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T AT&T

Filed: 24 Feb 21, 7:00pm
0000732717t:BankOfAmericaNaMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMembert:BAMLTrancheAFacility125YearTermLoanMember2019-09-30

FORM 10-K
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______ to

Commission File Number: 001-8610

AT&T INC.

Incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware
I.R.S. Employer Identification Number 43-1301883

208 S. Akard St., Dallas, Texas, 75202
Telephone Number 210-821-4105

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
  Name of each exchange
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)on which registered
Common Shares (Par Value $1.00 Per Share)TNew York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/1000th interest in a share of
5.000% Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A
T PRANew York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/1000th interest in a share of
4.750% Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series C
T PRCNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 1.875% Global Notes due December 4, 2020T 20New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.650% Global Notes due December 17, 2021T 21BNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 1.450% Global Notes due June 1, 2022T 22BNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.500% Global Notes due March 15, 2023T 23New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.750% Global Notes due May 19, 2023T 23CNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. Floating Rate Global Notes due September 5, 2023T 23DNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 1.050% Global Notes due September 5, 2023T 23ENew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 1.300% Global Notes due September 5, 2023T 23ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 1.950% Global Notes due September 15, 2023T 23FNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.400% Global Notes due March 15, 2024T 24ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 3.500% Global Notes due December 17, 2025T 25New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 0.250% Global Notes due March 4, 2026T 26ENew York Stock Exchange



  Name of each exchange
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)on which registered
AT&T Inc. 1.800% Global Notes due September 5, 2026T 26DNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.900% Global Notes due December 4, 2026T 26ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 1.600% Global Notes due May 19, 2028T 28CNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.350% Global Notes due September 5, 2029T 29DNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 4.375% Global Notes due September 14, 2029T 29BNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.600% Global Notes due December 17, 2029T 29ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 0.800% Global Notes due March 4, 2030T 30BNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.050% Global Notes due May 19, 2032T 32ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 3.550% Global Notes due December 17, 2032T 32New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 5.200% Global Notes due November 18, 2033T 33New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 3.375% Global Notes due March 15, 2034T 34New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.450% Global Notes due March 15, 2035T 35New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 3.150% Global Notes due September 4, 2036T 36ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 2.600% Global Notes due May 19, 2038T 38CNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 1.800% Global Notes due September 14, 2039T 39BNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 7.000% Global Notes due April 30, 2040T 40New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 4.250% Global Notes due June 1, 2043T 43New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 4.875% Global Notes due June 1, 2044T 44New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 4.000% Global Notes due June 1, 2049T 49ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 4.250% Global Notes due March 1, 2050T 50New York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 3.750% Global Notes due September 1, 2050T50ANew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 5.350% Global Notes due November 1, 2066TBBNew York Stock Exchange
AT&T Inc. 5.625% Global Notes due August 1, 2067TBCNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company




If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes No

Based on the closing price of $30.23 per share on June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of our voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates was $215 billion.

At February 12, 2021, common shares outstanding were 7,131,763,496.



DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

(1)Portions of AT&T Inc.’s Notice of 2021 Annual Meeting and Proxy Statement dated on or about March 11, 2021 to be filed within the period permitted under General Instruction G(3) (Parts III and IV).




AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
TABLE OF CONTENTS



AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

GENERAL

AT&T Inc. (“AT&T,” “we” or the “Company”) is a holding company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1983 and has its principal executive offices at 208 S. Akard St., Dallas, Texas, 75202 (telephone number 210-821-4105). We maintain an internet website at www.att.com. (This website address is for information only and is not intended to be an active link or to incorporate any website information into this document.) We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) required reports on Form 8-K, Form 10-Q and Form 10-K; proxy materials; registration statements on Forms S-3 and S-8, as necessary; and other forms or reports as required. The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. We make available, free of charge, on our website our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. We also make available on that website, and in print, if any stockholder or other person so requests, our “Code of Ethics” applicable to all employees and Directors, our “Corporate Governance Guidelines,” and the charters for all committees of our Board of Directors, including Audit, Human Resources and Corporate Governance and Nominating. Any changes to our Code of Ethics or waiver of our Code of Ethics for senior financial officers, executive officers or Directors will be posted on that website.

A reference to a “Note” refers to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

History
AT&T, formerly known as SBC Communications Inc. (SBC), was formed as one of several regional holding companies created to hold AT&T Corp.’s (ATTC) local telephone companies. On January 1, 1984, we were spun-off from ATTC pursuant to an anti-trust consent decree, becoming an independent publicly-traded telecommunications services provider. At formation, we primarily operated in five southwestern states.

Following our formation, we have expanded our footprint and operations by acquiring various businesses, most significantly:
Our subsidiaries merged with Pacific Telesis Group in 1997, Southern New England Telecommunications Corporation in 1998 and Ameritech Corporation in 1999, thereby expanding our wireline operations as the incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC) into a total of 13 states.
In 2005, we merged one of our subsidiaries with ATTC, creating one of the world’s leading telecommunications providers. In connection with the merger, we changed the name of our company from “SBC Communications Inc.” to “AT&T Inc.”
In 2006, we merged one of our subsidiaries with BellSouth Corporation (BellSouth) making us the ILEC in an additional nine states. With the BellSouth acquisition, we also acquired BellSouth’s 40 percent economic interest in AT&T Mobility LLC (AT&T Mobility), formerly Cingular Wireless LLC, resulting in 100 percent ownership of AT&T Mobility.
In 2014, we completed the acquisition of wireless provider Leap Wireless International, Inc. and sold our ILEC operations in Connecticut, which we had previously acquired in 1998.
In 2015, we acquired wireless properties in Mexico, and acquired DIRECTV, a leading provider of digital television entertainment services in both the United States and Latin America.
In June 2018, we acquired Time Warner Inc. (Time Warner), a leader in media and entertainment that operates the Turner, Home Box Office (HBO) and Warner Bros. business units. We also acquired Otter Media Holdings and advertising platform AppNexus in August 2018.
In October 2020, we sold our wireless and wireline operations in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
General
We are a leading provider of telecommunications, media and technology services globally. The services and products that we offer vary by market and utilize various technology platforms in a range of geographies. Our reportable segments are organized as follows:

The Communications segment provides services to businesses and consumers located in the U.S. and businesses globally. Our business strategies reflect bundled product offerings that cut across product lines and utilize shared assets. This segment contains the following business units:
Mobility provides nationwide wireless service and equipment.
Video provides video, including over-the-top (OTT) services and also sells multiplatform advertising services recognized as video revenues.
Broadband provides internet, including broadband fiber, and legacy telephony voice communications services to residential customers.
Business Wireline provides advanced IP-based services, as well as traditional voice and data services to business customers.

The WarnerMedia segment develops, produces and distributes feature films, television, gaming and other content over various physical and digital formats, including our HBO Max streaming platform. This segment contains the following:
Turner primarily operates multichannel basic television networks and digital properties. Turner also sells advertising on its networks and digital properties.
Home Box Office consists of premium pay television and our HBO Max streaming platform domestically and premium pay, basic tier television and OTT and streaming services internationally, as well as content licensing and home entertainment.
Warner Bros. consists of the production, distribution and licensing of television programming and feature films, the distribution of home entertainment products and the production and distribution of games.
Eliminations & Other includes the Xandr advertising business and Otter Media Holdings operations, excluding Crunchyroll for which we reached an agreement to sell in December 2020 and applied held-for-sale accounting treatment, moving those results to Corporate and Other. Eliminations & Other also removes transactions between the Turner, Home Box Office and Warner Bros. business units, including internal sales of content to the HBO Max platform that began in the fourth quarter of 2019.

The Latin America segment provides entertainment and wireless services outside of the U.S. This segment contains the following business units:
Vrio provides video services primarily to residential customers using satellite and streaming technology in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Mexico provides wireless service and equipment to customers in Mexico.

Corporate and Other reconciles our segment results to consolidated operating income and income before income taxes, and includes:
Corporate, which consists of: (1) businesses no longer integral to our operations or which we no longer actively market, (2) corporate support functions, (3) impacts of corporate-wide decisions for which the individual operating segments are not being evaluated, and (4) the reclassification of the amortization of prior service credits, which we continue to report with segment operating expenses, to consolidated “Other income (expense) – net.”
Acquisition-related items, which consists of items associated with the merger and integration of acquired businesses, including amortization of intangible assets.
Certain significant items, which includes (1) employee separation charges associated with voluntary and/or strategic offers, (2) losses resulting from asset impairments and abandonments, and (3) other items for which the individual segments are not being evaluated.
Eliminations and consolidations, which (1) removes transactions involving dealings between our segments, including channel distribution between WarnerMedia and Communications, and (2) includes adjustments for our reporting of the advertising business.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Areas of Focus
We are in a period of rapid growth in wireless video usage and believe that there are substantial opportunities available for next-generation converged services that combine technologies and services. Our First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) contract and our strong spectrum position allow us to execute a progressive 5G deployment strategy. With our subscription video on demand streaming platform, HBO Max, we intend to capitalize on our premier network, technology and distribution capabilities to provide our premier content in this highly attractive offering. Our fiber expansion allows us to respond to continuing advances in technology and changing demands from our customers. We expect our transition to software-based products with low acquisition costs will provide better economics and improve our product portfolio, including expansion of streaming services. Our acquisitions over the past few years and our continued investment in a premier network experience make our customers’ lives more convenient and productive and foster competition and further innovation in the communications and entertainment industry.

Communications
Our integrated telecommunications network utilizes different technological platforms, including wireless, satellite and wireline, to provide instant connectivity at the higher speeds made possible by our fiber network expansion and wireless network enhancements. Video streaming is expected to drive greater demand for broadband and capitalize on our fiber deployment. These investments have and should continue to prepare us to meet increased customer demand for enhanced wireless and broadband services, including video streaming, augmented reality and “smart” technologies. During 2021, we will continue to develop and provide high-value, integrated mobile and broadband solutions. We believe offering integrated services facilitates our customers’ desire to view content anywhere on demand and encourages customer retention.

Wireless Service We are experiencing rapid growth in data usage as consumers are demanding seamless access across their wireless and wired devices, and businesses and municipalities are connecting more and more equipment and facilities to the internet. We were awarded the FirstNet contract in 2018, which provided us with access to 20 MHz of nationwide low band spectrum and invested in 37/39 GHz spectrum in a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) auction. These bands facilitate our 5G services. At December 31, 2020, our FirstNet coverage is more than 80 percent complete with 1.9 million FirstNet connections. Our 5G service went nationwide in July 2020, and with that availability, we anticipate the introduction of 5G handsets and devices will contribute to a renewed interest in equipment upgrades. We will continue to invest in our wireless network as we look to provide future service offerings and participate in emerging technologies, such as 5G and millimeter-wave bands. The increased speeds and network operating efficiency expected with this technology should enable massive deployment of devices connected to the internet as well as faster delivery of data services. We expect that 5G will enhance our customers’ entire connected experience and not just provide faster speeds.

Our network covers over 440 million people in North America with 4G LTE technology, and, in the United States, our network covers all major metropolitan areas and more than 330 million people with our LTE technology. Our 3G network provides services to customers using older handsets and connected devices. We expect to redeploy spectrum currently used for our 3G services as we transition to 5G service and project that we will discontinue service on our 3G network in early 2022; we will manage this process consistent with previous network upgrades. As of December 31, 2020, about 5 percent of our postpaid subscribers were using 3G handsets, and we expect them to transition to newer technologies. We do not expect this transition to have a material impact on our consolidated operating results.

As the wireless industry has matured, future wireless growth will increasingly depend on our ability to offer innovative data services on a wireless network that has sufficient spectrum and capacity to support these innovations. We continue to invest significant capital in expanding our network capacity, as well as obtaining additional spectrum that meets our long-term needs. We participate in FCC spectrum auctions and have been redeploying spectrum previously used for more basic services to support more advanced mobile internet services.

Broadband Technology We are rapidly converting to a software-based network and managing the migration of wireline customers to services using our fiber infrastructure to provide broadband technology. Software-based technologies align with our global leadership in software defined network (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV). This network approach, of which we have led the industry in virtualizing over 75 percent of our network as of the end of 2020, delivers a demonstrable cost advantage in the deployment of next-generation technology over the traditional, hardware-intensive network approach. Our virtualized network will be able to support next-generation applications like 5G and broadband-based services quickly and efficiently.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Media
We produce and distribute high-quality video content to take advantage of growing global demand. Our media businesses use their strong brands, distinctive intellectual property and global scale to produce and distribute quality content. As the television industry continues to evolve from a distribution system using satellite and cable offerings to internet streaming video services, we are well-positioned to address and capitalize on these changes, but we face financial risks and new sources of competition associated with these developments. In 2021, we plan to continue providing more personalized services offered directly to consumers through our own distribution and distribution partner channels, including launching our streaming platform, HBO Max, internationally beginning with Latin America. AT&T customers in the U.S. that have premium video, mobile and broadband services can bundle with HBO Max included at no additional charge. We also plan to add an advertising-supported HBO Max offering in 2021 to take advantage of our advertising capabilities. In the future, we expect to provide HBO Max subscribers with highly attractive live, interactive and special event programming.

Latin America
We believe that the wireless model in the U.S., with accelerating demand for mobile internet service and the associated economic benefits, will be repeated around the world as companies invest in high-speed mobile networks. Due in part to changes in the legal and regulatory framework in Mexico, we acquired Mexican wireless operations in 2015 to establish a seamless, cross-border North American wireless network covering an area with over 440 million people and businesses in the United States and Mexico. With the increased capacity from our completed LTE network, we also expect additional reseller revenue in 2021. Our 4G LTE network in Mexico now covers approximately 110 million people and businesses. Our Vrio business unit provides video services to primarily residential customers using satellite technology in Latin America and the Caribbean. We have approximately 11 million video subscribers in Latin America.

BUSINESS OPERATIONS

OPERATING SEGMENTS
Our segments are strategic business units that offer different products and services over various technology platforms and/or in different geographies that are managed accordingly. We analyze our operating segments based on segment contribution, which consists of operating income, excluding acquisition-related costs and other significant items, and equity in net income (loss) of affiliates for investments managed within each operating segment. We have three reportable segments: (1) Communications, (2) WarnerMedia and (3) Latin America. Historical results from Xandr, previously a separate reportable segment, have been combined with the WarnerMedia segment.

Additional information about our segments, including financial information, is included under the heading “Segment Results” in Item 7. and in Note 4 of Item 8.

COMMUNICATIONS
Our Communications segment provides wireless and wireline telecom, video and broadband services to consumers located in the U.S. and businesses globally. Our Communications services and products are marketed under the AT&T, Cricket, AT&T PREPAIDSM, AT&T TV, AT&T Fiber and DIRECTV brand names. The Communications segment provided approximately 79% of 2020 segment operating revenues and 80% of our 2020 total segment contribution. This segment contains the Mobility, Video, Broadband and Business Wireline business units.

Mobility – Our Mobility business unit provides nationwide wireless services to consumers and wholesale and resale wireless subscribers located in the United States by utilizing our network to provide voice and data services, including high-speed internet over wireless devices. We classify our subscribers as either postpaid, prepaid, connected device or reseller. At December 31, 2020, we served 183 million Mobility subscribers, including 77 million postpaid, 18 million prepaid, 7 million reseller and 81 million connected devices. Our Mobility business unit revenue includes the following categories: service and equipment.

Wireless Services
We offer a comprehensive range of high-quality nationwide wireless voice and data communications services in a variety of pricing plans to meet the communications needs of targeted customer categories. Through our FirstNet services, we also provide a nationwide wireless broadband network dedicated to public safety.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Consumers continue to require increasing availability of data-centric services and a network to connect and control those devices. An increasing number of our subscribers are using more advanced integrated and data-centric devices, including embedded computing systems and/or software, commonly called the Internet of Things (IoT). We offer plans that include unlimited features allowing for the sharing of voice, text and data across multiple devices, which attracts subscribers from other providers and helps minimize subscriber churn. Customers in our “connected device” category (e.g., users of monitoring devices and automobile systems) generally purchase those devices from third-party suppliers that buy data access supported by our network. We continue to upgrade our network and coordinate with equipment manufacturers and application developers to further capitalize on the continued growing demand for wireless data services.

We also offer nationwide wireless voice and data communications to certain customers who prefer to pay in advance. These services are offered under the Cricket and AT&T PREPAID brands and are typically monthly prepaid services.

Equipment
We sell a wide variety of handsets, wirelessly enabled computers and wireless data cards manufactured by various suppliers for use with our voice and data services. We also sell accessories, such as carrying cases and hands-free devices. We sell through our own company-owned stores, agents and third-party retail stores. We provide our customers the ability to purchase handsets on an installment basis and the opportunity to bring their own device. In recent years, subscribers have been bringing their own devices or retaining their handsets for longer periods, which could continue to impact upgrade activity. Like other wireless service providers, we also provide a limited number of postpaid contract subscribers substantial equipment subsidies to initiate, renew or upgrade service.

Video – Our Video business unit provides video and targeted advertising services to customers in the United States. Our Video business unit revenue includes the following categories: service and equipment.

Video Services
Video service revenues are comprised of subscription and advertising revenues, and are offered over satellite and IP-based technologies (referred to as “premium” or “linear”) as well as OTT options that do not require either technology. Due to the rising cost of programming and an increasingly competitive industry, we have focused on acquiring and retaining high-value subscribers. Our OTT offering is delivered over our software-based video architecture and is bundled with our fiber broadband services.

We provide approximately 17 million subscribers with premium TV and OTT services. Our video subscribers can use the internet and/or our mobile applications from smartphones and tablets to view authorized content, search program listings and schedule DVR recordings. Consistent with industry trends, our customers continue to shift from premium TV services to OTT service and/or competitors, which has pressured our video revenues.

Equipment
We sell IP-based set-top boxes for delivery of video services.

Broadband – Our Broadband business unit provides broadband, including fiber, and legacy telephony internet and voice communication to customers in the United States by utilizing our IP-based and copper wired network. Our Broadband business unit revenue includes the following categories: high-speed internet, legacy voice and data services and other service and equipment.

High-Speed Internet
We offer broadband and internet services to more than 14 million customer locations, with 5 million fiber broadband connections at December 31, 2020. With changes in video viewing preferences and the recent work and learn from home trends, we are experiencing increasing demand for high-speed broadband services. Our investment in expanding our industry-leading fiber network positions us to be a leader in wired connectivity.

We believe that our flexible platform with a broadband and wireless connection is the most efficient way to transport direct-to-consumer video experiences both at home and on mobile devices. Through this integrated approach, we can optimize the use of storage in the home as well as in the cloud, while also providing a seamless service for consumers across screens and locations. Our WarnerMedia streaming platform, HBO Max, provides an attractive offering of video options as well as bundling opportunities for our wireless customers and is driving our direct to consumer strategy.
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Dollars in millions except per share amounts

Legacy Voice and Data Services
Revenues from our traditional voice services continue to decline as customers switch to wireless or VoIP services provided by us, cable companies or other internet-based providers. We have responded by offering packages of combined voice and data services, including broadband and video, and intend to continue this strategy during 2021.

Other Services and Equipment
Other service revenues include AT&T U-verse voice services (which use VoIP technology), customer fees and equipment.

Business Wireline – Our Business Wireline business unit provides services to business customers, including multinational corporations, small and mid-sized businesses, governmental and wholesale customers. Our Business Wireline business unit revenue includes the following categories: strategic and managed services, legacy voice and data services, and other services and equipment.

Strategic and Managed Services
Strategic and managed services are our most advanced business solutions and allow our customers to create and manage their own internal networks and to access external data networks. Additionally, we provide collaboration services that utilize our IP infrastructure and allow our customers to utilize the most advanced technology to improve their productivity. Our strategic and managed services are made up of Strategic Data, Strategic Voice, Security, Cloud Solutions, Outsourcing, Managed Services and Professional Services. Strategic Data services include our Virtual Private Networks (VPN), AT&T Dedicated Internet (ADI), and Ethernet and broadband services. We continue to reconfigure our wireline network to take advantage of the latest technologies and services. We have developed services that rely on our SDN and NFV to enhance business customers’ digital agility in a rapidly evolving environment. We also provide state-of-the-art security solutions like Threat Management, Intrusion Detection and other business security applications. Due to developing technology, our most advanced business solutions are subject to change periodically. We review and evaluate our strategic and managed service offerings annually, which may result in an updated definition and the recast of our historical financial information to conform to the current period presentation. Any modifications will be reflected in the first quarter.

Legacy Voice and Data Services
Voice services include services provided to business and governmental customers, either directly or through wholesale arrangements with other service providers. Our circuit-based, traditional data products include switched and dedicated transport services that allow customers to transmit data at high speeds, as well as access to the internet using a DSL connection.

Other Services and Equipment
Other service revenues include licensing of intellectual property and customer premises equipment.

Additional information on our Communications segment is contained in the “Overview” section of Item 7.

WARNERMEDIA
Our WarnerMedia segment is comprised of leading media and entertainment businesses that principally develop, produce and distribute feature films, television content, and other content globally; operate cable networks, premium pay television and subscription video on demand (SVOD or streaming) services domestically and internationally; and operate digital media properties. The WarnerMedia segment provided approximately 17% of 2020 segment operating revenues and 22% of our 2020 total segment contribution. This segment consists primarily of the Turner, Home Box Office, including our HBO Max streaming platform, and Warner Bros. business units.

Turner – The Turner business unit operates television networks and related properties that offer branded news, entertainment, sports and kids multi-platform content for consumers around the world. Turner licenses programming to distributors, sells advertising on its networks and digital properties owned or managed for other companies, and licenses its original programming and brands and characters for consumer products and other business ventures. Turner revenue includes the following categories: subscription, advertising and content and other.

Subscription
Turner’s programming is primarily delivered by distributors and is available to subscribers of the distributors for viewing live and on demand through the distributors’ services and Turner’s network apps. License agreements are typically multi-year arrangements that provide for annual service fee increases and have fee arrangements that are generally related to the number of networks provided to and subscribers served by the distributor.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Advertising
Advertising arrangements for Turner’s networks generally have terms of one year or less. In the U.S., the advertising revenues generally depend on the size and demographics of a network’s audience delivered to an advertiser, the number of units of time sold and the price per unit. The price per unit of advertising is determined considering factors such as the type of program or network and/or the time of day the advertising is to be run. Certain advertising inventory is sold in the “upfront” market in advance each year and other inventory in the “scatter” market closer to the time a program airs. Outside the U.S., advertising is generally sold at a fixed rate for the unit of time sold, determined by the time of day and network.

Turner’s digital properties consist of owned assets and those managed and/or operated for sports leagues where Turner holds the related programming rights. Digital properties managed or operated for sports leagues include NBA.com, NBA Mobile and NCAA.com.

Content and Other
Turner licenses certain owned original programming to international territories and to SVOD services. Turner also licenses its brands and characters for consumer products and other business ventures.

Home Box Office – Our Home Box Office business unit includes our streaming platform, HBO Max, and leading multichannel pay television services, HBO and Cinemax. In May 2020, we acquired the remaining interest in HBO Latin America Group (HBO LAG), which owns and operates various television channels and the streaming platform HBO GO in Latin America and the Caribbean. Our Home Box Office business unit revenue includes the following categories: subscription and content and other.

Subscription
In the U.S., HBO and Cinemax premium programming services are available to subscribers of traditional and digital distributors for viewing live and on-demand on television and on various internet-connected devices. We launched our streaming platform, HBO Max, in May 2020 through which programming is made available on a SVOD basis both direct-to-consumer and through distributors. WarnerMedia’s domestic license agreements with distributors are multi-year arrangements that typically provide for packaging and marketing support. Revenues depend on the specific terms of the applicable agreement, which may include subscriber thresholds, volume discounts and other performance-based discounts. As of December 31, 2020, we had more than 41 million domestic HBO Max and HBO subscribers (excluding Cinemax).

Internationally, HBO and Cinemax-branded premium pay, basic tier television and/or SVOD services are distributed in over 70 countries in Latin America, Europe and Asia. As of December 31, 2020, we had nearly 61 million HBO Max and HBO subscribers worldwide, including approximately 19 million international HBO premium pay television and SVOD service subscribers (excluding Cinemax and basic tier subscribers).

Content and Other
Original programming is licensed to television networks and OTT services in over 150 countries and is also available to customers in both physical and digital formats in the U.S. and various international regions.

Warner Bros. – Our Warner Bros. business unit is one of the largest television and film studios in the world. Warner Bros. produces, distributes and licenses television programming and feature films and distributes home entertainment products in both physical and digital formats, as well as producing and distributing games and licensing consumer products and brands. Warner Bros. allows us to offer an expanded library of programming available under HBO Max. At December 31, 2020, Warner Bros.’ vast content library consists of more than 120,000 hours of programming, including over 10,000 feature films and 5,500 television seasons comprised of tens of thousands of individual episodes.

The home entertainment industry is rapidly moving toward digital formats. While consumer spending on the higher-margin digital formats has increased in recent years, it has not offset decline in spending on product in physical formats, like DVDs. As such, Warner Bros. has been focusing on increasing the more profitable electronic sell-through and transactional digital VOD rentals of its film and television content while executing on opportunities to improve the operational efficiency of the physical distribution business.

Our Warner Bros. business unit revenue includes the following categories: theatrical product, television product, and games and other.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Theatrical Product
Theatrical product consists of (1) rental fees paid by movie theaters for the initial exhibition of feature films produced and/or distributed by Warner Bros., (2) licensing fees paid by HBO Max (which are eliminated in consolidation), television networks, premium pay television services and OTT services for the exhibition of feature films produced by Warner Bros. and (3) revenues from the distribution of Warner Bros.’ and other companies’ feature films in physical and digital formats. Our feature films also support key brands and franchises, which helps generate consumer product and brand licensing revenues based on Warner Bros.’ films and characters.

Driven by the pandemic-related partial closure of movie theaters and the availability of our HBO Max streaming platform, we have decided to release our 2021 films simultaneously on HBO Max and in theaters for 31 days. Both the continued partial closure of movie theaters and the resulting hybrid distribution model are expected to pressure revenues in 2021.

Television Product
Television product consists of (1) fees for the initial broadcast of television programming on U.S. broadcast and cable television networks and premium pay television and OTT services, (2) fees for the airing or other distribution of television programming after the initial broadcast in secondary U.S. distribution channels (such as basic cable networks, local television stations and OTT services), (3) fees for the international distribution of television programming for free-to-air television, basic tier television services, premium pay television services and OTT services, and (4) revenues from the sale of the television programming in physical and digital formats. Our television programming also supports Warner Bros.’ key brands and franchises, which helps generate consumer product and brand licensing revenues based on the programming for years beyond the initial airing of the programming on television. Warner Bros. licenses its U.S. programming globally.

Games and Other
We develop, publish and distribute games, including mobile and console games. The games are based on intellectual property owned or licensed by Warner Bros. (including DC Entertainment properties, Harry Potter and Mortal Kombat).

Additional information on our WarnerMedia segment is contained in the “Overview” section of Item 7.

LATIN AMERICA
Our Latin America segment provides entertainment services in Latin America and wireless services in Mexico. The Latin America segment provided approximately 3% of 2020 segment operating revenues. Our Latin America services and products are marketed under the AT&T, DIRECTV, SKY and Unefon brand names. This segment contains the Vrio and Mexico business units.

Vrio – Video entertainment services are provided to primarily residential customers using satellite technology. We are a leading provider of digital television services throughout Latin America, providing a wide selection of local and international digital-quality video entertainment and audio programming under the DIRECTV and SKY brands. We provide one of the most extensive collections of programming available in the Latin America pay-TV market, including HD sports video content and the most innovative interactive technology across the region. In addition, we have the unique ability to sell superior offerings of our differentiated products and services on a continent-wide basis with an operational cost structure that we believe to be lower than that of our competition.

In May 2020, we found it necessary to close our DIRECTV operations in Venezuela due to political instability in the country and to comply with sanctions of the U.S. government.

We have approximately 11 million video subscribers in Latin America. Our business encompasses pay television services with satellite operations serving Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and parts of the Caribbean. Our operations also include our 41% equity method investment in Innova, S. de R.L. de C.V., or SKY Mexico. SKY Mexico financial results are accounted for as an equity method investment.

Mexico – We utilize our regional and national wireless networks in Mexico to provide consumer and business customers with wireless data and voice communication services. We divide our revenue into the following categories: wireless service and wireless equipment.

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We provide postpaid and prepaid wireless services in Mexico to approximately 19 million subscribers under the AT&T and Unefon brands. Postpaid services allow for (1) no annual service contract for subscribers who bring their own device or purchase a device on installment (the device must be paid in full if the customer chooses to drop their service from AT&T) and (2) service contracts for periods up to 36 months for subscribers who purchase their equipment under the traditional device subsidy model. Plans offer no roaming charges in the United States or Canada, unlimited minutes and messages to the extended AT&T community and unlimited data access to social networking. We also offer prepaid services to customers who prefer to pay in advance.

We sell a wide variety of handsets, including smartphones manufactured by various suppliers for use with our voice and data services. We sell through our own company-owned stores, agents and third-party retail stores.

Additional information on our Latin America segment is contained in the “Overview” section of Item 7.

MAJOR CLASSES OF SERVICE

The following table sets forth the percentage of total consolidated reported operating revenues by any class of service that accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated total operating revenues in any of the last three fiscal years:

Percentage of Total
Consolidated Operating Revenues
202020192018
Communications Segment
Wireless service1
32  %30  %32  %
Subscription2, 3
16 17 19 
Advanced data4
13 12 12 
Equipment10 10 
WarnerMedia Segment
Subscription8 
Latin America Segment
Subscription2
2 
Wireless service1 
Equipment1 
1Excludes advertising revenues included as Wireless service in our Mobility business unit of $291, $292 and $232 in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
2Subscription is reported as Video in our Video and Vrio business units.
3Excludes advertising revenues included as Video in our Video business unit of $1,718, $1,672 and $1,595 in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
4Advanced data is reported as High-speed internet and Strategic services in our Broadband and Business Wireline business units, respectively.

Additional information on our geographical distribution of revenues is contained in Note 4 of Item 8.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION

Wireless communications providers in the United States must be licensed by the FCC to provide communications services at specified spectrum frequencies within defined geographic areas and must comply with the rules and policies governing the use of the spectrum as adopted by the FCC. The FCC’s rules have a direct impact on whether the wireless industry has sufficient spectrum available to support the high-quality, innovative services our customers demand. Wireless licenses are issued for a fixed time period, typically ten years, and we must seek renewal of these licenses. While the FCC has generally renewed licenses given to operating companies such as us, the FCC has authority to both revoke a license for cause and to deny a license renewal if a renewal is not in the public interest. Additionally, while wireless communications providers’ prices and service offerings are generally not subject to regulation, the federal government and various states periodically consider new regulations and legislation relating to various aspects of wireless services.

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The Communications Act of 1934 and other related acts give the FCC broad authority to regulate the U.S. operations of our satellite services, which are licensed by the FCC, and some of WarnerMedia’s businesses are also subject to obligations under the Communications Act and related FCC regulations. We continue to support regulatory and legislative measures and efforts at both the federal and state levels to minimize and/or moderate regulatory burdens that are no longer appropriate in a competitive communications market and that inhibit our ability to compete more effectively and offer services wanted and needed by our customers, including initiatives to transition services from traditional networks to all IP-based networks. At the same time, we also seek to ensure that legacy regulations are not further extended to broadband or wireless services, which are subject to vigorous competition.

Our ILEC subsidiaries are subject to regulation by state governments, which have the power to regulate intrastate rates and services, including local, long-distance and network access services, provided such state regulation is consistent with federal law. Some states have eliminated or reduced regulations on our retail offerings. In addition, many states have adopted legislation that enables us to provide IP-based video service through a single statewide or state-approved franchise to offer a competitive video product. These subsidiaries are also subject to the jurisdiction of the FCC with respect to intercarrier compensation, interconnection, and interstate and international rates and services, including interstate access charges. Access charges are a form of intercarrier compensation designed to reimburse our wireline subsidiaries for the use of their networks by other carriers.

Our subsidiaries operating outside the United States are subject to the jurisdiction of national and supranational regulatory authorities in the market where service is provided.

The following discussion highlights significant regulatory issues directly affecting our operations:

Communications Segment

Wireless
The industry-wide deployment of 5G technology, which is needed to satisfy extensive demand for video and internet access, will involve significant deployment of “small cell” equipment and therefore increase the need for local permitting processes that allow for the placement of small cell equipment on reasonable timelines and terms. Federal regulations also can delay and impede broadband services, including small cell equipment. In March, August and September 2018, the FCC adopted orders to streamline the wireless infrastructure review process in order to facilitate deployment of next-generation wireless facilities. Specifically, the FCC’s March 2018 Order streamlined historical, tribal, and environmental review requirements for wireless infrastructure, including the exclusion of most small cell facilities from such review. The Order was appealed and in August 2019, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the FCC’s finding that most small cell facilities are excluded from review, but otherwise upheld the FCC’s Order. The FCC’s August and September 2018 Orders simplified the regulations for attaching telecommunications equipment to utility poles and clarified when local government right-of-way access and use restrictions can be preempted because they unlawfully prohibit the provision of telecommunications services. Those orders were appealed to the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, which in August 2020 largely upheld the FCC Orders. Those orders have been appealed and the various appeals remain pending in the D.C. Circuit and 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. In addition, to date, 31 states and Puerto Rico have adopted legislation to facilitate small cell deployment.

Internet
In February 2015, the FCC released an order classifying both fixed and mobile consumer broadband internet access services as telecommunications services, subject to Title II of the Communications Act. The Order, which represented a departure from longstanding bipartisan precedent, significantly expanded the FCC’s authority to regulate broadband internet access services, as well as internet interconnection arrangements. In December 2017, the FCC reversed its 2015 decision by reclassifying fixed and mobile consumer broadband services as information services and repealing most of the rules that were adopted in 2015. In lieu of broad conduct prohibitions, the order requires internet service providers to disclose information about their network practices and terms of service, including whether they block or throttle internet traffic or offer paid prioritization. On October 1, 2019, the D.C. Circuit issued a unanimous opinion upholding the FCC’s reclassification of broadband as an information service, and its reliance on transparency requirements and competitive marketplace dynamics to safeguard net neutrality. While the court vacated the FCC’s express preemption of any state regulation of net neutrality, it stressed that its ruling did not prevent the FCC or ISPs from relying on conflict preemption to invalidate particular state laws that are inconsistent with the FCC’s regulatory objectives and framework. The court also remanded the matter to the FCC for further consideration of the impact of reclassifying broadband services as information services on public safety, the Lifeline program, and pole attachment regulation. In October 2020, the FCC adopted an order concluding that those issues did not justify reversing its decision to reclassify
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broadband services as information services. An appeal of the FCC’s remand decision is pending.

Following the FCC’s 2017 decision to reclassify broadband as information services, a number of states adopted legislation to reimpose the very rules the FCC repealed. In some cases, state legislation imposes requirements that go beyond the FCC’s February 2015 order. Additionally, some state governors have issued executive orders that effectively reimpose the repealed requirements. Suits have been filed concerning laws in California and Vermont. Both lawsuits were stayed pursuant to agreements by those states not to enforce their laws pending final resolution of all appeals of the FCC’s December 2017 order. Because that order is now final, the California suit has returned to active status. Nonetheless, enforcement of both the California and Vermont laws remain stayed pending a ruling by a U.S. District Court in California on motions for a preliminary injunction against enforcement of the California law. Argument on those motions is now scheduled for February 2021. We expect that going forward additional states may seek to impose net neutrality requirements. We will continue to support congressional action to codify a set of standard consumer rules for the internet.

Privacy-related legislation continues to be adopted or considered in a number of jurisdictions. Legislative, regulatory and litigation actions could result in significant penalties, increased costs of compliance, further regulation or claims against broadband internet access service providers and others, and increased uncertainty in the value and availability of data.

WarnerMedia Segment

WarnerMedia creates, owns and distributes intellectual property, including copyrights, trademarks and licenses of intellectual property. To protect its intellectual property, WarnerMedia relies on a combination of laws and license agreements. Outside the U.S., laws and regulations relating to intellectual property protection and the effective enforcement of these laws and regulations vary greatly from country to country. The European Union is pursuing legislative and regulatory initiatives which could impact WarnerMedia’s activities in the EU. Piracy, particularly of digital content, continues to threaten revenues from WarnerMedia’s products and services, as well as revenues from our pay TV business, and we work to limit that threat through a combination of approaches, including technological and legislative solutions. Outside the U.S., various laws and regulations, as well as trade agreements with the U.S., also apply to the distribution or licensing of feature films for exhibition in theaters and on broadcast and cable networks. For example, in certain countries, including China, laws and regulations limit the number of foreign films exhibited in such countries in a calendar year.

Additional information relating to regulation of our subsidiaries is contained under the headings “Operating Environment Overview” and “Regulatory Developments” of Item 7.

IMPORTANCE, DURATION AND EFFECT OF LICENSES

Certain of our subsidiaries own or have licenses to various patents, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property necessary to conduct business. Many of our subsidiaries also hold government-issued licenses or franchises to provide wireline, satellite or wireless services. Additional information relating to regulation affecting those rights is contained under the heading “Operating Environment Overview,” of Item 7. We actively pursue patents, trademarks and service marks to protect our intellectual property within the United States and abroad. We maintain a significant global portfolio of patents, trademarks and service mark registrations. We have also entered into agreements that permit other companies, in exchange for fees and rights, and subject to appropriate safeguards and restrictions, to utilize certain of our patents, trademarks and service marks. As we transition our network from a switch-based network to an IP, software-based network, we have increasingly entered into licensing agreements with software developers.

We periodically receive offers from third parties to obtain licenses for patents and other intellectual rights in exchange for royalties or other payments. We also receive notices asserting that our products or services sold to customers or software-based network functions infringe on their patents and other intellectual property rights. These claims, whether against us directly, such as network functions or against third-party suppliers of products or services that we, in turn, sell to our customers, such as wireless handsets, could require us to pay damages, royalties, stop offering the relevant products or services and/or cease network functions or other activities. While the outcome of any litigation is uncertain, we do not believe that the resolution of any of these infringement claims or the expiration or non-renewal of any of our intellectual property rights would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

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MAJOR CUSTOMERS

No customer accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 or 2018.


COMPETITION

Competition continues to increase for communications, media entertainment and digital services from traditional and nontraditional competitors. Technological advances have expanded the types and uses of services and products available. In addition, lack of or a reduced level of regulation of comparable legacy services has lowered costs for alternative communications service providers. As a result, we face continuing competition as well as some new opportunities in significant portions of our business.

Wireless We face substantial competition in our wireless businesses. Under current FCC rules, multiple licensees, who provide wireless services on the cellular, PCS, Advanced Wireless Services, 700 MHz and other spectrum bands, may operate in each of our U.S. service areas. Our competitors include two national wireless providers; a larger number of regional providers and resellers of those services; and certain cable companies. In addition, we face competition from providers who offer voice, text messaging and other services as applications on data networks. We are one of four facilities-based providers in Mexico (retail and wholesale), with the most significant market share controlled by América Móvil. We may experience significant competition from companies that provide similar services using other communications technologies and services. While some of these technologies and services are now operational, others are being developed or may be developed. We compete for customers based principally on service/device offerings, price, network quality, coverage area and customer service.

Video/Broadband Our businesses providing communications and digital entertainment services will face continued competitive pressure in 2021 from multiple providers, including wireless, satellite, cable, online video providers, and resellers. In addition, the desire for high-speed data on demand, including video, is continuing to lead customers to terminate their traditional wired or linear services and use our or competitors’ wireless, satellite and internet-based services. We have launched our own video OTT and/or streaming options to attract or retain customers that do not want a full-scale traditional video package. In most U.S. markets, we compete for customers with large cable companies for high-speed internet, video and voice services and other smaller telecommunications companies for both long-distance and local services. In addition, in Latin American countries served by our Vrio subsidiary, we also face competition from other video providers, including América Móvil and Telefónica.

Legacy Voice and Data We continue to lose legacy voice and data subscribers due to competitors (e.g., wireless, cable and VoIP providers) who can provide comparable services at lower prices because they are not subject to traditional telephone industry regulation (or the extent of regulation they are subject to is in dispute), utilize different technologies or promote a different business model (such as advertising-based). In response to these competitive pressures, for a number of years we have used a bundling strategy that rewards customers who consolidate their services with us. We continue to focus on bundling services, including combined packages of wireless and video service through our IP-based services. We will continue to develop innovative and integrated services that capitalize on our wireless and IP-based network.

Additionally, we provide local and interstate telephone and switched services to other service providers, primarily large internet service providers using the largest class of nationwide internet networks (internet backbone), wireless carriers, other telephone companies, cable companies and systems integrators. These services are subject to additional competitive pressures from the development of new technologies, the introduction of innovative offerings and increasing satellite, wireless, fiber-optic and cable transmission capacity for services. We face a number of international competitors, including Orange Business Services, BT, Singapore Telecommunications Limited and Verizon Communications Inc., as well as competition from a number of large systems integrators.

Media Our WarnerMedia businesses face shifts in consumer viewing patterns, increased competition from streaming services and the expansion by other companies, in particular, technology companies. In May 2020, we launched HBO Max, our platform for premium content and video offered directly to consumers, as well as through our traditional distributors.

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WarnerMedia competes with other studios and television production groups and independents to produce and sell programming. Many television networks and online platforms have affiliated production companies from which they are increasingly obtaining their programming, which has reduced their demand for programming from non-affiliated production companies. WarnerMedia also faces competition from other television networks, online platforms, and premium pay television services for distribution and marketing of its television networks and premium pay and basic tier television services by affiliates.

Our WarnerMedia businesses compete with other production companies and studios for the services of producers, directors, writers, actors and others and for the acquisition of literary properties. In recent years, technology companies also have begun to produce programming and compete with WarnerMedia for talent and property rights.

Advertising The increased amount of consumer time spent online and on mobile activities has resulted in the shift of advertising budgets away from traditional television to digital advertising. WarnerMedia’s advertising-supported television networks and digital properties compete with streaming services, other networks and digital properties, print, radio and other media. Our programmatic advertising business faces competition from a variety of technology companies. Similar to all participants in the advertising technology sector, we contend with the dominance of Google, as well as the influence of Facebook, whose practices may result in the decreased ability and willingness of advertisers and programmers to adopt programmatic solutions offered by alternative suppliers.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

AT&T scientists and engineers conduct research in a variety of areas, including IP networking, advanced network design and architecture, network and cyber security, network operations support systems, satellite technology, video platform development and data analytics. The majority of the development activities are performed to create new services and to invent tools and systems to manage secure and reliable networks for us and our customers. Research and development expenses were $1,210 in 2020, $1,276 in 2019, and $1,194 in 2018.

HUMAN CAPITAL

Number of Employees As of January 31, 2021, we employed approximately 230,000 persons.

Employee Development We believe our success depends on our employees’ success and that all employees must have the skills they need to thrive. We offer training and elective courses that give employees the opportunity to enhance their skills. We also intend to help cultivate the next generation of talent that will lead our company into the future by providing employees with educational opportunities through our award-winning internal training organization, AT&T University.

Labor Contracts Approximately 37% of our employees are represented by the Communications Workers of America (CWA), the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) or other unions. After expiration of the collective bargaining agreements, work stoppages or labor disruptions may occur in the absence of new contracts or other agreements being reached. There are no significant contracts expiring in 2021. A contract covering approximately 14,000 Mobility employees in 36 states and the District of Columbia that was set to expire in February 2021 was extended until February 2022. A contract covering approximately 10,000 Mobility employees in nine Southeast states that was set to expire in February 2022 was extended until February 2023.

Compensation and Benefits In addition to salaries, we provide a variety of benefit programs to help meet the needs of our employees. These programs cover active and former employees and may vary by subsidiary and region. These programs include 401(k) plans, pension benefits, and health and welfare benefits, among many others. In addition to our active employee base, at December 31, 2020, we had approximately 517,000 retirees and dependents that were eligible to receive retiree benefits.

We review our benefit plans to maintain competitive packages that reflect the needs of our workforce. We also adapt our compensation model to provide fair and inclusive pay practices across our business. We are committed to pay equity for employees who hold the same jobs, work in the same geographic area, and have the same levels of experience and performance.

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Employee Safety We provide our employees access to flexible and convenient health and welfare programs and workplace accommodations. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we consulted with medical professionals to institute policies that best protected our employees and their families. We have prioritized self-care and emphasized a focus on wellness, providing personal protective equipment, flexible scheduling or time-off options and implementing technologies to enhance the necessary remote-work environment. As we look to life and operations beyond the pandemic, we are revising our business models to support flexible office space and at-home productivity for many employees on a permanent basis.

Diversity and Inclusion We believe that championing diversity and fostering inclusion do more than just make us a better company, they contribute to a world where people are empowered to be their very best. That is why one of our core values is to stand for equality and why our mission is to inspire human progress through the power of communication and entertainment.

To have a diverse and inclusive workforce, we have put an emphasis on attracting and hiring talented people who represent a mix of genders, races, abilities and experiences. Across the AT&T family of companies, we have employee groups that reflect our diverse workforce. These groups are not only organized around women, people of color, LGBTQ+ individuals, people with disabilities and veterans, but also around professionals who are experienced or interested in cybersecurity, engineering, innovation, project management and media and entertainment technology. When everyone’s unique story is celebrated, we are able to connect, create and innovate in real and meaningful ways. It is important that our employees feel valued, have a sense of belonging and are fully engaged in our success.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

In addition to the other information set forth in this document, including the matters contained under the caption “Cautionary Language Concerning Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully read the matters described below. We believe that each of these matters could materially affect our business. We recognize that most of these factors are beyond our ability to control and therefore we cannot predict an outcome.

Macro-economic Factors:

Adverse changes in the U.S. securities markets, interest rates and medical costs could materially increase our benefit plan costs and future funding requirements.

Our costs to provide current benefits and funding for future benefits are subject to increases, primarily due to continuing increases in medical and prescription drug costs, and can be affected by lower returns on assets held by our pension and other benefit plans, which are reflected in our financial statements for that year. In calculating the costs included on our financial statements of providing benefits under our plans, we have made certain assumptions regarding future investment returns, interest rates and medical costs. These assumptions could change significantly over time and could be materially different than originally projected. Lower than assumed investment returns, a decline in interest rates with a corresponding increase in our benefit obligations, and higher than assumed medical and prescription drug costs will increase expenses.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board requires companies to recognize the funded status of defined benefit pension and postretirement plans as an asset or liability in their statement of financial position and to recognize changes in that funded status in the year in which the changes occur. We have elected to reflect the annual adjustments to the funded status in our consolidated statement of income. Therefore, an increase in our costs or adverse market conditions will have a negative effect on our operating results.

Significant adverse changes in capital markets could result in the deterioration of our defined benefit plans’ funded status and result in increased contribution requirements for such plans, which could be material.

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Adverse changes in global financial markets could limit our ability and our larger customers’ ability to access capital or increase the cost of capital needed to fund business operations.

During 2020, uncertainty surrounding global growth rates and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic helped create volatility in the credit, currency, equity and fixed income markets. Volatility may affect companies’ access to the credit markets, leading to higher borrowing costs, or, in some cases, the inability to fund ongoing operations. In addition, we contract with large financial institutions to support our own treasury operations, including contracts to hedge our exposure on interest rates and foreign exchange and the funding of credit lines and other short-term debt obligations, including commercial paper. These financial institutions face stricter capital-related and other regulations in the United States and Europe, as well as ongoing legal and financial issues concerning their loan portfolios, which may hamper their ability to provide credit or raise the cost of providing such credit.

The U.K. Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, has announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. Although our securities may provide for alternative methods of calculating the interest rate payable on such indebtedness, uncertainty as to the extent and manner of future changes may adversely affect the current trading market for LIBOR-based securities, and the value of variable rate indebtedness in general. A company’s cost of borrowing is also affected by evaluations given by various credit rating agencies and these agencies have been applying tighter credit standards when evaluating debt levels and future growth prospects. While we have been successful in continuing to access the credit and fixed income markets when needed, adverse changes in the financial markets could render us either unable to access these markets or able to access these markets only at higher interest costs and with restrictive financial or other conditions, severely affecting our business operations. Additionally, downgrades of our credit rating by the major credit rating agencies could increase our cost of borrowing and also impact the collateral we would be required to post under certain agreements we have entered into with our derivative counterparties, which could negatively impact our liquidity. Further, valuation changes in our derivative portfolio due to interest rates and foreign exchange rates could require us to post collateral and thus may negatively impact our liquidity.

Our international operations have increased our exposure to political instability, to changes in the international economy and to the level of regulation on our business and these risks could offset our expected growth opportunities.

We have international operations, particularly in Latin America, including Mexico, and worldwide through WarnerMedia’s content distribution. We need to comply with a wide variety of complex local laws, regulations and treaties. We are exposed to restrictions on cash repatriation, foreign exchange controls, fluctuations in currency values, changes in relationships between U.S. and foreign governments, trade restrictions including potential tariffs, differences in intellectual property protection laws, and other regulations that may affect materially our earnings. Our Mexico operations, in particular, rely on a continuation of a regulatory regime that fosters competition. While our foreign operations represent significant opportunities to sell our services, a number of foreign countries where we operate have experienced unstable growth patterns, increased inflation, currency devaluation, foreign exchange controls, instability in the banking sector and high unemployment. In addition, significant political turmoil has continued in several Latin American countries. Should these conditions persist, our ability to offer service in one or more countries could be adversely affected and customers in these countries may be unable to purchase the services we offer or pay for services already provided. For example, we found it necessary in May 2020 to close our DIRECTV operations in Venezuela due to political instability in the country and in order to comply with sanctions of the U.S. government.

In addition, operating in foreign countries also typically involves participating with local businesses, either to comply with local laws or, for example, to enhance product marketing, deploy networks or execute on other capital projects. Involvement with foreign firms exposes us to the risk of being unable to control the actions of those firms and therefore exposes us to risks associated with our obligation to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). Violations of the FCPA could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

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Industry-wide Factors:

Our business is subject to risks arising from the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus.

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting mitigation measures have caused, and may continue to cause, a negative effect on our operating results. To date, mitigation measures have caused sports leagues to modify their seasons and suspend certain operations as the cancellation of many sporting events, including the 2020 NCAA tournament, which has adversely affected our advertising revenues, may result in contract disputes concerning carriage rights and has caused us to incur expenses relating to certain of these sporting events notwithstanding their cancellation. The closure or avoidance of theaters, and the interruptions in movie production and other programming caused by COVID-19 are expected to continue to impact the timing of revenues and may cause a loss of revenue to our WarnerMedia business over the long term. The COVID-19 pandemic could also drive higher costs for our WarnerMedia business in 2021 based on the hybrid distribution model for releasing films in 2021 and costs associated with safety measures put in place to help provide a safe environment for content production. If the mitigation measures or the associated effects are prolonged, we expect business customers in industries most significantly impacted will continue to reduce or terminate services, having a negative effect on the performance of our Business Wireline business unit. Further, concerns over the COVID-19 pandemic could again result in the prolonged closure of many of our retail stores and deter customers from accessing our stores even as the pandemic subsides. These pandemic concerns may also result in continued impact to our customers’ ability to pay for our products and services. We may also continue to see significant impact on roaming revenues due to a downturn in international travel. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused and could further cause reduced staffing levels at our call centers and field operations, resulting in delays in service. Further reductions in staffing levels could additionally limit our ability to provide services, adversely impacting our competitive position. We may also incur significantly higher expenses attributable to infrastructure investments required to meet higher network utilization from more customers consuming bandwidth from changes in work from home trends; extended cancellation periods; and increased labor costs if the COVID-19 pandemic continues for an extended period.

The COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation measures have caused, and may continue to cause, adverse impacts on global economic conditions and consumer confidence, spending and consumer behavior, which could affect demand for our products and services. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business results of operations, cash flows and financial condition will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning other strains of the virus and the actions to contain its impact. Due to the speed with which the situation continues to develop and change, we are not able at this time to estimate the additional impact of COVID-19 on our financial or operational results, but the impact could be material.

Changes to federal, state and foreign government regulations and decisions in regulatory proceedings, as well as private litigation, could further increase our operating costs and/or alter customer perceptions of our operations, which could materially adversely affect us.

Our subsidiaries providing wired services are subject to significant federal and state regulation while many of our competitors are not. In addition, our subsidiaries and affiliates operating outside the United States are also subject to the jurisdiction of national and supranational regulatory authorities in the market where service is provided. Our wireless and various video subsidiaries are regulated to varying degrees by the FCC and in some instances, by state and local agencies. Adverse regulations and rulings by the FCC relating to broadband, wireless deployment and satellite video issues could impede our ability to manage our networks and recover costs and lessen incentives to invest in our networks. The continuing growth of IP-based services, especially when accessed by wireless devices, has created or potentially could create conflicting regulation between the FCC and various state and local authorities, which may involve lengthy litigation to resolve and may result in outcomes unfavorable to us. In addition, increased public focus on a variety of issues related to our operations, such as privacy issues, government requests or orders for customer data, and concerns about global climate changes, have led to proposals or new legislation at state, federal and foreign government levels to change or increase regulation on our operations. Enactment of new privacy laws and regulations could, among other things, adversely affect our ability to collect and offer targeted advertisements or result in additional costs of compliance or litigation. Should customers decide that our competitors offer a more customer-friendly environment, our competitive position, results of operations or financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

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Continuing growth in and the converging nature of wireless, video and broadband services will require us to deploy significant amounts of capital and require ongoing access to spectrum in order to provide attractive services to customers.

Wireless, video and broadband services are undergoing rapid and significant technological changes and a dramatic increase in usage, in particular, the demand for faster and seamless usage of video and data across mobile and fixed devices. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated these changes and also resulted in higher network utilization, as more customers consume bandwidth from changes in work from home trends. We must continually invest in our networks in order to improve our wireless, video and broadband services to meet this increasing demand and changes in customer expectations, while remaining competitive. Improvements in these services depend on many factors, including continued access to and deployment of adequate spectrum and the capital needed to expand our wireline network to support transport of these services. In order to stem broadband subscriber losses to cable competitors in our non-fiber wireline areas, we have been expanding our all-fiber wireline network. We must maintain and expand our network capacity and coverage for transport of video, data and voice between cell and fixed landline sites. To this end, we participate in spectrum auctions and continue to deploy software and other technology advancements in order to efficiently invest in our network.

Network service enhancements and product launches may not occur as scheduled or at the cost expected due to many factors, including delays in determining equipment and wireless handset operating standards, supplier delays, software issues, increases in network and handset component costs, regulatory permitting delays for tower sites or enhancements, or labor-related delays. Deployment of new technology also may adversely affect the performance of the network for existing services. If we cannot acquire needed spectrum or deploy the services customers desire on a timely basis with acceptable quality and at reasonable costs, then our ability to attract and retain customers, and, therefore, maintain and improve our operating margins, could be materially adversely affected.

Increasing competition for wireless customers could materially adversely affect our operating results.

We have multiple wireless competitors in each of our service areas and compete for customers based principally on service/device offerings, price, network quality, coverage area and customer service. In addition, we are facing growing competition from providers offering services using advanced wireless technologies and IP-based networks. We expect market saturation to continue to cause the wireless industry’s customer growth rate to moderate in comparison with historical growth rates, leading to increased competition for customers. Our share of industry sales could be reduced due to aggressive pricing strategies pursued by competitors. We also expect that our customers’ growing demand for high-speed video and data services will place constraints on our network capacity. These competition and capacity constraints will continue to put pressure on pricing and margins as companies compete for potential customers. Our ability to respond will depend, among other things, on continued improvement in network quality and customer service and our ability to price our products and services competitively as well as effective marketing of attractive products and services. These efforts will involve significant expenses and require strategic management decisions on, and timely implementation of, equipment choices, network deployment and service offerings.

Ongoing changes in the television industry and consumer viewing patterns could materially adversely affect our operating results.

Our video subsidiaries derive substantial revenues and profits from cable networks and premium pay television services and the production and licensing of television programming to broadcast and cable networks and premium pay television services. The U.S. television industry is continuing to evolve rapidly, with developments in technology leading to new methods for the distribution of video content and changes in when, where and how audiences consume video content. These changes have led to (1) internet-based streaming competitors, which are increasing in number and some of which have significant and growing subscriber/user bases, and (2) reduced viewers of traditional advertising-supported television resulting from increased video consumption through SVOD services (including our own), time-shifted viewing of television programming and the use of DVRs to skip advertisements. The number of subscribers to traditional linear programming in the U.S. has been declining in recent years and the U.S. television industry has generally experienced declines in ratings for programming, which have negatively affected subscription and advertising revenues, and these trends are expected to continue. The popularity of content, whether on television, on the internet, or through movies, is difficult to predict and can change rapidly, and low public acceptance of our television, OTT and movie content, including WarnerMedia’s content, could adversely affect our results of operations. We are taking steps to mitigate the risks from these changes, such as the launch of our HBO Max direct-to-consumer streaming platform and new, enhanced advertising opportunities, but there can be no assurance that these and other efforts will be successful in responding to these changes.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Intellectual property rights may be adversely affected by piracy or be inadequate to take advantage of business opportunities, such as new distribution platforms, which may materially adversely affect our operations.

Increased piracy of video content, products and other intellectual property, particularly in our foreign WarnerMedia and Latin American operations, will decrease revenues. Mobile and broadband technological developments have made it easier to reproduce and distribute high-quality unauthorized copies of content. Piracy is particularly prevalent in countries that lack effective copyright and other legal protections or enforcement measures and thieves can attract users throughout the world. Effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country where we operate. We may need to spend significant amounts of money to protect our rights. We are also increasingly negotiating broader licensing agreements to expand our ability to use new methods to distribute content to customers. Any impairment of our intellectual property rights, including due to changes in U.S. or foreign intellectual property laws or the absence of effective legal protections or enforcement measures, or our inability to negotiate broader distribution rights, could materially adversely impact our operations.

Incidents leading to damage to our reputation, and any resulting lawsuits, claims or other legal proceedings, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We believe that our brand image, awareness and reputation strengthen our relationship with consumers and contribute significantly to the success of our business. We strive to create a culture in which our colleagues act with integrity and respect and feel comfortable speaking up to report instances of misconduct or other concerns. Our ability to attract and retain employees is highly dependent upon our commitment to a diverse and inclusive workplace, ethical business practices and other qualities. Acts of misconduct by any employee, and particularly by senior management, could erode trust and confidence and damage our reputation. Negative public opinion could result from actual or alleged conduct by us or those currently or formerly associated with us, and from any number of activities or circumstances, including operations, employment-related offenses (such as sexual harassment and discrimination), regulatory compliance and actions taken by regulators or others in response to such conduct. We have in the past been, and may in the future be, named as a defendant in lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business based on alleged acts of misconduct by employees. These actions seek, among other things, compensation for alleged personal injury (including claims for loss of life), workers’ compensation, employment discrimination, sexual harassment, workplace misconduct, wage and hour claims and other employment-related damages, compensation for breach of contract, statutory or regulatory claims, negligence or gross negligence, punitive damages, consequential damages, and civil penalties or other losses or injunctive or declaratory relief. The outcome of any allegations, lawsuits, claims or legal proceedings is inherently uncertain and could result in significant costs, damage to our brands or reputation and diversion of management’s attention from our business. Additionally, our news organization makes editorial judgments around what is covered and how it is covered in the normal course of business. Although we have disciplined practices that are used to make such editorial judgments, it is possible that our news coverage alienates some consumers, adversely impacts our reputation and therefore impacts demand for our other products and services. Any damage to our reputation or payments of significant amounts, even if reserved, could materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Company-Specific Financial Factors:

Adoption of new software-based technologies may involve quality and supply chain issues and could increase capital costs.

The communications and digital entertainment industry has experienced rapid changes in the past several years. An increasing number of our customers are using mobile devices as the primary means of viewing video and an increasing number of nontraditional video providers are developing content and technologies to satisfy the desire for video entertainment demand. In addition, businesses and government bodies are broadly shifting to wireless-based services for homes and infrastructure to improve services to their respective customers and constituencies. We are spending significant capital to shift our wired network to software-based technology to manage this demand and are expanding 5G wireless technology to address these consumer demands. We are entering into a significant number of software licensing agreements and working with software developers to provide network functions in lieu of installing switches or other physical network equipment in order to respond to rapid developments in video and wireless demand. While software-based functionality can be changed much more quickly than, for example, physical switches, the rapid pace of development means that we may increasingly need to rely on single-source and software solutions that have not previously been deployed in production environments. Should this software not function as intended or our license agreements provide inadequate protection from intellectual property infringement claims, we could be forced to either substitute (if available) or else spend time to develop alternative technologies at a much higher cost and incur harm to our reputation for reliability, and, as a result, our ability to remain competitive could be materially adversely affected.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
We depend on various suppliers to provide equipment to operate our business and satisfy customer demand and interruption or delay in supply can adversely impact our operating results.

We depend on suppliers to provide us, directly or through other suppliers, with items such as network equipment, customer premises equipment, video equipment and wireless-related equipment such as mobile hotspots, handsets, wirelessly enabled computers, wireless data cards and other connected devices for our customers. These suppliers could fail to provide equipment on a timely basis, or fail to meet our performance expectations, for a number of reasons, including difficulties in obtaining export licenses for certain technologies, inability to secure component parts, general business disruption, natural disasters, safety issues, economic and political instability and public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused, and may again cause, delays in the development, manufacturing (including the sourcing of key components) and shipment of products. In certain limited circumstances, suppliers have been unable to supply products in a timely fashion. In such limited circumstances, we have been unable to provide products and services precisely as and when requested by our customers. It is possible that, in some circumstances, we could be forced to switch to a different key supplier. Because of the cost and time lag that can be associated with transitioning from one supplier to another, our business could be substantially disrupted if we were required to, or chose to, replace the products of one or more key suppliers with products from another source, especially if the replacement became necessary on short notice. Any such disruption could increase our costs, decrease our operating efficiencies and have a negative effect on our operating results.

Increasing costs to provide video and other services could adversely affect operating margins.

Our operating costs, including customer acquisition and retention costs, could continue to put pressure on margins and customer retention levels. In addition, most of our video programming that we distribute via our linear services is provided by other companies and historically the rates they charge us for programming have often increased more than the rate of inflation. In addition, as customer viewing habits shift to mobile, on-demand and streaming from linear programming, negotiating licensing rights is increasingly complicated. We are attempting to use our scale and access to wireless customers to change this trend but such negotiations are difficult and also may result in programming disruption. Our HBO Max streaming platform is another component of our strategy to reach nontraditional video customers and we are investing heavily to provide a competitive and attractive offering. If we are unable to restrain these costs or provide programming desired by our customers, it could impact margins and our ability to attract and retain customers. Our WarnerMedia operations, which create and license content to other providers, also may experience increasing difficulties securing favorable terms, including those related to pricing, positioning and packaging, during contract negotiations, which may lead to blackouts of WarnerMedia programming, and WarnerMedia may face greater difficulty in achieving placement of its networks and premium pay television services in offerings by third parties.

A number of our competitors offering comparable legacy services that rely on alternative technologies and business models are typically subject to less (or no) regulation, and therefore are able to operate with lower costs. These competitors generally can focus on discrete customer segments since they do not have regulatory obligations to provide universal service. Also, these competitors have cost advantages compared to us, due in part to operating on newer, more technically advanced and lower-cost networks and a nonunionized workforce, lower employee benefits and fewer retirees. We are transitioning services from our old copper-based network and seeking regulatory approvals, where needed, at both the state and federal levels. If we do not obtain regulatory approvals for our network transition or obtain approvals with onerous conditions, we could experience significant cost and competitive disadvantages.

We may not realize or sustain the expected benefits from our business transformation initiatives, and these efforts could have a materially adverse effect on our business, operations, financial condition, results of operations and competitive position.

We have been and will be undertaking certain transformation initiatives, which are designed to reduce costs, streamline distribution, remove redundancies and simplify and improve processes and support functions. Our focus is on supporting added customer value with an improved customer experience. We intend for these efficiencies to enable increased investments in our strategic areas of focus which consist of improving broadband connectivity (for example, fiber and 5G), developing software-based entertainment (such as HBO Max and AT&T TV) and utilizing WarnerMedia’s storytelling legacy to engage consumers and gain insights across multiple distribution points. If we do not successfully manage and execute these initiatives, or if they are inadequate or ineffective, we may fail to meet our financial goals and achieve anticipated benefits, improvements may be delayed, not sustained or not realized and our business, operations and competitive position could be adversely affected.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
If our efforts to attract and retain subscribers to our new HBO Max platform are not successful, our business will be adversely affected.

HBO Max’s future success is subject to inherent uncertainty. Our ability to continue to attract subscribers to the HBO Max platform will depend in part on our ability to consistently provide subscribers with compelling content choices, as well as a quality experience for selecting and viewing those content choices. Furthermore, the relative service levels, content offerings, promotions, and pricing and related features of competitors to HBO Max may adversely impact our ability to attract and retain subscribers. If consumers do not perceive our offerings to be of value, including if we introduce new or adjust existing features, adjust pricing or offerings, terminate or modify promotional or trial period offerings, experience technical issues, or change the mix of content in a manner that is not favorably received by them, we may not be able to attract and retain subscribers. In addition, many subscribers to these types of offerings originate from word-of-mouth advertising from then existing subscribers. If our efforts to satisfy subscribers are not successful, including because we terminate or modify promotional or trial-period offerings or because of technical issues with the platform, we may not be able to attract or retain subscribers, and as a result, our ability to maintain and/or grow our business will be adversely affected.

If subscribers cancel or decide to not continue subscriptions for any reason, including a perception that they do not use it sufficiently, the need to cut household expenses, unsatisfactory availability of content, promotions or trial-period offers expire or are modified, competitive services or promotions provide a better value or experience, and customer service or technical issues are not satisfactorily resolved, our business will be adversely affected. We must continually add new subscribers both to replace canceled subscribers and to grow our business. If we do not grow as expected, given, in particular, that a significant portion of our content costs are committed and contracted over several years based on minimum subscriber delivery levels, we may not be able to adjust our expenditures or increase our (per subscriber) revenues commensurate with the lowered growth rate such that our margins, liquidity and results of operations may be adversely impacted. If we are unable to successfully compete with competitors in retaining and attracting new subscribers, our business will be adversely affected. Further, if excessive numbers of subscribers do cancel, we may be required to incur significantly higher marketing expenditures or offer significantly more generous promotions to replace these subscribers with new subscribers.

Unfavorable litigation or governmental investigation results could require us to pay significant amounts or lead to onerous operating procedures.

We are subject to a number of lawsuits both in the United States and in foreign countries, including, at any particular time, claims relating to antitrust; patent infringement; wage and hour; personal injury; customer privacy violations; regulatory proceedings; and selling and collection practices. We also spend substantial resources complying with various government standards, which may entail related investigations and litigation. In the wireless area, we also face current and potential litigation relating to alleged adverse health effects on customers or employees who use such technologies including, for example, wireless devices. We may incur significant expenses defending such suits or government charges and may be required to pay amounts or otherwise change our operations in ways that could materially adversely affect our operations or financial results.

Cyberattacks, equipment failures, natural disasters and terrorist acts may materially adversely affect our operations.

Cyberattacks, major equipment failures or natural disasters, such as flooding, hurricanes and forest fires, whether caused by discrete severe weather events and/or precipitated by long-term climate change and earthquakes, software problems, terrorist acts or other breaches of network or IT security that affect our networks, including software and switches, microwave links, third-party-owned local and long-distance networks on which we rely, our cell sites or other equipment, our satellites, our customer account support and information systems, or employee and business records could have a material adverse effect on our operations. Our wired network in particular is becoming increasingly reliant on software as it evolves to handle increasing demands for video transmission. While we have been subject to security incidents or cyberattacks, these did not result in a material adverse effect on our operations. However, as such attacks continue to increase in scope and frequency, we may be unable to prevent a significant attack in the future. Our ability to maintain and upgrade our video programming also depends on our ability to successfully deploy and operate video satellites. Our inability to deploy or operate our networks or customer support systems or protect sensitive personal information of customers or employees or valuable technical and marketing information could result in significant expenses, potential legal liability, a loss of current or future customers and reputation damage, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Increases in our debt levels to fund acquisitions, additional spectrum purchases, or other strategic decisions could adversely affect our ability to finance future debt at attractive rates and reduce our ability to respond to competition and adverse economic trends.

We have incurred debt to fund significant acquisitions, as well as spectrum purchases needed to compete in our industry. While we believe such decisions were prudent and necessary to take advantage of both growth opportunities and respond to industry developments, we did experience credit-rating downgrades from historical levels. Banks and potential purchasers of our publicly traded debt may decide that these strategic decisions and similar actions we may take in the future, as well as expected trends in the industry, will continue to increase the risk of investing in our debt and may demand a higher rate of interest, impose restrictive covenants or otherwise limit the amount of potential borrowing. Additionally, our capital allocation plan is focused on, among other things, managing our debt level going forward. Any failure to successfully execute this plan could adversely affect our cost of funds, liquidity, competitive position and access to capital markets.

Our business may be impacted by changes in tax laws and regulations, judicial interpretations of same or administrative actions by federal, state, local and foreign taxing authorities.

Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the law are issued or applied. In many cases, the application of existing, newly enacted or amended tax laws (such as the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017) may be uncertain and subject to differing interpretations, especially when evaluated against ever changing products and services provided by our global telecommunications, media, and technology businesses. In addition, tax legislation has been introduced or is being considered in various jurisdictions that could significantly impact our tax rate, tax liabilities, carrying value of deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities. Any of these changes could materially impact our financial performance and our tax provision, net income and cash flows.

We are also subject to ongoing examinations by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. Although we regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of provisions for taxes, there can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. In the event that we have not accurately or fully described, disclosed or determined, calculated or remitted amounts that were due to taxing authorities or if the ultimate determination of our taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, we could be subject to additional taxes, penalties and interest, which could materially impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
CAUTIONARY LANGUAGE CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Information set forth in this report contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results could differ materially. Many of these factors are discussed in more detail in the “Risk Factors” section. We claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

The following factors could cause our future results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements:
The severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and containment, mitigation and other measures taken in response, including the potential impacts of these matters on our business and operations.
Our inability to predict the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and related impacts will continue to impact our business operations, financial performance and results of operations.
Adverse economic, political and/or capital access changes in the markets served by us or in countries in which we have significant investments and/or operations, including the impact on customer demand and our ability and our suppliers’ ability to access financial markets at favorable rates and terms.
Increases in our benefit plans’ costs, including increases due to adverse changes in the United States and foreign securities markets, resulting in worse-than-assumed investment returns and discount rates; adverse changes in mortality assumptions; adverse medical cost trends; and unfavorable or delayed implementation or repeal of healthcare legislation, regulations or related court decisions.
The final outcome of FCC and other federal, state or foreign government agency proceedings (including judicial review, if any, of such proceedings) and legislative efforts involving issues that are important to our business, including, without limitation, pending Notices of Apparent Liability; the transition from legacy technologies to IP-based infrastructure, including the withdrawal of legacy TDM-based services; universal service; broadband deployment; wireless equipment siting regulations and, in particular, siting for 5G service; E911 services; competition policy; privacy; net neutrality; multichannel video programming distributor services and equipment; content licensing and copyright protection; availability of new spectrum on fair and balanced terms; and wireless and satellite license awards and renewals.
Enactment of additional state, local, federal and/or foreign regulatory and tax laws and regulations, or changes to existing standards and actions by tax agencies and judicial authorities including the resolution of disputes with any taxing jurisdictions, pertaining to our subsidiaries and foreign investments, including laws and regulations that reduce our incentive to invest in our networks, resulting in lower revenue growth and/or higher operating costs.
Potential changes to the electromagnetic spectrum currently used for broadcast television and satellite distribution being considered by the FCC could negatively impact WarnerMedia’s ability to deliver linear network feeds of its domestic cable networks to its affiliates, and in some cases, WarnerMedia’s ability to produce high-value news and entertainment programming on location.
U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, as well as possible private rights of action, regarding intellectual property rights protection and privacy, personal data protection and user consent are complex and rapidly evolving and could result in adverse impacts to our business plans, increased costs, or claims against us that may harm our reputation.
The ability of our competitors to offer product/service offerings at lower prices due to lower cost structures and regulatory and legislative actions adverse to us, including non-regulation of comparable alternative technologies and/or government-owned or subsidized networks.
Disruption in our supply chain for a number of reasons, including, difficulties in obtaining export licenses for certain technology, inability to secure component parts, general business disruption, natural disasters, safety issues, economic and political instability and public health emergencies.
The continued development and delivery of attractive and profitable wireless, video and broadband offerings and devices, and, in particular, the success of our HBO Max platform; the extent to which regulatory and build-out requirements apply to our offerings; our ability to match speeds offered by our competitors and the availability, cost and/or reliability of the various technologies and/or content required to provide such offerings.
Our ability to generate advertising revenue from attractive video content, especially from WarnerMedia, in the face of unpredictable and rapidly evolving public viewing habits and legal restrictions on the use of personal data.
The availability and cost and our ability to adequately fund additional wireless spectrum and network upgrades; and regulations and conditions relating to spectrum use, licensing, obtaining additional spectrum, technical standards and deployment and usage, including network management rules.
Our ability to manage growth in wireless data services, including network quality and acquisition of adequate spectrum at reasonable costs and terms.
The outcome of pending, threatened or potential litigation (which includes arbitrations), including, without limitation, patent and product safety claims by or against third parties.
The impact from major equipment or software failures on our networks, including satellites operated by DIRECTV; the effect of security breaches related to the network or customer information; our inability to obtain handsets, equipment/software or have handsets, equipment/software serviced in a timely and cost-effective manner from suppliers; and in the case of satellites launched, timely provisioning of services from vendors; or severe weather conditions including flooding and hurricanes, natural disasters including earthquakes and forest fires, pandemics, energy shortages, wars or terrorist attacks.
The issuance by the Financial Accounting Standards Board or other accounting oversight bodies of new accounting standards or changes to existing standards.
Our ability to successfully integrate our WarnerMedia operations, including the ability to manage various businesses in widely dispersed business locations and with decentralized management.
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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Changes in our corporate strategies, such as changing network-related requirements or acquisitions and dispositions, which may require significant amounts of cash or stock, to respond to competition and regulatory, legislative and technological developments.
The uncertainty surrounding further congressional action to address spending reductions, which may result in a significant decrease in government spending and reluctance of businesses and consumers to spend in general.

Readers are cautioned that other factors discussed in this report, although not enumerated here, also could materially affect our future earnings.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our properties do not lend themselves to description by character and location of principal units. At December 31, 2020, of our total property, plant and equipment, central office equipment represented 29%; outside plant (including cable, wiring and other non-central office network equipment) represented 23%; other equipment, comprised principally of satellites, wireless network equipment attached to towers, furniture and office equipment and vehicles and other work equipment, represented 28%; land, building and wireless communications towers represented 13%; and other miscellaneous property represented 7%.

For our Communications segment, substantially all of the installations of central office equipment are located in buildings and on land we own. Many garages, administrative and business offices, wireless towers, telephone centers and retail stores are leased. Property on which communication towers are located may be either owned or leased.

For our WarnerMedia segment, we own or lease offices; studios; technical, production and warehouse spaces; communications facilities and other properties in numerous locations globally.


ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are a party to numerous lawsuits, regulatory proceedings and other matters arising in the ordinary course of business. As of the date of this report, we do not believe any pending legal proceedings to which we or our subsidiaries are subject are required to be disclosed as material legal proceedings pursuant to this item.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts


Information about our Executive Officers
(As of February 1, 2021)

NameAgePositionHeld Since
John T. Stankey58Chief Executive Officer and President7/2020
Edward W. Gillespie59Senior Executive Vice President - External and Legislative Affairs, AT&T Services, Inc.4/2020
David S. Huntley62Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer12/2014
Jason Kilar49Chief Executive Officer, Warner Media, LLC5/2020
Lori M. Lee55Chief Executive Officer-AT&T Latin America and Global Marketing Officer8/2017
David R. McAtee II52Senior Executive Vice President and General Counsel10/2015
Jeffery S. McElfresh50Chief Executive Officer, AT&T Communications, LLC10/2019
Angela R. Santone49Senior Executive Vice President - Human Resources12/2019
John J. Stephens61Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer6/2011

All of the above executive officers have held high-level managerial positions with AT&T or its subsidiaries for more than the past five years, except for Mr. Gillespie, Mr. Kilar and Ms. Santone. Mr. Gillespie was previously Managing Director of Sard Verbinnen & Co. from June 2018 to April 2020, Founder and Principal of Ed Gillespie Strategies from February 2009 to December 2016, and Counselor to the President for George W. Bush, Executive Office of the President at The White House, from July 2007 to January 2009. Mr. Kilar was previously Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Vessel from 2013 to 2017 and Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Hulu from 2007 to 2013. Ms. Santone was previously Chief Administrative Officer of AT&T from May 2019 to December 2019, Executive Vice President and Global Chief Human Resources Officer of Turner from February 2016 to April 2019, and Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer of Turner from June 2013 to January 2016. Executive officers are not appointed to a fixed term of office.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “T”. The number of stockholders of record as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 was 858,373 and 891,449. The number of stockholders of record as of February 12, 2021, was 854,769. We declared dividends on common stock, on a quarterly basis, totaling $2.08 per share in 2020 and $2.05 per share in 2019.

STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
t-20201231_g1.jpg

The comparison above assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2015, in AT&T common stock and the following Standard & Poor’s (S&P) Indices: S&P 500 Index and S&P 500 Communications Services Index. We have adopted the S&P 500 Communications Services Index, which permits us to use a more diversified set of companies in the communications and media sectors that are relevant to our businesses. Total return equals stock price appreciation plus reinvestment of dividends.


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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Our Board of Directors has approved the following authorizations to repurchase common stock: (1) March 2013 authorization program of 300 million shares (19 million outstanding at December 31, 2019, which we completed during the first quarter of 2020) and (2) March 2014 authorization program for 300 million shares, with 178 million outstanding at December 31, 2020. Excluding the impact of acquisitions, our 2021 financing activities will focus on managing our debt level and paying dividends, subject to approval by our Board of Directors. We plan to fund our financing uses of cash through a combination of cash from operations, issuance of debt and asset sales. The timing and mix of any debt issuance and/or refinancing will be guided by credit market conditions and interest rate trends.

To implement these authorizations, we used open market repurchases, relying on Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, where feasible. We entered into an Accelerated Share Repurchase agreement and repurchased $4,000 of common stock during the first quarter of 2020.

We will continue to fund any share repurchases through a combination of cash from operations, borrowings dependent on market conditions, or cash from the disposition of certain non-strategic investments.

A summary of our repurchases of common stock during the fourth quarter of 2020 is as follows:

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
(a)(b)(c)(d)
Period
Total Number of
Shares (or Units) Purchased1,2,3

Average Price Paid Per Share (or Unit)
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased
as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs1
Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares (or Units) That May Yet Be Purchased Under The Plans or Programs
October 1, 2020 -
October 31, 2020294,518 $28.52 6,374 177,935,856
November 1, 2020 -
November 30, 202078,988 $28.69 5,062 177,930,794
December 1, 2020 -
December 31, 2020702,940 $28.58 586 177,930,208
Total1,076,446 $28.57 12,022 
1In March 2014, our Board of Directors approved an authorization to repurchase up to 300 million shares of our common stock. The authorization has no expiration date.
2Of the shares purchased, 510,190 shares were acquired through the withholding of taxes on the vesting of restricted stock and performance shares or in respect of the exercise price of options.
3Of the shares repurchased or transferred, 554,234 shares were transferred from AT&T maintained Voluntary Employee Benefit Association (VEBA) trusts.
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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
At December 31 and for the year ended:20202019201820172016
Financial Data
Operating revenues$171,760 $181,193 $170,756 $160,546 $163,786 
Operating expenses$165,355 $153,238 $144,660 $140,576 $140,243 
Operating income$6,405 $27,955 $26,096 $19,970 $23,543 
Interest expense$7,925 $8,422 $7,957 $6,300 $4,910 
Equity in net income (loss) of affiliates$95 $$(48)$(128)$98 
Other income (expense) - net$(1,431)$(1,071)$6,782 $1,597 $1,081 
Income tax (benefit) expense$965 $3,493 $4,920 $(14,708)$6,479 
Net Income (Loss)$(3,821)$14,975 $19,953 $29,847 $13,333 
Less: Net Income Attributable to
Noncontrolling Interest
$(1,355)$(1,072)$(583)$(397)$(357)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to AT&T$(5,176)$13,903 $19,370 $29,450 $12,976 
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Common Stock$(5,369)$13,900 $19,370 $29,450 $12,976 
Basic Earnings Per Common Share:
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Common
Stock
$(0.75)$1.90 $2.85 $4.77 $2.10 
Diluted Earnings Per Common Share:
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Common
Stock
$(0.75)$1.89 $2.85 $4.76 $2.10 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding
(000,000)
7,157 7,319 6,778 6,164 6,168 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding
with dilution (000,000)
7,183 7,348 6,806 6,183 6,189 
End of period common shares outstanding (000,000)7,126 7,255 7,282 6,139 6,139 
Dividends declared per common share$2.08 $2.05 $2.01 $1.97 $1.93 
Cash and cash equivalents$9,740 $12,130 $5,204 $50,498 $5,788 
Total assets$525,761 $551,669 $531,864 $444,097 $403,821 
Long-term debt$153,775 $151,309 $166,250 $125,972 $113,681 
Total debt$157,245 $163,147 $176,505 $164,346 $123,513 
Debt ratio46.7 %44.7 %47.7 %53.6 %49.9 %
Net debt ratio43.8 %41.4 %46.2 %37.2 %47.5 %
Book value per common share$25.15 $27.84 $26.63 $23.13 $20.22 
Capital expenditures$15,675 $19,635 $21,251 $21,550 $22,408 
Vendor financing payments$2,966 $3,050 $560 $572 $— 
Gross capital investment1
$19,704 $23,690 $23,240 $22,401 $22,408 
Spectrum acquisitions2
$1,613 $1,316 $447 $(1,380)$2,477 
Number of employees230,760 247,800 268,220 254,000 268,540 
1Includes capital expenditures and vendor financing payments and excludes FirstNet reimbursements of $1,063 in 2020, $1,005 in 2019, $1,429 in 2018, $279 in 2017 and $0 in 2016 (see Note 20).
2Cash paid for FCC license and domestic spectrum acquired in business acquisitions and swaps, net of auction deposit returns.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

OVERVIEW
AT&T Inc. is referred to as “we,” “AT&T” or the “Company” throughout this document, and the names of the particular subsidiaries and affiliates providing the services generally have been omitted. AT&T is a holding company whose subsidiaries and affiliates operate worldwide in the telecommunications, media and technology industries. You should read this discussion in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes (Notes). We completed the acquisition of Time Warner Inc. (Time Warner) on June 14, 2018, and have included its results after that date. In accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), operating results from Time Warner prior to the acquisition are excluded.

Our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in this document generally discusses 2020 and 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019. Discussions of 2018 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2019 and 2018 that are not included in this document can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

We have three reportable segments: (1) Communications, (2) WarnerMedia and (3) Latin America. Our segment results presented in Note 4 and discussed below follow our internal management reporting. We analyze our segments based on segment operating contribution, which consists of operating income, excluding acquisition-related costs and other significant items and equity in net income (loss) of affiliates for investments managed within each segment. Each segment’s percentage calculation of total segment operating revenue and contribution is derived from our segment results table in Note 4 and may total more than 100% due to losses in one or more segments. Percentage increases and decreases that are not considered meaningful are denoted with a dash.

We have recast our segment results for all prior periods presented to include our prior Xandr segment within our WarnerMedia segment and to remove the Crunchyroll anime business that is classified as held-for-sale and removed from the WarnerMedia segment, instead including it in Corporate and Other.
Percent Change
2020201920182020 vs. 20192019 vs. 2018
Operating Revenues
Communications$138,850 $142,359 $143,721 (2.5) %(0.9)%
WarnerMedia30,442 35,259 20,585 (13.7)71.3 
Latin America5,716 6,963 7,652 (17.9)(9.0)
Corporate and other1,932 1,865 2,197 3.6 (15.1)
Eliminations and consolidation(5,180)(5,253)(3,399)1.4 (54.5)
AT&T Operating Revenues171,760 181,193 170,756 (5.2)6.1 
Operating Contribution
Communications30,521 32,230 32,108 (5.3)0.4 
WarnerMedia8,210 10,659 7,020 (23.0)51.8 
Latin America(729)(635)(710)(14.8)10.6 
Segment Operating Contribution$38,002 $42,254 $38,418 (10.1)%10.0 %

The Communications segment accounted for approximately 79% of our 2020 total segment operating revenues compared to 77% in 2019 and 80% of our 2020 total segment operating contribution as compared to 76% in 2019. This segment provides services to businesses and consumers located in the U.S. and businesses globally. Our business strategies reflect bundled product offerings that cut across product lines and utilize shared assets. In December 2020, we changed our management strategy and reevaluated our domestic video business, allowing us to maximize value in our domestic video business and further accelerate our ability to innovate and execute in our fast-growing broadband and fiber business. In conjunction with the strategy change, we separated the former Entertainment Group into two business units, Video and Broadband, which includes legacy telephony operations. We have recast our results for all prior periods to split the Entertainment Group into two separate business units, Video and Broadband, and removed video operations from Business Wireline, combining all video operations in the Video business unit. This segment contains the following business units:
Mobility provides nationwide wireless service and equipment.
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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Video provides video, including over-the-top (OTT) services and also sells multiplatform advertising services as video revenues.
Broadband provides internet, including broadband fiber, and legacy telephony voice communication services to residential customers.
Business Wireline provides advanced IP-based services, as well as traditional voice and data services to business customers.

The WarnerMedia segment accounted for approximately 17% of our 2020 total segment operating revenues compared to 19% in 2019 and 22% of our 2020 total segment operating contribution compared to 25% in 2019. This segment develops, produces and distributes feature films, television, gaming and other content over various physical and digital formats globally. Historical financial results of Eliminations & Other included in the WarnerMedia segment have been recast to include Xandr, previously a separate reportable segment, and to remove the Crunchyroll anime business that was classified as held-for-sale. This segment contains the following:
Turner primarily operates multichannel basic television networks and digital properties. Turner also sells advertising on its networks and digital properties.
Home Box Office consists of premium pay television and HBO Max domestically and premium pay, basic tier television internationally and content licensing and home entertainment.
Warner Bros. primarily consists of the production, distribution and licensing of television programming and feature films, the distribution of home entertainment products and the production and distribution of games.
Eliminations & Other includes the Xandr advertising business, and also removes transactions between the Turner, Home Box Office and Warner Bros. business units, including internal sales of content to the HBO Max platform that began in the fourth quarter of 2019 (see Note 5).

The Latin America segment accounted for approximately 3% of our 2020 total segment operating revenues compared to 4% in 2019. This segment provides entertainment and wireless services outside of the U.S. This segment contains the following business units:
Vrio provides video services primarily to residential customers using satellite technology in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Mexico provides wireless service and equipment to customers in Mexico.

COVID-19 Update
Disruptions caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) and measures taken to prevent its spread or mitigate its effects both domestically and internationally have impacted our results of operations. We recorded approximately $850, or $0.10 per diluted share, for the year ended December 31, 2020, of incremental costs associated with voluntary corporate actions taken to protect and compensate front-line employees and contractors and additional WarnerMedia production disruption.
 
In addition to these incremental costs, we estimate that our operations and comparability were impacted by approximately $2,925, or $0.33 per diluted share, for the year ended December 31, 2020, for: (1) reluctance of consumers to travel at previous levels, driving significantly lower international wireless roaming service revenues that do not have a directly correlated expense reduction, (2) the partial closure of movie theaters and postponement of theatrical releases, leading to lower content revenues, and (3) lower television licensing and production revenues due to production hiatus, and associated expenses.

With partial reopening of the economy and improved collections experience, the economic effects of the pandemic and resulting societal changes remain unpredictable. There are a number of uncertainties that could impact our future results of operations, including the effectiveness of COVID-19 mitigation measures, the duration of the pandemic, the efficacy and widespread distribution of a vaccine, global economic conditions, changes to our operations, changes in consumer confidence, behaviors and spending, work and learn from home trends and the sustainability of supply chains. We expect operating results and cash flows to continue to be adversely impacted by COVID-19 for the duration of the pandemic. We expect our 2021 results to be impacted by the following:
Lower revenues from the continued partial closure of movie theaters and higher costs based on our decision to distribute 2021 films on HBO Max in the U.S. simultaneous with theaters for 31 days and costs associated with the international launch of HBO Max;
Uncertainty in revenues from international wireless roaming services due to reduced travel, particularly in the first quarter; and
Continued expenses to protect front-line employees, contractors and customers.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Consolidated Results Our financial results are summarized in the following table. We then discuss factors affecting our overall results. Additional analysis is discussed in our “Segment Results” section. We also discuss our expected revenue and expense trends for 2021 in the “Operating Environment and Trends of the Business” section. Certain prior-period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period’s presentation.
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Service$152,767 $163,499 $152,345 (6.6) %7.3  %
Equipment18,993 17,694 18,411 7.3 (3.9)
Total Operating Revenues171,760 181,193 170,756 (5.2)6.1 
Operating expenses
Operations and support117,959 123,563 116,184 (4.5)6.4 
Asset impairments and abandonments18,880 1,458 46  — 
Depreciation and amortization28,516 28,217 28,430 1.1 (0.7)
Total Operating Expenses165,355 153,238 144,660 7.9 5.9 
Operating Income6,405 27,955 26,096 (77.1)7.1 
Interest expense7,925 8,422 7,957 (5.9)5.8 
Equity in net income (loss) of affiliates95 (48) — 
Other income (expense) – net(1,431)(1,071)6,782 (33.6)— 
Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes(2,856)18,468 24,873  (25.8)
Net Income (Loss)(3,821)14,975 19,953  (24.9)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to AT&T(5,176)13,903 19,370  (28.2)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to
Common Stock
$(5,369)$13,900 $19,370  %(28.2)%


OVERVIEW

Operating revenues decreased in 2020, with declines in all segments reflecting impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Lower WarnerMedia segment revenues reflect limited and postponed theatrical and home entertainment releases as well as lower television licensing, productions and advertising revenues. Communications segment revenue declines were driven by continued declines in video and legacy services, partially offset by higher wireless device sales and increases in strategic and managed business service revenues. Latin America segment revenue declines were primarily due to foreign exchange rates.

Operations and support expenses decreased in 2020, driven by impacts of the pandemic which resulted in lower broadcast and programming costs in our Communications and WarnerMedia segments and lower film-related print and advertising costs at WarnerMedia. Also contributing to declines were a noncash gain of $900 on a spectrum transaction in the first quarter that was recorded as an offset to operating expenses as well as our continued focus on cost management. Offsetting these expense decreases were higher costs associated with our investment in HBO Max, employee separation charges and incremental costs related to COVID-19. As part of our cost and efficiency initiatives, we expect operations and support expense improvements to continue as we size our operations to reflect the current economic activity level.

Asset impairments and abandonments increased in 2020, primarily due to noncash impairment charges of $15,508 in the fourth quarter, resulting from our assessment of the recoverability of the long-lived assets and goodwill associated with our video business (see Notes 7 and 9). The increase also includes a goodwill impairment of $2,212 at our Vrio business unit in the second quarter (see Note 9) and $780 from the impairment of production and other content inventory at WarnerMedia, with approximately $524 resulting from the continued shutdown of theaters during the pandemic and the hybrid distribution model for our 2021 film slate (see Note 11). Charges in 2019 primarily related to the abandonment of certain copper assets that were not necessary to support future network activity (see Note 7).

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Depreciation and amortization expense increased in 2020.
Amortization expense increased $307, or 3.9%, in 2020 due to the amortization of orbital slot licenses, which began in the first quarter of 2020 (see Note 1). Amortization expense in 2021 will reflect approximately $1,200 of reductions from the 2020 impairment of orbital slots and customers lists associated with our domestic video business (see Note 9).

Depreciation expense decreased $8 in 2020 primarily due to ongoing capital spend for network upgrades and expansion partially offset by fully depreciated assets in our Communications segment. Depreciation expense in 2021 will reflect approximately $480 of reductions from the 2020 impairment of property, plant and equipment associated with our domestic video business (see Note 7).

Operating income decreased in 2020 and increased in 2019. Our operating margin was 3.7% in 2020, compared to 15.4% in 2019 and 15.3% in 2018.

Interest expense decreased in 2020, primarily due to lower interest rates and debt balances.

Equity in net income (loss) of affiliates increased in 2020, reflecting changes in our investment portfolio, including $130 equity in earnings resulting from an investee transaction.

Other income (expense) – net decreased in 2020 primarily due to the recognition of $1,405 of debt redemption costs and lower income from Rabbi trusts and other investments. Offsetting the decrease were lower actuarial losses in 2020, $4,169 compared to $5,171 in 2019 (see Note 15).

Income tax expense decreased in 2020, primarily driven by decreased income before income taxes offset by impairments of goodwill (see Note 9), which are not deductible for tax purposes.

Our effective tax rate was (33.8)% in 2020, 18.9% in 2019, and 19.8% in 2018. The effective tax rate in 2020 was impacted by the goodwill impairments, which are not deductible for tax purposes.

Segment Results Our segments are strategic business units that offer different products and services over various technology platforms and/or in different geographies that are managed accordingly. Our segment results presented below follow our internal management reporting. In addition to segment operating contribution, we also evaluate segment performance based on EBITDA and/or EBITDA margin. EBITDA is defined as segment operating contribution, excluding equity in net income (loss) of affiliates and depreciation and amortization. We believe EBITDA to be a relevant and useful measurement to our investors as it is part of our internal management reporting and planning processes and it is an important metric that management uses to evaluate operating performance. EBITDA does not give effect to depreciation and amortization expenses incurred in operating contribution nor is it burdened by cash used for debt service requirements and thus does not reflect available funds for distributions, reinvestment or other discretionary uses. EBITDA margin is EBITDA divided by total revenues.
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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
COMMUNICATIONS SEGMENTPercent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Segment Operating Revenues
Mobility$72,564 $71,056 $70,521 2.1  %0.8  %
Video28,610 32,124 33,363 (10.9)(3.7)
Broadband12,318 13,012 13,108 (5.3)(0.7)
Business Wireline25,358 26,167 26,729 (3.1)(2.1)
Total Segment Operating Revenues138,850 142,359 143,721 (2.5)(0.9)
Segment Operating Contribution
Mobility22,372 22,321 21,568 0.2 3.5 
Video1,729 2,064 1,331 (16.2)55.1 
Broadband1,822 2,681 3,369 (32.0)(20.4)
Business Wireline4,598 5,164 5,840 (11.0)(11.6)
Total Segment Operating Contribution$30,521 $32,230 $32,108 (5.3) %0.4  %
Selected Subscribers and Connections
December 31,
(000s)202020192018
Mobility subscribers182,558 165,889 151,921 
Total domestic broadband connections15,384 15,389 15,701 
Network access lines in service7,263 8,487 10,002 
U-verse VoIP connections3,816 4,370 5,114 
Operating revenues decreased in 2020 and were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Declines in our Video, Broadband and Business Wireline business units were partially offset by increases in our Mobility business unit. The decrease also reflects the continued shift away from linear video and legacy services, partially offset by higher equipment and service revenues.

Operating contribution decreased in 2020 and increased in 2019. The 2020 operating contribution includes declines in our Video, Broadband and Business Wireline business units, and reflects stable operating contribution from our Mobility business. Our Communications segment operating income margin was 22.0% in 2020, 22.6% in 2019 and 22.3% in 2018.

Communications Business Unit Discussion
Mobility Results
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Service$55,542 $55,331 $54,295 0.4  %1.9 %
Equipment17,022 15,725 16,226 8.2 (3.1)
Total Operating Revenues72,564 71,056 70,521 2.1 0.8 
Operating expenses
Operations and support42,106 40,681 40,690 3.5 — 
Depreciation and amortization8,086 8,054 8,263 0.4 (2.5)
Total Operating Expenses50,192 48,735 48,953 3.0 (0.4)
Operating Income22,372 22,321 21,568 0.2 3.5 
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates — —  — 
Operating Contribution$22,372 $22,321 $21,568 0.2  %3.5  %
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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts

The following tables highlight other key measures of performance for Mobility:
Subscribers
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Postpaid77,15475,20776,0682.6 %(1.1)%
Prepaid18,10217,80316,8281.7 5.8 
Reseller6,5356,8937,693(5.2)(10.4)
Connected devices1
80,76765,98651,33222.4 28.5 
Total Mobility Subscribers182,558165,889151,92110.0  %9.2  %
1Includes data-centric devices such as wholesale automobile systems, monitoring devices, fleet management and session-based tablets.

Mobility Net Additions
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Postpaid Phone Net Additions1,457483194  %—  %
Total Phone Net Additions5
1,6409891,24865.8 (20.8)
Postpaid2, 6
2,183(435)(90) — 
Prepaid5, 6
3796771,301(44.0)(48.0)
Reseller6
(449)(928)(1,599)51.6 42.0 
Connected devices3
14,78514,64512,3241.0 18.8 
Mobility Net Subscriber Additions1
16,89813,95911,93621.1  %16.9  %
Postpaid Churn4
0.98  %1.18  %1.12  %(20) BP BP
Postpaid Phone-Only Churn4
0.79  %0.95  %0.90  %(16) BP BP
1 Excludes acquisition-related additions during the period.
2In addition to postpaid phones, includes tablets and wearables and other. Tablet net (losses) were (512), (1,487) and (1,200) for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Wearables and other net adds were 1,223, 569 and 916 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
3 Includes data-centric devices such as session-based tablets, monitoring devices and primarily wholesale automobile systems. Excludes postpaid tablets.
4Calculated by dividing the aggregate number of wireless subscribers who canceled service during a month by the total number of wireless subscribers at the beginning of that month. The churn rate for the period is equal to the average of the churn rate for each month of that period.
5The year ended December 31, 2020, includes 188 subscriber disconnections resulting from updating our prepaid activation policy.
6The year ended December 31, 2020, includes subscribers transferred in connection with business dispositions.
1
Service revenue increased during 2020 largely due to growth in phone subscribers and connected devices, offset by declines in international roaming revenue due to reduced travel during the pandemic. Successful offers aimed at customer retention contributed to subscriber growth and lower churn.

ARPU
Average revenue per subscriber (ARPU) decreased primarily due to the decline in international roaming and waived fees.

Churn
The effective management of subscriber churn is critical to our ability to maximize revenue growth and to maintain and improve margins. Postpaid churn and postpaid phone-only churn were lower in 2020 due to migrations to unlimited plans, continued network improvements, subscriber retention offers in the fourth quarter, and lower overall involuntary disconnects.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Equipment revenue increased in 2020 primarily due to higher equipment revenue from higher postpaid upgrade volumes, the mix of sales of higher-priced smartphones, and higher sales of data devices, including wearables, wireless modems and hotspots.

Operations and support expenses increased in 2020, largely driven by higher equipment costs, increased commission deferral amortization and intercompany content costs associated with plans offering HBO Max, partially offset by lower bad debt expense. The increase in commission deferral amortization is partly offset by the impacts of our second-quarter 2020 updates to extend the expected economic life of our Mobility customers.

Depreciation expense increased in 2020, primarily due to ongoing capital spending for network upgrades and expansion partially offset by fully depreciated assets.

Operating income increased in 2020 and 2019. Our Mobility operating income margin was 30.8% in 2020, 31.4% in 2019 and 30.6% in 2018. Our Mobility EBITDA margin was 42.0% in 2020, 42.7% in 2019 and 42.3% in 2018.

Subscriber Relationships
As the wireless industry has matured, future wireless growth will depend on our ability to offer innovative services, plans and devices that take advantage of our premier 5G wireless network, which went nationwide in July 2020, and to provide these services in bundled product offerings. Subscribers that purchase two or more services from us have significantly lower churn than subscribers that purchase only one service. To support higher mobile data usage, our priority is to best utilize a wireless network that has sufficient spectrum and capacity to support these innovations on as broad a geographic basis as possible.

To attract and retain subscribers in a mature and highly competitive market, we have launched a wide variety of plans, including our FirstNet and prepaid products, and arrangements that bundle our video services. Virtually all of our postpaid smartphone subscribers are on plans that provide for service on multiple devices at reduced rates, and subscribers to such plans tend to have higher retention and lower churn rates. We offer unlimited data plans and such subscribers also tend to have higher retention and lower churn rates. Our offerings are intended to encourage existing subscribers to upgrade their current services and/or add devices, attract subscribers from other providers and/or minimize subscriber churn.

Connected Devices
Connected devices include data-centric devices such as wholesale automobile systems, monitoring devices, fleet management and session-based tablets. Connected device subscribers increased in 2020, and we added approximately 9.9 million wholesale connected cars through agreements with various carmakers, and experienced strong growth in other Internet of Things (IoT) connections. These connected car agreements give us the opportunity to create future retail relationships with the car owners.

Video Results
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Service$28,465 $32,123 $33,363 (11.4)%(3.7)%
Equipment145 —  — 
Total Operating Revenues28,610 32,124 33,363 (10.9)(3.7)
Operating expenses
Operations and support24,619 27,599 29,334 (10.8)(5.9)
Depreciation and amortization2,262 2,461 2,698 (8.1)(8.8)
Total Operating Expenses26,881 30,060 32,032 (10.6)(6.2)
Operating Income1,729 2,064 1,331 (16.2)55.1 
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates — —  — 
Operating Contribution$1,729 $2,064 $1,331 (16.2) %55.1 %
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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts

The following tables highlight other key measures of performance for Video:
Connections
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Video Connections
Premium TV16,50519,49622,926(15.3)%(15.0)%
AT&T TV NOW1
6569261,591(29.2)(41.8)
Total Video Connections1
17,16120,42224,517(16.0)%(16.7)%
1Beginning in January 2021, AT&T TV NOW has been combined with AT&T TV.
Net Additions
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Video Net Additions
Premium TV(2,991)(3,430)(1,189)12.8 %— %
AT&T TV NOW1
(270)(665)43659.4 — 
Net Video Additions1
(3,261)(4,095)(753)20.4 %— %
1Beginning in January 2021, AT&T TV NOW has been combined with AT&T TV.

Service revenues are comprised of video entertainment subscription and advertising revenues. Revenues decreased in 2020 and 2019, largely driven by a decline in premium TV and OTT subscribers as we continue to focus on retention of existing subscribers with a particular focus on our high-value subscribers. Partially offsetting video revenue declines was higher advertising revenues during a general election year. Consistent with the rest of the industry, our customers continue to shift from a premium linear video service to more economically priced OTT and subscription video on demand offerings, which has impacted our video revenues.

Equipment revenue increased in 2020 primarily due to the nationwide introduction of our IP-based AT&T TV service in early 2020.

Operations and support expenses decreased in 2020 and 2019, largely driven by lower content costs from fewer subscribers, partially offset by annual content rate increases, including those associated with NFL SUNDAY TICKET and pandemic-related compassion payments made in the first half of 2020.

Depreciation expense decreased in 2020 and 2019, due to network assets becoming fully depreciated.

Operating income decreased in 2020 and increased in 2019. Our Video operating income margin was 6.0% in 2020, 6.4% in 2019 and 4.0% in 2018. Our Video EBITDA margin was 13.9% in 2020, 14.1% in 2019 and 12.1% in 2018.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Broadband Results
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
High-speed internet$8,534 $8,403 $7,956 1.6 %5.6 %
Legacy voice and data services2,213 2,573 3,042 (14.0)(15.4)
Other service and equipment1,571 2,036 2,110 (22.8)(3.5)
Total Operating Revenues12,318 13,012 13,108 (5.3)(0.7)
Operating expenses
Operations and support7,582 7,451 7,116 1.8 4.7 
Depreciation and amortization2,914 2,880 2,623 1.2 9.8 
Total Operating Expenses10,496 10,331 9,739 1.6 6.1 
Operating Income1,822 2,681 3,369 (32.0)(20.4)
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates — —  — 
Operating Contribution$1,822 $2,681 $3,369 (32.0) %(20.4)%

The following tables highlight other key measures of performance for Broadband:

Connections
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Broadband Connections
Total Broadband Connections14,100 14,119 14,409(0.1)%(2.0)%
Fiber Broadband Connections4,951 3,887 2,76327.4 40.7 
Voice Connections
Retail Consumer Switched Access Lines2,8623,3293,967(14.0)(16.1)
U-verse Consumer VoIP Connections3,2313,7944,582(14.8)(17.2)
Total Retail Consumer Voice Connections6,0937,1238,549(14.5)%(16.7)%
Net Additions
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Broadband Net Additions
Total Broadband Net Additions(19)(290)5993.4 %— %
Fiber Broadband Net Additions1,0641,1241,034(5.3)%8.7 %

High-speed internet revenues increased in 2020 and 2019, reflecting higher ARPU resulting from the continued shift of subscribers to our higher-speed fiber services and pricing actions.

Legacy voice and data service revenues decreased in 2020 and 2019, reflecting the continued decline in the number of customers.

Other service and equipment revenues decreased in 2020 and 2019, reflecting the continued decline in the number of VoIP customers.

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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Operations and support expenses increased in 2020, largely driven by intercompany content costs associated with plans offering HBO Max. Expense increases in 2020 and 2019 also reflect higher acquisition and fulfillment cost deferral amortization, including the impact of updates to decrease the estimated economic life of our subscribers.

Depreciation expense increased in 2020 and 2019, primarily due to ongoing capital spending for network upgrades and expansion.

Operating income decreased in 2020 and 2019. Our Broadband operating income margin was 14.8% in 2020, 20.6% in 2019 and 25.7% in 2018. Our Broadband EBITDA margin was 38.4% in 2020, 42.7% in 2019 and 45.7% in 2018.

Business Wireline Results
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Strategic and managed services$15,788 $15,430 $14,649 2.3 %5.3 %
Legacy voice and data services8,183 9,180 10,674 (10.9)(14.0)
Other service and equipment1,387 1,557 1,406 (10.9)10.7 
Total Operating Revenues25,358 26,167 26,729 (3.1)(2.1)
Operating expenses
Operations and support15,534 16,069 16,181 (3.3)(0.7)
Depreciation and amortization5,226 4,934 4,708 5.9 4.8 
Total Operating Expenses20,760 21,003 20,889 (1.2)0.5 
Operating Income4,598 5,164 5,840 (11.0)(11.6)
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates — —  — 
Operating Contribution$4,598 $5,164 $5,840 (11.0)%(11.6)%

Strategic and managed services revenues increased in 2020. Our strategic services are made up of (1) data services, including our VPN, dedicated internet ethernet and broadband, (2) voice service, including VoIP and cloud-based voice solutions, (3) security and cloud solutions, and (4) managed, professional and outsourcing services. Revenue increases were primarily attributable to growth in our security and cloud solutions, dedicated internet and voice services and the impact of higher demand for connectivity due to the pandemic.

Legacy voice and data service revenues decreased in 2020, primarily due to lower demand as customers continue to shift to our more advanced IP-based offerings or our competitors.

Other service and equipment revenues decreased in 2020, reflecting higher prior-year licensing of intellectual property assets. Revenue trends are impacted by the licensing of intellectual property assets, which vary from period-to-period. Other service revenues include project-based revenue, which is nonrecurring in nature, as well as revenues from customer premises equipment.

Operations and support expenses decreased in 2020, primarily due to our continued efforts to drive efficiencies in our network operations through automation and reductions in customer support expenses through digitization.

Depreciation expense increased in 2020, reflecting increases in capital spending for network upgrades and expansion.

Operating income decreased in 2020 and 2019. Our Business Wireline operating income margin was 18.1% in 2020, 19.7% in 2019 and 21.8% in 2018. Our Business Wireline EBITDA margin was 38.7% in 2020, 38.6% in 2019 and 39.5% in 2018.
37

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
WARNERMEDIA SEGMENT
Percent Change
2020201920182020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Segment Operating Revenues
Turner$12,568 $13,122 $6,979 (4.2)%— %
Home Box Office6,808 6,749 3,598 0.9 — 
Warner Bros.12,154 14,358 8,703 (15.4)— 
Eliminations & Other(1,088)1,030 1,305  — 
Total Segment Operating Revenues30,442 35,259 20,585 (13.7)— 
Cost of revenues
Turner5,330 5,970 2,815 (10.7)— 
Home Box Office4,356 3,248 1,669 34.1 — 
Warner Bros.8,236 10,006 6,130 (17.7)— 
Selling, general and administrative5,803 5,368 2,895 8.1 — 
Eliminations & Other(2,146)(420)(230) — 
Depreciation and amortization671 589 311 13.9 — 
Total Operating Expenses22,250 24,761 13,590 (10.1)— 
Operating Income8,192 10,498 6,995 (22.0)— 
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates18 161 25 (88.8)— 
Total Segment Operating Contribution$8,210 $10,659 $7,020 (23.0)%— %

Our WarnerMedia segment includes our Turner, Home Box Office (HBO) and Warner Bros. business units. The order of presentation reflects the consistency of revenue streams, rather than overall magnitude as that is subject to timing and frequency of studio releases. Historical financial results of the WarnerMedia segment, (Eliminations & Other) have been recast to include Xandr, previously a separate reportable segment, and to remove the Crunchyroll anime business that is classified as held-for-sale.

The WarnerMedia segment does not include results from Time Warner operations prior to our June 14, 2018 acquisition. For this reason, 2018 results are not comparable to the other two years presented for this segment and therefore percent changes comparing 2018 and 2019 are not shown in the tables. Otter Media and HBO Latin America Group (HBO LAG) are included as equity method investments prior to our acquiring the remaining interests in each, which occurred in August 2018 and May 2020, respectively. Both are included in the segment operating results following the dates of acquisition. Consistent with our past practice, many of the impacts of the fair value adjustments from the application of purchase accounting required under GAAP have not been allocated to the segment, instead they are reported as acquisition-related items in the reconciliation to consolidated results.

Operating revenues decreased in 2020, primarily due to lower theatrical and television product revenues, reflecting the pandemic-related postponement of theatrical releases and theatrical and television production delays at Warner Bros. Turner revenues also decreased due to lower advertising revenues resulting from cancellation and shifting of sporting events, and/or compressed seasons. HBO revenues partially offset these decreases, driven by growth in international revenues and domestic HBO Max retail subscribers, partially offset by lower licensing revenues.

Operating contribution decreased in 2020 and increased in 2019. The WarnerMedia segment operating income margin was 26.9% in 2020, 29.8% in 2019 and 34.0% in 2018.


38

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
WarnerMedia Business Unit Discussion
Turner Results
Percent Change
2020201920182020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Subscription$7,613 $7,736 $4,207 (1.6)%— %
Advertising3,941 4,566 2,330 (13.7)— 
Content and other1,014 820 442 23.7 — 
Total Operating Revenues12,568 13,122 6,979 (4.2)— 
Operating expenses
Cost of revenues5,330 5,970 2,815 (10.7)— 
Selling, general and administrative1,624 1,770 979 (8.2)— 
Depreciation and amortization277 235 131 17.9 — 
Total Operating Expenses7,231 7,975 3,925 (9.3)— 
Operating Income5,337 5,147 3,054 3.7 — 
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates(2)52 54  — 
Operating Contribution$5,335 $5,199 $3,108 2.6 %— %

Operating revenues decreased in 2020 primarily due to lower advertising revenues resulting from the cancellation of the NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament in the first quarter of 2020 and the impacts from shifting sporting event schedules and/or compressed seasons, such as the delay of the NBA season that historically has started earlier in the fourth quarter. These revenue declines were partially offset by increased advertising due to news coverage of general elections and COVID-19 developments. Operating revenue declines were also caused by lower subscription revenues at regional sports networks and unfavorable exchange rates, partially offset by higher content and other revenue, including internal sales to HBO Max, which are eliminated in consolidation within the WarnerMedia segment.

Cost of revenues decreased in 2020 primarily due to lower sports programming costs as a result of the previously mentioned cancellations and modifications to the timing and/or duration of various sporting events.

Selling, general and administrative decreased in 2020 driven by cost-saving initiatives.

Operating income increased in 2020 and 2019. Our Turner operating income margin was 42.5% in 2020, 39.2% in 2019 and 43.8% in 2018.

39

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Home Box Office Results
Percent Change
2020201920182020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Subscription$6,090 $5,814 $3,201 4.7 %— %
Content and other718 935 397 (23.2)— 
Total Operating Revenues6,808 6,749 3,598 0.9 — 
Operating expenses
Cost of revenues4,356 3,248 1,669 34.1 — 
Selling, general and administrative1,672 1,064 518 57.1 — 
Depreciation and amortization98 102 56 (3.9)— 
Total Operating Expenses6,126 4,414 2,243 38.8 — 
Operating Income682 2,335 1,355 (70.8)— 
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates16 30 29 (46.7)— 
Operating Contribution$698 $2,365 $1,384 (70.5)%— %

Operating revenues increased in 2020, primarily due to the May 2020 acquisition of HBO LAG and higher domestic HBO Max retail subscribers, partially offset by decreases in content and other revenue from lower content licensing. At December 31, 2020, we had 41.5 million U.S. subscribers from HBO and HBO Max, up from 34.6 million at December 31, 2019, including growth from intercompany relationships with the Communications segment.

Cost of revenues increased in 2020, primarily due to approximately $1,800 of programming investment related to HBO Max.

Selling, general and administrative increased in 2020, primarily due to higher marketing costs associated with HBO Max.

Operating income decreased in 2020 and increased in 2019. Our HBO operating income margin was 10.0% in 2020, 34.6% in 2019 and 37.7% in 2018.

Warner Bros. Results
Percent Change
2020201920182020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Theatrical product$4,389 $5,978 $4,002 (26.6)%— %
Television product6,171 6,367 3,621 (3.1)— 
Games and other1,594 2,013 1,080 (20.8)— 
Total Operating Revenues12,154 14,358 8,703 (15.4)— 
Operating expenses
Cost of revenues8,236 10,006 6,130 (17.7)— 
Selling, general and administrative1,681 1,810 1,000 (7.1)— 
Depreciation and amortization169 162 96 4.3 — 
Total Operating Expenses10,086 11,978 7,226 (15.8)— 
Operating Income2,068 2,380 1,477 (13.1)— 
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates(70)(30)(28) — 
Operating Contribution$1,998 $2,350 $1,449 (15.0)%— %

40

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Operating revenues decreased in 2020, primarily due to pandemic-related movie theater closures and television and theatrical production delays.

Theatrical product revenues were lower due to theaters closing for a significant portion of the year and postponement of theatrical releases, which also reduced licensing revenues, such as home entertainment licensing. Additionally, unfavorable comparisons to the prior-year releases, which included, in 2019, Joker and carryover revenues from the theatrical release of Aquaman, compared to the limited-capacity theater and hybrid HBO Max distribution release of Wonder Woman 1984, in late 2020.

Television product revenues decreased primarily due to lower initial telecast revenues resulting from television production delays, including delays in the start of the 2020-2021 broadcast season, partially offset by increased licensing, including internal sales to HBO Max, which are eliminated in consolidation within the WarnerMedia segment.

Games and other revenue declines were primarily due to reduced studio operations and unfavorable games comparison to the prior year, which included, in 2019, the release of Mortal Kombat 11.

Cost of revenues decreased in 2020, primarily due to the production hiatus and lower marketing of theatrical product, partially offset by incremental production shutdown costs.

Selling, general and administrative decreased in 2020, primarily due to lower print and advertising expenses from limited theatrical releases and lower distribution fees.

Operating income decreased in 2020 and increased in 2019. Our Warner Bros. operating income margin was 17.0% in 2020, 16.6% in 2019 and 17.0% in 2018.

LATIN AMERICA SEGMENT
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Segment Operating Revenues
Vrio$3,154 $4,094 $4,784 (23.0)%(14.4)%
Mexico2,562 2,869 2,868 (10.7)— 
Total Segment Operating Revenues5,716 6,963 7,652 (17.9)(9.0)
Segment Operating Contribution
Vrio(142)83 347  (76.1)
Mexico(587)(718)(1,057)18.2 32.1 
Total Segment Operating Contribution$(729)$(635)$(710)(14.8)%10.6 %

Our Latin America operations conduct business in their local currency and operating results are converted to U.S. dollars using official exchange rates, subjecting results to foreign currency fluctuations. In May 2020, we found it necessary to close our DIRECTV operations in Venezuela due to political instability in the country and to comply with sanctions of the U.S. government.

Operating revenues decreased in 2020, primarily driven by foreign exchange rates and overall economic impacts.

Operating contribution decreased in 2020, reflecting foreign exchange rates and overall economic impacts, and increased in 2019, due to improvement in Mexico. Our Latin America segment operating income margin was (13.2)% in 2020, (9.5)% in 2019 and (9.7)% in 2018.

41

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Latin America Business Unit Discussion
Vrio Results
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues$3,154 $4,094 $4,784 (23.0)%(14.4)%
Operating expenses
Operations and support2,800 3,378 3,743 (17.1)(9.8)
Depreciation and amortization520 660 728 (21.2)(9.3)
Total Operating Expenses3,320 4,038 4,471 (17.8)(9.7)
Operating Income (Loss)(166)56 313  (82.1)
Equity in Net Income of Affiliates24 27 34 (11.1)(20.6)
Operating Contribution$(142)$83 $347  %(76.1)%

The following tables highlight other key measures of performance for Vrio:
Percent Change
(in 000s)2020201920182020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Vrio Video Subscribers10,942 13,331 13,838 (17.9)%(3.7)%
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Vrio Video Net Subscriber Additions1
(148)(285)250 48.1 % %
12020 excludes the impact of 2.2 million subscriber disconnections resulting from the closure of our DIRECTV operations in Venezuela.

Operating revenues decreased in 2020, primarily driven by foreign exchange and overall economic impacts.

Operations and support expenses decreased in 2020, primarily driven by foreign exchange and overall economic impacts. Approximately 21% of Vrio expenses are U.S. dollar-based, with the remainder in the local currency.

Depreciation expense decreased in 2020, primarily due to changes in foreign exchange rates.

Operating income decreased in 2020 and 2019. Our Vrio operating income margin was (5.3)% in 2020, 1.4% in 2019 and 6.5% in 2018. Our Vrio EBITDA margin was 11.2% in 2020, 17.5% in 2019 and 21.8% in 2018.
42

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Mexico Results
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Service$1,656 $1,863 $1,701 (11.1) %9.5 %
Equipment906 1,006 1,167 (9.9)(13.8)
Total Operating Revenues2,562 2,869 2,868 (10.7)— 
Operating expenses
Operations and support2,636 3,085 3,415 (14.6)(9.7)
Depreciation and amortization513 502 510 2.2 (1.6)
Total Operating Expenses3,149 3,587 3,925 (12.2)(8.6)
Operating Income (Loss)(587)(718)(1,057)18.2 32.1 
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates — —  — 
Operating Contribution$(587)$(718)$(1,057)18.2  %32.1 %

The following tables highlight other key measures of performance for Mexico:
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Mexico Wireless Subscribers1
Postpaid4,696 5,103 5,805 (8.0)%(12.1)%
Prepaid13,758 13,584 12,264 1.3 10.8 
Reseller489 472 252 3.6 87.3 
Mexico Wireless Subscribers18,943 19,159 18,321 (1.1)%4.6 %
Percent Change
(in 000s)202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Mexico Wireless Net Additions1
Postpaid(407)(608)307 33.1 %— %
Prepaid174 1,919 2,867 (90.9)(33.1)
Reseller118 219 48 (46.1)— 
Mexico Wireless Net Additions(115)1,530 3,222  %(52.5)%
12020 excludes the impact of 101 subscriber disconnections resulting from conforming our policy on reporting of fixed wireless resellers.

Service revenues decreased in 2020, primarily due to foreign exchange rates, as well as lower volumes and store traffic related to COVID-19.

Equipment revenues decreased in 2020, primarily due to lower equipment sales volumes related to COVID-19 and changes in foreign exchange rates.

Operations and support expenses decreased in 2020, primarily due to lower equipment sales and changes in foreign exchange rates. Approximately 7% of Mexico expenses are U.S. dollar-based, with the remainder in the local currency.

Depreciation expense increased in 2020, primarily due to amortization of spectrum licenses and higher in-service assets. These increases were partially offset by changes in foreign exchange rates.

Operating income increased in 2020 and 2019. Our Mexico operating income margin was (22.9)% in 2020, (25.0)% in 2019 and (36.9)% in 2018. Our Mexico EBITDA margin was (2.9)% in 2020, (7.5)% in 2019 and (19.1)% in 2018.
43

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts

SUPPLEMENTAL TOTAL ADVERTISING REVENUE INFORMATION
As a supplemental presentation, we are providing a view of total advertising revenues generated by AT&T. See revenue categories tables in Note 5 for a reconciliation.
Total Advertising Revenues
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating Revenues
Turner$3,941 $4,566 $2,330 (13.7)%96.0 %
Video1,718 1,672 1,595 2.8 4.8 
Xandr2,089 2,022 1,740 3.3 16.2 
Other386 382 352 1.0 8.5 
Eliminations(1,718)(1,672)(1,595)(2.8)(4.8)
Total Advertising Revenues$6,416 $6,970 $4,422 (7.9)%57.6 %

SUPPLEMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS OPERATING INFORMATION
As a supplemental presentation to our Communications segment operating results, we are providing a view of our AT&T Business Solutions results which includes both wireless and wireline operations. This combined view presents a complete profile of the entire business customer relationship and underscores the importance of mobile solutions for our business customers. Results have been recast to conform to the current period’s classification of consumer and business wireless subscribers. See “Discussion and Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measure” for a reconciliation of these supplemental measures to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
Business Solutions Results
Percent Change
202020192018
2020 vs.
2019
2019 vs.
2018
Operating revenues
Wireless service$7,732 $7,444 $6,893 3.9  %8.0 %
Strategic and managed services15,788 15,430 14,649 2.3 5.3 
Legacy voice and data services8,183 9,180 10,674 (10.9)(14.0)
Other service and equipment1,387 1,557 1,406 (10.9)10.7 
Wireless equipment2,882 2,754 2,508 4.6 9.8 
Total Operating Revenues35,972 36,365 36,130 (1.1)0.7 
Operating expenses
Operations and support22,713 22,714 22,586  0.6 
Depreciation and amortization6,509 6,148 5,894 5.9 4.3 
Total Operating Expenses29,222 28,862 28,480 1.2 1.3 
Operating Income6,750 7,503 7,650 (10.0)(1.9)
Equity in Net Income (Loss) of Affiliates — —  — 
Operating Contribution$6,750 $7,503 $7,650 (10.0)%(1.9)%


44

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND TRENDS OF THE BUSINESS
2021 Revenue Trends We expect revenue growth in our wireless and broadband businesses as customers demand premium content, instant connectivity and higher speeds made possible by our fiber network expansion and wireless network enhancements through 5G deployment.

In our Communications segment, we expect that our network quality and First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) deployment will continue to contribute to wireless subscriber and service revenue growth, that 5G handsets will continue to drive wireless equipment revenue growth, and that applications like video streaming will also continue to drive greater demand for broadband services. The reluctance of consumers to travel at levels prior to the pandemic is expected to continue to contribute to uncertainty in international roaming wireless service revenues.

In our WarnerMedia segment, we expect our video streaming platform, HBO Max, and premium content will continue to drive revenue growth. The pandemic-related partial closure of movie theaters is expected to continue to pressure revenues and higher costs are anticipated based on our decision to distribute our 2021 films on HBO Max in the U.S. simultaneous with theaters for 31 days.

Across AT&T, we expect to provide consumers with a broad variety of video entertainment services, from mobile-centric and OTT streaming packages, to traditional full-size linear video. Revenue from business customers is expected to continue to grow for mobile and IP-based services but decline for legacy wireline services. Overall, we believe growth in wireless, broadband and WarnerMedia’s premium content should offset pressure from our linear video and legacy voice and data services.

2021 Expense Trends We expect the spending required to support growth initiatives, primarily our continued deployment of fiber, 5G, and FirstNet build, as well as continued investment into the HBO Max platform, to pressure expense trends in 2021. To the extent 5G handset introductions continue in 2021, and as anticipated, the expenses associated with those device sales are expected to contribute to higher costs. During 2021, we will also continue to transition our hardware-based network technology to more efficient and less expensive software-based technology. These investments will help prepare us to meet increased customer demand for enhanced wireless and broadband services, including video streaming, augmented reality and “smart” technologies. The software benefits of our 5G wireless technology and new video delivery platforms should result in a more efficient use of capital and lower network-related expenses in the coming years.

We continue to transform our operations to be more efficient and effective, reinvesting savings into growth areas of the business. We are restructuring businesses, sunsetting legacy networks, improving customer service and ordering functions through digital transformation, sizing our support costs and staffing with current activity levels, and reassessing overall benefit costs. We expect continued savings from these initiatives and through our WarnerMedia merger synergy program. Cost savings and non-strategic asset sales aligns with our focus on debt reduction.

Market Conditions The U.S. stock market experienced significant volatility in 2020 due to several factors, including the global pandemic, and thus general business investment remained modest, which had impact on our business services. The global pandemic has caused, and could again cause, delays in the development, manufacturing (including the sourcing of key components) and shipment of products. As the labor market has not returned to pre-pandemic levels of unemployment, our residential customers continue to be price sensitive in selecting offerings, especially in the video area, and continue to focus on products that give them efficient access to video and broadcast services. Most of our products and services are not directly affected by the imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods. However, we expect ongoing pressure on pricing during 2021 as we respond to the competitive marketplace, especially in wireless and video services.

Included on our consolidated balance sheets are assets held by benefit plans for the payment of future benefits. Our pension plans are subject to funding requirements of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA). We expect only minimal ERISA contribution requirements to our pension plans for 2021. Investment returns on these assets depend largely on trends in the economy, and a weakness in the equity, fixed income and real asset markets could require us to make future contributions to the pension plans. In addition, our policy of recognizing actuarial gains and losses related to our pension and other postretirement plans in the period in which they arise subjects us to earnings volatility caused by changes in market conditions; however, these actuarial gains and losses do not impact segment performance as they are required to be recorded in “Other income (expense) – net.” Changes in our discount rate, which are tied to changes in the bond market, and changes in the performance of equity markets, may have significant impacts on the valuation of our pension and other postretirement obligations at the end of 2021 (see “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates”).

45

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT OVERVIEW
AT&T subsidiaries operating within the United States are subject to federal and state regulatory authorities. AT&T subsidiaries operating outside the United States are subject to the jurisdiction of national and supranational regulatory authorities in the markets where service is provided.

In the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (Telecom Act), Congress established a national policy framework intended to bring the benefits of competition and investment in advanced telecommunications facilities and services to all Americans by opening all telecommunications markets to competition and reducing or eliminating regulatory burdens that harm consumer welfare. Nonetheless, over the ensuing two decades, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and some state regulatory commissions have maintained or expanded certain regulatory requirements that were imposed decades ago on our traditional wireline subsidiaries when they operated as legal monopolies. More recently, the FCC has pursued a more deregulatory agenda, eliminating a variety of antiquated and unnecessary regulations and streamlining its processes in a number of areas. We continue to support regulatory and legislative measures and efforts, at both the state and federal levels, to reduce inappropriate regulatory burdens that inhibit our ability to compete effectively and offer needed services to our customers, including initiatives to transition services from traditional networks to all IP-based networks. At the same time, we also seek to ensure that legacy regulations are not further extended to broadband or wireless services, which are subject to vigorous competition.

Communications Segment
Internet The FCC currently classifies fixed and mobile consumer broadband services as information services, subject to light-touch regulation. The D.C. Circuit upheld the FCC’s current classification, although it remanded three discrete issues to the FCC for further consideration. These issues related to the effect of the FCC’s decision to classify broadband services as information services on public safety, the regulation of pole attachments, and universal service support for low-income consumers through the Lifeline program. Because no party sought Supreme Court review of the D.C. Circuit’s decision to uphold the FCC’s classification of broadband as an information service, that decision is final.

In October 2020, the FCC adopted an order addressing the three issues remanded by the D.C. Circuit for further consideration. After considering those issues, the FCC concluded they provided no grounds to depart from its determination that fixed and mobile consumer broadband services should be classified as information services. An appeal of the FCC’s remand order is pending.

Some states have adopted legislation or issued executive orders that would reimpose net neutrality rules repealed by the FCC. Suits have been filed concerning such laws in two states.

Privacy-related legislation continues to be adopted or considered in a number of jurisdictions. Legislative, regulatory and litigation actions could result in increased costs of compliance, further regulation or claims against broadband internet access service providers and others, and increased uncertainty in the value and availability of data.

Wireless The industry-wide deployment of 5G technology, which is needed to satisfy extensive demand for video and internet access, will involve significant deployment of “small cell” equipment and therefore increase the need for local permitting processes that allow for the placement of small cell equipment on reasonable timelines and terms. Between 2018 and 2019, the FCC streamlined multiple federal wireless structure review processes with the potential to delay and impede deployment of infrastructure used to provide telecommunications and broadband services, including small cell equipment. Recognizing that state and local regulations have the same potential, in November 2020 the FCC adopted an order tightening the limits on state and local authority to deny requests to use existing structures for wireless facilities. These orders were appealed to the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, where the appeals remain pending.

In December 2018, we introduced the nation’s first commercial mobile 5G service, and in July 2020, we announced nationwide 5G coverage. We anticipate the introduction of 5G handsets and devices will contribute to a renewed interest in equipment upgrades.

As the U.S. wireless industry has matured, we believe future wireless growth will depend on our ability to offer innovative services, plans and devices. We will need a network with sufficient spectrum and capacity and sufficiently broad coverage to support the growth of these services. We continue to invest significant capital in expanding our network capacity, as well as to secure and utilize spectrum that meets our long-term needs.

46

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Video We provide domestic satellite video service through our subsidiary DIRECTV, whose satellites are licensed by the FCC. The Communications Act of 1934 and other related acts give the FCC broad authority to regulate the U.S. operations of DIRECTV, and some of WarnerMedia’s businesses are also subject to obligations under the Communications Act and related FCC regulations.

WarnerMedia Segment
We create, own and distribute intellectual property, including copyrights, trademarks and licenses of intellectual property. To protect our intellectual property, we rely on a combination of laws and license agreements. Outside of the U.S., laws and regulations relating to intellectual property protection and the effective enforcement of these laws and regulations vary greatly from country to country. The European Union Commission is pursuing legislative and regulatory initiatives which could impact WarnerMedia’s activities in the EU. Piracy, particularly of digital content, continues to threaten WarnerMedia’s revenues from products and services, and we work to limit that threat through a combination of approaches, including technological and legislative solutions. Outside the U.S., various laws and regulations, as well as trade agreements with the U.S., also apply to the distribution or licensing of feature films for exhibition in movie theaters and on broadcast and cable networks. For example, in certain countries, including China, laws and regulations limit the number of foreign films exhibited in such countries in a calendar year.

EXPECTED GROWTH AREAS
Over the next few years, we expect our growth to come from wireless, software-based video offerings like HBO Max, and IP-based fiber broadband services. We provide integrated services to diverse groups of customers in the U.S. on an integrated telecommunications network utilizing different technological platforms. In 2021, our key initiatives include:
Continuing expansion of 5G service on our premier wireless network.
Generating mobile subscriber growth from FirstNet and our premier network quality.
Increasing subscriber base for HBO Max, our platform for premium content and video offered directly to consumers, as well as through other distributors.
Improving fiber penetration and growing broadband revenues.
Continuing to develop a competitive advantage through our corporate cost structure.
Improving profitability in our Mexico business unit.

Wireless We expect to continue to deliver revenue growth in the coming years. We are in a period of rapid growth in wireless video usage and believe that there are substantial opportunities available for next-generation converged services that combine technologies and services.

As of December 31, 2020, we served 202 million wireless subscribers in North America, with more than 182 million in the United States. Our LTE technology covers over 440 million people in North America, and in the United States, we cover all major metropolitan areas and over 330 million people. We also provide 4G coverage using another technology (HSPA+), and when combined with our upgraded backhaul network, we provide enhanced network capabilities and superior mobile broadband speeds for data and video services. In December 2018, we introduced the nation’s first commercial mobile 5G service and expanded that deployment nationwide in July 2020.

Our networks covering both the U.S. and Mexico have enabled our customers to use wireless services without roaming on other companies’ networks. We believe this seamless access will prove attractive to customers and provide a significant growth opportunity. As of the end of 2020, we provided LTE coverage to over 110 million people in Mexico.

Integration of Data/Broadband and Entertainment Services As the communications industry has evolved into internet-based technologies capable of blending wireline and wireless services, we plan to focus on expanding our wireless network capabilities and provide high-speed internet and video offerings that allow customers to integrate their home or business fixed services with their mobile service. During 2021, we will continue to develop and provide unique integrated video, mobile and broadband solutions. The launch of the HBO Max platform has facilitated our customers’ desire to view video anywhere on demand and has encouraged customer retention.

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REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS
Set forth below is a summary of the most significant regulatory proceedings that directly affected our operations during 2020. Industry-wide regulatory developments are discussed above in Operating Environment Overview. While these issues may apply only to certain subsidiaries, the words “we,” “AT&T” and “our” are used to simplify the discussion. The following discussions are intended as a condensed summary of the issues rather than as a comprehensive legal analysis and description of all of these specific issues.

International Regulation Our subsidiaries operating outside the United States are subject to the jurisdiction of regulatory authorities in the territories in which the subsidiaries operate. Our licensing, compliance and advocacy initiatives in foreign countries primarily enable the provision of enterprise (i.e., large business), wireless and satellite television services. AT&T is engaged in multiple efforts with foreign regulators to open markets to competition, foster conditions favorable to investment and increase our scope of services and products.

The General Data Protection Regulation went into effect in Europe in May of 2018. AT&T processes and handles personal data of its customers and subscribers, employees of its enterprise customers and its employees. This regulation created a range of new compliance obligations and significantly increased financial penalties for noncompliance.

Federal Regulation We have organized our following discussion by service impacted.

Internet In February 2015, the FCC released an order classifying both fixed and mobile consumer broadband internet access services as telecommunications services, subject to Title II of the Communications Act. The Order, which represented a departure from longstanding bipartisan precedent, significantly expanded the FCC’s authority to regulate broadband internet access services, as well as internet interconnection arrangements. In December 2017, the FCC reversed its 2015 decision by reclassifying fixed and mobile consumer broadband services as information services and repealing most of the rules that were adopted in 2015. In lieu of broad conduct prohibitions, the order requires internet service providers to disclose information about their network practices and terms of service, including whether they block or throttle internet traffic or offer paid prioritization. On October 1, 2019, the D.C. Circuit issued a unanimous opinion upholding the FCC’s reclassification of broadband as an information service, and its reliance on transparency requirements and competitive marketplace dynamics to safeguard net neutrality. While the court vacated the FCC’s express preemption of any state regulation of net neutrality, it stressed that its ruling did not prevent the FCC or ISPs from relying on conflict preemption to invalidate particular state laws that are inconsistent with the FCC’s regulatory objectives and framework. The court also remanded the matter to the FCC for further consideration of the impact of reclassifying broadband services as information services on public safety, the Lifeline program, and pole attachment regulation. In October 2020, the FCC adopted an order concluding that those issues did not justify reversing its decision to reclassify broadband services as information services. An appeal of the FCC’s remand decision is pending.

Following the FCC’s 2017 decision to reclassify broadband as information services, a number of states adopted legislation to reimpose the very rules the FCC repealed. In some cases, state legislation imposes requirements that go beyond the FCC’s February 2015 order. Additionally, some state governors have issued executive orders that effectively reimpose the repealed requirements. Suits have been filed concerning laws in California and Vermont. Both lawsuits were stayed pursuant to agreements by those states not to enforce their laws pending final resolution of all appeals of the FCC’s December 2017 order. Because that order is now final, the California suit has returned to active status. Nonetheless, enforcement of both the California and Vermont laws remains stayed pending a ruling by a U.S. District Court in California on motions for a preliminary injunction against enforcement of the California law. Argument on those motions is now scheduled for February 2021. We expect that going forward additional states may seek to impose net neutrality requirements. We will continue to support congressional action to codify a set of standard consumer rules for the internet.

Wireless and Broadband In June and November 2020, the FCC issued a Declaratory Ruling clarifying the limits on state and local authority to deny applications to modify existing structures to accommodate wireless facilities. Appeals of the November 2020 order remain pending in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. If sustained on appeal, these FCC decisions will remove state and local regulatory barriers and reduce the costs of the infrastructure needed for 5G and FirstNet deployments, which will enhance our ability to place small cell facilities on utility poles, expand existing facilities to accommodate public safety services, and replace legacy facilities and services with advanced broadband infrastructure and services.

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In 2020, the FCC took several actions to make spectrum available for 5G services. First, the FCC completed the auction of the 39 GHz band in large, contiguous blocks of spectrum that will support 5G. AT&T obtained spectrum in this auction, which also included spectrum in the 37 GHz and 47 GHz bands (see “Other Business Matters”). The FCC also made 150 MHz of mid-band CBRS spectrum available, to be shared with Federal incumbents, who enjoy priority. Furthermore, the FCC began the auction of 280 MHz of mid-band spectrum presently used for satellite service (the “C Band” auction). This auction is expected to conclude by June of 2021. Other mid-band spectrum auctions are planned for later in 2021.

Following enactment in December 2019 of the Pallone-Thune Telephone Robocall Abuse Criminal Enforcement and Deterrence Act (TRACED Act) by Congress, the FCC adopted new rules requiring voice service providers to implement caller ID authentication protocols (known as STIR/SHAKEN) and adopt robocall mitigation measures. These measures apply to portions of their networks where STIR/SHAKEN is not enabled, in addition to other anti-robocall measures. The new rules contemplate ongoing FCC oversight and review of efforts related to STIR/SHAKEN implementation. Among other goals, the FCC has stated its intention to promote the IP transition through its rules.

In September 2019, the FCC released reformed aspects of its intercarrier compensation regime related to tandem switching and transport charges, with the goal of reducing the prevalence of telephone access arbitrage schemes. In October 2020, the FCC further reformed aspects of its intercarrier compensation regime by greatly reducing, and in some cases eliminating, the charges long distance carriers must pay to originating carriers for toll-free calls. Appeals of both orders are pending at the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals.

ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND STANDARDS
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates Because of the size of the financial statement line items they relate to or the extent of judgment required by our management, some of our accounting policies and estimates have a more significant impact on our consolidated financial statements than others. The following policies are presented in the order in which the topics appear in our consolidated statements of income.

Pension and Postretirement Benefits Our actuarial estimates of retiree benefit expense and the associated significant weighted-average assumptions are discussed in Note 15. Our assumed weighted-average discount rates for pension and postretirement benefits of 2.70% and 2.40%, respectively, at December 31, 2020, reflect the hypothetical rate at which the projected benefit obligations could be effectively settled or paid out to participants. We determined our discount rate based on a range of factors, including a yield curve composed of the rates of return on several hundred high-quality, fixed income corporate bonds available at the measurement date and corresponding to the related expected durations of future cash outflows for the obligations. These bonds were all rated at least Aa3 or AA- by one of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations, denominated in U.S. dollars, and neither callable, convertible nor index linked. For the year ended December 31, 2020, when compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, we decreased our pension discount rate by 0.70%, resulting in an increase in our pension plan benefit obligation of $5,594 and decreased our postretirement discount rate by 0.80%, resulting in an increase in our postretirement benefit obligation of $1,311.

Our expected long-term rate of return on pension plan assets is 6.75% for 2021 and 7.00% for 2020. Our expected long-term rate of return on postretirement plan assets is 4.50% for 2021 and 4.75% for 2020. Our expected return on plan assets is calculated using the actual fair value of plan assets. If all other factors were to remain unchanged, we expect that a 0.50% decrease in the expected long-term rate of return would cause 2021 combined pension and postretirement cost to increase $277, which under our accounting policy would be adjusted to actual returns in the current year as part of our fourth-quarter remeasurement of our retiree benefit plans.

We recognize gains and losses on pension and postretirement plan assets and obligations immediately in “Other income (expense) – net” in our consolidated statements of income. These gains and losses are generally measured annually as of December 31, and accordingly, will normally be recorded during the fourth quarter, unless an earlier remeasurement is required. Should actual experience differ from actuarial assumptions, the projected pension benefit obligation and net pension cost and accumulated postretirement benefit obligation and postretirement benefit cost would be affected in future years. See Note 15 for additional discussions regarding our assumptions.

Depreciation Our depreciation of assets, including use of composite group depreciation for certain subsidiaries and estimates of useful lives, is described in Notes 1 and 7.

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If all other factors were to remain unchanged, we expect that a one-year increase in the useful lives of our plant in service would have resulted in a decrease of approximately $3,128 in our 2020 depreciation expense and that a one-year decrease would have resulted in an increase of approximately $4,353 in our 2020 depreciation expense. See Notes 7 and 8 for depreciation and amortization expense applicable to property, plant and equipment, including our finance lease right-of-use assets.

Asset Valuations and Impairments
Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized but tested at least annually on October 1 for impairment. For impairment testing, we estimate fair values using models that predominantly rely on the expected cash flows to be derived from the reporting unit or use of the asset. Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicated that the book value may not be recoverable over the remaining life. Inputs underlying the expected cash flows include, but are not limited to, subscriber counts, revenues from subscriptions, advertising and content, revenue per user, capital investment and acquisition costs per subscriber, production and content costs, and ongoing operating costs. We based our assumptions on a combination of our historical results, trends, business plans and marketplace participant data.

Annual Goodwill Testing
Goodwill is tested on a reporting unit basis by comparing the estimated fair value of each reporting unit to its book value. If the fair value exceeds the book value, then no impairment is measured. We estimate fair values using an income approach (also known as a discounted cash flow model) and a market multiple approach. The income approach utilizes our future cash flow projections with a perpetuity value discounted at an appropriate weighted average cost of capital. The market multiple approach uses the multiples of publicly traded companies whose services are comparable to those offered by the reporting units. As of October 1, 2020, the calculated fair values of the reporting units exceeded their book values in all circumstances; however, the Turner, HBO and Entertainment Group (prior to our December reporting unit change discussed below) fair values exceed their book values by less than 10% with COVID-19 impacts, industry trends and our content distribution strategy affecting fair value. For the reporting units with fair value in excess of 10% of book value, if either the projected rate of long-term growth of cash flows or revenues declined by 0.5%, or if the weighted average cost of capital increased by 0.5%, the fair values would still be higher than the book value of the goodwill. In the event of a 10% drop in the fair values of the reporting units, the fair values still would have exceeded the book values of the reporting units. For the Turner and HBO reporting units as of October 1, 2020, if the projected rate of longer-term growth of cash flows or revenues declined by 1% and more than 2%, respectively, or if the weighted average cost of capital increased by 0.5%, it would result in impairment of the goodwill. Carrying values of the reporting units in the WarnerMedia segment (Turner, HBO and Warner Bros.) decrease as intangibles identified in the acquisition are amortized.

Domestic Video Business
In December 2020, we changed our management strategy and reevaluated our domestic video business, allowing us to maximize value in our domestic video business and further accelerate our ability to innovate and execute in our fast-growing broadband and fiber business. The strategy change required us to reassess the grouping and recoverability of the video business long-lived assets. In conjunction with the strategy change, we separated the former Entertainment Group into two business units, Video and Broadband, which includes legacy telephony operations. These changes required us to identify a separate Video reporting unit, which required evaluating assigned goodwill for impairment, while first assessing any impairment of goodwill at the historical Entertainment Group level.

The fair value of long-lived assets was determined primarily using the present value approach of probability-weighted expected cash flow. We determined that these assets were no longer recoverable and recognized an impairment to their estimated fair value. A pre-tax impairment of $7,255 ($4,373 orbital slots, $1,201 customer lists and $1,681 in property, plant and equipment) was assigned to the long-lived assets of the video business (see Notes 7 and 9). Upon updating the carrying value of the video business, we were then required to reperform our goodwill impairment testing of the historical Entertainment Group reporting unit, as of December 31, 2020, and before separation into the two reporting units, where we again concluded that no impairment was required, consistent with the testing as of October 1, 2020. GAAP requires ongoing fair value assessments for recoverability upon defined triggering events.

We further concluded that our video business should be identified as a separate reporting unit within the Communications segment. The change in reporting unit required the historical Entertainment Group goodwill to be assigned to the separate Video and Broadband reporting units, for which we used the relative fair value allocation methodology. The affected reporting units were then tested for goodwill impairment. We recorded an impairment of the entire $8,253 of goodwill allocated to the Video reporting unit. No goodwill impairment was required in the Broadband reporting unit. (See Note 9).

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In total, we recorded an impairment charge of $15,508 ($7,255 for long-lived assets and $8,253 of assigned goodwill) in December 2020 results.

U.S. Wireless Licenses
The fair value of U.S. wireless licenses is assessed using a discounted cash flow model (the Greenfield Approach) and a corroborative market approach based on auction prices, depending upon auction activity. The Greenfield Approach assumes a company initially owns only the wireless licenses and makes investments required to build an operation comparable to current use. These licenses are tested annually for impairment on an aggregated basis, consistent with their use on a national scope for the United States. For impairment testing, we assume subscriber and revenue growth will trend up to projected levels, with a long-term growth rate reflecting expected long-term inflation trends. We assume churn rates will initially exceed our current experience but decline to rates that are in line with industry-leading churn. We used a discount rate of 9.25%, based on the optimal long-term capital structure of a market participant and its associated cost of debt and equity for the licenses, to calculate the present value of the projected cash flows. If either the projected rate of long-term growth of cash flows or revenues declined by 0.5%, or if the discount rate increased by 0.5%, the fair values of these wireless licenses would still be higher than the book value of the licenses. The fair value of these wireless licenses exceeded their book values by more than 10%.

Other Finite-Lived Intangibles
Customer relationships, licenses in Mexico, certain trade names in our Latin America business and other finite-lived intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the book value may not be recoverable over their remaining life. For this analysis, we compare the expected undiscounted future cash flows attributable to the asset to its book value. When the asset’s book value exceeds undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment is recorded to reduce the book value of the asset to its estimated fair value (see Notes 7 and 9).

Vrio Goodwill
In the second quarter of 2020, driven by significant and adverse economic and political environments in Latin America, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we experienced accelerated subscriber losses and revenue decline in the region, as well as closure of our operations in Venezuela. When combining these business trends and higher weighted-average cost of capital resulting from the increase in country-risk premiums in the region, we concluded that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the Vrio reporting unit, estimated using discounted cash flow and market multiple approaches, is less than its carrying amount. We recorded a $2,212 goodwill impairment, the entire amount of goodwill allocated to the Vrio reporting unit, with $105 attributable to noncontrolling interest (see Note 9).

Orbital Slots
During the first quarter of 2020, in conjunction with the nationwide launch of AT&T TV and our customers’ continued shift from linear to streaming video services, we reassessed the estimated economic lives and renewal assumptions for our orbital slot licenses. As a result, we changed the estimated lives of these licenses from indefinite to finite-lived, effective January 1, 2020, and amortized $1,504 of the orbital slots in 2020. (See Note 1)

Income Taxes Our estimates of income taxes and the significant items giving rise to the deferred assets and liabilities are shown in Note 14 and reflect our assessment of actual future taxes to be paid on items reflected in the financial statements, giving consideration to both timing and probability of these estimates. Actual income taxes could vary from these estimates due to future changes in income tax law or the final review of our tax returns by federal, state or foreign tax authorities.

We use our judgment to determine whether it is more likely than not that we will sustain positions that we have taken on tax returns and, if so, the amount of benefit to initially recognize within our financial statements. We regularly review our uncertain tax positions and adjust our unrecognized tax benefits (UTBs) in light of changes in facts and circumstances, such as changes in tax law, interactions with taxing authorities and developments in case law. These adjustments to our UTBs may affect our income tax expense. Settlement of uncertain tax positions may require use of our cash.

New Accounting Standards
Beginning with 2020 interim and annual reporting periods, we adopted the FASB’s new accounting guidance related to the measurement of credit losses on trade receivables, loans, contract assets and certain other assets not subject fair value measurement existing at January 1, 2020. We adopted the standard using a modified retrospective approach as of the beginning of the period of adoption, which did not require us to adjust the balance for prior periods, therefore affecting the comparability of our financial statements. Upon adoption, we recorded an increase to our allowances for credit losses, primarily for trade and loan receivables. See Note 1 for discussion of the impact of the standard.

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See Note 1 for discussion of the expected impact of new standards.

OTHER BUSINESS MATTERS
Video Business On February 25, 2021, we signed an agreement to form a new company named DIRECTV (New DTV) with TPG Capital, which will be jointly governed by a board with representation from both AT&T and TPG. Under the agreement, we will contribute our Video business unit to New DTV for $4,250 of junior preferred units, an additional distribution preference of $4,200 and a 70% economic interest in common units. We expect to receive $7,600 in cash from New DTV at closing. TPG will contribute approximately $1,800 in cash to New DTV for $1,800 of senior preferred units and a 30% economic interest in common units. The remaining $5,800 will be funded by debt taken on by New DTV. As part of this transaction, we agreed to pay net losses under the NFL SUNDAY TICKET contract up to a cap of $2,500 over the remaining period of the contract.

The transaction is expected to close in the second half of 2021, pending customary closing conditions. The total of $7,600 of proceeds from the transaction are expected to reduce our total and net debt positions.

In the first quarter of 2021, we expect to apply held-for-sale accounting treatment to the assets and liabilities of the U.S. video business, and accordingly will include the assets in “Other current assets,” and the related liabilities in “Accounts payable and accrued liabilities,” on our consolidated balance sheet at March 31, 2021. The carrying amounts at December 31, 2020 of these assets and liabilities were approximately $16,150 and $4,900, respectively.

Spectrum Auction In March 2020, we were the winning bidder of high-frequency 37/39 GHz licenses in FCC Auction 103 covering an average of 786 MHz nationwide for approximately $2,400. Prior to the auction, we exchanged the 39 GHz licenses with a book value of approximately $300 that were previously acquired through FiberTower Corporation for vouchers to be applied against the winning bids and recorded a $900 gain in the first quarter of 2020. These vouchers yielded a value of approximately $1,200 which was applied toward our $2,400 gross bids. We made our final payment of approximately $950 for the Auction 103 payment in April 2020. The FCC granted the licenses in June 2020.

On February 24, 2021, the FCC announced that AT&T was the winning bidder for 1,621 C-Band licenses, comprised of a total of 80 MHz nationwide, including 40 MHz in Phase I. We must provide to the FCC an initial down payment of $4,681 on March 10, 2021, of which $550 was paid as an upfront payment prior to the start of the auction, and to pay a remaining $18,725 on or before March 24, 2021. We estimate that AT&T will be responsible for $955 of Incentive Payments upon clearing of Phase I spectrum and $2,112 upon clearing of Phase II spectrum. Additionally, we will be responsible for a portion of compensable relocation costs over the next several years as the spectrum is being cleared. Satellite operators have provided the FCC with relocation cost estimates totaling $3,400. AT&T intends to fund the purchase price using a combination of cash and short-term investments, funds from operations and either short-term or long-term debt, depending upon market conditions.

Labor Contracts As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 231,000 persons. Approximately 37% of our employees are represented by the Communications Workers of America (CWA), the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) or other unions. After expiration of the collective bargaining agreements, work stoppages or labor disruptions may occur in the absence of new contracts or other agreements being reached. There are no significant contracts expiring in 2021. A contract covering approximately 14,000 Mobility employees in 36 states and the District of Columbia that was set to expire in February 2021 was extended until February 2022. A contract covering approximately 10,000 Mobility employees in nine Southeast states that was set to expire in February 2022 was extended until February 2023.

Pension Diversification In 2013, we made a voluntary contribution of 320 million Series A Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Membership Interests in AT&T Mobility II LLC (Mobility preferred interests), the primary holding company for our wireless business, to the trust used to pay pension benefits under certain of our qualified pension plans (see Note 17). Since their contribution, the Mobility preferred interests are plan assets under ERISA, and have been recognized as such in the plan’s separate financial statements. On September 28, 2020, the trust, through the independent investment manager/fiduciary, sold 106.7 million of the Mobility preferred interests to unrelated third parties. The aggregate purchase price was $2,885, which includes accrued distributions through the date of sale (see Note 15).

Environmental We are subject from time to time to judicial and administrative proceedings brought by various governmental authorities under federal, state or local environmental laws. We reference in our Forms 10-Q and 10-K certain environmental proceedings that could result in monetary sanctions (exclusive of interest and costs) of three hundred thousand dollars or more. However, we do not believe that any of those currently pending will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We had $9,740 in cash and cash equivalents available at December 31, 2020. Cash and cash equivalents included cash of $2,842 and money market funds and other cash equivalents of $6,898. Approximately $2,205 of our cash and cash equivalents were held by our foreign entities in accounts predominantly outside of the U.S. and may be subject to restrictions on repatriation.

The Company's liquidity and capital resources were not materially impacted by COVID-19 and related economic conditions during 2020. We will continue to monitor impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our liquidity and capital resources.

Cash and cash equivalents decreased $2,390 since December 31, 2019. In 2020, cash inflows were primarily provided by cash receipts from operations, including cash from our sale and transfer of our receivables to third parties and the issuances of long-term debt, cumulative preferred stock and cumulative preferred interests in a subsidiary. These inflows were offset by cash used to meet the needs of the business, including, but not limited to, payment of operating expenses, debt repayments, funding capital expenditures and vendor financing payments, dividends to stockholders, share repurchases and spectrum acquisitions.

Cash Provided by or Used in Operating Activities
During 2020, cash provided by operating activities was $43,130 compared to $48,668 in 2019, impacted by the timing of working capital payments.

We actively manage the timing of our supplier payments for operating items to optimize the use of our cash. Among other things, we seek to make payments on 90-day or greater terms, while providing the suppliers with access to bank facilities that permit earlier payments at their cost. In addition, for payments to a key supplier, as part of our working capital initiatives, we have arrangements that allow us to extend payment terms up to 90 days at an additional cost to us (referred to as supplier financing). The net impact of supplier financing was to improve cash from operating activities $432 in 2020 and $909 in 2019. All supplier financing payments are due within one year.

Cash Used in or Provided by Investing Activities
During 2020, cash used in investing activities totaled $13,548, and consisted primarily of $15,675 (including interest during construction) for capital expenditures, final payment of approximately $950 for wireless spectrum licenses won in Auction 103 and $141 of net cash paid to acquire the remaining interest in HBO LAG. Investing activities also included cash receipts of $1,928 from the sale of our operations in Puerto Rico, which were used to redeem the preferred interests secured by the sales proceeds (see Notes 6 and 17), $1,100 from the sale of our investment in Central European Media Enterprises, Ltd. (see Note 6) and $400 from corporate owned life insurance investments.

For capital improvements, we have negotiated favorable vendor payment terms of 120 days or more (referred to as vendor financing) with some of our vendors, which are excluded from capital expenditures and reported as financing activities. Vendor financing payments were $2,966 in 2020, compared to $3,050 in 2019. Capital expenditures in 2020 were $15,675, and when including $2,966 cash paid for vendor financing and excluding $1,063 of FirstNet reimbursements, gross capital investment was $19,704 ($3,986 lower than the prior year).

The vast majority of our capital expenditures are spent on our networks, including product development and related support systems. In 2020, we placed $4,664 of equipment in service under vendor financing arrangements (compared to $2,632 in 2019) and approximately $1,230 of assets related to the FirstNet build (compared to $1,116 in 2019). Total reimbursements from the government for FirstNet were $1,626 for 2020 and $1,374 for 2019, predominately for capital expenditures.

The amount of capital expenditures is influenced by demand for services and products, capacity needs and network enhancements. In 2021, we expect that our gross capital investment, which includes capital expenditures and cash paid for vendor financing and excludes expected FirstNet reimbursement of approximately $1,000, will be in the $21,000 range (including capital expenditures in the $18,000 range).

Cash Used in or Provided by Financing Activities
For the year, cash used in financing activities totaled $32,007 and was comprised of issuances and repayments of debt, issuances of preferred stock, issuances and redemptions of preferred interests in subsidiaries, payments of dividends and share repurchases.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
During 2020, debt issuances included proceeds of $9,440 in short-term borrowings (including approximately $3,950 of commercial paper) and $31,988 of net proceeds from long-term debt. Borrowing activity included the following issuances:

Issued and redeemed in 2020:
March draw of $750 on a private financing agreement (repaid in the second quarter).
April draw of $5,500 on a term loan credit agreement with certain commercial banks and Bank of America, N.A., as lead agent (repaid in the second quarter).

Issued and outstanding in 2020:
February issuance of $2,995 of 4.000% global notes due 2049.
March borrowings of $665 from loan programs with export agencies of foreign governments to support network equipment purchases in those countries.
May issuances totaling $12,500 in global notes, comprised of $2,500 of 2.300% global notes due 2027, $3,000 of 2.750% global notes due 2031, $2,500 of 3.500% global notes due 2041, $3,000 of 3.650% global notes due 2051 and $1,500 of 3.850% global notes due 2060.
May issuances totaling €3,000 million in global notes (approximately $3,281 at issuance), comprised of €1,750 million of 1.600% global notes due 2028, €750 million of 2.050% global notes due 2032 and €500 million of 2.600% global notes due 2038.
June issuance of $1,050 of 3.750% global notes due 2050.
August issuances totaling $11,000 in global notes, comprised of $2,250 of 1.650% global notes due 2028, $2,500 of 2.250% global notes due 2032, $2,500 of 3.100% global notes due 2043, $2,250 of 3.300% global notes due 2052 and $1,500 of 3.500% global notes due 2061.

During 2020, repayments of debt included $9,467 of short-term borrowings (including $3,967 of commercial paper) and $39,964 of long-term debt. Repayments included:

Notes redeemed at maturity:
$800 of AT&T floating-rate notes in the first quarter.
$687 of AT&T floating-rate notes in the second quarter.
€2,250 million of AT&T floating-rate notes in the third quarter (approximately $2,637 at maturity).
€1,000 million of 1.875% AT&T global notes in the fourth quarter ($1,290 at maturity).
CAD$1,000 million of 3.825% AT&T global notes in the fourth quarter (approximately $954 at maturity).

Notes redeemed or repurchased prior to maturity:
$2,619 of 4.600% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2045, in the first quarter.
$2,750 of 2.450% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2020, in the second quarter.
$1,000 of annual put reset securities issued by BellSouth, in the second quarter.
$683 of 4.600% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2021, in the second quarter.
$1,695 of 2.800% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2021, in the second quarter.
$853 of 4.450% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2021, in the second quarter.
$1,172 of 3.875% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2021, in the second quarter.
$1,430 of 5.500% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2047, in the second quarter.
$1,457 of 3.000% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$1,250 of 3.200% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$1,012 of 3.800% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$422 of 4.000% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$60 of 3.800% DIRECTV senior notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$63 of 4.000% Warner Media, LLC notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$11,384 of AT&T global notes and subsidiary notes that were tendered for cash in the third quarter. The notes had floating and fixed interest rates. The fixed rates ranged from 3.400% to 7.850% and original maturities ranging from 2021 to 2025.
$53 of 3.400% Warner Media, LLC notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$177 of 3.400% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2022, in the third quarter.
$928 of 3.600% AT&T global notes with original maturity in 2023, in the third quarter.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Credit facilities repaid and other redemptions:
$750 of borrowings under a private financing agreement, in the first quarter.
$750 of borrowings under a private financing agreement, in the second quarter.
$5,500 under our April 2020 term loan credit agreement with certain commercial banks and Bank of America, in the second quarter.
$1,300 under our term loan credit agreement with Bank of America, in the second quarter.
$500 under our term loan credit agreement with Bank of Communications Co., in the second quarter.
R$3,381 million of Sky Serviços de Banda Larga Ltda. floating-rate loan in the third quarter (approximately $1,000 when issued in April 2018 and $638 at redemption due to strengthening of the U.S. dollar against Brazilian real).

Debt Exchanges:
During the third quarter of 2020, we exchanged $17,677 of AT&T and subsidiary notes, with interest rates ranging from 4.350% to 8.750% and original maturities ranging from 2031 to 2058 for $1,459 of cash and $21,500 of three new series of AT&T global notes, with interest rates ranging from 3.500% to 3.650% and maturities ranging from 2053 to 2059.
During the fourth quarter of 2020, we exchanged $8,280 of AT&T and subsidiary notes, with interest rates ranging from 2.950% to 7.125% and original maturities ranging from 2026 to 2048 for $8 of cash and $9,678 of two new series of AT&T global notes, with interest rates of 2.550% and 3.800% and maturities of 2033 and 2057, respectively.

Our weighted average interest rate of our entire long-term debt portfolio, including the impact of derivatives, was approximately 4.1% as of December 31, 2020 and 4.4% as of December 31, 2019. We had $155,209 of total notes and debentures outstanding at December 31, 2020, which included Euro, British pound sterling, Canadian dollar, Mexican peso, Australian dollar, Swiss franc and Brazilian real denominated debt that totaled approximately $43,399.

At December 31, 2020, we had $3,470 of debt maturing within one year, consisting entirely of long-term debt issuances. Debt maturing within one year includes an accreting zero-coupon note that may be redeemed each May until maturity in 2022. If the remainder of the zero-coupon note (issued for principal of $500 in 2007 and partially exchanged in the 2017 debt exchange offers) is held to maturity, the redemption amount will be $592.

During 2020, we paid $2,966 of cash under our vendor financing program, compared to $3,050 in 2019. Total vendor financing payables included in our December 31, 2020 consolidated balance sheet were approximately $3,761, with $3,563 due within one year (in “Accounts payable and accrued liabilities”) and the remainder predominantly due within two to three years (in “Other noncurrent liabilities”).

Financing activities in 2020 also included $1,979 from the September issuance of preferred interests in a subsidiary and $3,869 for the February issuance of Series B and Series C preferred stock (see Note 17).

We repurchased approximately 142 million shares of common stock at a cost of $5,278, predominantly in the first quarter, and completed the share repurchase authorization approved by the Board of Directors in 2013. In March 2020, we cancelled an accelerated share repurchase agreement that was planned for the second quarter and other repurchases to maintain flexibility and focus on continued investment in serving our customers, taking care of our employees and enhancing our network, including 5G. At December 31, 2020, we had approximately 178 million shares remaining from our share repurchase authorizations approved by the Board of Directors in 2014.

We paid dividends on common shares and preferred shares of $14,956 in 2020, compared with $14,888 in 2019. Dividends were higher in 2020, primarily due to dividend payments to preferred stockholders and the increase in our quarterly dividend on common stock approved by our Board of Directors in December 2019, partially offset by fewer shares outstanding.

Dividends on common stock declared by our Board of Directors totaled $2.08 per share in 2020 and $2.05 per share in 2019. Our dividend policy considers the expectations and requirements of stockholders, capital funding requirements of AT&T and long-term growth opportunities.

Our 2021 financing activities will focus on managing our debt level and paying dividends, subject to approval by our Board of Directors. We plan to fund our financing uses of cash through a combination of cash from operations, issuance of debt, and asset sales. The timing and mix of any debt issuance and/or refinancing will be guided by credit market conditions and interest rate trends.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Credit Facilities
The following summary of our various credit and loan agreements does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to each agreement filed as exhibits to our Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We use credit facilities as a tool in managing our liquidity status. In November 2020, we amended one of our $7,500 revolving credit agreements by extending the termination date. In total, we have two $7,500 revolving credit agreements, totaling $15,000, with one terminating on December 11, 2023 and the other terminating on November 17, 2025. No amounts were outstanding under either agreement as of December 31, 2020.

In September 2019, we entered into and drew on a $1,300 term loan credit agreement containing (i) a 1.25 year $400 facility due in 2020, (ii) a 2.25 year $400 facility due in 2021, and (iii) a 3.25 year $500 facility due in 2022, with Bank of America, N.A., as agent. These facilities were repaid and terminated in the second quarter of 2020.

On April 6, 2020, we entered into and drew on a $5,500 Term Loan Credit Agreement (Term Loan) with 11 commercial banks and Bank of America, N.A. as lead agent. We repaid and terminated the Term Loan in May 2020.

On January 29, 2021, we entered into a $14,700 Term Loan Credit Agreement (Term Loan), with Bank of America, N.A., as agent. The Term Loan is available for a single draw at any time before May 29, 2021. The proceeds will be used for general corporate purposes, which may include among other things, financing acquisitions of additional spectrum. The entire principal amount of the Term Loan will be due and payable 364 days after the date on which the borrowing is made. At January 31, 2021, we had approximately $6,100 of commercial paper outstanding.

We also utilize other external financing sources, which include various credit arrangements supported by government agencies to support network equipment purchases, as well as a commercial paper program.

Each of our credit and loan agreements contains covenants that are customary for an issuer with an investment grade senior debt credit rating as well as a net debt-to-EBITDA financial ratio covenant requiring us to maintain, as of the last day of each fiscal quarter, a ratio of not more than 3.5-to-1. As of December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with the covenants for our credit facilities.

Collateral Arrangements
During 2019 and 2020, we amended collateral arrangements with counterparties to require cash collateral posting by AT&T only when derivative market values exceed certain thresholds. Under these arrangements, which cover over 90% of our approximate $41,000 derivative portfolio, counterparties are still required to post collateral. During 2020, we received approximately $800 of cash collateral, on a net basis. Cash postings under these arrangements vary with changes in credit ratings and netting agreements. (See Note 13)

Other
Our total capital consists of debt (long-term debt and debt maturing within one year) and stockholders’ equity. Our capital structure does not include debt issued by our equity method investment. At December 31, 2020, our debt ratio was 46.7%, compared to 44.7% at December 31, 2019 and 47.7% at December 31, 2018. Our net debt ratio was 43.8% at December 31, 2020, compared to 41.4% at December 31, 2019 and 46.2% at December 31, 2018. The debt ratio is affected by the same factors that affect total capital, and reflects our recent debt issuances and repayments and debt acquired in business combinations.

A significant amount of our cash outflows is related to tax items, acquisition of spectrum through FCC auctions and benefits paid for current and former employees:
Total taxes incurred, collected and remitted by AT&T during 2020 and 2019, were $21,967 and $24,170. These taxes include income, franchise, property, sales, excise, payroll, gross receipts and various other taxes and fees.
Total domestic spectrum acquired primarily through FCC auctions, including cash, exchanged spectrum and auction deposits was approximately $2,800 in 2020, $1,300 in 2019 and $450 in 2018.
Total health and welfare benefits provided to certain active and retired employees and their dependents totaled $3,656 in 2020, with $1,029 paid from plan assets. Of those benefits, $3,293 related to medical and prescription drug benefits. In addition, in 2020 we prefunded $745 for future benefit payments. During 2020, we paid $5,124 of pension benefits out of plan assets.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
During 2020, we have received $3,641 from the disposition of assets, and when combined with working capital monetization initiatives, which include the sale of receivables, total cash received from monetization efforts, net of $1,613 of spectrum acquisitions, was approximately $1,100. We plan to continue to explore similar opportunities.

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS, COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020 are in the following table:
Payments Due By Period
Contractual ObligationsTotal
Less than
1 Year
1-3
Years
3-5
Years
More than
5 Years
Long-term debt obligations1
$165,654 $3,418 $13,730 $14,238 $134,268 
Interest payments on long-term debt123,582 6,627 12,851 11,817 92,287 
Purchase obligations2
70,610 20,274 21,275 11,142 17,919 
Operating lease obligations3
31,123 4,808 8,621 6,464 11,230 
FirstNet sustainability payments4
17,520 120 390 390 16,620 
Unrecognized tax benefits5
10,560 463 — — 10,097 
Other finance obligations6
12,437 4,236 2,232 1,602 4,367 
Total Contractual Obligations$431,486 $39,946 $59,099 $45,653 $286,788 
1Represents principal or payoff amounts of notes and debentures at maturity or, for putable debt, the next put opportunity (see Note 12). Foreign debt includes the impact from hedges, when applicable.
2We expect to fund the purchase obligations with cash provided by operations or through incremental borrowings. The minimum commitment for certain obligations is based on termination penalties that could be paid to exit the contracts. If we elect to exit these contracts, termination fees for all such contracts in the year of termination could be approximately $259 in 2021, $257 in the aggregate for 2022 and 2023 and $64 in the aggregate for 2024 and 2025 and $1,987 in the aggregate thereafter. Certain termination fees are excluded from the above table, as the fees would not be paid every year and the timing of such payments, if any, is uncertain. (See Note 21)
3Represents operating lease payments (see Note 8).
4Represents contractual commitment to make sustainability payments over the 25-year contract. These sustainability payments represent our commitment to fund FirstNet’s operating expenses and future reinvestment in the network, which we own and operate. FirstNet has a statutory requirement to reinvest funds that exceed the agency’s operating expenses, which we anticipate to be $15,000. (See Note 20)
5The noncurrent portion of the UTBs is included in the “More than 5 Years” column, as we cannot reasonably estimate the timing or amounts of additional cash payments, if any, at this time (see Note 14).
6Represents future minimum payments under the Crown Castle and other arrangements (see Note 19), payables subject to extended payment terms (see Note 22) and finance lease payments (see Note 8).

Certain items were excluded from this table, as the year of payment is unknown and could not be reliably estimated since past trends were not deemed to be an indicator of future payment, we believe the obligations are immaterial or because the settlement of the obligation will not require the use of cash. These items include: deferred income tax liability of $60,472 (see Note 14); net postemployment benefit obligations of $19,690; expected pension and postretirement payments (see Note 15); and other noncurrent liabilities of $11,829.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
DISCUSSION AND RECONCILIATION OF NON-GAAP MEASURE
We believe the following measure is relevant and useful information to investors as it is used by management as a method of comparing performance with that of many of our competitors. This supplemental measure should be considered in addition to, but not as a substitute of, our consolidated and segment financial information.

Business Solutions Reconciliation
We provide a supplemental discussion of our Business Solutions operations that is calculated by combining our Mobility and Business Wireline business units, and then adjusting to remove non-business operations. The following table presents a reconciliation of our supplemental Business Solutions results. Results have been recast to conform to the current period's classification.
Year Ended December 31, 2020
MobilityBusiness Wireline
Adjustments1
Business Solutions
Operating revenues
Wireless service$55,542 $ $(47,810)$7,732 
Strategic and managed services 15,788  15,788 
Legacy voice and data services 8,183  8,183 
Other service and equipment 1,387  1,387 
Wireless equipment17,022  (14,140)2,882 
Total Operating Revenues72,564 25,358 (61,950)35,972 
Operating expenses
Operations and support42,106 15,534 (34,927)22,713 
EBITDA30,458 9,824 (27,023)13,259 
Depreciation and amortization8,086 5,226 (6,803)6,509 
Total Operating Expenses50,192 20,760 (41,730)29,222 
Operating Income$22,372 $4,598 $(20,220)$6,750 
1Non-business wireless reported in the Communications segment under the Mobility business unit.

Year Ended December 31, 2019
MobilityBusiness Wireline
Adjustments1
Business Solutions
Operating revenues
Wireless service$55,331 $— $(47,887)$7,444 
Strategic and managed services— 15,430 — 15,430 
Legacy voice and data services— 9,180 — 9,180 
Other service and equipment— 1,557 — 1,557 
Wireless equipment15,725 — (12,971)2,754 
Total Operating Revenues71,056 26,167 (60,858)36,365 
Operating expenses
Operations and support40,681 16,069 (34,036)22,714 
EBITDA30,375 10,098 (26,822)13,651 
Depreciation and amortization8,054 4,934 (6,840)6,148 
Total Operating Expenses48,735 21,003 (40,876)28,862 
Operating Income$22,321 $5,164 $(19,982)$7,503 
1Non-business wireless reported in the Communications segment under the Mobility business unit.
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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Year Ended December 31, 2018
MobilityBusiness Wireline
Adjustments1
Business Solutions
Operating revenues
Wireless service$54,295 $— $(47,402)$6,893 
Strategic and managed services— 14,649 — 14,649 
Legacy voice and data services— 10,674 — 10,674 
Other service and equipment— 1,406 — 1,406 
Wireless equipment16,226 — (13,718)2,508 
Total Operating Revenues70,521 26,729 (61,120)36,130 
Operating expenses
Operations and support40,690 16,181 (34,285)22,586 
EBITDA29,831 10,548 (26,835)13,544 
Depreciation and amortization8,263 4,708 (7,077)5,894 
Total Operating Expenses48,953 20,889 (41,362)28,480 
Operating Income$21,568 $5,840 $(19,758)$7,650 
1Non-business wireless reported in the Communications segment under the Mobility business unit.

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Dollars in millions except per share amounts

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to market risks primarily from changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. These risks, along with other business risks, impact our cost of capital. It is our policy to manage our debt structure and foreign exchange exposure in order to manage capital costs, control financial risks and maintain financial flexibility over the long term. In managing market risks, we employ derivatives according to documented policies and procedures, including interest rate swaps, interest rate locks, foreign currency exchange contracts and combined interest rate foreign currency contracts (cross-currency swaps). We do not use derivatives for trading or speculative purposes. We do not foresee significant changes in the strategies we use to manage market risk in the near future.

One of the most significant assumptions used in estimating our postretirement benefit obligations is the assumed weighted-average discount rate, which is the hypothetical rate at which the projected benefit obligations could be effectively settled or paid out to participants. We determined our discount rate based on a range of factors, including a yield curve composed of the rates of return on several hundred high-quality, fixed income corporate bonds available at the measurement date and corresponding to the related expected durations of future cash outflows for the obligations. In recent years, the discount rates have been increasingly volatile, and on average have been lower than in historical periods. Lower discount rates used to measure our pension and postretirement plans result in higher obligations. Future increases in these rates could result in lower obligations, improved funded status and actuarial gains.

Interest Rate Risk
The majority of our financial instruments are medium- and long-term fixed-rate notes and debentures. Changes in interest rates can lead to significant fluctuations in the fair value of these instruments. The principal amounts by expected maturity, average interest rate and fair value of our liabilities that are exposed to interest rate risk are described in Notes 12 and 13. In managing interest expense, we control our mix of fixed and floating rate debt through term loans, floating rate notes, and interest rate swaps. We have established interest rate risk limits that we closely monitor by measuring interest rate sensitivities in our debt and interest rate derivatives portfolios.

Most of our foreign-denominated long-term debt has been swapped from fixed-rate or floating-rate foreign currencies to fixed-rate U.S. dollars at issuance through cross-currency swaps, removing interest rate risk and foreign currency exchange risk associated with the underlying interest and principal payments. Likewise, periodically we enter into interest rate locks to partially hedge the risk of increases in the benchmark interest rate during the period leading up to the probable issuance of fixed-rate debt. We expect gains or losses in our cross-currency swaps and interest rate locks to offset the losses and gains in the financial instruments they hedge.

We had no interest rate swaps and no interest rate locks at December 31, 2020.

Foreign Exchange Risk
We principally use foreign exchange contracts to hedge certain film production costs denominated in foreign currencies. We are also exposed to foreign currency exchange risk through our foreign affiliates and equity investments in foreign companies. We have designated €1,450 million aggregate principal amount of debt as a hedge of the variability of certain Euro-denominated net investments of our subsidiaries. The gain or loss on the debt that is designated as, and is effective as, an economic hedge of the net investment in a foreign operation is recorded as a currency translation adjustment within accumulated other comprehensive income, net on the consolidated balance sheet.

Through cross-currency swaps, most of our foreign-denominated debt has been swapped from fixed-rate or floating-rate foreign currencies to fixed-rate U.S. dollars at issuance, removing interest rate and foreign currency exchange risk associated with the underlying interest and principal payments. We expect gains or losses in our cross-currency swaps to offset the gains and losses in the financial instruments they hedge. We had cross-currency swaps with a notional value of $40,745 and a fair value of $(93) outstanding at December 31, 2020.

For the purpose of assessing specific risks, we use a sensitivity analysis to determine the effects that market risk exposures may have on the fair value of our financial instruments and results of operations. We had foreign exchange forward contracts with a notional value of $90 and a fair value of $(3) outstanding at December 31, 2020.


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AT&T Inc.
Report of Management

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The integrity and objectivity of the data in these financial statements, including estimates and judgments relating to matters not concluded by year end, are the responsibility of management, as is all other information included in the Annual Report, unless otherwise indicated.

The financial statements of AT&T Inc. (AT&T) have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. Management has made available to Ernst & Young LLP all of AT&T’s financial records and related data, as well as the minutes of stockholders’ and directors’ meetings. Furthermore, management believes that all representations made to Ernst & Young LLP during its audit were valid and appropriate.

Management maintains disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by AT&T is recorded, processed, summarized, accumulated and communicated to its management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure, and reported within the time periods specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms.

Management also seeks to ensure the objectivity and integrity of its financial data by the careful selection of its managers, by organizational arrangements that provide an appropriate division of responsibility and by communication programs aimed at ensuring that its policies, standards and managerial authorities are understood throughout the organization.

The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors meets periodically with management, the internal auditors and the independent auditors to review the manner in which they are performing their respective responsibilities and to discuss auditing, internal accounting controls and financial reporting matters. Both the internal auditors and the independent auditors periodically meet alone with the Audit Committee and have access to the Audit Committee at any time.

Assessment of Internal Control
The management of AT&T is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) or 15d-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. AT&T’s internal control system was designed to provide reasonable assurance to the company’s management and Board of Directors regarding the preparation and fair presentation of published financial statements.

AT&T management assessed the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. In making this assessment, it used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013 framework). Based on its assessment, AT&T management believes that, as of December 31, 2020, the company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective based on those criteria.

Ernst & Young LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm that audited the financial statements included in this Annual Report, has issued an attestation report on the company’s internal control over financial reporting.

/s/John T. Stankey
/s/John J. Stephens .
John T. StankeyJohn J. Stephens
Chief Executive Officer
and President
Senior Executive Vice President
and Chief Financial Officer

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AT&T Inc.

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of AT&T Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of AT&T Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, cash flows and changes in stockholders’ equity for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 25, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Discount rates used in determining pension and postretirement benefit obligations
Description of the MatterAt December 31, 2020, the Company’s pension benefit obligation was $62,158 million and exceeded the fair value of defined benefit pension plan assets of $54,606 million, resulting in an unfunded benefit obligation of $7,552 million. Additionally, at December 31, 2020, the Company’s postretirement benefit obligation was $13,928 million and exceeded the fair value of postretirement plan assets of $3,843 million, resulting in an unfunded benefit obligation of $10,085 million. As explained in Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company updates the assumptions used to measure the defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations, including discount rates, at December 31 or upon a remeasurement event. The Company determines the discount rates used to measure the obligations based on the development of a yield curve using high-quality corporate bonds selected to yield cash flows that correspond to the expected timing and amount of the expected future benefit payments. The selected discount rate has a significant effect on the measurement of the defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations.
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AT&T Inc.
Auditing the defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations was complex due to the need to evaluate the highly judgmental nature of the actuarial assumptions made by management, primarily the discount rate, used in the Company’s measurement process. Auditing the discount rates associated with the measurement of the defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations was complex because it required an evaluation of the credit quality of the corporate bonds used to develop the discount rate and the correlation of those bonds’ cash inflows to the timing and amount of future expected benefit payments.
How We
Addressed the Matter in Our
Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain controls over management’s review of the determination of the discount rates used in the defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations calculations.

To test the determination of the discount rate used in the calculation of the defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations, we performed audit procedures that focused on evaluating, with the assistance of our actuarial specialists, the determination of the discount rates, among other procedures. For example, we evaluated the selected yield curve used to determine the discount rates applied in measuring the defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations. As part of this assessment, we considered the credit quality of the corporate bonds that comprise the yield curve and compared the timing and amount of cash flows at maturity with the expected amounts and duration of the related benefit payments. As part of this assessment, we compared the Company’s current projections to historical projected defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit obligations cash flows and compared the current-year benefits paid to the prior-year projected cash flows.
Uncertain tax positions
Description of the Matter
As discussed in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements, at December 31, 2020, the Company had recorded unrecognized tax benefits of $12,451 million for uncertain tax positions. Uncertainty in a tax position may arise as tax laws are subject to interpretation. The Company uses judgment to (1) determine whether, based on the technical merits, a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained and (2) measure the amount of tax benefit that qualifies for recognition within the financial statements. Changes in facts and circumstances, such as changes in tax laws, new regulations issued by taxing authorities and communications with taxing authorities may affect the amount of uncertain tax positions and, in turn, income tax expense. Estimated tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions that are not more likely than not to be sustained are reported as unrecognized income tax benefits.

Auditing the measurement of uncertain tax positions was challenging because the measurement is based on interpretations of tax laws and legal rulings. Each tax position involves unique facts and circumstances that must be evaluated, and there may be many uncertainties around initial recognition and de-recognition of tax positions, including regulatory changes, litigation and examination activity.
How We Addressed the
Matter in Our
Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s accounting process for uncertain tax positions. This included controls over identification and measurement of the benefits of the uncertain tax positions, including management’s review of the inputs and calculations of unrecognized income tax benefits, both initially and on an ongoing basis.

We involved our tax professionals to assist us in assessing significant uncertain tax positions, including an evaluation of the technical merits of individual positions, the determination of whether a tax position was more-likely-than-not to be sustained, and the Company’s measurement of its uncertain tax positions, including the computation of interest and penalties, among other procedures. For significant new positions, we assessed the Company’s filing position, correspondence with the relevant tax authorities and third-party advice obtained by the Company, as appropriate. For existing positions, we assessed changes in facts and law, as well as settlements of similar positions for any impact to the recognized liability for the positions. We analyzed the Company’s assumptions and data used to determine the amount of tax benefit to recognize and tested the accuracy of the calculations. We also evaluated the adequacy of the Company’s financial statement disclosures related to uncertain tax positions included in Note 14.
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AT&T Inc.
Impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets
Description of the Matter

For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded asset impairments of $18,880 million, consisting primarily of $10,465 million of goodwill and $7,255 million of long-lived assets. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, reporting unit goodwill is tested at least annually for impairment, and long-lived assets, including definite-lived intangible assets, are evaluated for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable over the remaining life of the asset or asset group. Estimating fair values in connection with these impairment evaluations involves the utilization of discounted cash flow models, and, in the case of reporting units, market multiples valuation approaches. As disclosed in Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements, the October 1, 2020 estimated fair values of the Turner, HBO, and Entertainment Group reporting units exceeded their carrying values by less than 10%. The Company’s later separation of the Entertainment Group reporting unit into the Video and Broadband reporting units required additional impairment evaluations prior to and after the separation, pursuant to which the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $8,253 million, representing the entire amount of goodwill allocated for the Video reporting unit. The Company also recorded a $2,212 million goodwill impairment charge for the Vrio reporting unit, representing the entire amount of goodwill for that reporting unit. Furthermore, as disclosed in Notes 7 and 9 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company identified impairment indicators for its Video asset group and was required to evaluate its recoverability utilizing probability-weighted expected cash flows, resulting in the aforementioned $7,255 million impairment charge.

Auditing management’s impairment evaluations for the reporting unit goodwill and long-lived assets discussed above was complex because the determination of expected cash flows used in the evaluation of recoverability and the estimation of fair values involve subjective management assumptions, such as estimates of subscriber counts, cash flow probabilities, changes in average revenue per user, discount rate, capital investment and content costs. These assumptions are forward-looking and could be affected by shifts in long-term strategy and the evolving market landscape. Changes in these assumptions can have a material effect on the determination of fair value.
How We Addressed the
Matter in Our
Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s impairment evaluation processes. Our procedures included testing controls over management’s review of the valuation models and the significant assumptions described above.

Our audit procedures to test management’s impairment evaluations included, among others, assessing the valuation methodologies and significant assumptions discussed above and the underlying data used to develop such assumptions. For example, we compared the significant assumptions to current industry, market and economic trends, and other guideline companies in the same industry. Where appropriate, we evaluated whether changes to the Company’s business model, customer base and other factors would affect the significant assumptions. We also assessed the historical accuracy of management’s estimates and performed independent sensitivity analyses. We involved our valuation specialists to assist us in performing our audit procedures to test the estimated fair values of the Company’s reporting units and long-lived assets. Our procedures to test management’s impairment evaluation of its Video asset group also included challenging the reasonableness of the assigned probabilities discussed above and the underlying factors considered by management to develop such probabilities.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1999.

Dallas, Texas
February 25, 2021
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AT&T Inc.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of AT&T Inc.

Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited AT&T Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, AT&T Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on the COSO criteria.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the 2020 consolidated financial statements of the Company and our report dated February 25, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Report of Management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Dallas, Texas
February 25, 2021
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA


Consolidated Statements of Income
202020192018
Operating Revenues
Service$152,767 $163,499 $152,345 
Equipment18,993 17,694 18,411 
Total operating revenues171,760 181,193 170,756 
Operating Expenses
Cost of revenues
Equipment19,706 18,653 19,786 
Broadcast, programming and operations27,305 31,132 26,727 
Other cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation
and amortization shown separately below)
32,909 34,356 32,906 
Selling, general and administrative38,039 39,422 36,765 
Asset impairments and abandonments18,880 1,458 46 
Depreciation and amortization28,516 28,217 28,430 
Total operating expenses165,355 153,238 144,660 
Operating Income6,405 27,955 26,096 
Other Income (Expense)
Interest expense(7,925)(8,422)(7,957)
Equity in net income (loss) of affiliates95 (48)
Other income (expense) – net(1,431)(1,071)6,782 
Total other income (expense)(9,261)(9,487)(1,223)
Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes(2,856)18,468 24,873 
Income tax expense965 3,493 4,920 
Net Income (Loss)(3,821)14,975 19,953 
Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest(1,355)(1,072)(583)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to AT&T$(5,176)$13,903 $19,370 
Less: Preferred Stock Dividends(193)(3)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Common Stock$(5,369)$13,900 $19,370 
Basic Earnings Per Share Attributable to Common Stock$(0.75)$1.90 $2.85 
Diluted Earnings Per Share Attributable to Common Stock$(0.75)$1.89 $2.85 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
202020192018
Net income (loss)$(3,821)$14,975 $19,953 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Foreign Currency:
Translation adjustment (includes $(59), $(9) and $(32) attributable to
noncontrolling interest), net of taxes of $(42), $18 and $(45)
(929)19 (1,062)
Securities:
Net unrealized gains (losses), net of taxes of $27, $17 and $(1)78 50 (4)
Reclassification adjustment included in net income, net of taxes of $(5),
$0 and $0
(15)
Derivative Instruments:
Net unrealized gains (losses), net of taxes of $(212), $(240) and $(156)(811)(900)(597)
Reclassification adjustment included in net income, net of taxes of $18,
$12 and $6
69 45 13 
Defined benefit postretirement plans:
Net prior service credit arising during period, net of taxes of $735,
$1,134 and $271
2,250 3,457 830 
Amortization of net prior service credit included in net income, net of
taxes of $(601), $(475) and $(431)
(1,841)(1,459)(1,322)
Other comprehensive income (loss)(1,199)1,212 (2,142)
Total comprehensive income (loss)(5,020)16,187 17,811 
Less: Total comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest(1,296)(1,063)(551)
Total Comprehensive Income (Loss) Attributable to AT&T$(6,316)$15,124 $17,260 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Consolidated Balance Sheets
December 31,
20202019
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$9,740 $12,130 
Accounts receivable - net of related allowance for credit loss of $1,221 and $1,23520,215 22,636 
Prepaid expenses1,822 1,631 
Other current assets20,231 18,364 
Total current assets52,008 54,761 
Noncurrent Inventories and Theatrical Film and Television Production Costs14,752 12,434 
Property, Plant and Equipment – Net127,315 130,128 
Goodwill135,259 146,241 
Licenses – Net93,840 97,907 
Trademarks and Trade Names – Net23,297 23,567 
Distribution Networks – Net13,793 15,345 
Other Intangible Assets – Net15,386 20,798 
Investments in and Advances to Equity Affiliates1,780 3,695 
Operating Lease Right-Of-Use Assets24,714 24,039 
Other Assets23,617 22,754 
Total Assets$525,761 $551,669 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current Liabilities
Debt maturing within one year$3,470 $11,838 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities49,032 45,956 
Advanced billings and customer deposits6,176 6,124 
Accrued taxes1,019 1,212 
Dividends payable3,741 3,781 
Total current liabilities63,438 68,911 
Long-Term Debt153,775 151,309 
Deferred Credits and Other Noncurrent Liabilities
Deferred income taxes60,472 59,502 
Postemployment benefit obligation18,276 18,788 
Operating lease liabilities22,202 21,804 
Other noncurrent liabilities28,358 29,421 
Total deferred credits and other noncurrent liabilities129,308 129,515 
Stockholders’ Equity
Preferred stock ($1 par value, 10,000,000 authorized):
Series A (48,000 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019)0 
Series B (20,000 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 0 issued and
outstanding at December 31, 2019)
0 
Series C (70,000 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 0 issued and
outstanding at December 31, 2019)
0 
Common stock ($1 par value, 14,000,000,000 authorized at December 31, 2020 and
December 31, 2019: issued 7,620,748,598 at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019)
7,621 7,621 
Additional paid-in capital130,175 126,279 
Retained earnings37,457 57,936 
Treasury stock (494,826,583 at December 31, 2020
and 366,193,458 at December 31, 2019, at cost)
(17,910)(13,085)
Accumulated other comprehensive income4,330 5,470 
Noncontrolling interest17,567 17,713 
Total stockholders’ equity179,240 201,934 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity$525,761 $551,669 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
202020192018
Operating Activities
Net income (loss)$(3,821)$14,975 $19,953 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by
operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization28,516 28,217 28,430 
Amortization of film and television costs8,603 9,587 3,772 
Undistributed earnings from investments in equity affiliates38 295 292 
Provision for uncollectible accounts1,972 2,575 1,791 
Deferred income tax expense1,675 1,806 4,931 
Net (gain) loss on investments, net of impairments(742)(1,218)(739)
Pension and postretirement benefit expense (credit)(2,992)(2,002)(1,148)
Actuarial (gain) loss on pension and postretirement benefits4,169 5,171 (3,412)
Asset impairments and abandonments18,880 1,458 46 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Receivables2,216 2,812 (1,580)
Other current assets, inventories and theatrical film and television
production costs
(13,070)(12,852)(6,442)
Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities(1,410)(1,524)1,602 
Equipment installment receivables and related sales(1,429)548 (490)
Deferred customer contract acquisition and fulfillment costs376 (910)(3,458)
Postretirement claims and contributions(985)(1,008)(936)
Other - net1,134 738 990 
Total adjustments46,951 33,693 23,649 
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities43,130 48,668 43,602 
Investing Activities
Capital expenditures, including $(123), $(200) and $(493) of
interest during construction
(15,675)(19,635)(21,251)
Acquisitions, net of cash acquired(1,851)(1,809)(43,309)
Dispositions3,641 4,684 2,148 
(Purchases), sales and settlement of securities and investments, net497 435 (183)
Advances to and investments in equity affiliates, net(160)(365)(1,050)
Cash collections of deferred purchase price0 500 
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities(13,548)(16,690)(63,145)
Financing Activities
Net change in short-term borrowings with original maturities of
three months or less
(17)(276)(821)
Issuance of other short-term borrowings9,440 4,012 4,898 
Repayment of other short-term borrowings(9,467)(6,904)(2,098)
Issuance of long-term debt31,988 17,039 41,875 
Repayment of long-term debt(39,964)(27,592)(52,643)
Payment of vendor financing(2,966)(3,050)(560)
Issuance of preferred stock3,869 1,164 
Purchase of treasury stock(5,498)(2,417)(609)
Issuance of treasury stock105 631 745 
Issuance of preferred interests in subsidiaries1,979 7,876 
Redemption of preferred interest in subsidiary(1,950)0 
Dividends paid(14,956)(14,888)(13,410)
Other - net(4,570)(678)(3,366)
Net Cash Used in Financing Activities(32,007)(25,083)(25,989)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash(2,425)6,895 (45,532)
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash beginning of year12,295 5,400 50,932 
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash End of Year$9,870 $12,295 $5,400 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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Dollars and shares in millions except per share amounts
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity
202020192018
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Preferred Stock – Series A
Balance at beginning of year0 $0 $$
Issuance of stock0 0 
Balance at end of year0 $0 $$
Preferred Stock – Series B
Balance at beginning of year0 $0 $$
Issuance of stock0 0 
Balance at end of year0 $0 $$
Preferred Stock – Series C
Balance at beginning of year0 $0 $$
Issuance of stock0 0 
Balance at end of year0 $0 $$
Common Stock
Balance at beginning of year7,621 $7,621 7,621 $7,621 6,495 $6,495 
Issuance of stock0 0 1,126 1,126 
Balance at end of year7,621 $7,621 7,621 $7,621 7,621 $7,621 
Additional Paid-In Capital
Balance at beginning of year$126,279 $125,525 $89,563 
Repurchase and acquisition of
common stock
67 
Issuance of preferred stock3,869 1,164 
Issuance of common stock0 35,473 
Issuance of treasury stock(62)(125)(115)
Share-based payments18 (271)604 
Changes related to acquisition of
interests held by noncontrolling
owners
4 (14)
Balance at end of year$130,175 $126,279 $125,525 
Retained Earnings
Balance at beginning of year$57,936 $58,753 $50,500 
Cumulative effect of accounting
changes and other adjustments
(293)316 3,000 
Adjusted beginning balance57,643 59,069 53,500 
Net income (loss) attributable to AT&T(5,176)13,903 19,370 
Preferred stock dividends(139)(8)
Common stock dividends ($2.08, $2.05,
and $2.01 per share)
(14,871)(15,028)(14,117)
Balance at end of year$37,457 $57,936 $58,753 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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Dollars and shares in millions except per share amounts
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity - continued
202020192018
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Treasury Stock
Balance at beginning of year(366)$(13,085)(339)$(12,059)(356)$(12,714)
Repurchase and acquisition of
common stock
(150)(5,631)(67)(2,492)(20)(692)
Issuance of treasury stock21 806 40 1,466 37 1,347 
Balance at end of year(495)$(17,910)(366)$(13,085)(339)$(12,059)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Attributable to AT&T, net of tax:
Balance at beginning of year$5,470 $4,249 $7,017 
Cumulative effect of accounting
changes and other adjustments
0 (658)
Adjusted beginning balance5,470 4,249 6,359 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
attributable to AT&T
(1,140)1,221 (2,110)
Balance at end of year$4,330 $5,470 $4,249 
Noncontrolling Interest:
Balance at beginning of year$17,713 $9,795 $1,146 
Cumulative effect of accounting
changes and other adjustments
(7)29 35 
Adjusted beginning balance17,706 9,824 1,181 
Net income attributable to
noncontrolling interest
1,355 1,072 583 
Issuance and acquisition of
noncontrolling owners
1,979 7,881 8,804 
Redemption of noncontrolling interest(1,950)
Distributions(1,464)(1,055)(732)
Acquisition of interests held by
noncontrolling owners
0 (9)
Translation adjustments attributable to
noncontrolling interest, net of taxes
(59)(9)(32)
Balance at end of year$17,567 $17,713 $9,795 
Total Stockholders’ Equity at
beginning of year
$201,934 $193,884 $142,007 
Total Stockholders’ Equity at
end of year
$179,240 $201,934 $193,884 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

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Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation Throughout this document, AT&T Inc. is referred to as “AT&T,” “we” or the “Company.” The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and subsidiaries and affiliates which we control, including the results of Time Warner Inc. (referred to as “Time Warner” or “WarnerMedia”), which was acquired on June 14, 2018 (see Note 6). AT&T is a holding company whose subsidiaries and affiliates operate worldwide in the telecommunications, media and technology industries.

All significant intercompany transactions are eliminated in the consolidation process. Investments in subsidiaries and partnerships which we do not control but have significant influence are accounted for under the equity method. Earnings from certain investments accounted for using the equity method are included for periods ended within up to one quarter of our period end. We also record our proportionate share of our equity method investees’ other comprehensive income (OCI) items, including translation adjustments. We treat distributions received from equity method investees as returns on investment and classify them as cash flows from operating activities until those distributions exceed our cumulative equity in the earnings of that investment. We treat the excess amount as a return of investment and classify it as cash flows from investing activities.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions, including potential impacts arising from the COVID-19 pandemic and other estimates of probable losses and expenses, that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Certain prior-period amounts have been conformed to the current period’s presentation. See Note 4 for a discussion on the recast of our segment results and Note 9 for a discussion of the separation of our former Entertainment Group into two reporting units, Video and Broadband.

Accounting Policies and Adopted Accounting Standards

Credit Losses As of January 1, 2020, we adopted, through modified retrospective application, the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (FASB) Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” or Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 326 (ASC 326), which replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology under prior GAAP with an expected credit loss model. ASC 326 affects trade receivables, loans, contract assets, certain beneficial interests, off-balance-sheet credit exposures not accounted for as insurance and other financial assets that are not subject to fair value through net income, as defined by the standard. Under the expected credit loss model, we are required to consider future economic trends to estimate expected credit losses over the lifetime of the asset. Upon adoption on January 1, 2020, we recorded a $293 reduction to “Retained earnings,” $395 increase to “Allowances for credit losses” applicable to our trade and loan receivables, $10 reduction of contract assets, $105 reduction of net deferred income tax liability and $7 reduction of “Noncontrolling interest.” Our adoption of ASC 326 did not have a material impact on our financial statements.

Leases As of January 1, 2019, we adopted, with modified retrospective application, the FASB's ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (ASC 842), which replaces existing leasing rules with a comprehensive lease measurement and recognition standard and expanded disclosure requirements (see Note 8). ASC 842 requires lessees to recognize most leases on their balance sheets as liabilities, with corresponding “right-of-use” assets. For income statement recognition purposes, leases are classified as either a finance or an operating lease without relying upon bright-line tests.

The key change upon adoption of the standard was balance sheet recognition of operating leases, given that the recognition of lease expense on our income statement is similar to our historical accounting. Using the modified retrospective transition method of adoption, we did not adjust the balance sheet for comparative periods but recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings on January 1, 2019. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which, among other things, allowed us to carry forward our historical lease classification. We also elected the practical expedient related to land easements, allowing us to carry forward our accounting treatment for land easements on existing agreements that were not accounted for as leases. We excluded leases with original terms of one year or less. Additionally, we elected to not separate lease and non-lease components for certain classes of assets. Our accounting for finance leases did not change from our prior accounting for capital leases.

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The adoption of ASC 842 resulted in the recognition of an operating lease liability of $22,121 and an operating right-of-use asset of the same amount. Existing prepaid and deferred rent accruals were recorded as an offset to the right-of-use asset, resulting in a net asset of $20,960. The cumulative effect of the adoption to retained earnings was an increase of $316 reflecting the reclassification of deferred gains related to sale/leaseback transactions. The standard did not materially impact our income statements or statements of cash flows, and had no impact on our debt-covenant compliance under our current agreements.

Deferral of Episodic Television and Film Costs In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-02, Entertainment—Films—Other Assets—Film Costs (Subtopic 926-20) and Entertainment—Broadcasters—Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Subtopic 920-350): Improvements to Accounting for Costs of Films and License Agreements for Program Materials” (ASU 2019-02), which we early adopted as of January 1, 2019, with prospective application. The standard eliminates certain revenue-related constraints on capitalization of inventory costs for episodic television that existed under prior guidance. In addition, the balance sheet classification requirements that existed in prior guidance for film production costs and programming inventory were eliminated. As of January 1, 2019, we reclassified $2,274 of our programming inventory costs from “Other current assets” to “Other Assets” in accordance with the guidance (see Note 11). This change in accounting did not materially impact our income statement.

Revenue Recognition As of January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606),” as modified (ASC 606), using the modified retrospective method, which does not allow us to adjust prior periods. We applied the rules to all open contracts existing as of January 1, 2018, recording an increase of $2,342 to retained earnings for the cumulative effect of the change, with an offsetting contract asset of $1,737, deferred contract acquisition costs of $1,454, other asset reductions of $239, other liability reductions of $212, deferred income tax liability of $787 and increase to noncontrolling interest of $35. (See Note 5)

Financial Instruments As of January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU No. 2016-01, “Financial Instruments – Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” (ASU 2016-01), which requires us to prospectively record changes in the fair value of our equity investments, except for those accounted for under the equity method, in net income instead of in accumulated other comprehensive income (accumulated OCI). As of January 1, 2018, we recorded an increase of $658 in retained earnings for the cumulative effect of the adoption of ASU 2016-01, with an offset to accumulated OCI.

Income Taxes We record deferred income taxes for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the computed tax basis of those assets and liabilities. We record valuation allowances against the deferred tax assets (included, together with our deferred income tax assets, as part of our reportable net deferred income tax liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets), for which the realization is uncertain. We review these items regularly in light of changes in federal and state tax laws and changes in our business.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Act), which was enacted on December 22, 2017, reduced the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% and required companies to pay a one-time transition tax on earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously tax deferred. We included the estimated impact of the Act in our financial results at or for the period ended December 31, 2017, with additional adjustments recorded in 2018, as allowed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) 118. (See Note 14)

Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash and cash equivalents include all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. The carrying amounts approximate fair value. At December 31, 2020, we held $2,842 in cash and $6,898 in money market funds and other cash equivalents. Of our total cash and cash equivalents, $2,205 resided in foreign jurisdictions, some of which is subject to restrictions on repatriation.

Allowance for Credit Losses We record expense to maintain an allowance for credit losses for estimated losses that result from the failure or inability of our customers to make required payments deemed collectible from the customer when the service was provided or product was delivered. When determining the allowances for trade receivables and loans, we consider the probability of recoverability of accounts receivable based on past experience, taking into account current collection trends and general economic factors, including bankruptcy rates. We also consider future economic trends to estimate expected credit losses over the lifetime of the asset. Credit risks are assessed based on historical write-offs, net of recoveries, as well as an analysis of the aged accounts receivable balances with allowances generally increasing as the receivable ages. Accounts receivable may be fully reserved for when specific collection issues are known to exist, such as catastrophes or pending bankruptcies.

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Equipment Inventory Equipment inventories, which primarily consist of wireless devices and accessories, are included in “Other current assets” on our consolidated balance sheets. Equipment inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value and were $3,592 at December 31, 2020 and $2,864 at December 31, 2019.

Licensed Programming Inventory Cost Recognition and Impairment We enter into agreements to license programming exhibition rights from licensors. A programming inventory asset related to these rights and a corresponding liability payable to the licensor are recorded (on a discounted basis if the license agreements are long-term) when (i) the cost of the programming is reasonably determined, (ii) the programming material has been accepted in accordance with the terms of the agreement, (iii) the programming is available for its first showing or telecast, and (iv) the license period has commenced. There are variations in the amortization methods of these rights, depending on whether the network is advertising-supported (e.g., TNT and TBS) or not advertising-supported (e.g., HBO and Turner Classic Movies).

For the advertising-supported networks, our general policy is to amortize each program’s costs on a straight-line basis (or per-play basis, if greater) over its license period. In circumstances where the initial airing of the program has more value than subsequent airings, an accelerated method of amortization is used. The accelerated amortization upon the first airing versus subsequent airings is determined based on a study of historical and estimated future advertising sales for similar programming. For rights fees paid for sports programming arrangements, such rights fees are amortized using a revenue-forecast model, in which the rights fees are amortized using the ratio of current period advertising revenue to total estimated remaining advertising revenue over the term of the arrangement.

For premium pay television, streaming and over-the-top (OTT) services that are not advertising-supported, each licensed program’s costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over its license period or estimated period of use, beginning with the month of initial exhibition. When we have the right to exhibit feature theatrical programming in multiple windows over a number of years, historical audience viewership is used as the basis for determining the amount of programming amortization attributable to each window.

Licensed programming inventory is carried at the lower of unamortized cost or fair value. For networks that generate both advertising and subscription revenues, the net realizable value of unamortized programming costs is generally evaluated based on the network’s programming taken as a whole. In assessing whether the programming inventory for a particular advertising-supported network is impaired, the net realizable value for all of the network’s programming inventory is determined based on a projection of the network’s profitability. This assessment would occur upon the occurrence of certain triggering events. Similarly, for premium pay television, streaming and OTT services that are not advertising-supported, an evaluation of the fair value of unamortized programming costs is performed based on services’ licensed programming taken as a whole. Specifically, the fair value for all premium pay television, streaming and OTT service licensed programming is determined based on projections of estimated subscription revenues less certain costs of delivering and distributing the licensed programming. Changes in management’s intended usage of a specific program, such as a decision to no longer exhibit that program and forgo the use of the rights associated with the program license, results in a reassessment of that program’s fair value, which could result in an impairment (see Note 11).

Film and Television Production Cost Recognition, Participations and Residuals and Impairments Film and television production costs on our consolidated balance sheets include the unamortized cost of completed theatrical films and television episodes, theatrical films and television series in production and undeveloped film and television rights. Film and television production costs are stated at the lower of cost, less accumulated amortization, or fair value. For films and television programs predominantly monetized individually, the amount of capitalized film and television production costs and the amount of participations and residuals to be recognized as broadcast, programming and operations expenses for a given film or television series in a particular period are determined using the film forecast computation method. Under this method, the amortization of capitalized costs and the accrual of participations and residuals are based on the proportion of the film’s (or television program’s) revenues recognized for such period to the film’s (or television program’s) estimated remaining ultimate revenues (i.e., the total revenue to be received throughout a film’s (or television program’s) life cycle).

The process of estimating a film’s ultimate revenues requires us to make a series of judgments related to future revenue-generating activities associated with a particular film. We estimate the ultimate revenues, less additional costs to be incurred (including exploitation and participation costs), in order to determine whether the value of a film or television series is impaired and requires an immediate write-off of unrecoverable film and television production costs. To the extent that the ultimate revenues are adjusted, the resulting gross margin reported on the exploitation of that film or television series in a period is also adjusted. (See Note 11)
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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Prior to the theatrical release of a film, our estimates are based on factors such as the historical performance of similar films, the star power of the lead actors, the rating and genre of the film, pre-release market research (including test market screenings), international distribution plans and the expected number of theaters in which the film will be released. In the absence of revenues directly related to the exhibition of owned film or television programs on our television networks, premium pay television, streaming or OTT services, we estimate a portion of the unamortized costs that are representative of the utilization of that film or television program in that exhibition and expense such costs as the film or television program is exhibited. The period over which ultimate revenues are estimated generally does not exceed ten years from the initial release of a motion picture or from the date of delivery of the first episode of an episodic television series. Estimates were updated based on information available during the film’s production and, upon release, the actual results of each film.

For a film (or television program) predominantly monetized as part of a film (or television program) group, the amount of capitalized film and television production costs is amortized using a reasonably reliable estimate of the portion of unamortized film costs that is representative of the use of the film. Production costs are expensed as the film (or television program) is exhibited or exploited.

Property, Plant and Equipment Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, except for assets acquired using acquisition accounting, which are initially recorded at fair value (see Note 7). The cost of additions and substantial improvements to property, plant and equipment is capitalized, and includes internal compensation costs for these projects. The cost of maintenance and repairs of property, plant and equipment is charged to operating expenses. Property, plant and equipment costs are depreciated using straight-line methods over their estimated economic lives. Certain subsidiaries follow composite group depreciation methodology. Accordingly, when a portion of their depreciable property, plant and equipment is retired in the ordinary course of business, the gross book value is reclassified to accumulated depreciation, and no gain or loss is recognized on the disposition of these assets.

Property, plant and equipment is reviewed for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be recoverable. We recognize an impairment loss when the carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. See Note 7 for a discussion of an impairment of long-lived assets of the video business and other network asset abandonments.

The liability for the fair value of an asset retirement obligation is recorded in the period in which it is incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. In periods subsequent to initial measurement, we recognize period-to-period changes in the liability resulting from the passage of time and revisions to either the timing or the amount of the original estimate. The increase in the carrying value of the associated long-lived asset is depreciated over the corresponding estimated economic life.

Software Costs We capitalize certain costs incurred in connection with developing or obtaining internal-use software. Capitalized software costs are included in “Property, Plant and Equipment - Net” on our consolidated balance sheets. In addition, there is certain network software that allows the equipment to provide the features and functions unique to the AT&T network, which we include in the cost of the equipment categories for financial reporting purposes.

We amortize our capitalized software costs over a three-year to seven-year period, reflecting the estimated period during which these assets will remain in service.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets We have the following major classes of intangible assets: goodwill; licenses, which include Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and other wireless licenses and orbital slots; distribution networks; film and television libraries; intellectual properties and franchises; trademarks and trade names; customer lists; and various other finite-lived intangible assets (see Note 9).

Goodwill represents the excess of consideration paid over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations. Wireless licenses provide us with the exclusive right to utilize certain radio frequency spectrum to provide wireless communications services. While wireless licenses are issued for a fixed period of time (generally ten years), renewals of domestic wireless licenses have occurred routinely and at nominal cost. We have determined that there are currently no legal, regulatory, contractual, competitive, economic or other factors that limit the useful lives of our FCC wireless licenses.

75

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
During 2019, in conjunction with the renewal process of certain wireless licenses in Mexico, we reassessed the estimated economic lives and renewal assumptions for these licenses. As a result, we have changed the life of these licenses from indefinite to finite-lived. On January 1, 2019, we began amortizing our wireless licenses in Mexico over their average remaining economic life of 25 years. This change in accounting does not materially impact our income statement.

During the first quarter of 2020, in conjunction with the nationwide launch of AT&T TV and our customers’ continued shift from linear to streaming video services, we reassessed the estimated economic lives and renewal assumptions for our orbital slot licenses. As a result, we have changed the estimated lives of our orbital slot licenses from indefinite to finite-lived, effective January 1, 2020, and began amortizing these licenses using the sum-of-months-digits method over their average remaining economic life of 15 years at January 1, 2020. This change in accounting increased amortization expense $1,504, or $0.16 per diluted share available to common stock for 2020.

We acquired the rights to the AT&T and other trade names in previous acquisitions, classifying certain of those trade names as indefinite-lived. We have the effective ability to retain these exclusive rights permanently at a nominal cost. During the first quarter of 2020, we reassessed and changed the estimated economic lives of certain trade names in our Latin America business from indefinite to finite-lived and began amortizing them using the straight-line method over their average remaining economic life of 15 years. This change had an insignificant impact on our financial statements.

Goodwill, FCC wireless licenses and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized but are tested at least annually for impairment. The testing is performed on the value as of October 1 each year, and compares the book values of the assets to their fair values. Goodwill is tested by comparing the carrying amount of each reporting unit, deemed to be our principal operating segments or one level below them, to the fair value using both discounted cash flow as well as market multiple approaches. FCC wireless licenses are tested on an aggregate basis, consistent with our use of the licenses on a national scope, using a discounted cash flow approach. Prior to 2020, orbital slots were similarly aggregated for purposes of impairment testing and valued using a discounted cash flow approach. Trade names are tested by comparing their book values to their fair values calculated using a discounted cash flow approach on a presumed royalty rate derived from the revenues related to each brand name.

Intangible assets that have finite useful lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives (see Note 9). As of January 1, 2020, on a prospective basis, orbital slots are amortized using the sum-of-the-months-digits method of amortization over their average remaining economic life. Customer lists and relationships are amortized using primarily the sum-of-the-months-digits method of amortization over the period in which those relationships are expected to contribute to our future cash flows. Finite-lived trademarks and trade names and distribution networks are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the assets. Film library is amortized using the film forecast computation method, as previously disclosed. The remaining finite-lived intangible assets are generally amortized using the straight-line method. These assets, along with other long-lived assets, are reviewed for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be recoverable.

Advertising Costs We expense advertising costs for products and services or for promoting our corporate image as incurred (see Note 22).

Foreign Currency Translation Our foreign subsidiaries and foreign investments generally report their earnings in their local currencies. We translate their foreign assets and liabilities at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet dates. We translate their revenues and expenses using average rates during the year. The resulting foreign currency translation adjustments are recorded as a separate component of accumulated OCI in our consolidated balance sheets (see Note 3). Operations in countries with highly inflationary economies use the U.S. dollar as the functional currency.

We hedge a portion of the foreign currency exchange risk involved in certain foreign currency-denominated transactions, which we explain further in our discussion of our methods of managing our foreign currency risk (see Note 13).

Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits See Note 15 for a comprehensive discussion of our pension and postretirement benefits, including a discussion of the actuarial assumptions, our policy for recognizing the associated gains and losses and our method used to estimate service and interest cost components.

76

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
New Accounting Standards

Income Taxes In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes” (ASU 2019-12), which is expected to simplify income tax accounting requirements in areas deemed costly and complex. The amendments under ASU 2019-12 will be effective as of January 1, 2021, and interim periods within that year, with early adoption permitted in its entirety as of the beginning of the year of adoption. At adoption, the guidance allows for modified retrospective application through a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings. We do not expect ASU 2019-12 to have a material impact on our financial statements.

Reference Rate Reform In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting” (ASU 2020-04, as amended), which provides optional expedients, and allows for certain exceptions to existing GAAP, for contract modifications triggered by the expected market transition of certain benchmark interest rates to alternative reference rates. ASU 2020-04 applies to contracts, hedging relationships, certain derivatives and other arrangements that reference the London Interbank Offering Rate (LIBOR) or any other rates ending after December 31, 2022. ASU 2020-04 became effective immediately. We are evaluating the impact of our adoption of ASU 2020-04, including optional expedients, to our financial statements.
 
Convertible Instruments In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, “Debt—Debt With Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity” (ASU 2020-06), which eliminated certain separation models regarding cash conversion and beneficial conversion features to simplify reporting for convertible instruments as a single liability or equity, with no separate accounting for embedded conversion features. ASU 2020-06 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 31, 2021, under modified retrospective or full retrospective application, subject to early adoption in 2021. We are evaluating the impact of our adoption of ASU 2020-06 on our financial statements.

NOTE 2. EARNINGS PER SHARE

A reconciliation of the numerators and denominators of basic and diluted earnings per share is shown in the table below:
Year Ended December 31,202020192018
Numerators
Numerator for basic earnings per share:
Net Income (Loss)$(3,821)$14,975 $19,953 
Less: Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest(1,355)(1,072)(583)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to AT&T(5,176)13,903 19,370 
Less: Preferred Stock Dividends(193)(3)
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Common Stock(5,369)13,900 19,370 
Dilutive potential common shares:
Share-based payment 1
23 21 19 
Numerator for diluted earnings per share$(5,346)$13,921 $19,389 
Denominators (000,000)
Denominator for basic earnings per share:
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding7,157 7,319 6,778 
Dilutive potential common shares:
Share-based payment (in shares) 1
26 29 28 
Denominator for diluted earnings per share7,183 7,348 6,806 
Basic Earnings Per Share Attributable to Common Stock$(0.75)$1.90 $2.85 
Diluted Earnings Per Share Attributable to Common Stock 1
$(0.75)$1.89 $2.85 
1For 2020, dilutive potential common shares are not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because their effect is antidilutive as a result of the net loss.

In the first quarter of 2020, we completed an accelerated share repurchase agreement with a third-party financial institution to repurchase AT&T common stock (see Note 17). Under the terms of the agreement, we paid the financial institution $4,000 and received 104.8 million shares.
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AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
NOTE 3. OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

Changes in the balances of each component included in accumulated OCI are presented below. All amounts are net of tax and exclude noncontrolling interest.
Foreign
Currency
Translation
Adjustment
Net Unrealized
Gains (Losses) on
Available-for-Sale
Securities
Net Unrealized
Gains (Losses) on
Cash Flow Hedges
Defined Benefit
Postretirement
Plans
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive
Income
Balance as of December 31, 2017$(2,054)$660 $1,402$7,009$7,017 
Other comprehensive income
(loss) before reclassifications
(1,030)(4)(597)830 (801)
Amounts reclassified from
accumulated OCI
1113 2(1,322)3(1,309)
Net other comprehensive
income (loss)
(1,030)(4)(584)(492)(2,110)
Amounts reclassified to
retained earnings4
(658)(658)
Balance as of December 31, 2018(3,084)(2)818 6,517 4,249 
Other comprehensive income
(loss) before reclassifications
28 50 (900)3,457 2,635 
Amounts reclassified from
accumulated OCI
1145 2(1,459)3(1,414)
Net other comprehensive
income (loss)
28 50 (855)1,998 1,221 
Balance as of December 31, 2019(3,056)48 (37)8,515 5,470 
Other comprehensive income
(loss) before reclassifications
(870)78 (811)2,250 647 
Amounts reclassified from
accumulated OCI
1(15)169 2(1,841)3(1,787)
Net other comprehensive
income (loss)
(870)63 (742)409 (1,140)
Balance as of December 31, 2020$(3,926)$111 $(779)$8,924 $4,330 
1(Gains) losses are included in “Other income (expense) – net” in the consolidated statements of income.
2(Gains) losses are included in “Interest expense” in the consolidated statements of income (see Note 13).
3The amortization of prior service credits associated with postretirement benefits is included in “Other income (expense) – net” in the consolidated statements of income (see Note 15).
4With the adoption of ASU 2016-01, the unrealized (gains) losses on our equity investments are reclassified to retained earnings (see Note 1).

NOTE 4. SEGMENT INFORMATION

Our segments are comprised of strategic business units that offer products and services to different customer segments over various technology platforms and/or in different geographies that are managed accordingly. We analyze our segments based on segment operating contribution, which consists of operating income, excluding acquisition-related costs and other significant items (as discussed below), and equity in net income (loss) of affiliates for investments managed within each segment. We have 3 reportable segments: (1) Communications, (2) WarnerMedia and (3) Latin America.

We have recast our segment results for all prior periods to include our prior Xandr segment within our WarnerMedia segment and to remove the Crunchyroll anime business that is classified as held-for-sale and removed from the WarnerMedia segment, instead including it in Corporate and Other.

We also evaluate segment and business unit performance based on EBITDA and/or EBITDA margin. EBITDA is defined as operating contribution excluding equity in net income (loss) of affiliates and depreciation and amortization. We believe EBITDA to be a relevant and useful measurement to our investors as it is part of our internal management reporting and planning processes and it is an important metric that management uses to evaluate operating performance. EBITDA does not
78

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
give effect to depreciation and amortization expenses incurred in operating contribution nor is it burdened by cash used for debt service requirements and thus does not reflect available funds for distributions, reinvestment or other discretionary uses. EBITDA margin is EBITDA divided by total revenues.

The Communications segment provides wireless and wireline telecom, video and broadband services to consumers located in the U.S. and businesses globally. Our business strategies reflect bundled product offerings that cut across product lines and utilize shared assets. In December 2020, we changed our management strategy and reevaluated our domestic video business, allowing us to maximize value in our domestic video business and further accelerate our ability to innovate and execute in our fast-growing broadband and fiber business. In conjunction with the strategy change, we separated the former Entertainment Group into two business units, Video and Broadband, which includes legacy telephony operations. We have recast our results for all prior periods to split the Entertainment Group into two separate business units, Video and Broadband, and removed video operations from Business Wireline, combining all video operations in the Video business unit. This segment contains the following business units:
Mobility provides nationwide wireless service and equipment.
Video provides video, including over-the-top (OTT) services and also sells multiplatform advertising services as video revenues.
Broadband provides internet, including broadband fiber, and legacy telephony voice communication services to residential customers.
Business Wireline provides advanced IP-based services, as well as traditional voice and data services to business customers.
The WarnerMedia segment develops, produces and distributes feature films, television, gaming and other content in various physical and digital formats globally. Historical financial results of Eliminations & Other included in the WarnerMedia segment have been recast to include Xandr, previously a separate reportable segment, and to remove the Crunchyroll anime business that was classified as held-for-sale. This segment contains the following:
Turner primarily operates multichannel basic television networks and digital properties. Turner also sells advertising on its networks and digital properties.
Home Box Office consists of premium pay television and HBO Max domestically and premium pay, basic tier television internationally, and content licensing and home entertainment.
Warner Bros. primarily consists of the production, distribution and licensing of television programming and feature films, the distribution of home entertainment products and the production and distribution of games.
Eliminations & Other includes the Xandr advertising business, and also removes transactions between the Turner, Home Box Office and Warner Bros. business units, including internal sales of content to the HBO Max platform that began in the fourth quarter of 2019 (see Note 5).

The Latin America segment provides entertainment and wireless services outside of the U.S. This segment contains the following business units:
Vrio provides video services primarily to residential customers using satellite technology in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Mexico provides wireless service and equipment to customers in Mexico.
Corporate and Other reconciles our segment results to consolidated operating income and income before income taxes, and includes:
Corporate, which consists of: (1) businesses no longer integral to our operations or which we no longer actively market, (2) corporate support functions, (3) impacts of corporate-wide decisions for which the individual operating segments are not being evaluated, and (4) the reclassification of the amortization of prior service credits, which we continue to report with segment operating expenses, to consolidated “Other income (expense) – net.”
Acquisition-related items, which consists of items associated with the merger and integration of acquired businesses, including amortization of intangible assets.
Certain significant items, which includes (1) employee separation charges associated with voluntary and/or strategic offers, (2) losses resulting from asset impairments and abandonments, and (3) other items for which the segments are not being evaluated.
Eliminations and consolidations, which (1) removes transactions involving dealings between our segments, including channel distribution between WarnerMedia and Communications, and (2) includes adjustments for our reporting of the advertising business.
“Interest expense” and “Other income (expense) – net” are managed only on a total company basis and are, accordingly, reflected only in consolidated results.
79

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
For the year ended December 31, 2020
RevenuesOperations
and Support
Expenses
EBITDA
Depreciation
and
Amortization
Operating
Income
(Loss)
Equity in Net
Income (Loss) of
Affiliates
Segment
Contribution
Communications
Mobility$72,564 $42,106 $30,458 $8,086 $22,372 $0 $22,372 
Video28,610 24,619 3,991 2,262 1,729 0 1,729 
Broadband12,318 7,582 4,736 2,914 1,822 0 1,822 
Business Wireline25,358 15,534 9,824 5,226 4,598 0 4,598 
Total Communications138,850 89,841 49,009 18,488 30,521 0 30,521 
WarnerMedia
Turner12,568 6,954 5,614 277 5,337 (2)5,335 
Home Box Office6,808 6,028 780 98 682 16 698 
Warner Bros.12,154 9,917 2,237 169 2,068 (70)1,998 
Eliminations and other(1,088)(1,320)232 127 105 74 179 
Total WarnerMedia30,442 21,579 8,863 671 8,192 18 8,210 
Latin America
Vrio3,154 2,800 354 520 (166)24 (142)
Mexico2,562 2,636 (74)513 (587)0 (587)
Total Latin America5,716 5,436 280 1,033 (753)24 (729)
Segment Total175,008 116,856 58,152 20,192 37,960 $42 $38,002 
Corporate and Other
Corporate1
1,932 3,974 (2,042)300 (2,342)
Acquisition-related items0 468 (468)8,012 (8,480)
Certain significant items0 19,156 (19,156)14 (19,170)
Eliminations and consolidations(5,180)(3,615)(1,565)(2)(1,563)
AT&T Inc.$171,760 $136,839 $34,921 $28,516 $6,405 
1Includes $2,442 for the reclassification of prior service credit amortization.
80

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
For the year ended December 31, 2019
RevenuesOperations
and Support
Expenses
EBITDADepreciation
and
Amortization
Operating
Income
(Loss)
Equity in Net
Income
(Loss) of
Affiliates
Segment
Contribution
Communications
Mobility$71,056 $40,681 $30,375 $8,054 $22,321 $$22,321 
Video32,124 27,599 4,525 2,461 2,064 2,064 
Broadband13,012 7,451 5,561 2,880 2,681 2,681 
Business Wireline26,167 16,069 10,098 4,934 5,164 5,164 
Total Communications142,359 91,800 50,559 18,329 32,230 32,230 
WarnerMedia
Turner13,122 7,740 5,382 235 5,147 52 5,199 
Home Box Office6,749 4,312 2,437 102 2,335 30 2,365 
Warner Bros.14,358 11,816 2,542 162 2,380 (30)2,350 
Eliminations and other1,030 304 726 90 636 109 745 
Total WarnerMedia35,259 24,172 11,087 589 10,498 161 10,659 
Latin America
Vrio4,094 3,378 716 660 56 27 83 
Mexico2,869 3,085 (216)502 (718)(718)
Total Latin America6,963 6,463 500 1,162 (662)27 (635)
Segment Total184,581 122,435 62,146 20,080 42,066 $188 $42,254 
Corporate and Other
Corporate1
1,937 3,279 (1,342)636 (1,978)
Acquisition-related items(72)960 (1,032)7,460 (8,492)
Certain significant items2,082 (2,082)43 (2,125)
Eliminations and consolidations(5,253)(3,735)(1,518)(2)(1,516)
AT&T Inc.$181,193 $125,021 $56,172 $28,217 $27,955 
1Includes $1,934 for the reclassification of prior service credit amortization.
81

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
For the year ended December 31, 2018
RevenuesOperations
and Support
Expenses
EBITDADepreciation
and
Amortization
Operating
Income
(Loss)
Equity in Net
Income
(Loss) of
Affiliates
Segment
Contribution
Communications
Mobility$70,521 $40,690 $29,831 $8,263 $21,568 $$21,568 
Video33,363 29,334 4,029 2,698 1,331 1,331 
Broadband13,108 7,116 5,992 2,623 3,369 3,369 
Business Wireline26,729 16,181 10,548 4,708 5,840 5,840 
Total Communications143,721 93,321 50,400 18,292 32,108 32,108 
WarnerMedia
Turner6,979 3,794 3,185 131 3,054 54 3,108 
Home Box Office3,598 2,187 1,411 56 1,355 29 1,384 
Warner Bros.8,703 7,130 1,573 96 1,477 (28)1,449 
Eliminations and other1,305 168 1,137 28 1,109 (30)1,079 
Total WarnerMedia20,585 13,279 7,306 311 6,995 25 7,020 
Latin America
Vrio4,784 3,743 1,041 728 313 34 347 
Mexico2,868 3,415 (547)510 (1,057)(1,057)
Total Latin America7,652 7,158 494 1,238 (744)34 (710)
Segment Total171,958 113,758 58,200 19,841 38,359 $59 $38,418 
Corporate and Other
Corporate1
2,246 2,335 (89)1,633 (1,722)
Acquisition-related items(49)1,185 (1,234)6,931 (8,165)
Certain significant items899 (899)26 (925)
Eliminations and consolidations(3,399)(1,947)(1,452)(1)(1,451)
AT&T Inc.$170,756 $116,230 $54,526 $28,430 $26,096 
1Includes $1,753 for the reclassification of prior service credit amortization.
82

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
The following table is a reconciliation of operating income (loss) to “Income Before Income Taxes” reported in our consolidated statements of income:
202020192018
Communications$30,521 $32,230 $32,108 
WarnerMedia8,210 10,659 7,020 
Latin America(729)(635)(710)
Segment Contribution38,002 42,254 38,418 
Reconciling Items:
Corporate and Other(2,342)(1,978)(1,722)
Merger and integration items(468)(1,032)(1,234)
Amortization of intangibles acquired(8,012)(7,460)(6,931)
Impairments and abandonments(18,880)(1,458)(46)
Gain on spectrum transaction1
900 
Employee separation charges and benefit-related (gain) loss(1,177)(624)(587)
Other noncash charges (credits), net(13)(43)(111)
Natural disaster items0 (181)
Segment equity in net income of affiliates(42)(188)(59)
Eliminations and consolidations(1,563)(1,516)(1,451)
AT&T Operating Income6,405 27,955 26,096 
Interest Expense7,925 8,422 7,957 
Equity in net income (loss) of affiliates95 (48)
Other income (expense) - net(1,431)(1,071)6,782 
Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes$(2,856)$18,468 $24,873 
1 Included as a reduction of “Selling, general and administrative expenses” in the consolidated statements of income.

The following table sets forth revenues earned from customers, and property, plant and equipment located in different geographic areas:

202020192018
Revenues
Net Property,
Plant &
Equipment
Revenues
Net Property,
Plant &
Equipment
RevenuesNet Property,
Plant &
Equipment
United States$155,899 $121,208 $161,689 $122,567 $154,795 $123,457 
Europe5,387 1,152 6,536 1,854 4,073 1,634 
Mexico2,862 3,530 3,198 3,648 3,100 3,467 
Brazil1,807 694 2,797 1,057 2,724 1,213 
All other Latin America2,679 485 3,219 544 3,055 1,217 
Asia/Pacific Rim2,322 203 2,793 390 2,214 408 
Other804 43 961 68 795 77 
Total$171,760 $127,315 $181,193 $130,128 $170,756 $131,473 
83

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
The following tables present intersegment revenues, assets, investments in equity affiliates and capital expenditures by segment:

Intersegment Reconciliation
202020192018
Intersegment revenues
Communications$11 $26 $13 
WarnerMedia3,183 3,318 1,875 
Latin America0 
Total Intersegment Revenues3,194 3,344 1,888 
Consolidations1,986 1,909 1,511 
Eliminations and consolidations$5,180 $5,253 $3,399 

At or for the years ended December 31,20202019
AssetsInvestments in
Equity Method
Investees
Capital
Expenditures
AssetsInvestments in
Equity Method
Investees
Capital
Expenditures
Communications$522,758 $0 $14,107 $521,252 $$17,410 
WarnerMedia150,947 1,123 699 143,492 3,011 1,205 
Latin America15,811 590 708 20,606 650 757 
Corporate and eliminations(163,755)67 161 (133,681)34 263 
Total$525,761 $1,780 $15,675 $551,669 $3,695 $19,635 

NOTE 5. REVENUE RECOGNITION

We report our revenues net of sales taxes and record certain regulatory fees, primarily Universal Service Fund (USF) fees, on a net basis. No customer accounted for more than 10% of consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 or 2018.

Wireless, Advanced Data, Legacy Voice & Data Services and Equipment Revenue
We offer service-only contracts and contracts that bundle equipment used to access the services and/or with other service offerings. Some contracts have fixed terms and others are cancellable on a short-term basis (i.e., month-to-month arrangements).

Examples of service revenues include wireless, video entertainment (e.g., AT&T U-verse and DIRECTV), strategic services (e.g., virtual private network service), and legacy voice and data (e.g., traditional local and long-distance). These services represent a series of distinct services that is considered a separate performance obligation. Service revenue is recognized when services are provided, based upon either usage (e.g., minutes of traffic/bytes of data processed) or period of time (e.g., monthly service fees).

Some of our services require customer premises equipment that, when combined and integrated with AT&T’s specific network infrastructure, facilitates the delivery of service to the customer. In evaluating whether the equipment is a separate performance obligation, we consider the customer’s ability to benefit from the equipment on its own or together with other readily available resources and if so, whether the service and equipment are separately identifiable (i.e., is the service highly dependent on, or highly interrelated with the equipment). When the equipment does not meet the criteria to be a separate performance obligation (e.g., equipment associated with certain video services), we allocate the total transaction price to the related service. When equipment is a separate performance obligation, we record the sale of equipment when title has passed and the products are accepted by the customer. For devices sold through indirect channels (e.g., national dealers), revenue is recognized when the dealer accepts the device, not upon activation.

Our equipment and service revenues are predominantly recognized on a gross basis, as most of our services do not involve a third party and we typically control the equipment that is sold to our customers.
84

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Revenue recognized from fixed term contracts that bundle services and/or equipment is allocated based on the stand-alone selling price of all required performance obligations of the contract (i.e., each item included in the bundle). Promotional discounts are attributed to each required component of the arrangement, resulting in recognition over the contract term. Stand-alone selling prices are determined by assessing prices paid for service-only contracts (e.g., arrangements where customers bring their own devices) and stand-alone device pricing.

We offer the majority of our customers the option to purchase certain wireless devices in installments over a specified period of time, and, in many cases, they may be eligible to trade in the original equipment for a new device and have the remaining unpaid balance paid or settled. For customers that elect these equipment installment payment programs, at the point of sale, we recognize revenue for the entire amount of revenue allocated to the customer receivable net of fair value of the trade-in right guarantee. The difference between the revenue recognized and the consideration received is recorded as a note receivable when the devices are not discounted and our right to consideration is unconditional. When installment sales include promotional discounts (e.g., “buy one get one free”), the difference between revenue recognized and consideration received is recorded as a contract asset to be amortized over the contract term.

Less commonly, we offer certain customers highly discounted devices when they enter into a minimum service agreement term. For these contracts, we recognize equipment revenue at the point of sale based on a stand-alone selling price allocation. The difference between the revenue recognized and the cash received is recorded as a contract asset that will amortize over the contract term.

Our contracts allow for customers to frequently modify their arrangement, without incurring penalties in many cases. When a contract is modified, we evaluate the change in scope or price of the contract to determine if the modification should be treated as a new contract or if it should be considered a change of the existing contract. We generally do not have significant impacts from contract modifications.

Revenues from transactions between us and our customers are recorded net of revenue-based regulatory fees and taxes. Cash incentives given to customers are recorded as a reduction of revenue. Nonrefundable, upfront service activation and setup fees associated with service arrangements are deferred and recognized over the associated service contract period or customer relationship life.

Subscription Revenue
Subscription revenues from cable networks and premium pay and basic-tier television services are recognized over the license period as programming is provided to affiliates or digital distributors based on negotiated contractual programming rates. When a distribution contract with an affiliate has expired and a new distribution contract has not been executed, revenues are based on estimated rates, giving consideration to factors including the previous contractual rates, inflation, current payments by the affiliate and the status of the negotiations on a new contract. When the new distribution contract terms are finalized, an adjustment to revenue is recorded, if necessary, to reflect the new terms.

Subscription revenues from end-user subscribers are recognized when services are provided, based upon either usage or period of time. Subscription revenues from streaming services are recognized as programming services are provided to customers.

Content Revenue
Feature films typically are produced or acquired for initial exhibition in theaters, followed by distribution, generally commencing within three years of such initial exhibition. Revenues from film rentals by theaters are recognized as the films are exhibited.

Television programs and series are initially produced for broadcast and may be subsequently licensed or sold in physical format and/or electronic delivery. Revenues from the distribution of television programming through broadcast networks, cable networks, first-run syndication and streaming services are recognized when the programs or series are available to the licensee. In certain circumstances, pursuant to the terms of the applicable contractual arrangements, the availability dates granted to customers may precede the date in which the customer can be billed for these sales.

Revenues from sales of feature films and television programming in physical format are recognized at the later of the delivery date or the date when made widely available for sale or rental by retailers based on gross sales less a provision for estimated returns, rebates and pricing allowances. Revenues from the licensing of television programs and series for electronic sell-through or video-on-demand are recognized when the product has been purchased by and made available to the consumer to either download or stream.
85

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts

Upfront or guaranteed payments for the licensing of intellectual property are recognized as revenue at either the inception of the license term if the intellectual property has significant standalone functionality or over the corresponding license term if the licensee’s ability to derive utility is dependent on our continued support of the intellectual property throughout the license term.

Revenues from the sales of console games are recognized at the later of the delivery date or the date that the product is made widely available for sale or rental by retailers based on gross sales less a provision for estimated returns, rebates and pricing allowances.

Advertising Revenue
Advertising revenues are recognized, net of agency commissions, in the period that the advertisements are aired. If there is a targeted audience guarantee, revenues are recognized for the actual audience delivery and revenues are deferred for any shortfall until the guaranteed audience delivery is met, typically by providing additional advertisements. Advertising revenues from digital properties are recognized as impressions are delivered or the services are performed.

86

AT&T Inc.
Dollars in millions except per share amounts
Revenue Categories

The following tables set forth reported revenue by category and by business unit. Intercompany transactions between segments and the dual reporting of certain advertising revenues are included in “Eliminations and consolidations.”Intercompany transactions between Turner, Home Box Office and Warner Bros., including internal sales to HBO Max that began in the fourth quarter of 2019, are included in “Eliminations and Other.”

For the year ended December 31, 2020
Service Revenues
WirelessAdvanced
Data
Legacy Voice & DataSubscriptionContentAdvertisingOtherEquipmentTotal
Communications
Mobility$55,251 $0 $0 $0 $0 $291 $0 $17,022 $72,564 
Video0 0 0 26,747 0 1,718 0 145 28,610 
Broadband0 8,534 2,213 0 0 0 1,564 7 12,318 
Business Wireline0 13,330 8,183 0 0 0 3,075 770 25,358 
WarnerMedia
Turner0 0 0 7,613 759 3,941 255 0 12,568 
Home Box Office0 0 0 6,090 692 0 26 0 6,808 
Warner Bros.0 0 0 50 11,632 6 466 0 12,154 
Eliminations and Other1
0 0 0 12 (3,264)2,178 (14)0 (1,088)
Latin America
Vrio0 0 0 3,154 0 0 0 0 3,154 
Mexico1,656 0 0 0 0 0 0 906 2,562 
Corporate and Other528 46 554 0 0 0 661 143 1,932 
Eliminations and
   consolidations2
0 0 0 (3,110)0 (1,718)(352)0 (5,180)
Total Operating Revenues$57,435 $21,910 $10,950 $40,556 $9,819 $6,416 $5,681 $18,993 $171,760 
1Eliminations and other of $3,264 include Warner Bros. content sales of approximately $2,250 with HBO Max, $600 with HBO linear and $300 with Turner.