade date accounting is applied for the recognition and derecognition of securities bought, securities issued and derivatives. Other financial instruments are recognized in the Statement of Financial Position and derecognized from this on the relevant settlement date. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability or an asset (or part of a financial liability or an asset) that is extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid is recognized in the Statement of Comprehensive Income under net results of financial transactions. A financial asset or liability is recognized in the Statement of Financial Position only when SEK becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. A financial asset is derecognized from the Statement of Financial Position when the contractual rights to receive the cash flows from the asset cease or when the asset is transferred and the transfer qualifies for derecognition. A financial liability (or part of a financial liability) is derecognized from the Statement of Financial Position only when it is extinguished, such as when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, canceled or expires. In the case of renegotiated financial assets, such as lending, the asset is derecognized from the Statement of Financial Position when the terms of the loan are deemed to be substantially different. The terms are deemed to be substantially different when the present value of the cash flows under the new terms, including any fees paid net of any fees received and discounted using the original effective interest rate, differs by not less than 10 percent from the discounted present value of the remaining cash flows for the original debt instrument. A change of currency or counterparty are deemed substantially different terms. Should the renegotiated loan entail terms that are substantially different, it is recognized as a new loan.

 

(ii) Measurement on initial recognition

 

When financial instruments are initially recognized, they are measured at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets or financial liabilities not carried at fair value through profit or loss, any transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issuance of the financial asset or financial liability.

 

(iii) Offsetting

 

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and presented in the Statement of Financial Position when the Group has a legal right to offset the amounts and intends either to settle on a net basis or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. Derivative assets and derivatives liabilities in relation to central clearing counterparties are offset in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position, but cash collateral received or paid is accounted for separately as paid or received cash collaterals. Refer to note 14 for further information about the offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities.

 

(iv) Classification of financial assets and liabilities

 

Financial assets and liabilities are categorized in two categories for valuation purposes: amortized cost (“AMC”) and fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).

 

Financial assets at amortized cost (AMC). The balance sheet items Cash and cash equivalents, Loans to credit institutions, Loans to the public and Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities are recognized at amortized cost, provided that the following criteria are met by all assets:

 

The financial asset is included in a portfolio where the business model aims to collect contractual cash flows and the terms and conditions for the financial asset entail that the cash flows received comprise solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on nominal amounts outstanding.

 

The business model is based on SEK’s overriding portfolio objective, and on how the Company manages, monitors and evaluates the financial assets in the portfolio from both a business and a risk perspective.

 

The business model is established at a level (homogenous portfolio) that reflects how the asset is treated in relation to the objective/business goal.

 

The following parameters have been evaluated in relation to the liquidity portfolio:

 

Internal targets and governance of the liquidity portfolio, and documentation thereof;

 

Administration and commercial follow-up;

 

Risk management, follow-up and reporting;

 

Frequency, objective and volume in terms of noted sales; and

 

Remuneration models, and how these are impacted by valuation methods.

 

IFRS 9 requires that SEK categorize financial assets based on the properties of the contractual cash flows, where the financial asset is held in a business model with the objective of holding assets to collect contractual cash flows (hold to collect).

 

The assessment of the properties of the contractual cash flows aims to identify if the contractual cash flows comprise solely payments of principal and interest, which is an SPPI test. Contractual cash flows that solely payments of principal and interest qualify as a basic lending arrangement, which is a prerequisite for measuring the instrument at amortized cost. SEK has prepared a tool for the implementation and documentation of evaluations and assessments of financial assets in the lending portfolios, whereby relevant factors are taken into consideration, such as the tenor of the interest rate in relation the interest-rate setting period, interest-rate cap/floor, index-linked coupon/interest, payment trigger, currency mismatch, government interest rates and early repayment.

 

Financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL). Derivatives are measured at FVTPL. Interest-bearing securities included in SEK’s liquidity investments, consisting of the balance-sheet items Treasuries/government bonds and Other interest-bearing securities except loans, are measured at fair value (FVTPL) and, accordingly, they are included in a portfolio, where the business model entails measurement at fair value. Financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL) are recognized at fair value in the Statement of Financial Position. Changes in fair value are recognized in profit or loss under the item Net results of financial transactions.

 

Financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).There are two main subcategories in the category of financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss: financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss (FVO) and financial liabilities mandatorily measured at fair value. Securities issued by SEK containing embedded derivatives are in their entirety irrevocably classified as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Derivatives are measured at FVTPL. Financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit and loss are recognized at fair value in the Statement of Financial Position. Changes in fair value are recognized in profit or loss under the item Net results of financial transactions with the exception of gains and losses that arise from changes in SEK’s own credit risk on liabilities classified in accordance with FVO. Such changes are recognized in the Reserve for changes in own credit risk under Other comprehensive income and are not reclassified to profit or loss.

 

F-11

 

 

Financial liabilities at amortized cost (AMC). All debt securities issued by SEK other than those classified as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are measured at amortized cost, using the effective interest rate method. Where one or more derivative is used to hedge currency, interest rate and/or other exposures, fair-value hedge accounting is applied. Subordinated debt is classified as other financial liabilities and is subject to fair-value hedge accounting. When applying fair-value hedge accounting on subordinated debt, hedging is applied to the subordinated debt for the period corresponding to the derivative’s time to maturity, when the maturities do not coincide.

 

(v) Presentation of certain financial instruments in the Statement of Financial Position

 

The presentation of financial instruments in the Statement of Financial Position differs in certain respects from the categorization of financial instruments made for valuation purposes. Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities comprise loans granted to customers that are contractually documented in the form of interest-bearing securities, as opposed to bilateral loan agreements, which are classified in the Statement of Financial Position either as loans to credit institutions or loans to the public. All other financial assets that are not classified in the Statement of Financial Position as loans in the form of interest-bearing securities are presented as cash and cash equivalents, treasuries/government bonds, other interest-bearing securities except loans or derivatives.

 

(vi) Presentation of certain financial instruments

 

Derivatives. In the ordinary course of its business, SEK uses various types of derivatives for the purpose of hedging or eliminating SEK’s interest-rate, currency-exchange-rate or other exposures. Derivatives are classified as financial assets or liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Where SEK decides to categorize a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss (FVO), the purpose is to avoid the mismatch that would otherwise arise from the fact that the changes in the value of the derivative, measured at fair value, would not match the changes in value of the underlying liability, measured at amortized cost.

 

Guarantees. SEK holds financial guarantees in connection with certain loans. Such guarantees are ordinarily accounted for as guarantees in accordance with SEK’s established accounting policy and are therefore not recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position except for the deferred costs of related guarantee fees paid in advance for future periods. When SEK classifies a risk-mitigating instrument as a financial guarantee, SEK always owns the specific asset whose risk the financial guarantee mitigates and the potential amount that SEK can receive from the counterparty under the guarantee represents only the actual loss incurred by SEK related to its holding. Premiums on financial guarantees are accrued and recognized as interest expense in net interest income. Credit default swaps are recognized at fair value at fair value through profit or loss.

 

Embedded derivatives. In the ordinary course of its business, SEK issues financial liabilities that frequently contain embedded derivatives. When financial liabilities contain embedded derivatives, where the financial characteristics and risks of the instrument’s unique components are not related, the entire instrument is irrevocably classified as financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVO), and thus does not separate the embedded derivatives.

 

Leasing assets (SEK as a lessor). In the ordinary course of its business, SEK acquires leases that are classified as finance leases (as opposed to operating leases). When making such a classification, all aspects of the leasing contract, including third-party guarantees, are taken into account. Any lease payment that is received from a lessee is divided into two components for the purposes of measurement: one component constituting a repayment of the loan and the other component recognized as interest income.

 

Lease liability (SEK as a lessee). All leases, with the exception of short-term and low-value leases, are to be recognized as right-of-use assets subject to depreciation with corresponding liabilities in the lessee’s balance sheet, and the lease payments are to be recognized as repayments and interest expenses. The leasing liability is accounted for under Other liabilities. The lease term is determined as the non-cancellable period of a lease, together with any extension or termination options when SEK is reasonably certain to exercise them. Reassessments of extensions and terminations options are made upon the occurrence of either a significant event or a significant change in circumstances that is within the control of SEK and will affect the assessment of whether it is reasonably certain to exercise the option. The lease term is revised if there is a change in the non-cancellable period of lease, for example, if an option not previously included in the lease term is exercised. The lease liability consists of the future cash flows, which are discounted using SEK’s incremental borrowing rate. SEK has also decided to apply the exceptions for short-term and low-value leases, for example office machinery, which are accounted for as leasing cost under other administrative expenses. SEK has elected not to separate non-lease components from lease components, and accounts for each lease component and any associated non-lease component, except for expenses for real estate tax and non-deductible value added tax, as a single lease.

 

Committed undisbursed loans and binding offers. Committed undisbursed loans and binding offers, disclosed under the heading “Commitments” in note 24 are measured as the undiscounted future cash flows concerning loan disbursements related to loans committed but not yet disbursed at the reporting period end date, as well as binding offers.

 

Repurchased debt. SEK repurchases its own debt from time to time. Gains or losses that SEK realizes when repurchasing own debt instruments are recognized in the Statement of Comprehensive Income as a component of Net results of financial transactions.

 

Assets and liabilities related to the CIRR system. All assets and liabilities related to the CIRR-system are included in SEK’s assets and liabilities in the Group’s report on financial position as SEK bears the credit risk for lending and is the party to the agreement regarding lending and borrowing. Unrealized revaluation effects on derivatives related to the CIRR-system are recognized net under other assets.

 

(vii) Hedge accounting

 

SEK applies hedge accounting in cases where derivatives are used to create economic hedging and the hedge relationship is eligible for hedge accounting, with the exception of lending within the CIRR-system, for which hedge accounting is not applied. The method used for hedge accounting is either fair-value hedge accounting or cash-flow hedge accounting. In order to be able to apply hedge accounting in accordance with IFRS 9, the hedge relationship must meet the hedge effectiveness criteria at the beginning of each hedged period which requires that:

 

there is an economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument;

 

the effect of credit risk does not dominate the value changes that result from that economic relationship; the hedge ratio of the hedging relationship is the same as that actually used in the economic hedge; and

 

the effects of the forthcoming reforms to reference rates, as this might have a different impact on the hedged item and the hedging instrument, see note 14 for further information.

 

Fair-value hedge accounting. Fair-value hedge accounting is used for transactions in which one or several derivatives are used to hedge the interest-rate risk that has arisen from a fixed-rate financial asset or liability. When applying fair-value hedging, the hedged item is revalued at fair value with regard to the risk being hedged. SEK defines the risk being hedged in fair-value hedge accounting as the risk of a change in fair value with regard to a chosen reference rate (referred to as interest-rate risk). The hedged item may be a component of the financial asset or liability, i.e., comprises less than the entire fair value change for the financial asset or liability. That could be a component of the nominal amount or the tenor of the item. The hedging instrument may consist of one or several derivatives that exchange fixed interest for floating interest in the same currency (interest-rate derivatives) or one or several instruments that exchange fixed interest in one currency for floating interest in another currency (interest and currency derivatives), in which case the currency risk is a part of the fair value hedge.

 

F-12

 

 

Both at inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, SEK’s hedging relationships are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair values attributable to the hedged risk. An assessment of effectiveness is performed by comparing critical terms for the hedged item and the hedging transaction. If they are identical, but reversed, the hedge relationship is regarded 100% effective. The hedge ratio is 1:1 other than in specific circumstances where SEK may choose a hedge ratio other than 1:1 in order to improve the effectiveness. Potential sources of ineffectiveness in the hedge relationship are:

 

changes in timing of the payment of the hedged item,

 

use of an existing derivative with a non-zero fair value,

 

changes in timing of the trade date of the derivative and the validation of the hedge relationship,

 

the different treatment of currency basis in calculating changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument and hedged item and a significant change in the credit risk of either party to the hedge relationship.

 

The credit risk of the entities is monitored by the Credit Department on an ongoing basis. The risk associated with SEK and the counterparty at the inception of the hedge relationship is considered minimal and does not dominate the value changes that result from the economic relationship. This will be reassessed in cases where there is a significant change in either party’s circumstances, for example if the counterparty is in default. In addition, the hedging instruments used by SEK consist of derivatives subject to margining, clearing and cash collateralization, which significantly reduced the credit risk for both parties involved. Therefore, the credit risk is unlikely to dominate the change in fair value of the hedging instrument.

 

Ineffectiveness is defined as the difference between the fair value change relating to the hedged risk of the hedged item and the fair value change relating to the hedging instrument. Any ineffectiveness is recognised automatically in profit or loss as a result of separately remeasuring the hedged item and the hedging instrument.

 

If a hedging relationship ceases to meet the hedge effectiveness requirement relating to the hedge ratio but the risk management objective for that designated hedging relationship remains the same, the hedge ratio of the hedging relationship must be adjusted (i.e., rebalances the hedge) so that it meets the qualifying criteria again. Hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively only when the hedging relationship (or a part of a hedging relationship) ceases to meet the qualifying criteria (after any rebalancing). This includes instances when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised. If a fair-value hedge relationship no longer fulfills the requirements for hedge accounting, that component of the hedged item ceases to be measured at fair value and is measured at amortized cost, and the previously recognized fair-value changes for the hedged item are amortized over the remaining tenor of the previously hedged item.

 

Cash flow hedges. Cash flow hedge accounting is used for transactions in which one or several derivatives hedge risk for variability in the cash flows from a floating-rate financial asset or liability. When hedging cash flows, the hedged asset or liability is measured at amortized cost and changes in fair value in the hedging instrument are recognized in other comprehensive income. When the hedged cash flow is recognized in profit or loss, the value changes in the hedging instrument in the Statement of Comprehensive Income are reclassified from other comprehensive income to profit or loss. SEK defines the risk hedged in a cash flow hedge as the risk of variability of cash flows with regard to a chosen reference rate (referred to as cash flow risk). The hedging instrument may consist of one or several derivatives that exchange floating interest for fixed interest in the same currency (interest-rate derivatives) or one or several derivatives that exchange floating interest in one currency for fixed interest in another currency (interest and currency derivatives).

 

If a cash flow hedge relationship no longer fulfills the requirements for hedge accounting, and accumulated gains or losses related to the hedge have been recorded in equity, such gains or losses remain in equity and are amortized through other comprehensive income to net interest income over the remaining tenor of the hedged item.

 

(viii) Principles for determination of fair value of financial instruments

 

The best evidence of fair value is prices in an active market. Fair-value measurements are categorized using a fair-value hierarchy. The financial instruments carried at fair value in the Statement of Financial Position have been categorized under the three levels of the fair-value hierarchy according to IFRS that reflect the significance of inputs. The categorization of these instruments is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. SEK uses the following hierarchy for determining and disclosing the fair value of financial instruments, based on valuation techniques:

 

Level 1: quoted (unadjusted) prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

Level 2: valuation models for which all inputs with a significant effect on the recorded fair value are observable, either directly or indirectly; and

 

Level 3: techniques which use inputs which have a significant effect on the recorded fair value that are not based on observable market data.

 

SEK recognizes transfers between levels of the fair-value hierarchy in the beginning of the reporting period in which the change has occurred.

 

For all classes of financial instruments (assets and liabilities), fair value is established by using observable market prices or established valuation models. If the market for a financial instrument is not active, fair value is established by using a valuation technique. The objective of using a valuation technique is to establish what the transaction price would have been at the measurement date in an arm’s length exchange based on normal business terms and conditions. Valuation techniques include using recent arm’s length market transactions between knowledgeable, willing parties, if available. Reference to the current fair value of another instrument that is substantially the same can also be used. If the aforementioned are not available, discounted cash flow analysis or option pricing models may be used for assessing the instrument’s value. Periodically, the valuation techniques are calibrated and tested for validity using prices from observable current market transactions in the same instruments, or based on any available observable market data, or compared with the counterparty’s prices.

 

In calculating fair value with valuation models, SEK seeks to use liquid, observable market quotes (market data) as far as possible, to best reflect the market’s view on prices. These market quotes are used, directly or indirectly, for the calculation of fair value. Examples of the indirect use of market data are:

 

the derivation of discount curves from observable market data, which is then interpolated to calculate the non-observable data points; and

 

model parameters in quantitative models, which are used to calculate the fair value of a structured product, where the model is calibrated so that available market data can be used to recreate observable market prices on similar instruments.

 

In some cases, due to low liquidity in the market, there is no access to observable market data. In these cases, SEK follows market practice by basing its valuations on similar observable market data. One example is if there are no observable market prices for a bond it can be valued through a credit curve based on observable prices for instruments with the same credit risk.

 

For observable market data, SEK uses third-party information based on purchased contracts (such as Bloomberg). This type of information can be divided into two groups, with the first group consisting of directly observable prices and the second of market data calculated from the observed prices. SEK continuously assures the high quality of market data, and a thorough validation of market data is exercised quarterly in connection with the financial reporting.

 

For transactions that cannot be valued based on observable market data, the use of non-observable market data is necessary. Examples of non-observable market data are discount curves created using observable market data that are then extrapolated to calculate non-observable interest rates, correlations between different underlying market parameters and volatilities at long maturities. Correlations that are non-observable market data are calculated from time-series of observable market data.

 

The valuation models applied by SEK comply with accepted methods for pricing financial instruments. Fair value adjustments are applied by SEK when there are additional factors that market participants take into account and that are not captured by the valuation model. The independent risk function assesses the level of fair-value adjustments to reflect counterparty risk, SEK’s own credit rating and other non-observable parameters, where relevant.

 

Significant models for the valuation of financial instruments must receive approval from the Board’s Finance and Risk Committee. Other models are approved by the chief financial officer (“CFO”). New models for valuation are reported to the Board’s Finance and Risk Committee annually, together with the applicable validation. The use of a valuation model demands a validation and thereafter an approval. Validation is conducted by the independent risk function. Analysis of significant non-observable market data, fair-value adjustments and significant changes in fair values of level 3-instruments are reviewed on quarterly basis by plausibility checks.

 

F-13

 

 

(ix) Determination of fair value of certain types of financial instruments

 

Derivatives. Derivatives are recognized at fair value, and fair value is calculated based on established valuation models or market prices. When calculating fair value for derivative instruments, the impact on the fair value of the instrument related to credit risk (own or counterparty) is based on publicly quoted prices on credit default swaps of the counterparty or SEK, if such prices are available.

 

Issued debt instruments. When calculating the fair value of issued debt instruments, the effect on the fair value of SEK’s own credit risk is assessed based on internally established models. These are if possible based on observable prices. In cases where observable prices are not available, recent transactions or spread against similar lender are used.

 

Issued debt instruments that are compound financial instruments with embedded derivatives. SEK issues debt instruments in many financial markets. A large portion of these are compound financial instruments with embedded derivatives. SEK’s policy is to hedge the risks in these instruments using derivatives in order to obtain effective financial hedges. The entire compound financial instruments are irrevocably classified as financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss, and accordingly derivatives are not separated. As there are no quoted market prices for these instruments, valuation models are used to calculate fair value. The method applied for calculating gains and losses that arise from changes in SEK’s own credit risk (OCA) is based on the change in the credit risk for the financial liability from initial recognition. In practice, this means that OCA incorporates market movements not related to changes in benchmark rates or the embedded derivatives.

 

(x) Impairment of financial assets

 

The impairment of exposures are based on expected credit losses (ECL). All assets measured at amortized cost, including credit commitments and financial guarantees, are to be tested for any impairment.

 

SEK uses both models and expert assessment to calculate reserves for expected credit losses. The degree of expert assessment depends on the models’ results, materiality and available information and can be used to take into account factors that are not captured by the models.

 

The model for calculating ECL is based on an exposure being at one of three different stages. Initially, all exposures were at stage 1. Stage 1 also includes exposures where the credit risk is no longer significantly higher and which have therefore been reclassified from stage 2. In stage 1, the ECL calculation should correspond to provisions based on expected credit losses for the forthcoming 12-month period (12mECL). Where the credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition, the exposure is moved to stage 2. Stage 2 also includes exposures where the counterparty/exposure is no longer in default and which have therefore been reclassified from stage 3, as well as a smaller portion of exposures that lack an initial rating and where the rating is below BBB. In stage 2, the provision is based on expected credit losses over the remaining lending period of the asset (LTECL). If the exposure moves into default, it is moved to stage 3, where the ECL calculation continues to be based on LTECL. 12mECL comprises the part of LTECL that arises from expected credit losses based on the probability of default (PD) within 12 months of the reporting date. Both LTECL and 12mECL are calculated on an individual basis.

 

SEK has chosen to use credit rating models for all exposures, in other words, to calculate expected credit losses (ECL) by using the probability of default (PD), loss given default (LGD) and exposure at default (EAD).

 

Significant increase in credit risk. A significant increase in credit risk is a relative assessment, whereby the credit quality at the reporting date is compared with the initial credit quality when the exposure was recognized. The starting point when assessing what should be included as criteria for the assessment of credit risk is the existing process for following up credit risk and credit risk management within SEK. All counterparties are given a risk rating, which means that risk classification forms the basis for follow-up should a significant increase in credit risk have occurred. Moreover, other indicators currently in use to follow up credit risk in exposures and of counterparties, include the number of days past due, forbearance measures and other risk raising factors, such as deviations from covenants. These indicators are applied to assess credit risk and whether a significant increase in credit risk has occurred.

 

Risk classification. A significant increase in credit risk is defined based on a deterioration by a number of steps in the initial rating and where a separation is made between exposures with an initial rating of AAA to A - and others.

 

Number of days past due. SEK applies the presumption specifically stated in IFRS 9 and applies a more than 30-days-past-due criterion for receivables when assessing a significant increase in credit risk. All exposures that are more than 30-days-past-due will therefore be included in stage 2 and the LTECL will be calculated for these exposures. To ensure that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk, a waiting period is applied following the resumption of payments and all past-due receivables being extinguished for the exposure. Appropriate waiting periods are assessed on an ongoing basis to, at any given time, ensure that a reasonable waiting period is set given SEK’s exposures and payment structures.

 

Forbearance measures. Exposures encompassed by forbearance measures have a raised credit risk assessment and, therefore, will also be assessed as having a significant increase in credit risk on application of IFRS 9. Similar to the days-past-due criterion, a waiting period will be applied to ensure the exposure no longer has a raised credit risk at the time it is returned to stage 1. Appropriate waiting periods are assessed on an ongoing basis to, at any given time, ensure that a reasonable waiting period is set given SEK’s exposures and the reasons the exposure was marked for forbearance.

 

Other risk raising factors. Other factors can exist that indicate an exposure or a counterparty has an increased credit risk, which are not captured by a change in the risk classification, days-past-due or forbearance measures. Examples of these include recurring waivers that impact credit risk, sector trends and extraordinary changes in the management and/or Board of Directors. To capture these risk-raising factors, the management can conduct a specific qualitative assessment of the significant increase in credit risk at a counterparty. Since this assessment comprises a qualitative expert assessment, the waiting period for any transfer to stage 1 will be taken into consideration in the assessment and no extra waiting period will be applied.

 

Default. If the exposure moves into default, it is moved to stage 3, where the ECL calculation continues to be based on LTECL. Default is a key concept to the calculation of ECL, since ongoing assessments are made of how likely an exposure is to enter default and of the amount SEK is expected to lose on the exposure should it default.

 

In the financial reporting when applying IFRS 9, default is defined as:

 

SEK assesses that it is unlikely that the counterparty will meet its loan commitments in full, irrespective of whether collateral or guarantees are used, and independent of any overdue amount or the number of calendar days since they fell due for payment. This also includes special reasons, such as the risk counterparty’s financial position or equivalent is such that it finds itself in a position which — from a creditor’s perspective — does not correspond to any form of composition or insolvency procedure. This is termed “unlikely to pay.”

 

The risk counterparty is more than 90 calendar days past due with the payment of a receivable.

 

If any exposure to a counterparty is deemed in default, all exposures to that counterparty are deemed in default. When an exposure or a counterparty that was previously classified as being in default no longer meets this definition, the exposure or counterparty should no longer be deemed in default. To ensure that default status no longer applies, a waiting period is applied after the moment the exposure or counterparty is no longer deemed to be in default and can accordingly return to stage 2.

 

Calculation of expected credit losses (ECL). The ECL is based on SEK’s objective expectation of how much it will lose on the exposure given its knowledge on the reporting date and after taking into consideration what could occur in the future. The ECL is a probability-weighted amount that is determined by evaluating the outcome of several possible stages, and where the data taken into consideration comprises both information from previous conditions, the current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions. The expected credit loss should be calculated on the gross counterparty, in other words the borrower, which means that the PD, as defined below, for the borrower is used in the model.

 

F-14

 

 

Moreover, the LGD should incorporate actual future expectations, in other words, all cash flows including guarantees. The calculation of ECL is point-in-time and the included parameters PD, LGD and EAD are all point-in-time and should not be confused with the corresponding parameters for capital adequacy.

 

Probability of default (PD). PD is the likelihood that a counterparty defaults on one or more exposures on a one-year horizon (for stage 1) or for the entire lending period (for stages 2 and 3). When calculating expected credit losses under IFRS 9, PD represents the probability of default at a specific point-in-time in an economic cycle (point-in-time PD). The two most important data sources for PD models are Standard & Poor’s and the World Bank’s database, where SEK obtains default statistics and transition matrices as well as macroeconomic series and GDP growth forecasts. SEK has chosen to create a PD segmentation at both geographic and industry levels.

 

SEK’s method entails three scenarios being prepared for each PD curve: a base scenario, a downturn scenario, and an upturn scenario.

 

The three scenarios are defined by a weight allocated to each scenario; the weights should add up to 1, in other words 100%. The World Bank’s forecast forms the base scenario. The other scenarios are prepared quarterly by a cross-functional group at SEK, and are then adopted by the CEO and reported to the Board’s Credit Committee. By allocating a weight to each PD curve, SEK defines its expectations of future macroeconomic trends.

 

Loss Given Default (LGD). LGD is the amount expressed as a percentage of the credit exposure that on default, SEK expects to lose from the defaulting counterparty. The same segments are used for preparing the LGD as are used for the PD, with the addition of the division into large corporates and small and medium-sized enterprises for non-financial companies. Due to the low historic rate of default in SEK’s lending, the LGD is modeled by using default data from Global Credit Data (GCD), with the exception of the Sovereign segment, where LGD is prepared based on a qualitative assessment.

 

When estimating expected losses in cash flows, collateral and other credit enhancements included in the terms and conditions are taken into consideration, subject to the prerequisite that they are not reported separately by the Company. The LGD used for estimating ECL should take into consideration all cash flows that could be collected in the case of a default. These also include the cash flows that SEK can expect from collateral and guarantees included in the terms and conditions. Accordingly, the LGD takes into consideration guarantees where the exposure guaranteed with a guarantee included in the terms and conditions unless an increased correlation between the borrower and the guarantee counterparty is deemed to exist.

 

Exposure at default (EAD). The impairment requirement under IFRS 9 applies for all financial assets measured at amortized cost. Moreover, this encompasses accepted undisbursed binding offers and financial guarantees issued, which are recognized off balance sheet until used. In the above regard, an assessment is to be made of the scope of the default by the borrower on default, since only that amount should be included in the ECL estimate. These are generally termed credit conversion factors (CCF).

 

The ECL estimate is performed based on the appearance of the exposure at default, which means that the repayment structure and any expectations in terms of early repayment or extension clauses in the agreement need to be considered when assessing the EAD. Based on the completed analyses, contractual maturities are assessed given the repayment structures as being a good approximation of the expected maturities on which the ECL is to be estimated. No specific pattern exists regarding early repayment, which could possibly comprise the basis for another approach.

 

For existing facilities (accepted, undisbursed), two different credit conversion factors (CCFs) exist depending on when default occurs: (1) for default within one year, calculated using default data from GCD; and (2) for default after one year, calculated using internal default data. For binding offers regarding existing facilities, CCFs are based on historic internal data regarding the proportion of binding offers that are used. CCFs are used together with the preliminary repayment plan for both the utilized and unutilized portions of existing facilities to model the future exposure on default.

 

For exposures in stage 3 where SEK has net risk, the impairment is not calculated in the ECL model, but the account manager calculates and proposes impairment based on established guidelines and methods. The Board’s Credit Committee determines the impairment requirements for stage 3.

 

Impairment of an asset’s carrying amount is made to a reserve account which, in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position, reduces the line item to which it relates.

 

Charge-offs are recorded when a loss has been confirmed, that is that it is evident that it is highly unlikely that any remaining part of SEK’s claim on a counterparty will be reimbursed within the foreseeable future and when there exists no guarantee or collateral covering the claim. Charge-offs may also be made once bankruptcy proceedings have been concluded and a final loss can be established, taking into account the value of any assets held by the bankruptcy estate and SEK’s share of these assets.

 

Recoveries are recorded only if there is virtual certainty of collection, such as in the aftermath of a bankruptcy proceeding when the payment due to SEK has been finally determined.

 

Restructured loan receivables pertain to loan receivables where SEK has granted concessions to the borrower as a result of the borrower’s deteriorated financial position. Following a restructure, normally, the loan receivable is no longer considered doubtful if the obligation is being met in compliance with the new terms and conditions. Concessions granted in connection with loan restructuring are regarded as credit losses.

 

(i) Tangible assets

 

Items of tangible assets are measured at cost, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Cost includes expenditures that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. Tangible assets are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Average useful lives, depreciation methods and residual values are evaluated and tested annually. No depreciation is carried out from the time that an asset is classified as an asset held-for-sale. The right-of-use assets according to IFRS 16 Leases are accounted for as tangible assets when the underlying assets are tangible assets. SEK account or right-of-use assets for rental premises as tangible assets.

 

(j) Intangible assets

 

Intangible assets comprise mainly the capitalized portion of investments in IT systems. Expenses that are directly attributable to large investments in the development of IT systems are recognized as intangible assets if they are expected to generate future economic benefits. The capitalized portion of investments in IT systems includes expenses related to the intangible asset, such as consulting fees and expenses for Group personnel who have contributed to producing the intangible asset. Each intangible asset is amortized using the straight-line method over an estimated useful life from the date the asset is available for use. Average useful lives are evaluated and reconsidered on a yearly basis. An annual impairment test is performed on intangible assets not yet used.

 

(k) Employee benefits

 

SEK sponsors both defined-benefit and defined-contribution pension plans.

 

(i) Defined-contribution plans

 

A defined-contribution pension means that the size of the premium is predetermined, such as is the case with the BTP1 and BTPK plans. A defined-contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate legal entity and has no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Obligations for contributions to defined-contribution pension plans are recognized as an employee benefit expense in profit or loss at the rate at which they are accrued by employees providing services to the entity during a period. Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.

 

(ii) Defined-benefit plans

 

Defined-benefit pension plans means that the pension benefit is predetermined, such as is the case with the BTP2 plan. Defined-benefit plans are post-employment benefit plans other than defined-contribution plans. The present value of the net obligation for defined-benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefits that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. The net obligation is recognized in the balance sheet at its present value less the fair value of any plan assets.

 

F-15

 

 

The cost for defined-benefit plans is allocated over the employee’s service period. The calculation is performed annually by independent actuaries. The obligations are valued at the present value of the expected future disbursements, taking into consideration assumptions such as expected future pay increases, rate of inflation and mortality rates. The discount rate used is the equivalent of the interest rate on the reporting date for Swedish mortgage bonds, with a remaining term approximating that of the actual commitments. Changes in actuarial assumptions and experience-based adjustments to obligations may result in actuarial gains or losses. These actuarial gains and losses are reported together with the difference between the actual and expected return on pension assets in other comprehensive income as incurred. Service cost, gains/losses from changes in plans, and the interest net of pension assets and liabilities are recognized in profit or loss. SEK participates in various collective pension plans covering all employees. Sufficient information is available to allow the calculation of SEK’s proportionate share in the defined-benefit liabilities, assets and the costs for these plans. The future costs of the plans may change accordingly if the underlying assumptions of the plans change.

 

(l) Equity

 

Equity in the Consolidated Group consists of the following items: share capital; reserves; retained earnings; and net profit for the year. Reserves consist of the following items: the reserve for fair-value changes in respect of derivatives in cash-flow hedges (hedge reserve); the reserve for fair-value changes with respect to changes in SEK’s credit risk (own credit risk reserve) and the reserve for remeasurement in respect of defined-benefit pension plans (reserve for defined-benefit pension plans).

 

(m) Taxes

 

Income tax on the profit or loss for the year comprises current and deferred taxes. Current tax is tax expected to be payable on taxable income for the fiscal year. Deferred tax includes deferred tax in the untaxed reserves of the individual Group companies and deferred taxes on other temporary fiscal differences. Deferred tax is calculated with an expected tax rate of 21.4 percent (2019: 21.4 percent). Deferred tax is calculated on all taxable temporary differences, regardless of whether a given temporary difference is recognized in profit or loss, or through other comprehensive income. A temporary difference is the difference between the recognized and fiscal values of an asset or a liability.

 

(n) Earnings per share

 

Earnings per share are calculated as net profit divided by the average number of shares. There is no dilution of shares.

 

(o) Statement of Cash Flows

 

The Statement of Cash Flows shows inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents during the year. SEK’s Statement of Cash Flows has been prepared in accordance with the indirect method, whereby operating profit is adjusted for effects of non-cash transactions such as depreciation and credit losses. The cash flows are classified under operating, investing and financing activities. Cash and cash equivalents include cash at banks where amounts can be immediately converted into cash and short-term deposits where the time to maturity does not exceed three months from the acquisition date.

 

(p) Critical accounting policies, assumptions and estimates

 

When adopting and applying the Group’s accounting policies, in certain cases, the management makes judgments and estimates that have a significant effect on the amounts recognized in the Financial Statements. These estimates are based on past experience and assumptions that the Company believes are fair and reasonable. These estimates and the judgments behind them affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses as well as disclosures. Actual outcomes can later differ from the estimates and the assumptions made.

 

SEK considers the judgments made related to the following critical accounting policy to be the most significant:

 

Functional currency of the Parent Company

 

Furthermore, SEK has identified the following key sources of estimation uncertainty when applying IFRS:

 

Fair value assessments of certain financial instruments; and

 

Provisions for expected credit losses.

 

(i) Functional currency of the Parent Company

 

SEK has established that the Swedish krona (Skr) is its functional currency under IFRS. Large portions of its assets, liabilities and related derivatives are denominated in foreign currencies. Under IFRS, both assets and liabilities are translated at closing exchange rates and the differences between historical book values and current values are recognized as currency exchange effects in the Statement of Comprehensive Income. These differences largely offset each other, causing the net result not to be a material amount in relation to total assets and liabilities in foreign currency. This reflects the economic substance of SEK’s policy of holding assets financed by liabilities denominated in, or hedged into, the same currency. See note 26 for information on SEK’s positions in foreign currency.

 

(ii) Fair value assessments of certain financial instruments

 

SEK recognizes a large part of the balance sheet at fair value, primarily interest-bearing securities recognized on the lines Treasuries/Government bonds and Other interest-bearing securities except loans, derivatives and issued debt. When financial instruments are recognized at fair value, these amounts are calculated on the basis of market prices, valuation models, valuations conducted by external parties and discounted cash flows. SEK’s financial instruments are predominantly not subject to public trading and quoted market prices are not available. When recognizing the amounts for assets, liabilities and derivatives, as well as income and expenses, it is necessary to make assumptions and assessments regarding the fair value of financial instruments and derivatives, particularly if they comprise unquoted or illiquid securities or other instruments of debt. Should the conditions underlying these assumptions and assessments change, the recognized amounts would also change. Refer to note 26 for further information about the impact on the value of financial assets and liabilities of a one percentage point movement in the market interest rate. Other valuation models or assumptions could produce different valuation results. SEK makes judgments regarding what the most appropriate valuation techniques are for the different financial instruments based on their categories. In all cases, the decision is based on a professional assessment pursuant to SEK’s accounting and valuation policies. The use of a valuation model demands a validation and thereafter an approval, in addition to approval of all models at least annually. The valuation models applied by SEK comply with accepted methods for pricing financial instruments. Fair-value adjustments are applied when there are additional factors that market participants take into account and that are not captured by the valuation model. A CVA (Credit Value Adjustment) and DVA (Debt Value Adjustment) are made to reflect the counterparty’s credit risk and SEK’s own credit rating, which affects the fair value of the derivatives (see note 13, for fair value changes related to credit risk.)

 

When financial assets or liabilities are recognized at fair value, the instruments are recognized at their full fair value, including any credit spreads. When quoted market prices are not available for such instruments, certain assumptions must be made about the credit spread of either the counterparty or one’s own credit spread, depending on whether the instrument is an asset or a liability.

 

Developments in the financial markets have to some extent affected the prices at which SEK’s debt is issued. These changes, which are different in different markets, have been included in the calculation of fair value for these liabilities. SEK issues debt instruments in many financial markets. A large portion of these are compound financial instruments with embedded derivatives. SEK’s policy is to hedge the risks in these instruments using derivatives with corresponding structures in order to obtain effective economic hedges. Such compound financial instruments are classified as financial liabilities measured at fair value. As there mostly are no market quotes for this group of transactions, valuation models are used to calculate fair value. The gross value of these instruments and derivatives, which effectively hedge each other, requires complex judgments regarding the most appropriate valuation technique, assumptions and estimates. If other valuation models or assumptions are used, or if assumptions are changed, this could produce other valuation results. Excluding the impact on the valuation of credit spreads on SEK’s own debt and basis spreads, such changes in fair value would generally offset each other.

 

F-16

 

 

SEK uses derivative instruments to mitigate and reduce risks attributable to financial assets and liabilities. In order to mitigate counterparty risk, i.e., the form of credit risk generated from derivative transactions, SEK enters into such transactions only with counterparties with good credit ratings. Moreover, SEK endeavors to enter into ISDA Master Agreements with Credit Support Annexes (CSAs) with its counterparties. This means that the highest allowed risk level is established in advance, regardless of what changes in market value may occur.

 

Derivatives are measured at fair value with reference to listed market prices where available. If market prices are not available, valuation models are used instead. SEK uses a model to adjust the fair value of the net exposure for changes in SEK’s or the counterparty’s credit quality. The models use directly observable market parameters if such are available.

 

As of December 31, 2020, financial assets and liabilities for which valuation models were used, and where market inputs with a significant effect on the recoded fair value are observable (level 2) amounted to Skr 28 billion (2019: Skr 32 billion) and Skr 30 billion (2019: Skr 31 billion) and 9 percent (2019: 11 percent) and 10 percent (2019: 10 percent) of total financial assets and total financial liabilities respectively. Financial assets and liabilities for which valuation included significant non-observable parameters (level 3) amounted to Skr 2 billion and (2019: Skr 2 billion) Skr 43 billion (2019: Skr 46 billion) and 0 percent (2019: 1 percent) and 14 percent (2019: 16 percent) of total financial assets and total financial liabilities respectively. The assessment of non-observable parameters included in models for assessing market value are associated with subjectivity and uncertainty, which can impact the results recognized for specific positions. Despite SEK using appropriate valuation models which are consistent with those used in the market, other models and assumptions for determining the fair value of financial instruments could result in other fair value estimates on the reporting date. At December 31, 2020, the total minimum and maximum effects of changing one or more non-observable parameters to reflect the assumptions under other reasonable circumstances for level 3-instruments amounted to Skr -137 million (2019: Skr -172 million) and Skr 137 million (2019: Skr 175 million) respectively. Refer to note 13 for information regarding value changes for assets and liabilities if non-observable market parameters are changed and section (h) (viii) above for the Principles for determination of fair value of financial instruments.

 

(iii) Provisions for expected credit losses

 

Provisions are estimated using quantitative models, which incorporate inputs, assumptions and methodologies that involve a high degree of management judgement. In particular, the following can have a significant impact on the level of impairment provisions: determination of a significant increase in credit risk, incorporation of forward-looking macroeconomic scenarios and measurement of both 12-month and lifetime expected credit losses. A significant increase in credit risk is defined by SEK based on a deterioration by a number of steps from the initial rating. On December 31, 2020 if the definition of significant increase in credit risk had been one less step of deterioration the impairments would have been Skr 4 million higher (2019: Skr 23 million), and if the definition had been one more step of deterioration the impairments would have been Skr 0 million lower (2019: Skr 1 million). SEK’s method of calculating probability of default entails three scenarios being prepared for each PD curve. The three scenarios are defined by a weight allocated to each scenario. On December 31, 2020 if the probability of a downturn scenario, or an upturn scenario, would have been weighted with 100% probability the impairments would have been Skr 12 million higher (2019: Skr 11 million) or Skr 11 million lower (2019: Skr 16 million), respectively. On December 31, 2020, SEK’s total lending including off-balance sheet exposures amounted to Skr 294 billion (2019: Skr 277 billion) and the related impairment reserve amounted to Skr 249 million (2019: Skr 128 million). If, for example, the actual amount of total future cash flow were to have been 10 percent higher or lower than the estimate, this would have affected operating profit for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 by an additional approximately Skr 25 million (2019: Skr 13 million) and equity at the same date by approximately Skr 20 million (2019: Skr 10 million). A higher total future cash flow would affect operating profit and equity positively, while a lower total future cash flow would affect operating profit and equity negatively.

 

(q) New standards and amendments to standards and interpretations not yet adopted and considered relevant to SEK

 

The IASB has published amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39, IFRS 7, IFRS 4 and IFRS 16 in “Reform for new reference rates - phase 2”. Phase 2 of the reform of the reference rates, has three main areas: hedge accounting, modifications and information. The changes clarify that the hedge accounting do not have to cease just because the hedged items and hedging instruments modified as a result of the IBOR reform. Security conditions (and associated documentation) must be changed to reflect those modifications made to the hedged item, the hedging instrument and the hedged risk. Any value adjustments that these changes entail must be reported as hedging inefficiency. The amendments further clarified that modifications required as a direct result of the IBOR reform and made in an economically equivalent way should not be reported as modifications for instruments valued at accrued acquisition value. For such modifications, the effective interest rate is adjusted in line with those modified cash flows. The amendments are to be applied for financial years beginning January 1, 2021 or later, and previous application is allowed. The changes are expected to result in SEK’s hedging conditions remaining as before without significant modification gains or modification losses being reported. The changes are therefore expected not have any significant impact on SEK’s accounts, capital adequacy or large exposures when first applied.

 

Other IFRS or IFRS IC interpretations that are not yet applicable are not expected to have a material impact on SEK’s Financial Statements, capital adequacy or large exposure ratios.

 

F-17

 

 

Note 2. Net interest income

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Interest income            
Loans to credit institutions  236   546   1,498 
Loans to the public  4,210   4,597   2,965 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  897   829   672 
Interest-bearing securities excluding loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  242   686   523 
Derivatives  -1,708   -538   -501 
Administrative remuneration -CIRR-system1  197   194   157 
Other assets  34   43   52 
Total interest income  4,108   6,357   5,366 
Interest expenses            
Interest expenses excl. resolution fee  -2,076   -4,471   -3,658 
Resolution fee  -86   -169   -266 
Total interest expenses  -2,162   -4,640   -3,924 
Net interest income  1,946   1,717   1,442 

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Interest income were related to:            
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss  -1,070   452   283 
Derivatives used for hedge accounting  -396   -303   -261 
Financial assets at amortized cost  5,574   6,208   5,344 
Total interest income  4,108   6,357   5,366 
Interest expenses were related to:            
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss  725   1,158   685 
Financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss - negative -interest on income  -60   -72   -104 
Financial assets measured at amortized cost – negative interest income  0   -9   -27 
Derivatives used for hedge accounting  1,904   -286   106 
Financial liabilities at amortized cost  -4,731   -5,431   -4,584 
Total interest expenses  -2,162   -4,640   -3,924 
Net interest income  1,946   1,717   1,442 

 

Interest income geographical areas

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Sweden  1,223   1,281   1,114 
Europe except Sweden  -166   1,340   1,288 
Countries outside of Europe  3,051   3,736   2,964 
Total interest income  4,108   6,357   5,366 

 

Interest income per product group

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Lending to Swedish exporters  1,921   1,954   1,709 
Lending to exporters’ customers2  1,229   1,784   1,665 
Liquidity  958   2,619   1,992 
Total interest income  4,108   6,357   5,366 

 

 

1 Including administrative remuneration for concessionary loans by Skr 1 million (2019: Skr 2 million).

2 In interest income for Lending to exporters’ customers, Skr 196 million (2019: Skr 192 million) represent remuneration from the CIRR-system (see note 24).

 

F-18

 

 

Since Q4 2020, SEK has changed the accounting principle regarding the CIRR-system. The comparative figures have been adjusted, see Note 1.

 

Note 3. Net fee and commissions expense

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Fee and commissions earned were -related to1:            
Lending  1   1   5 
Total  1   1   5 
Commissions incurred were -related to1:            
Depot and bank fees  -10   -8   -7 
Brokerage  -4   -5   -4 
Other commissions incurred  -29   -21   -26 
Total  -43   -34   -37 
Net fee and commissions expense  -42   -33   -32 

 

 

1 Skr -37 million (2019: Skr -28 million) includes financial assets and liabilities not measured at fair value through profit or loss.

 

Note 4. Net results of financial transactions

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Derecognition of financial instruments not measured at fair value through profit or loss:            
Financial assets at amortized cost  14   19   24 
Financial assets or liabilities at fair value through profit or loss:            
Designated upon initial recognition (FVO)1  -488   -5,590   7,315 
Mandatorily  466   5,710   -7,360 
Financial instruments under fair-value hedge accounting:            
Net results of the hedging instrument  1,277   2,846   -192 
Net results of the hedged item  -1,191   -2,761   235 
Currency exchange-rate effects on all assets and liabilities excl. currency exchange-rate effects related to revaluation at fair value  5   2   -3 
Total net results of financial transactions  83   226   19 

 

Note 5. Personnel expenses

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Salaries and remuneration to the Board of Directors and the CEO  -7   -7   -7 
Salaries and remuneration to Senior Executives  -25   -23   -21 
Salaries and remuneration to other employees  -168   -161   -158 
Pensions  -64   -60   -52 
Social insurance  -68   -63   -59 
Other personnel expenses  -15   -19   -14 
Total personnel expenses  -347   -333   -311 

 

The combined total of the remuneration to senior executives, excluding the CEO of the Parent Company, amounted to Skr 25 million (2019: Skr 23 million). Of the remuneration to senior executives, Skr 25 million (2019: Skr 23 million) is pensionable. Of the remuneration to the CEO of the Parent Company, Skr 5 million (2019: Skr 5 million) is pensionable. For all employees, excluding the CEO, SEK follows collective agreements between the Banking Institution Employers’ Organization (BAO) and trade unions.

 

F-19

 

 

Remuneration and other benefits to the Board of Directors and Senior Executives in the Consolidated Group

 

2020
Skr thousand
 Fee, includes
committee fee
  Fixed
remuneration1
  Other
benefits2
  Pension fee3  Total 
Chairman of the Board of Directors:                    
Lars Linder-Aronson  -588   -   -   -   -588 
Other members of the Board of Directors:                    
Cecilia Ardström  -322   -   -   -   -322 
Anna Brandt4  -   -   -   -   - 
Reinhold Geijer  -288   -   -   -   -288 
Hans Larsson  -302   -   -   --   -302 
Eva Nilsagård  -297   -   -   -   -297 
Ulla Nilsson  -322   -   -   -   -322 
Hanna Lagercrantz4,  -   -   -   -   - 
Senior Executives:                    
Catrin Fransson, Chief Executive Officer (CEO)5  -   -5,234   -33   -1,536   -6,803 
Per Åkerlind, Deputy Chief Executive Officer and Head of Partnerships and Relations  -   -3,527   -31   -1,257   -4,815 
Karl Johan Bernerfalk, General Counsel, Head of Legal  -   -1,576   -31   -552   -2,159 
Andreas Ericson, Head of Mid Corporates  -   -2,024   -32   -631   -2,687 
Stefan Friberg, Chief Financial Officer (CFO)  -   -2,964   -18   -515   -3,497 
Teresa Hamilton Burman, Chief Credit Officer (CCO)  -   -2,389   -18   -524   -2,931 
Jens Hedar, Head of Large Corporates  -   -2,316   -18   -635   -2,969 
Petra Könberg, Head of Marketing and Communications  -   -1,286   -34   -428   -1,748 
Peter Svensén, Chief Risk Officer (CRO)  -   -2,597   -26   -569   -3,192 
Sirpa Rusanen, Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO)  -   -1,719   -22   -675   -2,416 
Susanna Rystedt, Head of Business Development, Business Support and Transformation  -   -2,501   -16   -788   -3,305 
Madeleine Widaeus, Chief Information Officer (CIO)  -   -1,671   -16   -493   -2,180 
Total  -2,119   -29,804   -295   -8,603   -40,821 

 

 

1 Predetermined salary or other compensation such as holiday pay and allowances.

2 Other benefits consist of, for example subsistence benefits.

3 Includes premiums for insurance covering sickness benefit for prolonged illness and other public risk insurance as a result of collective pension agreements.

4 Remuneration is not paid from the Company to the representatives on the Board of Directors who are employed by the owner, the Swedish -Government.

5 The retirement age of the CEO, Catrin Fransson, is 65 years and the pension fee is 30 percent of her fixed salary.

 

F-20

 

 

Remuneration and other benefits to the Board of Directors and Senior Executives in the Consolidated Group

 

2019
Skr thousand
 Fee, includes
committee fee
  Fixed
remuneration1
  Other
benefits2
  Pension fee3  Total 
Chairman of the Board of Directors:                    
Lars Linder-Aronson  -603   -   -   -   -603 
Other members of the Board of Directors:                    
Cecilia Ardström  -308   -   -   -   -308 
Anna Brandt4  -   -   -   -   - 
Reinhold Geijer  -275   -       -   -275 
Hans Larsson  -249   -   -   -   -249 
Eva Nilsagård  -277   -   -   -   -277 
Ulla Nilsson  -298   -   -   -   -298 
Hélène Westholm4, resigned March 28, 2019  -   -   -   -   - 
Hanna Lagercrantz4, from March 28, 2019  -   -   -   -   - 
Senior Executives:                    
Catrin Fransson, Chief Executive Officer (CEO)5  -   -5,015   -25   -1,462   -6,502 
Per Åkerlind, Head of Treasury and Capital Management and -Executive Vice President  -   -3,509   -30   -1,123   -4,662 
Karl Johan Bernerfalk, General Counsel  -   -1,507   -23   -529   -2,059 
Andreas Ericson, Head of Mid Corporates  -   -1,978   -28   -607   -2,613 
Stefan Friberg, Chief Financial Officer (CFO)  -   -2,922   -27   -500   -3,449 
Teresa Hamilton Burman, Chief Credit Officer (CCO)  -   -2,353   -18   -508   -2,879 
Jens Hedar, Head of Large Corporates  -   -2,224   -15   -649   -2,888 
Petra Könberg, Head of Marketing & Business Development  -   -1,236   -33   -407   -1,676 
Irina Slinko, acting Chief Risk Officer (CRO), resigned August 20, 2019  -   -1,159   -12   -365   -1,536 
Anna-Lena Söderlund, acting Chief Risk Officer (CRO), from August 21, 2019, resigned October 27, 2019  -   -278   -6   -115   -399 
Peter Svensén, Chief Risk Officer (CRO), from October 28, 2019  -   -471   -3   -80   -554 
Sirpa Rusanen, Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO)  -   -1,644   -42   -623   -2,309 
Susanna Rystedt, Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)  -   -2,484   -40   -759   -3,283 
Madeleine Widaeus, Chief Information Officer (CIO)  -   -1,574   -16   -463   -2,053 
Total  -2,010   -28,354   -318   -8,190   -38,872 

 

 

1 Predetermined salary or other compensation such as holiday pay and allowances.

2 Other benefits consist of, for example, car allowances and subsistence benefits.

3 Includes premiums for insurance covering sickness benefit for prolonged illness and other public risk insurance as a result of collective pension agreements.

4 Remuneration is not paid from the Company to the representatives on the Board of Directors who are employed by the owner, the Swedish -Government.

5 The retirement age of the CEO, Catrin Fransson, is 65 years and the pension fee is 30 percent of her fixed salary.

 

F-21

 

 

Remuneration and other benefits to the Board of Directors and Senior Executives in the Consolidated Group

 

Remuneration and other benefits to the Board of Directors and Senior Executives in the Consolidated Group 2018 Fee, includes  Fixed  Other  Pension    
Skr thousand committee fee  remuneration1  benefits2  fee3  Total 
Chairman of the Board of Directors:                    
Lars Linder-Aronson4  -612   -   -   -   -612 
Other members of the Board of Directors:                    
Cecilia ArdströmC  -287   -   -   -   -287 
Anna Brandt  -   -   -   -   - 
Reinhold Geijer4  -269   -   -   -   -269 
Hans Larsson4  -250   -   -   -   -250 
Eva Nilsagård. from April 24, 2018  -182   -   -   -   -182 
Susanne Lithander, resigned April 24, 2018  -74   -   -   -   -74 
Lotta Mellström, resigned April 24, 20185  -   -   -   -   - 
Ulla Nilsson  -287   -   -   -   -287 
Hélène Westholm, from April 24, 2018  -   -   -   -   - 
Senior Executives:                    
Catrin Fransson, Chief Executive Officer (CEO)6  -   -4,743   -88   -1,418   -6,249 
Per Åkerlind, Head of Treasury and Capital Management and Executive Vice President  -   -3,339   -85   -1,307   -4,731 
Karl Johan Bernerfalk, General Counsel  -   -1,414   -33   -505   -1,952 
Andreas Ericson, Head of Mid Corporates, from October 15, 2018  -   -410   -6   -146   -562 
Stefan Friberg, Chief Risk Officer (CRO)  -   -2,930   -25   -483   -3,438 
Teresa Hamilton Burman, Chief Credit Officer (CCO)  -   -2,326   -16   -493   -2,835 
Jens Hedar, Head of Large Corporates, from October 15, 2018  -   -461   -5   -157   -623 
Johan Henningsson, Head of Sustainability  -   -1,261   -27   -466   -1,754 
Petra Könberg, Head of Marketing & Business Development  -   -1,143   -28   -384   -1,555 
Jane Lundgren Ericsson, Head of Lending, resigned October 12, 2018  -   -1,943   -75   -610   -2,628 
Ingela Nachtweij, acting Chief Information Officer (CIO), resigned January 31, 2018  -   -128   -2   -36   -166 
Sirpa Rusanen, Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO)  -   -1,471   -106   -556   -2,133 
Susanna Rystedt, Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)  -   -2,255   -108   -733   -3,096 
Madeleine Widaeus, IT-chief, from February 1, 2018  -   -1,360   -11   -405   -1,776 
Total  -1,961   -25,184   -615   -7,699   -35,459 

 

 

1 Predetermined salary or other compensation such as holiday pay and allowances.

2 Other benefits consist of, for example, car allowances and subsistence benefits.

3 Includes premiums for insurance covering sickness benefit for prolonged illness and other public risk insurance as a result of collective pension agreements.

4 Remuneration is not paid from the Company to the representatives on the Board of Directors who are employed by the owner, the Swedish -Government.

5 The retirement age of the CEO, Catrin Fransson, is 65 years and the pension fee is 30 percent of her fixed salary.

 

Total Expenditure on Remuneration in accordance with CRR

 

2020
Skr thousand
 Executive
-management
  Other members of staff whose actions have a
material impact on the risk profile of the institution
 
Total amount expensed for remuneration  -38,632   -87,252 
of which fixed remuneration  -38,632   -81,244 
of which variable remuneration in cash  -   -6,008 
number of beneficiaries  12   67 
Outstanding vested deferred remuneration  -   - 
Outstanding unvested deferred remuneration  -90   -8,164 
Deferred remuneration awarded  -   -3,605 
Deferred remuneration paid out  -69   -2,535 
Deferred remuneration reduced through performance adjustments  -   - 
Severance payments made  -   - 
number of beneficiaries  -   - 
Severance payments awarded  -   - 

 

F-22

 

 

2019
Skr thousand
 Executive
-management
  Other members of staff whose actions have a
material impact on the risk profile of the institution
 
Total amount expensed for remuneration  -34,780   -88,565 
of which fixed remuneration  -34,780   -81,730 
of which variable remuneration in cash  -   -6,835 
number of beneficiaries  12   74 
Outstanding vested deferred remuneration  -   - 
Outstanding unvested deferred remuneration  -90   -4,727 
Deferred remuneration awarded  -   -4,101 
Deferred remuneration paid out  -69   -569 
Deferred remuneration reduced through performance adjustments  -   - 
Severance payments made  -   -1,319 
number of beneficiaries  -   1 
Severance payments awarded  -   - 

 

2018
Skr thousand
 Executive
-management
  Other members of staff whose actions have a
material impact on the risk profile of the institution
 
Total amount expensed for remuneration  -33,617   -111,896 
of which fixed remuneration  -33,617   -111,896 
of which variable remuneration in cash  -   - 
number of beneficiaries  12   114 
Outstanding vested deferred remuneration  -   - 
Outstanding unvested deferred remuneration  -207   -1,884 
Deferred remuneration awarded  -   - 
Deferred remuneration paid out  -239   -2,910 
Deferred remuneration reduced through performance adjustments  -   - 
Severance payments made  -   - 
number of beneficiaries  -   - 
Severance payments awarded  -   -1,319 

 

Finansinspektionens (the Swedish FSA’s) regulations (FFFS 2011:1) regarding remuneration structures in credit institutions, investment firms and fund management companies licensed to conduct discretionary portfolio management apply to SEK. Moreover, SEK applies the government’s ownership policy and guidelines on terms of employment for senior executives at state-owned companies 2020. In accordance with these regulations, SEK’s Board has prepared a proposal for a set of guidelines for the remuneration of senior executives at SEK, which was adopted at the 2019 Annual General Meeting. The guidelines stipulate that salary and remuneration to the senior executives of SEK should be fair and reasonable. They should also be competitive, capped and appropriate as well as contribute to good ethical principles and corporate culture. Remuneration should not be higher than at comparable companies, and should be reasonable. Remuneration to senior executives consists of fixed salary, severance pay, pension benefits and other benefits. Pension terms for senior executives should be in the form of defined contribution plans.

 

SEK’s remuneration system is designed to promote sound and effective risk management and restrict excessive risk-taking. Remuneration to employees is mainly determined at fixed amounts.

 

SEK’s Board of Directors’ Remuneration Committee (the “Remuneration Committee”) prepares proposals for decision by the Board relating to remuneration policy for the Company, on total remuneration for the CEO, for other members of the executive management, for the Head of Compliance, and for other employees reporting directly to the CEO, as well as on the terms and conditions for and the outcome of the Company’s remuneration system. The Remuneration Committee also prepares and handles overall issues relating to remuneration (salaries, pension and other benefits), measures aimed at applying SEK’s remuneration policy, and issues relating to succession planning. Further, the Remuneration Committee prepares overall instructions for remuneration issues that it deems necessary. The Remuneration Committee also ensures that the relevant oversight department, together with the Remuneration Committee, annually reviews and evaluates the Company’s remuneration systems and also reviews whether such systems comply with the Company’s remuneration policy and relevant instructions regarding remuneration. The outcome is presented to the Board in a separate report on the same day as the annual report is submitted. The Remuneration Committee has met five times in 2020.

 

The company has only one variable remuneration system, individual variable compensation (”IRE”). Within this system, permanent staff that have customer or business responsibility, but are not members of senior management, are offered the opportunity to receive individual variable remuneration. IRE has been around since 2017 and should be evaluated on an ongoing basis. The result of the evaluations shall be reported to the Remuneration Committee

 

The IRE system is discretionary in nature, in that all outcomes are subject to deferred payment and the Board takes all decisions regarding results and payments. Before an individual receives any IRE payment, the payment is subject to testing at three different levels: the Company level, the Department level and the Individual level. The test at the Company level is the basis for any IRE outcome. The outcome at the Company level is conditional on the actual return exceeding a predetermined target. If appropriate, actual return is adjusted for the impact of non-operational items and unexpectedly high risk-taking. Of the profit that corresponds to any excess return, a percentage accrues to the IRE at the Company level. The outcome at the Company level is capped at a maximum of two months’ salary, calculated on the basis of all Company employees entitled to IRE. In the case of a positive outcome at the Company level, the next step is to test at the Department level. This test assesses the outcome at the Department level in relation to the department’s quantitative targets. If the targets have not been reached, the outcome at the Company level is reduced for all members of the department. The remainder after this test comprises the outcome at the Department level, which is capped at a maximum of two months’ salary, calculated on the basis of all department’s employees entitled to IRE. The final test is at the Individual level. This test assesses the behavior and performance of individuals. For each individual, the outcome following the test at the Individual level is subject to a floor of zero and a ceiling of 1.5 times the amount at the Department level. Accordingly, the maximum outcome for any individual is three months’ salary. The total outcome for all employees encompassed by IRE in a department must be within the outcome at the Department level. The Company pays payroll taxes on any IRE paid, which also carries pension entitlements.

 

F-23

 

 

 

SEK’s remuneration policy is designed in such a way that the Company may decide that remuneration that is subject to deferred disbursement may be withheld, in part or full, if it subsequently transpires that the performance criteria have not been fulfilled or if the employee has breached certain internal rules. The same applies if disbursement would not be justifiable by the Company’s financial situation. Moreover, the outcome may also be adjusted if credit losses, or recoveries of credit losses, have occurred after the relevant income year, but are deemed to be attributable to that year.

 

For all employees encompassed by IRE, the disbursement plan states that 40 percent of the outcome will be disbursed in April in the year following the income year to which the remuneration relates, and 20 percent will be disbursed in April in each of the three subsequent years.

 

As part of its strategic analysis and planning, the Company undertakes an annual process for internal capital and liquidity assessment. As part of this assessment, an analysis is conducted with the aim of identifying employees, whose work duties have a material impact on SEK’s risk profile, including risks related to the Company’s remuneration policy and remuneration system. The outcome of this analysis is taken into account when designing the remuneration systems in order to promote sound and efficient risk management and to restrict excessive risk-taking. No employees receive remuneration of EUR 1 million or more per fiscal year. No new agreements containing variable remunerations have been established during the year.

 

The CEO’s, Catrin Fransson’s, terms of employment comply with the Guidelines for Terms of Employment for Senior Executives in State-owned Companies 2020.

 

SEK pays a defined contribution pension insurance amounting to 30 percent of the CEO’s pensionable salary. The retirement age for the CEO is 65.

 

For the CEO, SEK pays premiums for insurance for sickness benefits for prolonged illness, other collective risk insurance corresponding to those applicable under the BTP plan as well as healthcare insurance under Skandia Privatvård Plus and travel insurance. Other benefits payable to the CEO include per diem allowances. The CEO is entitled to six months’ notice prior to termination initiated by SEK and severance pay corresponding to 18 months’ salary. A deduction is made for any income arising from new employment.

 

The retirement age is 65 for all senior executives. The pension terms, conditions for termination of employment and other terms of employment for the senior executives follow the current Guidelines for Terms of Employment for Senior Executives in State-owned Companies 2020, where the BTP plan is included as an approved, collectively bargained, defined-benefit and defined-contribution pension plan. Since the 2017 Annual General Meeting, the new guidelines apply when appointing new senior executives at SEK. Pension provisions for senior executives in SEK are limited to 30 percent of pensionable income for retirement and survivors’ pension. Due to SEK��s implementation of a defined-benefit pension plan, the BTP plan, resulting from a collective agreement between the BAO and the Financial Sector Union of Sweden, covering employees in the banking and finance industries, the contribution for retirement and survivors’ pension can exceed 30 percent.

 

For the senior executives, SEK pays premiums for insurance for sickness benefits for prolonged illness, other collective risk insurance arising out of applicable collective agreements as well as travel insurance and health insurance. Other benefits include car and per diem allowances.

 

Per Åkerlind has a notice period of six months should termination be initiated by SEK and is entitled to severance pay corresponding to 18 months’ salary. A deduction is made for any income arising from new employment. For other senior executives, the notice period upon termination initiated by SEK follows collective agreements. Upon resignation by the employee, the notice period is three or six months.

 

Pensions

.

Total pension cost for defined benefit and defined contribution obligations

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Service cost  -5   -6   -4 
Regulation of pension obligations  0   0   5 
Interest cost, net  -1   -2   -1 
Pension cost for defined benefit pensions, incl. payroll tax  -6   -8   0 
Pension cost for defined contribution pension cost incl. payroll tax  -58   -52   -52 
Pension cost recognized in personnel costs  -64   -60   -52 
Actuarial gains (+) and losses (-) on defined benefit obligation during period  -2   -16   -48 
Return above expected return, gains (+) and losses (-) on plan assets  3   12   0 
Change in the effect of the asset ceiling excluding interest  -   -   - 
Revaluation of defined benefit plans  1   -4   -48 

 

Net value of defined benefit pension obligations

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Defined benefit obligations  277   272   253 
Plan assets  -195   -189   -173 
           0 
Provision for pensions, net obligation1  82   83   80 

 

 

1 See note 21.

 

F-24

 

 

Development of defined benefit obligations

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Defined benefit obligation, opening balance  272   253   263 
Service cost  6   6   4 
Interest cost  5   5   6 
Pension Payments incl. special payroll tax  -9   -8   -9 
Actuarial gains (-) and losses (+), effect due to changed demographic assumptions  -   -   -59 
Actuarial gains (-) and losses (+), effect due to changed financial assumptions  12   25   46 
Actuarial gains (-) and losses (+), effect due to experience based outcome  -9   -9   2 
Defined benefit obligation, closing balance  277   272   253 

 

Development of plan assets related to defined benefit obligation

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Fair value of plan assets, opening balance  189   173   223 
Expected return on plan assets  3   4   5 
Contributions by the employer1  7   7   7 
Benefits paid2  -8   -7   -8 
Other3  -   -   -54 
Return on plan assets excluding interest income  4   12   0 
Fair value of plan assets, closing balance  195   189   173 

 

 

1 Expected contribution from the employer in the following year is Skr 5 million (2019: Skr 6 million) excluding payroll tax.
2 Expected compensation paid in the following year is Skr 7 million (2019: Skr 9 million).
3 Regulation of pension obligations related to Venantius AB and its subsidiaries, which were liquidated in 2018.

 

Distribution of plan assets related to defined benefit obligation

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Domestic equity investments  4   4   3 
Foreign equity investments  23   17   12 
Domestic government bonds  41   49   43 
Domestic corporate bonds  18   22   26 
Mortgage bonds  53   49   49 
Other Investments  33   25   19 
Properties  23   23   21 
Total plan assets  195   189   173 

 

F-25

 

 

Principal actuarial assumptions used end of year

 

Percent 2020  2019  2018 
Discount rate  1.25   1.7   2.1 
Assumption of early pension withdrawal  20.0   20.0   20.0 
Expected salary increase  2.0   2.0   2.0 
Expected inflation  1.8   2.0   2.0 
Expected lifetime  DUS14   DUS14   DUS14 
Expected turnover  5.0   5.0   5.0 

 

Sensitivity analysis of essential assumptions

 

   Negative outcome   Positive outcome
Skr mn  2020   2019   2018   2020   2019   2018 
Discount rate  -1%  -1%  -1%  +1%   +1%   +1% 
Defined benefit obligation  358   351   324   218   215   202 
Service cost  9   8   8   5   5   4 
Interest cost  1   2   4   5   6   6 
                         
Expected lifetime  +1 year   +1 year   +1 year   –1 year   –1 year   –1 year 
Defined benefit obligation  291   286   266   264   260   242 
Service cost  7   6   6   7   6   5 
Interest cost  4   5   6   3   4   5 

 

Net reconciliation of pension liabilities

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Pension liabilities, opening balance  83   80   40 
Net periodic pension cost  8   7   0 
Contributions by the employer  -7   -7   -7 
Net pension payments  -1   -1   -1 
Revaluations recognized in other comprehensive income  -1   4   48 
Pension liabilities, closing balance  82   83   80 

 

Net interest is calculated using the discount rate of pension obligations, based on the net surplus or net deficit in the defined benefit plan.

 

Pension expense in 2020 for defined benefit pensions amounts to Skr 6 million (2019: Skr 8 million).

 

As of December 31, 2020, the expected weighted average remaining service time for active employees was 13.38 years (2019: 14.89 years), the expected weighted average duration for the present value was 20.19 years (2019: 19.23 years) and the average salary for active employees was Skr 0.9 million (2019: Skr 0.9 million).

 

Discount rate

 

The discount rate is based on the estimated interest curve of Swedish mortgage bonds, as this market is regarded as liquid enough to be used for this purpose. The discount rate is based on market expectations at the end of the accounting period, using bonds with the same duration as the pension liability.

 

F-26

 

 

Expected early retirement

 

According to the transitional rule for § 8 in the BTP-plan, the calculation includes the assumption that 20 percent of the employees use the possibility for early retirement. The earliest retirement age is 61 for employees born 1956 or earlier. Employees born 1967 or later have no right to retire before age 65.

 

Expected return on plan assets

 

Expected return on plan assets is equal to the discount rate as regulated in IAS 19.

 

Expected salary increase

 

The assumption of salary increase is based on SEK’s assessment.

 

Expected inflation

 

The expected inflation is in line with Swedish inflation-linked bonds.

 

Expected employee turnover

 

Expected employee turnover is based on SEK’s assessment of the long-term expected Company staff attrition during one year.

.

Average number of employees

 

  2020  2019  2018 
Women  123   120   117 
Men  125   121   126 
Total average number of employees  248   241   243 

 

Number of employees at year-end1

 

  2020  2019  2018 
Women  125   123   118 
Men  128   121   120 
Total number of employees1  253   244   238 
of which full-time employees  247   236   230 
allocation of women/men  49/51   50/50   49/51 
of which part-time employees  6   8   8 
allocation of women/men  83/17   75/25   75/25 
of which permanent employees  253   243   236 
allocation of women/men  49/51   51/49   50/50 
of which temporary employees  0   1   2 
allocation of women/men  0/0   0/100   50/50 
of which managers  31   31   29 
of which non-management  222   213   209 

 

 

1 Information collected from the HR-system.
2 In addition to its employees, SEK had 75 consultants (FTEs) (2019: 66 consultants) engaged at year-end 2020.

 

Employees by age distribution

 

  2020  2019  2018 
Total number of employees  253   244   238 
of which under the age of 30 years  13   12   13 
of which between 30 and 50 years  122   127   127 
of which over 50 years  118   105   98 

 

F-27

 

 

Employee turnover

 

  2020  2019  2018 
Number of employees who left employment  16   30   32 
of which women  8   16   12 
of which men  8   14   20 
of which under the age of 30 years  0   2   3 
of which between 30 and 50 years  12   22   20 
of which over 50 years  4   6   9 

 

Health

 

Percent 2020  2019  2018 
Absence due to sickness1  2.1   2.5   3.1 

 

 

1 Number of hours of sickness in relation to scheduled working hours.

 

Equality and diversity

 

  2020  2019  2018 
Allocation of women/men on the Board of Directors  62/38  62/38  62/38
Allocation of women/men in SEK's executive management  50/50  50/50  50/50
Allocation of women/men in -management positions  48/52  42/58  41/59
Allocation of women/men at SEK
in total
  49/51  50/50  51/49

 

 

Note 6. Other administrative expenses

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Travel expenses and marketing  -3   -7   -7 
IT and information system (fees incl.)  -140   -156   -151 
Other fees  -38   -34   -34 
Premises1  -10   -3   -33 
Other  -7   -6   -6 
Total other administrative expenses  -198   -206   -231 

 

 

1 SEK is a party to rental agreements of office space in Stockholm and Gothenburg, Sweden. Since 2019-01-01 leases of premises are accounted for according to IFRS 16, see note 8.

 

Remuneration to auditors

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers AB:         
Audit fees1  -9   -10   -8 
Audit related fees2  -   0   0 
Tax related fees3  -   0   0 
Other fees4  -3   -2   -2 
Total  -12   -12   -10 

 

 

1 Fees related to audit of annual financial statements and reviews of interim financial statements.
2 Fees charged for assurance and related services that are related to the performance of audit or review of the financial statements and are not reported under Audit fees.
3 Fees for professional services rendered by the principal independent auditors for tax compliance and tax advice.
4 Fees for products and services rendered by the principal independent auditors, other than the services reported in Audit fees through Tax related fees above. In the financial statements, remuneration to auditors is mainly included in Other administrative expenses.

 

F-28

 

 

Note 7. Tangible and intangible assets

 

Skr mn Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019  Dec 31, 2018 
Net book value         
Tangible assets  22   28   26 
Right-of-use assets  25   50   - 
Intangible assets1  98   56   43 
Total net book value  145   134   69 
Depreciation and impairment during the year according to the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income  -51   -57   -40 

 

 

1 Intangible assets consist of the capitalized portion of investments in IT systems. The average useful life for intangible assets is 5 years.

 

Note 8. Leasing

 

SEK as lessee

 

All leases with the exception of short-term and low-value leases, are recognized as a right-of-use asset with a corresponding lease liability. The right-of-use assets are accounted for under Tangible and intangible assets and the lease liability is accounted for under Other liabilities (see note 7 and note 19). The right-of-use assets and the lease liability relate to rental premises. For further information see note 1 Significant accounting policies. The lease term is determined as the non-callable period of a lease, together with any extension or termination option that SEK is reasonably certain to exercise. SEK has extension options which it is not reasonably certain to exercise. The potential future cash flows related to the extension options amount to Skr 77 million (2019: Skr 78 million) for a period of 3 years.

 

Right-of-use assets

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Opening balance  50   94 
Depreciation  -27   -32 
Addition/Deduction1  2   -12 
Closing balance  25   50 

 

 

1 There have been cancelled and new leases. During 2019 the estimation of lease liability and right-of-use assets also has changed. Future cash flows relating to real estate tax and non-deductible value added tax are no longer included. This change means that lease liability and right-of-use assets have decreased by Skr 13 million.

 

Accounted for in profit or loss

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Depreciation charge on right-of-use assets  -27   -32 
Interest expenses on lease liability  0   0 
Expenses relating to short-term leases1  0   0 
Expenses relating to low-value leases1  -1   -1 
Variable lease fees1  -6   -1 
Total amount accounted for in profit or loss  -34   -34 

 

 

1 Accounted for under Other administrative expenses.

 

F-29

 

 

Lease liability

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Opening balance  44   95 
Interest expenses accrued  0   0 
Payments of lease liability  -27   -39 
Addition/Deduction1  2   -12 
Closing balance  19   44 

 

 

1 There have been cancelled and new leases. During 2019 the estimation of lease liability and right-of-use assets also has changed. Future cash flows relating to real estate tax and non-deductible value added tax are no longer included. This change means that lease liability and right-of-use assets have decreased by Skr 13 million.

 

Contractual flows of lease liability

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Within 1 year  18   26 
Between 1 and 5 years  1   18 
Discounting effect  0   0 
Closing balance  19   44 

 

The total cash outflow for leases in 2020 was Skr 34 million (2019: Skr 41 million).

 

The following tables show disclosures for 2018 according to IAS 17.

 

Cost of operating leases

 

Skr mn 2018 
Leases  -32 
The primary cost relates to SEK’s office premises.

 

Future minimum rentals payable under non-cancellable operating leases are as follows

 

Skr mn Dec 31, 2018 
Within 1 year  -32 
Between 1 and 5 years  -60 
More than 5 years  - 
Total future minimum rentals payable under non-cancellable operating leases  -92 

 

SEK as lessor

 

All SEK’s leasing transactions, where SEK is the lessor, are classified as financial leases. When making such classification, all aspects regarding the leasing contract, including third party guarantees, are taken into account. A reconciliation between the gross investment in the leases and the present value of minimum lease payments receivable at the end of the reporting period can be found below. Future lease payments receivable will mature in the following periods.

 

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019  December 31, 2018 
Skr mn Gross investment  Present value of minimum lease payments  Gross investment  Present value of minimum lease payments  Gross investment  Present value of minimum lease payments 
Within 1 year  102   99   63   61   117   113 
Between 1 and 5 years  91   81   87   78   182   156 
More than 5 years  19   14   -   -   8   5 
Total  212   194   150   139   307   274 
                         
Unearned finance income  -   17   -   14   -   33 
Unguaranteed residual value  -   -   -   -   -   - 

 

The leases are included in the line item “Loans to the public” in the Statement of Financial Position.

 

Note 9. Impairments

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Expected credit losses, stage 1  -98   -19   6 
Expected credit losses, stage 2  -48   11   14 
Expected credit losses, stage 3  -7   -17   -13 
Established credit losses  -20   -25   - 
Reserves applied to cover established credit losses  20   40   - 
Recovered credit losses  -   -   0 
Net credit losses  -153   -10   7 

 

The table below shows the book value of loans and nominal amounts for off-balance sheet exposures before expected credit losses for each stage as well as related loss allowance amounts, in order to place expected credit losses in relation to credit exposures. Overall, the credit portfolio has an extremely high credit quality and SEK often uses risk mitigation measures, primarily through guarantees from the Swedish Export Credit Agency (EKN) and other government export credit agencies in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which explains the low provision ratio.

 

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total  Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total 
Loans, before expected credit losses                                
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  47,095   3,719   -   50,814   40,909   2,735   -   43,644 
Loans to credit institutions  8,834   509   -   9,343   9,578   541   -   10,119 
Loans to the public  142,179   28,109   1,482   171,770   132,313   30,326   1,316   163,955 
Total Loans, before expected credit losses  198,108   32,337   1,482   231,927   182,800   33,602   1,316   217,718 
Off balance, before expected credit losses                                
Guarantees  2,463   1,506   -   3,969   3,232   1,161   -   4,393 
Committed undisbursed loans  25,893   32,642   -   58,535   28,083   26,856   11   54,950 
Total, before expected credit losses  226,464   66,485   1,482   294,431   214,115   61,619   1,327   277,061 
of which guaranteed  59.5%   84.6%   97.6%   63.2%   56.4%   92.1%   95.4%   62.2% 
Loss allowance, loans                                
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  -20   -13   -   -33   -14   -2   -   -16 
Loans to credit institutions  -6   0   -   -6   -1   0   -   -1 
Loans to the public  -113   -42   -46   -201   -36   -7   -64   -107 
Total loss allowance, loans  -139   -55   -46   -240   -51   -9   -64   -124 
Loss allowance, off balance1                                
Guarantees  0   0   -   -   0   0   0   0 
Committed undisbursed loans  -8   -1   -   -9   -3   -1   -   -4 
Total, loss allowance  -147   -56   -46   -249   -54   -10   -64   -128 
Provision ratio  0.06%   0.08%   3.10%   0.08%   0.03%   0.02%   4.82%   0.05% 

 

 

1 Recognized under provision in Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

 

F-30

 

 

Loans and off balance, before loss allowance

 

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total  Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total 
Opening balance  214,115   61,619   1,327   277,061   202,583   60,678   1,425   264,686 
Increase due to origination and acquisition  134,041   25,944   815   160,800   73,812   5,633   113   79,558 
Transfer to stage 1  683   -872   -   -189   13   -16   -   -3 
Transfer to stage 2  -8,391   7,422   -159   -1,128   -6,752   6,281   -   -471 
Transfer to stage 3  -   -42   34   -8   -97   -199   286   -10 
Decrease due to derecognition  -113,984   -27,586   -535   -142,105   -55,444   -10,758   -497   -66,699 
Closing balance  226,464   66,485   1,482   294,431   214,115   61,619   1,327   277,061 

 

 

Loss allowance

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total  Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total 
Opening balance  -54   -10   -64   -128   -34   -21   -84   -139 
Increases due to origination and
acquisition
  -84   0   -   -84   -22   -1   0   -23 
Net remeasurement of loss allowance  -23   -48   2   -69   -4   7   7   10 
Transfer to stage 1  0   0   -   -   0   0   -   0 
Transfer to stage 2  1   -1   0   -   0   0   -   0 
Transfer to stage 3  -   1   -10   -9   0   2   -24   -22 
Decreases due to derecognition  8   0   0   8   6   4   -   10 
Decrease in allowance account due to write-offs  -   -   20   20   -   -   40   40 
Exchange-rate differences1  5   2   6   13   0   -1   -3   -4 
Closing balance  -147   -56   -46   -249   -54   -10   -64   -128 

 

 

1 Recognized under Net results of financial transactions in the Statement of Comprehensive Income.

 

Provisions for expected credit losses (ECLs) are calculated using quantitative models based on inputs, assumptions and methods that are highly reliant on assessments. In particular, the following could heavily impact the level of provisions: the establishment of a material increase in credit risk, allowing for forward-looking macroeconomic scenarios, and the measurement of both ECLs over the next 12 months and lifetime ECLs. ECLs are based on objective assessments of what SEK expects to lose on the exposures given what was known on the reporting date and taking into account possible future events. The ECL is a probability-weighted amount that is determined by evaluating the outcome of several possible scenarios and where the data taken into consideration comprises information from previous conditions, current conditions and projections of future economic conditions. SEK’s method entails three scenarios being prepared for each probability of default curve: (i) a base scenario, (ii) a downturn scenario and (iii) an upturn scenario. The base scenario consists of GDP forecasts from the World Bank. When calculating the ECL as of December 31, 2020 the latest available forecast was the World Bank’s forecast from June 2020. The base scenario has been weighted at between 72 and 78 percent, and the downturn and upturn scenarios weighted equally at between 11 and 14 percent.

 

SEK’s IFRS 9 model is based on GDP growth projections estimating the impact on the probability of default. SEK’s management believes that the strong positive GDP growth projections for 2021 may understate the probability of default of the asset portfolio, as they do not take into account the sharp fall in GDP during the second quarter. In the fourth quarter, SEK made an overall adjustment to increase expected credit losses, which was calculated pursuant to SEK’s IFRS 9 model as of December 31, 2020.

 

F-31

 

 

 

SEK has conducted an extensive assessment of material increases in credit risk due to the COVID-19 pandemic. SEK’s assessment is that the company’s method is still applicable for assessing whether a material increase in credit risk has occurred. SEK has noted an increase in credits moving from stage 1 to stage 2, which was mainly attributable to an increase in forbearance agreements due to the COVID-19 pandemic and decreased ratings. The movements from stage 1 to stage 2 have not had any material impact on expected credit losses.

 

Loan credit quality, before expected credit losses, allocated by stage

 

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total  Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Total 
AAA  37   -   -   37   546   -   -   546 
AA+ to A-  29,261   -   -   29,261   31,421   -   -   31,421 
BBB+ to BBB-  130,068   1,166   -   131,234   116,040   1,147   -   117,187 
BB+ to BB-  32,281   23,201   -   55,482   23,378   20,381   -   43,759 
B+ to B-  5,998   7,053   -   13,051   11,411   11,894   -   23,305 
CCC to D  463   917   1,482   2,862   4   180   1,316   1,500 
Total, before expected credit losses  198,108   32,337   1,482   231,927   182,800   33,602   1,316   217,718 

  

More information regarding SEK’s Credit Policy is found in note 26 and in the Risk and capital management section.

 

Note 10. Taxes

 

Skr mn 2020  2019  2018 
Income tax         
Adjustment previous year  -4   2   -1 
Current tax  -266   -570   -448 
Deferred tax  0   291   245 
Total income tax  -270   -277   -204 
Income tax related to other comprehensive income            
Tax on items to be reclassified to profit or loss            
Current tax  -   2   6 
Deferred tax  -   -   - 
Tax on items not to be reclassified to profit or loss            
Current tax  -1   -5   -82 
Deferred tax  -4   1   10 
Income tax related to other comprehensive income  -5   -2   -66 
Reconciliation of effective tax rate            
The Swedish corporate tax rate (percent)  21.4   21.4   22.0 
Profit before taxes  1,238   1,304   852 
National tax based on profit before taxes  -265   -279   -187 
Tax effects of:            
Non-taxable income  0   9   0 
Non-deductible expenses  -1   -16   -14 
Imputed interest on tax allocation reserve  -   -1   -2 
Tax effect of dissolution of untaxed reserves
due to changed tax rate
  -   8   - 
Other  -4   2   -1 
Total tax  -270   -277   -204 
Effective tax expense (percent)  21.8   21.2   24.0 

 

F-32

 

 

Deferred taxes

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Deferred tax assets concerning:      
Temporary differences, related
to -pensions
  15   16 
Other temporary differences  -   - 
Total deferred tax assets  15   16 
Deferred tax liabilities concerning:        
Untaxed reserves  -   - 
Total deferred tax liabilities  -   - 
Net deferred tax liabilities (-) /
tax assets (+)
  15   16 

 

 

No deductible loss carry forwards existed as of December 31, 2020, or December 31, 2019.

 

Change in deferred taxes

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Opening balance  16   -276 
Change through profit or loss  0   291 
Change in other comprehensive income  -1   1 
Closing balance  15   16 

  

In June 2018, the Swedish Parliament introduced, among other things, reduced corporate tax and general interest deduction restrictions. The new rules came into force on January 1, 2019. The corporate tax is reduced in two stages - first to 21.4 percent (from January 1, 2019) and later to 20.6 percent (from January 1, 2021). The change has not had any significant impact on SEK’s deferred taxes.

 

In the financial statements of the Consolidated Group, the untaxed reserves of the Group companies are allocated 78 percent to equity and 22 percent to deferred taxes included as deferred tax liabilities in the statement of financial position. Changes in the amounts reported as deferred taxes are included in taxes on net profit in the Statement of Comprehensive Income. The entire untaxed reserve was dissolved in 2019.

 

Note 11. Loans and liquidity investments

 

Skr mn Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019 
Loans:      
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  50,780   43,627 
Loans to credit institutions  31,315   27,010 
Loans to the public  171,562   163,848 
Less:        
Cash collateral under the security agreements for derivative contracts  -21,979   -16,891 
Total loans  231,678   217,594 
         
Liquidity investments:        
Cash and cash equivalents  3,362   1,362 
Cash collateral under the security agreements for derivative contracts1      - 
Treasuries/government bonds  22,266   8,344 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  33,551   53,906 
Total liquidity investments  59,179   63,612 
of which issued by public authorities  25,262   13,452 

  

Difference between book value amount and amount contractually required to be paid at maturity for interest-bearing securities not carried at fair value

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Sum of amounts exceeding nominal  148   350 
Sum of amounts falling below nominal  -10   -39 

  

Volume Development, Lending

 

     of which the CIRR-system 
Skr mn 2020  2019  2020  2019 
Offers of long-term loans accepted  125,470   74,515   18,350   15,500 
Undisbursed loans at year-end  57,213   52,150   51,463   47,868 
Loans outstanding at year-end1  231,678   217,594   69,163   76,120 

 

 

1 Including concessionary loans in the amount of Skr 382 million (year-end 2019: Skr 547 million).

 

 

F-33

 

 

Outstanding loans as per business area

 

     of which the CIRR-system 
Skr mn December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
Lending to Swedish exporters  120,050   96,429   -   - 
Lending to exporters’ customers  111,628   121,165   69,163   76,120 
Total lending1  231,678   217,594   69,163   76,120 

 

 

1 Including concessionary loans in the amount of Skr 382 million (year-end 2019: Skr 547 million).

  

Note 12. Classification of financial assets and liabilities

 

Financial assets by accounting category

 

  December 31, 2020 
  Financial assets at fair value
through profit or loss
     
Skr mn Mandatorily  Derivatives used
for hedge
accounting
  Amortized cost  Total 
Cash and cash equivalents  -   -   3,362   3,362 
Treasuries/government bonds  22,266   -   -   22,266 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  33,551   -   -   33,551 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  -   -   50,780   50,780 
Loans to credit institutions  -   -   31,315   31,315 
Loans to the public  -   -   171,562   171,562 
Derivatives  4,248   3,315   -   7,563 
Total financial assets  60,065   3,315   257,019   320,399 

 

 

  December 31, 2019 
  Financial assets at fair value
through profit or loss
       
Skr mn Mandatorily  Derivatives used
for hedge
accounting
  Amortized cost  Total 
Cash and cash equivalents  -   -   1,362   1,362 
Treasuries/government bonds  8,344   -   -   8,344 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  53,906   -   -   53,906 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  -   -   43,627   43,627 
Loans to credit institutions  -   -   27,010   27,010 
Loans to the public  -   -   163,848   163,848 
Derivatives  4,380   2,588   -   6,968 
Total financial assets  66,630   2,588   235,847   305,065 

 

F-34

 

 

Financial liabilities by accounting category

 

  December 31, 2020 
  Financial liabilities at fair value
through profit or loss
     
Skr mn Mandatorily  Designated
upon initial
recognition
(FVO)
  Derivatives
used for
hedge
accounting
  Amortized cost  Total 
Borrowing from credit institutions  -   -   -   3,486   3,486 
Borrowing from the public  -   -   -   10,000   10,000 
Debt securities issued  -   47,388   -   226,588   273,976 
Derivatives  24,921   -   474   -   25,395 
Total financial liabilities  24,921   47,388   474   240,074   312,857 

  

  December 31, 2019 
  Financial liabilities at fair value
through profit or loss
      
Skr mn Mandatorily  Designated
upon initial
recognition
(FVO)
  Derivatives
used for
hedge
accounting
  Amortized cost  Total 
Borrowing from credit institutions  -   -   -   3,678   3,678 
Borrowing from the public  -   -   -   -   - 
Debt securities issued  -   56,705   -   212,634   269,339 
Derivatives  16,954   -   3,102   -   20,056 
Total financial liabilities  16,954   56,705   3,102   216,312   293,073 

 

 

F-35

 

 

Note 13. Financial assets and liabilities at fair value

 

  December 31, 2020 
Skr mn Book value  Fair value  Surplus value (+)
/Deficit value (–)
 
Cash and cash equivalents  3,362   3,362   - 
Treasuries/governments bonds  22,266   22,266   - 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  33,551   33,551   - 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  50,780   52,091   1,311 
Loans to credit institutions  31,315   31,424   109 
Loans to the public  171,562   180,453   8,891 
Derivatives  7,563   7,563   - 
Total financial assets  320,399   330,710   10,311 
             
Borrowing from credit institutions  3,486   3,486   - 
Borrowing from the public  10,000   10,000   - 
Debt securities issued  273,976   274,552   576 
Derivatives  25,395   25,395   - 
Total financial liabilities  312,857   313,433   576 

  

  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Book value  Fair value  Surplus value (+)
/Deficit value (–)
 
Cash and cash equivalents  1,362   1,362   - 
Treasuries/governments bonds  8,344   8,344   - 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  53,906   53,906   - 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  43,627   45,054   1,427 
Loans to credit institutions  27,010   27,133   123 
Loans to the public  163,848   169,612   5,764 
Derivatives  6,968   6,968   - 
Total financial assets  305,065   312,379   7,314 
             
Borrowing from credit institutions  3,678   3,678   - 
Debt securities issued  269,339   271,549   2,210 
Derivatives  20,056   20,056   - 
Total financial liabilities  293,073   295,283   2,210 

  

The majority of financial liabilities and some of the financial assets in the Statement of Financial Position are accounted for at full fair value or at a value that represents fair value for the components hedged in a hedging relationship. Lending and borrowing not classified as hedge accounting or FVO are accounted for at amortized cost.

 

Determining fair value of financial instruments

 

The best evidence of fair value is quoted prices in an active market. The majority of SEK’s financial instruments are not publicly traded, and quoted market values are not readily available.

 

Fair value measurements are categorized using a fair value hierarchy. The financial instruments have been categorized under the three levels of the IFRS fair value hierarchy that reflects the significance of inputs. The categorization of these instruments is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.

 

F-36

 

 

SEK uses the following hierarchy for determining and disclosing the fair value of financial instruments based on valuation techniques:

 

Level 1: quoted (unadjusted) prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

Level 2: other techniques for which all inputs which have a significant effect on the recorded fair value are observable, either directly or indirectly; and

 

Level 3: techniques which use inputs which have a significant effect on the recorded fair value that are not based on observable market data.

 

For more information on determining the fair value of financial transactions, see note 1.

 

In the process of estimating or deriving fair values for items accounted for at amortized cost, certain assumptions have been made. In those cases where quoted market values for the relevant items are available, such market values have been used.

 

The tables below show the fair values of the items carried at amortized cost or fair value. They are distributed according to the fair value hierarchy.

 

Financial assets reported at amortized cost in fair value hierarchy

 

  December 31, 2020 
Loans and accounts receivable Fair value  Book value 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total  Total 
Cash and cash equivalents  3,362   -   -   3,362   3,362 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  306   51,785   -   52,091   50,780 
Loans to credit institutions  -   31,424   -   31,424   31,315 
Loans to the public  -   180,453   -   180,453   171,562 
Total financial assets in fair value hierarchy  3,668   263,662   -   267,330   257,019 

  

  December 31, 2019 
Loans and accounts receivable Fair value  Book value 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total  Total 
Cash and cash equivalents  1,362   -   -   1,362   1,362 
Loans in the form of interest-bearing securities  321   44,733   -   45,054   43,627 
Loans to credit institutions  -   27,133   -   27,133   27,010 
Loans to the public  -   169,584   -   169,584   163,848 
Total financial assets in fair value hierarchy  1,683   241,450   -   243,133   235,847 

  

Financial liabilities reported at amortized cost in fair value hierarchy

  December 31, 2020 
Other financial liabilities Fair value  Book value 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total  Total 
Borrowing from credit institutions  -   3,486   -   3,486   3,486 
Borrowing from the public  -   10,000   -   10,000   10,000 
Debt securities issued  -   227,164   -   227,164   226,588 
Total financial liabilities in fair value hierarchy  -   240,650   -   240,650   240,074 

 

F-37

 

 

  December 31, 2019 
Other financial liabilities Fair value  Book value 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total  Total 
Borrowing from credit institutions  -   3,669   -   3,669   3,678 
Borrowing from the public  -   -   -   -   - 
Debt securities issued  -   213,654   -   213,654   212,634 
Total financial liabilities in fair value hierarchy  -   217,323   -   217,323   216,312 

  

Financial assets reported at fair value in fair value hierarchy

  

December 31, 2020

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total 
Treasuries/governments bonds  14,169   8,097   -   22,266 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  19,413   14,138   -   33,551 
Derivatives  -   5,985   1,578   7,563 
Total financial assets in fair value hierarchy  33,582   28,220   1,578   63,380 

  

  

December 31, 2019

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total 
Treasuries/governments bonds  7,041   1,303   -   8,344 
Other interest-bearing securities except loans  27,409   26,497   -   53,906 
Derivatives  -   4,483   2,485   6,968 
Total financial assets in fair value hierarchy  34,450   32,283   2,485   69,218 

 

Financial liabilities reported at fair value in fair value hierarchy

  

December 31, 2020

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total 
Debt securities issued  -   6,190   41,198   47,388 
Derivatives  -   23,554   1,841   25,395 
Total financial liabilities in fair value hierarchy  -   29,744   43,039   72,783 

 

F-38

 

 

  

December 31, 2019

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

 
Skr mn Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Total 
Debt securities issued  -   12,953   43,752   56,705 
Derivatives  -   17,593   2,463   20,056 
Total financial liabilities in fair value hierarchy  -   30,546   46,215   76,761 

  

For the liquidity portfolio, the closing levels are the same as the opening levels (year-end 2019: transfer from level 2 to level 1 of Skr 21,461 million). Due to an increased element of subjective assessment of the input in the valuation, a transfer of Skr -10,649 million for debt securities issued was made from level 2 to level 3. A transfer from level 3 to level 2 of Skr 6,534 million for debt securities issued and a transfer. from level 3 to level 2 of net Skr -1,259 million for derivatives was made since these instruments are not significantly affected by nonobservable market data (year-end 2019: transfer from level 3 to level 2 of Skr 1,040 million for debt securities issued and transfer from level 3 to level 2 of net Skr -30 million for derivatives).

 

Financial assets and liabilities at fair value in Level 3

 

  December 31, 2020 
Skr mn Jan 1, 2020  Pur-chases  Settlements
& sales
  Transfers
to Level 3
  Transfers from
Level 3
  Gains (+)
and losses (–)
through
profit or
loss1
  Gains (+)
and losses (–)
through
other
comprehensive
income
  Cur. exchange-
rate effects
  Dec 31, 2020 
Debt securities issued  -43,752   -10,584   16,285   -10,649   6,534   -1,345   44   2,269   -41,198 
Derivatives, net  22   7   -400   -   -1,259   -1,597   -   2,964   -263 
Net assets and liabilities  -43,730   -10,577   15,885   -10,649   5,275   -2,942   44   5,233   -41,461 

 

F-39

 

 

Financial assets and liabilities at fair value in Level 3

  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Jan 1, 2019  Pur-chases  Settlements
& sales
  Transfers
to Level 3
  Transfers from
Level 3
  Gains (+)
and losses (–)
through
profit or
loss1
  Gains (+)
and losses (–)
through
other
comprehensive
income
  Cur. exchange-
rate effects
  Dec 31, 2019 
Debt securities issued  -47,898   -10,702   21,314   -   1,040   -3,408   -43   -4,055   -43,752 
Derivatives, net  -4,587   -5   -299   1   -31   3,181   -   1,762   22 
Net assets and liabilities  -52,485   -10,707   21,015   1   1,009   -227   -43   -2,293   -43,730 

 

 

1 Gains and losses through profit or loss, including the impact of exchange-rates, are reported as net interest income and net results of financial transactions. The unrealized fair value changes for assets and liabilities, including the impact of exchange rates, held as of December 31, 2020, amounted to a Skr 36 million gain (year-end 2019: Skr 69 million loss) and are reported as net results of financial transaction.

  

Uncertainty of valuation of Level 3-instruments

 

As the estimation of parameters included in the models used to calculate the market value of Level 3 instruments is associated with subjectivity and uncertainty, SEK has conducted an analysis of the difference in fair value of Level 3 instruments using other established parameter values. Option models and discounted cash flows are used to value the Level 3 instruments. For the Level 3 instruments that are significantly affected by different types of correlations, which are not based on observable market data, a revaluation has been made by shifting the correlations. The correlation is expressed as a value between 1 and –1, where 0 indicates no relationship, 1 indicates a maximum positive relationship and -1 indicates a maximum negative relationship. The maximum correlation in the range of unobservable inputs can thus be from 1 to –1. In the analysis, the correlations have been adjusted by +/– 0.12, which represents the level SEK uses within its prudent valuation framework.

 

For Level 3 instruments that are significantly affected by non-observable market data in the form of SEK’s own creditworthiness, a revaluation has been made by shifting the credit curve. The revaluation is made by shift in the credit spreads by +/- 10 basis points, which has been assessed as a reasonable change in SEK’s credit spread. The analysis shows the impact of the non-observable market data on the market value. In addition, the market value will be affected by observable market data. . The result of the analysis corresponds with SEK’s business model where issued securities are linked with a matched hedging derivative. The underlying market data is used to evaluate the issued security as well as to evaluate the fair value in the derivative. This means that a change in fair value of the issued security, excluding SEK’s own credit spread, is offset by an equally large change in fair value in the derivative.

 

Sensitivity analysis – level 3

 

Assets and liabilities December 31, 2020 
Skr mn Fair Value1  Unobservable
input
 Range of estimates
for unobservable
input2
 Valuation method Sensitivity
Max
  Sensitivity
Min
 
Equity  -144  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  -6   6 
Interest rate  4  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  0   0 
FX  9  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  -53   53 
Other  -132  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  0   0 
Sum derivatives, net  -263         -59   59 
Equity  -14,836  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  6   -6 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  8   -8 
Interest rate  -13,181  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  0   0 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  65   -65 
FX  -13,070  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  53   -53 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  63   -63 
Other  -111  Correlation 0.12-(0.12) Option Model  0   0 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  1   -1 
Sum debt securities issued  -41,198         196   -196 
Total effect on total comprehensive income3            137   -137 

  

F-40

 

 

Sensitivity analysis – level 3

 

Assets and liabilities December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Fair Value1  Unobservable
input
 Range of estimates
for unobservable
input2
 Valuation method Sensitivity
Max
  Sensitivity
Min
 
Equity  -345  Correlation 0.73-0.02 Option Model  1   -1 
Interest rate  1,249  Correlation 0.16-(0.08) Option Model  -64   63 
FX  -711  Correlation 0.80-0.10 Option Model  19   -16 
Other  -171  Correlation 0.53-(0.03) Option Model  0   0 
Sum derivatives, net  22         -44   46 
Equity  -524  Correlation 0.73-0.02 Option Model  -1   1 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  14   -14 
Interest rate  -43,083  Correlation 0.16-(0.08) Option Model  65   -64 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  70   -68 
FX  -39  Correlation 0.80-0.10 Option Model  -20   17 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  88   -87 
Other  -106  Correlation 0.53-(0.03) Option Model  0   0 
      Credit spreads 10BP - (10BP) Discounted cash flow  3   -3 
Sum debt securities issued  -43,752         219   -218 
Total effect on total comprehensive income3            175   -172 

 

 

1 As per June 30, 2020, SEK has improved its methods to categorize derivatives and issued debt securities.

2 The sensitivity analysis shows the effect that a shift in correlations or SEK’s own credit spread has on Level 3 instruments. The table presents maximum positive and negative change in fair value when correlations or SEK’s own credit spread is shifted by +/– 0.12 and +/- 10 basis points, respectively.

3 When determining the total maximum/minimum effect on total comprehensive income the most adverse/favorable shift is chosen, considering the net exposure arising from the issued securities and the derivatives, for each correlation. The resulting effect related to correlation sensitivity is Skr +/- 0 million. The impact from SEK’s own credit spread amounts to Skr 137 million (year-end 2019: Skr 174 million) under a maximum scenario and Skr -137 million (year-end 2019: Skr -173 million) under a minimum scenario.

  

F-41

 

 

Fair value related to credit risk 

 

  Fair value originating from credit risk
(- liabilities increase/ + liabilities
decrease)
  The period’s change in fair value
origination from credit risk
(+ income/ - loss)
 
Skr mn December 31,
2020
  December 31,
2019
  2020  2019 
CVA/DVA, net1  -17   -12   -5   17 
OCA2  -108   -126   18   24 

 

 

1 Credit value adjustment (CVA) and Debt value adjustment (DVA) reflects how the counterparties’ credit risk as well as SEK’s own credit rating affects the fair value of derivatives.

2 Own credit adjustment (OCA) reflects how the changes in SEK’s credit rating affects the fair value of financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit and loss.

 

Note 14. Derivatives and hedge accounting

 

Derivatives by categories

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Assets Fair
value
  Liabilities Fair
value
  Nominal
amounts
  Assets Fair
value
  Liabilities Fair
value
  Nominal
amounts
 
Interest rate-related contracts  3,846   11,774   323,664   3,998   12,367   304,242 
Currency-related contracts  3,249   11,236   153,838   2,734   6,933   182,668 
Equity-related contracts  457   620   15,598   236   584   16,387 
Contracts related to commodities, credit risk, etc.  11   1,765   7,513   -   172   1,997 
Total derivatives  7,563   25,395   500,613   6,968   20,056   505,294 

  

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 

of which derivatives used for economic -hedges, accounted for as held-for-trading under IFRS 9 Skr mn

 Assets Fair
value
  Liabilities Fair
value
  Nominal
amounts
  Assets Fair
value
  Liabilities Fair
value
  Nominal
amounts
 
Interest rate-related contracts  2,357   12,226   132,228   2,568   11,455   140,829 
Currency-related contracts  1,423   10,310   132,029   1,544   4,708   153,707 
Equity-related contracts  457   620   15,598   236   584   16,387 
Contracts related to commodities, credit risk, etc.  11   1,765   7,513   0   172   1,997 
Total derivatives  4,248   24,921   287,368   4,348   16,919   312,920 

  

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
of which derivatives in fair-value hedges
Skr mn
 Assets Fair
value
  Liabilities Fair
value
  Nominal
amounts
  Assets Fair
value
  Liabilities Fair
value
  Nominal
amounts
 
Interest rate-related contracts  1,489   -453   191,435   1,430   912   163,413 
Currency-related contracts  1,826   927   21,810   1,190   2,225   28,961 
Total derivatives  3,315   474   213,245   2,620   3,137   192,374 

 

 

1 The nominal amount of the instruments directly affected by the IBOR reform amounts to Skr 81,581 million (year-end 2019: Skr 87,915 million).

 

F-42

 

 

Maturity analysis of the nominal amounts1 of hedging instruments

  December 31, 2020 
Skr mn < 1 month  1 month
< 3 months
  3 months
< 1 year
  1 year
< 5 years
  > 5 years 
Interest rate-related contracts                    
Hedge of fixed rate assets  4   17   146   7,042   11,089 
Hedge of fixed rate liabilities  -   9,809   34,739   126,023   2,607 
Currency-related contracts                    
Hedge of fixed rate assets  41   61   427   3,240   633 
Hedge of fixed rate liabilities  -   425   1,920   11,066   4,491 

  

  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn < 1 month  1 month
< 3 months
  3 months
< 1 year
  1 year
< 5 years
  > 5 years 
Interest rate-related contracts                    
Hedge of fixed rate assets  116   225   2,254   4,960   9,296 
Hedge of fixed rate liabilities  -   -   38,724   103,823   3,776 
Currency-related contracts                    
Hedge of fixed rate assets  6   26   644   2,030   430 
Hedge of fixed rate liabilities  -   421   7,920   12,876   4,882 

 

 

1 Nominal amounts before off-set.

 

The carrying amount of hedged items in fair value hedge relationships, and the accumulated amount of fair value hedge adjustments included in these carrying amounts

 

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 

Assets

Skr mn

 Book value  Fair -value hedge
adjustments
  Book value  Fair -value hedge
adjustments
 
Loans in the form of interest- bearing securities  9,778   598   6,716   547 
Loans to credit institutions  969   4   332   5 
Loans to the public  13,032   1,044   14,353   930 
Total  23,779   1,646   21,401   1,482 

  

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 

Liabilities

Skr mn

 Book value  Fair -value hedge
adjustments
  Book value  Fair -value hedge
adjustments
 
Debt securities issued  195,460   5,454   174,477   4,102 
Total  195,460   5,454   174,477   4,102 

  

For disclosure on hedge ineffectiveness see Note 4 Net results of financial transactions.

 

Cash flow hedges reclassified to profit or loss during the year

 

Skr mn 2020  2019 
Interest income  -   8 
Interest expense  -   - 
Total1  -   8 

 

 

1 Relates to previously terminated cash flow hedges where comprehensive income is allocated over the previously hedged item’s remaining -maturity.

  

It is SEK’s risk management strategy and objective to identify its material foreign currency and interest rate exposures and to manage those exposures with appropriate derivative instruments or non-derivative alternatives. SEK has the intention to, as much as possible, achieve fair value hedge accounting for transactions entered into for economic hedging purposes.

 

SEK primarily sets interest rate terms based on the various needs and preferences of customers and counterparties. Consequently, assets and liabilities can to some extent have different fixed interest periods, which leads to interest rate risk. Using different derivatives, the original interest rate risk in assets and liabilities are normally transformed from fixed to floating interest terms in currencies with well-functioning markets. EUR, USD and Skr are preferably used. It is SEK’s objective to mitigate the risk of changes in fair value of the underlying hedged item due to changes in benchmark interest rates, i.e., to convert a fixed interest rate in a financial asset or liability into a floating rate. For that SEK uses interest rate swaps, or a proportion of interest rate swaps, swapping fixed to floating interest rates.

 

SEK’s granting of credits and a large portion of its borrowing can take place in the currency of the borrower’s and investor’s choice. It is therefore seldom that borrowing and lending are made in the same currency and therefore directly balance each other. Differences in exposures to individual currencies that exist between different transactions are fully matched with the aid of various derivatives, primarily currency swaps. It is SEK’s objective to mitigate the risk of changes in fair value due to changes in FX- and interest rates. For example, converting a fixed interest rate in a financial asset or liability into a variable rate financial asset or liability denominated in SEK’s functional currency Skr. For that, SEK uses cross currency interest rate swap or a proportion of these swaps, swapping fixed to floating interest rates in Skr.

 

F-43

 

 

 

Since the 2010s, there is an ongoing reform to replace or amend benchmark interest rates such as LIBOR and other interbank offered rates (“IBOR”). SEK’s exposure that is directly affected by the reference interest rate reform is primarily its lending contracts with floating interest rates, its lending and borrowing contracts at fixed interest rates that are hedged to floating interest rates as well as currency swaps to floating interest rates. The main floating interest rate exposures relate to USD LIBOR, STIBOR and EURIBOR. GBP LIBOR, CHF LIBOR and JPY LIBOR are not expected to be offered after 2021-12-31. For USD LIBOR, the most common maturities are expected to no longer be offered after 2023-06-30. For EURIBOR and STIBOR, no such end date has been communicated, but the general opinion is that these will continue to exist in the next few years.

 

SEK currently has financial contracts referencing USD LIBOR, EURIBOR and STIBOR which extend beyond June 2023. SEK has been working since 2018 to prepare the company for the reference interest rate reform. The work is conducted in project form and includes changes in systems, processes, agreements, pricing and risk models. SEK continues to monitor the development of new market standards and relevant interest groups to ensure an orderly transition to the new reference rates. In applying the amendments to IFRS 9, SEK has made the assumption in assessing the financial relationship between hedged items and hedging instruments that no fallback clauses will be triggered by the reference interest rate reform.

 

For more disclosures regarding SEK’s hedge accounting, see the section Risk and Capital Management, Consolidated Statement of Changes in Equity, note 1 Significant accounting policies, and note 4 Net results of financial transactions.

 

In accordance with SEK’s policies with regard to counterparty, interest rate, currency exchange-rate, and other exposures, SEK uses, and is a party to, different kinds of derivative instruments, mostly various interest rate-related and currency exchange-rate-related contracts. These contracts are carried at fair value in the statements of financial position on a contract-by-contract basis.

 

SEK uses derivatives to hedge risk exposure inherent in financial assets and liabilities. Derivatives are measured at fair value by using market quoted rates where available. If market quotes are not available, valuation models are used. SEK uses models to adjust the net exposure fair value for changes in counter-parties’ credit quality. The models used include both directly observable and non-observable market parameters.

 

The majority of SEK’s derivative contracts are what are known as OTC (over the counter) derivatives, i.e., derivative contracts that are not transacted on an exchange. SEK’s derivative transactions that are not transacted on an exchange are entered into under ISDA Master Netting Agreements. In general, under such agreements the amounts owed by each counterparty in respect of all transactions outstanding in the same currency under the agreement are aggregated into a single net amount payable by one party to the other. In certain circumstances, for example when a credit event such as a default occurs and all outstanding transactions under the agreement are terminated, the termination value is assessed and only a single net amount is due or payable in settlement of all transactions. SEK endeavors to only enter into derivatives transactions with counterparties in jurisdictions where such netting is enforceable when such events occur.

 

The above ISDA arrangements do not meet the criteria for offsetting in the Statement of Financial Position. This is because such agreements create a right of set-off of recognized amounts that is enforceable only following an event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of SEK or the counterparties. In addition, SEK and its counterparties do not intend to settle on a net basis or to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

 

The ISDA Master Netting Agreements are complemented by supplementary agreements providing for the collateralization of counterparty exposure. SEK receives and accepts collateral in the form of cash. Such collateral is subject to the standard industry terms of an ISDA Credit Support Annex (CSA).

 

The disclosures set out in the tables below include financial assets and financial liabilities that are subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement that cover similar financial instruments. SEK only enters into derivative transactions that are subject to enforceable master netting agreements or similar agreements. Derivative assets and derivative liabilities in relation to central clearing counterparties are offset in the Statement of Financial Position.

 

Financial assets subject to offsetting, enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements

 

  Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019 
Skr mn Derivatives  Derivatives 
Gross amounts of recognized financial assets  9,912   7,948 
Amounts offset in the Statement of Financial Position  -2,349   -980 
Net amounts of financial assets -presented in the Statement of -Financial Position  7,563   6,968 
Amounts subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or -similar agreement not offset in the Statement of Financial Position related to:        
Financial instruments  -2,354   -3,799 
Cash collateral received  -2,502   -2,352 
Net amount  2,707   817 

 

F-44

 

 

Financial liabilities subject to offsetting, enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements

 

  Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019 
Skr mn Derivatives  Derivatives 
Gross amounts of recognized financial liabilities  27,744   21,036 
Amounts offset in the Statement of Financial Position  -2,349   -980 
Net amounts of financial liabilities presented in the Statement of Financial Position  25,395   20,056 
Amounts subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or -similar agreement not offset in the Statement of Financial Position related to:        
Financial instruments  -2,354   -3,799 
Cash collateral paid  -20,172   -15,871 
Net amount  2,869   386 

 

Note 15. Shares

 

Since March 2018 SEKETT AB is a wholly owned, non-active, subsidiary to AB Svensk Exportkredit with a share capital of Skr 50 thousand.

 

Shares in subsidaries

 

  December 31, 2020  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Book value  Number of shares  Book value  Number of shares 
SEKETT AB (reg. no 559132-9668)  0   50   0   50 

 

Note 16. Other assets

 

Skr mn Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019 
Claim against the State for CIRR loans and concessionary loans  12,359   9,124 
Cash receivables, - funding operations  465   181 
Other  29   29 
Total  12,853   9,334 

 

Note 17. Prepaid expenses and accrued revenues

 

Skr mn Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019 
Interest income accrued  1,958   2,747 
Prepaid expenses and other accrued revenues  29   0 
Total  1,987   2,747 

 

Note 18. Debt

 

  December 31, 2020 
Skr mn Total debt excluding debt securities issued  Total debt --securities issued  Total 
Exchange-rate related contracts  -   19,207   19,207 
Interest rate related contracts  13,486   254,377   267,863 
Equity related contracts  -   281   281 
Contracts related to raw materials, credit risk etc  -   111   111 
Total debt outstanding  13,486   273,976   287,462 
             
of which denominated in:            
Skr  16,547         
USD  202,787         
JPY  27,812         
EUR  19,994         
Other currencies  20,322         
   287,462         

 

F-45

 

 

  December 31, 2019 
Skr mn Total debt excluding debt securities issued  Total debt --securities issued  Total 
Exchange-rate related contracts  -   28,215   28,215 
Interest rate related contracts  3,678   240,389   244,067 
Equity related contracts  -   629   629 
Contracts related to raw materials, credit risk etc  -   106   106 
Total debt outstanding  3,678   269,339   273,017 
             
of which denominated in:            
Skr  2,737         
USD  186,021         
JPY  32,509         
EUR  19,813         
Other currencies  31,937         
   273,017         

 

SEK’s Borrowing programs

 

  Value outstanding1 
Skr mn December 31,
2020
  December 31,
2019
 
Medium-term note program:        
Unlimited Euro Medium-Term Note Programme  96,724   96,930 
Unlimited SEC-registered U.S. Medium-Term Note Programme  160,945   151,750 
Unlimited Swedish Medium-Term Note Programme  438   424 
Unlimited MTN/STN AUD Debt Issuance Programme  4,544   4,598 
Commercial paper program:        
USD 3,000,000,000 U.S. Commercial Paper Programme  10,006   10,644 
USD 4,000,000,000 Euro-Commercial Paper Programme  -   - 

 

 

1 Amortized cost excluding fair value adjustments.

 

F-46

 

 

Liabilities in financing activities

 

        Non-cash items    
Skr mn January 1,
2020
  Cash Flow  Exchange--rate
difference
  Unrealized changes
in fair value
  Accrued
interest
  December 31,
2020
 
Senior debt  273,017   29,460   -17,004   1,989   -   287,462 
Lease liability  44   -27       21   -   19 
Derivatives - net  13,088   -8,651   11,819   1,576   -   17,832 
Total liabilities in financing activities  286,149   20,782   -5,185   3,567   -   305,313 

 

1 Refers to a changed estimate of the lease liability, see note 8.

 

        Non-cash items    
Skr mn January 1,
2019
  Cash Flow  Exchange--rate
difference
  Unrealized changes
in fair value
  Accrued
interest
  December 31,
2019
 
Senior debt  257,847   -4,420   10,580   9,010   -   273,017 
Lease liability  95 1  -39   -   -122   -   44 
Derivatives - net  15,405   4,049   -2,629   -3,737   -   13,088 
Total liabilities in financing activities  273,347   -410   7,951   5,261   -   286,149 

 

 

1 Refers to the opening balance of the lease liability, see note 1.

2 Refers to a changed estimate of the lease liability, see note 8.

 

Note 19. Other liabilities

 

Skr mn Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019 
Cash payables, debt -purchases  194   2,011 
Other  261   455 
Total  455   2,466 

 

Note 20. Accrued expenses and prepaid revenues

 

Skr mn Dec 31, 2020  Dec 31, 2019 
Interest expenses accrued  1,843   2,541 
Other accrued expenses and prepaid revenues  81   41 
Total  1,924   2,582 

 

F-47

 

 

Note 21. Provisions

 

  Consolidated Group 
Skr mn December 31,
2020
  December 31,
2019
 
Pension liabilities1  82   83 
Long term employee benefit  8   6 
Off balance, expected credit losses2  9   4 
Total  99   93 

 

 

1 See note 5.

2 Provisions for expected credit losses are on the off-balance-sheet, in accordance with IFRS 9. See note 9.

 

Note 22. Equity

 

  Consolidated Group 
Skr mn December 31,
2020
  December 31,
2019
 
Share capital  3,990   3,990 
Legal reserve  -   - 
Fund for internally developed software  -   - 
Reserves/Fair value reserve        
Own credit risk  -84   -98 
Defined benefit plans  -45   -45 
Retained earnings  16,203   15,235 
Total equity  20,064   19,082 

 

The total number of shares is 3,990,000 with a quota value of Skr 1,000.

 

Own credit risk consists of gains and losses that arise from changes in SEK´s own credit risk on liabilities designated at fair value. These are recognized in Other comprehensive income under the reserve for own credit risk and are not reclassified to profit or loss in the financial statements of the Group.

 

Defined benefit plans consists of gains and losses that arises from changes in the value of defined benefit plans. These are presented in other comprehensive income in the reserve for defined benefit plans in accordance with IAS 19. In the parent company, these benefit plans are not reported as defined benefit, se note 1 (q)

 

Fund for internally developed software represents expenses that are directly attributable to large investments in the development of IT systems.

 

The entire equity is attributable to the shareholder of the Parent Company.

 

  Consolidated Group  Parent Company 
Skr mn December 31,
2020
  December 31,
2019
  December 31,
2020
  December 31,
2019
 
Restricted equity  4,282   4,235   4,282   4,235 
Unrestricted equity  15,782   14,847   15,840   14,903 
Total equity  20,064   19,082   20,122   19,138 

 

For information on the objectives, policies and processes for managing capital, see the Risk and Capital Management section.

 

Proposal for the distribution of profits

 

The results of the Consolidated Group’s operations during the year and its financial position at December 31, 2020, can be seen in the Statement of Comprehensive Income, Statement of Financial Position and Statement of Cash Flows for the Consolidated Group. The Board has decided to propose to the Annual General Meeting the payment of a dividend of Skr 290 million (year-end 2019: -), in accordance with the company’s dividend policy. The following proposal regarding distribution of profits relates to the Parent Company.

 

At the disposal of the Annual General Meeting  15,840 
The Board of Directors proposes that the Annual General Meeting dispose of these funds as follows:    
- dividend to the shareholder of Skr 72.78 per share, amounting to  290 
- remaining disposable funds to be carried forward  15,550