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VLY Valley National Bancorp

Filed: 6 Aug 21, 12:50pm

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549

FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2021
OR
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission File Number 1-11277 
 Valley National Bancorp
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New Jersey22-2477875
(State or other jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
One Penn Plaza
New York,NY10119
(Address of principal executive office)(Zip code)
973-305-8800
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolsName of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par valueVLYThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A, no par valueVLYPPThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series B, no par valueVLYPOThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files.)    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (check one):
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Non-accelerated filerEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date. Common Stock (no par value), of which 406,608,663 shares were outstanding as of August 6, 2021.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

1



PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
VALLEY NATIONAL BANCORP
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
(in thousands, except for share data)
June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
Assets(Unaudited)
Cash and due from banks$329,006 $257,845 
Interest bearing deposits with banks1,515,757 1,071,360 
Investment securities:
Equity securities33,870 29,378 
Trading debt securities21,216 
Available for sale debt securities1,075,538 1,339,473 
Held to maturity debt securities (net of allowance for credit losses of $1,040 at June 30, 2021 and $1,428 at December 31, 2020)2,532,772 2,171,583 
Total investment securities3,663,396 3,540,434 
Loans held for sale, at fair value159,256 301,427 
Loans32,457,454 32,217,112 
Less: Allowance for loan losses(339,324)(340,243)
Net loans32,118,130 31,876,869 
Premises and equipment, net327,517 319,797 
Lease right of use assets235,165 252,053 
Bank owned life insurance535,283 535,209 
Accrued interest receivable99,068 106,230 
Goodwill1,382,442 1,382,442 
Other intangible assets, net65,523 70,449 
Other assets843,685 971,961 
Total Assets$41,274,228 $40,686,076 
Liabilities
Deposits:
Non-interest bearing$10,528,946 $9,205,266 
Interest bearing:
Savings, NOW and money market18,358,279 16,015,658 
Time4,307,549 6,714,678 
Total deposits33,194,774 31,935,602 
Short-term borrowings854,378 1,147,958 
Long-term borrowings1,885,690 2,295,665 
Junior subordinated debentures issued to capital trusts56,239 56,065 
Lease liabilities259,075 276,675 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities286,265 381,991 
Total Liabilities36,536,421 36,093,956 
Shareholders’ Equity
Preferred stock, 0 par value; 50,000,000 authorized shares:
Series A (4,600,000 shares issued at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020)111,590 111,590 
Series B (4,000,000 shares issued at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020)98,101 98,101 
Common stock (0 par value, authorized 650,000,000 shares; issued 406,090,983 shares at June 30, 2021 and 403,881,488 shares at December 31, 2020)142,550 141,746 
Surplus3,658,636 3,637,468 
Retained earnings744,768 611,158 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(17,735)(7,718)
Treasury stock, at cost (7,193 common shares at June 30, 2021 and 22,490 common shares at December 31, 2020)(103)(225)
Total Shareholders’ Equity4,737,807 4,592,120 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity$41,274,228 $40,686,076 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
2



VALLEY NATIONAL BANCORP
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (Unaudited)
(in thousands, except for share data)
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
Interest Income
Interest and fees on loans$315,314 $321,883 $628,495 $654,951 
Interest and dividends on investment securities:
Taxable12,716 19,447 25,882 41,380 
Tax-exempt3,216 3,692 6,572 7,618 
Dividends2,167 3,092 4,038 6,493 
Interest on federal funds sold and other short-term investments235 411 459 1,876 
Total interest income333,648 348,525 665,446 712,318 
Interest Expense
Interest on deposits:
Savings, NOW and money market11,166 16,627 22,291 51,140 
Time6,279 29,857 17,372 72,671 
Interest on short-term borrowings1,168 1,980 2,926 6,687 
Interest on long-term borrowings and junior subordinated debentures14,128 17,502 29,283 33,922 
Total interest expense32,741 65,966 71,872 164,420 
Net Interest Income300,907 282,559 593,574 547,898 
(Credit) provision for credit losses for held to maturity securities(30)41 (388)800 
Provision for credit losses for loans8,777 41,115 17,791 75,039 
Net Interest Income After Provision for Credit Losses292,160 241,403 576,171 472,059 
Non-Interest Income
Trust and investment services3,532 2,826 6,861 6,239 
Insurance commissions2,637 1,659 4,195 3,610 
Service charges on deposit accounts5,083 3,557 10,186 9,237 
Gains (losses) on securities transactions, net375 (41)476 (81)
Fees from loan servicing3,187 2,227 6,086 4,975 
Gains on sales of loans, net10,061 8,337 13,574 12,887 
Gains (losses) on sales of assets, net232 (299)36 (178)
Bank owned life insurance2,475 5,823 4,806 8,965 
Other15,544 20,741 28,139 40,573 
Total non-interest income43,126 44,830 74,359 86,227 
Non-Interest Expense
Salary and employee benefits expense91,095 78,532 179,198 164,260 
Net occupancy and equipment expense32,451 33,217 64,710 65,658 
FDIC insurance assessment3,374 6,135 6,650 10,011 
Amortization of other intangible assets5,449 6,681 11,455 12,151 
Professional and legal fees7,486 7,797 13,758 13,884 
Loss on extinguishment of debt8,406 8,406 
Amortization of tax credit investments2,972 3,416 5,716 6,644 
Telecommunication expense2,732 2,866 5,892 5,153 
Other17,928 18,522 36,321 35,061 
Total non-interest expense171,893 157,166 332,106 312,822 
Income Before Income Taxes163,393 129,067 318,424 245,464 
Income tax expense42,881 33,466 82,202 62,595 
Net Income120,512 95,601 236,222 182,869 
Dividends on preferred stock3,172 3,172 6,344 6,344 
Net Income Available to Common Shareholders$117,340 $92,429 $229,878 $176,525 
3




VALLEY NATIONAL BANCORP
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (Unaudited) (continued)
(in thousands, except for share data)
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
Earnings Per Common Share:
Basic$0.29 $0.23 $0.57 $0.44 
Diluted0.29 0.23 0.56 0.44 
Cash Dividends Declared per Common Share0.11 0.11 0.22 0.22 
Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding:
Basic405,963,209 403,790,242 405,560,146 403,654,665 
Diluted408,660,778 404,631,845 408,152,458 405,043,183 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
4



VALLEY NATIONAL BANCORP
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (Unaudited)
(in thousands)
 
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
Net income$120,512 $95,601 $236,222 $182,869 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax:
Unrealized gains and losses on available for sale securities
Net (losses) gains arising during the period(1,471)3,013 (11,907)29,081 
Less reclassification adjustment for net losses included in net income76 31 120 58 
Total(1,395)3,044 (11,787)29,139 
Unrealized gains and losses on derivatives (cash flow hedges)
Net (losses) gains on derivatives arising during the period(147)(1,280)27 (2,337)
Less reclassification adjustment for net losses (gains) included in net income534 (308)1,185 130 
Total387 (1,588)1,212 (2,207)
Defined benefit pension plan
Amortization of actuarial net loss278 172 558 344 
Total other comprehensive (loss) income(730)1,628 (10,017)27,276 
Total comprehensive income$119,782 $97,229 $226,205 $210,145 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

5



CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Unaudited)

For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
Common StockAccumulated
Preferred StockSharesAmountSurplusRetained
Earnings
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Treasury
Stock
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
 (in thousands)
Balance - December 31, 2020$209,691 403,859 $141,746 $3,637,468 $611,158 $(7,718)$(225)$4,592,120 
Net income— — — — 115,710 — — 115,710 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — (9,287)— (9,287)
Cash dividends declared:
Preferred stock, Series A, $0.39 per share— — — — (1,797)— — (1,797)
Preferred stock, Series B, $0.34 per share— — — — (1,375)— — (1,375)
Common stock, $0.11 per share— — — — (45,281)— — (45,281)
Effect of stock incentive plan, net— 1,939 689 14,480 (5,764)— 175 9,580 
Balance - March 31, 2021209,691 405,798 142,435 3,651,948 672,651 (17,005)(50)4,659,670 
Net income— — — — 120,512 — — 120,512 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — (730)— (730)
Cash dividends declared:
Preferred stock, Series A, $0.39 per share— — — — (1,797)— — (1,797)
Preferred stock, Series B, $0.34 per share— — — — (1,375)— — (1,375)
Common stock, $0.11 per share— — — — (45,093)— — (45,093)
Effect of stock incentive plan, net— 286 115 6,688 (130)— (53)6,620 
Balance - June 30, 2021$209,691 406,084 $142,550 $3,658,636 $744,768 $(17,735)$(103)$4,737,807 


6



CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Unaudited) (continued)

For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
Common StockAccumulated
Preferred StockSharesAmountSurplusRetained
Earnings
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Treasury
Stock
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
 (in thousands)
Balance - December 31, 2019$209,691 403,278 $141,423 $3,622,208 $443,559 $(32,214)$(479)$4,384,188 
Adjustment due to the adoption of ASU No. 2016-13— — — — (28,187)— — (28,187)
Balance - January 1, 2020209,691 403,278 141,423 3,622,208 415,372 (32,214)(479)4,356,001 
Net income— — — — 87,268 — — 87,268 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — — 25,648 — 25,648 
Cash dividends declared:
Preferred stock, Series A, $0.39 per share— — — — (1,797)— — (1,797)
Preferred stock, Series B, $0.34 per share— — — — (1,375)— — (1,375)
Common stock, $0.11 per share— — — — (44,979)— — (44,979)
Effect of stock incentive plan, net— 466 190 1,828 (2,065)— 279 232 
Balance - March 31, 2020209,691 403,744 141,613 3,624,036 452,424 (6,566)(200)4,420,998 
Net income— — — — 95,601 — — 95,601 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — — 1,628 — 1,628 
Cash dividends declared:
Preferred stock, Series A, $0.39 per share— — — — (1,797)— — (1,797)
Preferred stock, Series B, $0.34 per share— — — — (1,375)— — (1,375)
Common stock, $0.11 per share— — — — (44,750)— — (44,750)
Effect of stock incentive plan, net— 52 54 4,756 (592)— (35)4,183 
Balance - June 30, 2020$209,691 403,796 $141,667 $3,628,792 $499,511 $(4,938)$(235)$4,474,488 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
7



VALLEY NATIONAL BANCORP
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
(in thousands)

 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 20212020
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$236,222 $182,869 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization27,681 29,608 
Stock-based compensation10,690 8,199 
Provision for credit losses17,403 75,839 
Net amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts on securities and borrowings14,112 15,305 
Amortization of other intangible assets11,455 12,151 
(Gains) losses on securities transactions, net(476)81 
Proceeds from sales of loans held for sale690,844 408,785 
Gains on sales of loans, net(13,574)(12,887)
Originations of loans held for sale(541,627)(443,684)
(Gains) losses on sales of assets, net(36)178 
Loss on extinguishment of debt8,406 
Net change in:
Trading debt securities(21,216)
Cash surrender value of bank owned life insurance(4,806)(8,965)
Accrued interest receivable7,162 (17,170)
Other assets131,345 (426,776)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(119,331)166,490 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities454,254 (9,977)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Net loan originations and purchases(264,512)(2,568,893)
Equity securities:
Purchases(2,482)(5,365)
Sales649 
Held to maturity debt securities:
Purchases(744,868)(107,136)
Maturities, calls and principal repayments372,397 301,004 
Available for sale debt securities:
Purchases(87,366)(302,071)
Sales41,134 
Maturities, calls and principal repayments287,901 213,348 
Death benefit proceeds from bank owned life insurance3,850 13,751 
Proceeds from sales of real estate property and equipment2,747 8,202 
Proceeds from sales of loans held for investment4,498 30,020 
Purchases of real estate property and equipment(12,207)(14,469)
Net cash used in investing activities(398,259)(2,431,609)
8



VALLEY NATIONAL BANCORP
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited) (continued)
(in thousands)
 Six Months Ended
June 30,
 20212020
Cash flows from financing activities:
Net change in deposits$1,259,172 $2,151,400 
Net change in short-term borrowings(293,580)989,600 
Proceeds from issuance of long-term borrowings, net295,934 838,388 
Repayments of long-term borrowings(710,595)(53,418)
Cash dividends paid to preferred shareholders(6,344)(6,344)
Cash dividends paid to common shareholders(90,201)(89,122)
Purchase of common shares to treasury(684)(4,924)
Common stock issued, net6,194 1,140 
Other, net(333)(264)
Net cash provided by financing activities459,563 3,826,456 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents515,558 1,384,870 
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year1,329,205 434,687 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$1,844,763 $1,819,557 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash payments for:
Interest on deposits and borrowings$82,596 $178,337 
Federal and state income taxes117,562 14,731 
Supplemental schedule of non-cash investing activities:
Transfer of loans to other real estate owned$141 $2,750 
Transfer of loans to loans held for sale30,020 
Lease right of use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities1,993 6,407 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
9



VALLEY NATIONAL BANCORP
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Note 1. Basis of Presentation
The unaudited consolidated financial statements of Valley National Bancorp, a New Jersey corporation (Valley), include the accounts of its commercial bank subsidiary, Valley National Bank (the Bank), and all of Valley’s direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries. All inter-company transactions and balances have been eliminated. The accounting and reporting policies of Valley conform to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) and general practices within the financial services industry. In accordance with applicable accounting standards, Valley does not consolidate statutory trusts established for the sole purpose of issuing trust preferred securities and related trust common securities. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation.
In the opinion of management, all adjustments (which include only normal recurring adjustments) necessary to present fairly Valley’s financial position, results of operations, changes in shareholders' equity and cash flows at June 30, 2021 and for all periods presented have been made. The results of operations for the three and six months ended on June 30, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the entire fiscal year or any subsequent interim period.
Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and industry practice have been condensed or omitted pursuant to rules and regulations of the SEC. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Valley’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Correction of an Immaterial Error. Valley's previously reported consolidated statement of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2020 was revised to reflect an adjustment for an intercompany account that was not properly eliminated in consolidation. The adjustment resulted in a $90.8 million decrease in “Net change in deposits” line item to a net increase of $2.2 billion. The corresponding decrease in the “Net change in cash and cash equivalents” line item resulted in a change from a net increase of $1.5 billion to a net increase of $1.4 billion. The effect of these revisions was immaterial to the interim period.
Significant Estimates. In preparing the unaudited consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, management has made estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated statements of financial condition and results of operations for the periods indicated. Material estimates that require application of management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgment and are particularly susceptible to change include: the allowance for credit losses, the evaluation of goodwill and other intangible assets for impairment, and income taxes. Estimates and assumptions are reviewed periodically, and the effects of revisions are reflected in the consolidated financial statements in the period they are deemed necessary. While management uses its best judgment, actual amounts or results could differ significantly from those estimates. The current economic environment has increased the degree of uncertainty inherent in these material estimates. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Also, future amounts and values could differ materially from those estimates due to changes in values and circumstances after the balance sheet date.
The Westchester Bank Holding Corporation. On June 29, 2021, Valley announced that it will acquire The Westchester Bank Holding Corporation (“Westchester”) and its principal subsidiary, The Westchester Bank which is headquartered in White Plains, New York. Westchester has approximately $1.3 billion in assets, $908 million in loans, $1.1 billion in deposits, and maintains a seven branch network in Westchester County, New York. The common shareholders of Westchester will receive 229.645 shares of Valley common stock for each Westchester share they own. Based on Valley’s closing stock price on June 28, 2021, Westchester’s stockholders will receive approximately $210 million in Valley common stock. Existing Westchester options will be cashed out for approximately $10 million in cash.The acquisition is expected to close in the fourth quarter 2021, subject to standard regulatory approvals, approval of Westchester stockholders, as well as other customary conditions.
10



Note 2. Earnings Per Common Share
The following table shows the calculation of both basic and diluted earnings per common share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 (in thousands, except for share data)
Net income available to common shareholders$117,340 $92,429 $229,878 $176,525 
Basic weighted average number of common shares outstanding405,963,209 403,790,242 405,560,146 403,654,665 
Plus: Common stock equivalents2,697,569 841,603 2,592,312 1,388,518 
Diluted weighted average number of common shares outstanding408,660,778 404,631,845 408,152,458 405,043,183 
Earnings per common share:
Basic$0.29 $0.23 $0.57 $0.44 
Diluted0.29 0.23 0.56 0.44 

Common stock equivalents represent the dilutive effect of additional common shares issuable upon the assumed vesting or exercise, if applicable, of restricted stock units and common stock options to purchase Valley’s common shares. Common stock options with exercise prices that exceed the average market price per share of Valley’s common stock during the periods presented may have an anti-dilutive effect on the diluted earnings per common share calculation and therefore are excluded from the diluted earnings per share calculation along with restricted stock units. Potential anti-dilutive weighted common shares were immaterial for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, as compared to 2.7 million and 2.3 million shares for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively.
Note 3. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
The following table presents the after-tax changes in the balances of each component of accumulated other comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021: 

 Components of Accumulated Other Comprehensive LossTotal
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 Unrealized Gains
and Losses on
Available for Sale
(AFS) Securities
Unrealized Gains
and Losses on
Derivatives
Defined
Benefit
Pension Plan
 (in thousands)
Balance at March 31, 2021$22,898 $(3,081)$(36,822)$(17,005)
Other comprehensive loss before reclassification(1,471)(147)(1,618)
Amounts reclassified from other comprehensive income76 534 278 888 
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net(1,395)387 278 (730)
Balance at June 30, 2021$21,503 $(2,694)$(36,544)$(17,735)

11



 Components of Accumulated Other Comprehensive LossTotal
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 Unrealized Gains
and Losses on
Available for Sale
(AFS) Securities
Unrealized Gains
and Losses on
Derivatives
Defined
Benefit
Pension Plan
 (in thousands)
Balance at December 31, 2020$33,290 $(3,906)$(37,102)$(7,718)
Other comprehensive (loss) income before reclassification(11,907)27 (11,880)
Amounts reclassified from other comprehensive income120 1,185 558 1,863 
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net(11,787)1,212 558 (10,017)
Balance at June 30, 2021$21,503 $(2,694)$(36,544)$(17,735)

The following table presents amounts reclassified from each component of accumulated other comprehensive loss on a gross and net of tax basis for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Amounts Reclassified from
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended June 30,
Components of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss2021202020212020Income Statement Line Item
 (in thousands) 
Unrealized losses on AFS securities before tax$(103)$(41)$(162)$(81)Gains (losses) on securities transactions, net
Tax effect27 10 42 23 
Total net of tax(76)(31)(120)(58)
Unrealized (losses) gains on derivatives (cash flow hedges) before tax(749)438 (1,664)(177)Interest expense
Tax effect215 (130)479 47 
Total net of tax(534)308 (1,185)(130)
Defined benefit pension plan:
Amortization of actuarial net loss(387)(229)(775)(465)*
Tax effect109 57 217 121 
Total net of tax(278)(172)(558)(344)
Total reclassifications, net of tax$(888)$105 $(1,863)$(532)
*Amortization of actuarial net loss is included in the computation of net periodic pension cost recognized within other non-interest expense.
Note 4. New Authoritative Accounting Guidance

New Accounting Guidance Adopted in 2021
Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2020-08, "Codification Improvements to Subtopic 310-20, Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs" provides clarification and affects the guidance previously issued by ASU No. 2017-08 “Receivables -Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities.” ASU No. 2020-08 clarifies that an entity should reevaluate whether a debt security with multiple call dates is within the scope of paragraph 310-20-35-33. For each reporting period, to the extent that the amortized cost basis of an individual callable debt security exceeds the amount repayable by the issuer at the next call date, the premium should be amortized to the next call date, unless the guidance to consider estimated prepayments is applied. Valley adopted ASU No. 2020-08 on January 1, 2021 and the new guidance did not have a significant impact on Valley’s consolidated financial statements.



12



New Accounting Guidance issued in 2021

ASU No. 2021-01 "Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848)" extends some of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 848’s optional expedients to derivative contracts impacted by the discounting transition, including for derivatives that do not reference LIBOR or other reference rates that are expected to be discontinued. ASU No. 2021-01 is effective for all entities immediately upon issuance and may be elected retrospectively to eligible modifications as of any date from the beginning of the interim period that includes March 12, 2020, or prospectively to new modifications made on or after any date within the interim period including January 7, 2021 and it can be applied through December 31, 2022, similar to the other reference rate reform relief provided under Topic 848. The ASU No. 2021-01 is not expected to have a significant impact on Valley’s consolidated financial statements.

ASU No. 2021-05 "Lessors – Certain Leases with Variable Lease Payments". The ASU No. 2021-05 updates guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 842, Leases and requires a lessor to classify a lease with variable lease payments that do not depend on an index or rate as an operating lease at lease commencement if: (i) the lease would have been classified as a sales-type lease or direct financing lease under ASC 842 classification criteria; and (ii) the lessor would have recognized a selling loss at lease commencement. ASU No. 2021-05 is effective for Valley for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. The ASU No. 2021-05 is not expected to have a significant impact on Valley’s consolidated financial statements.
Note 5. Fair Value Measurement of Assets and Liabilities

ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements” establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:

Level 1    - Unadjusted exchange quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities, or identical liabilities traded as assets that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2 - Quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs that are observable either directly or indirectly (i.e., quoted prices on similar assets) for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 - Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity).


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Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring and Non-Recurring Basis

The following tables present the assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring and non-recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy as reported on the consolidated statements of financial condition at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020. The assets presented under “non-recurring fair value measurements” in the tables below are not measured at fair value on an ongoing basis but are subject to fair value adjustments under certain circumstances (e.g., when an impairment loss is recognized). 
 June 30,
2021
Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using:
 Quoted Prices
in Active Markets
for Identical
Assets (Level 1)
Significant
Other
Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
 (in thousands)
Recurring fair value measurements:
Assets
Investment securities:
Equity securities (1)
$30,357 $19,604 $$0��
Trading debt securities21,216 21,216 
Available for sale debt securities:
U.S. Treasury securities51,010 51,010 
U.S. government agency securities23,907 23,907 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions65,685 65,685 
Residential mortgage-backed securities846,316 846,316 
Corporate and other debt securities88,620 88,620 
Total available for sale debt securities1,075,538 51,010 1,024,528 
Loans held for sale (2)
159,256 159,256 
Other assets (3)
248,843 248,843 
Total assets$1,535,210 $70,614 $1,453,843 $
Liabilities
Other liabilities (3)
$81,676 $$81,676 $
Total liabilities$81,676 $$81,676 $
Non-recurring fair value measurements:
Collateral dependent loans$39,655 $$$39,655 
Loan servicing rights158 158 
Foreclosed assets2,202 2,202 
Total$42,015 $$$42,015 
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  Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using:
 December 31,
2020
Quoted Prices
in Active Markets
for Identical
Assets (Level 1)
Significant
Other
Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
 (in thousands)
Recurring fair value measurements:
Assets
Investment securities:
Equity securities (1)
$26,379 $18,600 $$
Available for sale debt securities:
U.S. Treasury securities51,393 51,393 
U.S. government agency securities26,157 26,157 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions79,950 79,135 815 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,090,022 1,090,022 
Corporate and other debt securities91,951 91,951 
Total available for sale1,339,473 51,393 1,287,265 815 
Loans held for sale (2)
301,427 301,427 
Other assets (3)
387,452 387,452 
Total assets$2,054,731 $69,993 $1,976,144 $815 
Liabilities
Other liabilities (3)
$156,281 $$156,281 $
Total liabilities$156,281 $$156,281 $
Non-recurring fair value measurements:
Collateral dependent impaired loans$35,228 $$$35,228 
Loan servicing rights15,603 15,603 
Foreclosed assets7,387 7,387 
Total$58,218 $$$58,218 
(1)Includes equity securities measured at net asset value (NAV) per share (or its equivalent) as a practical expedient totaling $10.8 million and $7.8 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. These securities have not been classified in the fair value hierarchy.
(2)Represents residential mortgage loans held for sale that are carried at fair value and had contractual unpaid principal balances totaling approximately $154.2 million and $286.4 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
(3)Derivative financial instruments are included in this category.

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

The following valuation techniques were used for financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis. All the valuation techniques described below apply to the unpaid principal balance, excluding any accrued interest or dividends at the measurement date. Interest income and expense are recorded within the consolidated statements of income depending on the nature of the instrument using the effective interest method based on acquired discount or premium.

Equity securities. The fair value of equity securities largely consists of a publicly traded mutual fund, a Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) investment fund that is carried at quoted prices in active markets and privately held CRA funds measured at NAV. 

Trading debt securities. The fair value of trading debt securities, consisting of municipal bonds, is reported at fair value utilizing Level 2 inputs. The prices for these investments are derived from market quotations and matrix pricing obtained through an independent pricing service.
15





Available for sale debt securities. U.S. Treasury securities are reported at fair value utilizing Level 1 inputs. The majority of other investment securities are reported at fair value utilizing Level 2 inputs. The prices for these instruments are obtained through an independent pricing service or dealer market participants with whom Valley has historically transacted both purchases and sales of investment securities. Prices obtained from these sources include prices derived from market quotations and matrix pricing. The fair value measurements consider observable data that may include dealer quotes, market spreads, cash flows, the U.S. Treasury yield curve, live trading levels, trade execution data, market consensus prepayment speeds, credit information and the bond’s terms and conditions, among other things. Management reviews the data and assumptions used in pricing the securities by its third-party provider to ensure the highest level of significant inputs are derived from market observable data. In addition, Valley reviews the volume and level of activity for all available for sale securities and attempts to identify transactions which may not be orderly or reflective of a significant level of activity and volume.

Loans held for sale. Residential mortgage loans originated for sale are reported at fair value using Level 2 inputs. The fair values were calculated utilizing quoted prices for similar assets in active markets. The market prices represent a delivery price, which reflects the underlying price each institution would pay Valley for an immediate sale of an aggregate pool of mortgages. Non-performance risk did not materially impact the fair value of mortgage loans held for sale at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 based on the short duration these assets were held, and the credit quality of these loans.

Derivatives. Derivatives are reported at fair value utilizing Level 2 inputs. The fair values of Valley’s derivatives are determined using third-party prices that are based on discounted cash flow analysis using observed market inputs, such as the LIBOR, Overnight Index Swap and Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) curves for all cleared derivatives. The fair value of mortgage banking derivatives, consisting of interest rate lock commitments to fund residential mortgage loans and forward commitments for the future delivery of such loans (including certain loans held for sale at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020), is determined based on the current market prices for similar instruments. The fair values of most of the derivatives incorporate credit valuation adjustments, which consider the impact of any credit enhancements to the contracts, to account for potential nonperformance risk of Valley and its counterparties. The credit valuation adjustments were not significant to the overall valuation of Valley’s derivatives at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Non-recurring Basis

The following valuation techniques were used for certain non-financial assets measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis, including collateral dependent loans reported at the fair value of the underlying collateral, loan servicing rights and foreclosed assets, which are reported at fair value upon initial recognition or subsequent impairment as described below.

Collateral Dependent Loans. Collateral dependent loans are loans when foreclosure of the collateral is probable, or where the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and substantially all of the repayment is expected from the collateral. Collateral dependent loans are reported at the fair value of the underlying collateral. Collateral values are estimated using Level 3 inputs, consisting of individual third-party appraisals that may be adjusted based on certain discounting criteria. Certain real estate appraisals may be discounted based on specific market data by location and property type. At June 30, 2021, collateral dependent loans were individually re-measured and reported at fair value through direct loan charge-offs to the allowance for loan losses based on the fair value of the underlying collateral. At June 30, 2021, collateral dependent loans, mostly consisting of taxi medallion loans, with a total amortized cost of $104.3 million were reduced by specific allowance for loan losses allocations totaling $64.6 million to a reported total net carrying amount of $39.7 million.

Loan servicing rights. Fair values for each risk-stratified group of loan servicing rights are calculated using a fair value model from a third-party vendor that requires inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (Level 3). The fair value model is based on various assumptions, including but not limited to,
16



prepayment speeds, internal rate of return (discount rate), servicing cost, ancillary income, float rate, tax rate, and inflation. The prepayment speed and the discount rate are considered two of the most significant inputs in the model. At June 30, 2021, the fair value model used a blended prepayment speed (stated as constant prepayment rates) of 15.4 percent and a discount rate of 9.1 percent for the valuation of the loan servicing rights. A significant degree of judgment is involved in valuing the loan servicing rights using Level 3 inputs. The use of different assumptions could have a significant positive or negative effect on the fair value estimate. Impairment charges are recognized on loan servicing rights when the amortized cost of a risk-stratified group of loan servicing rights exceeds the estimated fair value. At June 30, 2021, certain loan servicing rights were re-measured at fair value totaling $158 thousand. See Note 8 for additional information.

Foreclosed assets. Certain foreclosed assets (consisting of other real estate owned and other repossessed assets included in other assets), upon initial recognition and transfer from loans, are re-measured and reported at fair value using Level 3 inputs, consisting of a third-party appraisal less estimated cost to sell. When an asset is acquired, the excess of the loan balance over fair value, less estimated selling costs, is charged to the allowance for loan losses. If further declines in the estimated fair value of the asset occur, an asset is re-measured and reported at fair value through a write-down recorded in non-interest expense. The adjustments to the appraisals of foreclosed assets ranged from 1.3 percent to 7.1 percent at June 30, 2021.

Other Fair Value Disclosures

ASC Topic 825, “Financial Instruments,” requires disclosure of the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities, including those financial assets and financial liabilities that are not measured and reported at fair value on a recurring basis or non-recurring basis.

The fair value estimates presented in the following table were based on pertinent market data and relevant information on the financial instruments available as of the valuation date. These estimates do not reflect any premium or discount that could result from offering for sale at one time the entire portfolio of financial instruments. Because no market exists for a portion of the financial instruments, fair value estimates may be based on judgments regarding future expected loss experience, current economic conditions, risk characteristics of various financial instruments and other factors. These estimates are subjective in nature and involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. Changes in assumptions could significantly affect the estimates.

Fair value estimates are based on existing balance sheet financial instruments without attempting to estimate the value of anticipated future business and the value of assets and liabilities that are not considered financial instruments. For instance, Valley has certain fee-generating business lines (e.g., its mortgage servicing operation, trust and investment management departments) that were not considered in these estimates since these activities are not financial instruments. In addition, the tax implications related to the realization of the unrealized gains and losses can have a significant effect on fair value estimates and have not been considered in any of the estimates.

17



The carrying amounts and estimated fair values of financial instruments not measured and not reported at fair value on the consolidated statements of financial condition at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were as follows: 
 Fair Value
Hierarchy
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
 Carrying
Amount
Fair ValueCarrying
Amount
Fair Value
 (in thousands)
Financial assets
Cash and due from banksLevel 1$329,006 $329,006 $257,845 $257,845 
Interest bearing deposits with banksLevel 11,515,757 1,515,757 1,071,360 1,071,360 
Equity securities (1)
Level 33,513 3,513 2,999 2,999 
Held to maturity debt securities:
U.S. Treasury securitiesLevel 167,874 73,575 68,126 75,484 
U.S. government agency securitiesLevel 25,548 5,813 6,222 6,513 
Obligations of states and political subdivisionsLevel 2444,380 454,718 470,259 484,506 
Residential mortgage-backed securitiesLevel 21,926,900 1,938,608 1,550,306 1,589,655 
Trust preferred securitiesLevel 237,360 31,425 37,348 30,033 
Corporate and other debt securitiesLevel 251,750 52,380 40,750 41,421 
Total held to maturity debt securities (2)
2,533,812 2,556,519 2,173,011 2,227,612 
Net loansLevel 332,118,130 31,962,961 31,876,869 31,635,060 
Accrued interest receivableLevel 199,068 99,068 106,230 106,230 
Federal Reserve Bank and Federal Home Loan Bank stock (3)
Level 2212,122 212,122 250,116 250,116 
Financial liabilities
Deposits without stated maturitiesLevel 128,887,225 28,887,225 25,220,924 25,220,924 
Deposits with stated maturitiesLevel 24,307,549 4,256,745 6,714,678 6,639,022 
Short-term borrowingsLevel 1854,378 838,440 1,147,958 1,151,478 
Long-term borrowingsLevel 21,885,690 1,882,750 2,295,665 2,405,345 
Junior subordinated debentures issued to capital trustsLevel 256,239 45,802 56,065 57,779 
Accrued interest payable (4)
Level 18,115 8,115 18,839 18,839 
(1)Represents equity securities without a readily determinable fair value measured at cost less impairment, if any.
(2)The carrying amount is presented gross without the allowance for credit losses.
(3)Included in other assets.
(4)Included in accrued expenses and other liabilities.

Note 6. Investment Securities

Equity Securities

Equity securities carried at fair value totaled $33.9 million and $29.4 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. At June 30, 2021, Valley's equity securities consisted of one publicly traded money market mutual fund, CRA investments both publicly traded and privately held and, to a lesser extent, equity securities without readily determinable fair values.

Trading Debt Securities

The fair value of trading securities, consisting of municipal bonds, totaled $21.2 million at June 30, 2021. Net trading gains are included in net gains and losses on securities transactions within non-interest income. Net trading gains totaled $489 thousand and $707 thousand for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively.
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Available for Sale Debt Securities

The amortized cost, gross unrealized gains and losses and fair value of available for sale debt securities at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were as follows: 
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
U.S. Treasury securities$50,023 $987 $$51,010 
U.S. government agency securities22,695 1,218 (6)23,907 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies32,098 614 32,712 
Municipal bonds32,440 541 (8)32,973 
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions64,538 1,155 (8)65,685 
Residential mortgage-backed securities823,040 24,490 (1,214)846,316 
Corporate and other debt securities85,441 3,198 (19)88,620 
Total$1,045,737 $31,048 $(1,247)$1,075,538 
December 31, 2020
U.S. Treasury securities$50,031 $1,362 $$51,393 
U.S. government agency securities25,067 1,103 (13)26,157 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies40,861 970 (32)41,799 
Municipal bonds37,489 731 (69)38,151 
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions78,350 1,701 (101)79,950 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,050,369 40,426 (773)1,090,022 
Corporate and other debt securities89,689 2,294 (32)91,951 
Total$1,293,506 $46,886 $(919)$1,339,473 

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The age of unrealized losses and fair value of the related available for sale debt securities at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were as follows: 
 Less than
Twelve Months
More than
Twelve Months
Total
 Fair
Value
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Unrealized
Losses
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
U.S. government agency securities$$$1,396 $(6)$1,396 $(6)
Municipal bonds4,705 (8)4,705 (8)
Residential mortgage-backed securities116,758 (914)12,726 (300)129,484 (1,214)
Corporate and other debt securities1,981 (19)1,981 (19)
Total$123,444 $(941)$14,122 $(306)$137,566 $(1,247)
December 31, 2020
U.S. government agency securities$$$1,479 $(13)$1,479 $(13)
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies1,010 (32)1,010 (32)
Municipal bonds6,777 (69)6,777 (69)
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions6,777 (69)1,010 (32)7,787 (101)
Residential mortgage-backed securities41,418 (500)27,911 (273)69,329 (773)
Corporate and other debt securities12,517 (32)12,517 (32)
Total$60,712 $(601)$30,400 $(318)$91,112 $(919)
Within the available for sale debt securities portfolio, the total number of security positions in an unrealized loss position was 67 and 58 at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
As of June 30, 2021, the fair value of available for sale debt securities that were pledged to secure public deposits, repurchase agreements, lines of credit, and for other purposes required by law, was $736.2 million.
The contractual maturities of available for sale debt securities at June 30, 2021 are set forth in the following table. Maturities may differ from contractual maturities in residential mortgage-backed securities because the mortgages underlying the securities may be prepaid without any penalties. Therefore, residential mortgage-backed securities are not included in the maturity categories in the following summary.
 June 30, 2021
 Amortized
Cost
Fair
Value
 (in thousands)
Due in one year$6,769 $6,824 
Due after one year through five years84,534 86,491 
Due after five years through ten years79,866 82,581 
Due after ten years51,528 53,326 
Residential mortgage-backed securities823,040 846,316 
Total$1,045,737 $1,075,538 
Actual maturities of available for sale debt securities may differ from those presented above since certain obligations provide the issuer the right to call or prepay the obligation prior to scheduled maturity without penalty.
The weighted average remaining expected life for residential mortgage-backed securities available for sale was 4.4 years at June 30, 2021.
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Impairment Analysis of Available For Sale Debt Securities

Valley's available for sale debt securities portfolio includes corporate bonds and revenue bonds, among other securities. These types of securities may pose a higher risk of future impairment charges by Valley as a result of the unpredictable nature of the U.S. economy and its potential negative effect on the future performance of the security issuers, including due to the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Available for sale debt securities in unrealized loss positions are evaluated for impairment related to credit losses on a quarterly basis. Valley has evaluated available for sale debt securities that are in an unrealized loss position as of June 30, 2021 included in the table above and has determined that the declines in fair value are mainly attributable to market volatility, not credit quality or other factors. Based on a comparison of the present value of expected cash flows to the amortized cost, management recognized no impairment during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. There was no allowance for credit losses for available for sale debt securities at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.

Held to Maturity Debt Securities

The amortized cost, gross unrealized gains and losses and fair value of debt securities held to maturity at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were as follows: 
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
U.S. Treasury securities$67,874 $5,701 $$73,575 
U.S. government agency securities5,548 265 5,813 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies243,374 5,505 (43)248,836 
Municipal bonds201,006 4,894 (18)205,882 
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions444,380 10,399 (61)454,718 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,926,900 23,376 (11,668)1,938,608 
Trust preferred securities37,360 51 (5,986)31,425 
Corporate and other debt securities51,750 640 (10)52,380 
Total$2,533,812 $40,432 $(17,725)$2,556,519 
December 31, 2020
U.S. Treasury securities$68,126 $7,358 $$75,484 
U.S. government agency securities6,222 291 6,513 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies262,762 8,060 (105)270,717 
Municipal bonds207,497 6,292 213,789 
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions470,259 14,352 (105)484,506 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,550,306 39,603 (254)1,589,655 
Trust preferred securities37,348 50 (7,365)30,033 
Corporate and other debt securities40,750 672 (1)41,421 
Total$2,173,011 $62,326 $(7,725)$2,227,612 
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The age of unrealized losses and fair value of related debt securities held to maturity at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were as follows: 
 Less than
Twelve Months
More than
Twelve Months
Total
 Fair ValueUnrealized
Losses
Fair ValueUnrealized
Losses
Fair ValueUnrealized
Losses
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies$$$5,570 $(43)$5,570 $(43)
Municipal bonds1,328 (18)1,328 (18)
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions1,328 (18)5,570 (43)6,898 (61)
Residential mortgage-backed securities983,406 (11,606)4,608 (62)988,014 (11,668)
Trust preferred securities30,021 (5,986)30,021 (5,986)
Corporate and other debt securities7,990 (10)7,990 (10)
Total$992,724 $(11,634)$40,199 $(6,091)$1,032,923 $(17,725)
December 31, 2020
Obligations of states and state agencies$5,546 $(105)$$$5,546 $(105)
Residential mortgage-backed securities21,599 (245)2,470 (9)24,069 (254)
Trust preferred securities28,630 (7,365)28,630 (7,365)
Corporate and other debt securities10,749 (1)10,749 (1)
Total$37,894 $(351)$31,100 $(7,374)$68,994 $(7,725)

Within the held to maturity portfolio, the total number of security positions in an unrealized loss position was 44 and 13 at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
As of June 30, 2021, the fair value of debt securities held to maturity that were pledged to secure public deposits, repurchase agreements, lines of credit, and for other purposes required by law, was $1.6 billion.
The contractual maturities of investments in debt securities held to maturity at June 30, 2021 are set forth in the table below. Maturities may differ from contractual maturities in residential mortgage-backed securities because the mortgages underlying the securities may be prepaid without any penalties. Therefore, residential mortgage-backed securities are not included in the maturity categories in the following summary.  
 June 30, 2021
 Amortized
Cost
Fair
Value
 (in thousands)
Due in one year$27,218 $27,365 
Due after one year through five years247,844 257,620 
Due after five years through ten years129,112 130,979 
Due after ten years202,738 201,947 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,926,900 1,938,608 
Total$2,533,812 $2,556,519 
Actual maturities of held to maturity debt securities may differ from those presented above since certain obligations provide the issuer the right to call or prepay the obligation prior to scheduled maturity without penalty.
The weighted-average remaining expected life for residential mortgage-backed securities held to maturity was 6.0 years at June 30, 2021.
22




Credit Quality Indicators
Valley monitors the credit quality of the held to maturity debt securities through the use of the most current credit ratings from external rating agencies. The following table summarizes the amortized cost of held to maturity debt securities by external credit rating at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
AAA/AA/A RatedBBB ratedNon-investment grade ratedNon-ratedTotal
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
U.S. Treasury securities$67,874 $$$$67,874 
U.S. government agency securities5,548 0��5,548 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies210,548 5,613 27,213 243,374 
Municipal bonds158,111 42,895 201,006 
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions368,659 5,613 70,108 444,380 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,926,900 1,926,900 
Trust preferred securities37,360 37,360 
Corporate and other debt securities8,000 43,750 51,750 
Total$2,368,981 $8,000 $5,613 $151,218 $2,533,812 
December 31, 2020
U.S. Treasury securities$68,126 $$$$68,126 
U.S. government agency securities6,222 6,222 
Obligations of states and political subdivisions:
Obligations of states and state agencies228,286 5,650 28,826 262,762 
Municipal bonds166,408 41,089 207,497 
Total obligations of states and political subdivisions394,694 5,650 69,915 470,259 
Residential mortgage-backed securities1,550,306 1,550,306 
Trust preferred securities37,348 37,348 
Corporate and other debt securities5,000 35,750 40,750 
Total investment securities held to maturity$2,019,348 $5,000 $5,650 $143,013 $2,173,011 

Obligations of states and political subdivisions include municipal bonds and revenue bonds issued by various municipal corporations. At June 30, 2021, most of the obligations of states and political subdivisions were rated investment grade and a large portion of the "non-rated" category included TEMS securities secured by Ginnie Mae securities. Trust preferred securities consist of non-rated single-issuer securities, issued by bank holding companies. Corporate bonds consist of debt primarily issued by banks.

Allowance for Credit Losses for Held to Maturity Debt Securities

Valley has a zero loss expectation for certain securities within the held to maturity portfolio, and therefore it is not required to estimate an allowance for credit losses related to these securities under the CECL standard. After an evaluation of qualitative factors, Valley identified the following securities types which it believes qualify for this exclusion: U.S. Treasury securities, U.S. government agency securities, residential mortgage-backed securities issued by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and collateralized municipal bonds called TEMS.

23



At June 30, 2021, held to maturity debt securities were carried net of allowance for credit losses totaling $1.0 million and $1.4 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. There were 0 net charge-offs of held to maturity debt securities for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
Note 7. Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses for Loans

The detail of the loan portfolio as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 was as follows: 
 June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
 (in thousands)
Loans:
Commercial and industrial:
Commercial and industrial$4,733,771 $4,709,569 
Commercial and industrial PPP loans *1,350,684 2,152,139 
Total commercial and industrial loans6,084,455 6,861,708 
Commercial real estate:
Commercial real estate17,512,142 16,724,998 
Construction1,752,838 1,745,825 
Total commercial real estate loans19,264,980 18,470,823 
Residential mortgage4,226,975 4,183,743 
Consumer:
Home equity410,856 431,553 
Automobile1,531,262 1,355,955 
Other consumer938,926 913,330 
Total consumer loans2,881,044 2,700,838 
Total loans$32,457,454 $32,217,112 
*Represents SBA Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans, net of unearned fees totaling $40.9 million and $43.2 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

Total loans includes net unearned discounts and deferred loan fees of $86.1 million and $95.8 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Net unearned discounts and deferred loan fees include the non-credit discount on purchased credit deterioration (PCD) loans and net unearned fees related to PPP loans at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.

Accrued interest on loans, which is excluded from the amortized cost of loans held for investment, totaled $84.1 million and $90.2 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, and is presented separately in the consolidated statements of financial condition.

Valley transferred and sold approximately $30.0 million of residential mortgage loans from the loan portfolio to loans held for sale during the six months ended June 30, 2020. Excluding the loan transfers, there were 0 other material sales of loans from the held for investment portfolio during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.

Credit Risk Management

For all of its loan types, Valley adheres to a credit policy designed to minimize credit risk while generating the maximum income given the level of risk appetite. Management reviews and approves these policies and procedures on a regular basis with subsequent approval by the Board of Directors annually. Credit authority relating to a significant dollar percentage of the overall portfolio is centralized and controlled by the Credit Risk Management Division and by the Credit Committee. A reporting system supplements the management review process by providing management with frequent reports concerning loan production, loan quality, internal loan classification,
24



concentrations of credit, loan delinquencies, non-performing, and potential problem loans. Loan portfolio diversification is an important factor utilized by Valley to manage its risk across business sectors and through cyclical economic circumstances. See Valley’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 for further details.

Credit Quality

The following table presents past due, current and non-accrual loans without an allowance for credit losses by loan portfolio class at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
Past Due and Non-Accrual Loans
 30-59  Days 
Past Due Loans
60-89  Days 
Past Due Loans
90 Days or More
Past Due Loans
Non-Accrual Loans
Total Past Due Loans

Current Loans

Total Loans
Non-Accrual Loans Without Allowance for Credit Losses
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
Commercial and industrial$3,867 $1,361 $2,351 $102,594 $110,173 $5,974,282 $6,084,455 $9,550 
Commercial real estate:
Commercial real estate40,524 11,451 1,948 58,893 112,816 17,399,326 17,512,142 37,116 
Construction17,660 17,660 1,735,178 1,752,838 
Total commercial real estate loans40,524 11,451 1,948 76,553 130,476 19,134,504 19,264,980 37,116 
Residential mortgage8,479 1,608 956 35,941 46,984 4,179,991 4,226,975 16,807 
Consumer loans:
Home equity592 325 4,431 5,348 405,508 410,856 48 
Automobile5,521 636 441 389 6,987 1,524,275 1,531,262 
Other consumer129 24 22 104 279 938,647 938,926 
Total consumer loans6,242 985 463 4,924 12,614 2,868,430 2,881,044 48 
Total$59,112 $15,405 $5,718 $220,012 $300,247 $32,157,207 $32,457,454 $63,521 

25



 Past Due and Non-Accrual Loans  
 
30-59
Days
Past Due Loans
60-89 
Days
Past Due Loans
90 Days or More
Past Due Loans
Non-Accrual Loans
Total Past Due Loans

Current Loans
Total LoansNon-Accrual Loans Without Allowance for Credit Losses
(in thousands)
December 31, 2020
Commercial and industrial$6,393 $2,252 $9,107 $106,693 $124,445 $6,737,263 $6,861,708 $4,075 
Commercial real estate:
Commercial real estate35,030 1,326 993 46,879 84,228 16,640,770 16,724,998 32,416 
Construction315 84 399 1,745,426 1,745,825 
Total commercial real estate loans35,345 1,326 993 46,963 84,627 18,386,196 18,470,823 32,416 
Residential mortgage17,717 10,351 3,170 25,817 57,055 4,126,688 4,183,743 11,610 
Consumer loans:
Home equity953 492 4,936 6,381 425,172 431,553 50 
Automobile8,056 1,107 245 338 9,746 1,346,209 1,355,955 
Other consumer1,248 224 26 535 2,033 911,297 913,330 
Total consumer loans10,257 1,823 271 5,809 18,160 2,682,678 2,700,838 50 
Total$69,712 $15,752 $13,541 $185,282 $284,287 $31,932,825 $32,217,112 $48,151 

Credit quality indicators. Valley utilizes an internal loan classification system as a means of reporting problem loans within commercial and industrial, commercial real estate, and construction loan portfolio classes. Under Valley’s internal risk rating system, loan relationships could be classified as "Pass," "Special Mention," "Substandard," "Doubtful," and "Loss." Substandard loans include loans that exhibit well-defined weakness and are characterized by the distinct possibility that Valley will sustain some loss if the deficiencies are not corrected. Loans classified as Doubtful have all the weaknesses inherent in those classified as Substandard with the added characteristic that the weaknesses present make collection or liquidation in full, based on currently existing facts, conditions and values, highly questionable and improbable. Loans classified as Loss are those considered uncollectible with insignificant value and are charged-off immediately to the allowance for loan losses, and, therefore, not presented in the table below. Loans that do not currently pose a sufficient risk to warrant classification in one of the aforementioned categories but pose weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention are deemed Special Mention. Loans rated as Pass do not currently pose any identified risk and can range from the highest to average quality, depending on the degree of potential risk. Risk ratings are updated any time the situation warrants.
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The following table presents the internal loan classification risk by loan portfolio class by origination year based on the most recent analysis performed at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
 Term Loans  
Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
June 30, 202120212020201920182017Prior to 2017Revolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisRevolving Loans Converted to Term LoansTotal
 (in thousands)
Commercial and industrial
Risk Rating:
Pass$1,539,921 $1,227,478 $508,228 $438,246 $162,119 $409,413 $1,571,927 $225 $5,857,557 
Special Mention1,282 1,550 1,476 11,182 2,159 17,041 59,376 64 94,130 
Substandard3,325 8,658 4,366 8,803 859 1,374 17,141 321 44,847 
Doubtful129 2,739 16,370 68,683 87,921 
Total commercial and industrial$1,544,657 $1,237,686 $516,809 $458,231 $181,507 $496,511 $1,648,444 $610 $6,084,455 
Commercial real estate
Risk Rating:
Pass$2,100,741 $3,055,880 $2,875,727 $2,005,122 $1,552,673 $4,978,293 $174,277 $12,849 $16,755,562 
Special Mention2,000 51,271 58,418 44,118 43,019 184,694 38,615 422,135 
Substandard849 22,209 32,935 39,756 73,103 162,866 2,531 334,249 
Doubtful196 196 
Total commercial real estate$2,103,590 $3,129,360 $2,967,080 $2,088,996 $1,668,795 $5,326,049 $215,423 $12,849 $17,512,142 
Construction
Risk Rating:
Pass$112,491 $147,431 $87,130 $78,332 $6,656 $29,216 $1,251,972 $$1,713,228 
Special Mention1,026 1,714 8,871 11,611 
Substandard28 16 331 17,842 9,782 27,999 
Total construction$112,491 $147,459 $88,172 $78,663 $6,656 $48,772 $1,270,625 $$1,752,838 

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 Term Loans  
Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
December 31, 202020202019201820172016Prior to 2016Revolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisRevolving Loans Converted to Term LoansTotal
 (in thousands)
Commercial and industrial
Risk Rating:
Pass$3,058,596 $605,112 $556,284 $212,215 $162,483 $337,484 $1,677,559 $350 $6,610,083 
Special Mention819 10,236 2,135 9,502 10,228 14,165 49,883 51 97,019 
Substandard5,215 3,876 12,481 1,798 4,215 12,965 18,913 462 59,925 
Doubtful5,203 17,010 2,596 69,871 94,681 
Total commercial and industrial$3,064,630 $624,427 $570,901 $240,525 $179,522 $434,485 $1,746,355 $863 $6,861,708 
Commercial real estate
Risk Rating:
Pass$3,096,549 $3,052,076 $2,230,047 $1,767,528 $1,798,137 $3,916,990 $199,145 $15,532 $16,076,004 
Special Mention50,193 68,203 44,336 48,813 66,845 109,295 1,705 389,390 
Substandard18,936 17,049 30,997 59,618 11,541 118,725 2,531 259,397 
Doubtful207 207 
Total commercial real estate$3,165,678 $3,137,328 $2,305,380 $1,875,959 $1,876,523 $4,145,217 $203,381 $15,532 $16,724,998 
Construction
Risk Rating:
Pass$145,246 $120,800 $111,174 $15,497 $47,971 $20,029 $1,199,034 $$1,659,751 
Special Mention1,043 9,996 17,414 47,311 75,764 
Substandard26 246 2,628 17 380 7,013 10,310 
Total construction$145,246 $121,869 $111,420 $18,125 $57,984 $37,823 $1,253,358 $$1,745,825 
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For residential mortgages, automobile, home equity and other consumer loan portfolio classes, Valley also evaluates credit quality based on the aging status of the loan, which was previously presented, and by payment activity. The following table presents the amortized cost in those loan classes based on payment activity by origination year as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
 Term Loans  
Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
June 30, 202120212020201920182017Prior to 2017Revolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisRevolving Loans Converted to Term LoansTotal
 (in thousands)
Residential mortgage
Performing$687,724 $701,963 $671,803 $519,568 $446,367 $1,108,317 $68,012 $$4,203,754 
90 days or more past due1,719 1,852 2,021 3,907 13,722 23,221 
Total residential mortgage$687,724 $703,682 $673,655 $521,589 $450,274 $1,122,039 $68,012 $$4,226,975 
Consumer loans
Home equity
Performing$7,120 $7,314 $8,925 $9,332 $6,946 $15,485 $307,985 $46,238 $409,345 
90 days or more past due81 876 554 1,511 
Total home equity7,120 7,314 8,925 9,332 6,946 15,566 308,861 46,792 410,856 
Automobile
Performing447,260 376,473 354,978 210,941 108,085 32,683 1,530,420 
90 days or more past due25 89 175 230 198 125 842 
Total automobile447,285 376,562 355,153 211,171 108,283 32,808 1,531,262 
Other Consumer
Performing5,953 7,101 6,626 6,850 1,037 7,905 903,454 938,926 
90 days or more past due
Total other consumer5,953 7,101 6,626 6,850 1,037 7,905 903,454 938,926 
Total consumer$460,358 $390,977 $370,704 $227,353 $116,266 $56,279 $1,212,315 $46,792 $2,881,044 

29



 Term Loans  
Amortized Cost Basis by Origination Year
December 31, 202020202019201820172016Prior to 2016Revolving Loans Amortized Cost BasisRevolving Loans Converted to Term LoansTotal
 (in thousands)
Residential mortgage
Performing$730,764 $778,161 $684,761 $582,650 $380,723 $943,616 $64,798 $$4,165,473 
90 days or more past due3,085 4,212 3,464 4,144 3,365 18,270 
Total residential mortgage$730,764 $781,246 $688,973 $586,114 $384,867 $946,981 $64,798 $$4,183,743 
Consumer loans
Home equity
Performing$8,580 $10,634 $11,756 $8,886 $5,340 $15,393 $318,869 $50,879 $430,337 
90 days or more past due25 83 378 730 1,216 
Total home equity8,580 10,634 11,756 8,886 5,365 15,476 319,247 51,609 431,553 
Automobile
Performing426,121 438,181 272,075 151,523 50,853 16,550 1,355,303 
90 days or more past due19 108 173 223 35 94 652 
Total automobile426,140 438,289 272,248 151,746 50,888 16,644 1,355,955 
Other Consumer
Performing12,271 5,558 6,815 1,112 1,077 5,314 880,748 912,895 
90 days or more past due22 408 435 
Total other consumer12,271 5,558 6,815 1,112 1,077 5,336 880,753 408 913,330 
Total consumer$446,991 $454,481 $290,819 $161,744 $57,330 $37,456 $1,200,000 $52,017 $2,700,838 
Troubled debt restructured loans. From time to time, Valley may extend, restructure, or otherwise modify the terms of existing loans, on a case-by-case basis, to remain competitive and retain certain customers, as well as assist other customers who may be experiencing financial difficulties. If the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties and a concession has been made at the time of such modification, the loan is classified as a troubled debt restructured loan (TDR).
Generally the concessions made for TDRs involve lowering the monthly payments on loans through either a reduction in interest rate below a market rate, an extension of the term of the loan without a corresponding adjustment to the risk premium reflected in the interest rate, or a combination of these two methods. The concessions may also involve payment deferrals but rarely result in the forgiveness of principal or accrued interest. In addition, Valley frequently obtains additional collateral or guarantor support when modifying such loans. If the borrower has demonstrated performance under the previous terms of the loan and Valley’s underwriting process shows the borrower has the capacity to continue to perform under the restructured terms, the loan will continue to accrue interest. Non-accruing restructured loans may be returned to accrual status when there has been a sustained period of repayment performance (generally six consecutive months of payments) and both principal and interest are deemed collectible.
Performing TDRs (not reported as non-accrual loans) totaled $64.1 million and $57.4 million as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Non-performing TDRs totaled $89.8 million and $92.8 million as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

30



The following table presents the pre- and post-modification amortized cost of loans by loan class modified as TDRs during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. Post-modification amounts are presented as of June 30, 2021 and 2020.
Three Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Troubled Debt RestructuringsNumber
of
Contracts
Pre-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
Post-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
Number
of
Contracts
Pre-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
Post-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
 ($ in thousands)
Commercial and industrial$8,592 $8,529 $9,052 $7,047 
Commercial real estate:
Commercial real estate12,237 12,223 885 900 
Construction435 218 
Total commercial real estate12,237 12,223 1,320 1,118 
Residential mortgage1,089 1,079 
Total17 $21,918 $21,831 $10,372 $8,165 
Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Troubled Debt RestructuringsNumber
of
Contracts
Pre-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
Post-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
Number
of
Contracts
Pre-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
Post-Modification
Amortized Carrying Amount
 ($ in thousands)
Commercial and industrial13 $20,855 $19,648 20 $22,196 $19,674 
Commercial real estate:
Commercial real estate12,237 12,223 4,748 4,762 
Construction435 218 
Total commercial real estate12,237 12,223 5,183 4,980 
Residential mortgage2,618 2,586 
Consumer169 166 
Total28 $35,879 $34,623 24 $27,379 $24,654 

The total TDRs presented in the above table had allocated allowance for loan losses of $4.5 million and $8.4 million at June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. There were $697 thousand and $5.8 million of charge-offs related to TDRs for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. There were $2.9 million and $3.7 million of charge-offs were related to TDRs for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. Valley did not extend any commitments to lend additional funds to borrowers whose loans have been modified as TDRs during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.









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Loans modified as TDRs within the previous 12 months and for which there was a payment default (90 or more days past due) for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows:
 Three Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Troubled Debt Restructurings Subsequently DefaultedNumber of
Contracts
Recorded InvestmentNumber of
Contracts
Recorded
Investment
 ($ in thousands)
Commercial and industrial$20 $14,986 
Residential mortgage445 220 
Consumer204 
Total$445 23 $15,410 

 Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Troubled Debt Restructurings Subsequently DefaultedNumber of
Contracts
Recorded InvestmentNumber of
Contracts
Recorded
Investment
 ($ in thousands)
Commercial and industrial15 $12,384 20 $14,986 
Residential mortgage692 220 
Consumer204 
Total17 $13,076 23 $15,410 

Forbearance. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact to certain customers, Valley implemented short-term loan modifications such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or delays in payment, when requested by customers, all of which were insignificant. As of June 30, 2021, Valley had approximately $142 million of outstanding loans remaining in their payment deferral period under short-term modifications as compared to $361 million of loans in deferral at December 31, 2020. Under the applicable guidance, none of these loans were classified as TDRs at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.

Loans in Process of Foreclosure. Other real estate owned (OREO) totaled $4.5 million and $5.1 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. OREO included foreclosed residential real estate properties which were immaterial at June 30, 2021 and totaled $1.0 million at December 31, 2020. Residential mortgage and consumer loans secured by residential real estate properties for which formal foreclosure proceedings are in process totaled $2.0 million and $1.9 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

Collateral dependent loans. Loans are collateral-dependent when the debtor is experiencing financial difficulty and repayment is expected to be provided substantially through the sale or operation of the collateral. When Valley determines that foreclosure is probable, the collateral dependent loan balances are written down to the estimated current fair value (less estimated selling costs) resulting in an immediate charge-off to the allowance, excluding any consideration for personal guarantees that may be pursued in the Bank’s collection process.







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The following table presents collateral dependent loans by class as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
 June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
 (in thousands)
Commercial and industrial *$95,000 $106,239 
Commercial real estate66,054 41,562 
Residential mortgage31,714 28,176 
Home equity48 50 
Total$192,816 $176,027 

*    Commercial and industrial loans are primarily collateralized by taxi medallions.

Allowance for Credit Losses for Loans
The following table summarizes the allowance for credit losses for loans at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020: 
June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
 (in thousands)
Components of allowance for credit losses for loans:
Allowance for loan losses$339,324 $340,243 
Allowance for unfunded credit commitments14,400 11,111 
Total allowance for credit losses for loans$353,724 $351,354 

The following table summarizes the provision for credit losses for loans for the periods indicated:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 (in thousands)
Components of provision for credit losses for loans:
Provision for loan losses$5,810 $41,025 $14,502 $74,876 
Provision for unfunded credit commitments2,967 90 3,289 163 
Total provision for credit losses for loans$8,777 $41,115 $17,791 $75,039 












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The following table details the activity in the allowance for loan losses by loan portfolio segment for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020: 
Commercial
and Industrial
Commercial
Real Estate
Residential
Mortgage
ConsumerTotal
 (in thousands)
Three Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Allowance for loan losses:
Beginning balance$126,408 $174,236 $27,172 $15,064 $342,880 
Loans charged-off(10,893)(1)(1,480)(12,374)
Charged-off loans recovered678 665 191 1,474 3,008 
Net (charge-offs) recoveries(10,215)665 190 (6)(9,366)
(Credit) provision for loan losses(6,504)14,238 (2,059)135 5,810 
Ending balance$109,689 $189,139 $25,303 $15,193 $339,324 
Three Months Ended
June 30, 2020
Allowance for losses:
Beginning balance$127,437 $111,585 $29,456 $14,864 $283,342 
Loans charged-off(14,024)(27)(5)(2,601)(16,657)
Charged-off loans recovered799 51 545 509 1,904 
Net (charge-offs) recoveries(13,225)24 540 (2,092)(14,753)
Provision (credit) for loan losses17,827 20,093 (366)3,471 41,025 
Ending balance$132,039 $131,702 $29,630 $16,243 $309,614 
Commercial
and Industrial
Commercial
Real Estate
Residential
Mortgage
ConsumerTotal
 (in thousands)
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2021
Allowance for loan losses:
Beginning balance$131,070 $164,113 $28,873 $16,187 $340,243 
Loans charged-off(18,035)(382)(139)(2,618)(21,174)
Charged-off loans recovered2,267 734 348 2,404 5,753 
Net (charge-offs) recoveries(15,768)352 209 (214)(15,421)
(Credit) provision for loan losses(5,613)24,674 (3,779)(780)14,502 
Ending balance$109,689 $189,139 $25,303 $15,193 $339,324 
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2020
Allowance for losses:
Beginning balance$104,059 $45,673 $5,060 $6,967 $161,759 
Impact of ASU 2016-13 adoption*15,169 49,797 20,575 6,990 92,531 
Beginning balance, adjusted119,228 95,470 25,635 13,957 254,290 
Loans charged-off(17,384)(71)(341)(5,166)(22,962)
Charged-off loans recovered1,368 144 595 1,303 3,410 
Net (charge-offs) recoveries(16,016)73 254 (3,863)(19,552)
Provision for loan losses28,827 36,159 3,741 6,149 74,876 
Ending balance$132,039 $131,702 $29,630 $16,243 $309,614 
*    Includes a $61.6 million increase representing the estimated expected credit losses for PCD loans as a result of the ASU 2016-13 adoption on January 1, 2020.
34



    
The following table represents the allocation of the allowance for loan losses and the related loans by loan portfolio segment disaggregated based on the allowance measurement methodology at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Commercial
and Industrial
Commercial
Real Estate
Residential
Mortgage
ConsumerTotal
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
Allowance for loan losses:
Individually evaluated for credit losses$64,275 $4,788 $618 $885 $70,566 
Collectively evaluated for credit losses45,414 184,351 24,685 14,308 268,758 
Total$109,689 $189,139 $25,303 $15,193 $339,324 
Loans:
Individually evaluated for credit losses$120,559 $89,464 $38,660 $4,488 $253,171 
Collectively evaluated for credit losses5,963,896 19,175,516 4,188,315 2,876,556 32,204,283 
Total$6,084,455 $19,264,980 $4,226,975 $2,881,044 $32,457,454 
December 31, 2020
Allowance for loan losses:
Individually evaluated for credit losses$73,063 $1,338 $1,206 $264 $75,871 
Collectively evaluated for credit losses58,007 162,775 27,667 15,923 264,372 
Total$131,070 $164,113 $28,873 $16,187 $340,243 
Loans:
Individually evaluated for credit losses$131,057 $61,754 $35,151 $1,631 $229,593 
Collectively evaluated for credit losses6,730,651 18,409,069 4,148,592 2,699,207 31,987,519 
Total$6,861,708 $18,470,823 $4,183,743 $2,700,838 $32,217,112 

Note 8. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill totaled $1.4 billion at both June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020. There were no changes to the carrying amounts of goodwill allocated to Valley’s business segments, or reporting units thereof, for goodwill impairment analysis (as reported in Valley’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020).

During the second quarter 2021, Valley performed the annual goodwill impairment test at its normal assessment
date. As a result, there was 0 impairment of goodwill recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.















35





The following table summarizes other intangible assets as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020: 
Gross
Intangible
Assets
Accumulated
Amortization
Valuation
Allowance
Net
Intangible
Assets
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
Loan servicing rights$109,678 $(86,681)$(32)$22,965 
Core deposits101,160 (59,590)41,570 
Other3,945 (2,957)988 
Total other intangible assets$214,783 $(149,228)$(32)$65,523 
December 31, 2020
Loan servicing rights$103,150 $(80,340)$(865)$21,945 
Core deposits101,160 (53,747)47,413 
Other3,945 (2,854)1,091 
Total other intangible assets$208,255 $(136,941)$(865)$70,449 

Loan servicing rights are accounted for using the amortization method. Under this method, Valley amortizes the loan servicing assets over the period of the economic life of the assets arising from estimated net servicing revenues. On a quarterly basis, Valley stratifies its loan servicing assets into groupings based on risk characteristics and assesses each group for impairment based on fair value. Impairment charges on loan servicing rights are recognized in earnings when the book value of a stratified group of loan servicing rights exceeds its estimated fair value. Valley recorded net recoveries of impairment charges on its loan servicing rights totaling $42 thousand and $833 thousand for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively. Valley recorded net impairment charges totaling $669 thousand and $778 thousand for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. See the “Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Non-Recurring Basis” section of Note 5 for additional information regarding the fair valuation.

Core deposits are amortized using an accelerated method and have a weighted average amortization period of 8.9 years. The line item labeled “Other” included in the table above primarily consists of customer lists and covenants not to compete, which are amortized over their expected lives generally using a straight-line method and have a weighted average amortization period of approximately 7.6 years. Valley evaluates core deposits and other intangibles for impairment when an indication of impairment exists. NaN impairment was recognized during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.

The following table presents the estimated future amortization expense of other intangible assets for the remainder of 2021 through 2025: 
Loan Servicing
Rights
Core
Deposits
Other
 (in thousands)
2021$2,331 $5,764 $103 
20223,901 9,876 191 
20233,099 8,146 131 
20242,492 6,537 117 
20252,030 4,929 103 

Valley recognized amortization expense on other intangible assets, including net (recoveries of) impairment charges on loan servicing rights, totaling approximately $5.4 million and $6.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $11.5 million and $12.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
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Note 9. Borrowed Funds

Short-Term Borrowings

Short-term borrowings at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 consisted of the following:

June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
 (in thousands)
FHLB advances$700,000 $1,000,000 
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase154,378 147,958 
Total short-term borrowings$854,378 $1,147,958 
The weighted average interest rate for short-term borrowings was 0.35 percent and 0.38 percent at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The interest payments on the FHLB advances totaling $700 million were hedged with interest rate swaps at June 30, 2021. See Note 11 for additional details.

Long-Term Borrowings

Long-term borrowings at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 consisted of the following:

June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
 (in thousands)
FHLB advances, net (1)
$947,206 $1,592,252 
Subordinated debt, net (2)
638,484 403,413 
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase300,000 300,000 
Total long-term borrowings$1,885,690 $2,295,665 
(1)FHLB advances are presented net of unamortized prepayment penalties and other purchase accounting adjustments totaling $2.6 million at December 31, 2020.
(2)Subordinated debt is presented net of unamortized debt issuance costs totaling $6.4 billion and $2.7 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.

FHLB Advances. Long-term FHLB advances had a weighted average interest rate of 1.91 percent and 2.02 percent at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. FHLB advances are secured by pledges of certain eligible collateral, including but not limited to, U.S. government and agency mortgage-backed securities and a blanket assignment of qualifying first lien mortgage loans, consisting of both residential mortgage and commercial real estate loans.

In June 2021, Valley prepaid approximately $248 million of long-term FHLB advances with maturities scheduled through 2025 and a weighted average effective interest rate of 1.82 percent. The transaction was funded with excess cash liquidity and accounted for as an early debt extinguishment resulting in a loss of $8.4 million reported within non-interest expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021.
The long-term FHLB advances at June 30, 2021 are scheduled for contractual balance repayments as follows:
YearAmount
 (in thousands)
2021$157,870 
2023350,000 
2024165,000 
2025273,000 
Total long-term FHLB advances$945,870 
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There are 0 FHLB advances with scheduled repayments in years 2021 and thereafter, reported in the table above, which are callable for early redemption by the FHLB during the next 12 months.

Subordinated debt. On April 1, 2021, Valley redeemed, at par value, $60 million of its callable 6.25 percent subordinated notes originally due April 1, 2026. No gain or loss was incurred on this transaction.

On May 25, 2021, Valley issued $300 million of 3.00 percent Fixed-to-Floating Rate subordinated notes due June 15, 2031. The subordinated notes are callable in whole or in part on or after June 15, 2026 or upon the occurrence of certain events. Interest on the subordinated notes during the initial five year term through June 15, 2026 is payable semi-annually on June 15 and December 15. Thereafter, interest is expected to be set based on three-month Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) plus 236 basis points and paid quarterly through maturity of the notes. At June 30, 2021, the subordinated notes had a carrying value of $296.0 million, net of debt issuance costs. During June 2021, Valley entered into an interest rate swap transaction used to hedge the change in the fair value of the $300 million in subordinated notes. See Note 11 for additional details.

Valley also had the following subordinated debt outstanding at June 30, 2021:

$125 million aggregate principal amount of 5.125 percent subordinated notes due September 27, 2023 with no call dates or prepayments allowed except upon the occurrence of certain events;

$100 million aggregate principal amount of 4.55 percent subordinated notes due June 30, 2025 with no call dates or prepayments allowed except upon the occurrence of certain events;

$115 million aggregate principal amount of 5.25 percent subordinated notes due June 15, 2030 and callable in whole or in part on or after June 15, 2025 or upon the occurrence of certain events.

Long-term securities sold under agreements to repurchase (repos). The long-term repos had a weighted average interest rate of 3.41 percent and 3.37 percent at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. All long-term repos outstanding as of June 30, 2021 have maturities in the second half of 2021.

Note 10. Stock–Based Compensation
On April 19, 2021, Valley's shareholders approved the Valley National Bancorp 2021 Incentive Compensation Plan (the 2021 Plan) administered by the Compensation and Human Resources Committee (the Committee) as appointed by Valley's Board of Directors. The purposes of the 2021 Plan are to provide additional incentives to officers and key employees of Valley and its subsidiaries, whose substantial contributions are essential to the continued growth and success of Valley, and to attract and retain officers, other employees and non-employee directors whose efforts will result in the continued and long-term growth of Valley's business. Upon shareholder approval of the 2021 Plan, Valley ceased granting new awards under the Valley National Bancorp 2016 Long-Term Stock Incentive Plan (the 2016 Plan).
Under the 2021 Plan, Valley may issue awards to its officers, employees and non-employee directors in amounts up to 9 million shares of common stock (less 1 share for every share granted after December 31, 2020 under the 2016 Plan) in the form of stock appreciation rights, both incentive and non-qualified stock options, restricted stock and restricted stock units (RSUs). If after December 31, 2020 any award granted under the 2016 Plan is forfeited, expires, settled for cash, withheld for tax obligations, or otherwise does not result in the issuance of all or a portion of the shares subject to such award, the shares will be added to the 2021 Plan's share reserve. As of June 30, 2021, 7.4 million shares of common stock were available for issuance under the 2021 Plan. The essential features of each award are described in the award agreement relating to that award. The grant, exercise, vesting, settlement or payment of an award may be based upon the fair value of Valley's common stock on the last sale price reported for Valley's common stock on such date or the last sale price reported preceding such date, except for performance-
38



based awards with a market condition. The grant date fair values of performance-based awards that vest based on a market condition are determined by a third-party specialist using a Monte Carlo valuation model.
Valley granted 109 thousand and 142 thousand of time-based RSUs during the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and 1.2 million for both the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. Generally, time-based RSUs vest ratably over a three-year period. The average grant date fair value of the RSUs granted during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 was $11.63 per share and $10.48 per share, respectively.
Valley granted 604 thousand and 589 thousand of performance-based RSUs to certain executive officers for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. There were 0 grants of performance-based RSUs during the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The performance-based RSU awards include RSUs with vesting conditions based upon certain levels of growth in Valley's tangible book value per share plus dividends and RSUs with vesting conditions based upon Valley's total shareholder return as compared to its peer group. The RSUs “cliff” vest after three years based on the cumulative performance of Valley during that time period. The RSUs earn dividend equivalents (equal to cash dividends paid on Valley's common stock) over the applicable performance period. Dividend equivalents are accumulated and paid to the grantee at the vesting date or forfeited if the performance conditions are not met. The grant date fair value of the performance-based RSUs granted during the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 was $11.75 per share and $10.82 per share, respectively.

Valley recorded total stock-based compensation expense of $5.2 million and $4.2 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $10.7 million and $8.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The fair values of stock awards are expensed over the shorter of the vesting or required service period. As of June 30, 2021, the unrecognized amortization expense for all stock-based employee compensation totaled approximately $28.9 million and will be recognized over an average remaining vesting period of approximately two years.
Note 11. Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

Valley enters into derivative financial instruments to manage exposures that arise from business activities that result in the payment of future known and uncertain cash amounts, the value of which are determined by interest rates.

Fair Value Hedges of Fixed Rate Assets and Liabilities. Valley is exposed to changes in the fair value of fixed-rate subordinated debt due to changes in interest rates. From time to time, Valley uses interest rate swaps to manage its exposure to changes in fair value on these instruments attributable to changes in the designated benchmark interest rate. Interest rate swaps designated as fair value hedges involve the receipt of variable rate payments from a counterparty in exchange for Valley making fixed rate payments over the life of the agreements without the exchange of the underlying notional amount. For derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges, the gain or loss on the derivative as well as the loss or gain on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in earnings.

In June 2021, Valley entered into a $300 million forward-starting interest rate swap agreement with a notional amount of $300 million, maturing in June 2026, to hedge the change in the fair value of the 3.00 percent subordinated debt issued on May 28, 2021. Under the swap agreement, beginning in January 2022, Valley will receive fixed rate payments and pay variable rate amounts based on SOFR plus 2.187 percent.

Cash Flow Hedges of Interest Rate Risk. Valley’s objectives in using interest rate derivatives are to add stability to interest expense and to manage its exposure to interest rate movements. To accomplish this objective, Valley uses interest rate swaps as part of its interest rate risk management strategy. Interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges involve the payment of either fixed or variable-rate amounts in exchange for the receipt of variable or fixed-rate amounts from a counterparty, respectively.

Non-designated Hedges. Derivatives not designated as hedges may be used to manage Valley’s exposure to interest rate movements or to provide service to customers but do not meet the requirements for hedge accounting under U.S. GAAP. Derivatives not designated as hedges are not entered into for speculative purposes.

39



Valley executes interest rate swaps with commercial lending customers to facilitate their respective risk management strategies. These interest rate swaps with customers are simultaneously offset by interest rate swaps that Valley executes with a third party, such that Valley minimizes its net risk exposure resulting from such transactions. As these interest rate swaps do not meet the strict hedge accounting requirements, changes in the fair value of both the customer swaps and the offsetting swaps are recognized directly in earnings.

Valley sometimes enters into risk participation agreements with external lenders where the banks are sharing their risk of default on the interest rate swaps on participated loans. Valley either pays or receives a fee depending on the participation type. Risk participation agreements are credit derivatives not designated as hedges. Credit derivatives are not speculative and are not used to manage interest rate risk in assets or liabilities. Changes in the fair value in credit derivatives are recognized directly in earnings. At June 30, 2021, Valley had 26 credit swaps with an aggregate notional amount of $215.8 million related to risk participation agreements. 

At June 30, 2021, Valley had 2 “steepener” swaps, each with a current notional amount of $10.4 million where the receive rate on the swap mirrors the pay rate on the brokered deposits and the rates paid on these types of hybrid instruments are based on a formula derived from the spread between the long and short ends of the constant maturity swap (CMS) rate curve. Although these types of instruments do not meet the hedge accounting requirements, the change in fair value of both the bifurcated derivative and the stand alone swap tend to move in opposite directions with changes in the three-month LIBOR rate and therefore provide an effective economic hedge.

Valley regularly enters into mortgage banking derivatives which are non-designated hedges. These derivatives include interest rate lock commitments provided to customers to fund certain residential mortgage loans to be sold into the secondary market and forward commitments for the future delivery of such loans. Valley enters into forward commitments for the future delivery of residential mortgage loans when interest rate lock commitments are entered into in order to economically hedge the effect of future changes in interest rate on Valley's commitments to fund the loans as well as on its portfolio of mortgage loans held for sale.

Amounts included in the consolidated statements of financial condition related to the fair value of Valley’s derivative financial instruments were as follows: 
 June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
 Fair ValueFair Value
Other AssetsOther LiabilitiesNotional AmountOther AssetsOther LiabilitiesNotional Amount
 (in thousands)
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
Cash flow hedge interest rate swaps$$349 $900,000 $$179 $1,100,000 
Fair value hedge interest rate swaps80 300,000 
Total derivatives designated as hedging instruments$80 $349 $1,200,000 $$179 $1,100,000 
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Interest rate swaps and other derivatives *
$248,440 $80,215 $9,962,230 $387,008 $154,025 $8,889,557 
Mortgage banking derivatives323 1,112 330,528 444 2,077 321,486 
Total derivatives not designated as hedging instruments$248,763 $81,327 $10,292,758 $387,452 $156,102 $9,211,043 
*    Other derivatives include risk participation agreements.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange and London Clearing House variation margins are classified as a single-unit of account with the cash flow hedges and over-the-counter (OTC) non-designated derivative instruments. As a result, the fair value of the applicable derivative assets and liabilities are reported net of variation margin at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 in the table above.
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Gains (losses) included in the consolidated statements of income and other comprehensive income (loss), on a pre-tax basis, related to interest rate derivatives designated as hedges of cash flows were as follows: 
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 (in thousands)
Amount of (loss) gain reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss to interest expense$(749)$438 $(1,664)$(177)
Amount of (loss) gain recognized in other comprehensive income (loss)(158)(1,773)19 (3,253)
The accumulated net after-tax losses related to effective cash flow hedges included in accumulated other comprehensive loss were $2.7 million and $4.0 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
Amounts reported in accumulated other comprehensive loss related to cash flow interest rate derivatives are reclassified to interest expense as interest payments are made on the hedged variable interest rate liabilities. Valley estimates that $2.3 million will be reclassified as an increase to interest expense over the next 12 months.
Gains (losses) included in the consolidated statements of income related to interest rate derivatives designated as hedges of fair value were as follows: 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
2021202020212020
 (in thousands)
Derivative - interest rate swap:
Interest income$$71 $$82 
Interest expense80 80 
Hedged item - subordinated debt and loans:
Interest income$$(71)$$(82)
Interest expense(83)(83)
The following table presents the hedged items related to interest rate derivatives designated as hedges of fair value and the cumulative basis fair value adjustment included in the net carrying amount of the hedged item at June 30, 2021.
Line Item in the Statement of Financial Position in Which the Hedged Item is IncludedCarrying Amount of the Hedged LiabilityCumulative Amount of Fair Value Hedging Adjustment Included in the Carrying Amount of the Hedged Liability
(in thousands)
Long-term borrowings$(300,083)$(83)
The net (gains) losses included in the consolidated statements of income related to derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments were as follows: 
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 (in thousands)
Non-designated hedge interest rate swaps and credit derivatives
Other non-interest expense$(2,210)$1,416 $(425)$1,505 

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Other non-interest income included fee income related to non-designated hedge derivative interest rate swaps (not designated as hedging instruments) executed with commercial loan customers totaling $7.6 million and $14.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $13.8 million and $28.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Credit Risk Related Contingent Features. By using derivatives, Valley is exposed to credit risk if counterparties to the derivative contracts do not perform as expected. Management attempts to minimize counterparty credit risk through credit approvals, limits, monitoring procedures and obtaining collateral where appropriate. Credit risk exposure associated with derivative contracts is managed at Valley in conjunction with Valley’s consolidated counterparty risk management process. Valley’s counterparties and the risk limits monitored by management are periodically reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors.

Valley has agreements with its derivative counterparties providing that if Valley defaults on any of its indebtedness, including default where repayment of the indebtedness has not been accelerated by the lender, then Valley could also be declared in default on its derivative counterparty agreements. Additionally, Valley has an agreement with several of its derivative counterparties that contains provisions that require Valley’s debt to maintain an investment grade credit rating from each of the major credit rating agencies from which it receives a credit rating. If Valley’s credit rating is reduced below investment grade, or such rating is withdrawn or suspended, then the counterparty could terminate the derivative positions and Valley would be required to settle its obligations under the agreements. As of June 30, 2021, Valley was in compliance with all of the provisions of its derivative counterparty agreements. As of June 30, 2021, the fair value of derivatives in a net liability position, which includes accrued interest but excludes any adjustment for nonperformance risk related to these agreements, was $79.6 million. Valley has derivative counterparty agreements that require minimum collateral posting thresholds for certain counterparties.

Note 12. Balance Sheet Offsetting

Certain financial instruments, including certain OTC derivatives (mostly interest rate swaps) and repurchase agreements (accounted for as secured long-term borrowings), may be eligible for offset in the consolidated statements of financial condition and/or subject to master netting arrangements or similar agreements. OTC derivatives include interest rate swaps executed and settled bilaterally with counterparties without the use of an organized exchange or central clearing house (presented in the table below). The credit risk associated with bilateral OTC derivatives is managed through obtaining collateral and enforceable master netting agreements.

Valley is party to master netting arrangements with its financial institution counterparties; however, Valley does not offset assets and liabilities under these arrangements for financial statement presentation purposes. The master netting arrangements provide for a single net settlement of all swap agreements, as well as collateral, in the event of default on, or termination of, any one contract. Collateral, usually in the form of cash or marketable investment securities, is posted by the counterparty with net liability positions in accordance with contract thresholds. Master repurchase agreements which include “right of set-off” provisions generally have a legally enforceable right to offset recognized amounts. In such cases, the collateral would be used to settle the fair value of the swap or repurchase agreement should Valley be in default. The total amount of collateral held or pledged cannot exceed the net derivative fair values with the counterparty.










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The table below presents information about Valley’s financial instruments eligible for offset in the consolidated statements of financial condition as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
    Gross Amounts Not Offset 
 Gross Amounts
Recognized
Gross Amounts
Offset
Net Amounts
Presented
Financial
Instruments
Cash
Collateral (1)
Net
Amount
 (in thousands)
June 30, 2021
Assets:
Interest rate swaps$248,520 $$248,520 $$$248,520 
Liabilities:
Interest rate swaps$80,564 $$80,564 $$(72,732)$7,832 
Repurchase agreements300,000 300,000 (300,000)(2)
Total$380,564 $$380,564 $(300,000)$(72,732)$7,832 
December 31, 2020
Assets:
Interest rate swaps$150,487 $$150,487 $$$150,487 
Liabilities:
Interest rate swaps$150,487 $$150,487 $$(150,487)$
Repurchase agreements300,000 300,000 (300,000)(2)
Total$450,487 $$450,487 $(300,000)$(150,487)$
(1)    Cash collateral pledged to our counterparties in relation to market value exposures of OTC derivative contacts in a liability position.
(2)    Represents the fair value of non-cash pledged investment securities.

Note 13. Tax Credit Investments

Valley’s tax credit investments are primarily related to investments promoting qualified affordable housing projects, and other investments related to community development and renewable energy sources. Some of these tax-advantaged investments support Valley’s regulatory compliance with the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). Valley’s investments in these entities generate a return primarily through the realization of federal income tax credits, and other tax benefits, such as tax deductions from operating losses of the investments, over specified time periods. These tax credits and deductions are recognized as a reduction of income tax expense.

Valley’s tax credit investments are carried in other assets on the consolidated statements of financial condition. Valley’s unfunded capital and other commitments related to the tax credit investments are carried in accrued expenses and other liabilities on the consolidated statements of financial condition. Valley recognizes amortization of tax credit investments, including impairment losses, within non-interest expense in the consolidated statements of income using the equity method of accounting. After initial measurement, the carrying amounts of tax credit investments with non-readily determinable fair values are increased to reflect Valley's share of income of the investee and are reduced to reflect its share of losses of the investee, dividends received and impairments, if applicable.








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The following table presents the balances of Valley’s affordable housing tax credit investments, other tax credit investments, and related unfunded commitments at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
June 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
(in thousands)
Other Assets:
Affordable housing tax credit investments, net$18,298 $20,074 
Other tax credit investments, net43,066 47,301 
Total tax credit investments, net$61,364 $67,375 
Other Liabilities:
Unfunded affordable housing tax credit commitments$1,379 $1,379 
    Total unfunded tax credit commitments$1,379 $1,379 

The following table presents other information relating to Valley’s affordable housing tax credit investments and other tax credit investments for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020: 

Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
2021202020212020
(in thousands)
Components of Income Tax Expense:
Affordable housing tax credits and other tax benefits$899 $1,393 $1,796 $2,627 
Other tax credit investment credits and tax benefits2,743 2,540 5,428 3,840 
Total reduction in income tax expense$3,642 $3,933 $7,224 $6,467 
Amortization of Tax Credit Investments:
Affordable housing tax credit investment losses$460 $537 $1,003 $1,091 
Affordable housing tax credit investment impairment losses431 665 772 1,083 
Other tax credit investment losses351 679 524 1,223 
Other tax credit investment impairment losses1,730 1,535 3,417 3,247 
Total amortization of tax credit investments recorded in non-interest expense$2,972 $3,416 $5,716 $6,644 
Note 14. Business Segments

Valley has 4 business segments that it monitors and reports on to manage Valley’s business operations. These segments are consumer lending, commercial lending, investment management, and corporate and other adjustments. Valley’s reportable segments have been determined based upon its internal structure of operations and lines of business. Each business segment is reviewed routinely for its asset growth, contribution to income before income taxes and return on average interest earning assets and impairment (if events or circumstances indicate a possible inability to realize the carrying amount). Expenses related to the branch network, all other components of retail banking, along with the back office departments of the Bank are allocated from the corporate and other adjustments segment to each of the other three business segments. Interest expense and internal transfer expense (for general corporate expenses) are allocated to each business segment utilizing a transfer pricing methodology, which involves the allocation of operating and funding costs based on each segment's respective mix of average earning assets and/or liabilities outstanding for the period. The financial reporting for each segment contains allocations and reporting in line with Valley’s operations, which may not necessarily be comparable to any other financial institution. The accounting for each segment includes internal accounting policies designed to measure consistent and reasonable financial reporting and may result in income and expense measurements that differ from amounts under U.S. GAAP. Furthermore, changes in management structure or allocation methodologies and procedures may result in changes in reported segment financial data.
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The following tables represent the financial data for Valley’s 4 business segments for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,150,137 $25,485,161 $5,272,116 $0$37,907,414 
Interest income$59,419 $255,895 $19,239 $(905)$333,648 
Interest expense5,192 18,467 3,867 5,21532,741 
Net interest income (loss)54,227 237,428 15,372 (6,120)300,907 
Provision (credit) for credit losses711 8,066 (30)08,747 
Net interest income (loss) after provision for credit losses53,516 229,362 15,402 (6,120)292,160 
Non-interest income21,915 9,819 2,475 8,91743,126 
Non-interest expense19,792 27,241 (258)125,118171,893 
Internal transfer expense (income)19,862 71,207 14,632 (105,701)
Income (loss) before income taxes$35,777 $140,733 $3,503 $(16,620)$163,393 
Return on average interest earning assets (pre-tax)2.00 %2.21 %0.27 %N/A1.72 %
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2020
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,214,368 $24,826,832 $5,737,187 $0$37,778,387 
Interest income$66,807 $255,152 $27,623 $(1,057)$348,525 
Interest expense11,469 40,640 9,728 4,12965,966 
Net interest income (loss)55,338 214,512 17,895 (5,186)282,559 
Provision for credit losses3,106 38,009 41 041,156 
Net interest income (loss) after provision for credit losses52,232 176,503 17,854 (5,186)241,403 
Non-interest income17,175 16,172 5,823 5,66044,830 
Non-interest expense20,440 23,250 642 112,834157,166 
Internal transfer expense (income)19,406 66,858 15,505 (101,769)
Income (loss) before income taxes$29,561 $102,567 $7,530 $(10,591)$129,067 
Return on average interest earning assets (pre-tax)1.64 %1.65 %0.52 %N/A1.37 %

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 Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,099,973 $25,509,061 $5,039,222 $0$37,648,256 
Interest income$120,264 $508,231 $38,748 $(1,797)$665,446 
Interest expense11,607 41,702 8,238 10,32571,872 
Net interest income (loss)108,657 466,529 30,510 (12,122)593,574 
(Credit) provision for credit losses(1,924)19,715 (388)017,403 
Net interest income (loss) after provision for credit losses110,581 446,814 30,898 (12,122)576,171 
Non-interest income35,600 17,533 4,806 16,42074,359 
Non-interest expense39,641 52,772 1,520 238,173332,106 
Internal transfer expense (income)39,364 141,790 27,881 (209,035)
Income (loss) before income taxes$67,176 $269,785 $6,303 $(24,840)$318,424 
Return on average interest earning assets (pre-tax)1.89 %2.12 %0.25 %N/A1.69 %

 Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,215,756 $23,804,558 $5,205,918 $0$36,226,232 
Interest income$135,062 $520,027 $59,392 $(2,163)$712,318 
Interest expense31,169 102,826 22,488 7,937164,420 
Net interest income (loss)103,893 417,201 36,904 (10,100)547,898 
Provision for credit losses9,891 65,148 800 075,839 
Net interest income (loss) after provision for credit losses94,002 352,053 36,104 (10,100)472,059 
Non-interest income31,852 31,771 8,965 13,63986,227 
Non-interest expense40,311 47,408 1,029 224,074312,822 
Internal transfer expense (income)39,741 131,054 28,680 (199,475)
Income (loss) before income taxes$45,802 $205,362 $15,360 $(21,060)$245,464 
Return on average interest earning assets (pre-tax)1.27 %1.73 %0.59 %N/A1.36 %
Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following MD&A should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing in Part 1, Item 1 of this report. The words "Valley," the "Company," "we," "our" and "us" refer to Valley National Bancorp and its wholly owned subsidiaries, unless we indicate otherwise. Additionally, Valley’s principal subsidiary, Valley National Bank, is commonly referred to as the “Bank” in this MD&A.

The MD&A contains supplemental financial information, described in the sections that follow, which has been determined by methods other than U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) that management uses in its analysis of our performance. Management believes these non-GAAP financial measures provide information useful to investors in understanding our underlying operational performance, our business and performance trends and facilitate comparisons with the performance of others in the financial services industry. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for or superior to
46



financial measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures may also be calculated differently from similar measures disclosed by other companies.
Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, both in the MD&A and elsewhere, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements are not historical facts and include expressions about management’s confidence and strategies and management’s expectations about our business, new and existing programs and products, acquisitions, relationships, opportunities, taxation, technology, market conditions and economic expectations, including the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our businesses and financial results and conditions. These statements may be identified by such forward-looking terminology as “should,” “expect,” “believe,” “view,” “will,” “opportunity,” “allow,” “continues,” “would,” “could,” “typically,” “usually,” “anticipate,” or similar statements or variations of such terms. Such forward-looking statements involve certain risks and uncertainties and our actual results may differ materially from such forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by such forward-looking statements, include, but are not limited to:

the continued impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. and global economies, including business disruptions, reductions in employment and an increase in business failures, specifically among our clients;
the continued impact of COVID-19 on our employees and our ability to provide services to our customers and respond to their needs as more cases of COVID-19 may arise in our primary markets;
potential judgments, claims, damages, penalties, fines and reputational damage resulting from pending or future litigation and regulatory and government actions, including as a result of our participation in and execution of government programs related to the COVID-19 pandemic or as a result of our actions in response to, or failure to implement or effectively implement, federal, state and local laws, rules or executive orders requiring that we grant forbearances or not act to collect our loans;
the impact of forbearances or deferrals we are required or agree to as a result of customer requests and/or government actions, including, but not limited to our potential inability to recover fully deferred payments from the borrower or the collateral;
the risks related to the discontinuation of the London Interbank Offered Rate and other reference rates, including increased expenses and litigation and the effectiveness of hedging strategies;
failure to obtain shareholder or regulatory approval for the acquisition of The Westchester Bank Holding Corporation (Westchester) on the anticipated terms and within the anticipated timeframe;
the inability to realize expected cost savings and synergies from the Westchester acquisition in amounts or in the timeframe anticipated;
costs or difficulties relating to Westchester integration matters might be greater than expected;
the inability to retain customers and qualified employees of Westchester;
damage verdicts or settlements or restrictions related to existing or potential class action litigation or individual litigation arising from claims of violations of laws or regulations, contractual claims, breach of fiduciary responsibility, negligence, fraud, environmental laws, patent or trademark infringement, employment related claims, and other matters;
a prolonged downturn in the economy, mainly in New Jersey, New York, Florida and Alabama, as well as an unexpected decline in commercial real estate values within our market areas;
higher or lower than expected income tax expense or tax rates, including increases or decreases resulting from changes in uncertain tax position liabilities, tax laws, regulations and case law;
the inability to grow customer deposits to keep pace with loan growth;
a material change in our allowance for credit losses under CECL due to forecasted economic conditions and/or unexpected credit deterioration in our loan and investment portfolios;
the need to supplement debt or equity capital to maintain or exceed internal capital thresholds;
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greater than expected technology related costs due to, among other factors, prolonged or failed implementations, additional project staffing and obsolescence caused by continuous and rapid market innovations;
the loss of or decrease in lower-cost funding sources within our deposit base, including our inability to achieve deposit retention targets under Valley's branch transformation strategy;
cyber-attacks, ransomware attacks, computer viruses or other malware that may breach the security of our websites or other systems to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information, destroy data, disable or degrade service, or sabotage our systems;
results of examinations by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Reserve Bank (FRB), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and other regulatory authorities, including the possibility that any such regulatory authority may, among other things, require us to increase our allowance for credit losses, write-down assets, reimburse customers, change the way we do business, or limit or eliminate certain other banking activities;
our inability or determination not to pay dividends at current levels, or at all, because of inadequate earnings, regulatory restrictions or limitations, changes in our capital requirements or a decision to increase capital by retaining more earnings;
unanticipated loan delinquencies, loss of collateral, decreased service revenues, and other potential negative effects on our business caused by severe weather, the COVID-19 pandemic or other external events;
unexpected significant declines in the loan portfolio due to the lack of economic expansion, increased competition, large prepayments, changes in regulatory lending guidance or other factors; and
the failure of other financial institutions with whom we have trading, clearing, counterparty and other financial relationships.
A detailed discussion of factors that could affect our results is included in our SEC filings, including the “Risk Factors” section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and Item 1A of this Quarterly Report.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Valley’s accounting policies are fundamental to understanding management’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations. At June 30, 2021, we identified our policies on the allowance for credit losses, goodwill and other intangible assets, and income taxes to be critical accounting policies because management has to make subjective and/or complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and because it is likely that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions. Management has reviewed the application of these policies with the Audit Committee of Valley’s Board of Directors. Our critical accounting policies are described in detail in Part II, Item 7 in Valley’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
New Authoritative Accounting Guidance

See Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements for a description of new authoritative accounting guidance, including the respective dates of adoption and effects on results of operations and financial condition.

Executive Summary

Company Overview. At June 30, 2021, Valley had consolidated total assets of approximately $41.3 billion, total net loans of $32.1 billion, total deposits of $33.2 billion and total shareholders’ equity of $4.7 billion. Our commercial bank operations include branch office locations in northern and central New Jersey, the New York City Boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Long Island, Florida and Alabama. Of our current 226 branch network, 58 percent, 17 percent, 18 percent and 7 percent of the branches are in New Jersey, New York, Florida and Alabama, respectively. Despite targeted branch consolidation activity, we have significantly grown both in asset size and locations over the past several years primarily through bank acquisitions.

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The Westchester Bank Holding Corporation. On June 29, 2021, Valley announced that it will acquire The Westchester Bank Holding Corporation (“Westchester”) and its principal subsidiary, The Westchester Bank which is headquartered in White Plains, New York. Westchester has approximately $1.3 billion in assets, $908 million in loans, $1.1 billion in deposits, and maintains a seven branch network that will provide Valley with a physical footprint and additional commercial lending expertise in the demographically attractive Westchester County, New York market. The acquisition is expected to close in the fourth quarter 2021, subject to standard regulatory approvals, approval of Westchester stockholders, as well as other customary conditions. See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.

Impact of COVID-19. Broad based public vaccination rollouts, government stimulus, continued business re-openings and increased consumer activity (as social restrictions have eased) led to a sharp rebound in economic activity during the second quarter 2021. However, there are substantial variations in the pace of recovery across and within corporate sectors, and certain industries remain vulnerable to a loss of the economic momentum due to labor shortages and other factors. In addition, the potential rise of Delta variant cases may threaten to undermine the economic recovery.

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act and additional legislation that followed including the Consolidated Appropriations Act and the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 provided funding for the SBA's Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) and established rules for qualifying borrowers to receive loan forgiveness by the SBA under this program. Valley extended a total of $3.2 billion PPP loans under the program, of which $1.8 billion of these loans have received forgiveness from the SBA, including $1.0 billion during the second quarter 2021. As of June 30, 2021, we had approximately $1.4 billion of PPP loans still outstanding.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact on certain customers and in accordance with provisions set forth by the CARES Act, Valley implemented short-term loan modifications, such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or delays in payment that are insignificant, when requested by customers. As of June 30, 2021, Valley had $142 million of outstanding loans remaining in their payment deferral period under short-term modifications representing approximately 0.4 percent of our total loan portfolio at June 30, 2021 as compared to $361 million, or 1.1 percent of total loans at December 31, 2020.

We continue to monitor the impact of COVID-19 closely, including its impact on our employees, customers, communities and results of operations, as well as any effects that may result from the CARES Act, Appropriations Act and other government stimulus or Federal Reserve actions. However, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our operations and financial results during the second half of 2021 and beyond is highly uncertain. See the "Operating Environment" section of MD&A for more details.

We continue to closely monitor local conditions in the areas we serve and will take actions as circumstances warrant, which may necessitate certain branches or other office closures and reduced lobby services. The majority of our non-customer facing employees have returned to our offices in July 2021 with flexible hybrid work schedules. We continue to follow proper protocols designed to ensure safety of our employees and customers.

Quarterly Results. Net income for the second quarter 2021 was $120.5 million, or $0.29 per diluted common share, compared to $95.6 million, or $0.23 per diluted common share, for the second quarter 2020. The $24.9 million increase in quarterly net income as compared to the same quarter one year ago was largely due to:

an $18.3 million increase in net interest income mainly due to (i) lower rates on our deposit products combined with a continued customer shift to deposits without stated maturities, (ii) continued run-off of higher cost time deposits, (iii) the prepayment of $534 million of long-term FHLB advances with a combined weighted average interest rate of 2.48 percent in December 2020, and (iv) interest and fee income from PPP loans and other organic loan growth; and

a $32.4 million decrease in our provision for credit losses mainly due to the improved economic forecast component of the reserve as compared to June 30, 2020,
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partially offset by:

a $1.7 million decrease in non-interest income due to the combination of lower commercial loan customer swap fees and BOLI income, partially offset by moderate increases in other fee categories;

a $14.7 million increase in non-interest expense due to higher salary and employee benefits expenses and an $8.4 million loss on the early extinguishment of debt in June 2021; and

a $9.4 million increase in income tax expense mainly due to the increase in income before income taxes.

See the “Net Interest Income”, “Non-Interest Income”, “Non-Interest Expense”, and “Income Taxes” sections below for more details on the items above impacting our second quarter 2021 results.

Operating Environment. During the second quarter 2021, real gross domestic product expanded 6.5 percent as compared to 6.3 percent growth in the first quarter of the year. The acceleration in growth was driven primarily by personal consumption, particularly for services. Residential investment was lower and inventory restocking continued to drag on overall activity, driven in part by supply chain constraints. Although economic activity has rebounded from the sharp recession in the first half of 2020, the pace of growth is likely to moderate through the remainder of 2021.

The Federal Reserve continued to maintain its stance on monetary policy. At the July meeting, the Federal Open Market Committee maintained the target range for the federal funds rate between zero and 0.25 percent. Additionally, the Committee maintained several programs, including purchasing Treasury and mortgage-backed securities to support the flow of credit to households and businesses in order to promote its maximum employment and price stability goals.

The 10-year U.S. Treasury note yield ended the second quarter at 1.45 percent, 29 basis points lower as compared with March 31, 2021. The spread between the 2- and 10-year U.S. Treasury note yields ended the second quarter 2021 at 1.20 percent, 38 basis points narrower as compared to the end of the first quarter 2021 and 70 basis points wider as compared to June 30, 2020.

For all commercial banks in the U.S., loans and leases increased approximately 0.1 percent in the second quarter 2021 as compared to the previous quarter. For the industry, the trend for loans secured by multifamily residential structures persisted and banks continued to relax lending standards which drove demand to its highest level in over a year. However, the picture for other types of commercial lending remained mixed. During the quarter, lending standards in the industry were relaxed for these products, but this did not influence increased demand.

In the second quarter 2021, Valley's originations increased from commercial real estate loans, residential mortgage and automobile lending. We witnessed stronger origination pipeline for commercial real estate loans across our market areas. However, should loan demand weaken or the expected recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic in Valley's primary markets be prolonged, our business operations and results could be adversely impacted, as highlighted elsewhere in this MD&A.

Loans. Total loans decreased $229.0 million to $32.5 billion at June 30, 2021 from March 31, 2021 due to a $1.0 billion decrease in PPP loans within the commercial and industrial loan category. Offsetting this impact, our non-PPP loan portfolio increased $785.0 million, or 10.4 percent on an annualized basis, to $31.1 billion at June 30, 2021 from $30.3 billion at March 31, 2021. The increase in non-PPP loans was largely driven by increases of $588.5 million, $166.5 million and $86.4 million in the commercial real estate, residential mortgage and auto loan categories, respectively. Additionally, our second quarter 2021 new and refinanced loan originations included approximately $254 million of residential mortgage loans originated for sale. Net gains on sales of residential loans were $10.1 million and $3.5 million in the second quarter 2021 and first quarter 2021, respectively. See further details on our loan activities under the “Loan Portfolio” section below.
Asset Quality. Total non-performing assets (NPAs), consisting of non-accrual loans, other real estate owned (OREO), and other repossessed assets increased $16.1 million to $226.6 million at June 30, 2021 as compared to
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March 31, 2021. Non-accrual loans increased $16.0 million to $220.0 million at June 30, 2021 as compared to March 31, 2021 mainly due to a $17.6 million increase in non-accrual construction loans almost entirely related to one borrower relationship with $3.0 million of related allowance reserves as of June 30, 2021. Non-accrual loans represented 0.68 percent of total loans at June 30, 2021, as compared to 0.62 percent at March 31, 2021.
Total accruing past due loans (i.e., loans past due 30 days or more and still accruing interest) increased $27.5 million to $80.2 million, or 0.25 percent of total loans, at June 30, 2021 as compared to $52.8 million, or 0.16 percent of total loans, at March 31, 2021 driven by a $36.8 million increase in the commercial real estate loan delinquencies, partially offset by an improvement in the early stage delinquencies in the residential mortgage loan category. See further details in the "Non-performing Assets" section below.
Deposits and Other Borrowings. Average non-interest bearing deposits; savings, NOW and money market deposits; and time deposits represented approximately 32 percent, 54 percent and 14 percent of total deposits as of June 30, 2021, respectively. Overall, average deposits increased by $887.9 million to $32.7 billion for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the first quarter 2021. Our mix of the deposit categories within total average deposits for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the first quarter 2021 experienced a continued shift of maturing time deposits and a consumer preference to non-maturity deposit accounts due to the low level of interest rates.
Actual ending balances for deposits increased $609.6 million to approximately $33.2 billion at June 30, 2021 from March 31, 2021 largely due to increases of $1.3 billion and $475.9 million in the non-maturity interest bearing deposit and non-interest bearing deposit categories, respectively, partially offset by a $1.1 billion decrease in time deposits. The decrease in time deposits was driven by normal run-off of maturing retail and brokered CDs with some continued migration of retail balances to more liquid deposit product categories. Total brokered deposits (consisting of both time and money market deposit accounts) decreased approximately $321 million to $2.0 billion at June 30, 2021 as compared to $2.3 billion at March 31, 2021. Non-interest bearing deposits; savings, NOW and money market deposits; and time deposits represented approximately 32 percent, 55 percent and 13 percent of total deposits as of June 30, 2021, respectively. While we believe the current operating environment will likely continue to be favorable for Valley’s deposit gathering initiatives, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain deposit levels at or near those reported at June 30, 2021.
Average short-term borrowings decreased $294.7 million to $873.9 million for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the first quarter 2021 due to debt maturities funded with excess cash liquidity from increased deposits. Average long-term borrowings (including junior subordinated debentures issued to capital trusts which are presented separately on the consolidated statements of financial condition) decreased by $122.4 million to $2.2 billion for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the first quarter 2021, partly due to Valley's redemption of $60 million of callable 6.25 percent subordinated notes on April 1, 2021 and other normal repayments of maturing FHLB borrowings.
Actual ending balances for short-term borrowings decreased by $230.3 million to $854.4 million at June 30, 2021 as compared to March 31, 2021 due to repayments of FHLB borrowings. Long-term borrowings decreased by $357.2 million to $1.9 billion at June 30, 2021 as compared to March 31, 2021 mainly due to the combination the prepayment of approximately $248 million of long-term FHLB advances in June 2021, the aforementioned redemption of $60 million in subordinated notes and other normal repayments of maturing FHLB advances, partially offset by the issuance of $300 million of 3.00 percent subordinated notes. See Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.

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Selected Performance Indicators. The following table presents our annualized performance ratios for the periods indicated:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
Return on average assets1.17 %0.92 %1.15 %0.92 %
Return on average assets, as adjusted1.23 0.93 1.18 0.93 
Return on average shareholders’ equity10.24 8.54 10.10 8.23 
Return on average shareholders’ equity, as adjusted10.76 8.57 10.37 8.29 
Return on average tangible shareholders’ equity (ROATE)14.79 12.66 14.64 12.26 
ROATE, as adjusted15.54 12.70 15.03 12.34 

Adjusted return on average assets, adjusted return on average shareholders' equity, ROATE and adjusted ROATE included in the table above are non-GAAP measures. Management believes these measures provide information useful to management and investors in understanding our underlying operational performance, business and performance trends, and the measures facilitate comparisons of our prior performance with the performance of others in the financial services industry. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for or superior to financial measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures may also be calculated differently from similar measures disclosed by other companies. The non-GAAP measure reconciliations are presented below.

Adjusted net income is computed as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
2021202020212020
(in thousands)
Net income, as reported$120,512 $95,601 $236,222 $182,869 
Add: Loss on extinguishment of debt (net of tax)6,024 — 6,024 — 
Add: Losses on available for sale and held to maturity securities transactions (net of tax) (a)
81 29 166 58 
Add: Merger related expenses (net of tax) (b)
— 263 — 1,199 
Net income, as adjusted$126,617 $95,893 $242,412 $184,126 
(a)    Included in gains on securities transactions, net within other non-interest income.
(b)    Merger related expenses are primarily within professional and legal fees, and other non-interest expense.

In addition to the items used to calculate net income, as adjusted, in the table above, our net income is, from time to time, impacted by fluctuations in the level of net gains on sales of loans and swap fees recognized from commercial loan customer transactions. These amounts can vary widely from period to period due to, among other factors, the amount of residential mortgage loans originated for sale, loan portfolio sales and commercial loan customer demand for certain products. See the “Non-Interest Income” section below for more details.










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Adjusted annualized return on average assets is computed by dividing adjusted net income by average assets, as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
2021202020212020
($ in thousands)
Net income, as adjusted$126,617$95,893$242,412$184,126
Average assets$41,161,459$41,429,725$40,967,174$39,773,288
Annualized return on average assets, as adjusted1.23 %0.93 %1.18 %0.93 %

Adjusted annualized return on average shareholders' equity is computed by dividing adjusted net income by average shareholders' equity, as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
2021202020212020
($ in thousands)
Net income, as adjusted$126,617$95,893$242,412$184,126
Average shareholders' equity$4,708,797$4,477,446$4,677,273$4,443,016
Annualized return on average shareholders' equity, as adjusted10.76 %8.57 %10.37 %8.29 %

ROATE and adjusted ROATE are computed by dividing net income and adjusted net income, respectively, by average shareholders’ equity less average goodwill and average other intangible assets, as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 ($ in thousands)
Net income$120,512$95,601$236,222$182,869
Net income, as adjusted126,61795,893$242,412$184,126
Average shareholders’ equity$4,708,797$4,477,446$4,677,273$4,443,016
Less: Average goodwill and other intangible assets1,449,3881,456,7811,450,5621,458,885
Average tangible shareholders’ equity$3,259,409$3,020,665$3,226,711$2,984,131
Annualized ROATE14.79 %12.66 %14.64 %12.26 %
Annualized ROATE, as adjusted15.54 %12.70 %15.03 %12.34 %

Valley Net Interest Income

Net interest income consists of interest income and dividends earned on interest earning assets, less interest expense on interest bearing liabilities, and represents the main source of income for Valley.

Net interest income on a tax equivalent basis totaling $301.8 million for the second quarter 2021 increased $8.2 million and $18.2 million as compared to the first quarter 2021 and second quarter 2020, respectively. The increase as compared to the first quarter 2021 was mainly due to (i) continued run-off of higher cost time deposits and some account balance migration to lower cost deposits without stated maturities, (ii) repayment of FHLB advances upon their maturity, (iii) the redemption of $60 million of callable 6.25 percent subordinated notes on April 1, 2021 and (iv) a slightly higher yield on the PPP loan portfolio due to the accelerated recognition of unearned loan fees for loans forgiven during the second quarter 2021. Interest expense of $32.7 million for the second quarter 2021 decreased $6.4 million as compared to the first quarter 2021 as we continue to reduce our cost of funding in the low rate environment. Interest income on a tax equivalent basis in the second quarter 2021 increased by $1.8 million to $334.5 million as compared to the first quarter 2021 mainly due to moderately higher earned fees on our loan
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portfolio driven by the accelerated recognition of unearned PPP loan fees, partially offset by lower yields on our investment securities portfolio.

Average interest earning assets increased $129.0 million to $37.9 billion for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 primarily due to organic loan growth, including PPP loans, over the 12-month period, partially offset by principal repayments on residential mortgage-backed securities and lower overall reinvestment in our investment securities portfolio. As compared to the first quarter 2021, average interest earning assets increased by $521.2 million from $37.4 billion, mostly driven by higher levels of excess liquidity held in overnight investments with banks caused by the surge in customer deposit balances and fluctuations in timing of loan and investment funding.

Average interest bearing liabilities decreased $2.0 billion to $25.5 billion for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 primarily due to the repayments of overnight and other short-term borrowings, repayments of long-term FHLB advances and the redemption of $60 million in callable subordinated debt. As compared to the first quarter 2021, average interest bearing liabilities decreased by $484.7 million in the second quarter 2021 mainly due to the continued repayments of short-term and long-term borrowings and redemption of $60 million in subordinated debt, partially offset by the surge in customer deposits, as well as some growth in relatively new deposit initiatives, including our marijuana related business (MRB) with a few large state licensed customers in our primary markets. Total average deposits increased $887.9 million to $32.7 billion for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the first quarter 2021. See additional information under "Deposits and Other Borrowings" in the Executive Summary section above.

Our net interest margin on a tax equivalent basis of 3.18 percent for the second quarter 2021 increased by 4 basis points and 18 basis points from 3.14 percent and 3.00 percent for the first quarter 2021 and second quarter 2020, respectively. The yield on average interest earning assets decreased by 3 basis points on a linked quarter basis, mostly due to the lower yield on our investment securities portfolio, a higher mix of excess cash liquidity held in low yielding overnight investments, partially offset by the positive impact of one more day during the second quarter 2021 as compared to first quarter 2021. The yield on average loans increased by 2 basis points to 3.87 percent for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the first quarter 2021 partially due to the accelerated recognition of unearned PPP loan fees during the second quarter 2021. The overall cost of average interest bearing liabilities decreased 9 basis points to 0.51 percent for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the linked first quarter 2021 and was largely due to continued runoff of time deposits and the customer shift to lower cost deposits without stated maturities. Additionally, the net interest margin benefited from a 7 basis point decrease in the average cost of short-term borrowings driven by our greater reliance on funding from deposits and the repayment of FHLB advances during the second quarter 2021. Our cost of total average deposits was 0.21 percent for the second quarter 2021 as compared to 0.28 percent for the first quarter 2021.

Looking forward, we expect moderate ongoing interest rate pressures on our net interest margin for the second half of 2021 and beyond due to the low level of market rates and the potential negative impact on the overall yield on new and refinanced loan originations. However, we are also encouraged by the continued potential opportunity to repay or reprice stated maturity deposits and borrowings maturing at low costs during the remainder of 2021.
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The following table reflects the components of net interest income for the three months ended June 30, 2021, March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2020:

Quarterly Analysis of Average Assets, Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity and
Net Interest Income on a Tax Equivalent Basis
 Three Months Ended
 June 30, 2021March 31, 2021June 30, 2020
 Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Rate
Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Rate
Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Rate
 ($ in thousands)
Assets
Interest earning assets:
Loans (1)(2)
$32,635,298 $315,339 3.87 %$32,582,479 $313,206 3.85 %$32,041,200 $321,883 4.02 %
Taxable investments (3)
3,159,842 14,883 1.88 3,111,116 15,037 1.93 3,673,090 22,539 2.45 
Tax-exempt investments (1)(3)
498,971 4,071 3.26 513,809 4,248 3.31 562,172 4,673 3.32 
Interest bearing deposits with banks1,613,303 235 0.06 1,178,815 224 0.08 1,501,925 411 0.11 
Total interest earning assets37,907,414 334,528 3.53 37,386,219 332,715 3.56 37,778,387 349,506 3.70 
Allowance for credit losses(350,388)(347,262)(284,184)
Cash and due from banks335,083 312,882 424,625 
Other assets3,237,689 3,373,506 3,466,724 
Unrealized gains on securities available for sale, net31,661 45,386 44,173 
Total assets$41,161,459 $40,770,731 $41,429,725 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
Interest bearing liabilities:
Savings, NOW and money market deposits$17,784,985 $11,166 0.25 %$16,617,762 $11,125 0.27 %$13,715,162 $16,627 0.48 %
Time deposits4,609,778 6,279 0.54 5,844,524 11,093 0.76 8,585,782 29,857 1.39 
Total interest bearing deposits22,394,763 17,445 0.31 22,462,286 22,218 0.40 22,300,944 46,484 0.83 
Short-term borrowings873,927 1,168 0.53 1,168,617 1,758 0.60 2,317,992 1,980 0.34 
Long-term borrowings (4)
2,200,836 14,128 2.57 2,323,279 15,155 2.61 2,886,016 17,502 2.43 
Total interest bearing liabilities25,469,526 32,741 0.51 25,954,182 39,131 0.60 27,504,952 65,966 0.96 
Non-interest bearing deposits10,328,412 9,373,000 8,463,230 
Other liabilities654,724 798,149 984,097 
Shareholders’ equity4,708,797 4,645,400 4,477,446 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$41,161,459 $40,770,731 $41,429,725 
Net interest income/interest rate spread (5)
$301,787 3.02 %$293,584 2.96 %$283,540 2.74 %
Tax equivalent adjustment(880)(917)(981)
Net interest income, as reported$300,907 $292,667 $282,559 
Net interest margin (6)
3.18 %3.13 %2.99 %
Tax equivalent effect0.00 0.01 0.01 
Net interest margin on a fully tax equivalent basis (6)
3.18 %3.14 %3.00 %


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The following table reflects the components of net interest income for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Six Months Ended
 June 30, 2021June 30, 2020
 Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Rate
Average
Balance
InterestAverage
Rate
 ($ in thousands)
Assets
Interest earning assets:
Loans (1)(2)
$32,609,034 $628,545 3.86 %$31,020,314 $654,951 4.22 %
Taxable investments (3)
3,135,614 29,920 1.91 3,615,502 47,873 2.65 
Tax-exempt investments (1)(3)
506,349 8,319 3.29 574,080 9,643 3.36 
Interest bearing deposits with banks1,397,259 459 0.07 1,016,336 1,876 0.37 
Total interest earning assets37,648,256 667,243 3.54 36,226,232 714,343 3.94 
Allowance for credit losses(348,834)(270,430)
Cash and due from banks324,044 331,800 
Other assets3,305,222 3,459,441 
Unrealized gains (losses) on securities available for sale, net38,486 26,245 
Total assets$40,967,174 $39,773,288 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
Interest bearing liabilities:
Savings, NOW and money market deposits$17,204,598 $22,291 0.26 %$13,477,273 $51,140 0.76 %
Time deposits5,223,740 17,372 0.67 8,741,858 72,671 1.66 
Total interest bearing deposits22,428,338 39,663 0.35 22,219,131 123,811 1.11 
Short-term borrowings1,020,458 2,926 0.57 1,820,346 6,687 0.73 
Long-term borrowings (4)
2,261,719 29,283 2.59 2,830,533 33,922 2.40 
Total interest bearing liabilities25,710,515 71,872 0.56 26,870,010 164,420 1.22 
Non-interest bearing deposits9,853,345 7,578,666 
Other liabilities726,041 881,596 
Shareholders’ equity4,677,273 4,443,016 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$40,967,174 $39,773,288 
Net interest income/interest rate spread (5)
$595,371 2.98 %$549,923 2.72 %
Tax equivalent adjustment(1,797)(2,025)
Net interest income, as reported$593,574 $547,898 
Net interest margin (6)
3.15 %3.02 %
Tax equivalent effect0.01 %0.02 %
Net interest margin on a fully tax equivalent basis (6)
3.16 %3.04 %
_____________

(1)Interest income is presented on a tax equivalent basis using a 21 percent federal tax rate.
(2)Loans are stated net of unearned income and include non-accrual loans.
(3)The yield for securities that are classified as available for sale is based on the average historical amortized cost.
(4)Includes junior subordinated debentures issued to capital trusts which are presented separately on the consolidated
statements of financial condition.
(5)Interest rate spread represents the difference between the average yield on interest earning assets and the average cost of interest bearing liabilities and is presented on a fully tax equivalent basis.
(6)Net interest income as a percentage of total average interest earning assets.





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The following table demonstrates the relative impact on net interest income of changes in the volume of interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities and changes in rates earned and paid by us on such assets and liabilities. Variances resulting from a combination of changes in volume and rates are allocated to the categories in proportion to the absolute dollar amounts of the change in each category.

Change in Net Interest Income on a Tax Equivalent Basis
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
Compared to June 30, 2020
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Compared to June 30, 2020
 Change
Due to
Volume
Change
Due to
Rate
Total
Change
Change
Due to
Volume
Change
Due to
Rate
Total
Change
 (in thousands)
Interest Income:
Loans*$5,894 $(12,438)$(6,544)$32,462 $(58,868)$(26,406)
Taxable investments(2,875)(4,781)(7,656)(5,782)(12,171)(17,953)
Tax-exempt investments*(517)(85)(602)(1,117)(207)(1,324)
Interest bearing deposits with banks29 (205)(176)522 (1,939)(1,417)
Total increase (decrease) in interest income2,531 (17,509)(14,978)26,085 (73,185)(47,100)
Interest Expense:
Savings, NOW and money market deposits4,028 (9,489)(5,461)11,389 (40,238)(28,849)
Time deposits(10,191)(13,387)(23,578)(22,202)(33,097)(55,299)
Short-term borrowings(1,599)787 (812)(2,508)(1,253)(3,761)
Long-term borrowings and junior subordinated debentures(4,350)976 (3,374)(7,208)2,569 (4,639)
Total decrease in interest expense(12,112)(21,113)(33,225)(20,529)(72,019)(92,548)
Total increase (decrease) in net interest income$14,643 $3,604 $18,247 $46,614 $(1,166)$45,448 
*Interest income is presented on a tax equivalent basis using 21 percent as the federal tax rate.
Non-Interest Income

Non-interest income decreased $1.7 million and $11.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same periods of 2020. The following table presents the components of non-interest income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 (in thousands)
Trust and investment services$3,532 $2,826 $6,861 $6,239 
Insurance commissions2,637 1,659 4,195 3,610 
Service charges on deposit accounts5,083 3,557 10,186 9,237 
Gains (losses) on securities transactions, net375 (41)476 (81)
Fees from loan servicing3,187 2,227 6,086 4,975 
Gains on sales of loans, net10,061 8,337 13,574 12,887 
Gains (losses) on sales of assets, net232 (299)36 (178)
Bank owned life insurance2,475 5,823 4,806 8,965 
Other15,544 20,741 28,139 40,573 
Total non-interest income$43,126 $44,830 $74,359 $86,227 


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Service charges of deposits accounts increased by $1.5 million and $949 thousand for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively as compared to the same periods in 2020, which was mostly due to a decline in waived fees largely related to COVID-19 customer relief efforts during the second quarter 2020.

Net gains on sales of loans increased $1.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020. Our net gains on sales of loans for each period are comprised of both gains on sales of residential mortgages and the net change in the mark to market gains and losses on our loans originated for sale and carried at fair value at each period end. The net decrease in the fair value of loans held for sale totaled $460 thousand for the three months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to a net increase of $3.2 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020. During the second quarter 2021, we sold approximately $326.2 million of residential mortgage loans as compared to $237.1 million during the second quarter 2020. See further discussion of our residential mortgage loan origination activity under the “Loan Portfolio” section of this MD&A below.

Bank owned life insurance income decreased $3.3 million and $4.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, as compared to the same periods in 2020 partly due to lower yields on the underlying fixed income investments held by insurance policies and periodic death benefits received in the second quarter 2020.

Other non-interest income decreased $5.2 million and $12.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, mainly caused by lower fee income related to derivative interest rate swaps executed with commercial lending customers due to lower transaction volumes. Swap fee income totaled $7.6 million and $14.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $13.8 million and $28.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Non-Interest Expense

Non-interest expense increased $14.7 million and $19.3 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, as compared to the same periods of 2020. The following table presents the components of non-interest expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:

 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 (in thousands)
Salary and employee benefits expense$91,095 $78,532 $179,198 $164,260 
Net occupancy and equipment expense32,451 33,217 64,710 65,658 
FDIC insurance assessment3,374 6,135 6,650 10,011 
Amortization of other intangible assets5,449 6,681 11,455 12,151 
Professional and legal fees7,486 7,797 13,758 13,884 
Loss on extinguishment of debt8,406 — 8,406 — 
Amortization of tax credit investments2,972 3,416 5,716 6,644 
Telecommunications expense2,732 2,866 5,892 5,153 
Other17,928 18,522 36,321 35,061 
Total non-interest expense$171,893 $157,166 $332,106 $312,822 

Salary and employee benefits expense increased $12.6 million and $14.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, as compared to the same periods of 2020 primarily due to strategic increases in our headcount to enhance lending and operations, increased health insurance costs, and higher cash and stock-based incentive compensation accruals. The six months ended June 30, 2020 period included a special bonus expense of $1.8 million paid to hourly employees impacted by COVID-19 that was incurred in the first quarter 2020.

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FDIC insurance assessment expense decreased $2.8 million and $3.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, as compared to the same periods of 2020 partially due to the Bank's improved capital position and overall risk profile.

Loss on extinguishment of debt totaled $8.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 reflecting the prepayment of approximately $248 million of long-term FHLB advances during the second quarter 2021. The prepayments were funded by excess cash liquidity at the Bank. See Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our borrowed funds.

See Notes 8 and 13 to the consolidated financial statements for information regarding the amortization of other intangible assets and tax credit investments, respectively.

Efficiency Ratio
The efficiency ratio measures total non-interest expense as a percentage of net interest income plus total non-interest income. We believe this non-GAAP measure provides a meaningful comparison of our operational performance and facilitates investors’ assessments of business performance and trends in comparison to our peers in the banking industry. Our overall efficiency ratio, and its comparability to some of our peers, is negatively impacted primarily by the amortization of tax credit investments, as well as infrequent charges within non-interest income and expense, including, but not limited to loss on extinguishment of debt and merger related expenses.

The following table presents our efficiency ratio and a reconciliation of the efficiency ratio adjusted for certain items during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 2021202020212020
 ($ in thousands)
Total non-interest expense$171,893 $157,166 $332,106 $312,822 
Less: Loss on extinguishment of debt (pre-tax)8,406 — 8,406 — 
Less: Amortization of tax credit investments (pre-tax)2,972 3,416 5,716 6,644 
Less: Merger related expenses (pre-tax) (a)
— 366 — 1,668 
Total non-interest expense, adjusted$160,515 $153,384 $317,984 $304,510 
Net interest income$300,907 $282,559 $593,574 $547,898 
Total non-interest income43,126 44,830 74,359 86,227 
Add: Losses on available for sale and held to maturity securities transactions, net (pre-tax) (b)
113 41 231 81 
Total net interest income and non-interest income$344,146 $327,430 $668,164 $634,206 
Efficiency ratio49.96 %48.01 %49.72 %49.33 %
Efficiency ratio, adjusted46.64 %46.84 %47.59 %48.01 %
(a)    Merger related expenses are primarily within professional and legal fees, and other non-interest expense.
(b)    Included in gains on securities transactions, net within other non-interest income.
Income Taxes

Income tax expense totaled $42.9 million for the second quarter 2021 as compared to $39.3 million and $33.5 million for the first quarter 2021 and second quarter 2020, respectively, and $82.2 million and $62.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our effective tax rate was 26.2 percent, 25.4 percent and 25.9 percent for the second quarter 2021, first quarter 2021 and second quarter 2020, respectively. The increase in income tax expense as compared to the first quarter 2021 was mainly due to the increase in pre-tax income.


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U.S. GAAP requires that any change in judgment or change in measurement of a tax position taken in a prior annual period be recognized as a discrete event in the quarter in which it occurs, rather than being recognized as a change in effective tax rate for the current year. Our adherence to these tax guidelines may result in volatile effective income tax rates in future quarterly and annual periods. Factors that could impact management’s judgment include changes in income, tax laws and regulations, and tax planning strategies.
Business Segments

We have four business segments that we monitor and report on to manage our business operations. These segments are consumer lending, commercial lending, investment management, and corporate and other adjustments. Our reportable segments have been determined based upon Valley’s internal structure of operations and lines of business. Each business segment is reviewed routinely for its asset growth, contribution to income before income taxes and return on average interest earning assets and impairment (if events or circumstances indicate a possible inability to realize the carrying amount). Expenses related to the branch network, all other components of retail banking, along with the back office departments of the Bank are allocated from the corporate and other adjustments segment to each of the other three business segments. Interest expense and internal transfer expense (for general corporate expenses) are allocated to each business segment utilizing a transfer pricing methodology, which
involves the allocation of operating and funding costs based on each segment's respective mix of average earning assets and/or liabilities outstanding for the period. The financial reporting for each segment contains allocations and reporting in line with our operations, which may not necessarily be comparable to any other financial institution. The accounting for each segment includes internal accounting policies designed to measure consistent and reasonable financial reporting and may result in income and expense measurements that differ from amounts under U.S. GAAP. Furthermore, changes in management structure or allocation methodologies and procedures may result in changes in reported segment financial data.

The following tables present the financial data for each business segment for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,150,137$25,485,161$5,272,116$$37,907,414
Income (loss) before income taxes35,777140,7333,503(16,620)163,393
Annualized return on average interest earning assets (before tax)2.00 %2.21 %0.27 %N/A1.72 %
 
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2020
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,214,368$24,826,832$5,737,187$$37,778,387
Income (loss) before income taxes29,561102,5677,530(10,591)129,067
Annualized return on average interest earning assets (before tax)1.64 %1.65 %0.52 %N/A1.37 %

See Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.


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Consumer Lending

This consumer lending segment represented 21.9 percent of our loan portfolio at June 30, 2021, and was mainly comprised of residential mortgage loans and automobile loans, and to a lesser extent, home equity loans, secured personal lines of credit and other consumer loans (including credit card loans). The duration of the residential mortgage loan portfolio (which represented 13.0 percent of our loan portfolio at June 30, 2021) is subject to movements in the market level of interest rates and forecasted prepayment speeds. The weighted average life of the automobile loans (representing 4.7 percent of total loans at June 30, 2021) is relatively unaffected by movements in the market level of interest rates. However, the average life may be impacted by new loans as a result of the availability of credit within the automobile marketplace and consumer demand for purchasing new or used automobiles. The consumer lending segment also includes the Wealth Management and Insurance Services Division, comprised of trust, asset management, and insurance services.

Average interest earning assets in this segment decreased $64.2 million to $7.2 billion for the three months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020. The decrease was largely due to runoff from principal repayments with a higher percentage of new and refinanced mortgage loans originated for sale rather than held for investment over the last 12 month period. Automobile loan demand was also tempered during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic before steadily strengthening since the fourth quarter 2020.

Income before income taxes generated by the consumer lending segment increased $6.2 million to $35.8 million for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 largely due to a $4.7 million increase in non-interest income coupled with a $2.4 million decrease in provision for loan losses, partially offset by $1.1 million decrease in the net interest income. The increase in non-interest income was partly due to a $1.7 million increase in net gains on sales of loans for the three months ended June 30, 2021, higher fee income from our wealth management division, and moderate increases in other fee categories as compared to the same period in 2020. The decrease in the provision for loan losses was mainly due to the improvement in the economic forecast component of the allowance for loan losses at June 30, 2021 as compared to June 30, 2020. See further details in the "Allowance for Credit Losses" section of this MD&A. The decrease in net interest income was largely driven by lower yields on new loans and the decline in average loan balances, partially offset by lower funding costs.

The net interest margin on the consumer lending portfolio decreased 2 basis points to 3.03 percent for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 mainly due to a 38 basis point decrease in the yield on average loans, partially offset by a 36 basis point decrease in the costs associated with our funding sources. The 38 basis point decrease in loan yield was due to lower yielding new and refinanced loan volumes. The decrease in our funding costs was largely due to continued runoff of time deposits and the customer shift to lower cost deposits without stated maturities and lower rates offered on deposit products. See the "Executive Summary" and the "Net Interest Income" sections above for more details on our net interest margin and funding sources.
Commercial Lending

The commercial lending segment is comprised of floating rate and adjustable rate commercial and industrial loans and construction loans, as well as fixed rate owner occupied and commercial real estate loans. Due to the portfolio’s interest rate characteristics, commercial lending is Valley’s business segment that is most sensitive to movements in market interest rates. Commercial and industrial loans totaled approximately $6.1 billion and represented 18.7 percent of the total loan portfolio at June 30, 2021. Commercial real estate loans and construction loans totaled $19.3 billion and represented 59.4 percent of the total loan portfolio at June 30, 2021.

Average interest earning assets in this segment increased approximately $658.3 million to $25.5 billion for the three months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020. The increase was mostly due to strong organic commercial real estate loan growth during the first half of 2021.

For the three months ended June 30, 2021, income before income taxes for the commercial lending segment increased $38.2 million to $140.7 million as compared to the second quarter 2020 mainly driven by a lower
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provision for credit losses coupled with and an increase in net interest income. The provision for loan losses decreased by $29.9 million mainly due to the improvement in the economic forecast component of the allowance for loan losses as compared to June 30, 2020. Net interest income for this segment increased $22.9 million to $237.4 million for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to lower funding costs and loan growth. The positive impact of the aforementioned items was partially offset by a decrease in non-interest income and higher internal transfer expense. Non-interest income decreased $6.4 million to $9.8 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 mainly due to a $7.1 million decrease in swap fee income related to derivative interest rate swaps executed with commercial loan customers. Internal transfer expense increased $4.3 million for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 partly due to general increases related to organic growth in our business.

The net interest margin for this segment increased 27 basis points to 3.73 percent for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 due to a 36 basis point decrease in the cost of our funding sources, which was partially offset by a 9 basis point decrease in the yield on average loans.
Investment Management

The investment management segment generates a large portion of our income through investments in various types of securities and interest-bearing deposits with other banks. These investments are mainly comprised of fixed rate securities and, depending on our liquid cash position, federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits with banks (primarily the Federal Reserve Bank of New York) as part of our asset/liability management strategies. The fixed
rate investments are one of Valley’s least sensitive assets to changes in market interest rates. However, a portion of the investment portfolio is invested in shorter-duration securities to maintain the overall asset sensitivity of our balance sheet. See the “Asset/Liability Management” section below for further analysis.

Average interest earning assets in this segment decreased $465.1 million during the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 primarily due to a $576.4 million decrease in average investment securities partially offset by a $111.4 million increase in average interest bearing deposits with banks. The decrease in average investment securities was mainly driven by principal repayments on securities with lower reinvestment activity due to the low interest rate environment and funding of loan growth. The increase in overnight investments and deposits with other banks was largely due to our higher levels of excess liquidity during the second quarter 2021.

During the second quarter 2021, income before income taxes for the investment management segment decreased $4.0 million to $3.5 million as compared to the second quarter 2020 mostly due to decreases both in non-interest income and net interest income. Non-interest income decreased $3.3 million to $2.5 million in the second quarter 2021 as compared to the second quarter 2020 mainly due to lower bank owned life insurance income. The decrease in net interest income totaling $2.5 million was primarily due to accelerated repayments of higher yielding securities, higher amortization expense and the low yields on the increased overnight investment balances.

The net interest margin for this segment decreased 11 basis points to 1.17 percent for the second quarter 2021 as compared to the same quarter in 2020 largely due to a 47 basis point decrease in the yield on average investments, partially offset by a 36 basis point decrease in our cost of funding. The decrease in the yield on average investments as compared to the second quarter 2020 was largely driven by principal repayments on higher yielding residential mortgage-backed securities, acceleration of premium amortization expense related to the increased prepayment of mortgage-backed securities and purchases of lower yielding investment securities over the last 12 months.
Corporate and other adjustments

The amounts disclosed as “corporate and other adjustments” represent income and expense items not directly attributable to a specific segment, including net securities gains and losses not reported in the investment management segment above, interest expense related to subordinated notes, amortization and impairment of tax credit investments, as well as non-core items, including merger expenses.

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The corporate segment recognized pre-tax losses of $16.6 million and $10.6 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The increase in the pre-tax loss for the second quarter 2021 was mainly driven by the $12.3 million increase in non-interest expense partially due to a $8.4 million loss on extinguishment of debt during the three months ended June 30, 2021, partially offset by $3.3 million increase in non-interest income. See further details in the "Non-Interest Income" and "Non-Interest Expense" sections of this MD&A.

The following tables present the financial data for each business segment for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,099,973$25,509,061$5,039,222$$37,648,256
Income (loss) before income taxes67,176269,7856,303(24,840)318,424
Annualized return on average interest earning assets (before tax)1.89 %2.12 %0.25 %N/A1.69 %
 Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
 Consumer
Lending
Commercial
Lending
Investment
Management
Corporate
and Other
Adjustments
Total
 ($ in thousands)
Average interest earning assets$7,215,756$23,804,558$5,205,918$$36,226,232
Income (loss) before income taxes45,802205,36215,360(21,060)245,464
Annualized return on average interest earning assets (before tax)1.27 %1.73 %0.59 %N/A1.36 %

Consumer Lending

Average interest earning assets in this segment decreased $115.8 million to $7.1 billion for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020. The decrease was largely due to runoff from principal repayments with a higher percentage of new and refinanced mortgage loans originated for sale rather than held for investment over the last 12 month period. Automobile loan demand was also tempered during the onset of the pandemic in early 2020 before steadily strengthening since the fourth quarter 2020.

Income before income taxes generated by the consumer lending segment increased $21.4 million to $67.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 largely due to a lower provision for loan losses and increases in both, net interest income and non-interest income. The provision for loan losses decreased $11.8 million from a $9.9 million provision for the six months ended June 30, 2020 to a credit (negative) provision of $1.9 million for the corresponding period in 2021 mainly due to the improved economic forecast component of the allowance for loan losses as compared to June 30, 2020, as well as better actual loan performance within these loan categories. See further details in the "Allowance for Credit Losses" section of this MD&A. The net interest income and non-interest income increased $4.8 million and $3.7 million, respectively. The increase in net interest income was mainly driven by lower funding costs, which were partially offset by lower loan yields and average loans. The increase in non-interest income was largely attributable to higher net gains on sales of loans for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020.

The net interest margin on the consumer lending portfolio increased 18 basis points to 3.06 percent for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period one year ago mainly due to a 53 basis point decrease in the costs associated with our funding sources, partially offset by a 35 basis point decrease in the yield on average loans. The decrease in our funding costs was mainly due to a greater mix of non-interest bearing deposits, deposits
63



continuing to reprice at lower interest rates and the repayment of maturing higher cost borrowings. The 35 basis point decrease in loan yield was largely due to lower yielding new loan volumes and normal loan repayments.
Commercial Lending

Average interest earning assets in this segment increased $1.7 billion to $25.5 billion for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020. This increase was mainly due to PPP loans originations during the last 12 months, as well as organic commercial real estate loan growth during the first half of 2021.

For the six months ended June 30, 2021, income before income taxes for the commercial lending segment increased $64.4 million to $269.8 million as compared to the same period in 2020 mainly driven by an increase in net interest income and a lower provision for credit losses, partially offset by a decline in non-interest income. Net interest income increased $49.3 million to $466.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 largely due to lower funding costs and the higher average commercial loan balances during the current period. The provision for credit losses decreased $45.4 million to $19.7 million during the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to $65.1 million for the same period in 2020. The decrease in the provision for loan losses was mainly due to an improvement in the economic forecast component of the allowance for loan losses and other qualitative factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to June 30, 2020. See the "Allowance for Credit Losses" section below for further details. The positive impact of the aforementioned items was partially offset by a $14.2 million decrease in non-interest income for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to a $15.1 million decrease in fee income related to derivative interest rate swaps executed with commercial loan customers. Internal transfer expense also increased $10.7 million to $141.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020.

The net interest margin for this segment increased 14 basis points to 3.65 percent for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 due to a 53 basis point decrease in the cost of our funding sources, partially offset by a 39 basis point decrease in yield on average loans.
Investment Management

Average interest earning assets in this segment decreased $166.7 million during the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 largely due to a $547.6 million decrease in average investment securities partially offset by an increase of $380.9 million in average interest bearing deposits with banks. The decrease in average investment securities was mainly driven by principal repayments on securities with lower reinvestment activity due to the low interest rate environment and funding of loan growth. The increase in our excess liquidity held in overnight interest bearing deposits with banks was mainly caused by strong deposits growth over the 12-month period and management's lower rate of reinvestment in investment securities.

For the six months ended June 30, 2021, income before income taxes for the investment management segment decreased $9.1 million to $6.3 million as compared to the same period in 2020 mainly due to decreases in net interest income and non-interest income. The negative impact of these items was partially offset by a decline in the provision for credit losses for held to maturity debt securities from an $800 thousand provision for the six months ended June 30, 2020 to a credit of $388 thousand for the first half of 2021.

The net interest margin for this segment decreased 21 basis points to 1.21 percent for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 largely due to a 74 basis point decrease in the yield on average investments, partially offset by a 53 basis point decrease in costs associated with our funding sources. The decrease in the yield on average investments as compared to the same period of 2020 was mainly due to repayment and prepayment of higher yield residential mortgage-backed securities, increased premium amortization and lower yielding new investments purchased over the last 12 months, and low yielding excess liquidity held in overnight investments.


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Corporate and other adjustments

The pre-tax net loss for the corporate segment totaled $24.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to $21.1 million for the same period in 2020. The negative change of $3.8 million was mainly due to an increase in non-interest expense, partially offset by higher internal transfer income. Non-interest expense increased $14.1 million to $238.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 largely due to the $8.4 million loss on extinguishment of debt during the second quarter 2021 and increases in salaries and employee benefits expenses. See further details in the "Non-Interest Expense" section above. Internal transfer income increased $9.6 million to $209.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020.
ASSET/LIABILITY MANAGEMENT

Interest Rate Sensitivity

Our success is largely dependent upon our ability to manage interest rate risk. Interest rate risk can be defined as the exposure of our interest rate sensitive assets and liabilities to the movement in interest rates. Our Asset/Liability Management Committee is responsible for managing such risks and establishing policies that monitor and coordinate our sources and uses of funds. Asset/Liability management is a continuous process due to the constant change in interest rate risk factors. In assessing the appropriate interest rate risk levels for us, management weighs the potential benefit of each risk management activity within the desired parameters of liquidity, capital levels and management’s tolerance for exposure to income fluctuations. Many of the actions undertaken by management utilize fair value analysis and attempt to achieve consistent accounting and economic benefits for financial assets and their related funding sources. We have predominantly focused on managing our interest rate risk by attempting to match the inherent risk and cash flows of financial assets and liabilities. Specifically, management employs multiple risk management activities such as optimizing the level of new residential mortgage originations retained in our mortgage portfolio through increasing or decreasing loan sales in the secondary market, product pricing levels, the desired maturity levels for new originations, the composition levels of both our interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities, as well as several other risk management activities.

We use a simulation model to analyze net interest income sensitivity to movements in interest rates. The simulation model projects net interest income based on various interest rate scenarios over a 12-month and 24-month period. The model is based on the actual maturity and re-pricing characteristics of rate sensitive assets and liabilities. The model incorporates certain assumptions which management believes to be reasonable regarding the impact of changing interest rates and the prepayment assumptions of certain assets and liabilities as of June 30, 2021. The model assumes immediate changes in interest rates without any proactive change in the composition or size of the balance sheet, or other future actions that management might undertake to mitigate this risk. In the model, the forecasted shape of the yield curve remains static as of June 30, 2021. The impact of interest rate derivatives, such as interest rate swaps, is also included in the model.

Our simulation model is based on market interest rates and prepayment speeds prevalent in the market as of June 30, 2021. Although the size of Valley’s balance sheet is forecasted to remain static as of June 30, 2021 in our model, the composition is adjusted to reflect new interest earning assets and funding originations coupled with rate spreads utilizing our actual originations during the second quarter 2021. The model also utilizes an immediate parallel shift in market interest rates at June 30, 2021.

The assumptions used in the net interest income simulation are inherently uncertain. Actual results may differ significantly from those presented in the table below due to the frequency and timing of changes in interest rates and changes in spreads between maturity and re-pricing categories. Overall, our net interest income is affected by changes in interest rates and cash flows from our loan and investment portfolios. We actively manage these cash flows in conjunction with our liability mix, duration and interest rates to optimize the net interest income, while structuring the balance sheet in response to actual or potential changes in interest rates. Additionally, our net interest income is impacted by the level of competition within our marketplace. Competition can negatively impact the level
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of interest rates attainable on loans and increase the cost of deposits, which may result in downward pressure on our net interest margin in future periods. Other factors, including, but not limited to, the slope of the yield curve and projected cash flows will impact our net interest income results and may increase or decrease the level of asset sensitivity of our balance sheet.

Convexity is a measure of how the duration of a financial instrument changes as market interest rates change. Potential movements in the convexity of bonds held in our investment portfolio, as well as the duration of the loan portfolio may have a positive or negative impact on our net interest income in varying interest rate environments. As a result, the increase or decrease in forecasted net interest income may not have a linear relationship to the results reflected in the table below. Management cannot provide any assurance about the actual effect of changes in interest rates on our net interest income.

The following table reflects management’s expectations of the change in our net interest income over the next 12- month period considering the aforementioned assumptions. While an instantaneous and severe shift in interest rates was used in this simulation model, we believe that any actual shift in interest rates would likely be more gradual and would therefore have a more modest impact than shown in the table below.
 Estimated Change in
Future Net Interest Income
Changes in Interest RatesDollar
Change
Percentage
Change
(in basis points)($ in thousands)
+200$73,064 6.21 %
+10035,915 3.05 
–100(43,188)(3.67)
–200(63,235)(5.38)

As noted in the table above, a 100 basis point immediate increase in interest rates combined with a static balance
sheet where the size, mix, and proportions of assets and liabilities remain unchanged is projected to increase net interest income over the next 12 month period by 3.05 percent. Management believes the interest rate sensitivity remains within an acceptable tolerance range at June 30, 2021. However, the level of net interest income sensitivity may increase or decrease in the future as a result of several factors, including potential changes in our balance sheet strategies, the slope of the yield curve and projected cash flows.
Liquidity and Cash Requirements

Bank Liquidity

Liquidity measures the ability to satisfy current and future cash flow needs as they become due. A bank’s liquidity reflects its ability to meet loan demand, to accommodate possible outflows in deposits and to take advantage of interest rate opportunities in the marketplace. Liquidity management is carefully performed and routinely reported by our Treasury Department to two board committees. Among other actions, Treasury reviews historical funding requirements, current liquidity position, sources and stability of funding, marketability of assets, options for attracting additional funds, and anticipated future funding needs, including the level of unfunded commitments. Our goal is to maintain sufficient liquidity to cover current and potential funding requirements.

The Bank has no required regulatory liquidity ratios to maintain; however, it adheres to an internal liquidity policy. The current policy maintains that we may not have a ratio of loans to deposits in excess of 110 percent or reliance on wholesale funding greater than 25 percent of total funding. The Bank was in compliance with the foregoing policies at June 30, 2021.

Valley's short and long-term cash requirements include contractual obligations under borrowings, deposits, payment related to leases, capital expenditures and other purchase commitments. In the ordinary course of operations, the Bank also enters into various financial obligations, including contractual obligations that may require future cash
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payments. Management believes the Bank has the ability to generate and obtain adequate amounts of cash to meet its short-term and long-term obligations as they come due by utilizing various cash resources described below.

On the asset side of the balance sheet, the Bank has numerous sources of liquid funds in the form of cash and due from banks, interest bearing deposits with banks (including the Federal Reserve Bank of New York), investment securities held to maturity that are maturing within 90 days or would otherwise qualify as maturities if sold (i.e., 85 percent of original cost basis has been repaid), investment securities classified as trading and available for sale, loans held for sale, and from time to time, federal funds sold and receivables related to unsettled securities transactions. Total liquid assets were approximately $3.2 billion, representing 8.5 percent of earning assets at June 30, 2021 and $3.1 billion, representing 8.3 percent of earning assets at December 31, 2020. Of the $3.2 billion of liquid assets at June 30, 2021, approximately $736.2 million of various investment securities were pledged to counterparties to support our earning asset funding strategies. We anticipate the receipt of approximately $758 million in principal payments from securities in the total investment portfolio over the next 12 month period due to normally scheduled principal repayments and expected prepayments of certain securities, primarily residential mortgage-backed securities.

Additional liquidity is derived from scheduled loan payments of principal and interest, as well as prepayments received. Loan principal payments (including loans held for sale at June 30, 2021) are projected in accordance with their scheduled contractual terms to be approximately $7.9 billion over the next 12 month period. As a contingency plan for any liquidity constraints, liquidity could also be derived from the sale of conforming residential mortgages from our loan portfolio or alleviated from the temporary curtailment of lending activities.

On the liability side of the balance sheet, we utilize multiple sources of funds to meet liquidity needs, including retail and commercial deposits, brokered and municipal deposits, and short-term and long-term borrowings. Our core deposit base, which generally excludes fully insured brokered deposits and both retail and brokered certificates of deposit over $250 thousand, represents the largest of these sources. Average core deposits totaled approximately $29.4 billion and $25.8 billion for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2020, respectively, representing 77.7 percent and 69.8 percent of average earning assets for the respective periods. The level of interest bearing deposits is affected by interest rates offered, which is often influenced by our need for funds and the need to match the maturities of assets and liabilities.

Additional funding may be provided through deposit gathering networks and in the form of federal funds purchased through our well established relationships with numerous banks. While these lending lines are uncommitted, management believes that the Bank could borrow approximately $1.5 billion from these banks on a collective basis. The Bank is also a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York (FHLB) and has the ability to borrow from them in the form of FHLB advances secured by pledges of certain eligible collateral, including but not limited to U.S. government and agency mortgage-backed securities and a blanket assignment of qualifying first lien mortgage loans, consisting of both residential mortgage and commercial real estate loans. Additionally, Valley's collateral pledged to the FHLB may be used to obtain Municipal Letters of Credit (MULOC) to collateralize certain municipal deposits held by Valley. At June 30, 2021, Valley had $700 million of MULOCs outstanding for this purpose. Furthermore, we can obtain overnight borrowings from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York via the discount window as a contingency for additional liquidity. At June 30, 2021, our borrowing capacity (excluding added capacity available to us by pledging PPP loans) under the Federal Reserve Bank's discount window was $1.8 billion.

We also have access to other short-term and long-term borrowing sources to support our asset base, such as repos (i.e., securities sold under agreements to repurchase). Short-term borrowings (consisting of FHLB advances, repos, and from time to time, federal funds purchased) decreased approximately $293.6 million to $854.4 million at June 30, 2021 as compared to December 31, 2020 due to normal FHLB advance repayments.



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Corporation Liquidity

Valley’s recurring cash requirements primarily consist of dividends to preferred and common shareholders and interest expense on subordinated notes and junior subordinated debentures issued to capital trusts. As part of our on-going asset/liability management strategies, Valley could also use cash to repurchase shares of its outstanding common stock under its share repurchase program or redeem its callable junior subordinated debentures and subordinated notes. Valley's cash needs are routinely satisfied by dividends collected from the Bank. Projected cash flows from the Bank are expected to be adequate to pay preferred and common dividends, if declared, and interest expense payable to subordinated note holders and capital trusts, given the current capital levels and current profitable operations of the Bank. In addition to dividends received from the Bank, Valley can satisfy its cash requirements by utilizing its own cash and potential new funds borrowed from outside sources or capital issuances. Valley also has the right to defer interest payments on the junior subordinated debentures, and therefore distributions on its trust preferred securities for consecutive quarterly periods up to five years, but not beyond the stated maturity dates, and subject to other conditions.

During the second quarter 2021, Valley redeemed $60 million of callable subordinated notes and issued $300 million of 3.00 percent subordinated notes. See Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Investment Securities Portfolio

As of June 30, 2021, we had $33.9 million, $21.2 million, $1.1 billion and $2.5 billion in equity, trading debt, available for sale and held to maturity debt securities, respectively. Our trading securities portfolio wholly consists of investment grade municipal bonds. The equity securities portfolio is mainly comprised of a money market mutual fund and investments in public and private Community Reinvestment Act funds. Held to maturity and available for sale debt securities portfolios include of U.S. Treasury securities, U.S. government agency securities, tax-exempt and taxable issuances of states and political subdivisions, residential mortgage-backed securities, single-issuer trust preferred securities principally issued by bank holding companies, and high quality corporate bonds. Among other securities, our available for sale debt securities include securities such as bank issued and other corporate bonds, as well as municipal special revenue bonds, that may pose a higher risk of future impairment charges to us as a result of the uncertain economic environment and its potential negative effect on the future performance of the security issuers.

There were no securities in the name of any one issuer exceeding 10 percent of shareholders’ equity, except for residential mortgage-backed securities issued by Ginnie Mae and Fannie Mae. Certain securities with limited marketability and/or restrictions, such as Federal Home Loan Bank and Federal Reserve Bank stocks, are carried at cost and are included in other assets.
Allowance for Credit Losses and Impairment Analysis

Available for sale debt securities. Available for sale debt securities in unrealized loss positions are evaluated for impairment related to credit losses at least quarterly. In assessing whether a credit loss exists, we compare the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security with the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis for the security, a credit loss exists and an allowance for credit losses is recorded, limited to the amount the fair value is less than amortized cost basis. Declines in fair value that have not been recorded through an allowance for credit losses, such as declines due to changes in market interest rates, are recorded through other comprehensive income, net of applicable taxes.

We have evaluated all available for sale debt securities that are in an unrealized loss position as of June 30, 2021 and determined that the declines in fair value are mainly attributable to changes in market volatility, due to factors such as interest rates and spread factors, but not attributable to credit quality or other factors. Based on a comparison of the present value of expected cash flows to the amortized cost, management recognized no impairment charges during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and, as a result, there was no allowance for credit losses for
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available for sale debt securities at June 30, 2021.There was no allowance for credit losses for available for sale debt securities at December 31, 2020.
Held to maturity debt securities. Valley estimates the expected credit losses on held to maturity debt securities that have loss expectations using a discounted cash flow model developed by a third party. Valley has a zero loss expectation for certain securities within the held to maturity portfolio, including U.S. Treasury securities, U.S. agency securities, residential mortgage-backed securities issued by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and collateralized municipal bonds, which are excluded from the model. Assumptions used in the model for pools of securities with common risk characteristics include the historical lifetime probability of default and severity of loss in the event of default, with the model incorporating several economic cycles of loss history data to calculate expected credit losses given default at the individual security level. Held to maturity debt securities were carried net of allowance for credit losses totaling $1.0 million and $1.4 million at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. There were no net charge-offs of held to maturity debt securities for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.

Investment grades. The investment grades in the table below reflect the most current independent analysis performed by third parties of each security as of the date presented and not necessarily the investment grades at the date of our purchase of the securities. For many securities, the rating agencies may not have performed an independent analysis of the tranches owned by us, but rather an analysis of the entire investment pool. For this and other reasons, we believe the assigned investment grades may not accurately reflect the actual credit quality of each security and should not be viewed in isolation as a measure of the quality of our investment portfolio.

The following table presents the held to maturity and available for sale debt securities portfolios by investment grades at June 30, 2021:
 June 30, 2021
 Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
(in thousands)
Available for sale investment grades: *
AAA Rated$918,080 $27,103 $(1,220)$943,963 
AA Rated28,753 506 (8)29,251 
A Rated6,167 117 — 6,284 
BBB Rated29,322 921 — 30,243 
Non-investment grade4,995 36 — 5,031 
Not rated58,420 2,365 (19)60,766 
Total$1,045,737 $31,048 $(1,247)$1,075,538 
Held to maturity investment grades: *