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PEAK Healthpeak Properties

Filed: 15 Nov 21, 8:40am
The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement and its accompanying prospectus is not complete and may be changed. This preliminary prospectus supplement and its accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and are not an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 FILED PURSUANT TO RULE 424(b)(5)
 REGISTRATION NO. 333-256055
Subject to completion, dated November 15, 2021
Preliminary Prospectus Supplement
(To prospectus dated May 13, 2021)
$         
    % Senior Notes due 2028
Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
We are offering $      aggregate principal amount of    % Senior Notes due 2028 (the “notes”). The notes will not be entitled to the benefits of any sinking fund.
Unless redeemed prior to maturity, the notes will mature on           , 2028. The notes will bear interest at the rate of    % per year. Interest on the notes will accrue from           , 2021 and will be payable semi-annually in arrears on           and           of each year, beginning on           , 2022.
We may redeem the notes, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time at our option at the applicable redemption prices described in this prospectus supplement.
As described under “Use of Proceeds,” we intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects within 12 months following the issuance of the notes.
The notes are a new issue of securities for which there is no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for a listing of the notes on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system.
The notes will be our senior unsecured obligations and will be equal in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior indebtedness. The notes will be effectively junior to all our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the collateral securing that indebtedness and will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries. The notes will be issued only in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.
Investing in the notes involves risks. See “Risk Factors” on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and page 2 of the accompanying prospectus and the risk factors described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as well as the risk factors relating to our business contained in documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Per NoteTotal
Public Offering Price(1)
   %$     
Underwriting Discount%$
Proceeds to Healthpeak (before expenses)(1)
%$
(1)
Plus accrued interest, if any, from           , 2021, if settlement occurs after that date.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined that this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is accurate or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
We expect that delivery of the notes will be made to investors through the book-entry delivery system of The Depository Trust Company for the accounts of its participants, including Clearstream Banking, S.A. and Euroclear Bank SA/NV, as operator for the Euroclear System, against payment in New York, New York on or about           , 2021.
Joint Book-Running Managers
Wells Fargo SecuritiesJ.P. MorganPNC Capital Markets LLCCredit SuisseGoldman Sachs & Co. LLC
The date of this prospectus supplement is                 , 2021.

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prospectus Supplement
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Prospectus
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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus relating to this offering prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. Neither we nor the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. This document may only be used where it is legal to sell these securities. You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus relating to this offering prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you is accurate as of any date other than the date of each such document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). This prospectus supplement adds to, updates and changes information contained in the accompanying prospectus. If the description of this offering varies between this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference important business and financial information about us that is not included in or delivered with this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any free writing prospectus relating to this offering prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein that are described in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.” under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information and Incorporation by Reference” If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated herein or therein by reference, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that any information that Healthpeak (as defined below) files with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement and that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will update and supersede the information included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
In this prospectus supplement, unless otherwise indicated herein or the context otherwise indicates, the terms “Healthpeak,” “we,” “us,” “our” and the “Company” refer to Healthpeak Properties, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries, except in the “Description of the Notes,” “Summary — The Offering” or where it is clear from the context that the terms mean only Healthpeak Properties, Inc. Unless otherwise stated, currency amounts in this prospectus supplement are stated in United States (“U.S.”) dollars.
INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA
In this prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated and deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, we refer to information and statistics regarding, among other things, the industry, markets, submarkets and sectors in which we operate, including, among other things, estimated completion dates and costs of properties under development, and the number of square feet that could be developed. We obtained this information and these statistics from various third-party sources and our own internal estimates. We believe that these sources and estimates are reliable, but this information and these statistics (whether obtained from third-party sources or based on our internal estimates) are subject to assumptions, estimates and other uncertainties, and we have not independently verified them and cannot guarantee their accuracy or completeness.
 
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CAUTIONARY LANGUAGE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Statements in this prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus that are not historical factual statements are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements regarding our and our officers’ intent, belief or expectation as identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “project,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “target,” “forecast,” “plan,” “potential,” “estimate,” “could,” “would,” “should” and other comparable and derivative terms or the negatives thereof. Forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations and views about future events and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could significantly affect our future financial condition and results of operations. Forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and analysis made in light of our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments as well as other factors that we believe are appropriate under the circumstances. While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith belief and assumptions we believe to be reasonable based upon current information, we can give no assurance that our expectations or forecasts will be attained. Further, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of any such forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. Except as required by law, we do not undertake, and hereby disclaim, any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they are made. As more fully set forth under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and under Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our future filings with the SEC, risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations contained in the forward-looking statements include, among other things:

the COVID-19 pandemic and health and safety measures intended to reduce its spread, the availability, effectiveness and public usage and acceptance of vaccines, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume within the markets in which we operate;

operational risks associated with third party management contracts, including the additional regulation and liabilities of certain of our lease structures;

the ability of our existing and future tenants, operators and borrowers to conduct their respective businesses in a manner sufficient to maintain or increase their revenues and manage their expenses in order to generate sufficient income to make rent and loan payments to us and our ability to recover investments made, if applicable, in their operations;

increased competition, operating costs and market changes affecting our tenants, operators and borrowers;

the financial condition of our tenants, operators and borrowers, including potential bankruptcies and downturns in their businesses, and their legal and regulatory proceedings;

our concentration of investments in the healthcare property sector, which makes us more vulnerable to a downturn in a specific sector than if we invested in multiple industries;

our ability to identify replacement tenants and operators and the potential renovation costs and regulatory approvals associated therewith;

our property development and redevelopment activity risks, including costs above original estimates, project delays and lower occupancy rates and rents than expected;

changes within the life science industry;

high levels of regulation, funding requirements, expense and uncertainty faced by our life science tenants;

the ability of the hospitals on whose campuses our medical office buildings are located and their affiliated healthcare systems to remain competitive or financially viable;

our ability to maintain or expand our hospital and health system client relationships;
 
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economic and other conditions that negatively affect geographic areas from which we recognize a greater percentage of our revenue;

uninsured or underinsured losses, which could result in significant losses and/or performance declines by us or our tenants and operators;

our investments in joint ventures and unconsolidated entities, including our lack of sole decision making authority and our reliance on our partners’ financial condition and continued cooperation;

our use of contingent rent provisions and/or rent escalators based on the Consumer Price Index;

competition for suitable healthcare properties to grow our investment portfolio;

our ability to make material acquisitions and successfully integrate them;

the potential impact on us and our tenants, operators and borrowers from litigation matters, including rising liability and insurance costs;

our ability to foreclose on collateral securing our real estate-related loans;

laws or regulations prohibiting eviction of our tenants;

the failure of our tenants and operators to comply with federal, state and local laws and regulations, including resident health and safety requirements, as well as licensure, certification and inspection requirements;

required regulatory approvals to transfer our healthcare properties;

compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and fire, safety and other health regulations;

the requirements of, or changes to, governmental reimbursement programs such as Medicare or Medicaid;

legislation to address federal government operations and administration decisions affecting the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services;

our participation in the CARES Act Provider Relief Program and other COVID-19 related stimulus and relief programs;

volatility or uncertainty in the capital markets, the availability and cost of capital as impacted by interest rates, changes in our credit ratings, and the value of our common stock, and other conditions that may adversely impact our ability to fund our obligations or consummate transactions, or reduce the earnings from potential transactions;

cash available for distribution to stockholders and our ability to make dividend distributions at expected levels;

our ability to manage our indebtedness level and covenants in and changes to the terms of such indebtedness;

changes in global, national and local economic and other conditions;

provisions of Maryland law and our charter that could prevent a transaction that may otherwise be in the interest of our stockholders;

environmental compliance costs and liabilities associated with our real-estate investments;

our ability to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”);

changes to U.S. federal income tax laws, and potential deferred and contingent tax liabilities from corporate acquisitions;

calculating non-REIT tax earnings and profits distributions;

ownership limits in our charter that restrict ownership in our stock;

our reliance on information technology systems and the potential impact of system failures, disruptions or breaches;

unfavorable litigation resolution or disputes; and

the loss or limited availability of our key personnel.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. Our SEC filings are available to the public at our website at www.healthpeak.com. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus supplement. The SEC also maintains a website, www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information we file with the SEC into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document that Healthpeak has filed separately with the SEC.
The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Information that Healthpeak files with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement and that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will update and supersede the information included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus the following documents (other than any portions of any such documents deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with the applicable SEC rules):


our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021 and September 30, 2021;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 21, 2021, January 28, 2021, April 29, 2021, May 4, 2021 (only with respect to Item 8.01), May 13, 2021, May 18, 2021, July 2, 2021, July 12, 2021 and September 20, 2021 (only with respect to Item 1.01 and Item 2.03);


any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until we sell all of the notes offered hereby or this offering is otherwise terminated.
We will provide copies, without charge, of any documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, excluding exhibits unless specifically incorporated by reference, to any persons to whom a prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, including any beneficial owner, who requests them in writing or by telephone from:
Legal Department
Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
5050 South Syracuse Street, Suite 800
Denver, Colorado 80237
(720) 428-5050
legaldept@healthpeak.com
 
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SUMMARY
The information included below is only a summary and may not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should carefully read both this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus relating to this offering prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information and Incorporation by Reference.”
Our Company
Healthpeak Properties, Inc., a Standard & Poor’s 500 company, is a Maryland corporation that is organized to qualify as a REIT that, together with its consolidated entities, invests primarily in real estate serving the healthcare industry in the United States. We acquire, develop, lease, own and manage healthcare real estate. Our diverse portfolio is comprised of investments in the following reportable healthcare segments: (i) life science; (ii) medical office; and (iii) continuing care retirement community (CCRC) real estate.
Our principal executive offices are located at 5050 South Syracuse Street, Suite 800, Denver, Colorado 80237, and our telephone number is (720) 428-5050.
 
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The Offering
Issuer
Healthpeak Properties, Inc., a Maryland corporation.
Securities Offered
$        aggregate principal amount of    % Senior Notes due 2028 (the “notes”).
Maturity
          , 2028.
Interest Rate
          % per annum, accruing from          , 2021.
Interest Payment Dates
Payable semi-annually in arrears on          and          of each year, commencing          , 2022.
Optional Redemption
At any time or from time to time, we may redeem at our option all or part of the notes at the applicable redemption prices described in “Description of the Notes — Optional Redemption.”
Covenants
The indenture governing the notes contains covenants that limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness, including based upon our total indebtedness as a percentage of our total assets, our secured indebtedness as a percentage of our total assets, and our trailing four-quarter Interest Expense (as defined herein) coverage ratio compared to a minimum ratio. We are also required to maintain Total Unencumbered Assets (as defined herein) of at least 150% of our Unsecured Debt (as defined herein).
These covenants also restrict our ability to merge, consolidate or transfer all or substantially all of our assets.
These covenants are subject to important exceptions and qualifications, which exceptions and qualifications are described in “Description of the Notes — Certain Covenants.”
Priority
The notes will be our senior unsecured obligations and will be equal in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior indebtedness. The notes will be effectively junior to all of our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the collateral securing that indebtedness and will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.
Use of Proceeds
We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $      , after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects (as defined in “Use of Proceeds” herein) within 12 months following the issuance of the notes. Pending such allocation, we intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the repayment of debt, including outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Facility (as defined herein) and/or any outstanding commercial paper. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Conflicts of Interest
As described above under “— Use of Proceeds,” we intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects within 12 months following the issuance of the notes. Pending such allocation, we intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the repayment of debt, including outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Facility and/or any outstanding
 
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commercial paper. Many of the underwriters or their respective affiliates are lenders and/or agents under our Revolving Facility, one or more of the underwriters act as dealers under our commercial paper program, and the underwriters and/or their respective affiliates may from time to time hold our other debt securities (including our commercial paper) or other indebtedness. To the extent that we use any such net proceeds to repay any of our other outstanding indebtedness (including our outstanding commercial paper or outstanding borrowings under our Revolving Facility) held by any of the underwriters or their affiliates, they will receive proceeds from this offering through the repayment of that indebtedness. The amount received by any underwriter and/or affiliate of such underwriter, as applicable, from the repayment of any indebtedness owed to such underwriter and/or affiliate of such underwriter may exceed 5% of the net proceeds of this offering (not including the underwriters’ discount and commissions). However, because REITs are not subject to Rule 5121 of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. regarding conflicts of interest, the appointment of a “qualified independent underwriter” is not required in connection with this offering. For additional information, see “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest) — Conflicts of Interest” and “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest) — Other Relationships.”
Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the information set forth in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and page 2 of the accompanying prospectus, and the “Risk Factors” section in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as well as the risk factors relating to our business and the other information included in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus relating to this offering prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you, before deciding whether to invest in the notes.
No Listing of the Notes
The notes are a new issue of securities for which there is currently no established trading market. The underwriters have advised us that they currently intend to make a market in the notes. However, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue their market-making activities at any time without notice. As a result, a liquid market for the notes may not be available if you wish to sell your notes. We do not intend to apply to list the notes on any securities exchange or any automated dealer quotation system.
No Sinking Fund
There will not be any sinking fund for the notes.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Before purchasing the notes offered hereby, you should carefully consider the risk factors below and the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 and our subsequent filings under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, and in the accompanying prospectus. Each of the risks described below and in these documents could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and could result in a decrease in the value of the notes and a partial or complete loss of your investment therein.
Risks Related to the Notes
Although the notes offered hereby are referred to as “senior notes,” they will be effectively junior to our existing and future secured indebtedness and structurally subordinated to all liabilities of our subsidiaries.
The notes offered hereby are unsecured and therefore will be effectively junior to our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. In the event of a bankruptcy or similar proceeding involving us, our assets that serve as collateral will be available to satisfy the obligations under any secured indebtedness before those assets can be applied to make any payments on the notes.
In addition, most of our assets are held through direct or indirect subsidiaries, and our subsidiaries and general and limited partnerships will not guarantee the notes. Accordingly, the notes will be structurally subordinated to all liabilities of our subsidiaries, including any guarantees of new credit facilities that may be issued by our subsidiaries. In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization of any of our subsidiaries or partnerships, creditors of our subsidiaries and partnerships will generally be entitled to payment of their claims from the assets of those subsidiaries and partnerships before any assets are made available for distribution to us, except to the extent we may also have a claim as a creditor.
An active trading market may not develop for the notes.
Prior to this offering, there was no existing trading market for the notes. Although the underwriters have informed us that they currently intend to make a market in the notes after we complete this offering, they have no obligation to do so and may discontinue making a market at any time without notice. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or any automated dealer quotation system.
The liquidity of any market for the notes will depend on a number of factors, including:

the number of holders of the notes;

our performance;

the market for similar securities;

the interest of securities dealers in making a market in the notes; and

prevailing interest rates.
An active market for the notes may not develop or, if developed, may not continue.
Our business operations may not generate the cash needed to service our indebtedness.
Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness, including the notes offered hereby, and to fund planned capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our business may fail to generate sufficient cash flow from operations, and future borrowings may be unavailable to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness, including the notes offered hereby, or to fund our other liquidity needs.
We are not contractually committed to allocate the net proceeds from this offering to Eligible Green Projects, and our failure to do so may adversely impact the value of the notes.
The market price of the notes may be impacted by any failure by us to allocate the net proceeds from this offering to Eligible Green Projects or to meet or continue to meet the investment requirements of certain
 
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environmentally focused investors with respect to the notes. Although we intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects as described in “Use of Proceeds” within 12 months following the issuance of the notes it will not be an event of default under the indenture if we fail to do so.
There can be no assurance that the allocation of proceeds from this offering to finance Eligible Green Projects will be suitable for the investment criteria of an investor.
We intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects within 12 months following the issuance of the notes. We will retain broad discretion over the use or allocation of the net proceeds from this offering and you may not agree with the ultimate use or allocation of these net proceeds. Prospective investors should consider the information set out in this prospectus supplement regarding such use of proceeds and must determine for themselves the relevance of such information for the purpose of any investment in the notes together with any other investigation such investor deems necessary. The examples of projects in “Use of Proceeds” are for illustrative purposes only and no assurance can be provided that disbursements for projects with these specific characteristics will be made by us with the proceeds of the notes. There can be no assurance that the allocation of such proceeds for any Eligible Green Projects will satisfy, whether in whole or in part, any present or future investor expectations or requirements, taxonomies or standards or other investment criteria or guidelines with which such investor or its investments are required to comply, whether by any present or future applicable law or regulations or by its own bylaws or other governing rules or investment portfolio mandates, ratings criteria, taxonomies or standards or other independent expectations, in particular with regard to any direct or indirect environmental, sustainability or social impact of any Eligible Green Projects.
A second party opinion from an outside consultant regarding our green financing framework is publicly available on our website. No assurance or representation is given as to the suitability or reliability for any purpose whatsoever of such opinion or any other opinion or certification of any third party (whether or not solicited by us) that will be made available in connection with the issuance of the notes, in particular as it regards the ability of an Eligible Green Project to fulfill any environmental, social, sustainability or other criteria. No such opinion or certification is, nor should it be deemed to be, a recommendation by us, any underwriter or any other person to buy, sell or hold any notes. Any such opinion or certification is only current as of the date it was initially issued. Prospective investors must determine for themselves the relevance of any such opinion or certification and/or the information contained therein and/or the provider of such opinion or certification for the purpose of any investment in the notes. Currently, to our knowledge, the providers of such opinions and certifications are not subject to any specific regulatory or other regime or oversight. For the avoidance of doubt, no such opinion or certification is, nor shall it be deemed to be, incorporated into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
Although it is our intention to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects in the manner described under “Use of Proceeds” within 12 months following the issuance of the notes, there can be no assurance that such allocation of proceeds will be capable of being implemented in such manner or in accordance with any timing schedule, and accordingly there can be no assurance that such amounts will be totally or partially disbursed for such Eligible Green Projects. There also cannot be any assurance that such Eligible Green Projects will be completed within any specified time period or at all, or that such Eligible Green Projects will achieve the results or outcome (whether or not related to the environment) originally expected or anticipated by us.
Any such failure to apply the net proceeds from this offering to any Eligible Green Projects, any failure of Eligible Green Projects to achieve the results or outcome originally expected or anticipated by us, or the withdrawal of any opinion or certification of a third party or any attestation that we are not complying in whole or in part with any matters subject to such opinion or certification may have a material adverse effect on the value of the notes and/or result in adverse consequences for certain investors with portfolio mandates to invest in securities to be used for a particular purpose; however, neither any such failure, nor any failure to comply with our commitment to certain reporting obligations as described under “Use of Proceeds,” will constitute a default or an event of default under the notes.
 
S-5

 
USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $      , after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects within 12 months following the issuance of the notes. Pending such allocation, we intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the repayment of debt, including outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Facility and/or any outstanding commercial paper.
Definition of “Eligible Green Projects”
“Eligible Green Projects” means any of the following:
Green Buildings:   Investments related to the construction, maintenance or refurbishment of buildings that have or are expected to receive the following green building certifications: LEED Gold and above, or EPA ENERGY STAR 85 and above.
Energy Efficiency:   Investments targeting energy efficiency savings of at least 30%, including lighting retrofits; efficient HVAC systems; installation, upgrade and expansion of Building Automation Systems (BAS) and Energy Management Systems (EMS); roof replacement and coating; and window tinting.
Renewable Energy:   Investments in on-site renewable energy projects, including wind and solar, and battery storage systems.
Waste Management:   Investments and expenditures related to recycling programs, including equipment takeback programs and initiatives.
Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management:   Investments targeting water efficiency savings of at least 30%, including efficient fixtures (toilet, faucet, showerheads) and drought resistant landscaping, including xeriscape and irrigation projects.
Clean Transportation:   Investments in electric vehicle (EV) charging stations.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (“LEED”) is a voluntary, third party building certification process developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (“USGBC”), a non-profit organization. The USGBC developed the LEED certification process to (i) evaluate the environmental performance from a whole building perspective over a building’s life cycle, (ii) provide a definitive standard for what constitutes a “green building,” ​(iii) enhance environmental awareness among architects and building contractors, and (iv) encourage the design and construction of energy efficient, water-conserving buildings that use sustainable or green resources and materials (please see www.usgbc.org for more information; the contents of this website are not incorporated by reference herein or otherwise a part of this prospectus supplement).
Process for Project Evaluation and Selection
Eligible Green Projects financed and/or refinanced with the net proceeds from this offering will be evaluated and selected by members of our Green Finance Committee based on the criteria set out above. The Green Finance Committee consists of members from our legal, capital asset management, and treasury and capital markets functions.
Management of Proceeds
We intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to Eligible Green Projects selected in accordance with the criteria and evaluation and selection process presented above within 12 months following the issuance of the notes. These projects can include developments, acquisitions, and refurbishments, and may include refinancing of existing Eligible Green Projects.
To ensure an amount equal to the net proceeds from the sale of the notes is allocated in accordance with the criteria set out above, our Green Finance Committee will establish a Green Financing Register to
 
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record investments in Eligible Green Projects funded, acquired, refurbished or developed during the 24 month period prior to the issuance of the notes and ending on the maturity date of the notes.
We intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects as described above and generally within 12 months following the issuance of the notes. Pending allocation, any portion of the net proceeds will be invested in accordance with our cash investment policy. Net proceeds allocated to previously incurred costs associated with Eligible Green Projects will be available for repayment of debt or other uses.
In the case of divestment of an Eligible Green Project, we intend to reallocate the funds to one or more Eligible Green Projects.
Reporting
An allocation report will be publicly available on our website to investors and lenders within approximately one year from the date of the issuance of the notes, and thereafter once a year until full allocation. Allocation reports will disclose the total amount of proceeds allocated toward Eligible Green Projects. This information will be externally reviewed and will be publicly available on our website. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus supplement.
Where feasible, on an annual basis, until full allocation, we plan to report on the Key Performance Indicators (“KPIs”) of the Eligible Green Projects. Definition, calculation and reporting of KPIs will be at our sole discretion.
Description of Revolving Facility and Commercial Paper
As of November 12, 2021, we had no balance outstanding under our $3.0 billion unsecured revolving line of credit facility (the “Revolving Facility”). Borrowings under the Revolving Facility accrue interest at the base rate or LIBOR plus a margin that depends on credit ratings of our senior unsecured long-term debt, and the Revolving Facility is scheduled to mature on January 20, 2026.
As of November 12, 2021, we had approximately $1.24 billion of commercial paper outstanding with a weighted average interest rate of 0.25% and a weighted average days to maturity of 27 days.
As described above, we intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects, and pending such allocation, we intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the repayment of debt, including outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Facility and/or any outstanding commercial paper. Many of the underwriters or their respective affiliates are lenders and/or agents under our Revolving Facility, one or more of the underwriters act as dealers under our commercial paper program, and the underwriters and/or their respective affiliates may from time to time hold our other debt securities (including our commercial paper) or other indebtedness. To the extent that we use any such net proceeds to repay any of our other outstanding indebtedness (including our outstanding commercial paper or outstanding borrowings under our Revolving Facility) held by any of the underwriters or their affiliates, they will receive proceeds from this offering through the repayment of that indebtedness. The amount received by any underwriter and/or affiliate of such underwriter, as applicable, from the repayment of any indebtedness owed to such underwriter and/or affiliate of such underwriter may exceed 5% of the net proceeds of this offering (not including the underwriters’ discount and commissions). However, because REITs are not subject to Rule 5121 of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. regarding conflicts of interest, the appointment of a “qualified independent underwriter” is not required in connection with this offering. For additional information, see “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest) — Conflicts of Interest” and “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest) — Other Relationships.”
 
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DESCRIPTION OF THE NOTES
You should read the following information concerning the notes in conjunction with the statements under “Description of Debt Securities” in the accompanying prospectus, which the following information supplements and, if there are any inconsistencies, supersedes. The following description is not complete. The notes will be issued under an indenture, dated as of November 19, 2012, related to our debt securities, between us and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as trustee (the “Base Indenture”), as supplemented by the Twelfth Supplemental Indenture to be dated as of           , 2021 (the “Supplemental Indenture”). In this prospectus supplement, we refer to the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the Supplemental Indenture, as the “Indenture.” The Base Indenture was filed as Exhibit 4.1 to our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on November 19, 2012. This “Description of the Notes” is intended to be a useful overview of the material provisions of the notes and the Indenture. Since this “Description of the Notes” is only a summary, you should refer to the Indenture for a complete description of the obligations of the Company and your rights as holders of the notes. As used in this section, references to “Healthpeak,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to Healthpeak Properties, Inc. only and do not include any current or future subsidiary of, or other entity controlled by, Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
General
The notes will constitute a single series of debt securities under the Indenture, will be initially limited to $      aggregate principal amount and will mature on           , 2028. The notes will constitute part of the senior unsecured debt of Healthpeak and will be equal in right of payment to any other existing or future senior obligations of Healthpeak. The notes have covenants and events of default that vary from certain existing senior unsecured notes of Healthpeak. The Indenture does not limit the aggregate principal amount of debt securities that Healthpeak may issue under the Indenture. The notes will not be subject to any sinking fund payments. The notes will be issued only in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.
Interest Payments and Maturity
The entire principal amount of the notes will mature and become due and payable, together with any accrued and unpaid interest, on           , 2028. The notes will bear interest at the annual rate set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, beginning on           , 2021. The interest on the notes will be paid semi-annually in arrears on           and           of each year, beginning on         , 2022, to the persons in whose names the notes are registered at the close of business on the date that is 15 calendar days prior to such date, whether or not such date is a business day. We will compute the amount of interest payable on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.
If any interest payment date, redemption date or maturity date of the notes falls on a day that is not a business day, the required payment of principal, premium, if any, and/or interest may be made on the next succeeding business day as if made on the date such payment was due, and no interest will accrue on such payment for the period from and after such interest payment date, redemption date or maturity date, as the case may be, to the date of such payment on the next succeeding business day. The Company will maintain an office or agency in The City of New York for the payment and the registration of transfers of the notes. The corporate trust office of the trustee in The City of New York will initially be the Company’s agency for such purposes in The City of New York.
Certain Covenants
Limitations on incurrence of debt
Healthpeak shall not, and shall not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, Incur any Debt if, immediately after giving effect to the Incurrence of such additional Debt and any other Debt Incurred since the end of the Latest Completed Quarter and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, the aggregate principal amount of all outstanding Debt would exceed 60% of the sum of (without duplication) (i) Total Assets as of the end of the Latest Completed Quarter and (ii) the purchase price of any Real Estate Assets or mortgages receivable acquired or to be acquired in exchange for proceeds of any securities offering, and the amount
 
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of any securities offering proceeds received (to the extent such proceeds were not used to acquire Real Estate Assets or mortgages receivable or to reduce Debt), since the end of the Latest Completed Quarter.
Healthpeak shall not, and shall not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, Incur any Secured Debt if, immediately after giving effect to the Incurrence of such additional Secured Debt and any other Secured Debt Incurred since the end of the Latest Completed Quarter and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, the aggregate principal amount of all outstanding Secured Debt would exceed 40% of the sum of (without duplication) (i) Total Assets as of the end of the Latest Completed Quarter and (ii) the purchase price of any Real Estate Assets or mortgages receivable acquired or to be acquired in exchange for proceeds of any securities offering, and the amount of any securities offering proceeds received (to the extent such proceeds were not used to acquire Real Estate Assets or mortgages receivable or to reduce Debt), since the end of the Latest Completed Quarter.
Healthpeak shall not, and shall not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, Incur any Debt if, immediately after giving effect to the Incurrence of such additional Debt and any other Debt Incurred since the end of the Latest Completed Quarter and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, the ratio of Consolidated EBITDA to Interest Expense for the four consecutive fiscal quarters ending with the Latest Completed Quarter would be less than 1.50 to 1.00 on a pro forma basis and calculated on the assumption (without duplication) that:
(1)
the additional Debt and any other Debt Incurred by Healthpeak or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period to the date of determination, which was outstanding at the date of determination, had been Incurred at the beginning of that period and continued to be outstanding throughout that period, and the application of the net proceeds of such Debt, including to refinance other Debt, had occurred at the beginning of such period; provided that in determining the amount of Debt so Incurred, the amount of Debt under any revolving credit facility shall be computed based upon the average daily balance of such Debt during such period;
(2)
the repayment or retirement of any other Debt repaid or retired by Healthpeak or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period to the date of determination had occurred at the beginning of that period; provided that in determining the amount of Debt so repaid or retired, the amount of Debt under any revolving credit facility shall be computed based upon the average daily balance of such Debt during such period; and
(3)
in the case of any acquisition or disposition of any asset or group of assets (including, without limitation, by merger, or stock or asset purchase or sale) or the placement of any assets in service or removal of any assets from service by Healthpeak or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period to the date of determination, the acquisition, disposition, placement in service or removal from service and any related repayment or refinancing of Debt had occurred as of the first day of such period, with the appropriate adjustments to Consolidated EBITDA and Interest Expense with respect to the acquisition, disposition, placement in service or removal from service being included in that pro forma calculation.
Maintenance of total unencumbered assets
Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries shall maintain at all times Total Unencumbered Assets of not less than 150% of the aggregate principal amount of all outstanding Unsecured Debt.
Certain Definitions
“Consolidated EBITDA” means, for any period of time, the net income (loss) of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries, determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP for such period, before deductions for (without duplication):
(1)
Interest Expense;
(2)
taxes;
(3)
depreciation, amortization, and all other non-cash items, as determined reasonably and in good faith by Healthpeak, deducted in arriving at net income (loss);
 
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(4)
extraordinary items, including impairment charges;
(5)
non-recurring items or other unusual items, as determined reasonably and in good faith by Healthpeak (including, without limitation, all prepayment penalties and all costs or fees incurred in connection with any debt financing or amendment thereto, acquisition, disposition, recapitalization or similar transaction (regardless of whether such transaction is completed));
(6)
noncontrolling interests;
(7)
income or expense attributable to transactions involving derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting in accordance with GAAP; and
(8)
gains or losses on dispositions of depreciable real estate investments, property valuation losses and impairment charges.
For purposes of calculating Consolidated EBITDA, all amounts shall be as determined reasonably and in good faith by Healthpeak, and in accordance with GAAP except to the extent that GAAP is not applicable with respect to the determination of all non-cash and non-recurring items.
“Consolidated Financial Statements” means, with respect to any Person, collectively, the consolidated financial statements and notes to those financial statements, of that Person and its Subsidiaries prepared in accordance with GAAP.
“Debt” means, as of any date (without duplication), all indebtedness and liabilities for borrowed money, secured or unsecured, of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries, including mortgages and other notes payable (including any debt securities issued under the Indenture to the extent outstanding from time to time), but excluding any indebtedness, including mortgages and other notes payable, which is secured by cash, cash equivalents or marketable securities or defeased (it being understood that cash collateral shall be deemed to include cash deposited with a trustee with respect to third party indebtedness), Intercompany Debt and all liabilities associated with customary exceptions to non-recourse indebtedness, such as for fraud, misapplication of funds, environmental indemnities, voluntary bankruptcy, collusive involuntary bankruptcy and other similar exceptions. It is understood that Debt shall not include any redeemable equity interest in Healthpeak.
“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, consistently applied, as in effect from time to time.
“Incur” means, with respect to any Debt or other obligation of any Person, to create, assume, guarantee or otherwise become liable in respect of such Debt or other obligation, and “Incurrence” and “Incurred” have the meanings correlative to the foregoing.
“Intercompany Debt” means, as of any date, Debt to which the only parties are Healthpeak and any of its Subsidiaries as of such date; provided, however, that with respect to any such Debt of which Healthpeak is the borrower, such Debt is subordinate in right of payment to the notes.
“Interest Expense” means, for any period of time, the aggregate amount of interest recorded in accordance with GAAP for such period by Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries, but excluding (i) interest reserves funded from the proceeds of any loan, (ii) prepayment penalties, (iii) amortization of deferred financing costs, and (iv) non-cash swap ineffectiveness charges, in all cases as reflected in the applicable Consolidated Financial Statements.
“Latest Completed Quarter” means, as of any date, the then most recently ended fiscal quarter of Healthpeak for which Consolidated Financial Statements of Healthpeak have been completed, it being understood that at any time when Healthpeak is subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and in accordance therewith files annual and quarterly reports with the SEC, the term “Latest Completed Quarter” shall be deemed to refer to the fiscal quarter covered by Healthpeak’s most recently filed Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or, in the case of the last fiscal quarter of the year, Healthpeak’s Annual Report on Form 10-K.
“Lien” means (without duplication) any lien, mortgage, trust deed, deed of trust, deed to secure debt, pledge, security interest, assignment for collateral purposes, deposit arrangement, or other security agreement,
 
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excluding any right of setoff but including, without limitation, any conditional sale or other title retention agreement, any financing lease having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing, and any other like agreement granting or conveying a security interest; provided that, for purposes hereof, “Lien” shall not include any mortgage that has been defeased by Healthpeak or any of its Subsidiaries in accordance with the provisions thereof through the deposit of cash, cash equivalents or marketable securities (it being understood that cash collateral shall be deemed to include cash deposited with a trustee with respect to third party indebtedness).
“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization, limited liability company or government or other entity.
“Real Estate Assets” means, as of any date, the real estate assets of such Person and its Subsidiaries on such date, on a consolidated basis determined in accordance with GAAP.
“Secured Debt” means, as of any date, that portion of the aggregate principal amount of all outstanding Debt of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries as of that date that is secured by a Lien on properties or other assets of Healthpeak or any of its Subsidiaries.
“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, a corporation, partnership association, joint venture, trust, limited liability company or other business entity that is required to be consolidated with such Person in accordance with GAAP.
“Total Assets” means, as of any date, the consolidated total assets of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries, as such amount would appear on a consolidated balance sheet of Healthpeak prepared as of such date in accordance with GAAP. “Total Assets” shall include Undepreciated Real Estate Assets and all other assets but shall exclude goodwill, and shall include the proceeds of the Debt or Secured Debt to be Incurred.
“Total Unencumbered Assets” means, as of any date, Undepreciated Real Estate Assets of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries that are not subject to any Lien that secures Debt of any of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries plus, without duplication, loan loss reserves relating thereto, accumulated depreciation thereon, plus all other assets of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries as all such amounts would appear on a consolidated balance sheet of Healthpeak prepared as of such date in accordance with GAAP plus the proceeds of the Debt or Secured Debt to be Incurred; provided, however, that “Total Unencumbered Assets” does not include net real estate investments under unconsolidated joint ventures of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries and does not include goodwill.
“Undepreciated Real Estate Assets” means, as of any date, the amount of real estate assets valued at original cost plus capital improvements.
“Unsecured Debt” means, as of any date, that portion of the aggregate principal amount of all outstanding Debt of Healthpeak and its Subsidiaries as of that date that is not Secured Debt.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate or merge with or into or sell, convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our assets to another entity unless we are the continuing entity or the successor, transferee or lessee entity (if other than us) is organized and existing under the laws of the United States or any State thereof and expressly assumes our obligations under the Indenture and the debt securities under the Indenture and, immediately after giving effect to the transaction, we or the successor, transferee or lessee entity (if other than us) would not be in default in the performance of any covenant or condition of the Indenture or the debt securities and no event of default would have occurred and be continuing.
Optional Redemption
Prior to           , 2028 (the “Par Call Date”), we may at our option redeem the notes at any time or from time to time in part at our option at a redemption price equal to the greater of:
(1)
100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed on that redemption date, or
(2)
the sum of the present values of the remaining scheduled payments of principal and interest on
 
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the notes being redeemed (exclusive of interest accrued to, but excluding, the date of redemption) that would be due if such notes matured on the Par Call Date, discounted to the date of redemption on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) at the Treasury Rate plus           basis points, plus accrued and unpaid interest on the notes being redeemed to, but excluding, the date of redemption.
On and after the Par Call Date, we may at our option redeem the notes at any time in whole or from time to time in part at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but excluding, the date of redemption.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, installments of interest on the notes that are due and payable on any interest payment date falling on or prior to a redemption date for the notes shall be payable on such interest payment dates to the persons who were registered holders of such notes at the close of business on the applicable record dates.
For purposes of these redemption provisions, the following terms have the following meanings:
“Treasury Rate” means, the arithmetic mean (rounded to the nearest one-hundredth of one percent) of the yields displayed for each of the five most recent days published in the most recent Statistical Release under the caption “Treasury constant maturities” for the maturity (rounded to the nearest month) corresponding to the remaining life to maturity of the notes (assuming the notes mature on the Par Call Date) as of the date of redemption. If no maturity exactly corresponds to such remaining life to maturity, yields for the two published maturities most closely corresponding to such remaining life to maturity shall be calculated pursuant to the immediately preceding sentence and the Treasury Rate shall be interpolated or extrapolated from such yields on a straight-line basis, rounding in each of such relevant periods to the nearest month. The Treasury Rate will be calculated by us on the third business day preceding the date the applicable notice of redemption is given. For the purpose of calculating the Treasury Rate, the most recent Statistical Release published prior to the date of calculation of the Treasury Rate shall be used.
“Statistical Release” means that statistical release designated “H. 15” or any successor publication published daily by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and that establishes yields on actively traded U.S. Treasury securities adjusted to constant maturity, or, if such release (or any successor publication) is no longer published at the time of any calculation under the Indenture, then such other reasonably comparable index Healthpeak designates.
We may redeem the notes in increments of $1,000 so long as, in the case of any note redeemed in part, the unredeemed principal amount thereof is $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof. If we are redeeming less than all of the notes, the notes to be redeemed will be selected in accordance with the procedures of DTC. We will cause notices of redemption to be delivered at least 15 but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of notes to be redeemed at its registered address. If the notes have been issued in global form through the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), as depositary, notice may be instead provided by delivery to DTC for posting through its Legal Notice Service (“LENS”), or a successor system thereof.
If any of the notes are to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption that relates to the relevant note will state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed. We will issue a note in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original note in the name of the holder thereof upon cancellation of the original note. Any notes called for redemption will become due on the date fixed for redemption. On or after the redemption date, interest will cease to accrue on the notes or portions of them called for redemption. A notice of redemption may be conditional.
Provision of Financial Information
For as long as the notes are outstanding, we will file with the trustee, within 15 days after we are required to file the same with the SEC, copies of the annual and quarterly reports and the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that we may be required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if we are not required to file information, documents or reports with the SEC pursuant to either Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, we will file with
 
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the trustee and the SEC, in accordance with any other rules and regulations that may be prescribed from time to time by the SEC, such annual and quarterly reports and supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time by the SEC in such rules and regulations.
In addition to the previous paragraph, for as long as the notes are outstanding, if at any time we are not subject to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act and we are not providing annual and quarterly reports and supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports to the SEC and the trustee pursuant to the previous paragraph, we will, at our option, either (i) post on a publicly available website or (ii) post on IntraLinks or any comparable password protected online data system requiring user identification and a confidentiality acknowledgement (a “Confidential Datasite”), within 15 days of the filing date that would be applicable to a non-accelerated filer at that time pursuant to applicable SEC rules and regulations, the quarterly and audited annual financial statements and accompanying disclosure described in Item 303 of Regulation S-K (“management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations”) that would be required to be contained in annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, respectively, required to be filed with the SEC if we were subject to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. If we elect to furnish such reports via a Confidential Datasite, access to the Confidential Datasite will be provided promptly upon request to holders and beneficial owners of, and bona fide potential investors in, the notes as well as securities analysts and market makers and no such request for access to the Confidential Datasite will be unreasonably denied.
Any such report, information or document that we file with or furnish to the SEC through the SEC’s Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system (or any successor thereto) (“EDGAR”) will be deemed filed with the trustee for purposes of the two preceding paragraphs at the time of such filing or furnishing through EDGAR. Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the trustee is for informational purposes only, and the trustee’s receipt of such will not constitute actual or constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including our compliance with any of our covenants of the Indenture relating to the notes (as to which the trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an officer’s certificate).
Events of Default
The following are “events of default” under the Indenture with respect to the notes:

failure to pay principal of or any premium on the notes when due;

failure to pay any interest on the notes when due, continued for 30 days;

failure to perform any other of our covenants or agreements in the Indenture (other than a covenant or agreement included in the Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of debt securities other than the notes) or in the notes, continued for 60 days after written notice by the trustee to us or by the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes to us and the trustee as provided in the Indenture;

certain specified events under bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar laws with respect to us; and

if any event of default as defined in any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued, or by which there may be secured or evidenced, any debt (including obligations under capitalized leases) of the Company (including an event of default with respect to any outstanding securities of any series issued under the Indenture other than the notes) in an aggregate amount in excess of $50,000,000, whether such debt now exists or shall hereafter be created, shall happen and shall result in such debt becoming or being declared due and payable prior to the date on which it would otherwise become due and payable, and such acceleration shall not have been rescinded or annulled within ten days after there shall have been given, by registered or certified mail, to us by the trustee or to us and the trustee by holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes, a written notice specifying such event of default and requiring us to cause such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled.
 
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If an event of default with respect to the notes (other than an event of default relating to certain specified events under bankruptcy, insolvency or similar laws) occurs and is continuing, either the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes may declare the principal amount of all the outstanding notes to be due and payable immediately. If an event of default relating to certain specified events under bankruptcy, insolvency or similar laws occurs and is continuing, then the principal amount of all the outstanding notes shall automatically become due and payable immediately without any declaration or other action on the part of the trustee or the note holders. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to the notes has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul the acceleration.
The Indenture provides that within 90 days after the occurrence thereof, and if known to the trustee, the trustee will give the holders of the notes notice of each event that is or, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default with respect of the notes known to the trustee, unless such default has been cured or waived before the giving of such notice. Except in the case of default in the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any, on any notes, the trustee shall be protected in withholding the notice if the trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of the notice is in the interest of the holders of outstanding notes.
The Indenture provides that, subject to the duty of the trustee during the continuance of an event of default to act with the required standard of care, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the Indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of notes, unless the holders shall have offered to the trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee. Subject to such provisions for the indemnification of the trustee and subject to certain other limitations, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceedings for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the notes.
We are required to furnish to the trustee annually a statement as to our compliance with all conditions and covenants under the Indenture and as to any default in our performance.
Modification of the Indenture
The Indenture provides that we and the trustee may, without the consent of any holders of the notes affected by a modification or the holders of any other debt securities issued under the Indenture, enter into supplemental indentures for the purposes, among other things, of:

curing ambiguities or inconsistencies in the Indenture, correcting or supplementing any provision that may be defective or inconsistent with any other provision, and conforming the terms of the Indenture applicable to the debt securities of any series to the description of the terms of such debt securities in the applicable offering memorandum, prospectus or other offering document;

providing for the assumption by a successor corporation of our obligations under the Indenture;

providing for the appointment of a successor trustee under the Indenture;

adding guarantees with respect to the debt securities of any series;

securing the debt securities of any series;

adding to the covenants or events of default for the benefit of holders of all or any series of debt securities or surrendering any right or power conferred upon us;

deleting or modifying any events of default with respect to any series of debt securities, the form and terms of which are being established pursuant to such supplemental indenture;

making any change in any series of debt securities that does not adversely affect in any material respect the rights of holders of such debt securities;

changing or eliminating any provisions of the Indenture so long as there are no holders entitled to the benefit of the provisions;
 
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complying with amendments to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939; or

establishing the form and terms of the debt securities of any series as permitted by the Indenture and authorizing the issuance of additional debt securities of a series previously authorized.
The Indenture or the rights of the holders of the notes may be modified by us and the trustee with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the notes, but no modification may be made without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected by a modification that, among other things, would:

extend the maturity of any payment of principal of or any installment of interest on any such notes;

reduce the principal amount of any such note, or the interest thereon, or any premium payable on any such note;

change any place of payment where, or the currency in which, any such note or any premium or interest is denominated or payable;

change the ranking of the notes;

impair the right to sue for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any such note; or

reduce the percentage in principal amount of outstanding notes required to consent to any supplemental indenture, any waiver of compliance with provisions of the Indenture or specific defaults and their consequences provided for in the Indenture, reduce the requirements of the Indenture for quorum or voting or otherwise modify the sections in the Indenture relating to these consents and waivers.
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture
The Indenture, with respect to the notes (except for certain surviving obligations specified therein), will cease to be of further effect upon the satisfaction of certain conditions, including the payment in full of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the notes or the deposit with the trustee of an amount of cash sufficient for the payment or redemption of the notes, in accordance with the Indenture.
Discharge and Defeasance
At our option, either (a) we shall be discharged from our obligations with respect to the notes (subject to survival of certain limited provisions in the Indenture) or (b) we will cease to be under any obligation to comply with the covenants described above under “— Certain Covenants” with respect to the notes, in either case by depositing in trust with the trustee cash or U.S. government obligations (or combination thereof) sufficient to pay the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the notes to their maturity or redemption date in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and the notes.
Forms and Denominations
The notes will be issued as permanent global securities (“global notes”) in the name of a nominee of DTC and will be available only in book-entry form except in certain limited circumstances described below. See “— Book-Entry System.” The notes will be issued in fully registered form without coupons and are available for purchase only in denominations of $2,000 and in integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.
Book-Entry System
The following are summaries of certain rules and operating procedures of DTC that affect the payment of principal and interest and the transfers of interests in a global note. Upon issuance, the notes will be issued only in the form of one or more global notes that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC and registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for notes in definitive form under the limited circumstances described below, a global note may not be transferred except as a whole (1) by DTC to a nominee, (2) by a nominee of DTC to DTC or another nominee of DTC or (3) by DTC or any such nominee to a successor of DTC or a nominee of such successor.
 
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Ownership of beneficial interests in a global note will be limited to persons that have accounts with DTC for such global note (“participants”), including Clearstream Banking, S.A. or Euroclear Bank SA/NV, or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global note, DTC will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal amounts of the notes represented by such global note beneficially owned by such participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global note will be shown on, and the transfer of such ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to interests of participants) and records maintained by DTC’s direct and indirect participants (with respect to the interests of beneficial owners). The laws of some states may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such laws may limit or impair the ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in a global note.
So long as DTC or its nominee is the registered owner of a global note, DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the notes represented by such global note for all purposes under the Indenture. Except as set forth below, owners of beneficial interests in a global note will not be entitled to have notes represented by such global note registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of such notes in definitive form and will not be considered the registered owners or holders thereof under the Indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global note must rely on the procedures of DTC and, if such person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the Indenture. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global note desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture, DTC would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take such action, and such participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through such participants to give or to take such action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.
Principal and interest payments on interests represented by a global note will be made to DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of such global note. None of the trustee, us or any other agent of the trustee or agent of ours will have any responsibility or liability for any facet of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership of interests. We expect that DTC, upon receipt of any payment of principal or interest in respect of a global note, will immediately credit participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in such global note as shown on the records of DTC. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global note held through such participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practice, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such participants.
If DTC is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depository for the notes or if DTC shall cease to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and we fail to appoint a successor depository registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days, we will issue notes in definitive form in exchange for the respective global note. In addition, the owner of a beneficial interest in a global note will be entitled to receive notes in definitive certificated form in exchange for such beneficial interest if an event of default with respect to the notes has occurred and is continuing. Any notes issued in definitive form in exchange for a global note will be registered in such name or names, and will be issued in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, as DTC shall instruct the Trustee. It is expected that such instructions will be based upon directions received by DTC from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in a global note.
DTC is a limited purpose trust company organized under the Banking Law of the State of New York, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code and a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC was created to hold the securities of its participants and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions among its participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of which (and/or their representatives) own DTC. Access to the DTC
 
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book-entry system is also available to others, such as banks, brokers and dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a participant, either directly or indirectly.
Same-Day Settlement and Payment
Settlement for the notes will be made by the underwriters in immediately available funds. So long as the notes are evidenced by one or more global notes, all payments of principal and interest in respect of the notes will be made by us in immediately available funds.
So long as the notes are evidenced by one or more global notes, the notes will trade in DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System until the applicable maturity and secondary market trading activity in the notes will settle in immediately available funds. No assurance can be given as to the effect, if any, of settlement in immediately available funds on trading activity in the notes.
Further Issuances
We may, without the consent of the holders of the notes, create and issue additional notes ranking equally with the notes offered by this prospectus supplement in all respects, including having the same CUSIP number, so that such additional notes would be consolidated and form a single series with the notes offered hereby and would have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the notes offered hereby, provided, that the additional notes must be fungible with the previously issued notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes. No additional notes may be issued if an event of default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the notes.
Governing Law; Waiver of Trial by Jury
The Indenture and the notes will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The Indenture provides that we, the trustee and the holders of the notes waive, to the extent permitted by applicable law, the right to trial by jury in respect of any litigation in connection with the Indenture.
 
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UNDERWRITING (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
Under the terms and subject to the conditions contained in an underwriting agreement, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters named below for whom Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, PNC Capital Markets LLC, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC are acting as representatives and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the following principal amounts of the notes shown in the following table:
UnderwritersPrincipal Amount of Notes
Wells Fargo Securities, LLC$       
J.P. Morgan Securities LLC
PNC Capital Markets LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
          
          
          
Total$
The underwriting agreement provides that the underwriters are obligated to purchase all of the notes if any are purchased. The underwriting agreement also provides that if an underwriter defaults, the purchase commitments of non-defaulting underwriters may be increased or this offering of notes may be terminated.
The underwriters propose to offer the notes initially at the applicable public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. Any notes sold by the underwriters to securities dealers may be sold at discounts from the public offering price of up to    % of the principal amount of the notes. Any such securities dealers may resell any notes purchased from the underwriters to certain other brokers or dealers at discounts from the public offering price of up to    % of the principal amount of the notes. If all the notes are not sold at the public offering price, the underwriters may change the public offering price and the other selling terms of the notes. The offering of the notes by the underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the underwriters’ right to reject any order in whole or in part for the notes.
The following table shows the underwriting discount that we are to pay to the underwriters in connection with this offering.
Payable by Healthpeak
Per Note%
Total$       
We estimate that our total expenses for this offering, excluding the underwriting discount, will be approximately $      and will be payable by us.
The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. The underwriters have advised us that they currently intend to make a market for the notes. However, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue making a market for the notes at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to how liquid the trading market for the notes will be.
We have agreed to indemnify the several underwriters against liabilities under the Securities Act or contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make in that respect.
Price Stabilization and Short Positions
In connection with this offering, the underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the notes. Specifically, the underwriters may overallot in connection with this offering, creating a short position. In addition, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the notes in the open market to cover short positions or to stabilize the price of the notes. Any of these activities
 
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may stabilize or maintain the market price of the notes above independent market levels, but no representation is made that the underwriters will engage in any of those transactions or of the magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above, if commenced, may have on the market price of the notes. The underwriters will not be required to engage in these activities, and if they engage in these activities, they may end any of these activities at any time without notice.
Delayed Settlement
We expect that delivery of the notes will be made to investors on or about the seventh business day following the date of this prospectus supplement (such settlement being referred to as “T+7”). Under rules of the SEC, trades in the secondary market are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the notes before the second business day prior to the closing date specified on the date of this prospectus supplement will be required, by virtue of the fact that the notes initially settle in T+7, to specify an alternate settlement arrangement at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the notes who wish to trade such notes before the second business day prior to the closing date specified on the date of this prospectus supplement should consult their advisors.
Conflicts of Interest
As described above under “Use of Proceeds,” we intend to fully allocate an amount equal to the net proceeds from this offering to finance or refinance, in whole or in part, one or more Eligible Green Projects and, pending such allocation, we intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the repayment of debt, including outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Facility and/or any outstanding commercial paper. Many of the underwriters or their respective affiliates are lenders and/or agents under our Revolving Facility, one or more of the underwriters act as dealers under our commercial paper program, and the underwriters and/or their respective affiliates may from time to time hold our other debt securities (including our commercial paper) or other indebtedness. To the extent that we use any such net proceeds to repay any of our other outstanding indebtedness (including our outstanding commercial paper or outstanding borrowings under our Revolving Facility) held by any of the underwriters or their affiliates, they will receive proceeds from this offering through the repayment of that indebtedness. The amount received by any underwriter and/or affiliate of such underwriter, as applicable, from the repayment of any indebtedness owed to such underwriter and/or affiliate of such underwriter may exceed 5% of the net proceeds of this offering (not including the underwriters’ discount and commissions). However, because REITs are not subject to Rule 5121 of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. regarding conflicts of interest, the appointment of a “qualified independent underwriter” is not required in connection with this offering. For additional information, see “Use of Proceeds” and “— Other Relationships.”
Other Relationships
The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include sales and trading, commercial and investment banking, advisory, corporate trust, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, market making, brokerage and other financial and non-financial activities and services. Some or all of the underwriters and/or their affiliates have acted and/or are acting as lenders to, and/or have from time to time performed and/or are performing certain investment banking, dealer manager, advisory, general financing, trustee and commercial banking and other commercial transactions and services for, us and/or our affiliates for which they have received and in the future may receive customary fees and expenses. The underwriters and their affiliates may, from time to time, engage in other transactions with or perform other services for us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of their business for which they receive customary fees and expenses.
In addition, in the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours. Certain of the underwriters or their affiliates that may have lending relationships with us or any of our subsidiaries may also choose to hedge their credit exposure to us or any
 
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such subsidiary, as the case may be, consistent with their customary risk management policies. Typically those underwriters and their affiliates would hedge such exposure by entering into transactions, which may consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities or any such subsidiary, as the case may be, including potentially the notes offered hereby. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the notes offered hereby. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of securities or financial instruments of ours and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.
Selling Restrictions
Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area
None of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus is a prospectus for the purposes of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 (the “Prospectus Regulation”). This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus have been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in any Member State of the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) will only be made to a legal entity which is a qualified investor under the Prospectus Regulation (“EEA Qualified Investors”). Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in that Member State of notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus may only do so with respect to EEA Qualified Investors. Neither Healthpeak Properties, Inc. nor the underwriters have authorized, nor do they authorize, the making of any offer of notes other than to EEA Qualified Investors.
PROHIBITION OF SALES TO EEA RETAIL INVESTORS — The notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the EEA. For these purposes: (a) a retail investor means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU, as amended (“MiFID II”); or (ii) a customer within the meaning of Directive (EU) 2016/97, as amended (the “Insurance Distribution Directive”), where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or (iii) not a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Regulation; and (b) the expression “offer” includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the notes. Consequently no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014, as amended (the “PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom
The communication of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and any other document or materials relating to the issue of the notes offered hereby is not being made, and such documents and/or materials have not been approved, by an authorized person for the purposes of section 21 of the United Kingdom’s Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, as amended (the “FSMA”). Accordingly, such documents and/or materials are not being distributed to, and must not be passed on to, the general public in the United Kingdom. The communication of such documents and/or materials as a financial promotion is only being made to those persons in the United Kingdom who have professional experience in matters relating to investments and who fall within the definition of investment professionals (as defined in Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Financial Promotion Order”)), or who fall within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Financial Promotion Order, or who are any other persons to whom it may otherwise lawfully be made under the Financial Promotion Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”). In the United Kingdom, the notes offered hereby are only available to, and any investment or investment activity to which this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus relates will be engaged in only with, relevant persons. Any person in the United
 
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Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus or any of their contents.
None of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus is a prospectus for the purposes of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, as amended by the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020 (the “EUWA”) (the “UK Prospectus Regulation”). This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus have been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in the United Kingdom will only be made to a legal entity which is a qualified investor under the UK Prospectus Regulation (“UK Qualified Investors”). Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in the United Kingdom of notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus may only do so with respect to UK Qualified Investors. Neither Healthpeak Properties, Inc. nor the underwriters have authorized, nor do they authorize, the making of any offer of notes other than to UK Qualified Investors.
PROHIBITION OF SALES TO UK RETAIL INVESTORS — The notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the United Kingdom. For these purposes: (a) a retail investor means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client, as defined in point (8) of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the EUWA; or (ii) a customer within the meaning of the provisions of the FSMA and any rules or regulations made under the FSMA to implement the Insurance Distribution Directive, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client, as defined in point (8) of Article 2(1) of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the EUWA; or (iii) not a qualified investor as defined in Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation; and (b) the expression “offer” includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the notes. Consequently no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the EUWA (the “UK PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the United Kingdom has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the United Kingdom may be unlawful under the UK PRIIPs Regulation.
Other Regulatory Restrictions in the United Kingdom
Any invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the FSMA) in connection with the issue or sale of the notes may only be communicated or caused to be communicated in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
All applicable provisions of the FSMA must be complied with in respect to anything done by any person in relation to the notes in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Australia
No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document has been or will be lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”) in relation to this offering. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act 2001 (the “Corporations Act”), and do not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act.
Any offer in Australia of the notes may only be made to persons (the “Exempt Investors”) who are “sophisticated investors” ​(within the meaning of section 708(8) of the Corporations Act), “professional investors” ​(within the meaning of section 708(11) of the Corporations Act) or otherwise pursuant to one or more exemptions contained in section 708 of the Corporations Act so that it is lawful to offer the notes without disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act.
 
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The notes applied for by Exempt Investors in Australia must not be offered for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of allotment under this offering, except in circumstances where disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act would not be required pursuant to an exemption under section 708 of the Corporations Act or otherwise or where the offer is pursuant to a disclosure document that complies with Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring notes must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain general information only and do not take account of the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before making an investment decision, investors need to consider whether the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is appropriate to their needs, objectives and circumstances, and, if necessary, seek expert advice on those matters.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada
The notes may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the notes must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.
Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus (including any amendment hereto or thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.
Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (“NI 33-105”), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein or therein and has no responsibility for the prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The notes to which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the notes offered should conduct their own due diligence on the notes. If you do not understand the contents of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus you should consult an authorized financial advisor.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong
The contents of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus have not been reviewed or approved by any regulatory authority in Hong Kong. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer or invitation to the public in Hong Kong to acquire the notes. Accordingly, (1) no person has offered or sold or will offer or sell in Hong Kong, by means of any document, any notes other than (i) to “professional investors” ​(as such term is defined in the Securities and Futures
 
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Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong (the “SFO”)) and any rules made under the SFO; or (ii) in other circumstances that do not result in the document being a “prospectus” ​(as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong) (the “C(WUMP)O”), or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the C(WUMP)O; and (2) no person has issued or had in its possession for the purposes of issue, or will issue or have in its possession for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, any advertisement, invitation or document relating to the notes, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to notes that are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made under the SFO. You are advised to exercise caution in relation to the offer. If you are in any doubt about the contents of this prospectus supplement and/or the accompanying prospectus, you should obtain independent professional advice.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Israel
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute a prospectus under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968 (the “Securities Law”), and have not been filed with or approved by the Israel Securities Authority. In Israel, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are being distributed only to, and are directed only at, and any offer of the notes is directed only at (i) a limited number of persons in accordance with the Securities Law and (ii) investors listed in the first addendum (the “Addendum”), to the Securities Law, consisting primarily of joint investment in trust funds, provident funds, insurance companies, banks, portfolio managers, investment advisors, members of the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, underwriters, venture capital funds, entities with equity in excess of NIS 50 million and “qualified individuals,” each as defined in the Addendum (as it may be amended from time to time), collectively referred to as qualified investors (in each case, purchasing for their own account or, where permitted under the Addendum, for the accounts of their clients who are investors listed in the Addendum). Qualified investors are required to submit written confirmation that they fall within the scope of the Addendum, are aware of the meaning of same and agree to it.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Japan
The notes have not been and will not be registered pursuant to Article 4, Paragraph 1 of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (Law No. 25 of 1948, as amended) (the “FIEA”) on the grounds that the solicitation for subscription of the notes falls within the definition of “solicitation to qualified institutional investors” as defined un Article 2, paragraph 3, item 2 (I) of the FIEA and Article 10 of the Ministerial Ordinance Concerning Definitions. Such solicitation shall be subject to the condition that qualified institutional investors (as defined under the FIEA, “QIIs”) who desire to acquire the notes shall be made aware that they shall not transfer the notes to anyone other than other QIIs.
Accordingly, the notes have not been offered or sold, and will not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the account or benefit of, any resident of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to, or for the account or benefit of, others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the account or benefit of, any resident of Japan, except in a private placement described above pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the FIEA and any applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan in effective at the relevant time.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus have not been and will not be registered as a prospectus under the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore (the “SFA”) by the Monetary Authority of Singapore, and the offer of the notes in Singapore is made primarily pursuant to the exemptions under Sections 274 and 275 of the SFA. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase of the notes may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the notes be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or
 
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indirectly, to any person in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor (as defined under Section 4A of the SFA) (an “Institutional Investor”) pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA) (an “Accredited Investor”) or other relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) (a “SFA Relevant Person”) and pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or to any person pursuant to an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA, and (where applicable) Regulation 3 of the Securities and Futures (Classes of Investors) Regulations 2018, or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with, the conditions of any other applicable exemption or provision of the SFA.
It is a condition of the offer that where the notes are subscribed for or acquired pursuant to an offer made in reliance on Section 275 of the SFA by a SFA Relevant Person that is:
(a)
a corporation (which is not an Accredited Investor), the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an Accredited Investor; or
(b)
a trust (where the trustee is not an Accredited Investor), the sole purpose of which is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an Accredited Investor,
the securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation and the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within 6 months after that corporation or that trust has subscribed for or acquired the notes except:
(i)
to an Institutional Investor, an Accredited Investor or other SFA Relevant Person, or that arises from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) of the SFA (in the case of that corporation) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA (in the case of that trust);
(ii)
where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;
(iii)
where the transfer is by operation of law;
(iv)
as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or
(v)
as specified in Regulation 37A of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Securities and Securities-based Derivatives Contracts) Regulations 2018.
Singapore Securities and Futures Act Product Classification — Solely for the purposes of its obligations pursuant to Sections 309B(1)(a) and 309B(1)(c) of the SFA, Healthpeak Properties, Inc. has determined, and hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A of the SFA) that the notes are “prescribed capital markets products” ​(as defined in the Securities and Futures (Capital Markets Products) Regulations 2018) and “Excluded Investment Products” ​(as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products)
Notice to Prospective Investors in Switzerland
The notes may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange (“SIX”) or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute a prospectus within the meaning of and have been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any other offering or marketing material relating to the notes or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.
Neither this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, Healthpeak Properties, Inc. or the notes has been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying
 
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prospectus will not be filed with, and the offer of notes will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority, and the offer of notes has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes (the “CISA”). The investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under the CISA does not extend to acquirers of the notes.
LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters with respect to the notes offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, New York, New York. Certain legal matters relating to Maryland law will be passed upon for us by Ballard Spahr LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Sidley Austin LLP, New York, New York, will act as counsel for the underwriters. Sidley Austin LLP from time to time represents Healthpeak Properties, Inc. and certain of its subsidiaries in connection with certain legal matters.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements, and the related financial statement schedules, incorporated herein by reference from Healthpeak Properties, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, and the effectiveness of Healthpeak Properties, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedules have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_healthpeakreg-bw.jpg]
Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Depositary Shares
Debt Securities
Warrants
We may from time to time offer to sell together or separately in one or more offerings:

common stock;

preferred stock;

depositary shares;

debt securities; and

warrants.
This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to these securities. We will provide the specific amounts, prices and terms of these securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus at the time of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials carefully before you make your investment decision.
We may offer and sell these securities through underwriters, brokers, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers, or a combination thereof on a continuous or delayed basis. The securities may also be resold by selling security holders. The prospectus supplement for each offering will describe in detail the plan of distribution for that offering and will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the offering and any applicable fees, commissions or discount arrangements and our net proceeds for such sale.
This prospectus may not be used to sell securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement or a free writing prospectus.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the trading symbol “PEAK.” Each prospectus supplement will indicate if the securities offered thereby will be listed on any securities exchange.
Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated herein by reference and described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus and in any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to specific offerings of securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is May 13, 2021.

 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may offer and sell common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or warrants, or any combination thereof, from time to time, in one or more offerings.
This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering, including the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities offered. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information,” in making your investment decision.
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. This document may only be used where it is legal to sell these securities.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information, we refer you to the registration statement on Form S-3, including its exhibits. We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and, therefore, file reports and other information with the SEC. Statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials about the provisions or contents of any agreement or other document are only summaries. If SEC rules require that any agreement or document be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, you should refer to that agreement or document for its complete contents.
You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any other offering materials is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of each document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since then.
In this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated herein or the context otherwise indicates, the terms “Healthpeak,” “we,” “us,” “our” and the “Company” mean Healthpeak Properties, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries. Unless otherwise indicated, currency amounts in this prospectus are stated in United States, or U.S., dollars.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. The SEC maintains a website, www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Healthpeak.
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information we file with the SEC into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document that Healthpeak has filed separately with the SEC.
The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Information that Healthpeak files with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement will update and supersede the information included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement the following documents (other than any portions of any such documents deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with the applicable SEC rules):
 
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the description of our common stock contained in Exhibit 4.12 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year end December 31, 2020, and any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such disclosure; and

any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until we sell all of the securities offered by this prospectus or the offering is otherwise terminated.
We will provide copies, without charge, of any documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, excluding exhibits unless specifically incorporated by reference, to any persons to whom a prospectus is delivered, including any beneficial owner, who requests them in writing or by telephone from:
Legal Department
Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
5050 South Syracuse Street, Suite 800
Denver, Colorado 80237
(720) 428-5050
legaldept@healthpeak.com
CAUTIONARY LANGUAGE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Statements in this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement that are not historical factual statements are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements regarding our and our officers’ intent, belief or expectation as identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “project,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “target,” “forecast,” “plan,” “potential,” “estimate,” “could,” “would,” “should” and other comparable and derivative terms or the negatives thereof. Forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations and views about future events and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could significantly affect our future financial condition and results of operations. Forward looking statements are based on certain assumptions and analysis made in light of our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments as well as other factors that we believe are appropriate under the circumstances. While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith belief and assumptions we believe to be reasonable based upon current information, we can give no assurance that our expectations or forecasts will be attained. Further, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of any such forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. Except as required by law, we do not undertake, and hereby disclaim, any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they are made. As more fully set forth under Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Part II, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, these risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations contained in the forward-looking statements include, among other things:

the COVID-19 pandemic and health and safety measures intended to reduce its spread;

operational risks associated with third party management contracts, including the additional regulation and liabilities of certain of our lease structures;

the ability of our existing and future tenants, operators and borrowers to conduct their respective businesses in a manner sufficient to maintain or increase their revenues and manage their expenses in
 
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order to generate sufficient income to make rent and loan payments to us and our ability to recover investments made, if applicable, in their operations;

increased competition, operating costs and market changes affecting our tenants, operators and borrowers;

the financial condition of our tenants, operators and borrowers, including potential bankruptcies and downturns in their businesses, and their legal and regulatory proceedings;

our concentration of investments in the healthcare property sector, which makes us vulnerable to a downturn in a specific sector than if we invested in multiple industries;

our ability to identify replacement tenants and operators and the potential renovation costs and regulatory approvals associated therewith;

our property development and redevelopment activity risks, including costs above original estimates, project delays and lower occupancy rates and rents than expected;

changes within the life science industry;

high levels of regulation, funding requirements, expense and uncertainty faced by our life science tenants;

the ability of the hospitals on whose campuses our MOBs are located and their affiliated healthcare systems to remain competitive or financially viable;

our ability to maintain our or expand our hospital and health system client relationships;

economic and other conditions that negatively affect geographic areas from which we recognize a greater percentage of our revenue;

uninsured or underinsured losses, which could result in significant losses and/or performance declines by us or our tenants and operators;

our investments in joint ventures and unconsolidated entities, including our lack of sole decision making authority and our reliance on our partners’ financial condition and continued cooperation;

our use of contingent rent provisions and/or rent escalators based on the Consumer Price Index;

competition for suitable healthcare properties to grow our investment portfolio;

our ability to make material acquisitions and successfully integrate them;

the potential impact on us and our tenants, operators and borrowers from litigation matters, including rising liability and insurance costs;

our ability to foreclose on collateral securing our real estate-related loans;

laws or regulations prohibiting eviction of our tenants;

the failure of our tenants and operators to comply with federal, state and local laws and regulations, including resident health and safety requirements, as well as licensure, certification and inspection requirements;

required regulatory approvals to transfer our healthcare properties;

compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and fire, safety and other health regulations;

the requirements of, or changes to, governmental reimbursement programs such as Medicare or Medicaid;

legislation to address federal government operations and administration decisions affecting the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services;

our participation in the CARES Act Provider Relief Program and other COVID-19 related stimulus and relief programs;

volatility or uncertainty in the capital markets, the availability and cost of capital as impacted by interest rates, changes in our credit ratings, and the value of our common stock, and other conditions
 
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that may adversely impact our ability to fund our obligations or consummate transactions, or reduce the earnings from potential transactions;

cash available for distribution to stockholders and our ability to make dividend distributions at expected levels;

our ability to manage our indebtedness level and covenants in and changes to the terms of such indebtedness;

changes in global, national and local economic and other conditions;

provisions of Maryland law and our charter that could prevent a transaction that may otherwise be in the interest of our stockholders;

environmental compliance costs and liabilities associated with our real-estate investments;

our ability to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust, or REIT;

changes to U.S. federal income tax laws, and potential deferred and contingent tax liabilities from corporate acquisitions;

calculating non-REIT tax earnings and profits distributions;

ownership limits in our charter that restrict ownership in our stock;

our reliance on information technology systems and the potential impact of system failures, disruptions or breaches;

unfavorable litigation resolution or disputes; and

the loss or limited availability of our key personnel.
 
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SUMMARY
The information included below is only a summary and may not contain all the information that is important to you. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any other offering materials, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
Healthpeak Properties, Inc., a Standard & Poor’s 500 company, is a Maryland corporation that is organized to qualify as a REIT which, together with its consolidated entities, invests primarily in real estate serving the healthcare industry in the United States. We acquire, develop, lease, own and manage healthcare real estate. Our diverse portfolio is comprised of investments in the following reportable healthcare segments: (i) life science; (ii) medical office; and (iii) continuing care retirement community real estate.
Our principal executive offices are located at 5050 South Syracuse Street, Suite 800, Denver, Colorado 80237, and our telephone number is (720) 428-5050.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the information under the heading “Risk Factors” incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K filed (and not furnished) by us with the SEC subsequent to the last day of the fiscal year covered by our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act that are also incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any securities offered by this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. Each of the risks described in these documents could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and could result in a partial or complete loss of your investment. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sales of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we will not receive any proceeds in the event that the securities are sold by a selling security holder.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES
This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities and warrants that we may offer and sell from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description summarizes the material provisions of the common stock and preferred stock we may offer. This description is not complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our charter and our bylaws and applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL. The specific terms of any series of preferred stock will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any series of preferred stock we issue will be governed by our charter and by the articles supplementary related to that series. We will file the articles supplementary with the SEC and incorporate it by reference as an exhibit to our registration statement at or before the time we issue any preferred stock of that series of authorized preferred stock.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 750,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $1.00 per share, and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $1.00 per share. The following description does not contain all the information that might be important to you.
Common Stock
As of May 11, 2021, there were 538,933,779 shares of common stock outstanding. All shares of common stock participate equally in dividends payable to holders of common stock, when, as and if authorized by our board and declared by us, and in net assets available for distribution to holders of common stock on liquidation, dissolution, or winding up. Each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. Holders of common stock do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors.
All issued and outstanding shares of common stock are, and the common stock offered by this prospectus will be upon issuance in exchange for the consideration therefor, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Holders of common stock do not have preference, conversion, exchange or preemptive rights. The common stock is listed on the NYSE (NYSE Symbol: PEAK).
The Transfer Agent and Registrar for our common stock is Equiniti Trust Company (“EQ” or “EQ Shareowner Services”).
Preferred Stock
As of May 13, 2021 we had no shares of preferred stock outstanding. Under our charter, our board is authorized without further stockholder action to establish and issue, from time to time, up to 50,000,000 shares of our preferred stock, in one or more series. Our board may grant the holders of preferred stock of any series preferences, powers and rights — voting or otherwise — senior to those of holders of shares of our common stock. Our board can authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control transaction that might involve a premium price for holders of shares of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. All shares of preferred stock will, when issued in exchange for the consideration therefor, be fully paid and nonassessable and will have no preemptive rights. The MGCL and our charter require our board to determine the terms and conditions of any series of preferred stock, including:

the number of shares constituting such series and the distinctive designation thereof;

the voting rights, if any, of such series;

the rate of dividends payable on such series, the time or times when dividends will be payable, the preference to, or any relation to, the payment of dividends to any other class or series of stock and whether the dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative;

whether there shall be a sinking or similar fund for the purchase of shares of such series and, if so, the terms and provisions that shall govern such fund;

the rights of the holders of shares of such series upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up;
 
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the rights, if any, of holders of shares of such series to convert such shares into, or to exchange such shares for, shares of any other class or classes or any other series of the same or of any other class or classes of our stock or any other securities, the price or prices or rate or rates of exchange, with such adjustments as shall be provided, at which such shares shall be convertible or exchangeable, whether such rights of conversion or exchange shall be exercisable at the option of the holder of the shares or upon the happening of a specified event and any other terms or conditions of such conversion or exchange;

if the shares are redeemable, the prices at which, and the terms and conditions on which, the shares of such series may be redeemed; and

any other preferences, powers and relative participating, optional or other special rights and qualifications, limitations or restrictions of shares of such series.
The terms and conditions of any particular series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that particular series of preferred stock.
Transfer and Ownership Restrictions Relating to Our Common Stock
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock that are intended to assist us in complying with the requirements to continue to qualify as a REIT.
Subject to limited exceptions, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), more than 9.8% (by number or value of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock. Our board may, but is in no event required to, waive the applicable ownership limit with respect to a particular stockholder if it determines that such ownership will not jeopardize our status as a REIT and our board otherwise decides such action would be in our best interests.
These charter provisions further prohibit:

any person from actually or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a real estate investment trust (including but not limited to ownership that would result in us owning, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant as described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code if the income derived by us, either directly or indirectly, from such tenant would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Internal Revenue Code); and

any person from transferring shares of our capital stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire actual or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate any of these restrictions on ownership and transfer is required to give notice immediately to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of the transfer on our qualification as a REIT. Under our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the applicable ownership limit or such other limit as permitted by our board, then any such purported transfer is void and of no force or effect with respect to the purported transferee as to that number of shares of our stock in excess of the ownership limit or such other limit, and the transferee will acquire no right or interest in such excess shares. Any excess shares described above are transferred automatically, by operation of law, to a trust, the beneficiary of which is a qualified charitable organization selected by us. Such automatic transfer will be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of such violative transfer. Within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, the trustee of the trust is required to sell the excess shares to a person or entity who could own the shares without violating the applicable ownership limit, or such other limit as permitted by our board, and distribute to the prohibited transferee an amount equal to the lesser of the price paid by the prohibited transferee for the excess shares or
 
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the sales proceeds received by the trust for the excess shares. Any proceeds in excess of the amount distributable to the prohibited transferee are distributed to the beneficiary of the trust. Prior to a sale of any such excess shares by the trust, the trustee is entitled to receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such excess shares, and also is entitled to exercise all voting rights with respect to such excess shares.
Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that such shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited transferee prior to the discovery by us that the shares have been transferred to the trust; or

to recast such vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.
However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee will not have the authority to rescind and recast such vote. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited transferee, prior to the discovery by us that such shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, are required to be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary of the trust. In the event that the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the ownership limit or such other limit as permitted by our board, then our charter provides that the transfer of the excess shares is void ab initio.
In addition, shares of common stock held in the trust shall be deemed to have been offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of:

the price per share in the transaction that resulted in such transfer to the trust or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of such devise or gift; and

the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepted the offer.
We will have the right to accept the offer until the trustee has sold the shares of stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited transferee.
If any purported transfer of shares of common stock would cause us to be beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void ab initio in its entirety and the intended transferee will acquire no rights to the stock.
All certificates representing shares of common stock bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above. The foregoing ownership limitations could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of us that might involve a premium price for the common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
In addition, if our board shall, at any time and in good faith, be of the opinion that direct or indirect ownership of at least 9.9% of the voting shares of capital stock has or may become concentrated in the hands of one beneficial owner, it shall have the power:

by lot or other means deemed equitable by it to call for the purchase from any stockholder of a number of voting shares sufficient, in the opinion of our board, to maintain or bring the direct or indirect ownership of voting shares of capital stock of the beneficial owner to a level of no more than 9.9% of our outstanding voting shares; and

to refuse to transfer or issue voting shares of capital stock to any person whose acquisition of such voting shares would, in the opinion of the board, result in the direct or indirect ownership by that person of more than 9.9% of the outstanding voting shares of our capital stock.
If our board fails to grant an exemption from this 9.9% ownership limitation, then the transfer of shares, options, warrants, or other securities convertible into voting shares that would create a beneficial owner of more than 9.9% of the outstanding voting shares shall be deemed void ab initio, and the intended transferee shall be deemed never to have had an interest in the transferred securities. The purchase price for any voting shares of capital stock so redeemed shall be equal to the fair market value of the shares reflected
 
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in the closing sales price for the shares, if then listed on a national securities exchange, or the average of the closing sales prices for the shares if then listed on more than one national securities exchange, or if the shares are not then listed on a national securities exchange, the latest bid quotation for the shares if then traded over-the-counter, on the last business day immediately preceding the day on which we send notices of such acquisitions, or, if no such closing sales prices or quotations are available, then the purchase price shall be equal to the net asset value of such stock as determined by the board in accordance with the provisions of applicable law. From and after the date fixed for purchase by the board, the holder of any shares so called for purchase shall cease to be entitled to distributions, voting rights and other benefits with respect to such shares, except the right to payment of the purchase price for the shares.
Business Combination Provisions
Our charter requires that, except in some circumstances, “business combinations” between us and a beneficial holder of 10% or more of our outstanding voting stock (a “Related Person”) be approved by the affirmative vote of at least 90% of our outstanding voting shares. A “business combination” is defined in our charter as:

any merger or consolidation with or into a Related Person;

any sale, lease, exchange, transfer or other disposition, including without limitation a mortgage or any other security device, of all or any “Substantial Part” ​(as defined below) of our assets, including any voting securities of a subsidiary, to a Related Person;

any merger or consolidation of a Related Person with or into us;

any sale, lease, exchange, transfer or other disposition of all or any Substantial Part of the assets of a Related Person to us;

the issuance of any of our securities, other than by way of pro rata distribution to all stockholders, to a Related Person; and

any agreement, contract or other arrangement providing for any of the transactions described above.
The term “Substantial Part” means more than 10% of the book value of our total assets as of the end of our most recent fiscal year ending prior to the time the determination is being made.
In addition to the restrictions on business combinations contained in our charter, Maryland law also contains restrictions on business combinations. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Healthpeak’s Charter and Bylaws — Business Combinations.”
The foregoing provisions may have the effect of discouraging unilateral tender offers or other takeover proposals which stockholders might deem to be in their interests or in which they might receive a substantial premium. Our board’s authority to issue and establish the terms of currently authorized preferred stock, without stockholder approval, may also have the effect of discouraging takeover attempts. See “— Preferred Stock.”
The foregoing provisions could also have the effect of insulating current management against the possibility of removal and could, by possibly reducing temporary fluctuations in market price caused by accumulations of shares of our common stock, deprive stockholders of opportunities to sell at a temporarily higher market price. Our board believes, however, that inclusion of the business combination provisions in our charter may help assure fair treatment of our stockholders and preserve our assets.
Transfer and Ownership Restrictions Relating to Our Preferred Stock
Our charter may contain restrictions on the ownership and transfer of preferred stock that are intended to assist us in complying with the requirements to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Subject to limited exceptions, unless otherwise provided in a prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of the preferred stock, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, more than 9.8% (by number or value of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock. Our board may, but in no event will be required to, waive the applicable ownership limit with respect to a particular stockholder
 
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if it determines that such ownership will not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT and our board otherwise decides such action would be in our best interests. The mechanics for the ownership limits on our preferred stock will be similar to the mechanics related to our common stock, as described in “— Transfer and Ownership Restrictions Relating to Our Common Stock” above, unless otherwise provided in a prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of the preferred stock.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES
General
We may offer fractional shares of preferred stock, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do so, we may issue receipts for depositary shares that each represent a fraction of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. The prospectus supplement will indicate that fraction. The shares of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited under one or more depositary agreements between us and a bank or trust company that meets certain requirements and is selected by us (the “bank depositary”). Each owner of a depositary share will be entitled to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the depositary agreement. Depositary receipts will be distributed to those persons purchasing the fractional shares of preferred stock in accordance with the terms of the offering.
We have summarized some common provisions of a depositary agreement and the related depositary receipts. The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any depositary shares we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable depositary agreement and the depositary receipts relating to any particular issue of depositary shares, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer depository shares. For more information on how you can obtain copies of any depositary agreement and the depositary receipts if we offer depositary shares, see “Where You Can Find More Information.” We urge you to read the applicable depositary agreement and the depositary receipts relating to any particular issue of depositary shares and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.
Dividends and Other Distributions
If we pay a cash distribution or dividend on a series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares, the bank depositary will distribute such dividends to the record holders of such depositary shares. If the distributions are in property other than cash, the bank depositary will distribute the property to the record holders of the depositary shares. However, if the bank depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution of property, the bank depositary may, with our approval, sell such property and distribute the net proceeds from such sale to the record holders of the depositary shares.
Redemption of Depositary Shares
If we redeem a series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares, the bank depositary will redeem the depositary shares from the proceeds received by the bank depositary in connection with the redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will equal the applicable fraction of the redemption price per share of the preferred stock. If fewer than all the depositary shares are redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata as the bank depositary may determine.
Voting the Preferred Stock
Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock represented by depositary shares are entitled to vote, the bank depositary will mail the notice to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to such preferred stock. Each record holder of these depositary shares on the record date, which will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock, may instruct the bank depositary as to how to vote the preferred stock represented by such holder’s depositary shares. The bank depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the amount of the preferred stock represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will take all action that the bank depositary deems necessary in order to enable the bank depositary to do so. The bank depositary will abstain from voting shares of the preferred stock to the extent it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing such preferred stock.
Amendment and Termination of the Depositary Agreement
The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the depositary agreement may be amended by agreement between the bank depositary and us. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares will not be effective unless
 
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such amendment has been approved by the holders of at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding. The depositary agreement may be terminated by the bank depositary or us only if (i) all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed or (ii) there has been a final distribution in respect of the preferred stock in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our Company and such distribution has been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts.
Charges of Bank Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the bank depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay other transfer and other taxes and governmental charges and any other charges, including a fee for the withdrawal of shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts, as are expressly provided in the depositary agreement.
Withdrawal of Preferred Stock
Except as may be provided otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, upon surrender of depositary receipts at the principal office of the bank depositary, subject to the terms of the depositary agreement, the owner of the depositary shares may demand delivery of the number of whole shares of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented by those depositary shares. Partial shares of preferred stock will not be issued. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the bank depositary will deliver to such holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the depositary agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.
Miscellaneous
The bank depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all reports and communications from us that are delivered to the bank depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock.
Neither the bank depositary nor we will be liable if we are prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond our control in performing our obligations under the depositary agreement. The obligations of the bank depositary and us under the depositary agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of our duties thereunder, and we will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, or upon information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent and on documents believed to be genuine.
Resignation and Removal of Bank Depositary
The bank depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the bank depositary. Any such resignation or removal will take effect upon the appointment of a successor bank depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor bank depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company meeting the requirements of the depositary agreement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may offer debt securities, which may be senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and may be convertible or non-convertible, as well as secured or unsecured.
This prospectus describes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities. The particular terms of the debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement and the extent, if any, to which these general provisions may apply to the debt securities, will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will issue debt securities under an indenture dated as of November 19, 2012 between us and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, as supplemented from time to time (the “indenture”). The indenture is subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “TIA”).
The following summary of the material provisions of the indenture and the debt securities is not complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture. We urge you to read the indenture, because it, and not the summary below, defines your rights as a holder of debt securities. You can obtain a copy of the indenture by following the directions described in the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.” Capitalized terms used in the summary below have the meanings specified in the indenture. As used in this section, references to “Healthpeak,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” mean only Healthpeak Properties, Inc., and do not include any current or future subsidiary of, or other entity controlled by, Healthpeak, except as otherwise indicated.
General
The aggregate principal amount of debt securities that may be issued under the indenture is unlimited. The prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus we may provide you, as the case may be, relating to any series of debt securities that we may offer will contain the specific terms of the debt securities. These terms may include the following:

the title and aggregate principal amount of the debt securities and any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated;

whether the debt securities will be secured or unsecured and the terms of any securities agreement or arrangement;

any applicable subordination provisions for any subordinated debt securities;

the maturity date(s) or method for determining the same;

the interest rate(s) or method for determining the same;

the dates on which interest will accrue or the method for determining dates on which interest will accrue and dates on which interest will be payable and whether interest shall be payable in cash or additional securities;

whether the debt securities are convertible or exchangeable into other securities and any related terms and conditions;

redemption or early repayment provisions, including at our option or at the option of the holders;

authorized denominations;

if other than the aggregate outstanding principal amount, the principal amount of debt securities payable upon acceleration;

place(s) where payment of principal and interest may be made, where debt securities may be presented and where notices or demands upon the Company may be made;

whether such debt securities will be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities and the date as of which the securities are dated if other than the date of original issuance;

amount of discount or premium, if any, with which such debt securities will be issued;

any covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued;
 
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any additions or changes in the defaults and events of default applicable to the particular debt securities being issued;

the guarantors of each series, if any, and the extent of the guarantees (including provisions relating to seniority, subordination and release of the guarantees), if any;

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the purchase price for, the principal of and any premium and any interest on, such debt securities will be payable;

the time period within which, the manner in which and the terms and conditions upon which the holders of the debt securities or the Company can select the payment currency;

our obligation or right to redeem, purchase or repay debt securities under a sinking fund, amortization or analogous provision;

any restriction or conditions on the transferability of the debt securities;

provisions granting special rights to holders of the debt securities upon occurrence of specified events;

additions or changes relating to compensation or reimbursement of the trustee of the series of debt securities;

additions or changes to the provisions for the defeasance of the debt securities or to provisions related to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

additions or changes to the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture and the execution of supplemental indentures for such series; and

any other terms of the debt securities (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of the TIA, but may modify, amend, supplement or delete any of the terms of the indenture with respect to such series of debt securities).
We may sell the debt securities, including original issue discount securities, at par or at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount. Unless we inform you otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may issue additional debt securities of a particular series without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series or any other series outstanding at the time of issuance. Any such additional debt securities, together with all other outstanding debt securities of that series, may constitute a single series of securities under the indenture.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any other special considerations for any debt securities we sell which are denominated in a currency or currency unit other than U.S. dollars. In addition, debt securities may be issued where the amount of principal and/or interest payable is determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors. Holders of such securities may receive a principal amount or a payment of interest that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending upon the value of the applicable currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest, if any, payable on any date, the currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors to which the amount payable on such date is linked.
U.S. federal income tax consequences and special considerations, if any, applicable to any such series will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we inform you otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be listed on any securities exchange.
We expect most debt securities to be issued in fully registered form without coupons and in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. Subject to the limitations provided in the indenture and in the prospectus supplement, debt securities that are issued in registered form may be transferred or exchanged at the designated corporate trust office of the trustee, without the payment of any service charge, other than any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.
 
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Global Securities
Unless we inform you otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as the case may be, relating to such series. Global securities will be issued in registered form and in either temporary or definitive form. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual debt securities, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for such global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by such depositary or any such nominee to a successor of such depositary or a nominee of such successor.
The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities of a series and the rights of and limitations upon owners of beneficial interests in a global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as the case may be, applicable to such series. We anticipate that the following provisions will generally apply to depository arrangements.
Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal amounts of the debt securities represented by such global security beneficially owned by such participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities will be shown on, and the transfer of such ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary (with respect to interests of participants) and records maintained by the depositary’s direct and indirect participants (with respect to the interests of beneficial owners). The laws of some states may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such laws may limit or impair the ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in the global securities.
So long as the depositary or its nominee is the registered owner of a global security, the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by such global security for all purposes under the indenture. Except as set forth below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the debt securities represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of such debt securities in certificated form and will not be considered the registered owners or holders thereof under the indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary and, if such person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the indenture. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the indenture, the depositary would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take such action, and such participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through such participants to give or to take such action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.
Principal and interest payments on interests represented by a global security will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of such global security. None of the trustee, us or any other agent of the trustee or agent of ours will have any responsibility or liability for any facet of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership of interests. We expect that the depositary or its nominee, upon receipt of any payment of principal or interest in respect of a global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in such global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in the global securities held through such participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practice, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such participants.
If the depositary is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depository or if the depositary shall cease to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and we fail to appoint a successor depository registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days, we will issue debt securities in
 
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definitive form in exchange for the respective global securities. In addition, the owner of a beneficial interest in a global security will be entitled to receive debt securities in definitive certificated form in exchange for such beneficial interest if an event of default with respect to the debt securities has occurred and is continuing. Any debt securities issued in definitive form in exchange for the global securities will be registered in such name or names, and will be issued in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, as the depositary shall instruct the trustee. It is expected that such instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to the ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
Merger, Consolidation and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate or merge with or into or sell, convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our assets to another entity unless we are the continuing entity or the successor, transferee or lessee entity (if other than us) is organized and existing under the laws of the United States or any state thereof and expressly assumes our obligations under the indenture and the debt securities under the indenture and, immediately after giving effect to the transaction, we or the successor, transferee or lessee entity (if other than us) would not be in default in the performance of any covenant or condition of the indenture or the debt securities and no event of default would have occurred and be continuing.
Events of Default and Related Matters
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following are “events of default” under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities:

failure to pay any interest on the debt securities of such series when due, continuing for 30 days;

failure to pay principal of or any premium on the debt securities of such series when due;

failure to pay a sinking fund installment, if any, when and as the same shall become payable by the terms of the debt securities of such series;

failure to perform any covenants or agreements in the indenture (including any supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate pursuant to which the debt securities of such series were issued) (other than a covenant or agreement which has been expressly included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series and other than a covenant or agreement a default in the performance of which is elsewhere specifically addressed in the indenture), continued for 60 days after written notice by the trustee to us or by the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding to us;

certain specified events under bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar laws with respect to us; or

the occurrence of any other event of default with respect to debt securities of such series.
If an event of default with respect to any series of debt securities at the time outstanding (other than an event of default relating to certain specified events under bankruptcy, insolvency or similar laws) occurs and is continuing, either the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series may declare the principal amount of and all accrued but unpaid interest on all the outstanding debt securities of such series to be due and payable immediately. If an event of default relating to certain specified events under bankruptcy, insolvency or similar laws occurs and is continuing, then the principal amount of and all accrued but unpaid interest on all the outstanding debt securities of such series shall automatically become due and payable immediately without any acceleration or other action on the part of the trustee or the holders of the debt securities of such series. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to the debt securities of a series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul the acceleration.
The indenture provides that within 90 days after the occurrence thereof, and if known to the trustee, the trustee will give the holders of any series of debt securities notice of each event which is or, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default with respect to the debt securities of such series
 
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known to the trustee, unless such default has been cured or waived before the giving of such notice. Except in the case of a default or event of default in the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any, on any series of debt securities, the trustee shall be protected in withholding the notice if the trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of the notice is in the interest of the holders of outstanding debt securities of such series.
The indenture provides that, subject to the duty of the trustee during the continuance of an event of default to act with the required standard of care, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the holders of any series of debt securities, unless the holders shall have offered to the trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee. Subject to such provisions for the indemnification of the trustee and subject to certain other limitations, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceedings for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of such series.
We are required to furnish to the trustee annually a statement as to our compliance with all conditions and covenants under the indenture and as to any default in our performance.
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture
The indenture, with respect to any series of debt securities (except for certain surviving obligations specified therein), will cease to be of further effect upon the satisfaction of certain conditions, including the payment in full of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities of such series or the deposit with the trustee of an amount of cash sufficient for the payment or redemption of the debt securities of such series, in accordance with the indenture.
Discharge and Defeasance
At our option, either (a) we shall be discharged from our obligations with respect to the debt securities of a series (subject to survival of certain limited provisions in the indenture) or (b) we will cease to be under any obligation to comply with certain covenants described in the indenture relating to the maintenance of insurance and the filing and transmission of reports with respect to the debt securities of a series (and, if so specified pursuant to the indenture, any other restrictive covenant added for the benefit of such series of debt securities), in either case by depositing in trust with the trustee cash or U.S. government obligations (or a combination thereof) sufficient to pay the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities of such series to their maturity or redemption date in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the debt securities of such series.
Modification of an Indenture
The indenture provides that we and the trustee may, without the consent of any holders of any series of debt securities issued under the indenture, enter into supplemental indentures for the purposes, among other things, of:

adding to the covenants or events of default for the protection or benefit of holders of all or any series of debt securities or surrendering any right or power conferred upon us;

deleting or modifying any events of default with respect to any series of debt securities, the form and terms of which are being established pursuant to such supplemental indenture;

changing or eliminating any provisions of the indenture so long as there are no holders entitled to the benefit of such provisions;

providing for the assumption by a successor corporation of our covenants and obligations contained in the debt securities of one or more series and in the indenture or any supplemental indenture;

providing for the appointment of a successor trustee under the indenture;

securing the debt securities of any series;
 
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curing ambiguities or inconsistencies in the indenture, correcting or supplementing any provision which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provision, and conforming the terms of the indenture applicable to the debt securities of any series to the description of the terms of such debt securities in the applicable offering memorandum, prospectus supplement or other offering document;

complying with amendments to the TIA;

adding guarantors or co-obligors or to release guarantors from their guarantees with respect to the debt securities of any series;

making any change in any series of debt securities that does not adversely affect in any material respect the rights of holders of such debt securities;

supplementing any of the provisions of the indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of debt securities; provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of such series or any other series of debt securities; or

establishing the form and terms of the debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture and authorizing the issuance of additional debt securities of a series previously authorized.
With specific exceptions, the indenture or the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities may be modified by us and the trustee with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series voting separately, but no modification may be made without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of such series that, among other things, would:

extend the maturity of any payment of principal of or any installment of interest on the debt securities of such series;

reduce the principal amount of any debt security, or the interest thereon, or any premium payable on any debt security;

change any place of payment where, or the currency in which, any debt security or any premium or interest is denominated or payable;

change the ranking of the debt securities of any series;

impair the right to sue for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any debt security; or

reduce the percentage in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of any series required to consent to any supplemental indenture, any waiver of compliance with provisions of the indenture or certain defaults and their consequences provided for in the indenture, reduce the requirements of the indenture for quorum or voting or otherwise modify the sections in the indenture relating to these consents and waivers.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York. The indenture provides that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities waive, to the extent permitted by applicable law, the right to trial by jury in respect of any litigation in connection with the indenture.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or other securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with any offered securities. The warrants may be attached to or separate from those offered securities. We will issue the warrants under one or more warrant agreements to be entered into between us and a warrant agent to be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.
The prospectus supplement relating to any warrants that we may offer will contain the specific terms of the warrants. These terms may include the following:

the title of the warrants;

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

the designation, amount and terms of the securities for which the warrants are exercisable;

the designation and terms of the other securities, if any, with which the warrants are to be issued and the number of warrants issued with each other security;

the aggregate number of warrants;

any provisions for adjustment of the number or amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the warrants or the exercise price of the warrants;

the price or prices at which the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the exercise of the warrants;

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence, and the date on which the right will expire;

the maximum or minimum number of warrants that may be exercised at any time;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any; and

any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder of the warrant to purchase for cash the amount of debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or other securities at the exercise price stated or determinable in the applicable prospectus supplement for the warrants. Warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date shown in the applicable prospectus supplement, unless otherwise specified in such prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void. Warrants may be exercised as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. When the warrant holder makes the payment and properly completes and signs the warrant certificate at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as possible, forward the debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or other securities that the warrant holder has purchased. If the warrant holder exercises the warrant for less than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate, we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining outstanding warrants.
The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any warrants we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable warrant agreement and warrant certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer warrants. For more information on how you can obtain copies of any warrant certificate or warrant agreement if we offer warrants, see “Where You Can Find More Information.” We urge you to read the applicable warrant certificate, the applicable warrant agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.
 
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND HEALTHPEAK’S CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following description summarizes certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws. This summary is not complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our charter, our bylaws and applicable provisions of the MGCL. For a complete description, we refer you to the MGCL, our charter and our bylaws. We have incorporated by reference our charter and bylaws as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Election of Directors
Our bylaws provide that our board may establish, increase or decrease the number of directors, provided that the number thereof shall never be less than three nor more than eleven. Our bylaws also provide for the election of directors, in uncontested elections, by a majority of the votes cast. In contested elections, the election of directors shall be by a plurality of the votes cast. Holders of common stock have no right to cumulative voting for the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock can elect all of our directors. A vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority vote of the entire board or by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of our shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Other vacancies may be filled by the vote of a majority of the remaining directors.
Removal of Directors
Our charter provides that a director of ours may be removed by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds of the outstanding shares of our voting stock or by a unanimous vote of all other directors. Our stockholders may elect a successor to fill any vacancy which results from the removal of a director.
Business Combinations
Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:

any person who beneficially owns ten percent or more of the voting power of the corporation’s shares; or

an affiliate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of ten percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or which are held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. None of these provisions of Maryland law will apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by the board of the corporation prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.
In addition to the restrictions on business combinations provided under Maryland law, our charter also contains restrictions on business combinations. See “Description of Capital Stock — Business Combination Provisions.”
 
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Control Share Acquisitions
Maryland law provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares of stock owned by the acquiror, by officers or by directors who are employees of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquiror or shares of stock for which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy, would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. Except as otherwise specified in the statute, a “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of control shares.
Once a person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition has undertaken to pay expenses and satisfied other conditions, the person may compel the board to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may be able to redeem any or all of the control shares for fair value, except for control shares for which voting rights previously have been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations. Fair value is determined without regard to the absence of voting rights for control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of control shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of these appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition. Some of the limitations and restrictions otherwise applicable to the exercise of dissenters’ rights do not apply in the context of a control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting acquisitions of shares of our stock from the control share acquisition statute. However, our board may amend our bylaws in the future to repeal or modify this exemption, in which case any control shares of our company acquired in a control share acquisition will be subject to the control share acquisition statute.
Unsolicited Takeovers
Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors may elect to be subject to certain statutory provisions relating to unsolicited takeovers which, among other things, would automatically classify the board into three classes with staggered terms of three years each and vest in the board the exclusive right to determine the number of directors and the exclusive right, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors, to fill vacancies on the board, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum. These statutory provisions relating to unsolicited takeovers also provide that any director elected to fill a vacancy shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred, rather than the next annual meeting of directors as would otherwise be the case, and until his successor is elected and qualified.
 
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Our board of directors has adopted a resolution prohibiting us from electing to be subject to the provisions of the unsolicited takeover statute relating to the classification of the board unless such election is first approved by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. An election to be subject to any or all of the other foregoing statutory provisions may be made in our charter or bylaws, or by resolution of our board without stockholder approval. Any such statutory provision to which we elect to be subject will apply even if other provisions of Maryland law or our charter or bylaws provide to the contrary. Neither our charter nor our bylaws provides that we are subject to any of the foregoing statutory provisions relating to unsolicited takeovers. However, our board could adopt a resolution, without stockholder approval, to elect to become subject to some or all of these statutory provisions except the statutory provisions relating to the classification of the board.
If we made an election, upon stockholder approval of such election, to be subject to the statutory provisions relating to the classification of the board and our board were divided into three classes with staggered terms of office of three years each, the classification and staggered terms of office of our directors would make it more difficult for a third party to gain control of our board since at least two annual meetings of stockholders, instead of one, generally would be required to effect a change in the majority of our board.
Amendments to the Charter
Provisions of our charter on business combinations, the number of directors and certain ownership restrictions may be amended only if approved by our board and by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast by our stockholders on the matter. Other amendments to our charter require approval by our board and approval by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast by our stockholders on the matter.
Amendment to the Bylaws
Provisions of our bylaws on the number of directors, in certain circumstances, and the vote required to amend the bylaws may be amended only by unanimous vote of the board or by the affirmative vote of not less than 90% of all of the votes entitled to be cast by our stockholders on the matter. Other amendments to our bylaws require the affirmative vote of a majority of the entire board or the affirmative vote of a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast by our stockholders on the matter.
Dissolution of Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
Our dissolution must be approved by our board by a majority vote of the entire board and by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast by our stockholders on the matter.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business; Procedures of Special Meetings Requested by Stockholders
Our bylaws provide that nominations of persons for election to the board and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual or special meeting of stockholders may be made only:

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

by or at the direction of the board; or

by a stockholder who was a stockholder at the time the notice of meeting was given and is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures, including the minimum time period, described in the bylaws.
Our bylaws also provide that only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws provide that our stockholders have the right to call a special meeting only upon the written request of the stockholders holding in the aggregate not less than 50% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the business proposed to be transacted at such meeting.
 
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Proxy Access
Our bylaws permit any stockholder or group of up to 25 stockholders (counting as one stockholder, for purposes of the aggregation limit, any two or more funds that are part of the same qualifying fund group, as such term is defined in our bylaws) who have maintained continuous qualifying ownership of 3% or more of our outstanding common stock for at least the previous three years to include up to a specified number of director nominees in our proxy materials for an annual meeting of stockholders. A nominating stockholder is considered to own only the shares for which the stockholder possesses the full voting and investment rights and the full economic interest (including the opportunity for profit and risk of loss). Under this provision, borrowed or hedged shares do not count as “owned” shares. Furthermore, to the extent not otherwise excluded pursuant to this definition of ownership, a nominating stockholder’s “short position” as defined in Rule 14e-4 under the Exchange Act is deducted from the shares otherwise “owned.” Loaned shares are counted toward the ownership requirement, provided that certain recall requirements described in our bylaws are met. If a group of stockholders is aggregating its shareholdings in order to meet the 3% ownership requirement, the ownership of the group will be determined by aggregating the lowest number of shares continuously owned by each member during the three-year holding period.
The maximum number of stockholder nominees permitted under the proxy access provisions of our bylaws shall not exceed the greater of (i) two or (ii) 20% of the directors in office as of the last day a notice of nomination may be timely received. If the 20% calculation does not result in a whole number, the maximum number of stockholder nominees is the closest whole number below 20%. If one or more vacancies occurs for any reason after the nomination deadline and our board decides to reduce the size of our board in connection therewith, the 20% calculation will be applied to the reduced size of the board, with the potential result that a stockholder nominee may be disqualified. Stockholder-nominated candidates whose nomination is withdrawn or whom the board determines to include in our proxy materials as board-nominated candidates will be counted against the 20% maximum. In addition, any director in office as of the nomination deadline who was included in our proxy materials as a stockholder nominee for either of the two preceding annual meetings and whom our board decides to renominate for election to the board also will be counted against the 20% maximum.
Notice of a nomination pursuant to the proxy access provisions of our bylaws must be received no earlier than 150 days and no later than 120 days before the anniversary of the date that we distributed our proxy statement for the previous year’s annual meeting of stockholders. The proxy access provisions of our bylaws require certain disclosure, representations and agreements to be provided or made by nominating stockholders and contain certain other procedural provisions.
A stockholder nominee will not be eligible for inclusion in our proxy materials if any stockholder has nominated a person pursuant to the advance notice provision of our bylaws, if the nominee would not be independent, if the nominee’s election would cause us to violate our bylaws, our charter or any applicable listing standards, laws, rules or regulations, if the nominee is or has been an officer or director of a competitor, as defined in Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, within the past three years, or if the nominee or the stockholder who nominated him or her has provided false and misleading information to us or otherwise breached any of its or their obligations, representations or agreements under the proxy access provisions of our bylaws. Stockholder nominees who are included in our proxy materials but subsequently withdraw from or become ineligible or unavailable for election at the meeting or do not receive at least 10% of the votes cast in the election will be ineligible for nomination under the proxy access provisions of our bylaws for the next two annual meetings. A nomination made under the proxy access provisions of our bylaws will be disregarded at the annual meeting under certain circumstances described in our bylaws.
Anti-Takeover Effect of Provisions of Maryland Law and of the Charter and Bylaws
The provisions in the charter on removal of directors and business combinations, the business combinations and control share acquisition provisions of Maryland law, the unsolicited takeover provisions of Maryland law (if we elect to become subject to such provisions) and the provisions of our bylaws relating to advance notice, proxy access and stockholder-requested special meetings may delay, defer or prevent a change of control or other transaction in which holders of some, or a majority, of the common stock might receive a premium for their common stock over the then prevailing market price or which such holders might believe to be otherwise in their best interests.
 
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Limitation of Liability and Indemnification
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages. However, a Maryland corporation may not limit liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services. Also, liability resulting from active and deliberate dishonesty may not be eliminated if a final judgment establishes that the dishonesty is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision which limits the liability of directors and officers for money damages to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. This provision does not limit our right or that of our stockholders to obtain equitable relief, such as an injunction or rescission.
Our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination as to the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses before final disposition of a proceeding to:

any present or former director or officer who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his service in that capacity; or

any individual who, while one of our directors or officers and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee of such corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, or other enterprise and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his service in that capacity.
The bylaws authorize us, with the approval of our board, to provide indemnification and advancement of expenses to our agents and employees.
Unless limited by a corporation’s charter, Maryland law requires a corporation to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he is made a party by reason of his service in that capacity, or in the defense of any claim, issue or matter in the proceeding. Our charter does not alter this requirement.
Maryland law permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against:

judgments;

penalties;

fines;

settlements; and

reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities.
Maryland law does not permit a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers if it is established that:

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation. Also, a Maryland corporation generally may not indemnify for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. In either of these cases, a Maryland corporation may indemnify for expenses only if a court so orders.
 
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Maryland law permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer. First, however, the corporation must receive a written affirmation by the director or officer of his good faith belief that he has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation. The corporation must also receive a written undertaking, either by the director or officer or on his behalf, to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it shall ultimately be determined that the standard of conduct was not met. The termination of any proceeding by conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, or an entry of any order of probation prior to judgment, creates a rebuttable presumption that the director or officer did not meet the requisite standard of conduct required for indemnification to be permitted.
It is the position of the SEC that indemnification of directors and officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act is against public policy and is unenforceable pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Act.
 
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SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS
Information about any selling security holders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment, or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act which are incorporated by reference.
 
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UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a summary of U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to our election to be taxed as a REIT and the ownership and disposition of certain of the securities offered by this prospectus. This summary does not purport to be a complete analysis of all of the potential tax considerations relating thereto. This summary is based on current law, is for general information only and is not tax advice. As used in this section, references to “Healthpeak,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our,” mean only Healthpeak Properties, Inc., and not its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated.
The information in this summary is based on:

the Internal Revenue Code;

current, temporary and proposed Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Internal Revenue Code;

the legislative history of the Internal Revenue Code;

current administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS; and

court decisions;
in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. Future legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may change or adversely affect the tax considerations described in this prospectus. Any such change could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested and do not intend to request a ruling from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT or concerning the treatment of the securities offered by this prospectus, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this summary will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if so challenged.
This summary assumes that the securities offered by this prospectus are held as “capital assets” (generally, property held for investment). Your tax treatment will vary depending on the terms of the specific securities that you acquire, as well as your particular situation. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to your ownership of the particular securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. This discussion does not purport to deal with all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to holders of our securities in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances, or to holders who receive special treatment under the U.S. federal income tax laws except to the extent discussed specifically herein. Holders of securities offered by this prospectus receiving special treatment include, without limitation:

banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions;

brokers or dealers in securities or commodities;

traders in securities;

expatriates and certain former citizens or long-term residents of the U.S.;

tax-exempt organizations;

persons who are subject to the alternative minimum tax;

persons who hold the securities offered by this prospectus as a position in a “straddle” or as part of a “hedging,” “conversion” or other risk reduction transaction;

persons deemed to sell the securities offered by this prospectus under the constructive sale provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

U.S. persons that have a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar;

except to the extent specifically discussed below, non-U.S. holders (as defined below); or
 
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persons that are S corporations, REITs, regulated investment companies, partnerships or other pass-through entities.
In addition, this discussion does not address any state, local or foreign tax consequences associated with the ownership of the securities offered by this prospectus or our election to be taxed as a REIT.
You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the specific tax consequences to you of:

the acquisition, ownership and sale or other disposition of the securities offered by this prospectus, including the U.S. federal, state, local, foreign and other tax consequences;

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of the Company
We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1985. We believe we have been organized and have operated in a manner which allows us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1985. We currently intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Internal Revenue Code, including through actual annual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “— Failure to Qualify.”
The sections of the Internal Revenue Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to the qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following sets forth certain aspects of the sections of the Internal Revenue Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Internal Revenue Code provisions, Treasury Regulations, and related administrative and judicial interpretations thereof.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP has rendered an opinion to us to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1985, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT, and that our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in factual certificates provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis the various qualification tests imposed under the Internal Revenue Code which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, all of the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operation for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. See “— Failure to Qualify.” Further, the anticipated income tax treatment described in this prospectus may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to its date.
Taxation of REITs
Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a
 
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C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that is generally required to pay tax at the corporate-level. We will be required to pay U.S. federal income tax, however, as follows:

We will be required to pay tax at regular corporate tax rates on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.

If we have: (a) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” which is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business; or (b) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay tax at the highest corporate rate on this income. Foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property and for which an election is in effect. See “Foreclosure Property Income.”

We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (a) the greater of (i) the amount by which 75% of our gross income exceeds the amount qualifying under the 75% gross income test and (ii) the amount by which 95% of our gross income exceeds the amount qualifying under the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (b) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Internal Revenue Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the REIT gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

We will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

If we acquire any asset from a corporation which is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which the basis of the asset in our hands is determined by reference to the basis of the asset in the hands of the C corporation, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we will be required to pay tax at the highest regular corporate tax rate on this gain to the extent of the excess of (a) the fair market value of the asset over (b) our adjusted basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that certain elections specified in applicable Treasury Regulations are either made or forgone by us or by the entity from which the assets are acquired, in each case, depending upon the date such acquisition occurred.

We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions” or “excess interest.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a “taxable REIT subsidiary” of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s-length negotiations.

Certain of our subsidiaries are C corporations, including any taxable REIT subsidiary, the earnings of which will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.
 
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Requirements for Qualification as a REIT
The Internal Revenue Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
1.
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
2.
that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;
3.
that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for special Internal Revenue Code provisions applicable to REITs;
4.
that is not a financial institution nor an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;
5.
that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;
6.
not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and
7.
that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.
The Internal Revenue Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of twelve months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than twelve months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.
We believe that we have been organized, have operated and have issued sufficient shares of capital stock with sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to satisfy conditions (1) through (7) inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter documents provide for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares which are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. These stock ownership and transfer restrictions are described in “Description of Capital Stock — Transfer and Ownership Restrictions Relating to Our Common Stock,” “Description of Capital Stock — Business Combination Provisions” and “Description of Capital Stock — Transfer and Ownership Restrictions Relating to Our Preferred Stock.” These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the last sentence of this paragraph, our status as a REIT will terminate. See “Failure to Qualify.” We have complied with, and believe we will continue to comply with, regulatory rules to send annual letters to certain of our stockholders requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock. If, however, we comply with such rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement.
In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.
Ownership of Interests in Partnerships
In General
We own and operate one or more properties through partnerships and limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Treasury Regulations provide that if we are a partner in a partnership, we will be deemed to own our proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on our interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% REIT asset test
 
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described below. Also, we will be deemed to be entitled to our proportionate share of the income of the partnership. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in our hands, including for purposes of satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. In addition, for these purposes, the assets and items of income of any partnership in which we own a direct or indirect interest include such partnership’s share of assets and items of income of any partnership in which it owns an interest. The treatment described above also applies with respect to the ownership of interests in limited liability companies or other entities that are treated as partnerships for tax purposes.
We may have direct or indirect control of certain partnerships and limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and intend to continue to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. We are a limited partner or non-managing member in certain partnerships and limited liability companies. If any such partnership or limited liability company were to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a REIT income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in a time frame which would allow us to dispose of our interest in the applicable entity or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, unless we were entitled to relief, as described below, we would fail to qualify as a REIT.
Treasury Regulations provide that for U.S. federal income tax purposes, a domestic business entity not organized or otherwise required to be treated as a corporation (an “eligible entity”) may elect to be taxed (i) as a corporation or as a partnership if it has two or more members and (ii) as a corporation or as a disregarded entity if it has only one member. With the exception of certain limited liability companies that have elected to be treated as corporations and have also either elected to be treated as REITs or elected with us to be treated as taxable REIT subsidiaries, the partnerships and limited liability companies in which we own an interest intend to claim classification as partnerships or disregarded entities under these Treasury Regulations. As a result, we believe that these partnerships and limited liability companies will be classified as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
If a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest, or one or more of its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies, were treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be subject to an entity-level tax on its income. Such treatment would change the character of our assets and items of gross income and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “— Taxation of the Company — Asset Tests” and “— Taxation of the Company — Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “— Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of one or more of the partnerships or limited liability companies in which we own an interest might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash distributions.
Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction
A partnership or limited liability company agreement generally will determine the allocation of income and losses among partners or members. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury Regulations. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury Regulations require that partnership and limited liability company allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners or members. If an allocation is not recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the relevant item will be reallocated according to the partners’ or members’ interests in the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners or members with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss in each of the entities treated as partnerships in which we own an interest are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the applicable Treasury Regulations.
Tax Allocations with Respect to the Properties
Under Section 704(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership or limited liability company in
 
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exchange for an interest in the partnership or limited liability company must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner or member is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners or members. Some of the partnerships and/or limited liability companies in which we own an interest were formed by way of contributions of appreciated property. The relevant partnership and/or limited liability company agreements require that allocations be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Internal Revenue Code. This could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if the contributed properties were acquired in a cash purchase, and could cause us to be allocated taxable gain upon a sale of the contributed properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale. These adjustments could make it more difficult for us to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements.
Partnership Audit Rules
Under the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships (such as certain of our subsidiaries) and the collection of any tax resulting from any such audits or other tax proceedings, a partnership itself may be liable for an increase in taxes that would ordinarily apply at the partner level (including interest and penalties) resulting from an adjustment of partnership tax items on audit, regardless of changes in the composition of the partners (or their relative ownership) between the year under audit and the year of the adjustment. These rules also include an elective alternative method under which the additional taxes resulting from the adjustment are assessed from the affected partners, subject to a higher rate of interest than otherwise would apply. It is possible that these rules could result in the partnerships or limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which we directly or indirectly invest being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these entities, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest and penalties, even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment.
Ownership of Interests in Qualified REIT Subsidiaries and Other Disregarded Entities
We may, from time to time, own interests in subsidiary corporations. We own and operate a number of properties through our wholly-owned subsidiaries that we believe will be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Internal Revenue Code. A corporation will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of its outstanding stock and if we do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A corporation that is a qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit (as the case may be) of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Internal Revenue Code (including all REIT qualification tests). Thus, in applying the U.S. federal tax requirements described in this prospectus, the subsidiaries in which we own a 100% interest (other than any taxable REIT subsidiaries) are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of such subsidiaries are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not required to pay U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary does not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities of any one issuer which constitute more than 10% of the voting power or value of such issuer’s securities or more than 5% of the value of our total assets, as described below in “— Asset Tests.” Other entities that are wholly owned by us, including single-member limited liability companies that have not elected to be taxed as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, are also generally disregarded as separate entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests.
In the event that a qualified REIT subsidiary or other disregarded entity of ours ceases to be wholly owned — for example, if any equity interest in such entity is acquired by another person — the qualified REIT subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, the subsidiary would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable
 
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corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income requirements applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the securities of an issuer.
Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs
We own interests in other corporations that have elected to be taxed as REITs. Provided that each of these REITs qualifies as a REIT, our interest in each of these REITs will be treated as a qualifying real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests and any dividend income or gains derived by us will generally be treated as income that qualifies for purposes of the REIT gross income tests. To qualify as a REIT, each of these REITs must independently satisfy the various REIT qualification requirements described in this summary. If any of these REITs were to fail to qualify as a REIT, and certain relief provisions do not apply, it would be treated as a regular taxable corporation and its income would be subject to U.S. federal income tax. In addition, a failure of any of these REITs to qualify as a REIT would have an adverse effect on our ability to comply with the REIT income and asset tests, and thus our ability to qualify as a REIT.
Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries
A taxable REIT subsidiary of ours is an entity treated as a corporation (other than a REIT) in which we directly or indirectly hold stock, and that has made a joint election with us to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A taxable REIT subsidiary also includes any entity treated as a corporation (other than a REIT) with respect to which a taxable REIT subsidiary owns securities possessing more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of such corporation. A taxable REIT subsidiary generally may engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT, except that a taxable REIT subsidiary may not directly or indirectly operate or manage a lodging or healthcare facility or directly or indirectly provide to any other person (under a franchise, license or otherwise) rights to any brand name under which any lodging or healthcare facility is operated. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax, and state and local income tax where applicable, as a regular C corporation. Further, a 100% tax applies to any interest payments by a taxable REIT subsidiary to its affiliated REIT to the extent the interest rate is not commercially reasonable. We currently own interests in several taxable REIT subsidiaries, and may acquire interests in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. Our ownership of securities of our taxable REIT subsidiaries will not be subject to the 5% or 10% asset tests described below. See “— Asset Tests.”
Interest Deduction Limitation
Commencing in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, Section 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code limits the deductibility of net interest expense paid or accrued on debt properly allocable to a trade or business to 30% of “adjusted taxable income,” subject to certain exceptions. Such limitation could increase our REIT taxable income. Any deduction in excess of the limitation is carried forward and may be used in a subsequent year, subject to the 30% limitation. Adjusted taxable income is determined without regard to certain deductions, including those for net interest expense, net operating loss carryforwards and, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2022, depreciation, amortization and depletion. Provided the taxpayer makes a timely election (which is irrevocable), the 30% limitation does not apply to a trade or business involving real property development, redevelopment, construction, reconstruction, rental, operation, acquisition, conversion, disposition, management, leasing or brokerage. If this election is made, however, we must use a generally less favorable depreciation system under the Internal Revenue Code for our real property (including certain improvements), which would increase our REIT taxable income. The decision of whether to make the election and the availability of such election could therefore impact our REIT distribution requirement.
Similarly, the limitation could cause our taxable REIT subsidiaries to have greater taxable income and thus potentially greater corporate tax liability. As described above, under Section 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code, taxable REIT subsidiaries may be limited in their ability to deduct interest payments in excess of a certain amount made directly or indirectly to us or third parties.
Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT:
 
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First, in each taxable year, we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains, from (a) certain investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property” and, in certain circumstances, interest, or (b) some types of temporary investments; and

Second, in each taxable year, we must derive at least 95% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains, from the real property investments described above, dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing.
For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.
Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

The amount of rent is not based in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;

We do not, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock does not, actually or constructively own 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of the tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the voting power or value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is our taxable REIT subsidiary, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by our taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock. In addition, rents we receive from a tenant that also is our taxable REIT subsidiary will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of our ownership interest in the taxable REIT subsidiary if the property to which the rents relate is a qualified lodging facility, or a qualified health care property, and such property is operated on behalf of the taxable REIT subsidiary by a person who is an independent contractor and certain other requirements are met. Our taxable REIT subsidiaries will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on their income from the operation of these properties;

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent we receive under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property;” and

We generally do not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of such services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services, or a taxable REIT subsidiary, which may be wholly or partially owned by us, to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.” Any
 
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amounts we receive from a taxable REIT subsidiary with respect to the taxable REIT subsidiary’s provision of non-customary services will, however, be nonqualifying income under the 75% gross income test and, except to the extent received through the payment of dividends, the 95% gross income test. For purposes of this test, we are deemed to have received income from such non-customary services in an amount equal to at least 150% of the direct cost of providing the services.
We generally do not intend to receive rent which fails to satisfy any of the above conditions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we may have taken and may continue to take actions which fail to satisfy one or more of the above conditions to the extent that we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that those actions will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with our determinations of value.
Income we receive that is attributable to the rental of parking spaces at our properties will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the REIT gross income tests if any services provided with respect to the parking facilities are performed by independent contractors from whom we derive no income, either directly or indirectly, or by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and certain other requirements are met. With the exception of some parking facilities we operate, we believe that the income we receive that is attributable to parking facilities meets these tests and, accordingly, will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.
Also, rental revenue will generally not qualify as rents from real property if we directly or constructively hold a 10% or greater interest, as measured by vote or value, in the lessee’s equity. Rents we receive from a tenant that is our taxable REIT subsidiary will, however, generally not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of our ownership interest in the taxable REIT subsidiary if the property to which the rents relate is a “qualified lodging facility” or a “qualified healthcare property” and such property is operated on behalf of the taxable REIT subsidiary by a person who is an “eligible independent contractor.” An operator of qualified healthcare properties will qualify as an eligible independent contractor if it meets certain ownership tests with respect to us, and if, at the time the operator enters into the property management agreement, the operator is actively engaged in the trade or business of operating qualified healthcare properties for any person who is not a related person to us or the taxable REIT subsidiary. A “qualified healthcare property” means any real property (or any personal property incidental thereto) that is, or that is necessary or incidental to the use of, a healthcare facility.
From time to time, we enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is “clearly identified” as a hedging transaction as specified in the Internal Revenue Code and that is entered into to manage the risk of interest rate or price changes with respect to REIT borrowings or currency fluctuations with respect to qualifying income will not constitute gross income and thus will be exempt from the 95% gross income test and from the 75% gross income test. This exclusion also applies to certain offsetting hedging positions. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or otherwise do not satisfy the requirements with respect to hedging transactions in the Internal Revenue Code, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.
Our foreign investments could cause us to incur foreign currency gains or losses. “Passive foreign exchange gain” will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and “real estate foreign exchange gain” will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Real estate foreign exchange gain is foreign currency gain (as defined in Section 988(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code) which is attributable to: (i) any qualifying item of income or gain for purposes of the 75% gross income test; (ii) the acquisition or ownership of obligations secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property; or (iii) becoming or being the obligor under obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property. Real estate foreign exchange gain also includes certain gain attributable to a qualified business unit of a REIT if the qualified business unit itself meets the 75% gross income test for the taxable year and the 75% asset test at the close of each quarter that the REIT has directly or indirectly
 
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held the qualified business unit. Passive foreign exchange gain includes all real estate foreign exchange gain and foreign currency gain which is attributable to: (i) any qualifying item of income or gain for purposes of the 95% gross income test; (ii) the acquisition or ownership of obligations; (iii) becoming or being the obligor under obligations; and (iv) any other foreign currency gain as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.
Generally, other than income from “clearly identified” hedging transactions entered into by us in the normal course of business, any foreign currency gain derived by us from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities will constitute gross income that does not qualify under the 95% or 75% gross income tests.
Dividends we receive from our taxable REIT subsidiaries will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, REIT gross income test.
The Department of Treasury has broad authority to determine whether any item of income or gain which does not otherwise qualify under the 75% or 95% gross income tests may be excluded as gross income for purposes of such tests or may be considered income that qualifies under either such test.
We believe that the aggregate amount of our nonqualifying income, from all sources, in any taxable year will not exceed the limit on nonqualifying income under the gross income tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.
It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above in “— Taxation of the Company — General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite our periodic monitoring of our income.
Prohibited Transaction Income
Any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax. Such prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. There are a number of safe harbors specified in the Internal Revenue Code under which a sale of property will not be treated as a prohibited transaction, but these safe harbors are highly technical, and our ability to satisfy their requirements is dependent on a number of non-tax business considerations.
We intend to hold our properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation and to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning our properties. We have made, and may in the future make, occasional sales of the properties consistent with our investment objectives. The IRS may contend, however, that one or more of these sales is subject to the 100% penalty tax, and there can be no assurance that such sales will qualify for a prohibited transaction safe harbor. The 100% tax does not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a taxable REIT subsidiary or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate rates.
 
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Foreclosure Property Income
We generally will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that constitutes qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that we acquire as the result of having bid on the property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after a default (or upon imminent default) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by us and secured by the property, (2) for which we acquired the related loan or lease at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated, and (3) with respect to which we made a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. The term “foreclosure property” includes any qualified health care property — generally, any real property and incidental personal property that is either (a) a health care facility or (b) necessary or incidental to the use of a health care facility — acquired by a REIT as the result of the termination of a lease of such property (other than a termination by reason of a default, or the imminence of a default, on the lease). Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made and remains in place generally will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property. To the extent that we receive any income from foreclosure property that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we intend to make an election to treat the related property as foreclosure property if the election is available (which may not be the case with respect to any acquired “distressed loans”).
Like-Kind Exchanges
We have in the past disposed of properties in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Internal Revenue Code, and may continue this practice in the future. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could subject us to U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.
Taxable REIT Subsidiary-Related Penalty Tax
Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined taxable REIT subsidiary service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished by one of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to any of our tenants, and redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s-length negotiations. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Internal Revenue Code.
We believe that, in all instances in which our taxable REIT subsidiaries provide services to our tenants, the fees paid to such taxable REIT subsidiaries for such services are at arm’s-length rates, although the fees paid may not satisfy the safe harbor provisions referenced above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on the excess of an arm’s-length fee for tenant services over the amount actually paid.
Asset Tests
At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we also must satisfy the following tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets.
First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets, including assets held by our qualified REIT subsidiaries and our allocable share of the assets held by the partnerships and other entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which we own an interest, must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items, and government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate
 
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assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property) and shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, as well as any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public debt offering with a term of at least five years, but only for the one-year period beginning on the date we receive such proceeds.
Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.
Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and our taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer, except, in the case of the 10% value test, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe-harbor or securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT. Certain types of securities are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Internal Revenue Code.
Fourth, not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.
Fifth, not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs that are “nonqualified” debt instruments (i.e., not secured by real property or interests in real property).
We currently own some or all of the outstanding stock of several subsidiaries that have elected, together with us, to be treated as taxable REIT subsidiaries. So long as these subsidiaries qualify as taxable REIT subsidiaries, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of their securities. We may acquire securities in other taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded and in the future will not exceed 20% of the aggregate value of our gross assets. With respect to each issuer in which we currently own an interest that does not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary, we believe that our ownership of the securities of any such issuer has complied and in the future will comply with the 5% value limitation, the 10% voting securities limitation and the 10% value limitation. No independent appraisals have been obtained to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value. We may also own, and may continue to make, certain loans that do not constitute real estate assets but which we believe qualify under the “straight debt safe harbor” and therefore satisfy the 10% value limitation described above.
In addition, from time to time, we may acquire certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in pass-through entities that directly or indirectly own real property. Revenue Procedure 2003-65 (the “Revenue Procedure”) provides a safe harbor pursuant to which mezzanine loans meeting the requirements of the safe harbor will be treated by the IRS as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests. In addition, any interest derived from such mezzanine loans will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test (described above).
Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. The mezzanine loans that we hold or acquire may not meet all of the requirements of the safe harbor. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of such assets as real estate assets or the interest generated by these loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test (described above).
The asset tests described above must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year. After initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT
 
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for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values unless we (directly or through our partnerships or limited liability companies) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of increasing our interest in a partnership or limited liability company which owns such securities), or acquire other assets. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interests in a partnership or limited liability company), we can cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained and intend to maintain adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. In addition, we intend to take such actions within 30 days after the close of any calendar quarter as may be required to cure any noncompliance.
Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30 day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% REIT asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30 day cure period, by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.
Although we believe that we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT. See “— Failure to Qualify” below.
Distribution Requirements
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to annually distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

90% of our “REIT taxable income”; and

90% of our after tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

the excess of the sum of specified items of our non-cash income over 5% of our “REIT taxable income” as described below.
For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income means income attributable to leveling of stepped rents, original issue discount on purchase money debt, cancellation of indebtedness, and any like-kind exchanges that are later determined to be taxable.
We generally must make dividend distributions in the taxable year to which they relate. Dividend distributions may be made in the following year in two circumstances. First, if we declare a dividend in October, November, or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, such distributions are treated as both paid by us and received by each shareholder on December 31 of the year in which they are declared. Second, distributions may be made in the following year if they are declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if made with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration. These distributions are taxable to our shareholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement.
 
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For distributions to satisfy the annual distribution requirement for REITs, and to provide REITs with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (1) pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class and (2) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in the REIT’s organizational documents. This requirement does not apply to publicly offered REITs, including us, but may apply to our subsidiary REITs.
To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be required to pay tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates. We believe we have made, and intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In certain circumstances we may elect to retain, rather than distribute, our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we could elect for our shareholders to include their proportionate share of such undistributed long-term capital gains in income, and to receive a corresponding credit for their share of the tax that we paid. Our shareholders would then increase their adjusted basis of their stock by the difference between (1) the amounts of capital gain dividends that we designated and that they included in their taxable income, minus (2) the tax that we paid on their behalf with respect to that income.
We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may be required to borrow funds to pay cash dividends or we may be required to pay dividends in the form of taxable stock dividends in order to meet the distribution requirements.
In an acquisition of a C corporation in a transaction in which the basis of the corporation’s assets in our hands is determined by reference to the basis of the assets in the hands of the acquired corporation (a “Carry-Over Basis Transaction”), we may succeed to the tax liabilities and earnings and profits of the acquired C corporation. To qualify as a REIT, we must distribute any such earnings and profits by the close of the taxable year in which the transaction occurs. Any adjustments to the acquired corporation’s income for taxable years ending on or before the date of the transaction, including as a result of an examination of the corporation’s tax returns by the IRS, could affect the calculation of the corporation’s earnings and profits. If the IRS were to determine that we acquired earnings and profits from a corporation that we failed to distribute prior to the end of the taxable year in which the Carry-Over Basis Transaction occurred, we could avoid disqualification as a REIT by using “deficiency dividend” procedures. Under these procedures, we generally would be required to distribute any such earnings and profits to our stockholders within 90 days of the determination and pay a statutory interest charge at a specified rate to the IRS.
Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the distribution requirements for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends.
Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year or at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which this excise tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating such tax.
Failure to Qualify
Specified cure provisions are available to us in the event that we discover a violation of a provision of the Internal Revenue Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT. Except with respect to
 
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violations of the REIT income tests and assets tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions of the Internal Revenue Code do not apply, we will be required to pay tax on our taxable income at regular corporate tax rates. Distributions to our stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us, and we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, all distributions to our stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In this event, subject to certain limitations under the Internal Revenue Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction and individuals may be eligible for preferential tax rates on any qualified dividend income. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we will also be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which we lost our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Taxation of Holders of Our Stock
The following summary describes certain of the U.S. federal income tax considerations of owning and disposing of our stock. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to a holder in light of its particular circumstances and does not address any state, local or foreign tax consequences. We urge holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income tax laws on the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of shares of our stock, including any reporting requirements.
Taxable U.S. Stockholders Generally
If you are a “U.S. holder,” as defined below, this section or the section entitled “Tax-Exempt Stockholders” applies to you. Otherwise, the section entitled “non-U.S. Stockholders,” applies to you.
Definition of U.S. Holder
A “U.S. holder” is a beneficial holder of our capital stock or debt securities who is:

an individual citizen or resident of the United States;

a corporation created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more U.S. persons or (2) has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.
A “non-U.S. holder” is a beneficial holder of shares of our capital stock or debt securities who is not a U.S. holder.
Distributions Generally
Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than capital gain dividends and certain amounts that have previously been subject to corporate level tax, discussed below, will be taxable to taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when received, except as described below. See “— Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the extent provided in “— Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate taxpayers. However, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, stockholders that are individuals, trusts, or estates are generally entitled to deduct up to 20% of certain qualified business income, including “qualified REIT dividends” ​(generally, dividends received
 
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by a REIT shareholder that are not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income), subject to certain limitations. To qualify for this deduction with respect to a dividend on shares of our common stock, a shareholder must hold such shares for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such shares become ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (taking into account certain rules that may reduce a shareholder’s holding period during any period in which the shareholder has diminished its risk of loss with respect to the shares). For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our stock are out of current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock and then to our outstanding common stock.
To the extent that we make distributions on our stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, these distributions will be treated first as a return of capital to a U.S. holder which will not be subject to tax. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares of our stock by the amount of the distribution, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.
Certain dividends partially paid in our common stock and partially paid in cash that comply with IRS guidance, will be taxable to recipient U.S. holders to the same extent as if paid in cash. See “Taxation of the Company — Annual Distribution Requirements” above.
Capital Gain Dividends
Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to taxable U.S. holders as gains from the sale or disposition of a capital asset, to the extent that such gains do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year. These dividends may be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders at preferential rates applicable to capital gains. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend then, except as otherwise required by law, we are required by the terms of our corporate charter to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid to holders of all classes of our stock for the year to the holders of our preferred stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid to the holders of such stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our stock for the year.
Retention of Net Capital Gains
We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, a U.S. holder generally would:

include its pro rata share of our undistributed net capital gains in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

be deemed to have paid the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s long-term capital gains;

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

increase the adjusted basis of its stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.
 
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Dispositions of Our Stock
If a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our stock to a person other than us, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and its adjusted basis in the shares for tax purposes. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the stock for more than one year at the time of such sale or disposition. If, however, a U.S. holder recognizes loss upon the sale or other disposition of our stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss, to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us that were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.
Tax-Exempt Stockholders
Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, if a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code or if the shares are used in a trade or business of the tax-exempt holder. Generally, debt-financed property is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.
For tax-exempt holders which are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, or qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) or (c)(20) of the Internal Revenue Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.
Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of limitations on the transfer and ownership of stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described in this paragraph should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our stock is publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.
Non-U.S. Stockholders
The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the ownership and disposition of our stock by non-U.S. holders.
Distributions Generally
Distributions (including certain stock dividends) that are neither attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of U.S. real property interests nor designated by us as capital gain dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions will generally be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a U.S. trade or business. Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with such a trade or business (and, in the case of certain income tax treaties, are attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the U.S.) will be subject to tax on a net basis at graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to tax, and are generally not subject to withholding. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a
 
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corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.
Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in our stock, but rather will reduce the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis of such common stock. To the extent that these distributions exceed a non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in our stock, they will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock. The tax treatment of this gain is described below.
For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. As a result, except with respect to certain distributions attributable to the sale of U.S. real property interests described below, we expect to withhold U.S. income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder files with us an IRS Form W-8BEN evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business (and, in the case of certain income tax treaties, is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the U.S.).
However, amounts withheld should generally be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.
Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of U.S. Real Property Interests
Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

the investment in our stock is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. trade or business (and, in the case of certain income tax treaties, is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the U.S.), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a foreign corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (unless reduced or eliminated by treaty), as discussed above; or

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains.
Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of U.S. real property interests (whether or not designated as capital gain dividends) will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders would generally be taxed at the same rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals (although the corporate alternative minimum tax has been repealed for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) and may be subject to a 30% branch profits tax (unless reduced or eliminated by treaty). We will also be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to a non-U.S. holder that is designated as a capital gain dividend, or, if greater, 21% of a distribution to the non-U.S. holder that could have been designated as a capital gain dividend. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the U.S. is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated in the same manner as ordinary dividend distributions.
 
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Retention of Net Capital Gains
Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained capital gains in respect of the common stock held by U.S. holders generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders in the same manner as actual distributions by us of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, a non-U.S. holder would be able to offset as a credit against its U.S. federal income tax liability resulting from its proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained capital gains, and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent of the non-U.S. holder’s proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds its actual U.S. federal income tax liability.
Sale of Our Stock
Gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale or exchange of our stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA unless such stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest. Our stock will not constitute a U.S. real property interest so long as we are a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity. As discussed above, a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT in which at all times during a specified testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. holders. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we have been a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.” Even if we have been a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity,” because our capital stock is publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.”
Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells or exchanges our stock, gain arising from such a sale or exchange would not be subject to U.S. taxation under FIRPTA as a sale of a “U.S. real property interest” if:
(1)
our stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and
(2)
such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of our stock throughout the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or exchange.
If gain on the sale or exchange of our stock were subject to U.S. taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if our stock is not then traded on an established securities market, the purchaser of the stock would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price. If amounts withheld on a sale, redemption, repurchase, or exchange of our stock exceed the holder’s substantive tax liability resulting from such disposition, such excess may be refunded or credited against such non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided that the required information is provided to the IRS on a timely basis. Amounts withheld on any such sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our stock may not satisfy a non-U.S. holder’s entire tax liability under FIRPTA, and such non-U.S. holder remains liable for the timely payment of any remaining tax liability. In general, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our stock (subject to the 10% exception applicable to “regularly traded” stock described above), a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or exchange of U.S. real property interest if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of our stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a U.S. real property interest and (2) acquires, enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire other shares of our stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1).
Gain from the sale of our stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will nonetheless be taxable in the United States to a non-U.S. holder in two cases: (1) if the non-U.S. holder’s investment in our stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. holder (and, in the case of certain income tax treaties, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base in the U.S.), the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. holder with respect to such gain, or (2) if the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, the nonresident alien individual will
 
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be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gain. Non-U.S. holders should contact their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of any sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition of our stock.
Estate Tax
If our stock is owned or treated as owned by an individual who is not a citizen or resident (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) of the United States at the time of such individual’s death, the stock will be includable in the individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise, and may therefore be subject to U.S. federal estate tax.
Non-U.S. Holders of Our Debt Securities
This section applies to you if you are a non-U.S. holder of the debt securities. The term “non-U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of a debt security that is not a U.S. holder, as defined above.
Special rules may apply to certain non-U.S. holders such as “controlled foreign corporations” and “passive foreign investment companies.” Such entities are encouraged to consult their tax advisors to determine the U.S. federal, state, local and other tax consequences that may be relevant to them.
Payments of Interest
Interest paid to a non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes or withholding tax if the interest is not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the U.S. (or, in the case of certain income tax treaties, is not attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base within the U.S.), and the non-U.S. holder:

does not actually or constructively own a 10% or greater interest in the total combined voting power of all classes of our voting stock;

is not a controlled foreign corporation with respect to which we are a “related person” within the meaning of Section 864(d)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code;

provides the appropriate certification as to the non-U.S. holder’s status and that no withholding is required pursuant to FATCA (discussed below). A non-U.S. holder can generally meet this certification requirement by providing a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or IRS Form W-8BEN-E or appropriate substitute form to us or our paying agent. If the debt securities are held through a financial institution or other agent acting on the non-U.S. holder’s behalf, the non-U.S. holder may be required to provide appropriate documentation to the agent. The agent will then generally be required to provide appropriate certifications to us or our paying agent, either directly or through other intermediaries. Special certification rules apply to foreign partnerships, estates and trusts, and in certain circumstances certifications as to foreign status of partners, trust owners or beneficiaries may have to be provided to us or our paying agent.
If a non-U.S. holder does not qualify for an exemption under these rules, interest income from the debt securities may be subject to withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) at the time such interest is paid. The payment of interest effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, however, would not be subject to a 30% withholding tax so long as the non-U.S. holder provides us or our paying agent an adequate certification (currently on IRS Form W-8ECI). However, to the extent that such interest is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business (and, in the case of certain tax treaties, is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base within the United States), the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis and, if it is a foreign corporation, may be subject to a 30% U.S. branch profits tax (or lower applicable treaty rate). To claim the benefit of a tax treaty, a non-U.S. holder must provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or IRS Form W-8BEN-E before the payment of interest and a non-U.S. holder may be required to obtain a U.S. taxpayer identification number and provide documentary evidence issued by foreign governmental authorities to prove residence in the foreign country.
Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Debt Securities
Non-U.S. holders generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax upon a sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security, unless either of the following is true:
 
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the non-U.S. holder’s investment in the debt securities is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business and, in some instances if an income tax treaty applies, is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the U.S.; or

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual holding the debt security as a capital asset, is present in the U.S. for 183 or more days in the taxable year within which the sale, redemption or other disposition takes place, and certain other requirements are met.
For non-U.S. holders described in the first bullet point above, the net gain derived from the retirement or disposition of the debt securities generally would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. persons generally (or lower applicable treaty rate). In addition, foreign corporations may be subject to a 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) branch profits tax if the investment in the debt security is effectively connected with the foreign corporation’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders described in the second bullet point above will be subject to a flat 30% U.S. federal income tax on the gain derived from the retirement or disposition of their debt securities, which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses, even though non-U.S. holders are not considered residents of the United States.
Other Tax Considerations
State, Local and Foreign Taxes
We may be required to pay tax in various state, local or foreign jurisdictions, including those in which we transact business, and holders of our securities may be required to pay tax in various state, local or foreign jurisdictions, including those in which they reside. Our state, local and foreign tax treatment may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax consequences discussed above. For example, certain states apply a built-in gains tax to the sale of assets acquired from a C corporation in a Carry-Over Basis Transaction, described above, during the ten-year period following such asset acquisition. In addition, a holder’s state, local and foreign tax treatment may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax consequences discussed above. Consequently, prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect of state, local and foreign tax laws on an investment in our securities.
Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs
The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations.
Medicare 3.8% Tax on Investment Income
Certain U.S. holders who are individuals, estates or trusts and whose income exceeds certain thresholds will be required to pay a 3.8% Medicare tax on dividends, interest and certain other investment income, including capital gains from the sale or other disposition of our common stock or debt securities. U.S. holders of our common stock or debt securities should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible applicability of this additional tax in their particular circumstances.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), withholding at a rate of 30% will generally be required on dividends in respect of shares of our stock and payments of interest in respect of our debt securities held by or through certain foreign financial institutions (including investment funds), unless such institution (i) enters into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury to report, on an annual basis, information with respect to shares in, and accounts maintained by, the institution to the extent such shares or accounts are held by certain U.S. persons and by certain non-U.S. entities that are wholly or partially owned by U.S. persons and to withhold on certain payments, or (ii) complies with the terms of an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country. Accordingly, the entity through which our stock is held will affect the determination of whether such withholding is required. Similarly, dividends in respect of shares of our stock and payments of interest in
 
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respect of our debt securities held by an investor that is a non-financial non-U.S. entity that does not qualify under certain exemptions will be subject to withholding at a rate of 30%, unless such entity either (i) certifies that such entity does not have any “substantial United States owners” or (ii) provides certain information regarding the entity’s “substantial United States owners,” which we or the applicable withholding agent will in turn provide to the Secretary of the Treasury. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country, or future Treasury regulations or other guidance, may modify these requirements. We will not pay any additional amounts to investors in respect of any amounts withheld. Non-U.S. investors are encouraged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of the legislation on their investment in our stock or debt securities.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities offered by this prospectus from time to time in one or more transactions, including without limitation:

directly to one or more purchasers;

through agents;

to or through underwriters, brokers or dealers; or

through a combination of any of these methods.
A prospectus supplement with respect to each offering of securities will state the terms of the offering of the securities, including:

the method of distribution including the name or names of any underwriters or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them, if any;

the public offering price or purchase price of the securities and the net proceeds to be received by us from the sale;

any delayed delivery arrangements;

any underwriting discounts or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any securities exchange or markets on which the securities may be listed.
The offer and sale of the securities described in this prospectus by us, the underwriters or the third parties described above may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including privately negotiated transactions, either:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

in “at the market offerings,” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;

at prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
General
Any public offering price and any discounts, commissions, concessions or other items constituting compensation allowed or reallowed or paid to underwriters, dealers, agents or remarketing firms may be changed from time to time. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms that participate in the distribution of the offered securities may be “underwriters” as defined in the Securities Act. Any discounts or commissions they receive from us and any profits they receive on the resale of the offered securities may be treated as underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. We will identify any underwriters, dealers, agents or remarketing firms and describe their commissions, fees or discounts in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as the case may be.
Underwriters, Agents and Remarketing Firms
If underwriters are used in a sale, they will acquire the offered securities for their own account. The underwriters may resell the offered securities in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. These sales may be made at a fixed public offering price or prices, which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of the sale, at prices related to such prevailing market price or at negotiated prices. We may offer the securities to the public through an underwriting syndicate or through a single underwriter.
 
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The underwriters in any particular offering will be stated in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as the case may be.
Unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the offered securities will be subject to certain conditions contained in an underwriting agreement that we will enter into with the underwriters at the time of the sale to them. The underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered if any of the securities are purchased, unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities. Any initial offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed, reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.
We may designate agents to sell the offered securities. Unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities, the agents will agree to use their best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of their appointment. We may also sell the offered securities to one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. These firms will remarket the offered securities upon purchasing them in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to the terms of the offered securities. A prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as the case may be, will identify any remarketing firm and will describe the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation.
In connection with offerings made through underwriters or agents, we may enter into agreements with such underwriters or agents pursuant to which we receive our outstanding securities in consideration for the securities being offered to the public for cash. In connection with these arrangements, the underwriters or agents may also sell securities covered by this prospectus to hedge their positions in these outstanding securities, including in short sale transactions. If so, the underwriters or agents may use the securities received from us under these arrangements to close out any related open borrowings of securities.
Dealers
We may sell the offered securities to dealers as principals. We may negotiate and pay dealers’ commissions, discounts or concessions for their services. Dealers may then resell such securities to the public either at varying prices to be determined by the dealers or at a fixed offering price agreed to with us at the time of resale. Dealers engaged by us may allow other dealers to participate in resales.
Direct Sales
We may choose to sell the offered securities directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved.
Institutional Purchasers
We may authorize agents, dealers or underwriters to solicit certain institutional investors to purchase offered securities on a delayed delivery basis pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified future date. The applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as the case may be, will provide the details of any such arrangement, including the offering price and commissions payable.
We will enter into such delayed contracts only with institutional purchasers that we approve. These institutions may include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions.
Indemnification; Other Relationships
We may have agreements with underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms to indemnify them against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms, and their affiliates, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business. These transactions include commercial banking and investment banking transactions.
 
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Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions
There is currently no market for any of the offered securities, other than our common stock, which is listed for trading on the NYSE. If the offered securities are traded after their initial issuance, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price, depending upon prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities and other factors. While it is possible that an underwriter could inform us that it intended to make a market in the offered securities, such underwriter would not be obligated to do so, and any such market making could be discontinued at any time without notice. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to whether an active trading market will develop for the offered securities. We have no current plans for listing of preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or warrants offered by this prospectus on any securities exchange; any such listing with respect to any particular preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or warrants will be described in an applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as the case may be.
In connection with any offering of securities, the underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. Specifically, the underwriters may overallot in connection with an offering, creating a short position in the securities for their account. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, securities in the open market. Finally, an underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions, or otherwise. Any of these activities may cause the price of securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and, if they commence these transactions, may discontinue any of these activities at any time.
Fees and Commissions
In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer shall be fair and reasonable.
 
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VALIDITY OF SECURITIES
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Ballard Spahr LLP, Baltimore, Maryland and/or Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, New York, New York.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements, and the related financial statement schedules, incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from Healthpeak Properties, Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the effectiveness of Healthpeak Properties, Inc. and subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedules have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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$      
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_healthpeakreg-bw.jpg]
     % Senior Notes Due 2028
Healthpeak Properties, Inc.
Prospectus Supplement
Joint Book-Running Managers
Wells Fargo Securities
J.P. Morgan
PNC Capital Markets LLC
Credit Suisse
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC